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The concurrent kinetics of N uptake by soil microbes and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) seedlings: a microcosm study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is disagreement over the relative ability of microbes and plants to compete for soil N. Empirical data are needed, therefore, to develop models that can be applied for specific plant species across different soil conditions. We grew western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg) seedlings in humus collected from old-growth forest plots (high available C) and from adjacent clearcut plots (low available C). We injected the rhizospheres with either 15N-labelled NH4+ or 15N-labelled amino acid solutions, over a wide range of N concentrations. The uptake of these N compounds by soil microbes and seedlings was assessed 4 h after injection. Microbial uptake rates of NH4+-N were best described by a linear models, whereas microbial uptake of amino acid-N as well as seedling N uptake were best described by asymptotic models. Microbial uptake rates were several orders of magnitude greater than seedling uptake rates, except at low concentrations that are typical under field situations. The provenance of the humus also had significant effects on N uptake kinetics by microbes and seedlings, which were consistent with the available C status of each humus type. Results suggest that differences in N uptake kinetics between plants and microbes are complementary functions that may confer resistance and resilience to forest ecosystems.

Grenon, Frank; Bradley, Robert; Titus, Brian



Development of a Hyperspectral Index for Detection of Initial Water Stress in Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) is an invasive insect pathogen that is causing significant mortality in existing eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carriere) stands across the Northeastern USA. Unchecked, A. tsugae will continue to decimate hemlock forests, initiating irreversible ecological alterations. Hemlock survival is dependent upon site conditions, where trees in mesic environments tend to decline at slower rates than

M. J. Wiener; B. N. Rock



Potential feeding deterrents found in hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonnative hemlock woolly adelgid ( Adelges tsugae Annand, Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Adelgidae) has been a significant mortality agent of eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis Carriere) throughout a large portion of its geographic range. During a study investigating adelgid vigor in relation to host health, it was noted that adelgid extracts ranged from a yellow to a deep red color. Analysis by GC-MS identified the presence of the anthraquinone, chrysophanol and its anthrone precursor, chrysarobin in the extract. These compounds are predator deterrents in several other insects, including chrysomelid beetles. It is hypothesized that these compounds serve a similar purpose in the hemlock woolly adelgid.

Jones, Anne C.; Mullins, Donald E.; Jones, Tappey H.; Salom, Scott M.



Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation affects water and carbon relations of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana).  


Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an exotic insect pest causing severe decimation of native hemlock trees. Extensive research has been conducted on the ecological impacts of HWA, but the exact physiological mechanisms that cause mortality are not known. Water relations, anatomy and gas exchange measurements were assessed on healthy and infested eastern (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina (Tsuga caroliniana) hemlock trees. These data were then used in a mechanistic model to test whether the physiological responses to HWA infestation were sufficiently significant to induce changes in whole-plant water use and carbon uptake. The results indicated coordinated responses of functional traits governing water relations in infested relative to healthy trees. In response to HWA, leaf water potential, carbon isotope ratios, plant hydraulic properties and stomatal conductance were affected, inducing a reduction in tree water use by > 40% and gross primary productivity by 25%. Anatomical changes also appeared, including the activation of traumatic cells. HWA infestation had a direct effect on plant water relations. Despite some leaf compensatory mechanisms, such as an increase in leaf hydraulic conductance and nitrogen content, tree water use and carbon assimilation were diminished significantly in infested trees, which could contribute to tree mortality. PMID:23560452

Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rivera, Laura N; King, John S; Peszlen, Ilona; Hain, Fred; Smith, Benjamin; Frampton, John



Reshaping the Ecology of Invading Populations of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in Eastern North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae), is native to Japan where it is an innocuous inhabitant of Tsuga diversifolia Masters and T. sieboldii Carriere throughout their natural growing areas. Native adelgid populations are regulated by host resistance and natural enemies, in particular the oribatid mite, Diapterobates humeralis (Hermann) and the coccinellid beetle, Pseudoscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure. Invading

Mark S. McClure; Carole A. S.-J. Cheah



Evaluating the use of remotely sensed data in matrix population modeling for eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix population models for a population of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) were constructed from population data collected on the ground using traditional field methods and analogous data extracted from low elevation aerial imagery. This aerial derived data was obtained using spectral and spatial segmentation and reconciliation procedures that segmented hemlock “blobs” from the forest canopy image. Fertility estimates in

W. Robert Lamar; James B. McGraw



Effect of Prestain on the Release Rate of Copper, Chromium, and Arsenic from Western Hemlock.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To enhance appearance, stains are often sprayed onto western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) lumber prior to treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA-C). Recently, concerns have increased that prestaining may affect the rate of leaching of ...

S. T. Lebow J. W. Evans



Mid-Holocene climate and the hemlock decline: the range limit of Tsuga canadensis in the western Great Lakes region, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) expanded rapidly across Upper Peninsula Michigan from ~6500 to 5500 cal. yr BP, followed by a sudden decline of hemlock pollen percentages that lasted over 1000 years. Hemlock declined throughout its range, apparently due to insect\\/pathogen outbreaks, which may have been affected by regional climatic shifts. Modern analogues were used to reconstruct submillennial climatic trends from

Randy Calcote



Fungi Associated with the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae, and Assessment of Entomopathogenic Isolates for Management  

PubMed Central

Fungi associated with the hemlock wooly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), were collected throughout the eastern USA and southern China. Twenty fungal genera were identified, as were 79 entomopathogenic isolates, including: Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) (Hypocreales: Insertae sedis), Isaria farinosa (Holm: Fries.) (Cordycipitaceae), Beauveria bassiana (Balasamo) (Hyphomycetes), and Fusarium spp (Nectriaceae). The remaining fungal genera associated with insect cadavers were similar for both the USA and China collections, although the abundance of Acremonium (Hypocreaceae) was greater in China. The entomopathogenic isolates were assayed for efficacy against Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) and yielded mortality ranging from 3 to 92%. Ten isolates demonstrating the highest efficacy were further assessed for efficacy against field-collected A. tsugae under laboratory conditions. Overall, two B. bassiana, one L. lecanii, and a strain of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), demonstrated significantly higher efficacy against A. tsugae than the others. Isolates were further evaluated for conidial production, germination rate and colony growth at four temperatures representative of field conditions. All isolates were determined to be mesophiles with optimal temperature between 25–30° C. In general, conidial production increased with temperature, though two I. farinosa produced significantly more conidia at cooler temperatures. When efficacy values were compared with conidial production and temperature tolerances, Agricultural Research Service Collection of Entomopathogenic Fungi (ARSEF) 1080, 5170, and 5798 had characteristics comparable to the industrial B. bassiana strain GHA.

Reid, W.R.; Parker, B.L.; Gouli, S.Y.; Skinner, M.; Gouli, V.V.; Teillon, H.B.



Influence of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) on fish community structure and function in headwater streams of the Delaware River basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forest of the eastern U.S. are in decline due to invasion by the exotic insect hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). Aquatic biodiversity in hemlock ecosystems has not been documented; thus the true impact of the infestation cannot be assessed. We compared ichthyofaunal assemblages and trophic structure of streams draining hemlock and hardwood forests by sampling first- and second-order streams draining 14 paired hemlock and hardwood stands during base flows in July 1997 at the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Over 1400 fish of 15 species and 7 families were collected, but hemlock and hardwood streams individually harbored only one to four species. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were two to three times as prevalent in hemlock than hardwood streams. Insectivorous fishes occurred in significantly higher proportion in streams of hardwood (0.90) than hemlock (0.46) stands, while piscivores occurred more often in hemlock (0.85) than hardwood (0.54) stands. Functional (trophic) diversity of fishes in hemlock and second-order streams was numerically greater than that of hardwood and first-order streams. Species composition also differed by stream order and terrain type. Biodiversity is threatened at several levels within hemlock ecosystems at risk to the hemlock woolly adelgid in eastern U.S. forests.

Ross, R. M.; Bennett, R. M.; Snyder, C. D.; Young, J. A.; Smith, D. R.; Lemarie, D. P.



Factors affecting establishment and recovery of Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an introduced predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) on eastern hemlock (Pinales: Pinaceae).  


To reduce populations of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), >500,000 Sasajiscymnus tsugae (Sasaji and McClure) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) have been released in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park since 2002. To determine factors affecting establishment and recovery of these predatory beetles, 65 single release sites were sampled using beat sheets from 2008 to 2012. Several abiotic and biotic factors were evaluated for their association with establishment and recovery of S. tsugae. Information on predatory beetle releases (location, year of release, number released, and season of release), topographic features (elevation, slope, Beers transformed aspect, and topographic relative moisture index), and temperature data (minimum and maximum temperatures 1 d after release and average minimum and maximum temperatures 7 d after release) were obtained from Great Smoky Mountains National Park personnel. These factors were evaluated using stepwise logistic regression and Pearson correlation. S. tsugae was recovered from 13 sites 2 to 10 yr after release, and the greatest number was recovered from 2002 release sites. Regression indicated establishment and recovery was negatively associated with year of release and positively associated with the average maximum temperature 7 d after release and elevation (generally, recovery increased as temperatures increased). Several significant correlations were found between presence and number of S. tsugae and year of release, season of release, and temperature variables. These results indicate that releases of S. tsugae should be made in warmer (?10-25°C) temperatures and monitored for at least 5 yr after releases to enhance establishment and recovery efforts. PMID:24468557

Hakeem, A; Grant, J F; Wiggins, G J; Lambdin, P L; Hale, F A; Buckley, D S; Rhea, J R; Parkman, J P; Taylor, G



Behavior and Daily Activity Patterns of Specialist and Generalist Predators of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae  

PubMed Central

The behavior and daily activity patterns of two specialist predators, Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae, Sasaji and McClure (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and a generalist predator, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), were examined using digital video recording in the laboratory. The two specialists are part of a biological control program for A. tsugae, and it is not known if competitive interactions with previously established generalist predators will negatively impact their effectiveness. The behavior and daily activity patterns of adult females of each species were documented in single- and paired-predator assays under simulated spring and summer conditions. Behavior varied qualitatively and quantitatively by species, and did not appear to be highly coordinated temporally or spatially. All species exhibited continuous activity patterns that were punctuated by longer periods of rest. Extensive and intensive searching behavior occurred in all species, with intensive searching being highly variable. Specialist predators appeared to be more selective of feeding and oviposition sites, and rested at more concealed locations than the generalist species. In spring conditions, L. nigrinus had greater activity and a more even behavior distribution than S. tsugae or H. axyridis, which were skewed towards resting. In summer, the latter two species showed increased activity at higher temperatures. Conspecifics significantly altered the time allocated to specific behaviors for L. nigrinus and H. axyridis, resulting in reduced predator effectiveness by reducing time and energy expenditure on activities that directly impact the adelgids. In contrast, S. tsugae conspecifics and all heterospecific combinations showed non-interference. The activity of each species varied with time of day; L. nigrinus was more active at night, while S. tsugae and H. axyridis were more active during the day. All predator groupings maintained a high degree of spatial separation relative to assay size. The use of multiple-predator species combinations that include the specialist predators, is recommended over single-species for biological control of A. tsugae, as temporal and spatial patterns were not highly coordinated. Low-density releases may reduce the potential negative effects of intraspecific competition.

Flowers, R.W.; Salom, S.M.; Kok, L.T.; Mullins, D.E.



Behavior and daily activity patterns of specialist and generalist predators of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae.  


The behavior and daily activity patterns of two specialist predators, Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae, Sasaji and McClure (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and a generalist predator, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), were examined using digital video recording in the laboratory. The two specialists are part of a biological control program for A. tsugae, and it is not known if competitive interactions with previously established generalist predators will negatively impact their effectiveness. The behavior and daily activity patterns of adult females of each species were documented in single- and paired-predator assays under simulated spring and summer conditions. Behavior varied qualitatively and quantitatively by species, and did not appear to be highly coordinated temporally or spatially. All species exhibited continuous activity patterns that were punctuated by longer periods of rest. Extensive and intensive searching behavior occurred in all species, with intensive searching being highly variable. Specialist predators appeared to be more selective of feeding and oviposition sites, and rested at more concealed locations than the generalist species. In spring conditions, L. nigrinus had greater activity and a more even behavior distribution than S. tsugae or H. axyridis, which were skewed towards resting. In summer, the latter two species showed increased activity at higher temperatures. Conspecifics significantly altered the time allocated to specific behaviors for L. nigrinus and H. axyridis, resulting in reduced predator effectiveness by reducing time and energy expenditure on activities that directly impact the adelgids. In contrast, S. tsugae conspecifics and all heterospecific combinations showed non-interference. The activity of each species varied with time of day; L. nigrinus was more active at night, while S. tsugae and H. axyridis were more active during the day. All predator groupings maintained a high degree of spatial separation relative to assay size. The use of multiple-predator species combinations that include the specialist predators, is recommended over single-species for biological control of A. tsugae, as temporal and spatial patterns were not highly coordinated. Low-density releases may reduce the potential negative effects of intraspecific competition. PMID:20345314

Flowers, R W; Salom, S M; Kok, L T; Mullins, D E



Sitka Spruce and Western Hemlock Beach Logs in Southeast Alaska: Suitability for Lumber, Pulp, and Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The suitability of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and Sitka spruce (Picea Sitchensis) beach logs in southeast Alaska for lumber, pulp, and energy was determined. Logs were sawn at a cant mill in southeast Alaska and at a dimension mill in northern W...

S. Ernst M. E. Plank D. J. Fahey



Abundance and attributes of wildlife trees and coarse woody debris at three silvicultural systems study areas in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock Zone, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unmanaged cedar (Thuja plicata)-hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) forests of the northern Interior Wetbelt of British Columbia support standing and dead trees with a variety of structural features that provide habitat for wildlife. We describe the pre-harvest abundance and characteristics of wildlife trees (standing trees with special characteristics that provide habitat for wildlife) and coarse woody debris (CWD) at three silvicultural systems

Susan K. Stevenson; Michael J. Jull; Bruce J. Rogers




Microsoft Academic Search

Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is a serious pest of hemlocks (Tsuga spp.) in the eastern United States. A variety of insecticides are capable of controlling hemlock woolly adelgid. The use of a systemic insecticide, imidacloprid, has gained widespread acceptance and use in the plant care industry. While several studies demonstrate the efficacy of imidacloprid in reducing adelgid populations, none

Ralph E. Webb; J. Ray Frank; Michael J. Raupp



Long term cone production and growth responses to crown management and gibberellin A4\\/7 treatment in a young western hemlock seed orchard  

Microsoft Academic Search

At age 5–6 years, rooted cuttings in a western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) clonal seed orchard received either a severe (ST) or moderate (MT) top pruning (upper 50 and 25% of live crown removed, respectively), or were left untopped (UT). Over the following 6 years, UT trees increased in height from 1.5 to 3.9 m, whereas through annual and biennial top

Stephen D. Ross



Influences of Eastern Hemlock Mortality on Nutrient Cycling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere) may be caused by a variety of agents, but hemlock trees of all sizes over a large geographic area are currently threatened by an outbreak of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA: Adelges tsugae Annand) in the eastern United States. In this paper, we review what is currently known about changes in nutrient

Thad E; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Donald J. Leopold; Dudley J. Raynall


A geographically variable model of hemlock woolly adelgid spread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae) has spread through the range of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) leaving dead hemlock trees in its wake. We combined county and previously unavailable township level infestation records\\u000a with geographic variables including plant hardiness zone, elevation, forest cover type, urbanization, precipitation, temperature,\\u000a and hemlock range in a geographic information system to build models linking

Alexander M. Evans; Timothy G. Gregoire



Evaluation of ELISA for imidacloprid detection in eastern hemlock (Tsugacanadensis) wood and needle tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract BACKGROUND: Imidacloprid is the primary insecticide used against the exotic invasive insect hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, a pest of eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carri`ere] trees in the eastern United States. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated for quantification of imidacloprid in eastern hemlock wood and needle tissues. RESULTS: Matrix effects in the form of

Brian M Eisenback; Donald E Mullins; Scott M Salom; Loke T Kok



Organic and inorganic nitrogen nutrition of western red cedar, western hemlock and salal in mineral N-limited cedar-hemlock forests.  


Western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla Raf. Sarge) and salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) are the main species growing in cedar-hemlock forests on Vancouver Island, Canada. Based on the dominance of organic N in these systems, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) organic N can be utilized by the three plant species; and (2) salal, which is ericoid mycorrhizal and has high tannin concentration in its tissues, would absorb more N from the complex organic N compounds than the other two species. The abilities of cedar, hemlock and salal to take up 15N,13C-labelled glutamic acid were measured and the capacities of the three species to use nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), glutamic acid, protein and protein-tannin N were compared over a 20-day period. Based on 13C enrichment, all three species absorbed at least a portion of glutamic acid intact. Cedar, hemlock and salal also showed similar patterns of N uptake from the NO3-, NH4+, glutamic acid, protein and protein-tannin treatments. The largest proportions of applied N were taken up from the NO3- and NH4+ treatments while smaller amounts of N were absorbed from the organic N compounds. Thus organic N was accessed to a modest degree by all three species, and salal did not have a greater capacity to utilize protein and protein-tannin-N. PMID:15322895

Bennett, Jennifer N; Prescott, Cindy E



Factors influencing aestivation in Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a predator of Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laricobius nigrinus Fender is being reared for release as a biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand. HWA is an introduced insect lethal to hemlock trees (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. and T. caroliniana Engelm.) in the eastern United States. In nature, the predator (Laricobius nigrinus) and its prey (HWA) undergo a dormant pe- riod in the

A. B. Lamb; S. M. Salom; L. T. Kok



Landscape patterns of hemlock decline in New England due to the introduced hemlock woolly adelgid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae Annand), a small, aphid-like insect native to Japan, is currently migrating northward through eastern North America and threatens to eliminate eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carriere), one of the most abundant, long-lived shade tolerant species, across its range. The major objectives of this study were: (1) to characterize the pre-HWA distribution, composition,

David A. Orwig; David R. Foster; David L. Mausel



Current and predicted long-term effects of deer browsing in hemlock forests in Michigan, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remnants of virgin hemlock Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. forest in the Porcupine Mountains, Michigan, USA, have experienced inadequate hemlock regeneration lasting several decades. White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann browsing seems to be the major cause of the observed decline of hemlock regeneration, rather than poor seedbed conditions or changing climate. In some areas, -significant changes in the size-structure of the

Lee E. Frelich; Craig G. Lorimer



Characterization of physical and chemical defenses in the hemlock woolly adelgid.  


The invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Adelgidae) causes significant mortality to eastern and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carrière and T. caroliniana Engelmann, respectively) throughout the eastern United States. Adelges tsugae produces vast quantities of a wax covering that surrounds most of the instars as well as the adult and eggs. Using direct probe EI mass spectrometry, this wax covering was characterized as a diketoester wax, 17-oxohexatriacontanyl 11-oxotriacontanoate, and accounted for ??42 % of A. tsugae total biomass. The presence of the anthraquinone, chrysophanol, and its precursor anthrone, chrysarobin, in A. tsugae has only been briefly described. Further study confirmed these compounds in all A. tsugae life stages. Additionally, several predatory beetles in use or under consideration as biological control agents for this species appear to ingest and excrete these compounds when feeding on A. tsugae. The production of both a physical and a chemical defense may represent a significant energy investment by A. tsugae. PMID:24913905

Jones, Anne C; Mullins, Donald E; Jones, Tappey H; Salom, Scott M



Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree-ring C and O stable isotopes.  


Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. To investigate the long-term (1886-2010) impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the growth and gas exchange characteristics of host western hemlock, we compared the diameter growth and tree-ring cellulose stable carbon (C) and oxygen (O) isotope ratios (?(13)Ccell, ?(18)Ocell) of heavily infected and uninfected trees. The relative basal area growth of infected trees was significantly greater than that of uninfected trees in 1886-90, but declined more rapidly in infected than uninfected trees through time and became significantly lower in infected than uninfected trees in 2006-10. Infected trees had significantly lower ?(13)Ccell and ?(18)Ocell than uninfected trees. Differences in ?(18)Ocell between infected and uninfected trees were unexpected given that stomatal conductance and environmental variables that were expected to influence the ?(18)O values of leaf water were similar for both groups. However, estimates of mesophyll conductance (gm) were significantly lower and estimates of effective path length for water movement (L) were significantly higher in leaves of infected trees, consistent with their lower values of ?(18)Ocell. This study reconstructs the long-term physiological responses of western hemlock to dwarf mistletoe infection. The long-term diameter growth and ?(13)Ccell trajectories suggested that infected trees were growing faster than uninfected trees prior to becoming infected and subsequently declined in growth and leaf-level photosynthetic capacity compared with uninfected trees as the dwarf mistletoe infection became severe. This study further points to limitations of the dual-isotope approach for identifying sources of variation in ?(13)Ccell and indicates that changes in leaf internal properties such as gm and L that affect ?(18)Ocell must be considered. PMID:24973917

Marias, Danielle E; Meinzer, Frederick C; Woodruff, David R; Shaw, David C; Voelker, Steven L; Brooks, J Renée; Lachenbruch, Barbara; Falk, Kristen; McKay, Jennifer



Laboratory studies of feeding and oviposition preference, developmental performance, and survival of the predatory beetle, Sasajiscymnus tsugae on diets of the woolly adelgids, Adelges tsugae and Adelges piceae.  


The suitability of the balsam woolly adelgid, Adelges piceae Ratzeburg (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) as an alternate mass rearing host for the adelgid predator, Sasajiscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied in the laboratory. This predator is native to Japan and has been introduced to eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), forests throughout the eastern United States for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), also of Japanese origin. Feeding, oviposition, immature development, and adult long-term survival of S. tsugae were tested in a series of no choice (single-prey) and paired-choice experiments between the primary host prey, A. tsugae, and the alternate host prey, A. piceae. In paired-choice feeding tests, the predator did not discriminate between eggs of the two adelgid species, but in the no choice tests the predator did eat significantly more eggs of A. piceae than those of A. tsugae. S. tsugae accepted both test prey for oviposition and preferred to lay eggs on adelgid infested versus noninfested host plants. Overall oviposition rates were very low (< 1 egg per predator female) in the oviposition preference tests. Predator immature development rates did not differ between the two test prey, but only 60% of S. tsugae survived egg to adult development when fed A. piceae compared to 86% when fed A. tsugae. S. tsugae adult long-term survival was significantly influenced (positively and negatively) by prey type and the availability of a supplemental food source (diluted honey) when offered aestivating A. tsugae sistens nymphs or ovipositing aestivosistens A. piceae adults, but not when offered ovipositing A. tsugae sistens adults. These results suggest that the development of S. tsugae laboratory colonies reared on a diet consisting only of A. piceae may be possible, and that the biological control potential of the predator might be expanded to include management of A. piceae in Christmas tree plantations. PMID:21867435

Jetton, Robert M; Monahan, John F; Hain, Fred P



Impacts of trunk and soil injections of low rates of imidacloprid on hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and eastern hemlock (Pinales: Pinaceae) health.  


Eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis Carrière) at two sites in southwestern Virginia were treated by trunk and soil injections of imidacloprid to determine the insecticide's impact on hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. Treatments were 25, 50, and 100% of the highest labeled dosage rates for both stem and soil injection. Three and 4 yr after treatment, the half and full rates had significantly reduced A. tsugae populations, which were accompanied by increased new hemlock shoot growth and higher hemlock health scores on a visual rating of tree appearance. Imidacloprid and metabolite concentrations in tissue of treated trees were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and A. tsugae density decreased as imidacloprid concentrations increased in wood tissue. There were no observed A. tsugae populations in all trees with imidacloprid tissue concentrations >413 ppb. Olefin, di-hydroxy, and 6-chloro-nicotinic-acid metabolites were the imidacloprid metabolites recovered in the highest concentrations. This suggests that hemlock metabolism of imidacloprid may increase efficacy of the parent compound. Stem and soil treatments of low rates of systemic imidacloprid reduce adelgid populations and promote hemlock health, but still may provide a remnant food source for beneficial predators. PMID:24665708

Eisenback, Brian M; Salom, Scott M; Kok, Loke T; Lagalante, Anthony F



Dispersal versus climate: Expansion of Fagus and Tsuga into the Upper Great Lakes region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen records for American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) compiled from 50 sites in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, show that both species entered the Upper Great Lakes region about 7000 yr B.P., reaching their western and southwestern boundaries between 2000 and 1000 yr B.P. Fagus advanced northward into lower Michigan as a continuous front, except where Lake

M. B. Davis; K. D. Woods; S. L. Webb; R. P. Futyma



Biology and development of Laricobius kangdingensis Zilahi-Balogh and Jelínek, a newly discovered predator of Adelges tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology and temperature-dependent development of Laricobius kangdingensis Zilahi-Balogh and Jelínek (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a newly described predator of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) were investigated and compared with a related HWA predator, L. nigrinus Fender, that has already been released. As with other Laricobius species, there are four larval instars. The female to male sex ratio

H. A. Gatton; G. M. G. Zilahi-Balogh; S. M. Salom; L. T. Kok



Spatial tools for managing hemlock woolly adelgid in the southern Appalachians  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) has recently spread into the southern Appalachians. This insect attacks both native hemlock species (Tsuga canadensis and T. caroliniana ), has no natural enemies, and can kill hemlocks within four years. Biological control displays promise for combating the pest, but counter-measures are impeded because adelgid and hemlock distribution patterns have been detailed poorly. We developed a spatial management system to better target control efforts, with two components: (1) a protocol for mapping hemlock stands, and (2) a technique to map areas at risk of imminent infestation. To construct a hemlock classifier, we used topographically normalized satellite images from Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Employing a decision tree approach that supplemented image spectral data with several environmental variables, we generated rules distinguishing hemlock areas from other forest types. We then implemented these rules in a geographic information system and generated hemlock distribution maps. Assessment yielded an overall thematic accuracy of 90% for one study area, and 75% accuracy in capturing hemlocks in a second study area. To map areas at risk, we combined first-year infestation locations from Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Blue Ridge Parkway with points from uninfested hemlock stands, recording a suite of environmental variables for each point. We applied four different multivariate classification techniques to generate models from this sample predicting locations with high infestation risk, and used the resulting models to generate risk maps for the study region. All techniques performed well, accurately capturing 70--90% of training and validation samples, with the logistic regression model best balancing accuracy and regional applicability. Areas close to trails, roads, and streams appear to have the highest initial risk, perhaps due to bird- or human-mediated dispersal. Both components of our management system are general enough for use throughout the southern Appalachians. Overlay of derived maps will allow forest managers to reduce the area where they must focus their control efforts and thus allocate resources more efficiently.

Koch, Frank Henry, Jr.


Mesohabitat use of threatened hemlock forests by breeding birds of the Delaware River basin in northeastern United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Avian biodiversity may be at risk in eastern parks and forests due to continued expansion of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic homopteran insect native to East Asia. To assess avian biodiversity, mesohabitat relations, and the risk of species loss with declining hemlock forests in Appalachian park lands, 80 randomly distributed fixed-radius plots were established in which territories of breeding birds were estimated on four forest-terrain types (hemlock and hardwood benches and ravines) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Both species richness and number of territories were higher in hardwood than hemlock forest types and in bench than ravine terrain types. Four insectivorous species, Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius), black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens), and Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca), showed high affinity for hemlock forest type and exhibited significantly greater numbers of territories in hemlock than hardwood sites. These species are hemlock-associated species at risk from continued hemlock decline in the Delaware River valley and similar forests of the mid-Atlantic east slope. Two of these species, the blue-headed vireo and Blackburnian warbler, appeared to specialize on ravine mesohabitats of hemlock stands, the vireo a low-to-mid canopy species, the warbler a mid-to-upper canopy forager. Unchecked expansion of the exotic adelgid and subsequent hemlock decline could negatively impact 3,600 pairs from the park and several million pairs from northeastern United States hemlock forests due to elimination of preferred habitat.

Ross, R. M.; Redell, L. A.; Bennett, R. M.; Young, J. A.



Visual Ability and Searching Behavior of Adult Laricobius nigrinus, a Hemlock Woolly Adelgid Predator  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the searching behavior and sensory cues that Laricobius spp. (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) predators use to locate suitable habitats and prey, which limits our ability to collect and monitor them for classical biological control of adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The aim of this study was to examine the visual ability and the searching behavior of newly emerged L. nigrinus Fender, a host-specific predator of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Phylloxeroidea: Adelgidae). In a laboratory bioassay, individual adults attempting to locate an uninfested eastern hemlock seedling under either light or dark conditions were observed in an arena. In another bioassay, individual adults searching for prey on hemlock seedlings (infested or uninfested) were continuously video-recorded. Beetles located and began climbing the seedling stem in light significantly more than in dark, indicating that vision is an important sensory modality. Our primary finding was that searching behavior of L. nigrinus, as in most species, was related to food abundance. Beetles did not fly in the presence of high A. tsugae densities and flew when A. tsugae was absent, which agrees with observed aggregations of beetles on heavily infested trees in the field. At close range of prey, slow crawling and frequent turning suggest the use of non-visual cues such as olfaction and contact chemoreception. Based on the beetles' visual ability to locate tree stems and their climbing behavior, a bole trap may be an effective collection and monitoring tool.

Mausel, D.L.; Salom, S.M.; Kok, L.T.



Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. mortality will impact hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forest ecosystems.  


Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is one of the principal riparian and cove canopy species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Throughout its range, eastern hemlock is facing potential widespread mortality from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). If HWA-induced eastern hemlock mortality alters hydrologic function, land managers will be challenged to develop management strategies that restore function or mitigate impacts. To estimate the impact that the loss of this forest species will have on the hydrologic budget, we quantified and modeled transpiration over a range of tree sizes and environmental conditions. We used heat dissipation probes, leaf-level gas-exchange measurements, allometric scaling, and time series modeling techniques to quantify whole-tree and leaf-level transpiration (E(L)) of eastern hemlock. We monitored trees ranging from 9.5 to 67.5 cm in diameter along a riparian corridor in western North Carolina, USA during 2004 and 2005. Maximum rates of daily tree water use varied by diameter and height, with large trees transpiring a maximum of 178-186 kg H2O x tree(-1) x d(-1). Values of E(L) could be predicted from current and lagged environmental variables. We forecasted eastern hemlock E(L) for inventoried stands and estimated a mean annual transpiration rate of 63.3 mm/yr for the hemlock component, with 50% being transpired in the winter and spring. In typical southern Appalachian stands, eastern hemlock mortality would thus reduce annual stand-level transpiration by approximately 10% and reduce winter and spring stand-level transpiration by approximately 30%. Eastern hemlock in the southern Appalachians has two distinct ecohydrological roles: an evergreen tree that maintains year-round transpiration rates and a riparian tree that has high transpiration rates in the spring. No other native evergreen in the southern Appalachians will likely fill the ecohydrological role of eastern hemlock if widespread mortality occurs. With the loss of this species, we predict persistent increases in discharge, decreases in the diurnal amplitude of streamflow, and increases in the width of the variable source area. PMID:17555225

Ford, Chelcy R; Vose, James M



Wood density of young-growth western hemlock: relation to ring age, radial growth, stand density, and site quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast-high stem sections were sampled from 56 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophyUa (Raf.) Sarg.) trees growing in 15 plots representing a wide range of tree and site conditions in northwestern Oregon. Growth and wood density traits of individual rings were measured via X-ray densitometry, and relationships of ring density and its com- ponents to age and growth rate were analyzed. Ring

Dean S. DeBell; Ryan Singleton; Barbara L. Gartner; David D. Marshall



Western Hemlock Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report measurements of rates of sap flow in dominant trees, changes in soil moisture, and evaporation from coarse woody debris in an old- growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock ecosystem at Wind River, Washington, USA, during dry periods in summer. The measurements are compared with eddy-covariance measurements of water-vapor fluxes above the forest (Ee) and at the forest floor (Eu) to examine

Michael H. Unsworth; Kyaw Tha


Spatial pulses of water inputs in deciduous and hemlock forest stands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trees intercept and redistribute precipitation in time and space. While spatial patterns of throughfall are challenging to link to plant and canopy characteristics, many studies have shown that the spatial patterns persist through time. This persistence leads to wet and dry spots under the trees, creating spatial pulses of moisture that can affect infiltration, transpiration, and biogeochemical processes. In the northeast, the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid poses a significant threat to eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and replacement of hemlock forests by other species, such as birch, maple, and oak, has the potential to alter throughfall patterns and hydrologic processes. During the summers of 2009 and 2010, we measured throughfall in both hemlock and deciduous plots to assess its spatial distribution and temporal persistence. From 3 June to 25 July 2009, we measured throughfall in one hemlock and one deciduous plot over fourteen events with rainfall totaling 311 mm. From 8 June through 28 July 2010, we measured throughfall in the same two plots plus an additional hemlock stand and a young black birch stand, and rainfall totaled 148 mm over eight events. Averaged over space and time, throughfall was 81% of open precipitation in the hemlock stands, 88% in the mixed deciduous stand, and 100% in the young black birch stand. On an event basis, spatial coefficients of variation are similar among the stands and range from 11% to 49% for rain events greater than 5 mm. With the exception of very light events, coefficients of variation are insensitive to precipitation amount. Spatial patterns of throughfall persist through time, and seasonal coefficients of variation range from 13% to 33%. All stands indicate localized concentrations of water inputs, and there were individual collectors in the deciduous stands that regularly received more than twice the stand-average throughfall.

Guswa, A. J.; Mussehl, M.; Pecht, A.; Spence, C.



Characterization of the Soil Hydromorphic Conditions in a Paludified Dunefield during the Mid-Holocene Hemlock Decline near Québec City, Québec  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mid-Holocene eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensisL. (Carr.)] decline has been recently attributed to the activity of insect defoliators. N. Bihiry and L. Filion,Quaternary Research45,312–320 (1996). In this study, soil hydromorphic conditions were investigated for the period 6800–3200 yr B.P. using micromorphological data from a peat section from a swale in a paludified dunefield in southern Québec. After a short period

Najat Bhiry; Louise Filion



Hemlock: murder before the Lord.  


Two healthy young men were killed by a plume of hemlock (Conium maculatum) emitted when contaminated incense was vaporized during religious rites about the middle of the thirteenth century BC. PMID:7830518

Davies, M L; Davies, T A



Nuclei of Tsuga canadensis: Role of Flavanols in Chromatin Organization  

PubMed Central

Needle primordia of Tsuga canadensis (hemlock) arising from flank meristems of a shoot apex, form cell lineages consisting of four or eight cells. Within a recently established lineage there is striking uniformity in the pattern of nuclear flavanols. This fact points to an identical transcriptional expression of these flavanols during cell cycling. However two lineages, even if located close together within the same meristem, can be very different in the expression of both cell shape and nuclear flavanol pattern, indicating that epigenetic positional signals are operating in a collective specification of cell lineage development. There is a wide range of nuclear flavanol patterning from a mosaic-like distribution in an activated cell type to a homogenous appearance in silenced cell types. Single cells deriving from lineages are desynchronized because they underlie a signaling network at a higher tissue level which results in stronger epigenetic modifications of their nuclear flavanols. As an extreme case of epigenetic modulation, transient drought conditions caused a drastic reduction of nuclear flavanols. Upon treatment with sucrose or cytokinin, these nuclear flavanols could be fully restored. Analytical determination of the flavanols revealed 3.4 mg/g DW for newly sprouting needles and 19.6 mg/g DW for anthers during meiosis. The roughly 6-fold difference in flavanols is apparently a reflection of the highly diverging organogenetic processes. Collectively, the studies provide strong evidence for combinatorial interplay between cell fate and nuclear flavanols.

Feucht, Walter; Schmid, Markus; Treutter, Dieter



Mountain hemlock growth responds to climatic variability at annual and decadal time scales  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Improved understanding of tree growth responses to climate is needed to model and predict forest ecosystem responses to current and future climatic variability. We used dendroecological methods to study the effects of climatic variability on radial growth of a subalpine conifer, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Tree-ring chronologies were developed for 31 sites, spanning the latitudinal and elevational ranges of mountain hemlock in the Pacific Northwest. Factor analysis was used to identify common patterns of inter-annual growth variability among the chronologies, and correlation and regression analyses were used to identify climatic factors associated with that variability. Factor analysis identified three common growth patterns, representing groups of sites with different climate-growth relationships. At high-elevation and midrange sites in Washington and northern Oregon, growth was negatively correlated with spring snowpack depth, and positively correlated with growth-year summer temperature and the winter Pacific Decadal Oscillation index (PDO). In southern Oregon, growth was negatively correlated with spring snowpack depth and previous summer temperature, and positively correlated with previous summer precipitation. At the low-elevation sites, growth was mostly insensitive to annual climatic variability but displayed sensitivity to decadal variability in the PDO opposite to that found at high-elevation sites. Mountain hemlock growth appears to be limited by late snowmelt, short growing seasons, and cool summer temperatures throughout much of its range in the Pacific Northwest. Earlier snowmelt, higher summer temperatures, and lower summer precipitation in southern Oregon produce conditions under which growth is limited by summer temperature and/or soil water availability. Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations could produce warmer temperatures and reduced snowpack depths in the next century. Such changes would likely increase mountain hemlock growth and productivity throughout much of its range in Washington and northern Oregon. Increased summer drought stress and reduced productivity would be likely, however, in mountain hemlock forests of southern Oregon and near the species lower elevation limit at some sites.

Peterson, D. W.; Peterson, D. L.



A terrain-based paired-site sampling design to assess biodiversity losses from eastern hemlock decline  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Biodiversity surveys are often hampered by the inability to control extraneous sources of variability introduced into comparisons of populations across a heterogenous landscape. If not specifically accounted for a priori, this noise can weaken comparisons between sites, and can make it difficult to draw inferences about specific ecological processes. We developed a terrain-based, paired-site sampling design to analyze differences in aquatic biodiversity between streams draining eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests, and those draining mixed hardwood forests in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (USA). The goal of this design was to minimize variance due to terrain influences on stream communities, while representing the range of hemlock dominated stream environments present in the park. We used geographic information systems (GIS) and cluster analysis to define and partition hemlock dominated streams into terrain types based on topographic variables and stream order. We computed similarity of forest stands within terrain types and used this information to pair hemlock-dominated streams with hardwood counterparts prior to sampling. We evaluated the effectiveness of the design through power analysis and found that power to detect differences in aquatic invertebrate taxa richness was highest when sites were paired and terrain type was included as a factor in the analysis. Precision of the estimated difference in mean richness was nearly doubled using the terrain-based, paired site design in comparison to other evaluated designs. Use of this method allowed us to sample stream communities representative of park-wide forest conditions while effectively controlling for landscape variability.

Young, J. A.; Smith, D. R.; Snyder, C. D.; Lemarie, D. P.



Comparison of throughfall chemistry in a mature hemlock forest and an early-successional deciduous forest resulting from salvage logging in Whately, Massachusetts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of foundation species as a result of disturbance events such as exotic species invasions can alter community composition and ecosystem function. The current hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation in eastern North America that threatens the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), a foundation species, has motivated salvage logging efforts. Ecological succession resulting from salvage logging of hemlock would eventually produce a deciduous hardwood forest. The chemistry of throughfall beneath a mature hemlock forest canopy is expected to be more acidic than throughfall from a mature deciduous forest canopy because hemlock foliage releases more organic acids and fewer base cations. The chemical composition of throughfall during the early successional transition from hemlock to deciduous is less understood. We hypothesize that throughfall chemistry in a deciduous forest consisting primarily of juvenile trees may be more similar to direct precipitation because leaf area index is smaller. Differences between hemlock throughfall and direct precipitation may be larger due to the denser canopy of these mature trees. We compared the chemical composition of precipitation, hemlock throughfall, and black birch throughfall for 26 precipitation events from 4 March to 30 July 2012. The black birch (Betula lenta) forest patch resulted from salvage logging of hemlocks twenty years ago at the MacLeish Field Station in Whately, MA. From the three plots we measured the volume of water collected and pH, acid neutralizing capacity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and concentrations of cations (Ca2+, K+, Na+, Mg2+, NH4+), anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-), and dissolved silica. Precipitation totaled 405 mm during the course of the study. Throughfall totaled 347 mm in the black birch plot and 315 mm in the hemlock plot. The proportion of precipitation passing through the forest canopy was smaller in hemlock throughfall than black birch throughfall during small precipitation events (depth < 10 mm), but appeared comparable in larger events. Before leaf emergence, differences between base cation and DOC deposition were not significant (p>0.05, n = 5) for throughfall and direct precipitation. After leaf emergence, base cation and DOC deposition was significantly (p<0.05, n = 21) greater in throughfall than direct precipitation. Additionally, K+, Mg2+, and DOC deposition were significantly greater in hemlock throughfall than black birch throughfall. Black birch throughfall had significantly less H+ deposition than direct precipitation, which suggests that the black birch canopy appears to neutralize the acidity of the precipitation. H+ deposition in hemlock throughfall, however, was not significantly different than precipitation, which could be due to its higher DOC. These results suggest that the successional stage of a deciduous forest canopy has an effect on throughfall chemistry. Lower deposition of base cations prior to and during this juvenile stage could affect soil chemistry by increasing soil acidity and lowering base saturation.

Zukswert, J. M.; Rhodes, A. L.; Dwyer, C. H.; Sweezy, T.



Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from Ganoderma tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracted and hot alkali extracted polysaccharides were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Polysaccharides showed good antioxidant activity as evidenced by their particularly low EC50 values (<0.1mg\\/ml). At 20mg\\/ml, both extracted polysaccharides from mycelia

Yu-Hsiu Tseng; Joan-Hwa Yang; Jeng-Leun Mau



Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).  


One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

Vetter, J



Characterization of the Soil Hydromorphic Conditions in a Paludified Dunefield during the Mid-Holocene Hemlock Decline near Québec City, Québec  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mid-Holocene eastern hemlock [ Tsuga canadensisL. (Carr.)] decline has been recently attributed to the activity of insect defoliators. N. Bihiry and L. Filion, Quaternary Research45,312-320 (1996). In this study, soil hydromorphic conditions were investigated for the period 6800-3200 yr B.P. using micromorphological data from a peat section from a swale in a paludified dunefield in southern Québec. After a short period of plant colonization in shallow pools between 6800 and 6400 yr B.P., mesic conditions predominated in the interdune before the decline (6400-4900 yr B.P.), as evidenced by strong bioturbation and abundance of excrements from the soil fauna. During the decline, a shift from mesic to wet conditions occurred (4900-4100 yr B.P.), although xeric to mesic conditions persisted on dune ridges until at least 4200 yr B.P. Wetness culminated when beaver occupied the site (4100-3750 yr B.P.). Hemlock needles with chewing damage typical of hemlock looper ( Lambdina fiscellaria) feeding were identified at levels dated 4900, 4600, and 4200 yr B.P., respectively, implying that the hemlock decline was associated with at least three defoliation events. The ca. 400-yr interval between these events likely represents the time required for this late-sucessional tree species to recover.

Bhiry, Najat; Filion, Louise



The Hemlock Sawfly in Southeast Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hemlock sawfly has one generation per year and overwinters in the egg stage. There are apparently four feeding male larval instars and five female instars. Cocoon measurements provide a fairly reliable means of sexing sawfly pupae. Females produce an ...

J. S. Hard D. C. Schmiege



Moisture and temperature changes associated with the mid-Holocene Tsuga decline in the northeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decline of hemlock (Tsuga) populations at ca 5.5 ka (thousands of calibrated radiocarbon years before 1950 AD) stands out as the most abrupt vegetation change of the Holocene in North America, but remains poorly understood after decades of study. Recent analyses of fossil pollen have revealed a concurrent, abrupt oak (Quercus) decline and increases in the abundance of beech (Fagus) and pine (Pinus) on Cape Cod in eastern Massachusetts, but the replacement of drought-tolerant oaks by moisture-sensitive beeches appears inconsistent with low lake levels in the region at the same time. The oak and beech changes are also limited to coastal areas, and the coastal-inland differences require an explanation. Here, we develop a new lake-level reconstruction from Deep Pond, Cape Cod by using a transect of sediment cores and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles to constrain the past elevations of the sandy, littoral zone of the pond. The reconstruction shows that a series of multi-century episodes of low water coincide with the abrupt hemlock and oak declines, and interrupt subsequent phases of hemlock recovery. The lake-level variations equal precipitation deficits of ˜100 mm superimposed on a Holocene long moisture increase of >400 mm. However, because moisture deficits do not easily explain the oak and beech changes, we also evaluate how the climate preferences of the regional vegetation changed over time by matching the fossil pollen assemblages from Deep Pond with their modern equivalents. Reconstructions of the precipitation requirements of the vegetation correlate well even in detail with the lake-level record (r = 0.88 at Deep Pond), and indicate close tracking of effective moisture (precipitation minus evapotranspiration) by the vegetation despite the abrupt species declines, which could have decoupled climate and vegetation trends. Reconstructions of the temperature preferences of the vegetation indicate that coastal sites may have cooled by 0.5-2.5 °C after ca 5.5 ka, while inland sites warmed by 0.5-1 °C. The change in coastal temperature preferences agrees with sea surface cooling in the western Atlantic Ocean of >1 °C. Consequently, the persistence of low hemlock abundance after 5.5 ka in the northeast U.S. may have resulted from oceanic changes that produced multi-century droughts and thus delayed the post-decline recovery of hemlock populations.

Marsicek, Jeremiah P.; Shuman, Bryan; Brewer, Simon; Foster, David R.; Oswald, W. Wyatt



Effects of Forest Succession on Exchangeable Cation Concentrations and Nitrogen Mineralization Rates in Soils Following Logging of Eastern Hemlock Forest, Whately, Massachusetts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecological forest successions associated with invasive species and human disturbance may alter biogeochemical cycles within New England forests. Spread of the invasive insect hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) to eastern North America is causing mortality of the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), prompting salvage logging. Regrowth by deciduous hardwood trees is often observed. To evaluate whether changes in nutrient cycling could be altered by forest succession, we investigated exchangeable cation chemistry and nitrogen mineralization rates for soil in a mature, eastern hemlock forest and in a juvenile black birch (Betula lenta) forest in western MA. Eastern hemlock on this property was selectively logged 20 years ago, with black birch regrowth succeeding hemlock. We measured soil pH, exchangeable acidity (Al3+ and H+), exchangeable base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+), and nitrogen mineralization rates of organic and mineral horizons for 7 incubation periods between May 2011 - July 2012. We also measured the cation exchange capacity and nitrogen mineralization rates of soils from May - July 2012 (2 incubations) in a mature deciduous forest composed primarily of black birch. At each field site, 7 soil cores were collected. Soil horizons (organic and mineral) were separated and homogenized, and 3 replicates of each composite sample were analyzed for soil geochemistry. Organic soils within the juvenile black birch plot (BB) exhibit a low pH (4.3) similar to hemlock organic soils (HEM, pH=4.2). Surprisingly, exchangeable Al3+—the dominant cation in both plots—is significantly greater in organic soils at BB than at HEM (p<.001), and base saturation is less at BB (29%) than at HEM (46%, p<0.001) due to less Ca2+. There are no significant differences in the exchangeable cation chemistry of the mineral horizons at both sites, suggesting that the acidity difference of organic matter is not due to different soil mineralogy. In comparison, organic soil at the mature black birch site (MBB) is less acidic (pH=4.8) than BB, and it has higher base saturation (59%, p<0.001). The dominant exchangeable cation at MBB is Ca2+, and exchangeable Al3+ is significantly less. These results suggest that acidity of hemlock soils increases after logging, despite hemlocks being succeeded by deciduous trees associated with more basic soils. We hypothesize that clear cutting reduces the supply of base cations to soil from throughfall and litter decomposition, enabling more Al3+ to occupy cation exchange sites. No significant differences in nitrogen mineralization rates were observed between organic soils at BB and HEM during the 2011 growing season; nitrification rates were ~1% at both sites. However, nitrogen mineralization was greater at HEM (p<0.05) during the 2012 growing season due to more NH4+. Additionally, nitrogen mineralization rates at MBB were greater (p<0.01) than both BB and HEM, mostly due to much higher nitrification at MBB (41%). The organic composition of what was previously hemlock soil appears to exhibit a strong control on nitrogen cycling beneath a juvenile deciduous successional stage.

Rhodes, A. L.; Sweezy, T.; Zukswert, J. M.; Dwyer, C. H.



Modeling range dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes: invasion of the hemlock woolly adelgid in eastern North America.  


Range expansion by native and exotic species will continue to be a major component of global change. Anticipating the potential effects of changes in species distributions requires models capable of forecasting population spread across realistic, heterogeneous landscapes and subject to spatiotemporal variability in habitat suitability. Several decades of theory and model development, as well as increased computing power and availability of fine-resolution GIS data, now make such models possible. Still unanswered, however, is the question of how well this new generation of dynamic models will anticipate range expansion. Here we develop a spatially explicit stochastic model that combines dynamic dispersal and population processes with fine-resolution maps characterizing spatiotemporal heterogeneity in climate and habitat to model range expansion of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae). We parameterize this model using multiyear data sets describing population and dispersal dynamics of HWA and apply it to eastern North America over a 57-year period (1951-2008). To evaluate the model, the observed pattern of spread of HWA during this same period was compared to model predictions. Our model predicts considerable heterogeneity in the risk of HWA invasion across space and through time, and it suggests that spatiotemporal variation in winter temperature, rather than hemlock abundance, exerts a primary control on the spread of HWA. Although the simulations generally matched the observed current extent of the invasion of HWA and patterns of anisotropic spread, it did not correctly predict when HWA was observed to arrive in different geographic regions. We attribute differences between the modeled and observed dynamics to an inability to capture the timing and direction of long-distance dispersal events that substantially affected the ensuing pattern of spread. PMID:22611848

Fitzpatrick, Matthew C; Preisser, Evan L; Porter, Adam; Elkinton, Joseph; Ellison, Aaron M



Shear strengths of wood measured by various short beam shear test methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted three types of short beam shear tests of western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla Sarg.) under various span\\/depth ratios, and examined whether the maximum shear stress was used as the shear strength. The following results were obtained. (1) In the short beam shear tests under the three-point loading method, it was difficult to have the specimen failing by horizontal

Hiroshi Yoshihara; Toshifumi Furushima



Variable Source Areas of Watershed Runoff in a Small Forest Watershed. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Examination of a small mountain watershed occupied by grand fir (Abies grandis), western red cedar (Thuja plicata), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) habitat types in northern Idaho revealed that 80 percent of the time, less than 5 percent of its a...

D. R. Satterlund



Vertical and temporal distribution of insolation in gaps in an old-growth coniferous forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of canopy access at the Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility, hemispherical photog- raphy, and long-term insolation data provided estimates of vertical and temporal distributions of insolation in nine can - opy gaps in a 65 m tall Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest. Yearly insolation (long-term data from Portland, Oreg.)

Stuart B. Weiss



Xanthine oxidase inhibitory lanostanoids from Ganoderma tsugae.  


Two new lanostanoids, 3?-acetoxy-22-oxo-5?-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid, named tsugaric acid D (1) and 16?-hydroxy-3-oxo-5?-lanosta-6,8,24(24(1))-trien-21-oic acid, named tsugaric acid E (2) were isolated from the fruit bodies of Ganoderma tsugae. The structures 1 and 2 were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 and known compounds 3 and 6 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity with an IC50 values of 90.2±24.2, 116.1±3.0, and 181.9±5.8 ?M, respectively. Known compound 5 was able to protect human keratinocytes against damage induced by UVB light, which showed 5 could protect keratinocytes from photodamage. The 1 and 5 ?M 1 combined with 5 ?M cisplatin, respectively, enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin. It suggested that 1 and 5 ?M 1 combined with low dose of cisplatin may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin and reduce side effect and cisplatin resistant. PMID:23769935

Lin, Kai-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ting; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Wei, Bai-Luh; Hung, Chi-Feng; Lin, Chun-Nan



Antioxidant and radical scavenging properties of extracts from Ganoderma tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activities and scavenging effects on free radicals of extracts from Ganoderma were investigated. The methanolic extracts of Ganoderma tsugae (MEGT) showed the strongest antioxidant activity of five species of Ganoderma tested. MEGT exhibited substantial antioxidant activity in the linoleic acid and rat liver microsome peroxidation systems. The antioxidant activity of MEGT was stronger than ?-tocopherol. MEGT had a

Gow-Chin Yen; Jun-Yi Wu



Antinociceptive activity of Euphorbia heterophylla roots.  


Following an identified use of the plant as analgesic in traditional medicine, the hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Euphorbia heterophylla root have been tested for antinociceptive activity in rats. All extracts showed significant effects at doses of 150-300 mg/kg i.p. PMID:11449508

Vamsidhar, I; Mohammed, A H; Nataraj, B; Madhusudana Rao, C; Ramesh, M



Antioxidant properties of hot water extracts from Ganoderma tsugae Murrill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ganoderma tsugae Murrill (Ganodermataceae) were available in the form of mature and baby Ling chih, mycelia and fermentation filtrate. From these four forms, hot water extracts were prepared and their antioxidant properties were studied. Hot water extracts from mature and baby Ling chih showed high antioxidant activities (78.5% and 78.2%) at 20mg\\/ml, and had EC50 values of 7.25 and 5.89mgextract\\/ml,

Jeng-Leun Mau; Shu-Yao Tsai; Yu-Hsiu Tseng; Shih-Jeng Huang




PubMed Central

Petroleum ether (60-80°C), chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and aqueous extract of aerial parts of Melothria heterophylla Lour. were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms (Pheretima posthuma), using albandazole and piperazine citrate as reference standards. The results indicated that the ethanol extract of M. heterophylla Lour (EEMH) was more potent than the other four extracts of it.

Pal, Dilip Kumar; Mondal, Arijit; Mandal, Uttam



Toxicoses in livestock from the hemlocks (Conium and Cicuta spp.).  


The hemlocks, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Cicuta spp. (waterhemlock), are poisonous plants that cause sizeable losss to the livestock industry. Clinical signs of poisonhemlock toxicosis are similar in all species of livestock and include muscular weakness, incordination, trembling, initial central nervous system stimulation, depression and death from respiratory paralysis. Poison-hemlock also causes skeletal defects in the offspring of cattle, pigs and sheep and cleft palate in pigs when ingested during specific periods of gestation. The primary toxicants in poison-hemlock are coniine and gamma-coniceine. Coniine predominates in mature plants and seed, whereas gamma-coniceine predominates in early growth of the plant. Waterhemlock is the most violently toxic poisonous plant known. The toxicant is cicutoxin, which acts on the central nervous system, causing violent convulsions and death. Clinical signs of poisoning appear within 15 min after ingestion of a lethal dose and include excessive salivation, nervousness, tremors, muscular weakness and convulsive seizures interspersed by intermittent periods of relaxation and a final paralytic seizure resulting in anoxia and death. Elevated activities of lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase in blood are observed, indicative of muscular damage. Toxicoses from poisonhemlock and waterhemlock generally occur in early spring when both plants emerge before other, more palatable plants begin to grow. All parts of the poison-hemlock plant are toxic. The root or tubers of waterhemlock are toxic; however, experimental evidence concerning the toxicity of other plant parts is inconclusive. PMID:3049497

Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Baker, D C



The triterpenoids of Ganoderma tsugae prevent stress-induced myocardial injury in mice.  


Ganoderma mushrooms (Lingzhi in Chinese) have well-documented health benefits. Ganoderma tsugae (G. tsugae), one of the ganoderma species, has been commercially cultivated as a dietary supplement. Because G. tsugae has high antioxidant activity and because oxidative stress is often associated with cardiac injury, we hypothesized that G. tsugae protects against cardiac injury by alleviating oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis using a work-overload-induced myocardial injury model created by challenging mice with isoproterenol (ISO). Remarkably, oral G. tsugae protected the mice from ISO-induced myocardial injury. Moreover, the triterpenoid fraction of G. tsugae, composed of a mixture of nine structurally related ganoderic acids (GAs), provided cardioprotection by inhibiting the ISO-induced expression of Fas/Fas ligand, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The antioxidant activity of GAs was tested in cultured cardio-myoblast H9c2 cells against the insult of H?O?. GAs dissipated the cellular reactive oxygen species imposed by H?O? and prevented cell death. Our findings uncovered the cardioprotective activity of G. tsugae and identified GAs as the bioactive components against cardiac insults. PMID:23610080

Kuok, Qian-Yu; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Su, Bor-Chyuan; Hsu, Pei-Ling; Ni, Hao; Liu, Ming-Yie; Mo, Fan-E



Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.  


Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

Reynolds, Tom



Decomposing the mid-Holocene Tsuga decline in eastern North America.  


The mid-Holocene decline of Tsuga canadensis (hereafter Tsuga) populations across eastern North America is widely perceived as a synchronous event, driven by pests/pathogens, rapid climate change, or both. Pattern identification and causal attribution are hampered by low stratigraphic density of pollen-sampling and radiometric dates at most sites, and by absence of highly resolved, paired pollen and paleoclimate records from single sediment cores, where chronological order of climatic and vegetational changes can be assessed. We present an intensely sampled (contiguous 1-cm intervals) record of pollen and water table depth (inferred from testate amoebae) from a single core spanning the Tsuga decline at Irwin Smith Bog in Lower Michigan, with high-precision chronology. We also present an intensively sampled pollen record from Tower Lake in Upper Michigan. Both sites show high-magnitude fluctuations in Tsuga pollen percentages during the pre-decline maximum. The terminal decline is dated at both sites ca. 5000 cal yr BP, some 400 years later than estimates from other sites and data compilations. The terminal Tsuga decline was evidently heterochronous across its range. A transient decline ca. 5350 cal yr BP at both sites may correspond to the terminal decline at other sites in eastern North America. At Irwin Smith Bog, the terminal Tsuga decline preceded an abrupt and persistent decline in water table depths by approximately 200 years, suggesting the decline was not directly driven by abrupt climate change. The Tsuga decline may best be viewed as comprising at least three phases: a long-duration pre-decline maximum with high-magnitude and high-frequency fluctuations, followed by a terminal decline at individual sites, followed in turn by two millennia of persistently low Tsuga populations. These phases may not be causally linked, and may represent dynamics taking place at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Further progress toward understanding the phenomenon requires an expanded network of high-resolution pollen and paleoclimate chronologies. PMID:22928413

Booth, Robert K; Brewer, Simon; Blaauw, Maarten; Minckley, Thomas A; Jackson, Stephen T



Antiinflammatory triterpenoids and steroids from Ganoderma lucidum and G. tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiinflammatory properties of triterpenoids and steroids from both Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma tsugae were studied. Twelve compounds, including ergosta-7,22-dien-3?-ol (1), ergosta-7,22-dien-3?-yl palmitate (2), ergosta-7,22-dien-3-one (3), ergosta-7,22-dien-2?,3?,9?-triol (4), 5?,8?-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3?-ol (5), ganoderal A (6), ganoderal B (7), ganoderic aldehyde A (8), tsugaric acid A (9), 3-oxo-5?-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (10), 3?-acetoxy-5?-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid ester ?-d-glucoside (11), and tsugaric acid B (12), were assessed in

Horng-Huey Ko; Chi-Feng Hung; Jih-Pyang Wang; Chun-Nan Lin



Nitrogen source effects on rhizosphere pH and nutrient accumulation by Pacific Northwest conifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen source effects on rhizosphere pH were evaluated for Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco], Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.] and western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.] seedlings and a 40-year-old second growth Douglas-fir stand. Nitrogen additions of 400 mg kg?1 decreased rhizosphere pH up to 0.7 units in ammonium treatments and increased pHr by up to 1.2 units in

B. A. Rollwagen; R. J. Zasoski



Density-dependent eÄects on tree survival in an old- growth Douglas fir forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1 We mapped the locations of live and dead trees in a large forest plot dominated by pioneer Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) with an understorey of the invading late-successional species western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata) on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, to test for intra- and interspecific density-dependent eÄects on tree survival. 2 We



The phytotoxic effect of exogenous ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L.  


This study investigated the effects of exogenously applied ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L., a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. Ethanol at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.5% caused a dose-dependent inhibition of germination and growth of E. heterophylla. Measurements of respiratory activity and alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. activity during seed imbibition and initial seedling growth revealed that ethanol induces a prolongation of hypoxic conditions in the growing tissues. In isolated mitochondria, ethanol inhibited the respiration coupled to ADP phosphorylation, an action that probably contributed to modifications observed in the respiratory activity of embryos. A comparison of the effects of methanol, ethanol, propanol and acetaldehyde on germination and growth of E. heterophylla indicates that alcohol dehydrogenase activity is required for the observed effects, with the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde playing a role in the ethanol-induced injuries. PMID:19640725

Kern, Kátia Aparecida; Pergo, Erica Marusa; Kagami, Fernanda Lima; Arraes, Luis Saraiva; Sert, Maria Aparecida; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza



A fatal case of apparent water hemlock poisoning.  


A 14-y-o North American native boy died 20 h after ingesting "wild carrot". He was gathering edible plants with his family on Canadian Thanksgiving. A sample of the plant he ingested couldn't be positively identified but it contained cicutoxin on chromatography. Bioassay caused death in mice which demonstrated clinical signs similar to water hemlock (Cicuta maculata) poisonings. Cicutoxin could not be demonstrated in postmortem tissue or gastric lavage. The boy's clinical signs and laboratory tests were consistent with other reported cases of this poisoning. PMID:11205076

Heath, K B



Poison hemlock-induced respiratory failure in a toddler.  


The ingestion of poison hemlock, or Conium maculatum, is described in a 2-year-old boy. He had the onset of abdominal pain and weakness after being fed C. maculatum picked by his sister from the roadside 2 hours earlier. He had a rapidly progressive muscular weakness and was intubated for respiratory failure. His symptoms completely resolved within 24 hours of the ingestion. Conium maculatum is a common weed that causes toxicity by its primary toxin, coniine, which stimulates nicotinic receptors and causes a syndrome of rapidly progressive muscle weakness and paralysis. We describe the course of a benign-appearing plant ingestion resulting in respiratory failure. PMID:19915429

West, Patrick L; Horowitz, B Zane; Montanaro, Marc T; Lindsay, James N



Spatial dependency of soil nutrient availability and microbial properties in a mixed forest of Tsuga heterophylla and Pseudotsuga menziesii, in coastal British Columbia, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial variations in nutrient concentrations and turnover may contribute to variations in productivity within forest ecosystems and be responsible for creating and maintaining diversity of plant species. The aim of this study was to relate spatial patterns in soil nutrient availability and microbial properties in the forest floor and mineral soil in order to explore the controls on variations in

Per Bengtson; Nathan Basiliko; Cindy E. Prescott; Susan J. Grayston



Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree ring C and O stable isotopes  

EPA Science Inventory

• Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture, and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. • To investigate long-term impacts of dwarf ...


Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) toxicosis in a flock of range turkeys.  


Five 20-week-old tom turkeys from a flock of range turkeys were presented for examination; the flock had a history of salivation, tremors, paralysis, and increased mortality. Necropsy revealed numerous seeds identified as seeds from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) within the crop, proventriculus, and gizzard. Histopathologic alterations were limited to catarrhal enteritis. Clinical signs of Conium maculatum toxicosis abated after the turkeys were removed from their range, which was infested with poison hemlock. PMID:3619833

Frank, A A; Reed, W M



Structure and antitumor activities of the water-soluble polysaccharides from Ganoderma tsugae mycelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six water-soluble polysaccharides coded as GTM1 to GTM6 were extracted sequentially from the mycelium of Ganoderma tsugae with 0.2M sodium phosphate buffer solution at 25, 40, and 80°C, water at 120°C, 0.5M sodium hydroxide at 25 and 65°C. The chemical structures were determined by using IR, EA, GC and 13C NMR. The weight-average molecular mass (Mw) was characterized by size

Yanfei Peng; Lina Zhang; Fanbo Zeng; John F. Kennedy



Induction of premature senescence in human lung cancer by fungal immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae (reFIP-gts) has anti-telomerase effects in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. However, how reFIP-gts affects cancer cell fates remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that reFIP-gts-treated lung cancer cells are arrested at G1 phase by flow cytometry and possess morphological phenotype consistent with cellular senescence. The senescent nature of these cells was supported by

Chien-Huang Liao; Yi-Min Hsiao; Ching-Hsiung Lin; Chin-Shui Yeh; James Chun-Huan Wang; Chia-Hung Ni; Chung-Ping Hsu; Jiunn-Liang Ko



Chromosome number and cytogenetics of Euphorbia heterophylla L.  


Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a herbaceous species of great economic importance due to its invasive potential and consequent damage to agriculture and pasture land. For the first time, we provide information on its chromosome number, morphology, and behavior of mitotic chromosomes. Seeds were germinated and submitted to four treatments to obtain metaphases: 0.5% colchicine for 2 to 5 h, at ambient temperature; 0.5% colchicine for 16 to 24 h; 0.0029 M 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) for 2 to 5 h at ambient temperature, and 0.0029 M 8-HQ for 16 to 24 h at 4 degrees C. The material was then fixed in methanol:acetic acid (3:1) and kept at -20 degrees C for 24 h. Roots were macerated in the enzyme solution of Flaxzyme (NOVO FERMENT)-distilled water (1:40) at 34 degrees C for 2 h and later fixed again. Chromosome preparations were obtained by the dissociation of the apical meristems. The best chromosome preparations were obtained with the use of 8-HQ for 21 h 30 min at 4 degrees C. E. heterophylla showed 2n = 28 chromosomes. The short arm of the largest pair of chromosomes of the complement (pair number 1) displayed a secondary constriction while the nucleolus was observed in the interphasic cell. Structural rearrangements were also observed in the E. heterophylla L. genome. The genomic instability associated with polyploidy may be the result of selection shaped by environmental adaptations and/or human-induced manipulation through agricultural practices. PMID:18393225

Aarestrup, J R; Karam, D; Fernandes, G W



In vivo anti-inflammatory effect and toxicological screening of Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis extracts.  


Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl & Zeyh.) Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam). Exell are two African medicinal plants used to treat painful and inflammatory diseases. We evaluated the in vivo (per os) anti-inflammatory activity of M. heterophylla leaf, stem and root extracts and of M. senegalensis leaf and stem extracts. Additionally, we assessed their in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicities. Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts were determined in Wistar albino rats, by the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method. Acute and sub-acute toxicity screening of the extracts was evaluated in adult male CD-6 mice. Leaf extracts of M. heterophylla and M. senegalensis exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity (120 mg/kg, per os), reducing oedema by 51% and 35%, respectively. While M. heterophylla extracts at 1200 mg/kg have shown to be non-toxic, M. senegalensis extracts indicated some toxicity. Our results show a significant anti-inflammatory effect of both M. heterophylla and M. senegalensis leaf extracts in a local model of acute inflammation and suggest the absence of acute and sub-acute toxicity signs of the M. heterophylla leaf extract (but not of M. senegalensis). Ongoing studies will surely shed some light into the mechanism of action of this active extract and establish its chemical fingerprint. PMID:20670987

da Silva, G; Taniça, M; Rocha, J; Serrano, R; Gomes, E T; Sepodes, B; Silva, O



Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines  

PubMed Central

Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine.

da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.



Dihydroagarofuran alkaloid and triterpenes from Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus arbutifolia.  


The antimicrobially active EtOH extracts of Maytenus heterophylla yielded a new dihydroagarofuran alkaloid,1beta-acetoxy-9alpha-benzoyloxy-2beta,6alpha-dinicotinoyloxy-beta-dihydroagarofuran, together with the known compounds beta-amyrin, maytenfolic acid, 3alpha-hydroxy-2-oxofriedelane-20alpha-carboxylic acid, lup-20(29)-ene-1beta,3beta-diol, (-)-4'-methylepigallocatechin, and (-)-epicatechin. In addition, beta-amyrin, (-)-epicatechin and (-)-4'-methylepigallocatechin were isolated from Maytenus arbutifolia. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on 1D and 2D NMR analyses, including HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY correlations. Maytenfolic acid showed moderate antimicrobial activity by inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:11557080

Orabi, K Y; Al-Qasoumi, S I; El-Olemy, M M; Mossa, J S; Muhammad, I



Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines.  


Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

da Silva, G; Serrano, R; Silva, O



Evaluation of Antitumor and Antioxidant Activity of Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn  

PubMed Central

Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., (family-Cucurbitaceae) popularly known as kundari, has been shown to exhibit antioxidant effects. The main objective was to isolate active constituents of the plant extract. In this study, the ability of M. heterophylla to induce apoptosis was studied in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Treatment of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells with a variety of concentrations of the ethanol extracts of M. heterophylla and gallic acid (100-1000 ?M), to determine the sequences of events marked by apoptosis, assayed by the spectrofluorometric method. Gallic acid and rutin were isolated from plant extract which were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Our results indicate that ethanol extracts of M. heterophylla and gallic acid-induced apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner could be due to the generation of reactive oxygen species, especially H2O2, which is confirmed by caspase 3 activation. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.) of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved hemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals were evident from the decline in the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. The data suggest that M. heterophylla exerts anticancer activity, valuable for application in food and drug products.

Mondal, A.; Singha, T.; Maity, T. K.; Pal, D.



Physical and chemical properties in rhizosphere and bulk soils of Tsuga and Yushania in a temperate rain forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to investigate selected physical and chemical properties, and availability of metals in rhizosphere and bulk soils of Tsuga and Yushania of alpine forests. The pH of rhizosphere soils was lower than bulk soils. Mean CEC, organic carbon, carbon\\/nitrogen (C\\/N) ratio, and clay contents in rhizosphere soils were greater than in bulk soils Concentrations of

Chih-Yu Chiu; Ming Kuang Wang; Jeen-Lian Hwong; Hen Biau King



Congenital skeletal malformations induced by maternal ingestion of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) in newborn pigs.  


Skeletal malformations were induced in newborn pigs from gilts fed Conium maculatum seed or plant during gestation days 43 through 53 and 51 through 61. The teratogenic effects in groups dosed during gestation days 43 through 53 were more severe than those in groups dosed during the later period, with many newborn pigs showing arthrogryposis and twisted and malaligned bones in the limbs and with 1 pig showing scoliosis and deformity of the thoracic cage. The pigs born to gilts given C maculatum during gestation days 51 through 61 had excessive flexure primarily in the carpal joints, without scoliosis or bone malalignment in the limbs. The teratogenicity of poison hemlock depends on the alkaloid concentration and content. Based on the data presented, we speculate that gamma-coniceine is the teratogenic alkaloid in the poison hemlock fed to the gilts. PMID:4062008

Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Buck, W B



Lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp: toxicity and teratogenicity in livestock.  


Many species of lupines contain quinolizidine or piperidine alkaloids known to be toxic or teratogenic to livestock. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum) and Nicotiana spp. including N. tabacum and N. glauca contain toxic and teratogenic piperidine alkaloids. The toxic and teratogenic effects from these plant species have distinct similarities including maternal muscular weakness and ataxia and fetal contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate. It is believed that the mechanism of action of the piperidine and quinolizidine alkaloid-induced teratogenesis is the same; however, there are some differences in incidence, susceptible gestational periods, and severity between livestock species. Wildlife species have also been poisoned after eating poison-hemlock but no terata have been reported. The most widespread problem for livestock producers in recent times has been lupine-induced "crooked calf disease." Crooked calf disease is characterized as skeletal contracture-type malformations and occasional cleft palate in calves after maternal ingestion of lupines containing the quinolizidine alkaloid anagyrine during gestation days 40-100. Similar malformations have been induced in cattle and goats with lupines containing the piperidine alkaloids ammodendrine, N-methyl ammodendrine, and N-acetyl hystrine and in cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs with poison-hemlock containing predominantly coniine or gamma-coniceine and N. glauca containing anabasine. Toxic and teratogenic effects have been linked to structural aspects of these alkaloids, and the mechanism of action is believed to be associated with an alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement during specific gestational periods. This review presents a historical perspective, description and distribution of lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp., toxic and teratogenic effects and management information to reduce losses. PMID:10091132

Panter, K E; James, L F; Gardner, D R



Microbial communities and bacterial diversity of spruce, hemlock and grassland soils of Tatachia Forest, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the bacterial diversity of Tatachia Forest soils, 16S rDNA clone libraries of the spruce, hemlock and grassland soils were constructed. Further, the influence of physicochemical and biological properties of soil on microbial ecology, pH, moisture content, microbial population and biomass were also analyzed. The soil pH increased with the increasing of soil depth; whereas the microbial population, biomass,

Ammaiyappan Selvam; Shu-Hsien Tsai; Ching-Piao Liu; I-Chu Chen; Cheng-Hsiung Chang; Shang-Shyng Yang



Gaps and Soil C Dynamics in Old Growth Northern Hardwood–Hemlock Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Old growth forest soils are large C reservoirs, but the impacts of tree-fall gaps on soil C in these forests are not well\\u000a understood. The effects of forest gaps on soil C dynamics in old growth northern hardwood–hemlock forests in the upper Great\\u000a Lakes region, USA, were assessed from measurements of litter and soil C stocks, surface C efflux, and

B. C. Scharenbroch; J. G. Bockheim



Application of solid-phase extraction to quantitatively determine cyproconazole and tebuconazole in treated wood using liquid chromatography with UV detection.  


Solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedures were developed to avoid interference during the quantitative determination of cyproconazole and tebuconazole co-existing in wood extractives. Five species of wood were used, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis), Yezo spruce (Picea jezoensis), Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Methanol extractives from the heartwood of all wood samples, except western hemlock, interfered with the quantitative determination of cyproconazole and tebuconazole using liquid chromatography (LC) with UV detection (LC-UV). SPE with Oasis MCX was effective in avoiding this interference. This method also reduced the time and volume of mobile phase required for LC-UV, since wood extractives with long retention times were also removed. PMID:15700465

Miyauchi, Teruhisa; Mori, Mitsunori; Ito, Katsuhiko



Isolation and partial characterization of a lectin from Euphorbia heterophylla seeds.  


An N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin was isolated from Euphorbia heterophylla seeds by affinity chromatography on cross-linked arabinogalactan. It is a dimeric protein of two identical subunits of Mr 32 000, and differs structurally from all previously known Euphorbiaceae lectins. Its distribution over the seed is typical in that it is merely confined to the primary axes. PMID:6626171

Nsimba-Lubaki, M; Peumans, W J; Carlier, A R



Isolation and partial characterization of a lectin from Euphorbia heterophylla seeds.  

PubMed Central

An N-acetylgalactosamine-specific lectin was isolated from Euphorbia heterophylla seeds by affinity chromatography on cross-linked arabinogalactan. It is a dimeric protein of two identical subunits of Mr 32 000, and differs structurally from all previously known Euphorbiaceae lectins. Its distribution over the seed is typical in that it is merely confined to the primary axes. Images Fig. 2.

Nsimba-Lubaki, M; Peumans, W J; Carlier, A R



Radio ultrasound observations of the fetotoxic effects in sheep from ingestion of Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock).  


Fetal movement in pregnant ewes gavaged with Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) was reduced significantly, but temporarily. Fetal movement was observed by radio ultrasound at 45, 54 and 60 days of gestation in control ewes and on days 45, 54, and 60 of gestation immediately before and 1 hour following poison-hemlock feeding in treated ewes. Fetal movement was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) 1 hour after poison-hemlock administration, but returned to normal within 18 hours post treatment. At parturition seven of eleven lambs born to seven treated ewes had varying degrees of front limb abnormalities. Modest to moderate flexure of the carpal joints, some lateral deviation in the front limbs at the pastern joint and kinked tails were observed. These malformations were transient and resolved spontaneously by 8 weeks after lambing. PMID:3047418

Panter, K E; Bunch, T D; Keeler, R F; Sisson, D V



Effects of ammonium and nitrate on nutrient uptake and activity of nitrogen assimilating enzymes in western hemlock  

SciTech Connect

Western hemlock seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions with ammonium, nitrate or ammonium plus nitrate as nitrogen sources. The objectives were to examine (1) possible selectivity for ammonium or nitrate as an N source, (2) the maintenance of charge balance during ammonium and nitrate uptake, and (3) the activity of the nitrogen assimilating enzymes, nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamine dehydrogenase, in relation to the uptake of different nitrogen sources. The uptake studies revealed that western hemlock takes up ammonium faster than nitrate and that ammonium partially inhibits nitrate uptake. Nitrate reductase activity varied with nitrate availability in root tissue, but showed no response in needles, indicating that most nitrate is reduced in the roots. Results indicate that western hemlock may be adapted to sites where NH(4+) is the predominate N source.

Knoepp, J.D.; Turner, D.P.; Tingey, D.T.



A climatic driver for abrupt mid-Holocene vegetation dynamics and the hemlock decline in New England.  


The mid-Holocene decline of eastern hemlock is widely viewed as the sole prehistorical example of an insect- or pathogen-mediated collapse of a North American tree species and has been extensively studied for insights into pest-host dynamics and the consequences to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of dominant-species removal. We report paleoecological evidence implicating climate as a major driver of this episode. Data drawn from sites across a gradient in hemlock abundance from dominant to absent demonstrate: a synchronous, dramatic decline in a contrasting taxon (oak); changes in lake sediments and aquatic taxa indicating low water levels; and one or more intervals of intense drought at regional to continental scales. These results, which accord well with emerging climate reconstructions, challenge the interpretation of a biotically driven hemlock decline and highlight the potential for climate change to generate major, abrupt dynamics in forest ecosystems. PMID:17249218

Foster, David R; Oswald, W Wyatt; Faison, Edward K; Doughty, Elaine D; Hansen, Barbara C S



Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni



Maternal and fetal toxicity of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in sheep.  


Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) was toxic to pregnant ewes and their fetuses when fed during gestation days 30 through 60. Maternal effects included trembling, muscular weakness in the neck initially, then progressing to the limbs, ataxia, frequent urination and defecation, and death. Convulsive seizures were not observed. Fetotoxic effects included excessive flexure of the carpal joints with lateral deviation in the front limbs and kinked tails. At term, 7 of 11 lambs had varying degrees of the limb abnormalities, but all lambs appeared clinically normal at 8 weeks after parturition. PMID:3348538

Panter, K E; Bunch, T D; Keeler, R F



Hemlock Alkaloids in Aloes. Occurrence and Distribution of gamma-Coniceine.  


The hemlock alkaloid gamma-coniceine was identified in a number of ALOE species, namely A. GILLILANDII, Reynolds A. BALLYI Reynolds, A. RUSPOLIANA Baker, A. IBITIENSIS Perrier and A. DELTOIDEODONTA Baker. Coniine was identified in A. VIGUIERI Perrier. The levels of gamma-coniceine are higher than those found in CONIUM MACULATUM L. Some species also contained trace amounts of conhydrinone and pseudoconhydrin. Three of the species are Madagascan endemics, one is restricted to Arabia, while the rest are remote from each other in East Africa. Some of the species are loosely related but there is no overall taxonomic affinity between them. PMID:17340347

Dring, J V; Nash, R J; Roberts, M F; Reynolds, T



Ecosystem Function in Appalachian Headwater Streams during an Active Invasion by the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid  

PubMed Central

Forested ecosystems in the southeastern United States are currently undergoing an invasion by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). Previous studies in this area have shown changes to forest structure, decreases in canopy cover, increases in organic matter, and changes to nutrient cycling on the forest floor and soil. Here, we were interested in how the effects of canopy loss and nutrient leakage from terrestrial areas would translate into functional changes in streams draining affected watersheds. We addressed these questions in HWA-infested watersheds at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina. Specifically, we measured stream metabolism (gross primary production and ecosystem respiration) and nitrogen uptake from 2008 to 2011 in five streams across the Coweeta basin. Over the course of our study, we found no change to in-stream nutrient concentrations. While canopy cover decreased annually in these watersheds, this change in light penetration did not translate to higher rates of in-stream primary production during the summer months of our study. We found a trend towards greater heterotrophy within our watersheds, where in-stream respiration accounted for a much larger component of net ecosystem production than GPP. Additionally, increases in rhododendron cover may counteract changes in light and nutrient availability that occurred with hemlock loss. The variability in our metabolic and uptake parameters suggests an actively-infested ecosystem in transition between steady states.

Northington, Robert M.; Webster, Jackson R.; Benfield, Ernest F.; Cheever, Beth M.; Niederlehner, Barbara R.



Ecosystem function in Appalachian headwater streams during an active invasion by the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid.  


Forested ecosystems in the southeastern United States are currently undergoing an invasion by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). Previous studies in this area have shown changes to forest structure, decreases in canopy cover, increases in organic matter, and changes to nutrient cycling on the forest floor and soil. Here, we were interested in how the effects of canopy loss and nutrient leakage from terrestrial areas would translate into functional changes in streams draining affected watersheds. We addressed these questions in HWA-infested watersheds at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina. Specifically, we measured stream metabolism (gross primary production and ecosystem respiration) and nitrogen uptake from 2008 to 2011 in five streams across the Coweeta basin. Over the course of our study, we found no change to in-stream nutrient concentrations. While canopy cover decreased annually in these watersheds, this change in light penetration did not translate to higher rates of in-stream primary production during the summer months of our study. We found a trend towards greater heterotrophy within our watersheds, where in-stream respiration accounted for a much larger component of net ecosystem production than GPP. Additionally, increases in rhododendron cover may counteract changes in light and nutrient availability that occurred with hemlock loss. The variability in our metabolic and uptake parameters suggests an actively-infested ecosystem in transition between steady states. PMID:23613803

Northington, Robert M; Webster, Jackson R; Benfield, Ernest F; Cheever, Beth M; Niederlehner, Barbara R



Seasonal ecology and thermal constraints of Telenomus spp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).  


We describe seasonal patterns of parasitism by Telenomus coloradensis Crawford, Telenomus droozi Muesebeck, Telenomus flavotibiae Pelletier (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), and Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), after a 3-yr survey of defoliated stands in the lower St. Lawrence region (Quebec, Canada). Results from sentinel trap sampling indicate that T. coloradensis and T. droozi are the most common species, whereas parasitism by T. flavotibiae and Trichogramma spp. is rare. Telenomus coloradensis and T. droozi show similar seasonal periods of parasitism, both species being active in early spring (late April) at temperatures as low as 4°C. Using thermal threshold (T(0)) and thermal constant (K) for immature development of T. coloradensis males and females from egg to adult emergence, we estimated that the spring progeny emerges in the middle of the summer while hemlock looper eggs are absent from the forest environment. Parasitoid females would then mate and remain in the environment to 1) exploit alternate host species, 2) enter into quiescence and later parasitize eggs laid by hemlock looper females in the fall, 3) enter into a reproductive diapause and parasitize hemlock looper eggs only the next spring, or all of these. Although previous studies have shown that T. coloradensis can overwinter in its immature form within the host egg, our field and laboratory results indicate that in the lower St. Lawrence region, this species principally enters diapause as fertilized females, with a mean supercooling point of -30.6°C in the fall. PMID:23321076

Legault, Simon; Hébert, Christian; Blais, Julie; Berthiaume, Richard; Bauce, Eric; Brodeur, Jacques




EPA Science Inventory

Western hemlock seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions with ammonium, nitrate or ammonium plus nitrate as nitrogen sources. he objectives were to examine (1) possible selectivity for ammonium or nitrate as an N source, (2) the maintenance of charge balance during ammonium and...


Measurement and modeling of spatially explicit variation in light transmission through interior cedar-hemlock forests of British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have characterized canopy geometry and light transmission by the nine dominant conifer and broad- leaved tree species of the interior cedar-hemlock (ICH) forests of northern British Columbia. Our field data were used to parameterize a spatially explicit model of light transmission through mixed-species forests. That model, a component of the forest dynamics simulator SORTIE, was developed for eastern deciduous

Charles D. Canham; K. Dave Coates; Paula Bartemucci; Stefan Quaglia



Multiple forms of endo-1,4- -glucanases in the endosperm of Euphorbia heterophylla L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Germinating seeds of Euphorbia heterophylla L. con- tain endo-1,4-b-glucanases which degrade carboxy- methylcellulose (CMC). The activity decreased approximately 66% in extracts of endosperm contain- ing isopropanol or ethanol. The endoglucanases were isolated from endosperm extracts using ammo- nium sulphate fractionation followed by Sephacryl S- 100-HR chromatography resulting in two main peaks: I and II. Peak I endoglucanase was further purified

Cecilia N. K. Suda; Jarbas F. Giorgini



Determination of low molecular weight dicarboxylic acids and organic functional groups in rhizosphere and bulk soils of Tsuga and Yushania in a temperate rain forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) derived from root exudates, decomposing organic matter, and other sources are important ligands. The species of these LMWOAs in the Tsuga rhizosphere soil (TRS), and Yushania rhizosphere soil (YRS), and bulk soil (BS) from an alpine forest region were identified. LMWOA and organic functional groups were used to those fresh twigs and leaves, litters,

Meng-Chun Chen; Ming-Kuang Wang; Chih-Yu Chiu; Pan-Ming Huang; Hen-Biau King



Ganoderma tsugae extract inhibits expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and angiogenesis in human epidermoid carcinoma cells: In vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the anti-angiogenic effects of Ganoderma tsugae methanol extract (GTME) on human epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells. Our data indicate that GTME inhibits the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vitro and in vivo, and also inhibits the capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We also show that

Shih-Chung Hsu; Chien-Chih Ou; Tzu-Chao Chuang; Jhy-Wei Li; Yi-Jen Lee; Vinchi Wang; Jah-Yao Liu; Chin-Shiang Chen; Song-Chow Lin; Ming-Ching Kao



Comparative toxicity of coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), in chickens, quails, and turkeys.  


Coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), was administered by gavage to immature chickens, quails, and turkeys at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight. At 25 mg coniine/kg body weight, clinical signs were observed only in quails (2/10) and consisted of excitement, depression, hypermetria, seizures, opisthotonos, and flaccid paralysis. Chickens (9/10) and quails (8/10) dosed at 50 mg/kg body weight were affected, and several birds of each species died (2/10 and 5/10, respectively). Turkeys (7/10) were affected only when dosed at 100 mg/kg body weight, and quails (6/10), turkeys (4/10), and chickens (10/10) died at this dose. There were no gross or microscopic lesions. Coniine was detected in skeletal muscle and liver of birds dying after ingestion and was present in some survivors 7 days post-treatment. PMID:2369382

Frank, A A; Reed, W M



Supercritical CO2 fractionation of bio-oil produced from wheat-hemlock biomass.  


The biomass i.e. wheat-hemlock used in this study was first characterized for its composition. The physical and chemical characterization of biomass was estimated using proximate analysis, calorific value, crystallinity, devolatilization behaviour, ultimate analysis, ICP-MS of ash, FT-IR, XRD, CHNS, and HPLC analysis. For commercial purpose the same biomass was used for conversion to bio-oil by fast pyrolysis process. Therefore, in order to investigate its composition, the bio-oil was also characterized using proximate analysis, calorific value, whereas the chemical composition of the bio-oil was estimated using CHNS, (1)H NMR, GC-FID and GC/MS. The bio-oil obtained from wheat-hemlock biomass was supplied by Advanced Biorefinery Co. and after the analysis, its composition has been determined. It contains a mixture of hydrocarbons, pyranoids, furanoids, benzenoids and fatty acids/alcohols with 45% of water, which forms azeotrope with organic polar compounds. The supercritical CO(2) (SC-CO(2)) is an advanced method for selective extraction of valuable chemicals from bio-oil without solvent residue. The organic fraction of the bio-oil was isolated by SC-CO(2). It was observed that SC-CO(2) fractions collected at 10 and 25 MPa pressure were enriched with furanoids, pyranoids and bezenoids. Similarly the bio-oil was also fractionated by conventional column chromatographic method and the yields and chemical compositions were compared with fractionated bio-oil obtained using SC-CO(2). PMID:20493681

Naik, Satyanarayan; Goud, Vaibhav V; Rout, Prasant K; Dalai, Ajay K



Components and Controls of Water Flux in an Old-growth Douglas-fir–Western Hemlock Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report measurements of rates of sap flow in dominant trees, changes in soil moisture, and evaporation from coarse woody debris in an old-growth Douglas-fir–western hemlock ecosystem at Wind River, Washington, USA, during dry periods in summer. The measurements are compared with eddy-covariance measurements of water-vapor fluxes above the forest (E e) and at the forest floor (E u) to

Michael H. Unsworth; Nathan Phillips; T. Link; Barbara J. Bond; Matthias Falk; Mark E. Harmon; Thomas M. Hinckley; Danny Marks; Kyaw Tha Paw U



Diurnal changes in the dielectric properties and water status of eastern hemlock and red spruce from Howland, ME  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diurnal characteristics of microwave dielectric properties and water potential of two conifer species were investigated in July and September, 1990. P-band and C-band radial dielectric profiles of hemlock and red spruce, as well as hemlock diurnal water potential and dielectric profiles, are presented. The resulting radial dielectric profiles matched the regions of the functional sapwood (water transport component of the active xylem) in both species such that the sapwood was characterized by a higher dielectric than the bark and heartwood tissues. This is probably due to characteristic differences in the water content of each tissue. As the hemlocks progressed through their diurnal water potential pattern, the dielectric profile remained static until mid-afternoon. As the tension in the water column relaxed (2 to 3 bars) the dielectric constant decreased by 30 to 40 percent. There are several possible explanations for this phenomenon, and these may relate to the dependency of the dielectric measurements on temperature, salinity, and volumetric water content.

Salas, W. A.; Ranson, K. J.; Rock, B. N.; Moss, D. M.



Nuclear translocation of telomerase reverse transcriptase and calcium signaling in repression of telomerase activity in human lung cancer cells by fungal immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein, reFIP-gts, was cloned from Ganoderma tsugae and purified. In our previous study, it was shown that reFIP-gts has anti-telomerase effects in A549 cells. Here, we proved that reFIP-gts entry into the cell and localization in endoplasmic reticulum can result in ER stress, thereby increasing ER stress markers (CHOP\\/GADD153) and intracellular calcium release in A549 cells. The

Chien-Huang Liao; Yi-Min Hsiao; Gwo-Tarng Sheu; Jinghua Tsai Chang; Po-Hui Wang; Ming-Fang Wu; Gow-Jen Shieh; Chung-Ping Hsu; Jiunn-Liang Ko



Cross resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in Euphorbia heterophylla L. biotypes resistant to imazethapyr.  


The effect of weeds on the diminution of agricultural production is considered to be between 30 and 50%. Imazethapyr is a herbicide which acts on the enzyme ALS, the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of valine, leucine and isoleucine. Euphorbia heterophylla is a common species in soybean fields in Brazil and different populations resistant to herbicides of the sulfonylurea and imidazolinone groups are currently being reported. The objectives of this work were: to determine the resistance of three different biotypes named RI, RII and RII to the herbicide imazethapyr: to establish the level of resistance to this herbicide, and to evaluate the behaviour of the biotypes to other herbicides with a similar mode of action. The response of plants treated with imazethapyr confirmed the existence of resistance in the biotypes denominated as RI, RII and RIII. The imazethapyr concentration required to reduce the activity of the enzyme ALS by 50% (I50) should be greater than 500 microM for biotypes RI, RII and RIII and 39.47 microM for the susceptible biotype. Applications made in the greenhouse at field doses of ALS inhibiting herbicides showed cross resistance in the case of imazamox and imazamethabenz but not in the cases of the other ALS inhibitor herbicides used. ALS activity results demonstrated that the imazethaphyr resistance in different biotypes of E. heterophylla is target site mediated. PMID:15149128

Plaza, G; Osuna, M D; De Prado, R



Accumulation of non-utilizable starch in laticifers of Euphorbia heterophylla and E. myrsinites.  


Starch biosynthesis and degradation was studied in seedlings and mature plants of Euphorbia heterophylla L. and E. myrsinites L. Mature embryos, which lack starch grains in the non-articulated laticifers, develop into seedlings that accumulate starch rapidly when grown either in the light or the dark. Starch accumulation in laticifers of dark-grown seedlings was ca. 47 and 43% of total starch in light-grown controls in E. heterophylla and E. myrsinites, respectively. In light-grown seedlings, starch was present in laticifers as well as parenchyma of stems and leaves, whereas in dark-grown seedlings starch synthesis was almost exclusively limited to laticifers. In 7-month-old plants placed into total darkness, the starch in chyma was depleted within 6 d, whereas starch in laticifers was not mobilized. The starch content of latex in plants during development of floral primordia, flowering, and subsequent fruit formation remained rather constant. The results indicate that laticifers in seedlings divert embryonal storage reserves to synthesize starch even under stress conditions (darkness) in contrast to other cells, and that starch accumulated in laticifers does not serve as a metabolic reserve. The laticifer in Euphorbia functions in the accumulation and storage of secondary metabolites yet retains the capacity to produce, but not utilize starch, a primary metabolite. PMID:24408254

Biesboer, D D; Mahlberg, P G



Ultrasonic Acoustic Emissions from the Sapwood of Cedar and Hemlock 1  

PubMed Central

Measurements are reported of ultrasonic acoustic emissions (AEs) measured from sapwood samples of Thuja occidentalis L. and Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. during air dehydration. The measurements were undertaken to test the following three hypotheses: (a) Each cavitation event produces one ultrasonic AE. (b) Large tracheids are more likely to cavitate than small tracheids. (c) When stem water potentials are >?0.4 MPa, a significant fraction of the water content of sapwood is held by `capillary forces.' The last two hypotheses were recently discussed at length by M. H. Zimmermann. Experimental evidence consistent with all three hypotheses was obtained. The evidence for each hypothesis respectively is: (a) the cumulative number of AEs nearly equals the number of tracheids in small samples; (b) more water is lost per AE event at the beginning of the dehydration process than at the end, and (c) sapwood samples dehydrated from an initial water potential of 0 MPa lost significantly more water before AEs started than lost by samples dehydrated from an initial water potential of about ?0.4 MPa. The extra water held by fully hydrated sapwood samples may have been capillary water as defined by Zimmerman. We also report an improved method for the measurement of the `intensity' of ultrasonic AEs. Intensity is defined here as the area under the positive spikes of the AE signal (plotted as voltage versus time). This method was applied to produce a frequency histogram of the number of AEs versus intensity. A large fraction of the total number of AEs were of low intensity even in small samples (4 mm diameter by 10 mm length). This suggests that the effective `listening distance' for most AEs was less than 5 to 10 mm.

Tyree, Melvin T.; Dixon, Michael A.; Tyree, E. Loeta; Johnson, Robert



Fine-scale distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing Tsuga diversifolia seedlings growing on rocks in a subalpine Abies veitchii forest.  


Numerous species of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi coexist under the forest floor. To explore the mechanisms of coexistence, we investigated the fine-scale distribution of ECM fungal species colonizing root tips in the root system of Tsuga diversifolia seedlings in a subalpine forest. ECM root tips of three seedlings growing on the flat top surface of rocks were sampled after recording their positions in the root system. After the root tips were grouped by terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of ITS rDNA, the fungal species representing each T-RFLP group were identified using DNA sequencing. Based on the fungal species identification, the distribution of root tips colonized by each ECM fungus was mapped. Significant clustering of root tips was estimated for each fungal species by comparing actual and randomly simulated distributions. In total, the three seedlings were colonized by 40 ECM fungal species. The composition of colonizing fungal species was quite different among the seedlings. Twelve of the 15 major ECM fungal species clustered significantly within a few centimeters. Some clusters overlapped or intermingled, while others were unique. Areas with high fungal species diversity were also identified in the root system. In this report, the mechanisms underlying generation of these ECM root tip clusters in the root system are discussed. PMID:24212400

Yoshida, Naohiro; Son, Joung A; Matsushita, Norihisa; Iwamoto, Kojiro; Hogetsu, Taizo



Molecular characterization of a new begomovirus that infects Euphorbia heterophylla and Solanum lycopersicum in Venezuela.  


We report the complete nucleotide sequence of a begomovirus isolate infecting Euphorbia heterophylla and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in central Venezuela. Based on the current taxonomic criteria for the genus Begomovirus, the isolate was shown to represent a novel species, tentatively named Euphorbia mosaic Venezuela virus (EuMVV). Its DNA-A is most closely related to those of Euphorbia-infecting begomoviruses from the Caribbean and Central America. The DNA B component forms a phylogenetic cluster with Euphorbia and Sida-infecting begomoviruses from the squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) cluster. EuMVV is transmissible to S. lycopersicum and Capsicum annuum by biolistics of infectious cloned DNA-A and DNA-B components and induces characteristic leaf downward curling and yellowing in S. lycopersicum and and yellowing and leaf distortion in Capsicum annuum. PMID:22052541

Zambrano, Karla; Fernández-Rodríguez, Thaly; Marys, Edgloris



Structure characterization and adhesive ability of a polysaccharide from tendrils of Parthenocissus heterophylla.  


In order to reveal the structure of the polysaccharide and its contribution to the biological adhesion system of Parthenocissus heterophylla, a water-soluble polysaccharide (PT-A) was isolated from tendrils using DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. PT-A mainly consisted of a backbone of (1-->3)-linked-beta-D-Galp residues and substituted at 0-6 with side chains of (1-->5)-linked-alpha-L-Araf residues and glucomannopyranosyl residues. Individual polysaccharide chains of PT-A with the approximately height of 0.75 nm were observed by AFM. The analysis of force curves indicated that PT-A was a kind of elastic polysaccharide with a maximum adhesion force of 279.98 nN, which could be applied as a potential bio-adhesive. PMID:24868879

Zhang, Li; Deng, Wenli



Molecular and biological characterization of a new Brazilian begomovirus, euphorbia yellow mosaic virus (EuYMV), infecting Euphorbia heterophylla plants.  


To date, no begomovirus has been fully characterized from Euphorbia heterophylla, a widely distributed weed, in Brazil. Here, we show the occurrence of a new begomovirus on E. heterophylla plants showing bright yellow mosaic. The bipartite viral genome was cloned from 10 samples, and all clones are almost identical to each other (95.6-98.8% nucleotide sequence identity). The DNA-A sequences shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity of 87.3% with euphorbia mosaic Peru virus (EuMPV) and thus were classified as belonging to a novel begomovirus species, tentatively named Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus (EuYMV). The EuYMV DNA-B sequences share a maximum nucleotide sequence identity of 56.2% with a euphorbia mosaic virus (EuMV) isolate from Mexico. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this new virus belongs to a different lineage than EuMV isolates from Central America. PMID:21779908

Fernandes, Fernanda R; Albuquerque, Leonardo C; de Oliveira, Cristiane L; Cruz, Andréa R R; da Rocha, Wesley B; Pereira, Talita G; Naito, Fernanda Y B; Dias, Natália de M; Nagata, Tatsuya; Faria, Josias C; Zerbini, Francisco M; Aragão, Francisco J L; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K



Fungal pathogens of Euphorbia heterophylla and E. hirta in Brazil and their potential as weed biocontrol agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year survey of the fungi associated with two important congeneric pantropical weeds, Euphorbia heterophylla and E. hirta, was conducted in part of their native range in southern Brazil. Sampling was concentrated mainly in Rio de Janeiro State\\u000a and ten species were identified as pathogens of these weeds. Two taxa, Botrytis ricini and Uromyces euphorbiae, were common to both weed

Robert W. Barreto; Harry C. Evans



Transcriptionally mediated inhibition of telomerase of fungal immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line.  


Telomerase expression is the hallmark of tumor cells, and activation of this ribonucleoprotein complex may be a rate-limiting or critical step in cellular immortalization and oncogenesis. Fungal immunomodulatory protein, FIP-gts, has been isolated from Ganoderma tsugae. In the present study, we expressed and purified the recombinant fungal immunomodulatory protein reFIP-gts in E. coli. We found that reFIP-gts significantly and selectively inhibits the growth of A549 cancer cells while not affecting the growth of normal MRC-5 fibroblasts. The reFIP-gts suppression of telomerase activity is concentration-dependent, due to the downregulation of the telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT). It also happens at the mRNA level. These results were confirmed by transient transfections of A549 cells with pGL3-Basic plasmid constructs containing the functional hTERT promoter and its E-box-deleted sequences cloned upstream of a luciferase reporter gene. With electrophoretic mobility shift assays and Western blotting, we demonstrated that in response to reFIP-gts, binding of c-myc transcriptional factor to the E-box sequence on the hTERT promoter is inhibited. These results show that reFIP-gts suppresses telomerase activity and inhibits transcriptional regulation of hTERT via a c-myc-responsive element-dependent mechanism. Our findings provide new insight into both the anticancer function of reFIP-gts and the regulation of hTERT/telomerase expression, which may be valuable in the development of a promising chemopreventive agent. PMID:16402390

Liao, Chien-Huang; Hsiao, Yi-Min; Hsu, Chung-Ping; Lin, Meei-Yn; Wang, James Chun-Huan; Huang, Yu-Lu; Ko, Jiunn-Liang



Allelopathic effects of aconitic acid on wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) and morningglory (Ipomoea grandifolia).  


High infestations of alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea) in experimental area have reduced seedbank of some weed species in soil at a greater degree compared to those obtained with the use of an efficient herbicide. Aconitic acid (AA) has been identified in those plants in high concentration. Thus, two experiments were carried out in the laboratory to determine the effects of pure AA on weed seed germination and on endophytic fungi in wild poinsettia (Euphorbia heterophylla) and morningglory (Ipomoea grandifolia) weed species. Doses of AA (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM) were introduced in agar-water 0.5% medium and weed seeds treated with and without external sterilization by sodium hypochloride. Four replications of fifty seeds of each species by treatment were sown in plastic boxes with cover and maintained in germination chamber for 12 days. Reduction in germination rate, root and stem growth were observed in both species, as well as reduction in root number in morningglory were also observed at 2.0 mM concentration of AA. An increase in number of seeds with presence of endophytic fungi was also observed in both species, independently of seed sterilization, mainly of a green type fungi coloration in wild poinsettia. Aconitic acid presents allelopathic activity and can stimulate endophytic fungi species growth in weed seeds. PMID:15656164

Voll, Elemar; Voll, Cristiano Elemar; Filho, Ricardo Victória



Anticytomegalovirus activity of pristimerin, a triterpenoid quinone methide isolated from Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. & Zeyh.).  


We examined the anticytomegalovirus properties of four compounds: pristimerin, the pristimerin analogue, lupeol and 2-acetylphenol-1-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-xylpyranoside (acetophenol glycoside), isolated from Maytenus heterophylla, a Kenyan medicinal plant. The effects were studied on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication in the human embryonic fibroblast cell line, MRC-5. In a viral plaque-reduction assay, pristimerin showed dose-dependent inhibitory properties with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.53 microg/ml (selective index = 27.9). The cells treated with pristimerin inhibited the cytopathic effects in HCMV-infected cells. Moreover, pristimerin suppressed viral replication without affecting the cell growth. Pristimerin inhibited the synthesis of viral DNA but had no virucidal effect on cell-free HCMV. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated that pristimerin decreased the amount of immediate early (IE) antigen (especially IE2) expression in the infected cells. These results suggest that pristimerin is a unique compound with potential anti-HCMV activity. PMID:17626597

Murayama, Tsugiya; Eizuru, Yoshito; Yamada, Rie; Sadanari, Hidetaka; Matsubara, Keiko; Rukung, Geoffrey; Tolo, Festus M; Mungai, Geoffrey M; Kofi-Tsekpo, Mawuli



Multiple resistance of acetolactate synthase and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors in Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes.  


Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in Brazil has been documented for six species. The probability to select biotypes of Euphorbia heterophylla (EPPHL) with multiple resistance increases in the same order of magnitude as the use of other herbicides belonging to only one mechanism of action. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the distribution of resistant populations (R) in the states of the Parana and Santa Catarina; to determine the existence of populations of EPHHL with multiple resistance to ALS and PROTOX inhibitors, and to confirm the occurrence of cross resistance to compounds of these mechanisms of action. Seeds of EPHHL of areas with suspected resistance had been sampled in 97 places during 2003. In the greenhouse experiment samples of each population were sprayed with imazethapyr or fomesafen, at only one rate. To identify the resistant ones they were sprayed with different levels of the herbicides imazethapyr and fomesafen. Later they were sprayed with diverse herbicides of the same mechanisms of action to confirm the multiple/cross resistance. There is widespread distribution in the region of populations with resistance to ALS inhibitors. Some biotypes demonstrated resistance to herbicides from the two mechanisms of action. The resistance factor (FR), or the relation of resistance between R and susceptible biotypes, confirms the existence of two biotypes of EPHHL with cross resistance to several herbicides inhibitors of ALS and PROTOX. PMID:15656167

Trezzi, Michelangelo M; Felippi, C L; Mattei, D; Silva, H L; Nunes, A L; Debastiani, C; Vidal, R A; Marques, A



G-quadruplex DNAzyme molecular beacon for amplified colorimetric biosensing of Pseudostellaria heterophylla.  


With an internal transcribed spacer of 18 S, 5.8 S and 26 S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA ITS) as DNA marker, we report a colorimetric approach for authentication of Pseudostellaria heterophylla (PH) and its counterfeit species based on the differentiation of the nrDNA ITS sequence. The assay possesses an unlabelled G-quadruplex DNAzyme molecular beacon (MB) probe, employing complementary sequence as biorecognition element and 1:1:1:1 split G-quadruplex halves as reporter. In the absence of target DNA (T-DNA), the probe can shape intermolecular G-quadruplex structures capable of binding hemin to form G-quadruplex-hemin DNAzyme and catalyze the oxidation of ABTS2- to blue-green ABTS•- by H(2)O(2). In the presence of T-DNA, T-DNA can hybridize with the complementary sequence to form a duplex structure, hindering the formation of the G-quadruplex structure and resulting in the loss of the catalytic activity. Consequently, a UV-Vis absorption signal decrease is observed in the ABTS2--H(2)O(2) system. The "turn-off" assay allows the detection of T-DNA from 1.0 × 10-9 to 3.0 × 10-7 mol·L-1 (R2 = 0.9906), with a low detection limit of 3.1 × 10-10 mol·L-1. The present study provides a sensitive and selective method and may serve as a foundation of utilizing the DNAzyme MB sensor for identifying traditional Chinese medicines. PMID:23325167

Zheng, Zhenzhu; Han, Jing; Pang, Wensheng; Hu, Juan



Fungal pathogens of Euphorbia heterophylla and E. hirta in Brazil and their potential as weed biocontrol agents.  


A two-year survey of the fungi associated with two important congeneric pantropical weeds, Euphorbia heterophylla and E. hirta, was conducted in part of their native range in southern Brazil. Sampling was concentrated mainly in Rio de Janeiro State and ten species were identified as pathogens of these weeds. Two taxa, Botrytis ricini and Uromyces euphorbiae, were common to both weed hosts. Alternaria euphorbiicola, Bipolaris euphorbiae, Melampsora sp., Oidium sp. and Sphaceloma poinsettiae were recorded only from E. heterophylla, whereas Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Sphaceloma sp. and Sphaerotheca fuliginea were restricted to E. hirta. Botrytis ricini and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides are new records for E. hirta, and Alternaria euphorbiicola and Sphaerotheca fuliginea are new host records for Brazil. Bipolaris euphorbiae, previously identified as Helminthosporium sp., is considered to be the correct name for the causal agent of a major disease of E. heterophyllum in Brazil. The potential of these pathogens as biocontrol agents is discussed and the mycobiota associated with both these weeds worldwide is reviewed. PMID:16284862

Barreto, R W; Evans, H C



Adoption of Engineered Wood Products in Alaska.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on an in-grade testing program, the Ketchikan Wood Technology Center has registered three proprietary grademarks for Alaska species of hemlock (Tsuga heteraphylla (Raf.) Sarg.), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach), and spruce (c...

A. Brackley, I. Ganguly, J. A. Roos



Tree-ring stable isotopes record the impact of a foliar fungal pathogen on CO2 assimilation and growth in Douglas-fir.  


Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a fungal disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) that has recently become prevalent in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest. We used growth measurements and stable isotopes of carbon and oxygen in tree-rings of Douglas-fir and a non-susceptible reference species (western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla) to evaluate their use as proxies for variation in past SNC infection, particularly in relation to potential explanatory climate factors. We sampled trees from an Oregon site where a fungicide trial took place from 1996 to 2000, which enabled the comparison of stable isotope values between trees with and without disease. Carbon stable isotope discrimination (?(13) C) of treated Douglas-fir tree-rings was greater than that of untreated Douglas-fir tree-rings during the fungicide treatment period. Both annual growth and tree-ring ?(13) C increased with treatment such that treated Douglas-fir had values similar to co-occurring western hemlock during the treatment period. There was no difference in the tree-ring oxygen stable isotope ratio between treated and untreated Douglas-fir. Tree-ring ?(13) C of diseased Douglas-fir was negatively correlated with relative humidity during the two previous summers, consistent with increased leaf colonization by SNC under high humidity conditions that leads to greater disease severity in following years. PMID:24330052

Saffell, Brandy J; Meinzer, Frederick C; Voelker, Steven L; Shaw, David C; Brooks, J Renée; Lachenbruch, Barbara; McKay, Jennifer



Quantitative determination of benzalkonium chloride in treated wood by solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.  


Ammoniacal copper quat (ACQ) compound wood preservative is comprised of copper and quaternary ammonium compounds with benzalkonium chloride (BAC) as the active ingredient. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (LC-UV) was developed for quantitative determination of BAC in treated wood. Five species of wood were used, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis), Yezo spruce (Picea jezoensis), Sakhalin fir (Abies sachalinensis), and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). BAC used in the present study was composed of 66% C12, 33% C14 and less than 1% C16. BAC was added to each wood species (500 mg) then extracted with HCl-ethanol (20 ml) and quantitatively determined with LC-UV (262 nm). Wood extractives from the heartwood of each species, except western hemlock, interfered with quantitative determination of BAC, but SPE with an Oasis MCX cartridge was effective in preventing this. Using the present methods, BAC homologue peaks were clearly confirmed without interference. Recoveries from wood ranged from 92 to 101% and the limit of quantitation was approximately 240 microg/g wood for the C12 and C14 homologues. PMID:16275285

Miyauchi, Teruhisa; Mori, Mitsunori; Ito, Katsuhiko



Toxicosis in dairy cattle exposed to poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in hay: isolation of Conium alkaloids in plants, hay, and urine.  


Cattle in two herds developed signs of bloating, increased salivation and lacrimation, depression, respiratory distress, ataxia, and death after ingestion of hay that contained large amounts of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). Twenty of 30 Angus cows and calves were affected in the first herd (2 died). In the second herd, 5 of 30 Holstein heifers were affected (1 died). The Conium alkaloids, coniine and gamma-coniceine, were quantified in the hay, the plants from the responsible hayfield, and the urine of affected animals. PMID:1554771

Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Fisher, E G



Ganoderma tsugae Extract Inhibits Growth of HER2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells via Modulation of HER2/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Ganoderma, also known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries for centuries. It is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological properties including immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which Ganoderma tsugae (GT), one of the most common species of Ganoderma, inhibits the proliferation of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Here, we show that a quality assured extract of GT (GTE) inhibited the growth of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of antitumor drugs (e.g., taxol and cisplatin) in these cells. We also demonstrate that GTE induced cell cycle arrest by interfering with the HER2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, GTE curtailed the expression of the HER2 protein by modulating the transcriptional activity of the HER2 gene and the stability/degradation of the HER2 protein. In conclusion, this study suggests that GTE may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer cells that highly express HER2.

Kuo, Han-Peng; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Li, Jhy-Wei; Tseng, Hsiu-Hsueh; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Liu, Jah-Yao; Chen, Shih-Jung; Su, Muh-Hwan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chou, Wei-Yuan; Kao, Ming-Ching



Ganoderma tsugae Extract Inhibits Growth of HER2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells via Modulation of HER2/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.  


Ganoderma, also known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries for centuries. It is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological properties including immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which Ganoderma tsugae (GT), one of the most common species of Ganoderma, inhibits the proliferation of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Here, we show that a quality assured extract of GT (GTE) inhibited the growth of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of antitumor drugs (e.g., taxol and cisplatin) in these cells. We also demonstrate that GTE induced cell cycle arrest by interfering with the HER2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, GTE curtailed the expression of the HER2 protein by modulating the transcriptional activity of the HER2 gene and the stability/degradation of the HER2 protein. In conclusion, this study suggests that GTE may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer cells that highly express HER2. PMID:23662119

Kuo, Han-Peng; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Ou, Chien-Chih; Li, Jhy-Wei; Tseng, Hsiu-Hsueh; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Liu, Jah-Yao; Chen, Shih-Jung; Su, Muh-Hwan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chou, Wei-Yuan; Kao, Ming-Ching



Seed predation and dispersal of glabrous filbert ( Corylus Heterophylla ) and pilose filbert ( Corylus Mandshurica ) by small mammals in a temperate forest, northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the seed dispersal of glabrous filbert (Corylus heterophylla) and pilose filbert (Corylus mandshurica), two large-seeded shrub species in a temperate forest, northeast China, September 2006. Small mammals such as Apodemus speciosus, Clethrlonomys rufocanus, and Eutamias sibiricus, were regarded as the main dispersal agents. More seeds were harvested by small mammals in pilose filbert (98%) than in glabrous\\u000a filbert

Xianfeng Yi; Zhibin Zhang



Evaluation of volatiles from Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. heterophylla using GC-olfactometry, GC-MS and GC-pulsed flame photometric detector.  


Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. heterophylla is extensively cultivated in Asia, and the dried leaves and branches have a characteristic odor and have been used as a tea. To investigate the odorants contributing to the characteristic odor of A. brevipedunculata var. heterophylla, the aroma extraction dilution analysis method was performed through gas chromatography olfactometry. In addition, volatile sulfur compounds were evaluated using pulsed flame photometric detector. As a result, 86 compounds were identified in the oils of leaves and 78 in branches, accounting for 80.0% and 68.3%, respectively, of the compounds identified. The main compounds in the essential oil of leaves were palmitic acid (12.5%), phenylacetaldehyde (4.1%) and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (3.9%). On the other hand, the essential oil of branches contained palmitic acid (12.7%), terpinen-4-ol (4.4%) and ?-cadinol (3.7%). The total number of odor-active compounds identified in the leaf and branch oils was 39. The most odorous compounds of leaves and branches of A. brevipedunculata var. heterophylla were (E, Z)-2,6-nonadienal (melon, green odor), (E)-2-nonenal (grassy odor), phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) and (E)-linalool oxide (woody odor). PMID:24005009

Nakamura, Atsuhiko; Miyazawa, Mitsuo



A Comparative Toxicity Assessment of Materials Used in Aquatic Construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests\\u000a were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes

Benoit A. Lalonde; William Ernst; Gary Julien; Paula Jackman; Ken Doe; Rebecca Schaefer


Multiple forms of endo-1,4-beta-glucanases in the endosperm of Euphorbia heterophylla L.  


Germinating seeds of Euphorbia heterophylla L. contain endo-1,4-beta-glucanases which degrade carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). The activity decreased approximately 66% in extracts of endosperm containing isopropanol or ethanol. The endoglucanases were isolated from endosperm extracts using ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by Sephacryl S-100-HR chromatography resulting in two main peaks: I and II. Peak I endoglucanase was further purified about 15-fold on DEAE-Sephadex A50 and then by affinity chromatography (CF11-cellulose). Peak II endoglucanases were further purified 10-fold on CM-cellulose chromatography. The results indicated the occurrence of a 66 kDa endoglucanase (fractionated by SDS-PAGE and visualized by activity staining using Congo Red). Several acidic (pI 3.0 to 5.7) and basic (pI 8.5 to 10.0) forms from both peaks which differed in their capacities for degrading CMC or xyloglucans from Copaifera langsdorffii or Hymenaea courbaril were detected. PMID:12885862

Suda, Cecilia N K; Giorgini, Jarbas F



Geological and climatic changes in quaternary shaped the evolutionary history of Calibrachoa heterophylla, an endemic South-Atlantic species of petunia  

PubMed Central

Background The glacial and interglacial cycles that characterized the Quaternary greatly affected the distribution and genetic diversity of plants. In the Neotropics, few phylogeographic studies have focused on coastal species outside of the Atlantic Rainforest. Climatic and sea level changes during the Quaternary played an important role in the evolutionary history of many organisms found in coastal regions. To contribute to a better understanding of plant evolution in this environment in Southern South America, we focused on Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae), an endemic and vulnerable wild petunia species from the South Atlantic Coastal Plain (SACP). Results We assessed DNA sequences from two cpDNA intergenic spacers and analyzed them using a phylogeographic approach. The present phylogeographic study reveals the influence of complex geologic and climatic events on patterns of genetic diversification. The results indicate that C. heterophylla originated inland and subsequently colonized the SACP; the data show that the inland haplogroup is more ancient than the coastal one and that the inland was not affected by sea level changes in the Quaternary. The major diversification of C. heterophylla that occurred after 0.4 Myr was linked to sea level oscillations in the Quaternary, and any diversification that occurred before this time was obscured by marine transgressions that occurred before the coastal sand barrier’s formation. Results of the Bayesian skyline plot showed a recent population expansion detected in C. heterophylla seems to be related to an increase in temperature and humidity that occurred at the beginning of the Holocene. Conclusions The geographic clades have been formed when the coastal plain was deeply dissected by paleochannels and these correlate very well with the distributional limits of the clades. The four major sea transgressions formed a series of four sand barriers parallel to the coast that progressively increased the availability of coastal areas after the regressions and that may have promoted the geographic structuring of genetic diversity observed today. The recent population expansion for the entire species may be linked with the event of marine regression after the most recent sea transgression at ~5 kya.



Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities caused by low lake levels may be detectable where fine-grained ferrimagnets are concentrated in peaty sediments.

Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.



Spatial variability of terrestrial laser scanning based leaf area index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest stand point clouds generated from multiple scan locations using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) have diverse range of spatial distribution patterns. These in turn have an effect on the direct leaf area index (LAI) estimation from the point cloud. However, the most effective placement of the scanning equipment in homogeneous vs. heterogeneous stands has not been investigated. In this research, TLS was used to sample an evenly planted Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedling forest stand and a mature heterogeneous forest stand dominated by Douglas-fir (P. menziesii) and Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). A new method, circular point cloud slicing, was developed to explore the spatial variation of point density for both azimuthal angular and radial directions. The results show that alone, a central location 360° scan data, does not capture all of the stand characteristics and less than 50% of variation of the estimation of effective leaf area index (LAIe) of a mature heterogeneous stand. Thus, reducing occlusion, by incorporating additional lateral side view scans, is necessary to comprehensively represent the canopy structure, and structural variation of the heterogeneous forest stand. It was also shown, based on the assumption that the comprehensive scan combination can fully represent the forest stand, and that LAIe estimated from the comprehensive multi-direction mosaiced dataset are higher by twofold compared to the result from central scan only.

Zheng, Guang; Moskal, L. Monika



Simulating secondary succession of elk forage values in a managed forest landscape, western Washington  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Modern timber management practices often influence forage production for elk (Cervus elaphus) on broad temporal and spatial scales in forested landscapes. We incorporated site-specific information on postharvesting forest succession and forage characteristics in a simulation model to evaluate past and future influences of forest management practices on forage values for elk in a commercially managed Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, PSME)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla, TSHE) forest in western Washington. We evaluated future effects of: (1) clear-cut logging 0, 20, and 40% of harvestable stands every five years; (2) thinning 20-year-old Douglas fir forests; and (3) reducing the harvesting cycle from 60 to 45 years. Reconstruction of historical patterns of vegetation succession indicated that forage values peaked in the 1960s and declined from the 1970s to the present, but recent values still were higher than may have existed in the unmanaged landscape in 1945. Increased forest harvesting rates had little short-term influence on forage trends because harvestable stands were scarce. Simulations of forest thinning also produced negligible benefits because thinning did not improve forage productivity appreciably at the stand level. Simulations of reduced harvesting cycles shortened the duration of declining forage values from approximately 30 to 15 years. We concluded that simulation models are useful tools for examining landscape responses of forage production to forest management strategies, but the options examined provided little potential for improving elk forages in the immediate future.

Jenkins, Kurt J.; Starkey, Edward E.



Ganoderma tsugae Induces S Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Doxorubicin-Resistant Lung Adenocarcinoma H23/0.3 Cells via Modulation of the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

Ganoderma tsugae (GT) is a traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits significant antitumor activities against many types of cancer. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which GT suppresses the growth of doxorubicin-resistant lung adenocarcinoma H23/0.3 cells. Our results reveal that GT inhibits the viability of H23/0.3 cells in vitro and in vivo and sensitizes the growth suppression effect of doxorubicin on H23/0.3 cells. The data also show that GT induces S phase arrest by interfering with the protein expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2, and CDC25A. Furthermore, GT induces cellular apoptosis via induction of a mitochondria/caspase pathway. In addition, we also demonstrate that the suppression of cell proliferation by GT is through down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study suggests that GT may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of lung cancer.

Yu, Yang-Hao; Kuo, Han-Peng; Hsieh, Hui-Hsia; Li, Jhy-Wei; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Jung; Su, Muh-Hwan; Liu, Shwu-Huey; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Chih-Yi; Kao, Ming-Ching



Ganoderma tsugae Induces S Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Doxorubicin-Resistant Lung Adenocarcinoma H23/0.3 Cells via Modulation of the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.  


Ganoderma tsugae (GT) is a traditional Chinese medicine that exhibits significant antitumor activities against many types of cancer. This study investigated the molecular mechanism by which GT suppresses the growth of doxorubicin-resistant lung adenocarcinoma H23/0.3 cells. Our results reveal that GT inhibits the viability of H23/0.3 cells in vitro and in vivo and sensitizes the growth suppression effect of doxorubicin on H23/0.3 cells. The data also show that GT induces S phase arrest by interfering with the protein expression of cyclin A, cyclin E, CDK2, and CDC25A. Furthermore, GT induces cellular apoptosis via induction of a mitochondria/caspase pathway. In addition, we also demonstrate that the suppression of cell proliferation by GT is through down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study suggests that GT may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of lung cancer. PMID:22792123

Yu, Yang-Hao; Kuo, Han-Peng; Hsieh, Hui-Hsia; Li, Jhy-Wei; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chen, Shih-Jung; Su, Muh-Hwan; Liu, Shwu-Huey; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chen, Chih-Yi; Kao, Ming-Ching



A High Resolution Late Holocene Paleo-atmospheric Co2 Reconstruction From Stomatal Frequency Analysis of Conifer Needles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inverse relation of stomatal frequency in leaves of many plant taxa and atmospheric CO2 concentration has been repeatedly demonstrated. Response curves based on this species-specific relation are increasingly used to reconstruct paleo-CO2 levels from stomatal frequency analysis on fossil leaves. This type of atmospheric CO2 records have been produced for a large part of geological history, varying from the Paleozoic to the Holocene. Quaternary glaciochemical records from Antarctica and Greenland suggest that CO2 concentration and temperature are strongly linked, in general CO2 appears to lag temperature change. However, in order to assess this relation, high res- olution records with a precise chronology are needed. During the Holocene, several century-scale climatic fluctuations took place, such as the 8.2 kyr event and the Lit- tle Ice age. Linking these temperature fluctuations to paleo-CO2 concentrations in glaciochemical records can be difficult, because the resolution of ice-cores is gen- erally low and the ice-gas age difference complicates accurate dating. An excellent alternative tool for high-resolution Holocene CO2 reconstructions can be provided by stomatal frequency analysis of leaves from Holocene peat and lake sediments. In this study, it is demonstrated that the western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) also ad- justs its stomatal frequency to the historical CO2 rise. After careful proxy-validation, a high resolution paleo-atmospheric CO2 record over the last 2000 years based on subfossil Tsuga heterophylla needles from Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) was re- constructed. Chronology is provided by a suite of AMS carbon isotope dates and the presence of tephra layers from nearby Mt. St Helens. The record reproduces CO2 lev- els around 280 ppmv for the Little Ice Age and the CO2 rise to 365 ppmv over the last 150 years. A prominent feature is a marked rise in CO2 at 350 years AD, gradu- ally declining over the next centuries. The CO2 record will be discussed in terms of its relation to local volcanic CO2 production, paleoclimate data and changes in the terrestrial and marine carbon sources and sinks.

Kouwenberg, L. L. R.; Kurschner, W. M.; Wagner, F.; Visscher, H.


Estimation of heritability, evolvability and genetic correlations of two pollen and pistil traits involved in a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Heritable genetic variation is crucial for selection to operate, yet there is a paucity of studies quantifying such variation in interactive male/female sexual traits, especially those of plants. Previous work on the annual plant Collinsia heterophylla, a mixed-mating species, suggests that delayed stigma receptivity is involved in a sexual conflict: pollen from certain donors fertilize ovules earlier than others at the expense of reduced maternal seed set and lower levels of pollen competition. Methods Parent–offspring regressions and sib analyses were performed to test for heritable genetic variation and co-variation in male and female interactive traits related to the sexual conflict. Key Results Some heritable variation and evolvability were found for the female trait (delayed stigma receptivity in presence of pollen), but no evidence was found for genetic variation in the male trait (ability to fertilize ovules early). The results further indicated a marginally significant correlation between a male's ability to fertilize early and early stigma receptivity in offspring. However, despite potential indirect selection of these traits, antagonistic co-evolution may not occur given the lack of heritability of the male trait. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study of a plant or any hermaphrodite that examines patterns of genetic correlation between two interactive sexual traits, and also the first to assess heritabilities of plant traits putatively involved in a sexual conflict. It is concluded that the ability to delay fertilization in presence of pollen can respond to selection, while the pollen trait has lower evolutionary potential.

Madjidian, Josefin A.; Andersson, Stefan; Lankinen, Asa



Pollen-tube growth rates in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): one-donor crosses reveal heritability but no effect on sporophytic-offspring fitness  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Evolutionary change in response to natural selection will occur only if a trait confers a selective advantage and there is heritable variation. Positive connections between pollen traits and fitness have been found, but few studies of heritability have been conducted, and they have yielded conflicting results. To understand better the evolutionary significance of pollen competition and its potential role in sexual selection, the heritability of pollen tube-growth rate and the relationship between this trait and sporophytic offspring fitness were investigated in Collinsia heterophylla. Methods Because the question being asked was if female function benefited from obtaining genetically superior fathers by enhancing pollen competition, one-donor (per flower) crosses were used in order to exclude confounding effects of post-fertilization competition/allocation caused by multiple paternity. Each recipient plant was crossed with an average of five pollen donors. Pollen-tube growth rate and sporophytic traits were measured in both generations. Key Results Pollen-tube growth rate in vitro differed among donors, and the differences were correlated with in vivo growth rate averaged over two to four maternal plants. Pollen-tube growth rate showed significant narrow-sense heritability and evolvability in a father–offspring regression. However, this pollen trait did not correlate significantly with sporophytic-offspring fitness. Conclusions These results suggest that pollen-tube growth rate can respond to selection via male function. The data presented here do not provide any support for the hypothesis that intense pollen competition enhances maternal plant fitness through increased paternity by higher-quality sporophytic fathers, although this advantage cannot be ruled out. These data are, however, consistent with the hypothesis that pollen competition is itself selectively advantageous, through both male and female function, by reducing the genetic load among successful gametophytic fathers (pollen), and reducing inbreeding depression associated with self–pollination in plants with mix-mating systems.

Lankinen, Asa; Maad, Johanne; Armbruster, W. Scott



Microbial utilization of dissolved organic carbon leached from riparian litterfall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in aquatic systems is abundant and used within stream food webs, but DOC quality is rarely studied. DOC in the leachates from the litter of five tree species (red alder, Alnus rubra; vine maple, Acer circinatum; western red cedar, Thuja plicata; western hemlock, Tsuga hetrophylla; and Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii) were assessed for their chemistry and relative

Michael D. McArthur; John S. Richardson



Decaying wood and tree regeneration in the Acadian Forest of Maine, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of management history on the availability of decayed downed wood and the use of downed wood as a regeneration substrate in mixed-species stands in the Acadian Forest of Maine. Regeneration of red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea L. Mill), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) was quantified.

Jamie K. Weaver; Laura S. Kenefic; Robert S. Seymour; John C. Brissette



7. Perspective view of the south facade of the mansion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Perspective view of the south facade of the mansion and the south lawn, from the southwest. The view includes foundation and lawn plantings of wingbark euonymus (Euonymus fortunei vegetis), Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata nana), manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and white pine (Pinus strobus). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT


50. Perspective view of the south facade of the mansion ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. Perspective view of the south facade of the mansion and the south lawn, from the southeast. The view includes foundation and lawn plantings of wingbark euonymous (Euonymous alatus compactus), Japanese yew (Taxus cuspidata nana), manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and a white pine (Pinus strobus). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT


Effects of fungal seed pathogens under conspecific and heterospecific trees in a temperate forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the impacts of soil fungi on seeds of two eastern North American temperate-zone trees: Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple) and Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr (eastern hemlock). Seeds of each species were buried at locations dominated by either conspecifics or heterospecifics. Half were protected with fungicide, and the net consequences for survival and germination were assessed. Net effects

Peter M. Kotanen



Lake-Sediment Evidence for Variation in Mid-Holocene Climate and Vegetation in Western Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence indicates that significant, worldwide variations in climate occurred during the middle Holocene. Awareness of mid-Holocene climate change in eastern North America has implications for interpreting the vegetation history of the region. The range-wide decline of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) at 5400 cal yr BP has been interpreted by many as a pest or pathogen attack,

S. A. Truebe; W. W. Oswald; D. R. Foster; E. Doughty




EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed to assess the effects of acid fog on foliar injury, biomass production, and nutrient leaching in selected conifers. ne-year old seedlings of Pseudotsuga menzieii, Pinus ponderosa, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata were exposed episodically to fog eve...


Seasonal and age-related variation in the needle quality of five conifer species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age changes of foliage resource quality (water, nitrogen, fibre, phenolics and toughness) were studied in five species of conifer (Pinus sylvestris L.), Picea abies (L.) Karsten, Tsuga heterophylla (Rafinesque) Sargent (all Pinaceae), Chamaecyparis lawsonian (Murray) Parlatore and Thuja plicata D. Don (both Cupressaceae) over a 2-year period in an English forest.

Paul E. Hatcher



Dynamics of water transport and storage in conifers studied with deuterium and heat tracing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volume and complexity of their vascular systems make the dynamics of long-distance water transport in large trees difficult to study. We used heat and deuterated water (D 20) as tracers to characterize whole-tree water transport and storage properties in individual trees belonging to the coniferous species Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. The trees used in




Standing Crop and Animal Consumption of Fungal Sporocarps in Pacific Northwest Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although fungal fruiting bodies are a common food supplement for many forest animals and an important dietary staple for several small mammals, changes in their abundance and consumption with forest succession or disturbance have not been quantified. Above- and belowground fungal fruiting bodies (epigeous and hypogeous sporocarps) were sampled for 46 mo in managed-young, natural-mature, and old-growth western hemlock (Tsuga

Malcolm North; James Trappe; Jerry Franklin



Puget Lowland Ecoregion: Chapter 2 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Puget Lowland Ecoregion covers an area of approximately 18,009 km² (6,953 mi²) within northwestern Washington (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). The ecoregion is located between the Coast Range Ecoregion to the west, which includes the Olympic Mountains, and the North Cascades and the Cascades Ecoregions to the east, which include the Cascade Range. From the north, the ecoregion follows the Interstate 5 corridor, from the Canadian border south through Bellingham, Seattle, Olympia, and Longview, Washington, to the northern border of the Willamette Valley Ecoregion. The Puget Lowland Ecoregion borders the shoreline of the greater Puget Sound, a complex bay and saltwater estuary fed by spring freshwater runoff from the Olympic Mountains and Cascade Range watersheds. The ecoregion is situated in a continental glacial trough that has many islands, peninsulas, and bays. Relief is moderate, with elevations ranging from sea level to 460 m but averaging approximately 150 m (DellaSala and others, 2001). Proximity to the Pacific Ocean gives the Puget Lowland Ecoregion its mild maritime climate (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999). Mean annual temperature is 10.5°C, with an average of 4.1°C in January and 17.7°C in July (Guttman and Quayle, 1996). Average annual precipitation ranges from 800 to 900 mm, but some areas in the rain shadow of the Olympic Mountains receive as little as 460 mm (DellaSala and others, 2001). Varying annual average precipitation greatly influences vegetation and soil type in the ecoregion. In the Puget Lowland Ecoregion, soils are dominated by Inceptisols in the north and Ultisols in the south (Jones, 2003). Before European settlement, most of the ecoregion was covered by coniferous forests, with species composition dependent on local climate (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999). The World Wildlife Fund places the Puget Lowland Ecoregion in the Western Hemlock Vegetation Zone. Although this vegetation zone is named after the western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is the dominant tree species. Seattle, which had an estimated population of 563,376 in 2000, is the largest city in the Puget Lowland Ecoregion (Puget Sound Regional Council, 2001). The greater Seattle metropolitan area, comprising Seattle, Tacoma, Bellevue, and Bremerton, had an estimated population of 3.5 million people in 2000 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Other sizable cities in the ecoregion include the state capital Olympia, as well as Tacoma, Bellingham, and Everett, Washington. The center of the Puget Lowland Ecoregion is dominated by the Seattle metropolitan area and developed land cover, whereas agriculture occurs mainly on river floodplains in the north and south. The remainder of the ecoregion area is dominated by forest land cover (fig. 1).

Sorenson, Daniel G.



Aversive responses of white-tailed deer,Odocoileus virginianus, to predator urines.  


We tested whether predator odors could reduce winter browsing of woody plants by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Urine from bobcats (Lyra rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans) significantly reduced browsing of Japanese yews (Taxus cuspidata), and repellency was enhanced when urine was reapplied weekly as a topical spray. Urine of cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) and humans did not reduce damage, suggesting that deer do not respond aversively to odors of nonpredatory mammals or occasional predators with which they lack a long evolutionary association. Bobcat and coyote urine were more effective in tests conducted with eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), which is less palatable to white-tailed deer than Japanese yew. A dichloromethane extract of bobcat urine was as effective as unextracted urine in reducing damage to hemlocks. Testing of the organic components of bobcat urine, particularly the volatile components, may enable identification of the compounds responsible for the repellency we observed. PMID:24258921

Swihart, R K; Pignatello, J J; Mattina, M J



Modern pollen rain and vegetational history of the Malaspina Glacier district, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventy surface pollen samples from coastal forest, coastal meadow, muskeg, tree line, and alpine tundra communities form a basis for interpreting fossil pollen assemblages in the Malaspina Glacier district, Alaska. Poflen and macrofossil analyses of three radiocarbon-dated fossil sections from Icy Cape indicate that vegetational changes resulting from plant succession can be distinguished from those of migrational and climatic origin. Vegetation of the early Holocene xerothermic interval (10,000-7600 yr B.P.) was dominated by Alnus communities. Wetter conditions ensued, enabling generative muskeg surfaces to develop and first Picea sitchensis, then Tsuga heterophylla to expand from areas southeastward. Climatic cooling in more recent millennia (3500 yr B.P. to the present) is indicated by the appearance and persistent growth of Tsuga mertensiana and Selaginella selaginoides along this portion of the Gulf of Alaska coastline.

Peteet, Dorothy M.



Foundation species loss affects vegetation structure more than ecosystem function in a northeastern USA forest.  


Loss of foundation tree species rapidly alters ecological processes in forested ecosystems. Tsuga canadensis, an hypothesized foundation species of eastern North American forests, is declining throughout much of its range due to infestation by the nonnative insect Adelges tsugae and by removal through pre-emptive salvage logging. In replicate 0.81-ha plots, T. canadensis was cut and removed, or killed in place by girdling to simulate adelgid damage. Control plots included undisturbed hemlock and mid-successional hardwood stands that represent expected forest composition in 50-100 years. Vegetation richness, understory vegetation cover, soil carbon flux, and nitrogen cycling were measured for two years prior to, and five years following, application of experimental treatments. Litterfall and coarse woody debris (CWD), including snags, stumps, and fallen logs and branches, have been measured since treatments were applied. Overstory basal area was reduced 60%-70% in girdled and logged plots. Mean cover and richness did not change in hardwood or hemlock control plots but increased rapidly in girdled and logged plots. Following logging, litterfall immediately decreased then slowly increased, whereas in girdled plots, there was a short pulse of hemlock litterfall as trees died. CWD volume remained relatively constant throughout but was 3-4× higher in logged plots. Logging and girdling resulted in small, short-term changes in ecosystem dynamics due to rapid regrowth of vegetation but in general, interannual variability exceeded differences among treatments. Soil carbon flux in girdled plots showed the strongest response: 35% lower than controls after three years and slowly increasing thereafter. Ammonium availability increased immediately after logging and two years after girdling, due to increased light and soil temperatures and nutrient pulses from leaf-fall and reduced uptake following tree death. The results from this study illuminate ecological processes underlying patterns observed consistently in region-wide studies of adelgid-infested hemlock stands. Mechanisms of T. canadensis loss determine rates, magnitudes, and trajectories of ecological changes in hemlock forests. Logging causes abrupt, large changes in vegetation structure whereas girdling (and by inference, A. tsugae) causes sustained, smaller changes. Ecosystem processes depend more on vegetation cover per se than on species composition. We conclude that the loss of this late-successional foundation species will have long-lasting impacts on forest structure but subtle impacts on ecosystem function. PMID:23638378

Orwig, David A; Barker Plotkin, Audrey A; Davidson, Eric A; Lux, Heidi; Savage, Kathleen E; Ellison, Aaron M



Foundation species loss affects vegetation structure more than ecosystem function in a northeastern USA forest  

PubMed Central

Loss of foundation tree species rapidly alters ecological processes in forested ecosystems. Tsuga canadensis, an hypothesized foundation species of eastern North American forests, is declining throughout much of its range due to infestation by the nonnative insect Adelges tsugae and by removal through pre-emptive salvage logging. In replicate 0.81-ha plots, T. canadensis was cut and removed, or killed in place by girdling to simulate adelgid damage. Control plots included undisturbed hemlock and mid-successional hardwood stands that represent expected forest composition in 50–100 years. Vegetation richness, understory vegetation cover, soil carbon flux, and nitrogen cycling were measured for two years prior to, and five years following, application of experimental treatments. Litterfall and coarse woody debris (CWD), including snags, stumps, and fallen logs and branches, have been measured since treatments were applied. Overstory basal area was reduced 60%–70% in girdled and logged plots. Mean cover and richness did not change in hardwood or hemlock control plots but increased rapidly in girdled and logged plots. Following logging, litterfall immediately decreased then slowly increased, whereas in girdled plots, there was a short pulse of hemlock litterfall as trees died. CWD volume remained relatively constant throughout but was 3–4× higher in logged plots. Logging and girdling resulted in small, short-term changes in ecosystem dynamics due to rapid regrowth of vegetation but in general, interannual variability exceeded differences among treatments. Soil carbon flux in girdled plots showed the strongest response: 35% lower than controls after three years and slowly increasing thereafter. Ammonium availability increased immediately after logging and two years after girdling, due to increased light and soil temperatures and nutrient pulses from leaf-fall and reduced uptake following tree death. The results from this study illuminate ecological processes underlying patterns observed consistently in region-wide studies of adelgid-infested hemlock stands. Mechanisms of T. canadensis loss determine rates, magnitudes, and trajectories of ecological changes in hemlock forests. Logging causes abrupt, large changes in vegetation structure whereas girdling (and by inference, A. tsugae) causes sustained, smaller changes. Ecosystem processes depend more on vegetation cover per se than on species composition. We conclude that the loss of this late-successional foundation species will have long-lasting impacts on forest structure but subtle impacts on ecosystem function.

Orwig, David A.; Barker Plotkin, Audrey A.; Davidson, Eric A.; Lux, Heidi; Savage, Kathleen E.



Acceleration of exotic plant invasion in a forested ecosystem by a generalist herbivore.  


The successful invasion of exotic plants is often attributed to the absence of coevolved enemies in the introduced range (i.e., the enemy release hypothesis). Nevertheless, several components of this hypothesis, including the role of generalist herbivores, remain relatively unexplored. We used repeated censuses of exclosures and paired controls to investigate the role of a generalist herbivore, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), in the invasion of 3 exotic plant species (Microstegium vimineum, Alliaria petiolata, and Berberis thunbergii) in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests in New Jersey and Pennsylvania (U.S.A.). This work was conducted in 10 eastern hemlock (T. canadensis) forests that spanned gradients in deer density and in the severity of canopy disturbance caused by an introduced insect pest, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). We used maximum likelihood estimation and information theoretics to quantify the strength of evidence for alternative models of the influence of deer density and its interaction with the severity of canopy disturbance on exotic plant abundance. Our results were consistent with the enemy release hypothesis in that exotic plants gained a competitive advantage in the presence of generalist herbivores in the introduced range. The abundance of all 3 exotic plants increased significantly more in the control plots than in the paired exclosures. For all species, the inclusion of canopy disturbance parameters resulted in models with substantially greater support than the deer density only models. Our results suggest that white-tailed deer herbivory can accelerate the invasion of exotic plants and that canopy disturbance can interact with herbivory to magnify the impact. In addition, our results provide compelling evidence of nonlinear relationships between deer density and the impact of herbivory on exotic species abundance. These findings highlight the important role of herbivore density in determining impacts on plant abundance and provide evidence of the operation of multiple mechanisms in exotic plant invasion. PMID:19183209

Eschtruth, Anne K; Battles, John J



Controls on Nitrogen Retention and Loss in Urban and Rural Forest Ecosystems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and production of fertilizer, have increased the amount of nitrogen deposited onto terrestrial ecosystems. In addition to changes in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, other human-induced disturbances have led to dramatic shifts in forest composition of the United States over the last 100 years. Tree species composition of many forests is changing in response to introduced pests and pathogens, competition with introduced plant species and changes in climate. Understanding the combined effects of increased nitrogen inputs and changes in plant species composition on forest nitrogen cycling is critical to our understanding of forest biogeochemistry and nutrient budgets. Despite several decades of research on the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, there is still significant uncertainty about the factors that regulate nitrogen retention and loss in forest ecosystems. The use of natural abundance stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen has proven to be a powerful tool for tracing the sources of nitrate in water, from inputs to leaching, as it moves through an ecosystem. The evaluation of natural abundance nitrogen values in atmospheric deposition has been used to partition sources of nitrogen, such as coal-fired power plants vs. tailpipe exhaust, since each of their isotopic signatures is distinct. Similarly, natural abundance oxygen values of nitrate in atmospheric inputs and soil leachate have been used as a tool to partition sources of nitrate between precipitation and nitrate produced microbially during nitrification. We measured the natural abundance isotopic composition of nitrate to quantify rates of nitrogen inputs to the forest and to determine rates of nitrogen losses from healthy, declining and preemptively cut eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands in both an urban forest at the Arnold Arboretum in Boston, MA, and a rural forest at Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), an introduced aphid-like insect from Japan, threatens hemlock stands throughout the eastern United States. The hemlock woolly adelgid was first reported in forests of the eastern United States in the early 1950s and is currently leading to mortality of eastern hemlock trees from Georgia to Massachusetts. We found that rates of nitrogen inputs to the forest floor were 4-5 times greater, and rates of nitrogen losses via leachate were more than ten times greater, at the Arnold Arboretum compared to Harvard Forest. Our results also show that current management regimes used to control the hemlock woolly adelgid, such as salvage cutting, may be reducing nitrogen losses in urban areas due to rapid regrowth of vegetation and the associated uptake of nitrogen by those plants. In contrast, cutting of trees in rural areas may be leading to proportionately greater losses of nitrogen in those sites, though the total magnitude of nitrogen lost is still smaller than in urban sites. Results of this study suggest that the combination of the hemlock woolly adelgid, atmospheric nitrogen inputs and management practices lead to changes in the nitrogen cycle within eastern hemlock forest ecosystems.

Templer, P. H.



Spatial Relationship of Biomass and Species Distribution in an Old-Growth Pseudotsuga Tsuga Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Old-growth forests are known for their complex and variable structure and function. In a 12-ha plot (300 m x 400 m) of an old-growth Douglas-fir forest within the T. T. Munger Research Natural Area in southern Washington, we mapped and recorded live\\/dead condition, species, and diameter at breast height to address the following objectives: (1) to quantify the contribution of

Jiquan Chen; Bo Song; Mark Rudnicki; Melinda Moeur; Ken Bible; Malcolm North; Dave C. Shaw; Jerry F. Franklin; Dave M. Braun



Production, Respiration, and Overall Carbon Balance in an Old-growth Pseudotsuga - Tsuga Forest Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ground-based measurements of stores, growth, mortality, litterfall, respiration, and decomposition were conducted in an old-growth forest at Wind River Experimental Forest, Washington, USA. These measurements were used to estimate gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP); autotrophic respiration (R a) and heterotrophic (R h) respiration; and net ecosystem production (NEP). Monte Carlo methods were used to calculate uncertainty

Mark E. Harmon; Ken Bible; Michael G. Ryan; David C. Shaw; H. Chen; Jeffrey Klopatek; Xia Li



Migration of tree species in New England based on elevational and regional analyses. Forest Service research paper (Final)  

SciTech Connect

With field measurements of migration patterns, we used two complementary approaches to examine tree-species movement after a documented increase in temperature. The advancing-front theory was used to examine age trends over distance and elevation for both a mountain site in New Hampshire and a regional comparison across the State of Maine. Well-defined stationary fronts were identified for red spruce (Picea rubens) and beech (Fagus grandifolia), while a catastrophic front was depicted for sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and a constant slow-moving advancing front was exhibited by hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). The regional analysis, in Maine, indicated that white pine (Pinus strobus) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) decreased significantly in average latitude and elevation over a 24-year period. The potential ranges of the major species in terms of elevation and regional position appear stable.

Solomon, D.S.; Leak, W.B.



6000-year record of forest history on Mount Rainier, Washington  

SciTech Connect

Sediments in three ponds between 1300 - 1500 m on the south side of Mt. Rainier were examined for plant macrofossils and pollen. Macrofossils of seral species such as Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus monticola, Abies procera, and Pinus contorta are conspicuous from 6000 to 3400 BP. These species suggest a climate that was warmer/drier than today and favored frequent fires. Neoglacial cooling may have begun 3700-3400 BP, as species typical of higher elevations became prominent; a decline in seral species after 3400 BP suggests less frequent fires. In the last 100 yr, Tsuga heterophylla became abundant and then declined at the highest elevation site. General trends in pollen percentages are similar to the macrofossil curves. Tephra deposition from Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helens did not produce conspicuous changes in forest composition. Few major fires are evident from charcoal and macrofossils at these sites.

Dunwiddie, P.W.



Climate, geography, and tree establishment in subalpine meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Noticeable changes in vegetation distribution have occurred in the Pacific Northwest during the last century as trees have established in some subalpine meadows. To study the relationship of this process to climate, recently established trees were aged in six subalpine meadows in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. The sites represent three points along a steep precipitation gradient. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) has been establishing at the dry end of the gradient, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) at the wet end, and both species in the center. Establishment patterns were compared with deviations from the century-long average for these weather variables: winter precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and winter, October, and May temperatures. Results show that establishment occurred in dry areas when weather conditions were wetter than average, and in wet areas under drier than average conditions. Establishment at central sites did not show consistent relationships with climate. If future climatic conditions continue to warm, establishment of subalpine fir in subalpine meadows in dry areas may cease and mountain hemlock may resume in wet areas.

Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Edward G.; Silsbee, D. G.



Climate, geography, and tree establishment in Subalpine Meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington, U.S.A.  

SciTech Connect

Noticeable changes in vegetation distribution have occurred in the Pacific Northwest during the last century as trees have established in some subalpine meadows. To study the relationship of this process to climate, recently established trees were aged in six subalpine meadows in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. The sites represent three points along a steep precipitation gradient. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) has been establishing at the dry end of the gradient, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) at the wet end, and both species in the center. Establishment patterns were compared with deviations from the century-long average for these weather variables: winter precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and winter, October and May temperatures. Results show that establishment occurred in dry areas when weather conditions were wetter than average, and in wet areas under drier than average conditions. Establishment at central sites did not show consistent relationships with climate. If future climatic conditions continue to warm, establishment of subalpine fir in subalpine meadows in dry areas may cease and mountain hemlock may resume in wet areas. 34 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Woodward, A.; Silsbee, D.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Schreiner, E.G. [National Biological Service, Port Angeles, WA (United States)



Climate determines upper, but not lower, altitudinal range limits of Pacific Northwest conifers.  


Does climate determine species' ranges? Rapid rates of anthropogenic warming make this classic ecological question especially relevant. We ask whether climate controls range limits by quantifying relationships between climatic variables (precipitation, temperature) and tree growth across the altitudinal ranges of six Pacific Northwestern conifers on Mt. Rainier, Washington, USA. Results for three species (Abies amabilis, Callitropsis nootkatensis, Tsuga mertensiana) whose upper limits occur at treeline (> 1600 m) imply climatic controls on upper range limits, with low growth in cold and high snowpack years. Annual growth was synchronized among individuals at upper limits for these high-elevation species, further suggesting that stand-level effects such as climate constrain growth more strongly than local processes. By contrast, at lower limits climatic effects on growth were weak for these high-elevation species. Growth-climate relationships for three low-elevation species (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla) were not consistent with expectations of climatic controls on upper limits, which are located within closed-canopy forest (< 1200 m). Annual growth of these species was poorly synchronized among individuals. Our results suggest that climate controls altitudinal range limits at treeline, while local drivers (perhaps biotic interactions) influence growth in closed-canopy forests. Climate-change-induced range shifts in closed-canopy forests will therefore be difficult to predict accurately. PMID:21797160

Ettinger, A K; Ford, K R; HilleRisLambers, J



A 14,000 year vegetation history of a hypermaritime island on the outer Pacific coast of Canada based on fossil pollen, spores and conifer stomata  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen and conifer stomata analyses of lake sediments from Hippa Island on the north coast of British Columbia were used to reconstruct the vegetation history of this small hypermaritime island. Between 14,000 and 13,230 cal yr BP, the island supported diverse herb-shrub communities dominated by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix. Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis stomata indicate that these conifers were present among the herb-shrub communities, likely as scattered individuals. Transition to open P. contorta woodland by 13,000 cal yr BP was followed by increases in Alnus viridis, Alnus rubra and P. sitchensis. After 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus-dominated communities were replaced by dense P. sitchensis and Tsuga heterophylla forest with Lysichiton americanus and fern understory. Thuja plicata stomata indicate that this species was present by 8700 cal yr BP, but the pollen record suggests that its populations did not expand to dominate regional rainforests, along with Tsuga and Picea, until after 6600 cal yr BP. Conifer stomata indicate that species may be locally present for hundreds to thousands of years before pollen exceed thresholds routinely used to infer local species arrival. When combined, pollen and conifer stomata can provide a more accurate record of paleovegetation than either when used alone.

Lacourse, Terri; Delepine, J. Michelle; Hoffman, Elizabeth H.; Mathewes, Rolf W.



77 FR 30500 - Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78, Applications for Subzone Authority, Dow Corning Corporation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authority, Dow Corning Corporation, Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation, and Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C.; Reopening of Comment Periods...63283, 10/12/2011), at the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation facility in Hemlock,...



76 FR 81475 - Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78 Applications for Subzone Authority Dow Corning Corporation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authority Dow Corning Corporation, Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation and Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C.; Notice of Public Hearing...63282-63283, 10/12/2011), the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation facility in Hemlock,...



77 FR 21082 - Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78, Applications for Subzone Authority Dow Corning Corporation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authority Dow Corning Corporation, Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation, and Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C.; Reopening of Rebuttal Periods...63283, 10/12/2011), at the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation facility in Hemlock,...



76 FR 76934 - Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78; Applications for Subzone Authority; Dow Corning Corporation...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authority; Dow Corning Corporation, Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation and Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C.; Extension of Comment Periods...October 12, 2011), at the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation facility in Hemlock,...



Induction of cleft palate in newborn pigs by maternal ingestion of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum).  


Cleft palates were induced in newborn pigs of gilts fed Conium maculatum seed or plant during gestation days 30 through 45. Twelve of 23 newborn pigs born to 3 gilts given Utah-grown C maculatum seed and 9 of 12 newborn pigs born to a single gilt given the fresh Utah spring-growth C maculatum plant had cleft palates. The cleft palates ranged from a unilateral cleft, involving only 1 side of the palate, to a full bilateral cleft. Brachygnathia was also observed in some of these newborn pigs with cleft palate. Other malformations were not observed. Chemical analysis of seed and plant samples indicated that gamma-coniceine was the responsible teratogenic alkaloid. A daily dose of plant or seed that provided greater than or equal to 1.07 mg of gamma-coniceine/kg of body weight fed to gilts during the 30th through the 45th day of pregnancy resulted in teratogenic effects. PMID:4026015

Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Buck, W B



A novel toxic alkaloid from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L., Apiaceae): identification, synthesis and antinociceptive activity.  


2-Pentylpiperidine, named conmaculatin, a novel volatile alkaloid related to coniine was identified from the renowned toxic weed Conium maculatum L. (Apiaceae). The structure of conmaculatin was corroborated by synthesis (8 steps starting from cyclohexanol, overall yield 12%). Conmaculatin's strong peripheral and central antinociceptive activity in mice was observed in a narrow dose range (10-20mg/kg). It was found to be lethal in doses higher than 20mg/kg. PMID:22063758

Radulovi?, Niko; Dor?evi?, Nevenka; Deni?, Marija; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Boylan, Fabio




Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this research is to create better monitoring methods and estimates of HWA densities that can help forest managers mitigate the pest's negative impacts. The first step is the development of a sampling system appropriate to the biology of HWA. The second phase is a survey of HWA densities in a New England forest. Early results from sampling

Alexander Evans


75 FR 28232 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the...United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce options include chemical control and silvicultural...United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce...



Effects of late holocene forest disturbance and vegetation change on acidic mud pond, Maine, USA  

SciTech Connect

The limnological effects of natural forest disturbance and succession were studied by analyzing the chemistry, charcoal, pollen, chrysophytes, and diatoms in sediments deposited from {approx}3500 to {approx}700 yr BP in Mud Pond, Maine. Fine-grained sediments rich in organic matter are interrupted every 100-500 yr ({bar X} = 280) by coarser, more minerogenic sediments, reflecting soil erosion. The disturbance horizons contain high concentrations of charcoal, indicating forest fires, low percentages of pollen of late-successional trees such as Tsuga, and high percentages of pollen and spores of early-successional plants such as shrubs and ferns. Within a few decades, pollen percentages of Alnus peak, followed by Betula. Tsuga pollen percentages increase for 200-400 yr after disturbances, and generally stabilize or decrease several decades before the next disturbance. Limnological responses to these changes are indicated by high percentages of diatoms and chrysophytes of waters of near neutral pH. Diatom-inferred pH typically increases abruptly from {approx}5.0 to {approx}6.1, and chrysophyte-inferred pH from {approx}5.5 to {approx}5.8 at disturbance horizons. These increases may be caused by increased wood ash and mineral soils after disturbances. This pulse is followed by a two-step recovery. First the inferred pH decreases nearly to the pre-disturbance condition. This response likely results from soil stabilization and uptake of base cations by successional vegetation. Second, a slower acidification of {approx}0.1 pH unit per century occurs as early successional shrubs and hardwood forest are replaced by old-growth conifer forest. Increasing percentages of pollen of Picea, Alnus, and Salix by 1350 yr BP, and decreasing percentages of hemlock and beech around 1350 yr BP imply cooler conditions. Large changes in diatom and chrysophyte assemblages in approximately this period may be related. 64 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

Rhodes, T.E.; Davis, R.B. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)



Recognizing Non-Stationary Climate Response in Tree Growth for Southern Coastal Alaska, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stationarity in growth response of trees to climate over time is assumed in dendroclimatic studies. Recent studies of Alaskan yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D. Don) Spach) have identified warming-induced early loss of insulating snowpack and frost damage as a mechanism that can lead to decline in tree growth, which for this species is documented over the last century. A similar stress may be put on temperature-sensitive mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière) trees at low elevations, which in some cases show a decline in tree growth with warming temperatures. One of the challenges of using tree-ring based SAT, SST, PDO and PNA-related reconstructions for southern coastal Alaska has been understanding the response of tree-ring chronologies to the warming temperatures over the past 50 years. Comparisons of tree growth with long meteorological records from Sitka Alaska that extend back to 1830 suggest many mountain hemlock sites at low elevations are showing decreasing ring-widths, at mid elevations most sites show a steady increasing growth tracking warming, and at treeline a release is documented. The recognition of this recent divergence or decoupling of tree-ring and temperature trends allows for divergence-free temperature reconstructions using trees from moderate elevations. These reconstructions now provide a better perspective for comparing recent warming to Medieval warming and a better understanding of forest dynamics as biomes shift in response to the transition from the Little Ice Age to contemporary warming. Reconstructed temperatures are consistent with well-established, entirely independent tree-ring dated ice advances of land-terminating glaciers along the Gulf of Alaska providing an additional check for stationarity in the reconstructed interval.

Wiles, G. C.; Jarvis, S. K.; D'Arrigo, R.; Vargo, L. J.; Appleton, S. N.




EPA Science Inventory

Although tree- and stand-level estimates of forest water use are increasingly common, relatively little is known about partitioning of soil water resources among co-occurring tree species. We studied seasonal courses of soil water utilization in a 450-year-old Pseudotsuga menzies...


Biochemistry of hemlock (Conium maculatum L.) alkaloids and their acute and chronic toxicity in livestock. A review.  


The literature on Conium maculatum biochemistry and toxicology, dispersed in a large number of scientific publications, has been put together in this review. C. maculatum is a weed known almost worldwide by its toxicity to many domestic animals and to human beings. It is an Umbelliferae, characterized by long, hollow stems, reaching up to 2 m height at maturity, producing a large amount of lush foliage during its vegetative growth. Its flowers are white, grouped in umbels formed by numerous umbellules. It produces a large number of seeds that allow the plant to form thick stands in modified soils, sometimes encroaching on cultivated fields, to the extent of impeding the growth of any other vegetation inside the C. maculatum area of growth. Eight piperidinic alkaloids have been identified in this species. Two of them, gamma-coniceine and coniine are generally the most abundant and they account for most of the plant acute and chronic toxicity. These alkaloids are synthesized by the plant from eight acetate units from the metabolic pool, forming a polyketoacid which cyclises through an aminotransferase and forms gamma-coniceine as the parent alkaloid via reduction by a NADPH-dependent reductase. The acute toxicity is observed when animals ingest C. maculatum vegetative and flowering plants and seeds. In a short time the alkaloids produce a neuromuscular blockage conducive to death when the respiratory muscles are affected. The chronic toxicity affects only pregnant animals. When they are poisoned by C. maculatum during the fetuses organ formation period, the offspring is born with malformations, mainly palatoschisis and multiple congenital contractures (MCC; frequently described as arthrogryposis). Acute toxicity, if not lethal, may resolve in the spontaneous recovery of the affected animals provided further exposure to C. maculatum is avoided. It has been observed that poisoned animals tend to return to feed on this plant. Chronic toxicity is irreversible and although MCC can be surgically corrected in some cases, most of the malformed animals are lost. Since no specific antidote is available, prevention is the only way to deal with the production loses caused by this weed. Control with herbicides and grazing with less susceptible animals (such as sheep) have been suggested. C. maculatum alkaloids can be transferred to milk and to fowl muscle tissue through which the former can reach the human food chain. The losses produced by C. maculatum chronic toxicity may be largely underestimated, at least in some regions, because of the difficulty in associate malformations in offspring with the much earlier maternal poisoning. PMID:10340826

López, T A; Cid, M S; Bianchini, M L



The effects of gap disturbance on nitrogen cycling and retention in late-successional northern hardwood–hemlock forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late-successional forests in the upper Great Lakes region are susceptible to nitrogen (N) saturation and subsequent nitrate\\u000a (NO3?) leaching loss. Endemic wind disturbances (i.e., treefall gaps) alter tree uptake and soil N dynamics; and, gaps are particular\\u000a susceptible to NO3? leaching loss. Inorganic N was measured throughout two snow-free periods in throughfall, forest floor leachates, and mineral\\u000a soil leachates in

B. C. Scharenbroch; J. G. Bockheim



Lidar Remote Sensing of the Canopy Structure and Biophysical Properties of Douglas-Fir Western Hemlock Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning lidar remote sensing systems have recently become available for use in ecological applications. Unlike conventional microwave and optical sensors, lidar sensors directly measure the distribution of vegetation material along the vertical axis and can be used to provide three-dimensional, or volumetric, characterizations of vegetation structure. Ecological applications of scanning lidar have hitherto used one-dimensional indices to characterize canopy height.

M. A. Lefsky; W. B. Cohen; S. A. Acker; G. G. Parker; T. A. Spies; D. Harding



Plant Association and Management Guide for the Mountain Hemlock Zone: Gifford Pinchot and Mt. Hood National Forests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The forest ecosystem is a mosaic of environments, each having a particular set of characteristics and processes that shape the communities of animals and plants that occur there, and circumscribe the opportunities and limitatoins for land management. In t...

C. Topik C. T. High D. E. Smith N. M. Diaz T. K. Mellen



Role of Nurse Logs in Forest Expansion at Timberline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nurselogs, known to be key sites of forest regeneration in lower elevation temperate forests, may be important sites for seedling establishment at expanding timberline forests. To determine factors associated with seedling establishment and survival on nurselogs at timberline, fourteen sites, located across a precipitation gradient in the Washington North Cascades Mountains, were examined. Site attributes including seedling type and height, disturbance process introducing downed wood, wood decay type, shading, slope gradient, aspect, and temperature and water content of wood and adjacent soil were determined along 60 m long transects. Nurselogs were found at 13 out of 14 sites; sites typically associated with greater than 80% shade and downed wood having a high level of wood decay. Downed wood serving as nurselogs originated from blowdown, snow avalanches, and forest fires. In total, 46 of 136 downed wood pieces observed served as nurselogs. Seedlings on nurselogs included mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), and western larch (Larix occidentalis). Nurselogs had significantly higher temperatures (p = 0.015) and higher moisture contents (p = 0.019) than the adjacent soil. Per equal volumes weighed, nurselogs had on average of 23.8 g more water than the adjacent soil. Given predictions of climate warming and associated summer drought conditions in Pacific Northwest forests, the moisture provided by nurselogs may be integral for conifer survival and subsequent timberline expansion in some landscapes.

Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, A.



Ecological boundary detection using Bayesian areal wombling  

PubMed Central

The study of ecological boundaries and their dynamics is of fundamental importance to much of ecology, biogeography, and evolution. Over the past two decades, boundary analysis (of which wombling is a subfield) has received considerable research attention, resulting in multiple approaches for the quantification of ecological boundaries. Nonetheless, few methods have been developed that can simultaneously (1) analyze spatially homogenized data sets (i.e., areal data in the form of polygons rather than point-reference data); (2) account for spatial structure in these data and uncertainty associated with them; and (3) objectively assign probabilities to boundaries once detected. Here we describe the application of a Bayesian hierarchical framework for boundary detection developed in public health, which addresses these issues but which has seen limited application in ecology. As examples, we analyze simulated spread data and the historic pattern of spread of an invasive species, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), using county-level summaries of the year of first reported infestation and several covariates potentially important to influencing the observed spread dynamics. Bayesian areal wombling is a promising approach for analyzing ecological boundaries and dynamics related to changes in the distributions of native and invasive species.

Fitzpatrick, Matthew C.; Preisser, Evan L.; Porter, Adam; Elkinton, Joseph; Waller, Lance A.; Carlin, Bradley P.; Ellison, Aaron M.



Large wood recruitment and redistribution in headwater streams in the southern Oregon Coast Range, U.S.A  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Large wood recruitment and redistribution mechanisms were investigated in a 3.9 km2 basin with an old-growth Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco and Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. forest, located in the southern Coast Range of Oregon. Stream size and topographic setting strongly influenced processes that delivered wood to the channel network. In small colluvial channels draining steep hillslopes, processes associated with slope instability dominated large wood recruitment. In the larger alluvial channel, windthrow was the dominant recruitment process from the local riparian area. Consequently, colluvial channels received wood from further upslope than the alluvial channel. Input and redistribution processes influenced piece location relative to the direction of flow and thus, affected the functional role of wood. Wood recruited directly from local hillslopes and riparian areas was typically positioned adjacent to the channel or spanned its full width, and trapped sediment and wood in transport. In contrast, wood that had been fluvially redistributed was commonly located in mid-channel positions and was associated with scouring of the streambed and banks. Debris flows were a unique mechanism for creating large accumulations of wood in small streams that lacked the capacity for abundant fluvial transport of wood, and for transporting wood that was longer than the bank-full width of the channel.

May, Christine L.; Gresswell, Robert E.



Using the thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) to estimate surface thermal responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of measurements was conducted over the H.J. Andrews, Oregon, experimental coniferous forest, using airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS). Flight lines overlapped, with a 28-min time difference between flight lines. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air temperature and moisture were used for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Surface temperature differences over time between flight lines were used to develop thermal response numbers (TRNs) which characterized the thermal response (in KJ/sq m/C, where K is the measured incoming solar radiation) of the different surface types. The surface types included a mature forest (canopy dominated by dense crowns of Pseudosuga menziesii, with a secondary canopy of dense Tsuga heterophylla, and also a tall shrub layer of Acer circinatum) and a two-year-old clear-cut. The temperature distribution, within TIMS thermal images was found to reflect the surface type examined. The clear-cut surface had the lowest TRN, while mature Douglas fir the highest.

Luvall, J. C.; Holbo, H. R.



Element accumulation patterns of deciduous and evergreen tree seedlings on acid soils: implications for sensitivity to manganese toxicity.  


Foliar nutrient imbalances, including the hyperaccumulation of manganese (Mn), are correlated with symptoms of declining health in sensitive tree species growing on acidic forest soils. The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare foliar nutrient accumulation patterns of six deciduous (sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.)) and three evergreen (eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.), white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.)) tree species growing on acidic forest soils; and (2) examine how leaf phenology and other traits that distinguish evergreen and deciduous tree species influence foliar Mn accumulation rates and sensitivity to excess Mn. For the first objective, leaf samples of seedlings from five acidic, non-glaciated field sites on Pennsylvania's Allegheny Plateau were collected and analyzed for leaf element concentrations. In a second study, we examined growth and photosynthetic responses of seedlings exposed to excess Mn in sand culture. In field samples, Mn in deciduous foliage hyperaccumulated to concentrations more than twice as high as those found in evergreen needles. Among species, sugar maple was the most sensitive to excess Mn based on growth and photosynthetic measurements. Photosynthesis in red maple and red oak was also sensitive to excess Mn, whereas white oak, black cherry, white ash and the three evergreen species were tolerant of excess Mn. Among the nine species, relative rates of photosynthesis were negatively correlated with foliar Mn concentrations, suggesting that photosynthetic sensitivity to Mn is a function of its rate of accumulation in seedling foliage. PMID:15519989

St Clair, Samuel B; Lynch, Jonathan P



Surface Soil Carbon, Nitrogen and Tree Species are Tightly Linked in Northeastern USA Forested Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured C and N ratios in 608 surface soil horizons (primarily Oa) from ten small watersheds at seven established research sites in the northeastern USA. The dominant tree species included sugar maple (Acer saccharum), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), red spruce (Picea rubens) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). In the soil, both the C (50-530 g/kg) and C/N ratio (11.6- 45.3) had a wide distribution. In all but the Cone Pond watershed, both N concentration and the C/N ratio were positively and linearly related to C content. For these nine watersheds, the average N (g/kg) = 6.9 + 0.030 X C (g/kg), R2 = 0.97. The C/N ratios at Cone were much higher than would be predicted from the other data and charcoal was found in numerous samples, suggesting a source of recalcitrant C. Across all watersheds, C concentration was also positively correlated with forest floor depth (and therefore C pools). Although sugar maple dominance was negatively correlated with C/N ratio and C, better relationships were obtained by combining species. Carbon concentration of the humified surface horizon was negatively related to maple + birch dominance and positively related to conifer + beech dominance. Among nine of these ten watersheds, the average C concentration in the surface soil varied (187-441 g/kg) with a constant C/N ratio of 33. The remarkably tight relationships between C, N, and species suggest predicable patterns in C accumulation.

Ross, D. S.; Juillerat, J.



Effects of silvicultural practices on carbon stores in Douglas-fir ? western hemlock forests in the Pacific Northwest, U.S.A.: results from a simulation model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a new model, STANDCARB, to examine effects of various treatments on carbon (C) pools in the Pacific Northwest forest sector. Simulation experiments, with five replicates of each treatment, were used to investigate the effects of initial conditions, tree establishment rates, rotation length, tree utilization level, and slash burning on eco - system and forest products C stores. The

Mark E. Harmon; Barbara Marks



Object-oriented modeling and GIS integration in a decision support system for the management of eastern hemlock looper in Newfoundland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently available system design tools were used to explore the re-engineering of pest management models and the computer system frameworks used to deliver these models in order to improve model expansion and to apply them to new problems. These models and frameworks were integrated with software tools to form decision support systems (DSS) for operational use by managers in the

J. M. Power; H. Saarenmaa



Response of Grand Fir, Western Hemlock, Western White Pine, Western Larch, and Douglas-Fir to Nitrogen Fertilizer in Northern Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two study areas were used to assess the response of mixed, young, coniferous forests to nitrogen (N) fertilizer in the form of urea. Significant (P<0.05) responses in diameter growth to fertilization were noted at one of the study areas. Significant diffe...

R. T. Graham J. R. Tonn



Ten-Year Results of Fertilizing Grand Fir, Western Hemlock, Western Larch, and Douglas-Fir with Nitrogen in Northern Idaho.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ten-year results show initial short-lived increase in growth at two locations where nitrogen fertilizer in the form of urea was applied to young stands of mixed conifers in northern Idaho. In the second 5 years after treatment there were no further signif...

R. T. Graham J. R. Tonn



Fate of Precipitation-borne N in a Maine Spruce-Hemlock Forest: Results of First-year Ammonium Nitrate Canopy Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen oxides emitted as a result of fuel combustion and ammonia volatilization due to agriculture account for a large increase in N available to temperate forests in the northern hemisphere. Northern forests are thought to be limited in growth by the availability of N and increased inputs have coincided with increased carbon contents reported in northern forest inventories. The fate

D. B. Dail; L. Hoovler; E. A. Davidson



Molecular Structure of pseudo-Conhydrine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hemlock is an herb with a purple-spotted stem and leaves resembling parsley. The leaves are nauseating to eat, and ingestion may be fatal. The chemical poisons in hemlock are alkaloids like coniine and they affect the nervous system. Hemlock is the poison that Socrates was offered to cause his death.



Vegetation Dynamics in the Kenai Lowlands, Alaska during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of paleoinformation through ecosystem reconstruction can help us understand the behavior and sensitivity of the boreal forest as climate continues to change. A 2.5-meter sediment core extracted from Swanson Fen, a muskeg in the northern Kenai Lowlands on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, provides a sensitive Holocene paleoenvironmental record that lies in an ecotone between interior boreal forest and maritime coastal forest today. The core was sampled at 2-cm intervals and processed for pollen and spores. Five intervals were dated using AMS radiocarbon dating, and the basal macrofossils produced an age of 12,245 ±45 radiocarbon years. The central Kenai Peninsula Lowlands underwent a number of marked vegetational and climatic changes since deglaciation. Four distinct vegetation zones reveal changes starting in the late Pleistocene. The pioneer vegetation includes a dominance of herbaceous ( Artemisia, Apiaceae, Asteroideae)and shrubby ( Betula) species. The second zone (beginning at 9890±45 radiocarbon years) and marking the Holocene boundary, shows a striking increase in Polypodiaceae (ferns) and Picea (spruce) and a decrease in shrubby species such as Betula, indicative of warming. The third zone indicates a decline in Polypodiaceae and a reemergence of Betula species, while the final most recent zone reveals a rapid resurgence in Picea and Tsuga mertensiana (Mountain hemlock) species. While a general warming trend occurred following deglaciation, vegetation patterns suggest extended periods of increased precipitation, for example in the early Holocene, as is evidenced by the plethora of Polypodiaceae. A movement and an intensification of the Aleutian Low could explain these periods of increased precipitation over the Kenai Peninsula. Alternatively, this spike in Polypodiaceae can be explained by increased disturbance. The presence of 10 % Picea pollen at the base of the core suggests that one of the Picea species may have survived the last glaciation in the region. A decrease in Picea pollen and an increase in herbaceous ( Artemisia, Apiaceae, Asteroideae) pollen in the late Quaternary suggest a reversal to cooler conditions before warming resumed at the Holocene boundary, and Picea once again increased. This coincides with the timing of the Younger Dryas in the North Atlantic, and suggests that this phenomenon was felt on the Kenai Peninsula.

Jones, M. C.; Peteet, D. M.



Inferring long-term carbon sequestration from tree rings at Harvard Forest: A calibration approach using tree ring widths and geochemistry / flux tower data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improving the prediction skill of terrestrial carbon cycle models is important for reducing the uncertainties in global carbon cycle and climate projections. Additional evaluation and calibration of carbon models is required, using both observations and long-term proxy-derived data. Centennial-length data could be obtained from tree-rings archives that provide long continuous series of past forest growth changes with accurate annual resolution. Here we present results from a study conducted at Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts). The study examines the potential relationship between ?13C in dominant trees and GPP and/or NEE measured by the Harvard Forest flux tower (1992-2010). We have analyzed the ?13C composition of late wood-cellulose over the last 18 years from eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) trees growing in the flux tower footprint. ?13C values, corrected for the declining trend of atmospheric ?13C, show a decreasing trend from 1992 to 2010 and therefore a significant increase in discrimination (?). The intra-cellular CO2 (Ci) calculated from ? shows a significant increase for both tree species and follows the same rate of atmospheric CO2 (Ca) increase (Ci/Ca increases). Interestingly, the net Ci and ? increase observed for both species did not result in an increase of the iWUE. Ci/Ca is strongly related to the growing season Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for both species thus indicating a significant relationship between soil moisture conditions and stomatal conductance. The Ci trend is interpreted as a result of higher CO2 assimilation in response to increasing soil moisture allowing a longer stomata opening and therefore stimulating tree growth. This interpretation is consistent with the observed increase in GPP and the strengthening of the carbon sink (more negative NEE). Additionally, the decadal trends of basal area increment (BAI) calculated from tree-ring widths exhibit a positive trend over the last two decade. Tree-ring width and ?13C results show the potential of these parameters as proxies for reconstructions of past CO2 assimilation and carbon sequestration by woody biomass beyond the time span covered by calibration data, and extending to the centennial time scales encompassed by tree-ring records.

Belmecheri, S.; Maxwell, S.; Davis, K. J.; Alan, T. H.



Inocybe hirsuta var. maxima  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Inocybe hirsuta var. maxima A. H. Smith (SAT 01-279-08) photographed in the Hoh River Valley in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. This variety is common in Washington under western hemlock and is also known from eastern North America under eastern hemlock.

Trudell, Steve



Spatial Patterns of HWA Damage and Impacts on Tree Physiology and Water Use in the Black Rock Forest, Southern New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to document spatial patterns in HWA damage in three hemlock stands in the Black Rock Forest, southeastern New York, 4 to 8 years after adelgid infestation, and to quantify HWA impact on hemlock operating physiology and water use. In all three stands, damage was more severe along the stream courses and less severe away from the

Aaron Kimple; William Schuster


Phosphorus forms and related soil chemistry of Podzolic soils on northern Vancouver Island. I. A comparison of two forest types  

Microsoft Academic Search

When cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock - amabalis fir (HA) forests of northern Vancouver Island are clearcut and replanted, growth of replanted trees is often poor on CH clearcuts but not adjacent HA clearcuts. This poor growth can be overcome with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization, which suggests differences in nutrient cycling between CH and HA forests. The objective of

Barbara J. Cade-Menun; Shannon M. Berch; Caroline M. Preston; L. M. Lavkulich



Root phenology at Harvard Forest and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots are hidden from view and heterogeneously distributed making them difficult to study in situ. As a result, the causes and timing of root production are not well understood. Researchers have long assumed that above and belowground phenology is synchronous; for example, most parameterizations of belowground carbon allocation in terrestrial biosphere models are based on allometry and represent a fixed fraction of net C uptake. However, using results from metaanalysis as well as empirical data from oak and hemlock stands at Harvard Forest, we show that synchronous root and shoot growth is the exception rather than the rule. We collected root and shoot phenology measurements from studies across four biomes (boreal, temperate, Mediterranean, and subtropical). General patterns of root phenology varied widely with 1-5 production peaks in a growing season. Surprisingly, in 9 out of the 15 studies, the first root production peak was not the largest peak. In the majority of cases maximum shoot production occurred before root production (Offset>0 in 32 out of 47 plant sample means). The number of days offset between maximum root and shoot growth was negatively correlated with median annual temperature and therefore differs significantly across biomes (ANOVA, F3,43=9.47, p<0.0001). This decline in offset with increasing temperature may reflect greater year-round coupling between air and soil temperature in warm biomes. Growth form (woody or herbaceous) also influenced the relative timing of root and shoot growth. Woody plants had a larger range of days between root and shoot growth peaks as well as a greater number of growth peaks. To explore the range of phenological relationships within woody plants in the temperate biome, we focused on above and belowground phenology in two common northeastern tree species, Quercus rubra and Tsuga canadensis. Greenness index, rate of stem growth, root production and nonstructural carbohydrate content were measured beginning in April 2012 through August 2013 at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA, USA. Greenness and stem growth were highest in late May and early June with one clear maximum growth period. In contrast, root growth was characterized by multiple production peaks. Q. rubra root growth experienced many small flushes around day of year (DOY) 156 (early June) and one large peak on 234 (late August). T. canadensis root growth peaked on DOY 188 (early July), 234.5 (late August) and 287 (mid-October). However, particular phenological patterns varied widely from site to site. Despite large spatial heterogeneity, it appears that Q. rubra experiences greater overall root production as well as more allocation to roots during the growing season. The storage pool of nonstructural carbohydrates experiences a mid-summer drawdown in Q. rubra but not T. canadensis roots. Timing of belowground C allocation to root growth and nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation may be regulated by climate factors as well as endogenous factors such as vessel size, growth form, or tradeoffs in C allocated between plant organs. Plant roots supply substrate to microbial communities and hence their production feeds back to other plant and soil processes that affect ecosystem C fluxes.

Abramoff, R. Z.; Finzi, A.



Implications of high amplitude atmospheric CO2 fluctuations on past millennium climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stomatal frequency analysis of leaves of land plants preserved in peat and lake deposits can provide a proxy record of pre-industrial atmospheric CO2 concentration complementary to measurements in Antarctic ice cores. Stomatal frequency based CO2 trends from the USA and NW European support the presence of significant CO2 variability during the first half of the last millennium (Kouwenberg et al., 2005; Wagner et al., 2004; van Hoof et al., 2008). The timing of the most significant perturbation in the stomata records (1200 AD) is in agreement with an observed CO2 fluctuation in the D47 Antarctic ice-core record (Barnola et al., 1995; van Hoof et al., 2005). The amplitude of the stomatal frequency based CO2 changes (> 34ppmv) exceeds the maximum amplitude of CO2 variability in the D47 ice core (< 10 ppmv). A modelling experiment taking into account firn-densification based smoothing processes in the D47 ice core proved, however, that the amplitude difference between the stomata record and the D47 ice-core can be explained by natural smoothing processes in the ice (van Hoof et al., 2005). This observation gives credence to the existence of high-amplitude CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium and suggests that high resolution ice core CO2 records should be regarded as a smoothed representation of the atmospheric CO2 signal. In the present study, potential marine and terrestrial sources and sinks associated with the observed atmospheric CO2 perturbation will be discussed. The magnitude of the observed CO2 variability implies that inferred changes in CO2 radiative forcing are of a similar magnitude as variations ascribed to other forcing mechanisms (e.g. solar forcing and volcanism), therefore challenging the IPCC concept of CO2 as an insignificant preindustrial climate forcing factor. References Barnola J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander and B. Stauffer 1995. CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice. Tellus, v 47B, p. 264-272 Kouwenberg L.L.R., F. Wagner, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last Millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles. Geology, v. 33, no.1, pp. 33-36 van Hoof T.B., K.A. Kaspers, F. Wagner, R.S.W. van de Wal, W.M. Kürschner and H. Visscher 2005. Atmospheric CO2 during the 13th century AD: reconciliation of data from ice core measurements and stomatal frequency analysis. Tellus B, v. 57, pp. 351-355 van Hoof T.B., F. Wagner-Cremer, W.M. K Kürschner and H. Visscher 2008. A role for atmospheric CO2 in preindustrial climate forcing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, v. 105, no. 41, pp. 15815-15818 Wagner F., L.L.R. Kouwenberg, T.B. van Hoof and H. Visscher 2004. Reproducibility of Holocene atmospheric CO2 records based on stomatal frequency. Quartenary Science Reviews. V. 23, pp. 1947-1954

van Hoof, Thomas; Kouwenberg, Lenny; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Visscher, Henk



25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



75 FR 30757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to Delist Cirsium...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fullonum (teasel), Carduus nutans (musk thistle), Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle...Similarly, we have no information establishing Conium maculatum, Cirsium arvense, or Cirsium vulgare as...



29 CFR 1915.71 - Scaffolds or staging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...used in the construction of scaffolds shall be spruce, fir, long leaf yellow pine, Oregon pine or wood of equal strength. The use of hemlock, short leaf yellow pine, or short fiber lumber is prohibited. (3) Lumber dimensions as given...




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Region 6 Interim Old Growth Definition for Douglas-Fir Series, Grand Fir/White Fir Series, Interior Douglas Fir Series, LodgePole Pine Series, Pacific Silver Fir Series, Ponderosa Pine Series, Port-Orford-Cedar and Tanoak (Redwood) Series, Subalpine Fir Series and Western Hemlock Series.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following describes the ecologically important structural features of old-growth ecosystems. Measurable criteria for these attributes will be established in more specific definitions for forest types, habitat types, plant associations, or groupings of...



Combustion characteristics of six types of wood residue fuels as used in industrial spreader-stoker boilers. Technical progress report No. 10, September 16, 1977September 15, 1978. [Douglas Fir, Red Alder, Eastern White Pine, Ponderosa Pine, and Hemlock (bark, sawdust or shavings)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) funded a research project entitled Investigation of the Rate of Combustion of Wood Residue Fuels. In Fiscal 1978, the US Dept. of Energy provided continuation funding for this project. A pilot scale wood combustion test facility was constructed under the project and has been used to collect data on the




Modeling ecosystem disturbance over regional scales with the Ecosystem Demography model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ecosystem Demography (ED) model is a mechanistic individual-based terrestrial ecosystem model that is capable of explicitly incorporating ecosystem disturbance and recovery in regional and continental scale simulations. The ED model is a momentum approximation of a traditional `gap model', a stochastic individual model of forest dynamics. As such, ED models both the age and the size structures of the terrestrial ecosystems it simulates. The age structure directly accounts for the distribution of ages since last disturbance in each simulation grid cell, and captures the disturbance impact on the ecosystem's carbon stocks. The size structure is used to model the impact of different kinds of disturbance on ecosystem dynamics and the recovery processes following disturbance. We present a set of ED simulations of the carbon dynamics of New England for the period 1700-2100 that account for both natural and anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance. We simulate tree-fall, land-use change, forest harvesting, and the impact of the Hemlock Wooly Adelgid, an introduced pathogen of eastern hemlock. While all these disturbances involve tree mortality, their simulated impact on the carbon dynamics is substantially different depending on the timing, frequency, and selectivity of the disturbance. In particular the temporal patterns of net ecosystem productivity during ecosystem recovery from Hemlock Wooly Adelgid infestation is not only influenced by the amount of hemlock present, but also by the ecological role that hemlock played in that specific ecosystem, and by the species that replace it after removal.

Albani, M.; Moorcroft, P. R.; Medvigy, D.



Climatic change causes abrupt changes in forest composition, inferred from a high-resolution pollen record, southwestern Quebec, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pollen profile from a lake with varved sediments sampled at continuous 10-year intervals and spanning the past 1000 years was analyzed to understand the effects of climate change and anthropogenic activity on forests in southwestern Quebec. Pollen assemblages were dominated by arboreal taxa, primarily Pinus, Tsuga, Betula and Fagus. Between 990 and 1560 AD, pollen accumulation rates and percentages of hardwoods (Betula, Fagus, Acer, Ulmus, Tilia) and Tsuga were relatively high. At 1560 AD, PARs of many hardwood taxa (Fagus, Acer, Betula, Fraxinus, Ulmus) and Tsuga abruptly decreased, some remaining low for the remainder of the record (Tsuga, Fagus, Acer), but others increasing after 50 years (Betula, Fraxinus). An increase in non-arboreal pollen between 1810 and 2010 AD was caused by European settlement of the area. The transition in the pollen assemblages beginning at 1560 AD and a climate reconstruction based on these data shows an abrupt climate cooling had a significant impact on the pollen accumulation rates of the region within a couple of decades. A synthesis of this record with other high-resolution and well-dated pollen data from the conifer-hardwood forest of eastern North America shows consistent results across the whole area, indicating that very-high resolution pollen data can provide insight into multi-decadal climate variability and its impact on forest vegetation.

Paquette, Nathalie; Gajewski, Konrad



McArthur River Field - a Cook Inlet giant  

SciTech Connect

The eighth major discovery in Cook Inlet basin was announced on October 24, 1965, as a result of drilling the Union-operated Grayling 1-A well near the crest of a broad, low-relief anticline that had been mapped from seismic data as early as 1959. The prolific Hemlock Conglomerate was tested at rates exceeding 2000 BOPD. As delineation wells confirmed the size of the accumulation, three separate platforms were ordered and were in place by July 1967, and within three months, production from the Hemlock had begun. Additional oil-productive sands in the Tyonek Formation, immediately overlying the Hemlock as well as several more in the underlying West Foreland, Formation, were placed on production in September 1969. Significant reserves in shallower Tyonek Formation sandstone have only been used so far for platform power and gas lift. Development plans are currently being formulated for these reservoirs in response to the recent increasing demands for gas in Cook Inlet.

Stickney, R.B.; Warthen, R.C.



[Child poisoning after ingestion of a wild apiaceae: a case report].  


Apiaceae family (formerly Umbelliferae) contains several highly toxic species, including Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum), Water Hemlock (Cicuta virosa) and Hemlock Water Dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) which are the three main poisonous Apiaceae species growing in France. Thinking he was identifying wild carrots, an 11-year-old boy without previous history ingested the root from a wild Apiaceae. One hour later, he was confused, had drowsiness, headache as well as abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Upon hospital admission, myosis, ophtalmoplegia and a moderate rhabdomyolysis were noted. The patient recovered after 24 h of symptomatic treatments. In this case, the description of the ingested plant allowed to identify the Apiaceae family but not the species involved. The geographical location (Southern France in a humid area), the clinical features and the aspect of the ingested root, with an orange secretion led to implicate Oenanthe crocata as the origin of this unusual poisoning. PMID:18206356

Durand, M-F; Pommier, P; Chazalette, A; de Haro, L



Role of acid and aluminum-rich media in the growth and nutrition of Pacific Northwest conifers  

SciTech Connect

Forest soils of coastal Washington and Oregon tend to be very acidic with large accumulations of organic matter. Yet the productivity of forest species on these sites can attain record levels. The effect of acid and aluminum-rich media on the growth and nutrition of Pacific Northwest conifer species was investigated for western hemlock, Douglas-fir, western redcedar, and Sitka spruce. The four different types of growth media utilized were solution cultures, sand cultures, mineral soils, and forest floor organic matter. Hydroponic nutrient solutions and sand cultures were used in experiments designed to differentiate the effect of aluminum ions from the hydrogen ions generated by hydrolysis of Al/sup 3 +/. Relative to agronomic plants, all the conifers were found tolerant of the acid solutions and high levels of aluminum. Species differed in their relative tolerance to H/sup +/ and Al/sup 3/ ions. Western hemlock seedling growth was superior to Douglas-fir in the acidified soils and forest floor media, while Ca(OH)/sub 2/ amendment favored Douglas-fir. The marginal increase in western hemlock growth in N + P treated soils was highest in acidified soils. Western hemlock exhibited an ability to absorb nutrients in the presence of excess solution H/sup +/ ions, maintain growth with low tissue requirements of Ca and Mg, and accumulate high levels of aluminum in its roots and foliage without major adverse effect. These attributes are considered to make western hemlock the most acid and Al-tolerant of the four Pacific Northwest forest species studied. Western redcedar was second in acid tolerance to western hemlock. This species' ability to accumulate Ca minimized Al absorption and H/sup +/ damage to its roots.

Ryan, P.J.



A field test of the effect of acidic rain on ion balance in a woodland salamander  

SciTech Connect

Earlier laboratory studies demonstrated that red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, are susceptible to osmotic disruption by low pH substrates. In natural systems, however, acidic input from precipitation may be mediated by soils before it impacts salamanders. We tested the effect of acidic rain on sodium balance in salamanders by confining individuals in enclosure in two forest types (hemlock, beech) for 34 d. Enclosures received artificial rain of either pH 3 or 5 every 3-4 d. Soils inside enclosures in the hemlock forest were more acidic than those in the beech forest at the outset. At termination, [H[sup +

Frisbie, M.P.; Wyman, R.L. (Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond, KY (United States))



Comparison of aquatic invertebrates among four small forest streams in Takatori Mountain, Shikoku, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the aquatic invertebrate assemblages among four small streams, two of which were covered with planted forests comprised of Japanese cypress and cedar, and the other two of which were covered with natural forests comprised mainly of Japanese cypress, fir, and hemlock. Genus richness and composition of aquatic invertebrates were different among four sites. The difference could not be




Forest Age and Relative Abundance of Pileated Woodpeckers on Southeastern Vancouver Island1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We estimated relative abundance of the pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) at four sites in the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic zone, on southeastern Vancouver Island during 1996-1997. The number of pileated woodpecker calls was correlated with age and structure of forests. Pileated woodpeckers did not use intensively managed forests < 80 years old that had low densities of dead wood (large

Carol L. Hartwig; Donald S. Eastman; Alton S. Harestad




Microsoft Academic Search

The diverse geographic affinities of the Ohio flora have long been recognized and a large number of investigators have contributed to our knowledge of them. From the view- point of floristics alone, the complexity of the history of the primary vegetation of the region is strikingly illustrated by the presence of numerous disjunct species characteristic of prairie, plains, hemlock-hardwood and



Voluntary Euthanasia and the Right to Die: A Dialogue with Derek Humphry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents interview with Derek Humphry, founder of the Hemlock Society (an international right-to-die organization), who shares his personal experiences, as well as his efforts to educate the public and stimulate legal reform. Notes Humphry has dedicated more than a decade to this highly charged universal problem. (Author/ABL)

Sinnett, E. Robert; And Others



A field test of the effect of acidic rain on ion balance in a woodland salamander  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier laboratory studies demonstrated that red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereus, are susceptible to osmotic disruption by low pH substrates. In natural systems, however, acidic input from precipitation may be mediated by soils before it impacts salamanders. We tested the effect of acidic rain on sodium balance in salamanders by confining individuals in enclosure in two forest types (hemlock, beech) for 34

M. P. Frisbie; R. L. Wyman



Haida Food Gathering and Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students are introduced to the Haida language as well as to traditional Haida foods in this booklet, one in a series of curriculum materials on Southeast Alaska Natives. Ten selections written in simple language describe a Haida barbecue, Indian bread, sea cucumbers, black sea weed, the edible pulp sap of Hemlock, Indian ice cream made from soap…

Cogo, Robert


26 CFR 1.631-2 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...trees within the meaning of section 631(b). The term evergreen trees is used in its commonly accepted sense and includes pine, spruce, fir, hemlock, cedar, and other coniferous trees. [T.D. 6500, 25 FR 11737, Nov. 26, 1960; 25 FR...



Carolyn's Crown/Shafter Creek Research Natural Area. Guidebook Supplement 28.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guidebook describes the Carolyns Crown/Shafer Creek Research Natural Area, a 323-ha (798-ac) tract of coniferous forest containing stands of 600- to 900-year-old oldgrowth Douglas-fir along the transition between the western hemlock zone and the silv...

R. Schuller



Damage and recovery of tree species after two different tornadoes in the same old growth forest: a comparison of infrequent wind disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catastrophic wind disturbances in natural forests remain poorly studied, and the literature allows few comparisons of damage and recovery in the same forests disturbed by distinct wind events. Thus, it is still uncertain whether published findings are idiosyncratic or representative. Here I describe damage and recovery patterns in a large, primary hemlock–hardwoods forest in Pennsylvania, USA, which was struck by

Chris J. Peterson



Late Pliocene vegetation and climate of the Lake Baikal region, southern East Siberia, reconstructed from palynological data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynomorphs from a palaeomagnetically dated Late Pliocene sediment core (3.6–2.35 Ma) reflect highly variable climatic conditions and repeated expansion of steppe and boreo-alpine vegetation. Mixed coniferous forests (Picea, Tsuga, Pinus) with associated broadleaved taxa (Quercus, Corylus, Ulmus, Tilia) were affected by dry and cold intervals already between 3.48 and 3.39 Ma. Peak records of non-arboreal pollen types and spores, including

Dieter Demske; Barbara Mohr; Hedi Oberhänsli



Late quaternary dynamics of pollen influx at mineral lake, Washington  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pollen influx analysis at Mineral Lake, Washington, indicates that immediately south of the Puget Lobe of the Fraser Glaciation,\\u000a tundra was a characteristic vegetation until 16,300 years ago. Invasion ofPinus contorta began 17,500 years B.P., and boreal climax conifers (Abies, Picea andTsuga mertensiana), 16,300, but was temporarily interrupted by the Vashon advance (14,500–14,000 yr B.P.).Pseudotsuga menziesii began to grow in

Matsuo Tsukada; Shinya Sugita



Brightness of pollen as an indicator of thermal alteration by means of a computer-driven image processor: statistical thermal alteration index (stTAI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The brightness, or gray level, of pollen of Pinus, Podocarpus, Abies, Picea and Tsuga from the Neogene sediments in northern Japan was measured using a transmitted-light microscope with a computer-driven digital image processor. The mean value of the modes for the complete array of the indigenous pollen in a rock sample was called here “the statistical thermal alteration index” (stTAI).

Yoshihiro Ujiié



A comparison of in vitro anticancerous activity and mechanism of ethanolic extracts from different Ganoderma genus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five ethanolic extracts from the mycelia of Ganoderma lucidum, G. tsugae, G. oerstedii, G. subamboinense, and G. resinaceum were respectively studied on their anticancerous activities against leukemic HL-60 cell line in vitro. Results showed that\\u000a all five extracts potently inhibited HL-60 proliferation. The extract from G. lucidum mycelia exerted the highest activity. Annexin V\\/PI bivariate flow cytometric analysis further revealed

Yueqin Zhou; Xiaotong Yang; Xuquan Li; Huiqin Feng; Ke Mi; Qingyao Yang



Growth evaluation during the vegetative phase of dicotyledonous weeds and under phosphorus deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the objective of searching physiological plant traits associated to phosphorus (P) deficiency, growth parameters were evaluated during the early vegetative phase of development in two dicotyledonous wild species with different growth habits, but coexisting in the same environment. Ruellia tuberosa L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. were grown from seeds collected from nearby unfertilized areas. Sand culture experiments were conducted

Jocelyne Ascencio; José Vicente Lazo



Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Weeds collected from Marathwada Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of selected weeds such as Portulaca oleracea L. (Portulaceae), Cardiospermum helicacabum L. (Sapindaceae), Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae), Crotalaria retusa L. (Fabaceae) and Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Euphorbiaceae) were screened for phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activities were tested against two gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococus aureus), one gram-negative bacterium (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and a mould

Dhole JA; Dhole NA; Lone KD; Bodke SS; Rajarshi Shahu



Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ADEDAPO, A. A., M. O. ABATAN, O. O. OLORUNSOGO: Toxic effects of some plants in the genus Euphorbia on haematological and biochemical parameters of rats. Vet. arhiv 74, 53-62, 2004. ABSTRACT The toxic effects of 5 suspected poisonous plants of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbia balsamifera Aiton, E. heterophylla L., E. hirta L., E. hyssopifolia L., and E. lateriflora Schum and

Adeolu A. Adedapo; Matthew O. Abatan; Olufunso O. Olorunsogo



Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Tridax procumbens. All the plants were found to contain alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids

H. O. Edeoga; D. E. Okwu; B. O Mbaebie


Taxonomic notes on some species of the Cercospora complex (VI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new species Cercosporella pergulariae sp. nov., Pseudocercospora catalpicola sp. nov., Sirosporium rhamnigenum sp. nov., and Spiropes desmodiicola sp. nov. are described and Cercospora commelinicola Chupp is validated. Cercostigmina curta (Syd.) comb, nov., Eriocercosporella vitis-heterophyllae (Henn.) comb, nov., Mycovellosiella lactucae (Henn.) comb, nov., M. trichostemmatis (Henn.) comb, nov., M. tylophorae (Hansf.) comb, nov., Passalora caespitosa (Ellis & Everh.) comb, nov.,

Uwe Braun



Sexual Conflict and Sexually Antagonistic Coevolution in an Annual Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSexual conflict theory predicts sexually antagonistic coevolution of reproductive traits driven by conflicting evolutionary interests of two reproducing individuals. Most studies of the evolutionary consequences of sexual conflicts have, however, to date collectively investigated only a few species. In this study we used the annual herb Collinsia heterophylla to experimentally test the existence and evolutionary consequences of a potential sexual

Josefin A. Madjidian; Åsa Lankinen; Simon Joly



Climate changes inferred from integrated multi-site pollen data in northern Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we synthesized the fossil pollen data from 10 lake sediments and 2 land cores to integrate the alteration of forest covered areas in northern Taiwan with changes in humidity and temperature over the last 2000 years. The abundance of arboreal pollen, fern spores and Tsuga pollen in the pollen and spore assemblages were used as indicators. Our results suggested that the climate in northern Taiwan was stably cool and dry during 2000-1000 cal. yr BP, but changed to wet and warm during 1000-500 cal. yr BP, which corresponded to the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). In addition, an increased density and dispersal of Tsuga pollen corresponding to 500-200 cal. yr BP was observed, which corresponded to the Little Ice Age (LIA). In recent years, a decline in Tsuga pollen density and increased fern spore density has been observed, which indicates an increase in temperature associated with elevated rainfall. Based on the synthesized data set, we conducted GIS mapping of such changes in the north of Taiwan over time. The results revealed that the temporal and spatial climate changes could be inferred from the palynological GIS mapping method, and that the fluctuations in temperature over time matched well with the global climate events, including MWP, LIA and recent warming.

Wang, Liang-Chi; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Lee, Teh-Quei; Lee, Pei-Fen; Chen, Su-Hwa



Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio (C/V) of the deepest sedimentary fir/hemlock needles to 20% of the original value and almost tripled the carbon-normalized yield of total vanillyl plus cinnamyl phenols (?). The net result of these compositional variations was to make the lignin component of the buried conifer needles resemble lignin in gymnosperm wood, thereby leading to underestimates of needle input and mass.

Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.



Radar modeling of a boreal forest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microwave modeling, ground truth, and SAR data are used to investigate the characteristics of forest stands. A mixed coniferous forest stand has been modeled at P, L, and C bands. Extensive measurements of ground truth and canopy geometry parameters were performed in a 200-m-square hemlock-dominated forest plot. About 10 percent of the trees were sampled to determine a distribution of diameter at breast height (DBH). Hemlock trees in the forest are modeled by characterizing tree trunks, branches, and needles as randomly oriented lossy dielectric cylinders whose area and orientation distributions are prescribed. The distorted Born approximation is used to compute the backscatter at P, L, and C bands. The theoretical results are found to be lower than the calibrated ground-truth data. The experiment and model results agree quite closely, however, when the ratios of VV to HH and HV to HH are compared.

Chauhan, Narinder S.; Lang, Roger H.; Ranson, K. J.



McArthur River Field - a Cook Inlet giant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The eighth major discovery in Cook Inlet basin was announced on October 24, 1965, as a result of drilling the Union-operated Grayling 1-A well near the crest of a broad, low-relief anticline that had been mapped from seismic data as early as 1959. The prolific Hemlock Conglomerate was tested at rates exceeding 2000 BOPD. As delineation wells confirmed the size

R. B. Stickney; R. C. Warthen



Ex Situ Gene Conservation for Conifers in the Pacific Northwest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This current report from the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station evaluates the genetic resource status of several Pacific Northwest timber species. The 60-page report can be viewed using Adobe Acrobat Reader. The report finds that species like ponderosa pine, noble fir, and western hemlock have "extensive genetic resources in ex situ forms," while the resources for red cedar are more limited.

Johnson, G. R.; Lipow, Sara R.; St. Clair, J. B.



Ecological Setting of the Wind River Old-growth Forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind River old-growth forest, in the southern Cascade Range of Washington State, is a cool (average annual temperature, 8.7°C), moist (average annual precipitation, 2223 mm), 500-year-old Douglas-fir–western hemlock forest of moderate to low productivity at 371-m elevation on a less than 10% slope. There is a seasonal snowpack (November–March), and rain-on-snow and freezing-rain events are common in winter. Local geology

David C. Shaw; Jerry F. Franklin; Ken Bible; Jeffrey Klopatek; Elizabeth Freeman; Sarah Greene; Geoffrey G. Parker



Associations between regional moisture gradient, tree species dominance, and downed wood abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Downed wood functions as a source of nurse logs, physical structure in streams, food, and carbon. Because downed wood is important in upland and aquatic habitats, an understanding of wood recruitment along a continuum from wet to dry landscapes is critical for both preservation of biodiversity and restoration of natural ecosystem structure and function. We assessed downed wood in public and private forests of Washington and Oregon by using a subset of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database including 15,842 sampled conditions. Multivariate regression trees, ANOVA, and t-tests were used to discern environmental conditions most closely associated with abundance of woody debris. Of the 16 parameters included in the analysis, rainfall, forest ownership, number of damaged standing trees, and forest elevation were most indicative of woody debris abundance. The Hemlock/spruce Group, including hemlock, spruce, cedar, and white pine, most associated with wetter soils, had significantly more downed wood than 12 other forest groups. The Ponderosa Pine Group, indicative of drier sites with higher fire frequencies, included ponderosa pine, sugar pine, and incense cedar, and had significantly less downed wood volume. Overall, the amount of woody debris in either the Spruce/hemlock Group or the Ponderosa Pine Group did not change significantly as tree age increased from 5 to 350 years. Plots within the Hemlock/spruce with greater standing tree volume also had significantly greater downed wood volume. In contrast, greater downed wood volume was not associated with greater standing tree volume in the Ponderosa Pine Group. Knowledge of linkages among environmental variables and stand characteristics are useful in development of regional forest models aimed at understanding the effects of climate change and disturbance on forest succession.

Johnson, A. C.; Mills, J.



Displaced murder.  


Most suicide attempts appear to be impulsive and motivated by rage against another person. The author believes that publications of pro-suicide groups like EXIT or Hemlock serve a useful purpose for some terminally ill persons, although hospice care is a better approach for most dying patients. Potential suicides who are suffering from emotional stresses rather than terminal illnesses are best deterred by a personalized approach. PMID:11655389

Brand, Stewart



Donnan Equilibria in Wood-Alkali Interactions. Part II. Effect of Polysaccharide Ionization at High Alkalinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibria of mildly saponified W. hemlock wood meal with aqueous sodium hydroxide were studied in the concentration range 0.5 to 5.0 N, using added sodium chloride to characterize the Donnan effects involved in the equilibria. With increasing alkali concentration, the alkali reversibly consumed by the wood meal increases, reaching the value of 1.7 eq\\/kg dry wood. Quantitative determinations of

Qiusheng Pu; Kyosti Sarkanen



Assessing Endangered Ecosystems in the Inland Skeena Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southeastern Skeena region of British Columbia supports a rich variety of ecosystems with distinctive transitional or ecotonal characteristics. A 2-year pilot study was carried out to inventory and assess rare and endangered terrestrial ecosystems in the low- elevation Sub-Boreal Spruce (SBS) and Interior Cedar-Hemlock (ICH) biogeoclimatic zones. Scrub-steppe or savanna-steppe, grassland, and herbaceous meadow ecosystems are highly threatened by

Sybille Haeussler; Anne Hetherington


Effect of changes in regional forest abundance on the decline and recovery of a forest bird community  

Microsoft Academic Search

AssrRAcr.-Bird populations were monitored for 32 years in a 23-ha tract of hemlock- hardwood forest. Between 1953 and 1976 the total abundance of long-distance migrants declined significantly and four species disappeared, but after 1976 both the total abundance and the number of species increased. Multiple regression analysis shows that the abundance of long-distance migrants was negatively related to abundance of




The dynamics of rainfall interception by a seasonal temperate rainforest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net canopy interception (Inet) during rainfall in an old-growth Douglas-fir–western hemlock ecosystem was 22.8 and 25.0% of the gross rainfall (PG) for 1999 and 2000, respectively. The average direct throughfall proportion (p) and canopy storage capacity (S) derived from high-temporal resolution throughfall measurements were 0.36 and 3.3mm, respectively. Derived values of S were very sensitive to the estimated evaporation during

Timothy E. Link; Mike Unsworth; Danny Marks




Microsoft Academic Search

Five exploratory drying runs were carried out in a commercial size (23 m3), radio frequency\\/vacuum hardwood kiln. The species investigated were Pacific coast hemlock, Douglas-fir and western red cedar of different sizes and grades. Evaluation of the dried lumber showed that the three species can be dried in very short times and low amount of degrade irrespective of thickness with

Stavros Avramidis; Robert L. Zwick


Final Exit: a wake-up call to hospice.  


The publication of Final Exit resulted in a public response that was exuberant, largely sympathetic and, to many within hospice, disquieting. The book and the public response it engendered can not be understood without exploring the Hemlock Society and the political agenda which both the Society and book advance. Hospice must begin a response to this book, and any discussion with Hemlock supporters, from a basis of consensus. Hospice must acknowledge that those within the euthanasia/assisted suicide movement believe as deeply as we in hospice in the need to address the suffering of people enduring the effects of terminal illness. We must further acknowledge that there remain unmet needs in the care of the dying which for primarily socio-political reasons hospice has been unable to resolve. There are several compelling reasons for hospice as an organized movement to oppose the political initiatives of the Hemlock Society--at least in their present form and within the current social context. These reasons involve core ethical issues and issues of direct social consequence, each of which seems sufficient to reject the current proposals. Hospice programs and personnel must enter this debate in earnest. Before serious consideration is accorded to legalization of euthanasia/assisted suicide, we must insist that genuine access to comprehensive hospice/palliative care becomes a reality for all dying patients and their families. PMID:1725672

Byock, I R



Structural characterization of rubber from jackfruit and euphorbia as a model of natural rubber.  


A structural study of low molecular weight rubbers from Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) and Painted spurge (Euphorbia heterophylla) was carried out as model compounds of natural rubber from Hevea brasiliensis. The rubber content of latex from Jackfruit was 0.4-0.7%, which is very low compared with that of 30-35% in the latex from Hevea tree. The rubber from Jackfruit latex was low molecular weight with narrow unimodal molecular weight distribution (MWD), whereas that obtained from E. heterophylla showed very broad MWD. The 1H and 13C NMR analyses showed that Jackfruit rubber consists of a dimethylallyl group and two trans-isoprene units connected to a long sequence of cis-isoprene units. The alpha-terminal group of Jackfruit rubber was presumed to be composed of a phosphate group based on the presence of 1H NMR signal at 4.08 ppm corresponding to the terminal =CH-CH2OP group. PMID:15360318

Mekkriengkrai, Dararat; Ute, Koiichi; Swiezewska, Ewa; Chojnacki, Tadeusz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Sakdapipanich, Jitladda T



Application of a new TLC chemical method for detection of cyclopeptides in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclopeptides have been investigated phytochemically less often because until now there has not been a special chemical method\\u000a to detect them. Since we found cyclopeptides inPseudostellaria heterophylla (Caryophyllaceae) in 1991, we have gradually established a special chemical detection method for detecting cyclopeptides\\u000a in plants, which induces a new thin layer chromatography (TLC) protosite reaction with ninhydrin reagent. With this method,

Jun Zhou; Ninghua Tan



Bidens pilosa L. Exhibits High Sensitivity to Coumarin in Comparison with Three Other Weed Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine natural plant compounds were screened for phytotoxicity to Bidens pilosa L. a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. The sensitivity of three other weed species to coumarin, the most active\\u000a identified compound, was also evaluated. Coumarin, at a concentration of 500 ?M, had little effect on germination and growth\\u000a of Senna obtusifolia L., Euphorbia heterophylla L., and Ipomoea grandifolia

Érica Marusa Pergo; Denise Abrahim; Patrícia Cristina Soares da Silva; Kátia Aparecida Kern; Lucas Jonatas Da Silva; Elemar Voll; Emy Luiza Ishii-Iwamoto



[Studies on cold resistance of hazel determined and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry].  


Using annual branch of hazel as the experimental materials, the K(+)-leakage and relative electric conductivity of three hazel species (six hazel clones) which had been treated with different low temperature were determined by electro-conductivity gauge and atomic absorption spectrometry. Regression models were established for low temperature to the K(+)-leakage or the relative electric conductivity of six hazel clones. The results showed that there was the same result of cold resistance for all clones using the two methods of comprehensive evaluation, and the indicator of K(+)-leakage rate determined by atomic absorption spectrometry can be used as a means of early identification of cold resistance of hazel clones. There were obvious differences among the clones in the ability of cold resistance. The order of the ability of cold resistance for the six hazel clones was C7R7 > Z-9-40 > C6R1 > CS2R1 > Z-9-22 > Z-9-30, and the order of the ability of cold resistance for the three hazel species was C. heterophylla > C. heterophyllax X (C. heterophylla X C. avellana) > C. heterophylla X C. avellana. The median lethal temperature of tissue for all clones is -26(-)-40 degrees "C. PMID:20707172

Li, Xiu-Xia; Liu, Cheng-Cai; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Shao, Hong; Wu, Heng-Mei; Wang, Zhong; Yang, Yong-Nian; Li, Ji-Lin



A record of late Quaternary vegetation from Davis Lake, southern Puget Lowland, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen and macrofossil analyses of a core spanning 26,000 yr from Davis Lake reveal late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetational patterns in the Puget Lowland. The core ranges lithologically from a basal inorganic clay to a detritus gyttja to an upper fibrous peat and includes eight tephra units. The late Pleistocene pollen sequence records two intervals of tundra-parkland vegetation. The earlier of these has high percentages of Picea, Gramineae, and Artemisia pollen and represents the vegetation during the Evans Creek Stade (Fraser Glaciation) (ca. 25,000-17,000 yr B.P.). The later parkland interval is dominated by Picea, Tsuga mertensiana, and Gramineae. It corresponds to the maximum ice advance in the Puget Lowland during the Vashon Stade (Fraser Glaciation) (ca. 14,000 yr B.P.). An increase in Pinus ontorta pollen between the two tundra-parkland intervals suggests a temporary rise in treeline during an unnamed interstade. After 13,500 yr B.P., a mixed woodland of subalpine and lowland conifers grew at Davis Lake during a period of rapid climatic amelioration. In the early Holocene, the prolonged expansion of Pseudotsuga and Alnus woodland suggests dry, temperate conditions similar to those of present rainshadow sites in the Puget Lowland. More-mesic forests of Tsuga eterophylla, Thuja plicata, and Pseudotsuga, similar to present lowland vegetation, appeared in the late Holocene (ca. 5500 yr B.P.).

Barnosky, Cathy W.



High-level expression, purification and production of the fungal immunomodulatory protein-gts in baculovirus-infected insect larva.  


Fip-gts, a fungal immunomodulatory protein (Fip) isolated from Ganoderma tsugae (gts), has been reported to possess therapeutic effects in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease. To cost-effectively produce Fip-gts and bypass the bottleneck involved in its time-consuming purification from G. tsugae, in this study, we incorporated the SP(bbx) secretion signal into recombinant baculovirus for expressing glycosylated and bioactive rFip-gts in baculovirus-infected insect cells and Trichoplusia ni larva. This is the first study to employ the aerosol infecting T. ni larva with recombinant baculovirus for economical and high-level production of foreign proteins. In this study, one purification could yield 10 mg of rFip-gts protein merely from ?100 infected T. ni larvae by aerosol inoculation, corresponding to 5 L (5?×?10? cells) of the infected Sf21 culture. In addition, the rFip-gts purified from T. ni larvae could induce the expression of interleukin-2 in murine splenocytes with an immunoresponsive level similar to that induced by LZ-8 (a known potent immunomodulatory protein purified from Ling zhi, Ganoderma lucidum). Thus, our results demonstrated that the larva-based baculovirus expression system can successfully express rFip-gts with the assembling capability required for maintaining immunomodulatory and anticancer activity. Our approach will open a new avenue for the production of rFip-gts and facilitate the immunoregulatory activity of rFip-gts available in the future. PMID:23296801

Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-An; Li, Feng-Yin; Lin, Ching-Ting; Wu, Chi-Ming; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng; Hsieh, Sheng-Kuo; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong



Pliocene terrace gravels of the ancestral Yukon River near Circle, Alaska: Palynology, paleobotany, paleoenvironmental reconstruction and regional correlation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gravels deposited by the ancestral Yukon River are preserved in terrace remnants on the margins of the Yukon River valley near the village of Circle in east-central Alaska. Plant fossils recovered from sandy silt lenses within these gravels include cones and needles of Picea and Larix and a variety of seeds. Seed types include several taxa which no longer grow in Alaska, such as Epipremnum, Prunus and Weigela. Pollen types recovered from these deposits represent tree and shrub taxa that grow in interior Alaska today, such as Picea, Larix, Betula and Alnus, as well as several taxa that no longer grow in interior Alaska today, such as Pinus, Tsuga, Abies and Corylus. Pollen of herb taxa identified include Gramineae, Cyperaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Compositae, Polemonium and Epilobium. The fossil flora from the gravels near Circle are similar and probably age-equivalent to the flora recovered from the Nenana Gravel in the Alaska Range 250 km to the south. Palynological and tectonic evidence summarized in this paper now suggests that the Nenana Gravel was deposited during the early and middle Pliocene. The presence of plant fossils of Tsuga, Abies, Pinus, Weigela and Prunus suggests that the mean annual temperature (MAT) of eastern interior Alaska during the early and middle Pliocene was perhaps 7-9??C warmer and less continental than today's MAT of -6.4??C. ?? 1994.

Ager, T. A.; Matthews, Jr. , J. V.; Yeend, W.



The diagenetic behavior of cutin acids in buried conifer needles and sediments from a coastal marine environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whole green, litter, and sedimentary fir, hemlock, and cedar needles and bulk sediments collected from the Dabob Bay region in Washington state were analyzed for their cutin-derived CuO reaction products. All samples yielded dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid isomers (x,?-C 16), 16-hydroxyhexa-decanoic acid (?-C 16), 14-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (?-C 14), and 18-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid (?-C 18: 1) as the major cutin acids. Fir/hemlock needle mixtures were characterized by a high abundance of the 9,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoic acid positional isomer, while cedar needles produced primarily the 10,16-dihydroxy counterpart. Cutin acids accounted for ~3% of tissue C in green needles, ~4% in needle litter, 0.5-1.5% in sedimentary needles, and about 0.1% of the organic carbon (OC) in bulk sediments. Approximately 80% of the original cutin acids in fresh green needles were lost from the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary tissues. Cutin was more reactive than lignin and polysaccharides, but more stable than the cyclitol components of the same needles. Comparative diagenetic losses of the individual cutin acids were not uniform and suggest that additional hydroxy groups and the presence of C double bonds both increase overall reactivity. The relative stability series derived for all the molecular constituents measured is: total vanillyl phenols > total P- hydroxy phenols, ferulic acid, most aldoses, bulk organic matter > mannose, ?-C 14, ?-C 16 ? ?-C 18:1 > glucose, p- coumaric acid, x, ?-C 16 > all cyclitols. Diagenetically induced changes in the various cutin parameters used to characterize nonwoody vascular plant tissues were not large enough to confuse degraded conifer tissues with other cutin sources. Based on these trends, the finely disseminated cutin-bearing tissues in Dabob Bay sediments appear to be comprised approximately of equal amounts of highly degraded fir/hemlock and cedar needle fragments. According to this estimate, nonwoody vascular plant debris accounted for roughly 15% of the total organic matter present in these sediments.

Goñi, Miguel A.; Hedges, John I.



Society needs MD-assisted death, Canadian-trained medical director of US right-to-die society says.  

PubMed Central

The growth of an American organization that supports the right to die is proof that the public wants and needs physician-assisted death, says a University of Alberta alumnus who is medical director of the Hemlock Society. Dr. Richard MacDonald says he believes individual patients have the right to decide whether they want to live with a certain quality of life. Both the American Medical Association and the CMA have spoken out against physician-assisted death, but MacDonald says this opposition is out of touch with the opinions of individual physicians and patients.

Williams, L S



Forest Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial discusses the concept of forest succession, the stages of development which forest plants follow as they grow or re-grow following an event such as a forest fire or insect infestation. Topics include the role of pioneer species, the transition to longer-lived plants such as lodgepole pine, Douglas fir, and subalpine fir, and the transition to climax species such as cedars, hemlocks and spruce. There is also a discussion of the lifespan of climax forests and the wildlife species that inhabit the forest in each stage of succession. A quiz and glossary are provided.


Biogenic and thermogenic origins of natural gas in Cook Inlet basin, Alaska.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two types of natural gas occurences are present. The major reserves (1.8 x 1011m3) occur in shallow (less than 2.300 m), nonassociated dry gas fields that contain methane with del13C in the range of -63 to -56 per mil. These gas fields are in sandstones interbedded with coals, the gas fields are interpreted as biogenic in origin. Lesser reserves of natural gas are associated with oil in the deeper Hemlock Conglomerate at the base of the Tertiary section; associated gas contains methane with del13C of about -46 per mil. These gases are thermogenic in origin.- from Authors

Claypool, G. E.; Threlkeld, C. N.; Magoon, L. B.



Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from wood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from nine wood samples was investigated. The samples of hardwoods were aspen poplar, beech, yellow birch, and red oak. The samples of softwoods were western red cedar, Douglas fir, western hemlock, eastern white pine, and southern yellow pine. There was no significant difference between the wood samples under rising temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a developing fire, or under fixed temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a fully developed fire. This test method is used to determine whether a material is significantly more toxic than wood under the preflashover conditions of a developing fire.

Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.; Oneill, B. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.



Distribution of some rare plants along saurashtra coast and neighbouring Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper records with brief notes new records and localities for the occurrence of the following flowering plants from Saurashtra\\u000a coast and neighbouring islands:Merremia quinquefolia (L.) Hall. f.,Euphorbia heterophylla L.,Kedrostis rostrata (Rottl.) Cogn.,Portulaca tuberosa Roxb.,Grewia villosa Willd.,Alhagi pseudalhagi (M. Bieb.) Desv.,Delonix elata (L.) Gamble,Psilostachys sericea (Koen. ex Roxb.) Hook. f.,Maerua arenaria Hook. f. and Thoms. var.scabra Hook. f. and Thoms.,Vogelia

T. Ananda Rao; B. Safui



Diet of eared doves (Zenaida auriculata, Aves, Columbidae) in a sugar-cane colony in South-eastern Brazil.  


Farmers in the Paranapanema Valley (São Paulo, Brazil) have reported problems with flocks of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata) eating sprouting soybeans. In this region these birds breed colonially in sugar-cane, and eat four crop seeds, using 70% of the dry weight, in the following order of importance: maize, wheat, rice, and soybeans. Three weeds (Euphorbia heterophylla, Brachiaria plantaginea, and Commelina benghalensis) were important. This information suggests that the doves adapted particularly well to the landscape created by the agricultural practices in the region, exploiting many available foods. PMID:12071322

Ranvaud, R; de Freitas, K C; Bucher, E H; Dias, H S; Avanzo, V C; Alberts, C C



Poisonous plants: effects on embryo and fetal development.  


Poisonous plant research in the United States began over 100 years ago as a result of livestock losses from toxic plants as settlers migrated westward with their flocks, herds, and families. Major losses were soon associated with poisonous plants, such as locoweeds, selenium accumulating plants, poison-hemlock, larkspurs, Veratrum, lupines, death camas, water hemlock, and others. Identification of plants associated with poisoning, chemistry of the plants, physiological effects, pathology, diagnosis, and prognosis, why animals eat the plants, and grazing management to mitigate losses became the overarching mission of the current Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory. Additionally, spin-off benefits resulting from the animal research have provided novel compounds, new techniques, and animal models to study human health conditions (biomedical research). The Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory has become an international leader of poisonous plant research as evidenced by the recent completion of the ninth International Symposium on Poisonous Plant Research held July 2013 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China. In this article, we review plants that negatively impact embryo/fetal and neonatal growth and development, with emphasis on those plants that cause birth defects. Although this article focuses on the general aspects of selected groups of plants and their effects on the developing offspring, a companion paper in this volume reviews current understanding of the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of toxicoses and teratogenesis. PMID:24339034

Panter, Kip E; Welch, Kevin D; Gardner, Dale R; Green, Benedict T



Boreal peatland margins as repository sites of long-term natural disturbances of balsam fir/spruce forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary, high-resolution paleoecological study (Lepidoptera and plant remains, macroscopic charcoal, pollen) was conducted on a 4000-yr peat monolith extracted from the margin of an ombrotrophic peatland on Anticosti Island (Gulf of St. Lawrence, eastern Canada) to reconstruct the long-term natural disturbances (insect outbreaks, forest fires) of a balsam fir/spruce forest. We hypothesized that an activity of insect defoliators (spruce budworm, hemlock looper) was the main disturbance factor of conifer forests during the Late Holocene. The earliest remains of spruce budworm and hemlock looper were found ca. 3220 and 2350 cal yr BP, respectively. Peaks of insect head capsules occurred from ca. 1640 to ca. 625 cal yr BP. Low balsam fir pollen concentrations during this period suggest a lengthy episode (˜ 1000 yr) of high insect activity, resulting in extensive fir dieback and mortality. The long-term dynamics of the pristine balsam fir/spruce forests were mainly governed by the activity of insect defoliators. The limited extent and possibly the low occurrence of forest fires in the maritime environment of Anticosti Island allowed the development of mature coniferous stands propitious for insect infestations. Insect head capsules appeared to be a useful and effective tool for establishing insect presence and activity during the Holocene.

Lavoie, Martin; Filion, Louise; Robert, Élisabeth C.



Mapped plant macrofossil and pollen records of late Quaternary vegetation change in eastern North America  

SciTech Connect

We compiled a plant macrofossil database for 12 eastern North American tree and shrub taxa (Picea sp., P. glauca, P. mariana, Larix laricina, Abies balsamea, Tsuga canadensis, Pinus strobus, P. banksiana, P. resinosa, Betula papyrifera, B. alleghaniensis, B. Series Humiles) at 264 late Quaternary sites. Presence/absence maps for these taxa at 18,000, 15,000, 12,000, 9000, 6000, 3000, and 0 {sup 14}C yr B.P. show changes in geographic ranges of these species in response to climatic change. Comparison of the macrofossil maps with isopoll maps for corresponding taxa corroborates inferences from the pollen data, and reveals species-level patterns not apparent in the pollen maps.

Jackson, S.T.; Overpeck, J.T.; Webb, T. III [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)]|[NOAA/NGDC, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)



Human-ecosystem interactions in relation to Holocene environmental change in Port Joli Harbour, southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution pollen record from Path Lake in Port Joli Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada, provides a paleo-ecological perspective on Holocene climate and vegetation variability within the context of local archaeological research. Pollen assemblages in the early Holocene reflect a post-glacial forest dominated by Pinus, Tsuga, Betula and Quercus. During this time, a lower frequency of radiocarbon dated cultural material suggests lower human settlement intensity. Shallow water aquatic (Isoetes) and wetland (Alnus, Sphagnum) taxa increased after 3400 cal yr BP in response to a transition towards wetter climatic conditions. Culturally significant periods, where settlement intensity increased in the Maritimes and Maine, coincide with maximum values of reconstructed total annual precipitation, suggesting that environmental conditions may have influenced prehistoric human activity. European settlement, after 350 cal yr BP, was marked by a rise in Ambrosia. The impact of anthropogenic fire disturbances on the landscape was evidenced by peak charcoal accumulations after European settlement.

Neil, Karen; Gajewski, Konrad; Betts, Matthew



The pine bark Adelgid, Pineus strobi, contains two novel bacteriocyte-associated gammaproteobacterial symbionts.  


Bacterial endosymbionts of the pine bark adelgid, Pineus strobi (Insecta: Hemiptera: Adelgidae), were investigated using transmission electron microscopy, 16S and 23S rRNA-based phylogeny, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two morphologically different symbionts affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria were present in distinct bacteriocytes. One of them ("Candidatus Annandia pinicola") is most closely related to an endosymbiont of Adelges tsugae, suggesting that they originate from a lineage already present in ancient adelgids before the hosts diversified into the two major clades, Adelges and Pineus. The other P. strobi symbiont ("Candidatus Hartigia pinicola") represents a novel symbiont lineage in members of the Adelgidae. Our findings lend further support for a complex evolutionary history of the association of adelgids with a phylogenetically diverse set of bacterial symbionts. PMID:24271164

Toenshoff, Elena R; Szabó, Gitta; Gruber, Daniela; Horn, Matthias



AMS radiocarbon dating of wood trunks in the pumiceous deposits of the Kikai-Akahoya eruption in Yakushima Island, SW Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiocarbon dating using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was performed on numerous wood trunks from pumiceous deposits along the Nagata, Isso and Miyanoura rivers on the northern side of Yakushima Island, 60 km south of Kyushu Island. The obtained 14C dates were around 6.5 ka BP, which, in combination with the geological characteristics of the pumiceous deposits indicates that these specimens were buried during the Kikai-Akahoya (K-Ah) eruption from the Kikai caldera. However, the fact that they are not charred suggests that the origin of these deposits are not pyroclastic flows. Fourteen taxa (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon, Tsuga, Cryptomeria, Chamaecyparis, Myrica, Castanea, Castanopsis, Quercus subgen. Cyclobalanopsis, Trochodendron, Phellodendron, Lagerstroemia, Rhododendron, Myrsine and Symplocos) were identified through anatomical characteristics. This is the first discovery of forest species on the Yakushima Island before the devastating eruption.

Okuno, Mitsuru; Nakamura, Toshio; Geshi, Nobuo; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo



Postglacial vegetation, fire, and climate history of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon, USA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The forests of the Siskiyou Mountains are among the most diverse in North America, yet the long-term relationship among climate, diversity, and natural disturbance is not well known. Pollen, plant macrofossils, and high-resolution charcoal data from Bolan Lake, Oregon, were analyzed to reconstruct a 17,000-yr-long environmental history of high-elevation forests in the region. In the late-glacial period, the presence of a subalpine parkland of Artemisia, Poaceae, Pinus, and Tsuga with infrequent fires suggests cool dry conditions. After 14,500 cal yr B.P., a closed forest of Abies, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga, and Alnus rubra with more frequent fires developed which indicates more mesic conditions than before. An open woodland of Pinus, Quercus, and Cupressaceae, with higher fire activity than before, characterized the early Holocene and implies warmer and drier conditions than at present. In the late Holocene, Abies and Picea were more prevalent in the forest, suggesting a return to cool wet conditions, although fire-episode frequency remained relatively high. The modern forest of Abies and Pseudotsuga and the present-day fire regime developed ca. 2100 cal yr B.P. and indicates that conditions had become slightly drier than before. Sub-millennial-scale fluctuations in vegetation and fire activity suggest climatic variations during the Younger Dryas interval and within the early Holocene period. The timing of vegetation changes in the Bolan Lake record is similar to that of other sites in the Pacific Northwest and Klamath region, and indicates that local vegetation communities were responding to regional-scale climate changes. The record implies that climate-driven millennial- to centennial-scale vegetation and fire change should be considered when explaining the high floristic diversity observed at present in the Siskiyou Mountains.

Briles, Christy E.; Whitlock, Cathy; Bartlein, Patrick J.



Effects of a Chinese medical herbs complex on cellular immunity and toxicity-related conditions of breast cancer patients.  


Rose geranium (Pelargonium graveolens, Geraniaceae) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties, and promotes wound healing. Similarly, Ganoderma tsugae (Ganodermataceae), Codonopsis pilosula (Campanulaceae) and Angelica sinensis (Apiaceae) are traditional Chinese herbs associated with immunomodulatory functions. In the present study, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to examine whether the Chinese medicinal herb complex, RG-CMH, which represents a mixture of rose geranium and extracts of G. tsugae, C. pilosula and A. sinensis, can improve the immune cell count of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy to prevent leucopenia and immune impairment that usually occurs during cancer therapy. A total of fifty-eight breast cancer patients who received chemotherapy or radiotherapy were enrolled. Immune cell levels in patient serum were determined before, and following, 6 weeks of cancer treatment for patients receiving either an RG-CMH or a placebo. Administration of RG-CMH was associated with a significant reduction in levels of leucocytes from 31·5 % for the placebo group to 13·4 % for the RG-CMH group. Similarly, levels of neutrophils significantly decreased from 35·6 % for the placebo group to 11·0 % for the RG-CMH group. RG-CMH intervention was also associated with a decrease in levels of T cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells compared with the placebo group. However, these differences between the two groups were not statistically significant. In conclusion, administration of RG-CMH to patients receiving chemotherapy/radiotherapy may have the capacity to delay, or ease, the reduction in levels of leucocytes and neutrophils that are experienced by patients during cancer treatment. PMID:21864416

Zhuang, S R; Chiu, H F; Chen, S L; Tsai, J H; Lee, M Y; Lee, H S; Shen, Y C; Yan, Y Y; Shane, G T; Wang, C-K



Late-glacial to Holocene climate variability and drought in the mid-Hudson Valley region of New York state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment cores from Lakes Minnewaska and Mohonk in the Shawangunk Mountains of southeastern New York were analyzed for pollen, plant macrofossils, macroscopic charcoal, organic carbon content, carbon isotopic composition, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and lithologic changes to determine the vegetation and landscape history of the mid-Hudson Valley region since deglaciation. Pollen stratigraphy generally matches the New England pollen zones identified by Deevey (1939) and Davis (1969), with boreal genera (Picea, Abies) present during the late Pleistocene yielding to a mixed Pinus, Quercus and Tsuga forest in the early Holocene. Lake Minnewaska sediments record the Younger Dryas and possibly the 8.2 cal kyr BP climatic events in pollen and sediment chemistry along with an ~1100 cal yr interval of wet conditions (increasing Tsuga and declining Quercus) centered about 6400 cal yr BP (5600 14C yrs BP). Mohonk Lake reveals a protracted drought interval in the middle Holocene ~5900-4700 cal yr BP (~4900-3900 14C yrs BP), during which Pinus rigida colonized the watershed, lake level fell, and frequent fires led to enhanced hillslope erosion. Together, the records show at least three wet-dry cycles throughout the Holocene and both similarities and differences to records in New England and western New York. Drought intervals may reflect a combination of enhanced La Niña, negative phase NAO, and positive phase PNA climatic patterns and/or northward shifts of storm tracks. AMS radiocarbon dates determined at the onset of organic deposition in each lake contribute to the ongoing development of the Laurentide deglaciation chronology in the region.

Menking, K. M.; Peteet, D. M.; Anderson, R. Y.



[Mites (Acari) from rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) and spontaneous euphorbiaceous in rubber trees cultivation].  


Quarterly samples were done in 2001 on three rubber tree plantation in the northwest of the state of São Paulo. Three rubber trees of each locality were sampled. Between the rows of rubber tree four species of spontaneous euphorbiaceous were collected: Chamaesyce hirta, C. hyssopifolia, Euphorbia heterophylla and Phyllanthus tenellus. A total of 8.954 mites of 38 species, belonging to 31 genera of 11 families were collected. Tydeidae and Phytoseiidae had the highest diversity of species, 9 and 7, respectively. The most abundant families were Eriophyidae (3.594), Tydeidae (2.825) and Tenuipalpidae (1.027). The most abundant species on the rubber trees were: phytophagous - Calacarus heveae Feres, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, Lorryia sp.2, Lorryia formosa Cooreman and Lorryia sp.1; predators - Zetzellia quasagistemas Hernandes & Feres, Pronematus sp., Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma and Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma. Among the spontaneous euphorbiaceous, predatory mites were abundantly found on C. hirta and E. heterophylla, mainly Pronematus sp. and E. citrifolius, suggesting that these plants could be important in the maintenance of these predators in the rubber tree cultivation areas. However, plants that can shelter predators and at the same time exert strong competition (nutrients, water etc) to rubber trees, can not be recommended for pest management programs. Studies about competition between rubber trees and spontaneous plants need to be conducted for feasible efficient programs of environmental management, aiming at the control of pest mites of rubber tree. PMID:18813750

Bellini, Marcos R; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Buosi, Renato



Synthesis of new phytogrowth-inhibitory substituted aryl-p-benzoquinones.  


Reaction of [(2-alkyloxy)methyl]-1,4-dimethoxybenzene 10 (alkyl=butyl, hexyl, decyl, tridecyl, tetradecyl, hexadecyl, and octadecyl) with ceric ammonium nitrate in order to produce p-benzoquinones (=cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-diones) afforded 5-[(alkyloxy)methyl]-2-(4-formyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)benzo-1,4-quinones 12a-12g in yields that varied from 46 to 97%, accompanied by 2-[(alkyloxy)methyl]benzo-1,4-quinones 11a-11g in only small quantities (< or =5%). These quinones resemble the natural phytotoxic compound sorgoleone, found in Sorghum bicolor. This reaction exemplifies a general procedure for the synthesis of novel aryl-substituted p-benzoquinones. The selective effects of compounds 12a-12g, at the concentration of 5.5 ppm, on the growth of Cucumis sativus, Sorghum bicolor, Euphorbia heterophylla, and Ipomoea grandifolia were evaluated. All compounds caused some inhibition upon the aerial parts and root growth of the tested plants. The most active compound, 2-(4-formyl-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-[(tridecyloxy)methyl]-benzo-1,4-quinone (12d), caused between 3 and 18%, and 12 and 29% inhibition on the roots and aerial parts development of Cucumis sativus and Sorghum bicolor, respectively, and between 77 and 85%, and 34 and 52% inhibition on the roots and aerial parts growth of Euphorbia heterophylla and Ipomoea grandifolia, respectively. PMID:17193291

de Almeida Barbosa, Luiz Cláudio; de Alvarenga, Elson Santiago; Demuner, Antônio Jacinto; Virtuoso, Luciano Sindra; Silva, Antônio Alberto



Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) for producing silicon from dichlorosilane in a 1,000 MT/yr plant was continued. Progress and status for the chemical engineering analysis of the HSC process are reported for the primary process design engineering activities: base case conditions (85%), reaction chemistry (85%), process flow diagram (60%), material balance (60%), energy balance (30%), property data (30%), equipment design (20%) and major equipment list (10%). Engineering design of the initial distillation column (D-01, stripper column) in the process was initiated. The function of the distillation column is to remove volatile gases (such as hydrogen and nitrogen) which are dissolved in liquid chlorosilanes. Initial specifications and results for the distillation column design are reported including the variation of tray requirements (equilibrium stages) with reflux ratio for the distillation.



The effect of changes in the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method on data from some cellular polymers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rankings of relative toxicity can be markedly affected by changes in test variables. Revision of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test procedure to eliminate the connecting tube and supporting floor and incorporate a 1.0 g sample weight, 200 C starting temperature, and 800 C upper limit temperature for pyrolysis, reversed the rankings of flexible polyurethane and polychloroprene foams, not only in relation to each other, but also in relation to cotton and red oak. Much of the change is attributed to reduction of the distance between the sample and the test animals, and reduction of the sample weight charged. Elimination of the connecting tube increased the relative toxicity of the polyurethane foams. The materials tested were flexible polyurethane foam, without and with fire retardant; rigid polyurethane foam with fire retardant; flexible polychloroprene foam; cotton, Douglas fir, red oak, hemlock, hardboard, particle board, polystyrene, and polymethyl methacrylate.

Hilado, C. J.; Miller, C. M.



Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.  


Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring. PMID:2089736

Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J



[The attempts at drug therapy of cancer by Anton Störck (1731-1803). History of experimental pharmacology in the old Vienna Medical School].  


The essay deals with the development of medical research in Vienna - especially the development of therapeutic drugs. This progress is related to the philosophical, historical, and political background of the enlightened absolutism and the reformatory efforts of van Swieten during the regency of Maria Theresia in Austria. Anton Störck's research on hemlock (Conium maculatum) is used as an example. The method of Störck's research-work is described. Furthermore it is demonstrated to what extent Störck's data, deduced from empirical examinations, are integrated in the official medical system, i.e. Boerhaave's iatromechanic system. Finally the attempt is made to correlate these processes of medical history with the scientific-historical model of Thomas Kuhn. PMID:7043908

Schweppe, K W; Probst, C



Antifeedant compounds from three species of Apiaceae active against the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller).  


Extracts of volatiles from foliage of three plants in the Apiaceae, Conium maculatum L. (hemlock), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), and Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Nym.) (parsley), previously shown to exhibit antifeedant activity in assays with the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller) (Limacidae: Pulmonata), were studied further to identify the active components. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and neurophysiological assays using tentacle nerve preparations resulted in the identification of 11 active compounds from the three extracts. Wheat flour feeding bioassays were used to determine which of these compounds had the highest antifeedant activity. One of the most active compounds was the alkaloid gamma-coniceine, from C. maculatum. The role of potentially toxic alkaloids as semiochemicals and the potential for using such compounds as crop protection agents to prevent slug feeding damage is discussed. PMID:15139308

Birkett, Michael A; Dodds, Catherine J; Henderson, Ian F; Leake, Lucy D; Pickett, John A; Selby, Martin J; Watson, Peter



Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.  


Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. PMID:22449544

Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R



Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of coniine enantiomers.  


Coniine, one of the major toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum), occurs in two optically active forms. A comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers has not been previously reported. In this study, we separated the enantiomers of coniine and determined the biological activity of each enantiomer in vitro and in vivo. The relative potencies of these enantiomers on TE-671 cells expressing human fetal nicotinic neuromuscular receptors had the rank order of (-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine > (+)-coniine. A mouse bioassay was used to determine the relative lethalities of (-)-, (+/-)-, and (+)-coniine in vivo. The LD 50 values of the coniine enantiomers were 7.0, 7.7, and 12.1 mg/kg for the (-)-, (+/-)-, and (+)- forms of coniine, respectively. The results from this study demonstrate that there is a stereoselective difference in the in vitro potencies of the enantiomers of coniine that directly correlates with the relative toxicities of the enantiomers in vivo. PMID:18763813

Lee, Stephen T; Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E



Older women and mercy killing.  


Mercy killing is usually defined as intentional killing, often by family members or friends, with the stated intent to end perceived suffering. International evidence suggests that mercy killing typically involves an older man killing his ailing wife. In this study, we examined U.S. cases of mercy killing recorded by The Hemlock Society for the period 1960-1993. We found that the typical case involved an older woman being killed by a man, often her husband, with her poor health as the justification for the killing. A firearm was often used in these incidents. These patterns of mercy killing are consistent with patterns of homicide-suicide among older adults. Future research should seek to understand why women are typically the targets, and men the agents of mercy killing. PMID:12557885

Canetto, S S; Hollenshead, J D


Evaluating Paleoecological Patterns Using Paleoenvironmental Proxies: The Promise and the Peril  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the past seven years we have been studying the vegetational history of the western Great Lakes region in the context of mid- to late Holocene climate change and variability. Our work has included diverse archives and proxies for both paleoecological and paleoclimatic inference. The former consist of pollen, plant-macrofossil, and charcoal records from sediments of small lakes and peatlands. Paleoclimate inferences have been based on lake-level records, peatland-inception dates, dune and lakeshore dynamics, and paleohydrological reconstructions from ombrotrophic and kettle peatlands. Our greatest success has been in pairing lake-based paleoecological records with peatland-based paleohydrological records. Peatland hydrology is sensitive to annual and seasonal moisture variation, and peatland-sediment archives contain diverse proxies including testate-amoeba assemblages, humification, organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and plant macrofossils. Our work has resolved old controversies while unveiling unforeseen patterns. Examples include: (1) A mid-Holocene decline in hemlock populations, long attributed to a pest/pathogen outbreak, coincided with a rapid, unprecedented drop in peatland water levels. However, the decline shows complex structure in time, both ecologically and climatically. Hemlock's final demise 5000 yr BP was preceded by several centuries of multidecadal hydrological fluctuation accompanied by time- lagged hemlock fluctuations. (2) A late Holocene decline in beech populations, variously attributed to human-set fires and the Little Ice Age, occurred during a series of severe multidecadal droughts. This event is also structured in time and space: in some areas the droughts were dampened and beech increased, and at sites where beech decline and droughts occurred, beech pollen, charcoal concentrations, and water-levels fluctuated dramatically between 1000 and 700 yr BP. (3) Yellow birch populations expanded rapidly across a broad swath of Upper Michigan and Wisconsin during an extended pluvial period (4000-3000 yr BP) that followed on a drought of extraordinary duration and severity (4200-4000 yr BP). Continued expansion of yellow birch, as well as hemlock and beech, after 3000 yr BP was mediated by edaphic mosaics and centennial-scale pluvial events. Our experience indicates that integrated paleoecological and paleoclimatological studies have payoffs for ecology, paleoecology, and paleoclimatology. Perils, though real, are no different from those encountered in other interdisciplinary enterprises in the historical sciences. We identify six key challenges for continued progress in this area: (1)identifying, refining, and applying paleoclimate proxies that are sensitive to the same climate variables and at the same timescales as the ecological systems of interest. (2) correlating events in time among records, particularly when paleoecological and paleoclimate data derive from different archives. (3) identifying and modeling lags in ecological response to climate forcings. (4) determining proximal mechanisms of past ecological responses to climate changes. (5) assessing indirect responses to climate forcing, and interactions between climate and other factors (e.g., pests, wildfires). (6) determining "when to quit" - when to conclude that climate forcing of an observed ecological event is insupportable (versus assuming that the proxies examined to date simply aren't sensitive to whatever the ecological system is responding to). Meeting these challenges will require engagement and collaboration among paleoecologists, paleoclimatologists, geochronologists, and ecologists.

Jackson, S. T.; Booth, R. K.



The problem of conifer species migration lag in the Pacific Northwest region since the last glaciation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiproxy evidence indicates that warmer-than-present summers became established in Eastern Beringia as early as 14,000-13,000 years ago, but the dispersal of spruces, pines, cedars and hemlocks across the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of southern Alaska did not begin until at least 1500 years afterwards, and took many thousands of years to be completed. There are many potential reasons for this slow spread of PNW conifers towards their modern range limits. The absence of mycorrhizae in the soils of southern Alaska may have slowed conifer establishment. The availability of soil moisture was another limiting factor. With the exception of Pinus contorta, the other PNW conifers become established most readily from seeds that fall on moist, shaded substrates, thus they are not good pioneering species. Competition with alder and birch played an important role, especially along Prince William Sound and the Kenai Peninsula. Alder or alder and birch dominated these regions until the mid- to late Holocene. The other key element for most PNW conifer species is the precipitation regime. The hemlocks, cedars and Sitka spruce are not drought-hardy. So although the PNW temperature regime may have been warm enough in early postglacial times to support the growth of PNW conifers, it was probably too dry for them to successfully become established in new regions. The conflation of these environmental factors limits our present understanding of the problem, but the recent trend of multi-proxy analysis in Quaternary paleoecology will certainly sharpen our reconstructions. Such proxies as conifer needle stomata and insect fossil remains hold significant promise.

Elias, Scott A.



Analysis of nrDNA sequences and microsatellite allele frequencies reveals a cryptic chanterelle species Cantharellus cascadensis sp. nov. from the American Pacific Northwest.  


In the Pacific Northwest, yellow chanterelles have long been referred to as Cantharellus cibarius, synonymous with the European yellow chanterelle. Broad scale genetic surveys of North American chanterelles with C. cibarius-like morphology have demonstrated that the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer exhibits length variability, suggesting that this common morphology masks a species complex. Recently researchers have used morphological and genetic data to identify the yellow chanterelle most frequently harvested from American Pacific Northwest forests as C. formosus, a species once thought to be rare in the region. We present three genetic data sets and one morphological data set that characterize a previously undescribed, species of yellow chanterelle from the central Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Phylogenetic analyses of the nrDNA large subunit and ITS regions show that C. cascadensis sp. nov., along with two other yellow chanterelle taxa (C. cibarius var. roseocanus and European C. cibarius), are more closely related to white chanterelles (C. subalbidus) than they are to C. formosus. Data from five microsatellite loci provide evidence that C. formosus, C. subalbidus, and C. cascadensis sp. nov. do not interbreed when they co-occur spatially and temporally in Douglas fir-western hemlock forests. This demonstrates that these three sympatric chanterelles are biological species with boundaries congruent with those delineated by nrDNA phylogenetic clades. Morphological data indicate that the colour of the pileus and shape of the stipe can be used to separate fresh collections of the two yellow species now known to co-occur in Douglas fir-western hemlock forests in Oregon. PMID:14635765

Dunham, Susie M; O'Dell, Thomas E; Molina, Randy



Identification of Begomoviruses Infecting Crops and Weeds in Belize  

PubMed Central

Plants including pepper, red kidney bean, squash, string bean and tomato, as well as weeds with viral symptoms were collected from five districts in Belize over a three year period with the aim of determining the diversity of the begomoviruses present. Sixty five percent of the samples screened via DNA hybridization produced signals indicative of begomovirus infection. Subsequent PCR amplifications and nucleotide sequence analyses revealed the presence of four begomoviruses in Belize. Pepper golden mosaic virus and Tomato mottle virus-[Flo] were found associated with tomato and sweet pepper and the former was also isolated from hot pepper. Merremia mosaic virus was found infecting hot pepper, sweet pepper and the weed species Euphorbia heterophylla. Euphorbia mosaic virus-[Yucatan Peninsula] was found in hot pepper and Euphorbia. This is the first report of the identification of begomoviruses in Belize.

McLaughlin, Pamela D.; McLaughlin, Wayne A.; Maxwell, Douglas P.; Roye, Marcia E.



Identification of Begomoviruses Infecting Crops and Weeds in Belize.  


Plants including pepper, red kidney bean, squash, string bean and tomato, as well as weeds with viral symptoms were collected from five districts in Belize over a three year period with the aim of determining the diversity of the begomoviruses present. Sixty five percent of the samples screened via DNA hybridization produced signals indicative of begomovirus infection. Subsequent PCR amplifications and nucleotide sequence analyses revealed the presence of four begomoviruses in Belize. Pepper golden mosaic virus and Tomato mottle virus-[Flo] were found associated with tomato and sweet pepper and the former was also isolated from hot pepper. Merremia mosaic virus was found infecting hot pepper, sweet pepper and the weed species Euphorbia heterophylla. Euphorbia mosaic virus-[Yucatan Peninsula] was found in hot pepper and Euphorbia. This is the first report of the identification of begomoviruses in Belize. PMID:20596296

McLaughlin, Pamela D; McLaughlin, Wayne A; Maxwell, Douglas P; Roye, Marcia E



Correct names for some of the closest relatives of Carica papaya: A review of the Mexican/Guatemalan genera Jarilla and Horovitzia.  


Using molecular data, we recently showed that Carica papaya L. is sister to a Mexican/Guatemalan clade of two genera, Jarilla Rusby with three species and Horovitzia V.M. Badillo with one. These species are herbs or thin-stemmed trees and may be of interest for future genomics-enabled papaya breeding. Here we clarify the correct names of Jarilla heterophylla (Cerv. ex La Llave) Rusby and Jarilla caudata (Brandegee) Standl., which were confused in a recent systematic treatment of Jarilla (McVaugh 2001). We designate epitypes for both, provide weblinks to type specimens, a key to the species of Jarilla and Horovitzia, and notes on their habitats and distribution. PMID:24399895

Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S



Spasmolytic activity of some plants used by the Otomi Indians of Quéretaro (México) for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.  


The present study was performed to investigate the effect of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from Baccharis heterophylla H. B. K (Asteraceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae), Dyssodia pinnata var. pinnata Rob. (Asteraceae), Gentiana spathacea H. B. K. (Gentianaceae), Loeselia mexicana Brand. (Polemoniaceae), Selaginella pallescens Spring. (Selaginellaceae) and Zornia diphylla Pers. (Fabaceae) on the spontaneous contractions of isolated rat ileum. The concentration-response curves and IC50 values were obtained and the respective relaxant potencies were compared with that of the CHCl3-MeOH (1:1) extract of Datura lanosa. The data showed that all the extracts produce a concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous ileum contractions. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the extracts against pathogenic enterobacteria was tested. The pharmacological actions shown by the extracts of the selected species tend to support ethnomedical use of the plants for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. PMID:11962546

Rojas, A; Bah, M; Rojas, J I; Serrano, V; Pacheco, S



Corroborating molecular species discovery: Four new pine-feeding species of Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae).  


The genus Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) includes two North American species of armored scale insects feeding on Pinaceae: Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley, and Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch). Despite the economic impact of conifer-feeding Chionaspis on horticulture, the species diversity in this group has only recently been systematically investigated using samples from across the group's geographic and host range. This paper provides morphological recognition characters for four new species that were recently hypothesized to exist on the basis of molecular evidence. The new species, here described, are Chionaspis brachycephalon Vea sp. n., Chionaspis caudata Vea sp. n., Chionaspis sonorae Vea sp. n. and Chionaspis torreyanae Vea sp. n.  One of the new species, Chionaspis caudata Vea, has a gland spine at the apex of the pygidium, between the median lobes, unlike any other species of Chionaspis. An identification key to the species of Chionaspis feeding on pine in North America is provided. PMID:23717184

Vea, Isabelle M; Gwiazdowski, Rodger A; Normark, Benjamin B



Pushed to the limit: consequences of climate change for the Araucariaceae: a relictual rain forest family  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Under predicted climate change scenarios, increased temperatures are likely to predispose trees to leaf and other tissue damage, resulting in plant death and contraction of already narrow distribution ranges in many relictual species. The effects of predicted upward temperatures may be further exacerbated by changes in rainfall patterns and damage caused by frosts on trees that have been insufficiently cold-hardened. The Araucariaceae is a relictual family and the seven species found in Australia have limited natural distributions characterized by low frost intensity and frequency, and warm summer temperatures. The temperature limits for these species were determined in order to help understand how such species will fare in a changing climate. Methods Experiments were conducted using samples from representative trees of the Araucariaceae species occurring in Australia, Agathis (A. atropurpurea, A. microstachya and A. robusta), Arauacaria (A. bidwilli, A. cunninghamii and A. heterophylla) and Wollemia nobilis. Samples were collected from plants grown in a common garden environment. Lower and higher temperature limits were determined by subjecting detached winter-hardened leaves to temperatures from 0 to –17 °C and summer-exposed leaves to 25 to 63 °C, then measuring the efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and visually rating leaf damage. The exotherm, a sharp rise in temperature indicating the point of ice nucleation within the cells of the leaf, was measured on detached leaves of winter-hardened and summer temperature-exposed leaves. Key Results Lower temperature limits (indicated by FT50, the temperature at which PSII efficiency is 50 %, and LT50 the temperature at which 50 % visual leaf damage occurred) were approx. –5·5 to –7·5 °C for A. atropurpurea, A. microstachya and A. heterophylla, approx. –7 to –9 °C for A. robusta, A. bidwillii and A. cunninghamii, and –10·5 to –11 °C for W. nobilis. High temperature damage began at 47·5 °C for W. nobilis, and occurred in the range 48·5–52 °C for A. bidwillii and A. cunninghamii, and in the range 50·5–53·5 °C for A. robusta, A. microstachya and A. heterophylla. Winter-hardened leaves had ice nucleation temperatures of –5·5 °C or lower, with W. nobilis the lowest at –6·8 °C. All species had significantly higher ice nucleation temperatures in summer, with A. atropurpurea and A. heterophylla forming ice in the leaf at temperatures >3 °C higher in summer than in winter. Wollemia nobilis had lower FT50 and LT50 values than its ice nucleation temperature, indicating that the species has a degree of ice tolerance. Conclusions While lower temperature limits in the Australian Araucariaceae are generally unlikely to affect their survival in wild populations during normal winters, unseasonal frosts may have devastating effects on tree survival. Extreme high temperatures are not common in the areas of natural occurrence, but upward temperature shifts, in combination with localized radiant heating, may increase the heat experienced within a canopy by at least 10 °C and impact on tree survival, and may contribute to range contraction. Heat stress may explain why many landscape plantings of W. nobilis have failed in hotter areas of Australia.

Offord, Catherine A.



Lectins but not antifungal proteins exhibit anti-nematode activity.  


A variety of lectins and antifungal proteins were tested for toxicity against the plant parasitic nematodes Ditylenchus dipsaci and Heterodera glycines. It was found that lectins from the mushrooms Xylaria hypoxylon, Agrocybe cylindracea and Tricholoma mongolicum (TML-1) were the most potent against D. dipsaci, with EC(50) being 4.7, 9, and 20mg/ml, respectively. Lectins from Pseudostellaria heterophylla, samta tomato, and the mushrooms T. mongolicum (TML-2), Ganoderma lucidum, and Boletus edulis, and antifungal proteins from Ginkgo biloba toward D. dipsaci and pumpkin Cucurbita moschata had much lower anti-nematode potencies and could be considered as inactive for practical purposes. All lectins except that from P.heterophylle were potent against H.glycines. PMID:21784014

Zhao, S; Guo, Y X; Liu, Q H; Wang, H X; Ng, T B



Distribution and diversity of geminiviruses in trinidad and tobago.  


ABSTRACT Seven crop and eight weed species from 12 agricultural locations in Trinidad and Tobago were assayed for the presence of whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses (WTGs) by using dot blot hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the N-terminal coat protein sequence with degenerate primers. The amplified fragments were cloned and analyzed by restriction enzyme digestion to determine fragment length polymorphism among the cloned fragments. Representative clones were then sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis to determine the sequence similarity to known WTGs. WTGs were found in every location sampled and in 10 of the 15 species investigated: Lycopersicon esculentum(tomato), Capsicum annuum (pepper), Capsicum frutescens (sweet pepper), Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Phaseolus vulgaris (beans), Alternanthera tenella, Desmodium frutescens, Euphorbia heterophylla, Malva alceifolia, and Sida acuta. The geminiviruses infecting these plants were closely related to potato yellow mosaic virus from Venezuela (PYMV-VE) and tomato leaf curl virus from Panama (ToLCV-PA). However, in pepper, sweet pepper, okra, Alternanthera tenella, Euphorbia heterophylla, Des-modium frutescens, and in one sample of tomato, a PYMV-VE-related virus was found in mixed infections with a virus related to pepper huasteco virus. Full-length infectious DNA-A and DNA-B of a tomato-infecting geminivirus from Trinidad and Tobago were cloned and sequenced. DNA-A appears to be a recombinant derived from PYMV-VE or ToLCV-PA, and Sida golden mosaic from Honduras. The implications of these findings in the control of WTGs are discussed. PMID:18944827

Umaharan, P; Padidam, M; Phelps, R H; Beachy, R N; Fauquet, C M



Structural, biochemical, and physiological characterization of C4 photosynthesis in species having two vastly different types of kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae).  


C (4) species of family Chenopodiaceae, subfamily Suaedoideae have two types of Kranz anatomy in genus Suaeda, sections Salsina and Schoberia, both of which have an outer (palisade mesophyll) and an inner (Kranz) layer of chlorenchyma cells in usually semi-terete leaves. Features of Salsina (S. AEGYPTIACA, S. arcuata, S. taxifolia) and Schoberia type (S. acuminata, S. Eltonica, S. cochlearifoliA) were compared to C (3) type S. Heterophylla. In Salsina type, two layers of chlorenchyma at the leaf periphery surround water-storage tissue in which the vascular bundles are embedded. In leaves of the Schoberia type, enlarged water-storage hypodermal cells surround two layers of chlorenchyma tissue, with the latter surrounding the vascular bundles. The chloroplasts in Kranz cells are located in the centripetal position in Salsina type and in the centrifugal position in the Schoberia type. Western blots on C (4) acid decarboxylases show that both Kranz forms are NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME) type C (4) species. Transmission electron microscopy shows that mesophyll cells have chloroplasts with reduced grana, while Kranz cells have chloroplasts with well-developed grana and large, specialized mitochondria, characteristic of NAD-ME type C (4) chenopods. In both C (4) types, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase is localized in the palisade mesophyll, and Rubisco and mitochondrial NAD-ME are localized in Kranz cells, where starch is mainly stored. The C (3) species S. heterophylla has Brezia type isolateral leaf structure, with several layers of Rubisco-containing chlorenchyma. Photosynthetic response curves to varying CO (2) and light in the Schoberia Type and Salsina type species were similar, and typical of C (4) plants. The results indicate that two structural forms of Kranz anatomy evolved in parallel in species of subfamily Suaedoideae having NAD-ME type C (4) photosynthesis. PMID:17891703

Voznesenskaya, E V; Chuong, S D X; Koteyeva, N K; Franceschi, V R; Freitag, H; Edwards, G E



FIP-gts Potentiate Autophagic Cell Death Against Cisplatin-resistant Urothelial Cancer Cells.  


Background: Urothelial cancer (UC) is a common cancer among males. Once metastatic or chemoresistant diseases develop, there is little effective treatment available. A fungal immunomodulatory protein, ganoderma tsugae (FIP-gts) possesses antitumor activity against solid tumors and inhibits telomerase activity. FIP-gts induces autophagy in cancer cells and may provide an alternative pathway against chemo-resistance. Materials and Methods: Two UC cell lines were used to investigate the cytotoxicity effects and the autophagy regulation of FIP-gts using flow cytometry, acidic vesicular organelles (AVO) staining and western blotting. Results: MTT assay showed that FIP-gts and bafilomycin-A1 (Baf-A1) and or chloroquine (CQ) could enhance a significantly synergistic cytotoxicity. The treatment of UC cell lines with FIP-gts activated LC-3 II formation and AVO positive staining on western blot and flow cytometry. Interestingly, FIP-gts and Baf-A1 combined treatment was found to lead to enhancement of apoptosis along with inhibition of autophagy in parental and resistant UC cells. Conclusion: FIP-gts may have the potential to be utilized as a therapeutic adjuvant for the treatment of resistant UC cancer down-regulating Beclin-1 to activate autophagic cell death. PMID:24922662

Li, Jian-Ri; Cheng, Chen-Li; Yang, Wan-Jung; Yang, Chi-Rei; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Ju; Ko, Jiunn-Liang



Early and Middle Pleistocene vegetation history of the Médoc region, southwest France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pleistocene deposits, together with their pollen, plant macrofossil, foraminiferal, dinoflagellate and coleopteran remains, from five sites along the Atlantic coast of the Médoc Peninsula are described and discussed. Sediments making up the Négade Formation are shown to have been laid down under either estuarine or lagoonal conditions when closed Quercus-Pinus-Tsuga canadensis regional woodland existed. Comparison with plant records from The Netherlands indicates that these deposits are most likely attributable to either the Early Pleistocene Bavel Interglacial (marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 31), or an interglacial of the Waalian (MIS 37-49) or Tiglian (MIS 63-79). In addition, clays assigned to the Argiles du Gurp sensu stricto, were similarly deposited in either an estuary or lagoon, which subsequently was cut off from the sea. A freshwater lake with vegetation dominated by Azolla filiculoides then developed. This was succeeded by reedswamp and an organic mud (termed Lignite in the corresponding French stratigraphical records) formed. Regional Quercus-Abies woodland was replaced by one with Pinus dominant and Pterocarya a minor component. Comparison with plant records from France and other parts of Europe suggest that the clays and organic mud might be correlated with the Holsteinian (Praclaux) Interglacial (MIS 11c). Copyright

O'Brien, C. E.; Jones, R. L.



A unique Middle Pleistocene beech (Fagus)-rich deciduous broad-leaved forest in the Yangtze Delta Plain, East China: Its climatic and stratigraphic implication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pollen analysis of Middle Pleistocene sediments from the Yangtze Delta Plain provides a paleoecological reconstruction and has implications for stratigraphic correlation in East China. The pollen assemblage is characterized by high values of Fagus (16.8% on average), which is unusual because Fagus is generally present only sporadically in other lowland Quaternary pollen records from the region. In addition to Fagus, the assemblage has a rich diversity of broad-leaved deciduous trees, including Quercus, Ulmus, Carpinus/Ostrya, Juglans, Betula, and Liquidambar, as well as conifers, including Pinus, Picea, Abies, Larix, and Tsuga. Thus, the pollen flora suggests a broad-leaved deciduous forest mixed with abundant conifers, which developed under cooler and more humid conditions than present. The stable pollen sequence throughout the studied section suggests a stable environment. Beech forests also characterize the Middle Pleistocene of Taiwan and Japan, and thus may be a stratigraphic indicator of the Middle Pleistocene in East Asia. The Yangtze Delta Plain may have been an important refugium for the last survival of Fagus in the lowlands.

Shu, Jun-wu; Wang, Wei-ming



Climate and vegetation history from a 14,000-year peatland record, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of pollen, spores, macrofossils, and lithology of an AMS 14C-dated core from a subarctic fen on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska reveals changes in vegetation and climate beginning 14,200 cal yr BP. Betula expansion and contraction of herb tundra vegetation characterize the Younger Dryas on the Kenai, suggesting increased winter snowfall concurrent with cool, sunny summers. Remarkable Polypodiaceae (fern) abundance between 11,500 and 8500 cal yr BP implies a significant change in climate. Enhanced peat preservation and the occurrence of wet meadow species suggest high moisture from 11,500 to 10,700 cal yr BP, in contrast to drier conditions in southeastern Alaska; this pattern may indicate an intensification and repositioning of the Aleutian Low (AL). Drier conditions on the Kenai Peninsula from 10,700 to 8500 cal yr BP may signify a weaker AL, but elevated fern abundance may have been sustained by high seasonality with substantial snowfall and enhanced glacial melt. Decreased insolation-induced seasonality resulted in climatic cooling after 8500 cal yr BP, with increased humidity from 8000 to 5000 cal yr BP. A dry interval punctuated by volcanic activity occurred between 5000 and 3500 cal yr BP, followed by cool, moist climate, coincident with Neoglaciation. Tsuga mertensiana expanded after ~ 1500 cal yr BP in response to the shift to cooler conditions.

Jones, Miriam C.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Kurdyla, Dorothy; Guilderson, Thomas



Climate Variability and Human Impacts at Tivoli North Bay, Hudson River, New York  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of pollen, spores, charcoal, organic carbon content, C/N ratios, and radiometric dating provides a paleoecological study of Tivoli North Bay (42oN, 74oW), lower Hudson River. This freshwater tidal marsh record reveals vegetational changes which reflect local and regional vegetational and climatic shifts. Significant charcoal maxima at the base of the core appear to be parallel to the well-dated 500-yr charcoal maxima in Piermont Marsh downriver, implying a regional climatic impact of the Medieval Warming Interval in the lower Hudson Valley. European settlement is marked by very abrupt shift in vegetation and sediment composition as a result of deforestation, invasive species introduction, and infrastructure construction. Betula became a successful replacement of forest dominants such as Quercus, Pinus, and Tsuga. Weedy species including Ambrosia, Impatiens, Chenopodiaceae and Gramineae expand as human impact increases. Higher sedimentation rate due to higher inorganic input appears to contribute to marsh composition changes as woody taxa such as Salix, Cephalanthus, Fraxinus, and Vitis appear in the wetland in the most recent centuries. Additional radiometric control linking stratigraphy from Tivoli North Bay to other Hudson River wetlands as well as pollen and spore analysis of river and air traps will lead to a better understanding of the Hudson watershed history. Significant extended droughts in the Hudson watershed due to natural variability have major implications for future water availability in this landscape.

Sritrairat, S.; Peteet, D. M.; Griffin, K.; Kurdyla, D.; Guilderson, T.



Holocene vegetation history and Lake Michigan lake-level fluctuations on the southern shore of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan  

SciTech Connect

A 250-cm sediment core with a base radiocarbon date of 7960 yrs BP was collected in June of 1993 from Elbow Lake, Mackinac Co., Michigan. Radiocarbon dates and fossil pollen preserved in lake sediments indicate that changes in vegetation are related to changes in climate and proximity to the Lake Michigan shoreline. Basal radiocarbon dates on sediment cores from a transect of ponds combined with tree-ring cores and GLO surveyor notes of a shipwreck reveal an average late-Holocene rate of regression of 3 feet per year. The pollen record, sediment stratigraphy, and sediment accumulation rates show that this general retreat of the shoreline was punctuated by periodic high stands. Radiocarbon dates of [approximately]6900 yrs BP indicate a high stand of Lake Michigan during the late-Chippewa state of Lake Michigan, prior to the classically recognized Nipissing-I high stand at [approximately]4500 yrs PB. Pollen percentages for Tsuga canadensis and Fagus grandifolia both reach > 1% by 5500 yrs BP, indicating that the northern shore of Lake Michigan provided suitable habitat for colonization by these species. Establishment of F. grandifolia at this time is associated with a rise in water table and is [approximately]2000 years prior to its expansion into the interior of the Upper Peninsula after 3500 yrs BP. A further increase in mesic hardwoods along with T. canadensis to their modern level by 2200 yrs BP is associated with an increase in sediment accumulation rate, indicative of a rising lake level and moister climate.

Petty, W.H. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))



Petroleum geology of Cook Inlet basin - an exploration model  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Oil exploration commenced onshore adjacent to lower Cook Inlet on the Iniskin Peninsula in 1900, shifted with considerable success to upper Cook Inlet from 1957 through 1965, then returned to lower Cook Inlet in 1977 with the COST well and Federal OCS sale. Lower Cook Inlet COST No. 1 well, drilled to a total depth of 3,775.6 m, penetrated basinwide unconformities at the tops of Upper Cretaceous, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Jurassic strata at 797.1, 1,540.8, and 2,112.3 m, respectively. Sandstone of potential reservoir quality is present in the Cretaceous and lower Tertiary rocks. All siltstones and shales analyzed are low (0 to 0.5 wt. %) in oil-prone organic matter, and only coals are high in humic organic matter. At total depth, vitrinite readings reached a maximum ave age reflectance of 0.65. Several indications of hydrocarbons were present. Oil analyses suggest that oils from the major fields of the Cook Inlet region, most of which produce from the Tertiary Hemlock Conglomerate, have a common source. More detailed work on stable carbon isotope ratios and the distribution of gasoline-range and heavy (C12+) hydrocarbons confirms this genetic relation among the major fields. In addition, oils from Jurassic rocks under the Iniskin Peninsula and from the Hemlock Conglomerate at the southwestern tip of the Kenai lowland are members of the same or a very similar oil family. The Middle Jurassic strata of the Iniskin Peninsula are moderately rich in organic carbon (0.5 to 1.5 wt. %) and yield shows of oil and of gas in wells and in surface seeps. Extractable hydrocarbons from this strata are similar in chemi al and isotopic composition to the Cook Inlet oils. Organic matter in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks is thermally immature in all wells analyzed. Oil reservoirs in the major producing fields are of Tertiary age and unconformably overlie Jurassic rocks; the pre-Tertiary unconformity may be significant in exploration for new oil reserves. The unconformable relation between reservoir rocks and likely Middle Jurassic source rocks also implies a delay in the generation and expulsion of oil from Jurassic until late Tertiary when localized basin subsidence and thick sedimentary fill brought older, deeper rocks to the temperature required for petroleum generation. Reservoir porosities, crude oil properties, the type of oil field traps, and the tectonic framework of the oil fields on the west flank of the basin provide evidence used to reconstruct an oil migration route. The route is inferred to commence deep in the truncated Middle Jur ssic rocks and pass through the porous West Foreland Formation in the McArthur River field area to a stratigraphic trap in the Oligocene Hemlock Conglomerate and the Oligocene part of the Tyonek Formation at the end of Miocene time. Pliocene deformation shut off this route and created localized structural traps, into which the oil moved by secondary migration to form the Middle Ground Shoal, McArthur River, and Trading Bay oil fields. Oil generation continued into the Pliocene, but this higher API gravity oil migrated along a different route to the Granite Point field.

Magoon, L. B.; Claypool, G. E.



Using Peatland Archives to Assess Climate Forcing of Holocene Vegetational Changes: Case Studies From the Great Lakes Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dilemma has long confronted paleoecologists: pollen data are required to assess past vegetational changes, and at the same time pollen data serve as a primary source of paleoclimate inference. Paleoecologists have had to use the same data sets to infer past climate changes and the ecological responses to those changes. The emergence of independent paleoclimate proxies and archives is providing relief from this dilemma. Peatland archives are especially effective at providing independent paleoclimatic records, owing to their sensitivity to climate variation, their subcentennial to subdecadal temporal precision, and the multiplicity of available proxies. Pollen records can be obtained from the same stratigraphic levels as paleoclimate proxies, and peatland records can also be compared with lake-based pollen and macrofossil records at regional scales. Peatland records of mid- to late Holocene climate change and variability, together with pollen and macrofossil records from peatlands and lakes in the Great Lakes region of North America, resolve some long-standing questions and controversies concerning the causation of vegetational changes in the region. We present three case studies where peatlands have played a pivotal role. 1. Hemlock populations plummeted across eastern North America 5400 yr BP. The extent, rapidity, and synchrony of the event suggested that it resulted from a widespread pathogen outbreak, similar to the early 20th Century chestnut blight in the same region. However, some have argued for climate as a primary mechanism. Paleohydrological records from a kettle bog in northeastern Lower Michigan indicate an abrupt decline in water-table depth 5400 yr BP that persisted for the next 2500 years, coincident with the hemlock decline. Pathogens may have played a proximal role, but an abrupt climate shift was the ultimate driver of the hemlock decline. 2. Holocene expansions of yellow birch and beech in their northwestern ranges were episodic, alternating between rapid expansion and extended quiescence. The extent to which these patterns were governed by climate variations versus migration lag or geographic barriers has remained unclear. Peatland records from the Lake Superior region indicate that the migrations were paced by climate variation. For example, rapid westward expansion of yellow birch occurred during a 1200-yr period of sustained wet conditions, following on the heels of a severe multidecadal drought 4200-4000 yr BP. Widespread forest disturbance during the drought may have facilitated subsequent expansion of yellow birch. Beech expansion also occurred during wet intervals. 3. Beech populations declined and pine increased across the central Great Lakes region 1100 700 yr BP. This has been variously attributed to late Holocene cooling and to widespread fires set by Native Americans. Records from an ombrotrophic peatland in southeastern Lower Michigan reveal that the beech decline was coincident with onset of a series of severe, multidecadal drought events.

Jackson, S. T.; Booth, R. K.; Andersen, J.; Hotchkiss, S.; Huang, Y.; Lesser, M.; Minckley, T.; Nichols, J.; Pendall, E.; Reeves, K.; Taylor, M.



The Effect of Lidar Point Density on LAI Estimation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaf Area Index (LAI) is an important measure of forest health, biomass and carbon exchange, and is most commonly defined as the ratio of the leaf area to ground area. LAI is understood over large spatial scales and describes leaf properties over an entire forest, thus airborne imagery is ideal for capturing such data. Spectral metrics such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) have been used in the past for LAI estimation, but these metrics may saturate for high LAI values. Light detection and ranging (lidar) is an active remote sensing technology that emits light (most often at the wavelength 1064nm) and uses the return time to calculate the distance to intercepted objects. This yields information on three-dimensional structure and shape, which has been shown in recent studies to yield more accurate LAI estimates than NDVI. However, although lidar is a promising alternative for LAI estimation, minimum acquisition parameters (e.g. point density) required for accurate LAI retrieval are not yet well known. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of points per square meter that are required to describe the LAI measurements taken in-field. As part of a larger data collect, discrete lidar data were acquired by Kucera International Inc. over the Hemlock-Canadice State Forest, NY, USA in September 2012. The Leica ALS60 obtained point density of 12 points per square meter and effective ground sampling distance (GSD) of 0.15m. Up to three returns with intensities were recorded per pulse. As part of the same experiment, an AccuPAR LP-80 was used to collect LAI estimates at 25 sites on the ground. Sites were spaced approximately 80m apart and nine measurements were made in a grid pattern within a 20 x 20m site. Dominant species include Hemlock, Beech, Sugar Maple and Oak. This study has the benefit of very high-density data, which will enable a detailed map of intra-forest LAI. Understanding LAI at fine scales may be particularly useful in forest inventory applications and tree health evaluations. However, such high-density data is often not available over large areas. In this study we progressively downsampled the high-density discrete lidar data and evaluated the effect on LAI estimation. The AccuPAR data was used as validation and results were compared to existing LAI metrics. This will enable us to determine the minimum point density required for airborne lidar LAI retrieval. Preliminary results show that the data may be substantially thinned to estimate site-level LAI. More detailed results will be presented at the conference.

Cawse-Nicholson, K.; van Aardt, J. A.; Romanczyk, P.; Kelbe, D.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Yao, W.; Krause, K.; Kampe, T. U.



Measuring forest structure and biomass using EchidnaRTM ground-based lidar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest canopy structural parameters and above-ground biomass, retrieved by a ground-based, upward-scanning, near-infrared (1064 nm), full-waveform lidar, the EchidnaRTM Validation Instrument (EVI), matched ground measurements with R2 values of 0.92 to 0.99 at six hardwood and conifer forest sites within New England in 2007 and at eight conifer forest sites in the Sierra National Forest in California in 2008. Retrieved parameters included mean diameter at breast height (DBH), stem count density, basal area, and above-ground biomass, based on five scans within each 1-ha plot. Canopy heights derived from the EVI-retrieved foliage profile closely matched those derived from the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). Topographic slope can induce errors in parameter retrievals because the horizontal plane of the instrument scan, which is used to identify, measure, and count tree trunks, will intersect trunks below breast height in the uphill direction and above breast height in the downhill direction. I tested three methods of slope correction on the Sierra sites. Without correction, single-scan correlations of structural parameters with field measurements ranged from 0.53-0.86; after correction, from 0.78-0.91, 0.80-0.93 and 0,85-0.93 for the three methods respectively. These results document the importance of the slope correction in EVI structural retrievals. Three sites scanned in 2007 provided the opportunity to detect change in comparison to 2009 or 2010 scans. At a shelterwood conifer site at Howland Experimental Forest, mean DBH, above-ground biomass, and leaf area index (LAI) all increased between 2007 and 2009. An ice storm struck the Harvard Forest in December, 2008, providing the opportunity to detect damage between 2007 and 2009 or 2010 EVI scans at two sites there: hemlock and hardwood. Retrieved leaf area index (LAI) was 13 percent lower in the hemlock site in 2009 and 10 percent lower in the hardwood site in 2010. Broken tops were visible in the 2010 data. Stem density decreased and mean DBH increased at both sites, as small and weak trees were felled by the ice.

Yao, Tian


Detection of long-term trends in carbon accumulation by forests in Northeastern U. S. and determination of causal factors: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall project goal was to quantify the trends and variability for Net ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and energy by northeastern forests, with particular attention to the role of succession, differences in species composition, legacies of past land use, and disturbances. Measurements included flux measurements and observations of biomass accumulation using ecosystem modeling as a framework for data interpretation. Continuation of the long-term record at the Environmental Measurement Site (EMS) Tower was a priority. The final quality-assured CO{sub 2}-flux data now extend through 2010. Data through 2011 are collected but not yet finalized. Biomass observations on the plot array centered on the tower are extended to 2011. Two additional towers in a hemlock stand (HEM) and a younger deciduous stand (LPH) complement the EMS tower by focusing on stands with different species composition or age distribution and disturbance history, but comparable climate and soil type. Over the period since 1993 the forest has added 24.4 Mg-C ha{sup -1} in the living trees. Annual net carbon uptake had been increasing from about 2 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} in the early 1990s to nearly 6 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} by 2008, but declined in 2009-2010. We attribute the increasing carbon uptake to a combination of warmer temperatures, increased photosynthetic efficiency, and increased influence by subcanopy hemlocks that are active in the early spring and late autumn when temperatures are above freezing but the deciduous canopy is bare. Not all of the increased carbon accumulation was found in woody biomass. Results from a study using data to optimize parameters in an ecosystem process model indicate that significant changes in model parameters for photosynthetic capacity and shifts in allocation to slow cycling soil organic matter are necessary for the model to match the observed trends. The emerging working hypothesis is that the pattern of increasing carbon uptake over the early 2000's represents a transient pulse that will eventually end as decomposition of the accumulated carbon catches up.

J. William Munger; Steven C. Wofsy; David R. Foster



Forest fuel reduction alters fire severity and long-term carbon storage in three Pacific Northwest ecosystems.  


Two forest management objectives being debated in the context of federally managed landscapes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest involve a perceived trade-off between fire restoration and carbon sequestration. The former strategy would reduce fuel (and therefore C) that has accumulated through a century of fire suppression and exclusion which has led to extreme fire risk in some areas. The latter strategy would manage forests for enhanced C sequestration as a method of reducing atmospheric CO2 and associated threats from global climate change. We explored the trade-off between these two strategies by employing a forest ecosystem simulation model, STANDCARB, to examine the effects of fuel reduction on fire severity and the resulting long-term C dynamics among three Pacific Northwest ecosystems: the east Cascades ponderosa pine forests, the west Cascades western hemlock-Douglas-fir forests, and the Coast Range western hemlock-Sitka spruce forests. Our simulations indicate that fuel reduction treatments in these ecosystems consistently reduced fire severity. However, reducing the fraction by which C is lost in a wildfire requires the removal of a much greater amount of C, since most of the C stored in forest biomass (stem wood, branches, coarse woody debris) remains unconsumed even by high-severity wildfires. For this reason, all of the fuel reduction treatments simulated for the west Cascades and Coast Range ecosystems as well as most of the treatments simulated for the east Cascades resulted in a reduced mean stand C storage. One suggested method of compensating for such losses in C storage is to utilize C harvested in fuel reduction treatments as biofuels. Our analysis indicates that this will not be an effective strategy in the west Cascades and Coast Range over the next 100 years. We suggest that forest management plans aimed solely at ameliorating increases in atmospheric CO2 should forgo fuel reduction treatments in these ecosystems, with the possible exception of some east Cascades ponderosa pine stands with uncharacteristic levels of understory fuel accumulation. Balancing a demand for maximal landscape C storage with the demand for reduced wildfire severity will likely require treatments to be applied strategically throughout the landscape rather than indiscriminately treating all stands. PMID:19425428

Mitchell, Stephen R; Harmon, Mark E; O'Connell, Kari E B



Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from the Set and Jet Program. Sixteen larval fish were collected, but no prejuvenile white sturgeon were collected. Juvenile white sturgeon sampling started July 14, 2003 and continued through September 18, 2003. A total of 330 h of gillnetting effort captured 238 hatchery white sturgeon and three wild white sturgeon.

Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)



Vegetation and Water Level Changes for the Northeast U.S. During the "8.2 ka Event"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cool conditions, known as the "8.2 ka event", occurred between 8400 and 7900 cal yr B.P. in Greenland, Europe and elsewhere in the North Atlantic. The impact of this brief cool interval on local forests is recorded in radiocarbon-dated, high-resolution pollen stratigraphies for New Long Pond (41^{0}50'N, 70^{0}42'W) and Davis Pond (42^{0}30'N, 73^{0}19'W), Massachusetts. The vegetation response to the event is recorded differently for regions with contrasting soil types. At New Long Pond, the sandy outwash derived soils are associated with changes in jack/red, white and pitch pine populations, whereas the dominant changes in vegetation for the clay-rich, proglacial lake derived soils around Davis Pond are among oak, hemlock, and beech. At both sites, pollen evidence for the "8.2 ka event" may be easily overlooked within the more dominant regional pattern for the Northeast, which shows a shift from dry to moist conditions in conjunction with changes from predominantly white pine to oak with more mesic plant taxa between 9000 and 8000 cal yr B.P. At New Long Pond, the "8.2 ka event" is brief, preceded by a low-stand in water-level during the early Holocene and dominated by white pine pollen. After 9000 cal yr B.P., pitch pine with beech, maple, hop/hornbeam, elm and ash pollen indicate a mixed mesophytic forest. A radiocarbon-dated decrease in loss-on-ignition values at 8400 cal yr B.P., likely related to a drawdown in lake level, distinguishes the "8.2 event" and helps highlight subtle shifts in vegetation that favor colder and drier conditions than before the event. Following this brief episode, the pollen data indicate a return to warm and moist conditions until about 5600 years ago. At Davis Pond, increased oak and decreased hemlock pollen abundances, followed by an increase in beech pollen abundance is evident and show what may be the dominant regional pollen signature for the "8.2 ka event" in the Northest. This pattern is also recorded at nearby Berry and North Ponds in western Massachusetts. The appearance of ragweed pollen at both Davis and New Long Pond may indicate perturbations to the vegetation that also relate to the "8.2 ka event".

Newby, P. E.; Donnelly, J. P.; Shuman, B.; MacDonald, D.



Silicon production process evaluations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical engineering analysis was continued for the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation) in which solar cell silicon is produced in a 1,000 MT/yr plant. Progress and status are reported for the primary engineering activities involved in the preliminary process engineering design of the plant base case conditions (96%), reaction chemistry (96%), process flow diagram (85%), material balance (85%), energy balance (60%), property data (60%), equipment design (40%), major equipment list (30%) and labor requirements (10%). Engineering design of the second distillation column (D-02, TCS column) in the process was completed. The design is based on a 97% recovery of the light key (TCS, trichlorosilane) in the distillate and a 97% recovery of the heavy key (TET, silicon tetrachloride) in the bottoms. At a reflux ratio of 2, the specified recovery of TCS and TET is achieved with 20 trays (equilibrium stages, N=20). Respective feed tray locations are 9, 12 and 15 (NF sub 1 = 9, NF sub 2 = 12,, and NF sub 3 = 15). A total condenser is used for the distillation which is conducted at a pressure of 90 psia.



Cytochemical localization of cellulases in decayed and nondecayed wood  

SciTech Connect

Sawdust from undecayed western hemlock wood and from wood previously decayed by the brown-rot fungus Poria placenta or by the white-rot fungus Ganoderma applanatum was incubated with commercial cellulase from Trichoderma viride. Samples were treated cytochemically to locate cellulase activity and examined by TEM. Results showed that cellulase degraded undecayed wood extensively, with the attack starting on the outer border of a cell wall and progressing inside. Wood decayed by P. placenta, with or without cellulase incubation, and treated by the cytochemical test showed uniform distribution of electron dense particles throughout the cell walls. In wood decayed by G. applanatum, cellulase degradation was similar to that in undecayed wood. From measurements of particle diameter it is suggested that electron dense particles are cellulase. It is concluded that brown-rot and white-rot fungi have different effects on the microstructure of wood. The brown-rot fungus appears to open the wood microstructure so that cellulase can diffuse throughout the degraded tracheid wall.

Murmanis, L.; Highley, T.L.; Palmer, J.G.



Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia.  


Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot ( Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one feral carrot. A more distantly related novel potyvirus, apium virus Y, was found in plants of sea celery ( Apium prostratum), cultivated parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) and the immigrant weed species poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum). These three potyviruses, together with celery yellow mosaic virus of South America and the closely related carrot thin leaf virus and carrot virus B of North America, form a distinct subgenus of the Potyviridae most closely related to turnip mosaic virus and two potyviruses of yam; yam mosaic virus from the Ivory Coast and Japanese yam mosaic virus. Celery mosaic and carrot virus Y are probably recent migrants to Australia, but apium virus Y may have been endemic longer. In ELISA tests using polyclonal antibodies against virions of celery mosaic virus, some isolates of carrot virus Y were indistinguishable from celery mosaic virus, whereas others gave smaller absorbancy values, and those of apium virus Y did not react. This study shows the value of virus identification based on gene sequencing for planning control measures. PMID:12376749

Moran, J; van Rijswijk, B; Traicevski, V; Kitajima, E W; Mackenzie, A M; Gibbs, A J



Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of ?-coniceine and N-methylconiine enantiomers.  


?-Coniceine, coniine, and N-methylconiine are toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). We previously reported the comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers. In this study, we synthesized ?-coniceine and the enantiomers of N-methylconiine and determined the biological activity of ?-coniceine and each of the N-methylconiine enantiomers in vitro and in vivo. The relative potencies of these piperidine alkaloids on cells expressing human fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had the rank order of ?-coniceine > (-)-N-methylconiine > (±)-N-methylconiine > (+)-N-methylconiine. The relative lethalities of ?-coniceine and (-)-, (±)-, and (+)-N-methylconiine in vivo using a mouse bioassay were 4.4, 16.1, 17.8, and 19.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results from this study suggest ?-coniceine is a more potent agonist than the enantiomers of N-methylconiine and that there is a stereoselective difference in the in vitro potencies of the enantiomers of N-methylconiine that correlates with the relative toxicities of the enantiomers in vivo. PMID:23514442

Lee, Stephen T; Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Jordan, Glenn T; Zhang, Qian; Panter, Kip E; Hughes, David; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R



Ultrasound studies of the effects of certain poisonous plants on uterine function and fetal development in livestock.  


Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus. During pregnancy the toxic agent in locoweed (swainsonine) apparently passes through the placental barrier to the fetus and during lactation through the milk to the neonate. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), and lunara lupine (Lupinus formosus) all contain piperidine alkaloids and induce fetal malformations, including multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate in livestock. Ultrasonography studies of pregnant sheep and goats gavaged with these plants during 30 to 60 d of gestation suggests that the primary cause of multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate is the degree and the duration of the alkaloid-induced fetal immobilization. PMID:1526931

Bunch, T D; Panter, K E; James, L F



Plant toxins that affect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: a review.  


Plants produce a wide variety of chemical compounds termed secondary metabolites that are not involved in basic metabolism, photosynthesis, or reproduction. These compounds are used as flavors, fragrances, insecticides, dyes, hallucinogens, nutritional supplements, poisons, and pharmaceutical agents. However, in some cases these secondary metabolites found in poisonous plants perturb biological systems. Ingestion of toxins from poisonous plants by grazing livestock often results in large economic losses to the livestock industry. The chemical structures of these compounds are diverse and range from simple, low molecular weight toxins such as oxalate in halogeton to the highly complex norditerpene alkaloids in larkspurs. While the negative effects of plant toxins on people and the impact of plant toxins on livestock producers have been widely publicized, the diversity of these toxins and their potential as new pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of diseases in people and animals has also received widespread interest. Scientists are actively screening plants from all regions of the world for bioactivity and potential pharmaceuticals for the treatment or prevention of many diseases. In this review, we focus the discussion to those plant toxins extensively studied at the USDA Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory that affect the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors including species of Delphinium (Larkspurs), Lupinus (Lupines), Conium (poison hemlock), and Nicotiana (tobaccos). PMID:23848825

Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Panter, Kip E; Lee, Stephen T



Forest decline from air pollution  

SciTech Connect

Scientists in West Germany and the USA are involved in intensive efforts to ascertain the cause or causes of the declines in their forests. Ongoing research was discussed at an October 1983 symposium on air pollution and forest productivity, held in Washington, D.C., and sponsored by the Izaak Walton League of America and Pennsylvania State University. The dieback of spruce in the Northeast is relatively well-known. It was revealed at the symposium, however, that forests in other areas of the U.S. may be showing signs of stress and damage and that species other than spruce are affected. Samuel B. McLaughlin of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) pointed out that red spruce, shortleaf pine, hickory, yellow birch, pitch pine, hemlock, and Fraser fir are declining in East Tennessee. He noted that these decline together with those in New England suggest that decreased productivity in several tree species has been occurring over a broad scale during the past two decades. One commonly held view is that acid deposition is causing the decline of forests in both Europe and the U.S. At the symposium, a number of different opinions about possible causes were expressed, ranging from drought to ozone to combinations of pollutants, including acid deposition, ozone and trace metals. Possible causes that were not subjects of active inquiry were disease and insects. Most researchers in the field believe there is little evidence that one of these is the primary damaging agent.

Hileman, B.



Pollen analysis of a late pliocene and early pleistocene section from the Gubik Formation of Arctic Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A 14-m-thick section of marine and nonmarine sediments of the Gubik Formation of northern Alaska, exposed in bluffs near Ocean Point on the Colville River, has been studied by means of pollen analysis. Pollen from the marine sediments, of probable late Pliocene age, records a boreal forest of spruce and birch with minor amounts of alder in the adjacent terrestrial vegetation. Pine and perhaps true fir were probably at or near their northern limit here, but hemlocks and hardwoods were absent. The suggested environment for the Arctic Slope during the time represented by the marine sediments is similar to that of present-day Anchorage. Pollen floras from the overlying fluvial strata, of early or middle Pleistocene age, record predominantly herbaceous taxa indicating tundra conditions probably more severe than those of the present day. These deposits were most likely contemporaneous with glacial conditions in the Brooks Range to the south. Pollen of woody taxa (spruce, alder, birch, heaths) is rare through most of the section, although birch and alder percentages similar to those found in modern river sediments indicate an interstadial or interglacial warming in midsection. Inland climates during glacial episodes may have been similar to those of the present Arctic coast. ?? 1985.

Nelson, R. E.; Carter, L. D.



Intraspecific variation in sapling mortality and growth predicts geographic variation in forest composition  

SciTech Connect

With a view toward understanding variation in species composition among different forest communities, I examined species-specific growth and mortality of juvenile tree (2.3-78 mm diameter at 10cm above the ground) at three contrasting sites. Two sites differing in soil mineralogy and elevation (schists/gneiss uplands vs. calcareous bedrock valley) were situated in northwestern Connecticut, USA. To examine variation over a more extensive geographic scale, I located the third site in central-western Michigan, USA. Among the three sites, the deciduous species (American beech, white ash, and sugar maple) showed little intraspecific variation in models of relative radial growth at the Michigan site could be explained by sapling growth models originally calibrated for the Connecticut sites. in contrast to the deciduous species, the evergreen species (white pine and eastern hemlock) exhibited between the two Connecticut sites. Intraspecific species, mortality processes exhibited more variation among the sites than did growth. I found significant site differences in mortality as a function of recent growth for both sugar maple and white ash on the calcareous soils in comparison to the schist/gneiss soils in Connecticut site were similar, and both differed from the Connecticut calcareous site. 65 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

Kobe, R.K. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)



Rapid Vegetational Change in Coastal North America: The Response to Climate Since the LGM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The late-glacial interval provided rapid shifts in climate which are mirrored by dramatic vegetational changes in North America. Through a transect of lake and mire sites from Connecticut to Virginia on the east coast and Kodiak Island on the western coast, we trace the warming following the LGM with the response of forests and tundra. A brief cold reversal in Virginia is seen from 12,260 to 12,200. The subsequent longer and extreme Younger Dryas event is marked in the southern New England - New Jersey region by dramatic boreal and deciduous forest changes. In the southeastern US, forests also change rapidly, with hemlock forest expansion suggesting increased moisture. In Kodiak Island, the warm, moist tundra of the Bolling/Allerod is replaced by colder, windswept Empetrum-dominated tundra during the Younger Dryas. The Pleistocene/Holocene shift in vegetation is remarkably pronounced in eastern North America as well as the Alaskan coastline. Response time of vegetation to climate change appears to be on the order of decades throughout these coastal locations, probably because of the proximity of sites to important ecotonal boundaries, and the magnitude of the events. Even in Virginia's Holocene record, a cold reversal inferred from increases in spruce and fir is noted at 7500 C14 yr BP. This response of the forests to a short-lived cooling shows the sensitivity of the biosphere to a rapid climate shifts.

Peteet, Dorothy; Kneller, Margaret



Association between cedar decline and hillslope stability in mountainous regions of southeast Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Old-growth forests experiencing widespread decline of yellow-cedar ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis) in southeast Alaska have a 3.8-fold increase in the frequency of landslides. We report here on an investigation of the cause of this increased slope instability. Time since death of cedar was assessed using surveys around landslide sites. Root decay on dead trees was used to estimate the decline in the apparent soil strength provided by roots. Changes in soil hydrology were measured with 120 piezometers located in areas of healthy cedar, healthy spruce/hemlock, and sites with cedar decline. Relative influences on slope stability by changes in soil moisture and root strength were evaluated with a simple stability model. At most sites, soil depth is <0.7 m, and the loss of root strength has an important and possibly dominant influence on slope instability. In soils deeper than 1 m, changes in pore pressure have a proportionately larger influence on slope stability. Landslides appear most likely when cedar decline reaches snag class IV (approximately 50 years after tree death), when most of the cedar root strength is lost and root strength from secondary growth has yet to develop.

Johnson, A. C.; Wilcock, P.



Co-dominance and succession in forest dynamics: the role of interspecific differences in crown transmissivity.  


Forests that are composed of two or more tree species with similar ecological strategies appear to contradict the competitive exclusion principle. Beech-maple communities are a well-known example of such a system. On a local scale, a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the coexistence of these two species. These are reciprocal replacement, external factors that favour alternatively one or the other species and demographic stochasticity. This paper presents and analyses a simple mathematical model that shows that external factors are not an essential requirement for coexistence. Rather, coexistence requires interspecific differences in light transmissivity through the crowns of adult trees. However, all the three mechanisms mentioned above can be interpreted within the framework of the model. Furthermore, many models of forest dynamics make use of shade tolerance as a key feature in describing successional dynamics. Despite its importance, however, shade tolerance does not have a commonly accepted quantitative definition. Here, a simple scheme is proposed where the relationship between shade tolerance, individual traits (growth and survival) and successional status is defined. This might have important implications in understanding the overall dynamics. Theoretical results have been compared with a number of studies carried out in North American forests. In particular, coexistence in beech-maple communities and the relation between shade tolerance and successional status in a beech-hemlock-birch community have been discussed. PMID:21740915

Cammarano, Mario



Aerospace Toxicology and Microbiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Toxicology dates to the very earliest history of humanity with various poisons and venom being recognized as a method of hunting or waging war with the earliest documentation in the Evers papyrus (circa 1500 BCE). The Greeks identified specific poisons such as hemlock, a method of state execution, and the Greek word toxos (arrow) became the root of our modern science. The first scientific approach to the understanding of poisons and toxicology was the work during the late middle ages of Paracelsus. He formulated what were then revolutionary views that a specific toxic agent or "toxicon" caused specific dose-related effects. His principles have established the basis of modern pharmacology and toxicology. In 1700, Bernardo Ramazzini published the book De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (The Diseases of Workers) describing specific illnesses associated with certain labor, particularly metal workers exposed to mercury, lead, arsenic, and rock dust. Modern toxicology dates from development of the modern industrial chemical processes, the earliest involving an analytical method for arsenic by Marsh in 1836. Industrial organic chemicals were synthesized in the late 1800 s along with anesthetics and disinfectants. In 1908, Hamilton began the long study of occupational toxicology issues, and by WW I the scientific use of toxicants saw Haber creating war gases and defining time-dosage relationships that are used even today.

James, John T.; Parmet, A. J.; Pierson, Duane L.



Short communication: Dairy bedding type affects survival of Prototheca in vitro.  


Protothecae are algal pathogens, capable of causing bovine mastitis, that are unresponsive to treatment; they are believed to have an environmental reservoir. The role of bedding management in control of protothecal mastitis has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth of either environmental or mastitis-associated Prototheca genotypes in dairy bedding materials that are commonly used in Maine. Prototheca zopfii genotypes 1 and 2 (gt1 and gt2) were inoculated into sterile broth only (control ), kiln-dried spruce shavings, "green" hemlock sawdust, sand, or processed manure-pack beddings with broth, and incubated for 2 d. Fifty microliters of each isolate was then cultured onto plates and the resulting colonies counted at 24 and 48 h postinoculation. Shavings were associated with significantly less total Prototheca growth than other bedding types. Growth of P. zopfii gt1 was significantly higher than that of gt2 in the manure-pack bedding material. Spruce shavings, compared with manure, sand, or sawdust, may be a good bedding type to prevent growth of Prototheca. Based on these in vitro findings, bedding type may affect Prototheca infection of cattle in vivo. PMID:24119794

Adhikari, N; Bonaiuto, H E; Lichtenwalner, A B



The SHARE 2012 data campaign  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-modal (hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR) imaging data collection campaign was conducted just south of Rochester New York in Avon, NY on September 20, 2012 by the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in conjunction with SpecTIR, LLC, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the Naval Research Lab (NRL), United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS) and MITRE. The campaign was a follow on from the SpecTIR Hyperspectral Airborne Rochester Experiment (SHARE) from 2010. Data was collected in support of the eleven simultaneous experiments described here. The airborne imagery was collected over four different sites with hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR sensors. The sites for data collection included Avon, NY, Conesus Lake, Hemlock Lake and forest, and a nearby quarry. Experiments included topics such as target unmixing, subpixel detection, material identification, impacts of illumination on materials, forest health, and in-water target detection. An extensive ground truthing effort was conducted in addition to collection of the airborne imagery. The ultimate goal of the data collection campaign is to provide the remote sensing community with a shareable resource to support future research. This paper details the experiments conducted and the data that was collected during this campaign.

Giannandrea, AnneMarie; Raqueno, Nina; Messinger, David W.; Faulring, Jason; Kerekes, John P.; van Aardt, Jan; Canham, Kelly; Hagstrom, Shea; Ontiveros, Erin; Gerace, Aaron; Kaufman, Jason; Vongsy, Karmon M.; Griffith, Heather; Bartlett, Brent D.; Ientilucci, Emmett; Meola, Joseph; Scarff, Lauwrence; Daniel, Brian



Ecological Impacts of High Deer Densities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Figure Set explores the complexity of forest ecosystems with particular emphasis on the effects of expanding white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations on trees, birds, and people. Once at the brink of extinction throughout their range, deer populations in the eastern and midwestern United States have grown rapidly over the last several decades. This has created unwelcome consequences for farmers, orchardists, homeowners, and motorists, including crop damage and more vehicle accidents. Of concern to conservation biologists is the possibility that high deer densities might have detrimental effects on the abundance and diversity of forest vegetation and wildlife. This issue addresses the questions: 1) How do deer impact the composition of forest vegetation? 2) How do deer influence habitat for other wildlife? and 3) What challenges exist in the management of white-tailed deer populations? The issue draws upon three primary papers, which examine: 1) deer browse and other factors influencing hemlock regeneration, 2) effects of manipulating deer populations on the abundance and diversity of breeding birds, and 3) decision-making processes for resolving deer management controversies.

Schusler, Tania



Geology and paleoecology of a mid-Wisconsin peat from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A peat bed on east-central Graham Island of the Queen Charlotte Islands occurs within a nonglacial fluvial succession that is both overlain and underlain by glacial deposits. Radiocarbon dates of 27,500 ± 400 and 45,700 ± 970 yr B.P. at the top and base of the peat, respectively, indicate that it was deposited during the mid-Wisconsin nonglacial interval. The peat is the first documented mid-Wisconsin organic deposit in northern coastal areas of British Columbia. Three local pollen zones are represented. The lowest zone (PM-1) is restricted to sandy silt directly underlying the dated peat. Very high Cyperaceae and moderate Poaceae pollen percentages characterize zone PM-1, and a variety of other herbs are common, suggesting an open landscape rather than a forested one. The middle zone (PM-2) is characterized by abundant pollen of Picea, Tsuga mertensiana, and Cyperaceae, and also contains pollen of Abies, a genus now absent from the Queen Charlotte Islands. Graham Island probably had extensive forests at this time, but abundant pollen and macrofossils of Cyperaceae and emergent aquatics such as Hippuris vulgaris, Veronica scutellata, Potentilla palustris, and Menyanthes trifoliata indicate that there also were open wetland areas. Zone PM-3 also contains abundant arboreal pollen. Large amounts of Sphagnum spores and Selaginella selaginoides megaspores indicate succession of the wetland area at the sample site to a peat bog. Paleoecological analysis of the data suggests that subalpine vegetation elements were depressed by at least 400 m, probably due to a cooler climate. Probable modern analogs in southeastern Alaska and the presence of Abies (probably A. amabilis) indicate that precipitation was higher on eastern Graham Island during the mid-Wisconsin than at present.

Warner, Barry G.; Clague, John J.; Mathewes, Rolf W.



The Abrupt Climatic Changes During the Last Deglaciation: Direct Land-sea Correlation From a Marine Pollen Record off Southeastern United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new direct land-sea correlation covering the last deglaciation in order a) to provide a better documentation of the regional vegetation changes in southeastern North America and b) more particularly to assess the connection of the continental climatic changes to North Atlantic circulation rapid variability. It was achieved using coupled analyses of pollen and marine climatic proxies from core KNR140-GGC39 (Blake Outer Ridge) at very high time-resolution. Mg/Ca ratio, planktonic ?18O, mean "sortable silt" grain size (mean S¯S¯) were analyzed in order to get records of SST, salinity and bottom current strength at the core site (Evans et al., submitted to Paleoceanography). The abrupt climatic changes which characterize the last deglaciation, in particular the major cold oscillations Heinrich event 1 (H1) and Younger Dryas (YD), have been widely documented in the North Atlantic and adjacent continents. However, in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic and southeastern United States, the climatic signature of these events appears quite different and somehow unclear. Our direct land-sea correlation shows three configurations: 1- H1 period: cold climatic conditions in southeastern US (high percentages of boreal and herbaceous taxa) but only extremely cold at around 17 ka, accumulation of salty water in the subtropics (high ?18OSW- IVC) and weak bottom current intensity at the site (low mean S¯S¯) 2- Bolling Alleröd interval: abrupt warming in southeastern US (decrease of boreal taxa in favour of Quercus) at the beginning, synchronous to northern export of the salty water previously accumulated and to an increase of the bottom current strength at the site 3- YD period: mild and wet conditions in southeastern US (expansion of Tsuga and Quercus), decrease of the bottom current strength at the site and accumulation of salty water in the subtropical regions but less than during H1.

Desprat, S.; McManus, J. F.; Peteet, D.



Occurrence of ectomycorrhizal fungi on the forefront of retreating Lyman Glacier (Washington, USA) in relation to time since deglaciation.  


Glacier forefronts provide a unique system for studying primary succession of plants and fungi. We constructed a chronosequence of ectomycorrhizal fungus occurrence on the forefront of Lyman Glacier in the North Cascades mountain range in Washington, USA. The plant communities established on non-vegetated substrate as patchily distributed plant individuals and developed towards complex vegetation with a variety of ectomycorrhizal hosts, including Salix commutata, S. phylicifolia, Abies lasiocarpa, Larix lyallii, Pinus contorta, Tsuga mertensiana and additional infrequent taxa. A most probable number assay of non-vegetated substrates over the chronosequence indicated that ectomycorrhizal propagules were few or absent in the non-vegetated areas adjacent to the glacier terminus but increased with time since deglaciation. Ectomycorrhizal fungus sporocarps occurred as soon as the first host plants of substantial size were present. However, none were observed with the most recently established hosts--small A. lasiocarpa seedlings. Only four species (Cortinarius decipiens, C. tenebricus, Inocybe lacera, and Laccaria cf. montana) occurred on substrate deglaciated for less than 40 years. Three of these species (C. tenebricus, I. lacera, and L. cf. montana) occurred along the chronosequence to the terminal moraine on substrate deglaciated for 70-100 years. An additional five species (one unidentified species each of Cortinarius and Lactarius, Cortinarius mutabilis, Lactarius uvidus var. montanus, and Suillus cavipes) occurred only on the oldest substrate. Our results support the current "early- and late-stage" model of ectomycorrhizal fungus succession in that additional species enter the community over time. However, we hypothesize that diversification of the mycorrhizal fungus community in this primary successional habitat resulted from an increasing diversity of host plants along with changing habitat attributes. PMID:11968946

Jumpponen, Ari; Trappe, James M; Cázares, Efren



Do oxygen isotopes in tree rings from coastal Alaska record atmospheric circulation patterns?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotopes in tree-ring cellulose are a promising proxy to reconstruct the dynamics of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, which are the drivers of regional to local climate variability (temperature, precipitation and drought). In this project 112-year long (1900-2011) annually resolved tree-ring width (TRW) and tree-ring ?18O chronologies of Tsuga mertensiana from coastal Alaska (Seward, Kenai Peninsula) were developed and tested for their potential to record the origin of oceanic moisture and atmospheric circulation patterns such as the Pacific North American pattern (PNA) and/or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Alaska is one of the most sensitive regions on Earth to climate change of the 20th/21st centuries and thereforeof specific interest in the context of past/pre-industrial climatic variability. Our study site is under a strong maritime influence with high annual precipitation amount and moderate temperatures. Preliminary results of TRW measurements indicate that the main drivers of tree growth are early summer temperatures (May-July) of the current year stimulating photosynthetic activity, and the winter precipitation amount (previous December to current March) providing snow melt water at the beginning of the growth period. We also found a significant positive correlation of tree growth with monthly PNA from the previous December to the current March, whereas PDO correlates significantly with tree growth from April to July of the current year. Measurements of oxygen isotopes of four individual trees are still in progress and out coming results will be shown and discussed in the presentation. We hypothesize that the oceanic moisture from advective precipitation events is the most important factor for oxygen isotope variations in tree rings of our coastal site. We expect to find enhanced climatic signals in ?18O compared to TRW and potential to reconstruct large-scale atmospheric circulation variability in the Gulf of Alaska/North Pacific.

Timofeeva, Galina; Haug, Gerald; Treydte, Kerstin



Glyphosate-resistant weeds of South American cropping systems: an overview.  


Herbicide resistance is an evolutionary event resulting from intense herbicide selection over genetically diverse weed populations. In South America, orchard, cereal and legume cropping systems show a strong dependence on glyphosate to control weeds. The goal of this report is to review the current knowledge on cases of evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds in South American agriculture. The first reports of glyphosate resistance include populations of highly diverse taxa (Lolium multiflorum Lam., Conyza bonariensis L., C. canadensis L.). In all instances, resistance evolution followed intense glyphosate use in fruit fields of Chile and Brazil. In fruit orchards from Colombia, Parthenium hysterophorus L. has shown the ability to withstand high glyphosate rates. The recent appearance of glyphosate-resistant Sorghum halepense L. and Euphorbia heterophylla L. in glyphosate-resistant soybean fields of Argentina and Brazil, respectively, is of major concern. The evolution of glyphosate resistance has clearly taken place in those agroecosystems where glyphosate exerts a strong and continuous selection pressure on weeds. The massive adoption of no-till practices together with the utilization of glyphosate-resistant soybean crops are factors encouraging increase in glyphosate use. This phenomenon has been more evident in Argentina and Brazil. The exclusive reliance on glyphosate as the main tool for weed management results in agroecosystems biologically more prone to glyphosate resistance evolution. PMID:18161884

Vila-Aiub, Martin M; Vidal, Ribas A; Balbi, Maria C; Gundel, Pedro E; Trucco, Frederico; Ghersa, Claudio M



Synthesis of new aliphatic and aromatic phytotoxic derivatives of 2alpha,4alpha-dimethyl-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-6-en-3-one.  


Several new compounds with potential herbicidal activity were synthesized from 2alpha,4alpha-dimethyl-6,7-exo-isopropylidenedioxy-8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-one (4). Seven aromatic alcohols were prepared by reaction of (4) with aryllithium reagents, where the aryl groups were 4-ethoxyphenyl (5, 70% yield), 4-ethylphenyl (6, 82% yield), 4-butylphenyl (7, 78% yield), 4-tert-butylphenyl (8, 81% yield), 2,4-dimethoxyphenyl (9, 75% yield), 2-ethylphenyl (10, 12% yield) and para-(4-bromophenoxy)phenyl (11, 24% yield). Reaction of the acetonide (4) with Grignard reagents formed also four aliphatic alcohols where the alkyl groups are ethyl (13, 78%), butyl (14, 85%), hexyl (15, 81%) and octyl (25, 92%). The alcohols (5), (6), (7), (8), (13), (14), (15) and (25) were reacted with thionyl chloride in pyridine, forming their respective alkenes (17, 76%), (18, 74%), (19, 83%), (20, 73%), (22, 78%), (26, 62%), (23, 77%) and (24, 66%). The effect of these compounds, at the concentration of 5.5 microg g(-1), on the development of radicle and aerial parts of Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench, Euphorbia heterophylla L, Brachiaria decumbens and Desmodium tortuosum DC was evaluated. PMID:12974357

Barbosa, Luiz C de A; de Alvarenga, Elson S; Demuner, Antônio J; Figueiredo, Remilson; da Silva, Antônio A



Begomoviruses infecting weeds in Cuba: increased host range and a novel virus infecting Sida rhombifolia.  


As a result of surveys conducted during the last few years to search for wild reservoirs of begomoviruses in Cuba, we detected a novel bipartite begomovirus, sida yellow mottle virus (SiYMoV), infecting Sida rhombifolia plants. The complete genome sequence was obtained, showing that DNA-A was 2622 nucleotides (nt) in length and that it was most closely related (87.6% nucleotide identity) to DNA-A of an isolate of sida golden mosaic virus (SiGMV) that infects snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Florida. The DNA-B sequence was 2600 nt in length and shared the highest nucleotide identity (75.1%) with corchorus yellow spot virus (CoYSV). Phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that both DNA components of SiYMoV were grouped in the Abutilon clade, along with begomoviruses from Florida and the Caribbean islands. We also present here the complete nucleotide sequence of a novel strain of sida yellow vein virus found infecting Malvastrum coromandelianum and an isolate of euphorbia mosaic virus that was found for the first time infecting Euphorbia heterophylla in Cuba. PMID:21964921

Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Moriones, Enrique; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila



Bidens pilosa L. exhibits high sensitivity to coumarin in comparison with three other weed species.  


Nine natural plant compounds were screened for phytotoxicity to Bidens pilosa L. a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. The sensitivity of three other weed species to coumarin, the most active identified compound, was also evaluated. Coumarin, at a concentration of 500 microM, had little effect on germination and growth of Senna obtusifolia L., Euphorbia heterophylla L., and Ipomoea grandifolia L. when compared with its effects on B. pilosa L. In a concentration range of 10-100 microM, coumarin caused a dose-dependent inhibition of germination and growth of B. pilosa L. The measurements of some parameters of energy metabolism revealed that coumarin-treated root tissues exhibited characteristics of seedlings in an earlier stage of growth, including higher respiratory activity and higher activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and lipoxygenase. These results suggest that coumarin inhibition of germination and growth of B. pilosa L. was not a consequence of an impairment of energy metabolism. Rather, it seems to act as a cytostatic agent, retarding germination. At concentrations above 50 microM, coumarin increased lipoxygenase activity and the level of conjugated dienes of root extracts, suggesting that it may induce oxidative stress in seedling roots. PMID:18338136

Pergo, Erica Marusa; Abrahim, Denise; Soares da Silva, Patrícia Cristina; Kern, Kátia Aparecida; Da Silva, Lucas Jonatas; Voll, Elemar; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza



Voluntary intake, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of fresh forages fed to guinea pigs in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo).  


The daily voluntary intake (DVI) of Guinea pigs (GP) fed 15 fresh forages used in periurban rearing systems of Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo) was investigated. In order to determine the best forages combination for GP diet, DVI was compared to their nutritional value measured in vitro using (1) a pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, (2) an gas fermentation test on the hydrolysed residues with an inoculum prepared from GP faeces, and (3) the chemical composition of the offered feeds and the hydrolysis residues. The forages ranking based on the DVI was correlated to the NDF content, but not to their nutritional values determined in vitro. According to their high DVI (from 4.23 to 7.75 g/kg liveweigth), and their valuable in vitro nutritional values (crude protein ranging from 261 to 279 g crude protein kg(-1) DM, pepsin-pancreatin digestibilities of the dry matter from 0.55 to 0.59 and final gas production from 170 to 196 1 kg(-1) DM), Desmodium intortum, Euphorbia heterophylla or Amaranthus hybridus, can be suggested to the farmers to complement the usual diet distributed to the GP based on Panicum maximum. PMID:17966272

Bindelle, J; Ilunga, Y; Delacollette, M; Kayij, M Muland; di M'Balu, J Umba; Kindele, E; Buldgen, A



Review of potential environmental impacts of transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybean in Brazil.  


Transgenic glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) have been commercialized and grown extensively in the Western Hemisphere, including Brazil. Worldwide, several studies have shown that previous and potential effects of glyphosate on contamination of soil, water, and air are minimal, compared to those caused by the herbicides that they replace when GRS are adopted. In the USA and Argentina, the advent of glyphosate-resistant soybeans resulted in a significant shift to reduced- and no-tillage practices, thereby significantly reducing environmental degradation by agriculture. Similar shifts in tillage practiced with GRS might be expected in Brazil. Transgenes encoding glyphosate resistance in soybeans are highly unlikely to be a risk to wild plant species in Brazil. Soybean is almost completely self-pollinated and is a non-native species in Brazil, without wild relatives, making introgression of transgenes from GRS virtually impossible. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil is related to weed resistance. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. These include Chamaesyce hirta (erva-de-Santa-Luzia), Commelina benghalensis (trapoeraba), Spermacoce latifolia (erva-quente), Richardia brasiliensis (poaia-branca), and Ipomoea spp. (corda-de-viola). Four weed species, Conyza bonariensis, Conyza Canadensis (buva), Lolium multiflorum (azevem), and Euphorbia heterophylla (amendoim bravo), have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil and have great potential to become problems. PMID:17562462

Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B; Spadotto, Claudio A



An integrated approach to demonstrating the ANR pathway of proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in plants.  


Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomers or polymers of plant flavan-3-ols and are important to plant adaptation in extreme environmental conditions. The characterization of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR) has demonstrated the different biogenesis of four stereo-configurations of flavan-3-ols. It is important to understand whether ANR and the ANR pathway widely occur in the plant kingdom. Here, we report an integrated approach to demonstrate the ANR pathway in plants. This includes different methods to extract native ANR from different tissues of eight angiosperm plants (Lotus corniculatus, Desmodium uncinatum, Medicago sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Vitis vinifera, Vitis bellula, Parthenocissus heterophylla, and Cerasus serrulata) and one fern plant (Dryopteris pycnopteroides), a general enzymatic analysis approach to demonstrate the ANR activity, high-performance liquid chromatography-based fingerprinting to demonstrate (-)-epicatechin and other flavan-3-ol molecules, and phytochemical analysis of PAs. Results demonstrate that in addition to leaves of M. sativa, tissues of other eight plants contain an active ANR pathway. Particularly, the leaves, flowers and pods of D. uncinatum, which is a model plant to study LAR and the LAR pathways, are demonstrated to express an active ANR pathway. This finding suggests that the ANR pathway involves PA biosynthesis in D. uncinatum. In addition, a sequence BLAST analysis reveals that ANR homologs have been sequenced in plants from both gymnosperms and angiosperms. These data show that the ANR pathway to PA biosynthesis occurs in both seed and seedless vascular plants. PMID:22678031

Peng, Qing-Zhong; Zhu, Yue; Liu, Zhong; Du, Ci; Li, Ke-Gang; Xie, De-Yu



Feeding and attraction of Agelastica coerulea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Betulaceae plants.  


The feeding and attraction of Agelastica coerulea (Baly) to nine species of Betulaceae in four genera (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, and Corylus) were examined in the laboratory by using choice and no-choice as well as olfactometer bioassays. In no-choice feeding bioassays with A. coerulea larvae, Alnus hirsuta (Spach) Ruprecht, Alnus japonica Steudel, Corylus sieboldiana variety mandshurica (Max.) c. k. Schneider, and Corylus heterophylla variety thunbergii Blume were the most preferred, whereas Betula davurica Pallas, Betula schmidtii Regel, and Carpinus cordata Blume were the least preferred. The larvae showed moderate preference for Alnus maximowiczii Callier and Carpinus tschonoskii variety brevicalycina Nakai. In choice feeding bioassays, no differences in preference between A. hirsuta and A. japonica were observed. However, there were significant differences in preference between A. hirsuta and each of the other seven plant species. In olfactometer bioassays with adult female A. coerulea, fresh leaf odor from A. hirsuta attracted significantly more adults than that from A. japonica and C. sieboldiana variety mandshurica. These results indicate that A. coerulea differed in its ability to discriminate among the Betulaceae plants at the feeding preference and attraction of host selection. PMID:15666753

Park, Il-Kwon; Lee, Sang-Gil; Shin, Sang-Chul; Kim, Chul-Su; Ahn, Young-Joon



In Vitro Screening of Medicinal Plants Used in Mexico as Antidiabetics with Glucosidase and Lipase Inhibitory Activities  

PubMed Central

This work shows the inhibitory effect on glucosidase and lipase enzymes of 23 medicinal plants described as traditional treatments for diabetes in several Mexican sources. Hydroalcoholic extracts of selected plants were evaluated at 1?mg/mL for glucosidase and 0.25?mg/mL for lipase inhibitory activities, respectively. Camellia sinensis, acarbose, and orlistat were used as positive controls. Dose-response curves were done with the most active species. Sixty percent of all tested extracts inhibited more than 25% of ?-glucosidase activity. C. sinensis displayed an inhibition of 85% (IC50?=?299??g/mL), while Ludwigia octovalvis and Iostephane heterophylla showed the highest inhibition (82.7 %, IC50?=?202??g/mL and 60.6%, CI50?=?509??g/mL, resp.). With respect to lipase activity, L. octovalvis and Tecoma stans were the most inhibiting treatments (31.4%, IC50?=?288??g/mL; 27.2%, IC50?=?320??g/mL), while C. sinensis displayed 45% inhibition (IC50?=?310??g/mL). These results indicate that a high proportion of plants used in Mexico as treatment for diabetes displays significant inhibition of these digestive enzymes.

Ramirez, Guillermo; Zavala, Miguel; Perez, Julia; Zamilpa, Alejandro



Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.  


Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A



Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits  

PubMed Central

Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.



Comparisons between conventional, ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted methods for extraction of anthraquinones from Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook f. (Rubiaceae).  


This work reports a comparative study about extraction methods used to obtain anthraquinones (AQs) from stems and leaves of Heterophyllae pustulata Hook (Rubiáceae). One of the conventional procedures used to extract these metabolites from a vegetable matrix is by successive Soxhlet extractions with solvents of increasing polarity: starting with hexane to eliminate chlorophylls and fatty components, following by benzene and finally ethyl acetate. However, this technique shows a low extraction yield of total AQs, and consumes large quantities of solvent and time. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) have been investigated as alternative methods to extract these compounds, using the same sequence of solvents. It was found that UAE increases the extraction yield of total AQs and reduces the time and amount of solvent used. Nevertheless, the combination UAE with benzene, plus MAE with ethyl acetate at a constant power of 900 W showed the best results. A higher yield of total AQs was obtained in less time and using the same amount of solvent that UAE. The optimal conditions for this latter procedure were UAE with benzene at 50 °C during 60 min, followed by MAE at 900 W during 15 min using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. PMID:24071561

Barrera Vázquez, M F; Comini, L R; Martini, R E; Núñez Montoya, S C; Bottini, S; Cabrera, J L



Acute toxicity and mutagenic activity of Mexican plants used in traditional medicine.  


The present work was undertaken to determine safety parameters of selected Mexican medicinal plants chosen on the basis of their frequency of medicinal use and commercial importance. The medicinal herbs included Amphipteryngium adstringens, Hintonia standleyana, Hintonia latiflora, Piper sanctum, Haemathoxylon brasiletto, Iostephane heterophylla, Valeriana procera, Arracacia tolucensis, Brickellia veronicaefolia, Scaphyglottis livida, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri, Poliomintha longiflora and Gnaphalium sp. In the acute toxicity studies in mice performed according to the Lorke procedure, Exostema caribaeum, Hippocratea excelsa, Ligusticum porteri and Poliomintha longiflora were the most toxic with LD(50) values between 1085 and 2mg/kg. The Ames test revealed that Gnaphalium sp. and Valeriana procera extracts induced mutations of S. typhimurium TA98 with or without the S9 microsomal fraction, and TA100 in the presence of the enzymatic fraction, respectively. The tincture of Valeriana procera, however, was non-mutagenic. Finally, in the Artemia salina lethality test Brickellia veronicaefolia, Arracacia tolucensis, Poliomintha longiflora and Piper sanctum caused significant mortality of the crustacean larvae with LC(50) in the range of 37-227 microg/mL. PMID:17101253

Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Arriaga-Alba, Myriam; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; Navarrete, Andrés; Mata, Rachel



Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties.  


Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec. was discovered in the tanks of the Mexican bromeliad Tillandsia heterophylla. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Cotterillia has many cirral rows on both sides of the body. Uniquely, and thus used to diagnose the new genus Cotterillia, it has dorsal kineties originating de novo, producing neokinetal waves where the parental dorsal kineties reorganize to "combined rows", consisting of dorsal bristles anteriorly and of cirri posteriorly. Thus, up to four generations of bristles and cirri occur on the dorsal body surface. Cotterillia bromelicola has a gonostomatid body and adoral zone of membranelles, while the dense ciliature and the neokinetal waves resemble kahliellid hypotrichs. However, the de novo origin of anlage 1 and the molecular analyses show convincingly that Cotterillia belongs to the GonostomatidaeSmall and Lynn, 1985, for which an improved diagnosis is provided. Thus, neokinetal waves originated several times independently. The molecular differences between Trachelostyla, Gonostomum, and Cotterillia are small (? 5%) compared to their distinct morphologies and ontogeneses, suggesting that the 18S rDNA underestimates generic diversity. Our study emphasizes the need of combined morphological, ontogenetic, and molecular investigations to unravel the complex phylogeny and evolution of hypotrich ciliates. PMID:20971620

Foissner, Wilhelm; Stoeck, Thorsten



Geographical influences on content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly in China.  


The content of 10-hydroxy-trans-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA), a marker compound in royal jelly (RJ), is the most important criterion in grading RJ for commercial trade and varies with its origin. To identify the effect of geographical origin on 10-HDA content in RJ, 138 samples were collected from 19 provinces of China (divided into three groups) produced by either Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806 or a hybrid of A. m. ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica Pollman, 1879 and analyzed for moisture, sugar, crude protein, ash, acid, and 10-HDA concentration. The results show that RJ from western China has a significantly higher 10-HDA level (2.01 +/- 0.05%) than those from northeastern (1.87 +/- 0.05%) and eastern (1.75 +/- 0.03%) China. RJ secreted by hybrid bees contained more 10-HDA (1.89 +/- 0.03%) than that secreted by A. m. ligustica (1.78 +/- 0.03%). The 10-HDA content of RJ produced during flowering of rape (Brassica campestris L.), lime (Tilia amurensis Ruprecht), and vitex (Vitex negundo L. variety heterophylla (Franch.) Rehder) was 1.92, 1.80, and 1.68%, respectively. The results would be helpful during the process of price determination of RJ by providing some basis of geographical, bee strain, and botanical information for commercial trade. PMID:24224235

Wei, Wen-Ting; Hu, Yuan-Qiang; Zheng, Huo-Qing; Cao, Lian-Fei; Hu, Fu-Liang; Hepburn, H Randall



Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties  

PubMed Central

Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec. was discovered in the tanks of the Mexican bromeliad Tillandsia heterophylla. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Cotterillia has many cirral rows on both sides of the body. Uniquely, and thus used to diagnose the new genus Cotterillia, it has dorsal kineties originating de novo, producing neokinetal waves where the parental dorsal kineties reorganize to “combined rows”, consisting of dorsal bristles anteriorly and of cirri posteriorly. Thus, up to four generations of bristles and cirri occur on the dorsal body surface. Cotterillia bromelicola has a gonostomatid body and adoral zone of membranelles, while the dense ciliature and the neokinetal waves resemble kahliellid hypotrichs. However, the de novo origin of anlage 1 and the molecular analyses show convincingly that Cotterillia belongs to the Gonostomatidae Small and Lynn, 1985, for which an improved diagnosis is provided. Thus, neokinetal waves originated several times independently. The molecular differences between Trachelostyla, Gonostomum, and Cotterillia are small (?5%) compared to their distinct morphologies and ontogeneses, suggesting that the 18S rDNA underestimates generic diversity. Our study emphasizes the need of combined morphological, ontogenetic, and molecular investigations to unravel the complex phylogeny and evolution of hypotrich ciliates.

Foissner, Wilhelm; Stoeck, Thorsten



Population dynamics of weeds in no-tillage and conventional crop systems.  


Population dynamics of weeds in successive maize and bean crops were evaluated in two soil management systems (conventional and no-tillage), for two maize applications (grain and silage), and in four consecutive growing seasons. Every year, conventional tillage consisted in plowing and harrowing before sowing. In no-tillage, chemical weed desiccation was made with the mixture glyphosate + 2.4-D. To control weeds, the mixture fluazifop-p-butil + fomesafen was applied on the bean crop in all the planting seasons, and the herbicides nicosulfuron + atrazine on maize after crop emergence (1998--1999, 1999--2000, 2001--2002) and atrazine + metolachlor before emergence (2000--2001). Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) was the most important species under conventional soil tillage; while in no-tillage the dicotyledonous weed species (Amaranthus deflexus, Bidens pilosa, Euphorbia heterophylla, Galinsoga parviflora Ipomoea grandifolia) were the most relevant. Regardless of the maize use, the C. rotundus population and tuber bank, with prevailingly dormant tubers, was considerably reduced in no-tillage compared with the conventional system. PMID:15656169

Machado, Aroldo Ferreira Lopes; Jakelaitis, Adriano; Ferreira, Lino Roberto; Agnes, Ernani Luiz; Santos, Leonardo David Tuffi



Fine-scale, multidimensional spatial patterns of forest canopy structure derived from remotely sensed and simulated datasets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forests are not simply storehouses of timber or wood fibre for human consumption and economic development. They represent structurally and ecologically rich habitat for an estimated 40 percent of the earth's extant species, and form the functional interface between the biosphere and atmosphere for some 27 percent of the earth's terrestrial surface. Forests, therefore, play a vital role in the maintenance of biodiversity and the regulation of local to global scale ecosystem processes and functions. Present strategies for conserving biodiversity in managed forests are based on the notion that maintaining the full range of structural conditions historically present in natural forests is the best approach for assuring the long-term persistence of a broad range of native species. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to contribute to the development of novel forest measurements that are relevant to organisms and ecosystems, and much needed by forest scientists and managers to recognize and retain the key elements and patterns of forest structure that are crucial for the conservation of forest biodiversity. This study focuses explicitly on fine-spatial-scale, multidimensional patterns of forest canopy structure based on the assumption that the 'canopy' is the primary focal site of complex interactions between vegetation and the physical environment. Two disparate remote sensing technologies---ground-based hemispherical (fisheye) canopy photography and airborne discrete-return LiDAR---are employed to characterize angular, vertical, and horizontal patterns of forest canopy structure. A quantitative technique is developed for precise measurements of gap fraction (P), element clumping (O), mean projection coefficient (G), and leaf area index (L) from sequences (sets) of black and white pixels extracted at specific view angles in digital fisheye photos. Results are compared with three other leading techniques and validated using well-documented simulated and real fisheye photosets. Variables P, O, G, and L control light capture and penetration in forest canopies, and are key input parameters for process-based models of stand productivity, stand dynamics, and material (CO2 and H2O) and energy fluxes between the canopy and atmosphere. Findings show that this new technique consistently produced the best estimates of stand LAI in each of the three experimental forest sites. However, further validation work is required to determine the adequacy of these methods in other closed and discontinuous canopies. Finally, a methodological framework is devised for quantifying, classifying, and comparing fine-spatial-scale vertical and horizontal patterns of canopy structure derived from airborne LiDAR data. This methodology is tested with simulated forest canopies and ultimately demonstrated using an airborne LiDAR dataset collected over very young to old, coastal Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A pseudo 'space-for-time substitution' sampling approach is used to investigate age-related developmental changes in canopy structure at decadal and century time scales. Discrete classes of vertical and horizontal canopy structure are identified by k-means partitioning. The structural differences found among age-classes were consistent with the characteristics, patterns, and dynamics predicted by generalized models of stand development for similar coastal Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of northwestern North America.

Frazer, Gordon Wilson


Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values less than +300 mv in the forest floor; whereas only 15 percent of the HA plots had such low values. Composition of the forest understory species was related to soil moisture/aeration. Soil aeration was the most important soil variable influencing plant species composition, explaining 25% of the plant community variability. Eh was always greater than +300 mv in the mineral soil of old growth HA forests but below +300 mv in HA clearcuts, suggesting paludification; however it was below or at this threshold in both CH forests and clearcuts. The reduction in measured redox without a noticeable change in the watertable in HA sites suggests that harvesting HA forests shifts the ecosystem towards more anaerobic conditions more similar to CH sites. In a complimentary study, the significance of redox was assessed in a cedar swamp cutover by exploring the relationships between soil redox potential and tree growth, and mineralization of C and soil C store along a gradient of moisture caused by drainage. Drainage improved aeration in the rooting zone, expressed as redox, and above- and below ground C storage; however C mineralization measured as CO2 evolution was not affected. Tree growth was positively correlated with redox potential. Our results indicate that drainage could be a useful silvicultural practice for improving the productivity of these ecosystems and that it may be possible to improve tree growth without stimulating loss of soil C. This requires that drainage improve aeration in the rooting zone while maintaining redox levels of less than +300 mV in the bulk soil, indicating that redox measurements should be incorporated into silviculture interventions to improve productivity of these forests.

Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les



Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days (a mat day is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Most of the sampling occurred in the post-Libby dam spawning reach (rkm 229.0 to 246.0) but some sampling occurred near Crossport (rkm 253.5) and in the Canyon reach above Hemlock Bar (rkm 261.0). We collected eight white sturgeon eggs near Shortys Island in 2004. Sampling for larval white sturgeon began June 8 and continued until July 22, 2004. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from the Set and Jet Program. We collected 103 larval fish, but none were white sturgeon larvae or embryos. Juvenile white sturgeon sampling started July 26 and continued through September 27, 2004. A total of 271 hours of gillnetting effort captured 256 juvenile hatchery white sturgeon and two juvenile wild white sturgeon.

Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)



Taking the pulse of mountains: Ecosystem responses to climatic variability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An integrated program of ecosystem modeling and field studies in the mountains of the Pacific Northwest (U.S.A.) has quantified many of the ecological processes affected by climatic variability. Paleoecological and contemporary ecological data in forest ecosystems provided model parameterization and validation at broad spatial and temporal scales for tree growth, tree regeneration and treeline movement. For subalpine tree species, winter precipitation has a strong negative correlation with growth; this relationship is stronger at higher elevations and west-side sites (which have more precipitation). Temperature affects tree growth at some locations with respect to length of growing season (spring) and severity of drought at drier sites (summer). Furthermore, variable but predictable climate-growth relationships across elevation gradients suggest that tree species respond differently to climate at different locations, making a uniform response of these species to future climatic change unlikely. Multi-decadal variability in climate also affects ecosystem processes. Mountain hemlock growth at high-elevation sites is negatively correlated with winter snow depth and positively correlated with the winter Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index. At low elevations, the reverse is true. Glacier mass balance and fire severity are also linked to PDO. Rapid establishment of trees in subalpine ecosystems during this century is increasing forest cover and reducing meadow cover at many subalpine locations in the western U.S.A. and precipitation (snow depth) is a critical variable regulating conifer expansion. Lastly, modeling potential future ecosystem conditions suggests that increased climatic variability will result in increasing forest fire size and frequency, and reduced net primary productivity in drier, east-side forest ecosystems. As additional empirical data and modeling output become available, we will improve our ability to predict the effects of climatic change across a broad range of climates and mountain ecosystems in the northwestern U.S.A.

Fagre, D. B.; Peterson, D. L.; Hessl, A. E.



Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 1999 Annual Report.  

SciTech Connect

Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I. = 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m{sup 2}, respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline.

Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher C.



Evaluation of developmental toxicity of coniine to rats and rabbits.  


Conium maculatum (poison hemlock, CM) is teratogenic in several domestic species, presumably due to its piperidine alkaloids, including coniine, which has been verified to be teratogenic in cattle. Coniine/CM teratogenicity culminates in production of arthrogryposis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine-induced teratogenicity in two laboratory animal species, Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Pregnant rats were given coniine (25 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 16-18. Pregnant rabbits were given coniine (40 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 20-24. Rats were killed on day 19 and rabbits on day 29. Fetuses were immediately removed, weighed, and examined for external abnormalities. Alternate fetuses were either stained for skeletal examinations with alizarin red-S or fixed in Bouin's solution for visceral examination. Symptoms of maternal intoxication due to coniine administration were observed in both the rat and the rabbit, and higher doses were uniformly lethal. Rabbits treated with coniine appeared to lose more weight and eat less than controls, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Fetal weights were significantly lower in coniine-exposed rat and rabbit fetuses indicating fetotoxicity. The only statistically significant treatment-related visceral or skeletal malformation was a reduction of cranial ossification of rabbit fetuses, probably related to maternal toxicity. Coniine-exposed rabbit litters tended to be affected by arthrogryposis (no bony deformities noted on skeletal exam) more than controls (2/6 vs. 0/9). PMID:8351649

Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A



Pharmacologically active plant metabolites as survival strategy products.  


The fact that plant organisms produce chemical substances that are able to positively or negatively interfere with the processes which regulate human life has been common knowledge since ancient times. One of the numerous possible examples in the infusion of Conium maculatum, better known as Hemlock, a plant belonging to the family umbelliferae, used by the ancient Egyptians to cure skin diseases. The current official pharmacopoeia includes various chemical substances produced by secondary plant metabolisms. For example, the immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent organ transplant rejection and the majority of antibiotics are metabolites produced by fungal organisms, pilocarpin, digitalis, strophantus, salicylic acid and curare are examples of plant organism metabolites. For this reason, there has been an increase in research into plants, based on information on their medicinal use in the areas where they grow. The study of plants in relation to local culture and traditions is known as "ethnobotany". Careful study of the behaviour of sick animals has also led to the discovery of medicinal plants. The study of this subject is known as "zoopharmacognosy". The aim of this article is to discuss the fact that "ad hoc" production of such chemical substances, defined as "secondary metabolites", is one of the modes in which plant organisms respond to unfavourable environmental stimuli, such as an attack by predatory phytophagous animals or an excessive number of plant individuals, even of the same species, in a terrain. In the latter case, the plant organisms produce toxic substances, called "allelopathic" which limit the growth of other individuals. "Secondary metabolites" are produced by metabolic systems that are shunts of the primary systems which, when required, may be activated from the beginning, or increased to the detriment of others. The study of the manner in which such substances are produced is the subject of a new branch of learning called "ecological biochemistry". PMID:12705091

Attardo, C; Sartori, F



Effect of coniine on the developing chick embryo.  


Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), has been shown to be teratogenic in livestock. The major teratogenic outcome is arthrogryposis, presumably due to nicotinic receptor blockade. However, coniine has failed to produce arthrogryposis in rats or mice and is only weakly teratogenic in rabbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of coniine and nicotine in the developing chick. Concentrations of coniine and nicotine sulfate were 0.015%, 0.03%, 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6% and 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. Both compounds caused deformations and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. All concentrations of nicotine sulfate caused some lethality but a no effect level for coniine lethality was 0.75%. The deformations caused by both coniine and nicotine sulfate were excessive flexion or extension of one or more toes. No histopathological alterations or differences in bone formation were seen in the limbs or toes of any chicks from any group; however, extensive cranial hemorrhage occurred in all nicotine sulfate-treated chicks. There was a statistically significant (P < or = 0.01) decrease in movement in coniine and nicotine sulfate treated chicks as determined by ultrasound. Control chicks were in motion an average of 33.67% of the time, while coniine-treated chicks were only moving 8.95% of a 5-min interval, and no movement was observed for nicotine sulfate treated chicks. In summary, the chick embryo provides a reliable and simple experimental animal model of coniine-induced arthrogryposis. Data from this model support a mechanism involving nicotinic receptor blockade with subsequent decreased fetal movement. PMID:8073369

Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A; Watrous, B J; Bohn, A A



Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.  


Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of coniine-induced teratogenesis between these two species. PMID:9001585

Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A



Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization.  


Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is applied to the in situ detection of alkaloids in the tissue of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). The experiment is carried out by electrospraying micro-droplets of solvent onto native or freshly-cut plant tissue surfaces. No sample preparation is required and the mass spectra are recorded under ambient conditions, in times of a few seconds. The impact of the sprayed droplets on the surface produces gaseous ions from organic compounds originally present in the plant tissue. The effects of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, the solvent infusion rate and the carrier gas pressure on analytical performance are evaluated and optimized. Different types of plant material are analyzed including seeds, stems, leaves, roots and flowers. All the previously reported alkaloids have been detected in C. maculatum, while fifteen out of nineteen known alkaloids for D. stramonium and the principal alkaloids of A. belladonna were also identified. All identifications were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results obtained show similar mass spectra, number of alkaloids, and signal intensities to those obtained when extraction and separation processes are performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Evidence is provided that DESI ionization occurs by both a gas-phase ionization process and by a droplet pick-up mechanism. Quantitative precision of DESI is compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (after sample workup) and the RSD values for the same set of 25 dicotyledonous C. maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. PMID:16284661

Talaty, Nari; Takáts, Zoltán; Cooks, R Graham



Four Centuries of Change in Northeastern United States Forests  

PubMed Central

The northeastern United States is a predominately-forested region that, like most of the eastern U.S., has undergone a 400-year history of intense logging, land clearance for agriculture, and natural reforestation. This setting affords the opportunity to address a major ecological question: How similar are today's forests to those existing prior to European colonization? Working throughout a nine-state region spanning Maine to Pennsylvania, we assembled a comprehensive database of archival land-survey records describing the forests at the time of European colonization. We compared these records to modern forest inventory data and described: (1) the magnitude and attributes of forest compositional change, (2) the geography of change, and (3) the relationships between change and environmental factors and historical land use. We found that with few exceptions, notably the American chestnut, the same taxa that made up the pre-colonial forest still comprise the forest today, despite ample opportunities for species invasion and loss. Nonetheless, there have been dramatic shifts in the relative abundance of forest taxa. The magnitude of change is spatially clustered at local scales (<125 km) but exhibits little evidence of regional-scale gradients. Compositional change is most strongly associated with the historical extent of agricultural clearing. Throughout the region, there has been a broad ecological shift away from late successional taxa, such as beech and hemlock, in favor of early- and mid-successional taxa, such as red maple and poplar. Additionally, the modern forest composition is more homogeneous and less coupled to local climatic controls.

Thompson, Jonathan R.; Carpenter, Dunbar N.; Cogbill, Charles V.; Foster, David R.



Crown Features Extraction from Low Altitude AVIRIS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated tree recognition and crown delineations are computer-assisted procedures for identifying individual trees and segmenting their crown boundaries on digital imagery. The success of the procedures is dependent on the quality of the image data and the physiognomy of the stand as evidence by previous studies, which have all used data with spatial resolution less than 1 m and average crown diameter to pixel size ratio greater than 4. In this study we explored the prospect of identifying individual tree species and extracting crown features from low altitude AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer) data with spatial resolution of 4 m. The test site is a Douglas-fir and Western hemlock dominated old-growth conifer forest in the Pacific Northwest with average crown diameter of 12 m, which translates to a crown diameter pixel ratio less than 4 m; the lowest value ever used in similar studies. The analysis was carried out using AVIRIS reflectance imagery in the NIR band centered at 885 nm wavelength. The analysis required spatial filtering of the reflectance imagery followed by application of a tree identification algorithm based on maximum filter technique. For every identified tree location a crown polygon was delineated by applying crown segmentation algorithm. Each polygon boundary was characterized by a loop connecting pixels that were geometrically determined to define the crown boundary. Crown features were extracted based on the area covered by the polygons, and they include crown diameters, average distance between crowns, species spectral, pixel brightness at the identified tree locations, average brightness of pixels enclosed by the crown boundary and within crown variation in pixel brightness. Comparison of the results with ground reference data showed a high correlation between the two datasets and highlights the potential of low altitude AVIRIS data to provide the means to improve forest management and practices and estimates of critical plant-variables that are required by major components of ecosystem and climate models.

Ogunjemiyo, S. O.; Roberts, D.; Ustin, S.



Seasonal variation in the temperature sensitivity of proteolytic enzyme activity in temperate forest soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing soil temperature has the potential to alter the activity of the extracellular enzymes that mobilize nitrogen (N) from soil organic matter (SOM) and ultimately the availability of N for primary production. Proteolytic enzymes depolymerize N from proteinaceous components of SOM into amino acids, and their activity is a principal driver of the within-system cycle of soil N. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the soils of temperate forest tree species differ in the temperature sensitivity of proteolytic enzyme activity over the growing season and the role of substrate limitation in regulating temperature sensitivity. Across species and sampling dates, proteolytic enzyme activity had relatively low sensitivity to temperature with a mean activation energy (Ea) of 33.5 kJ mol-1. Ea declined in white ash, American beech, and eastern hemlock soils across the growing season as soils warmed. By contrast, Eain sugar maple soil increased across the growing season. We used these data to develop a species-specific empirical model of proteolytic enzyme activity for the 2009 calendar year and studied the interactive effects of soil temperature (ambient or +5°C) and substrate limitation (ambient or elevated protein) on enzyme activity. Declines in substrate limitation had a larger single-factor effect on proteolytic enzyme activity than temperature, particularly in the spring. There was, however, a large synergistic effect of increasing temperature and substrate supply on proteolytic enzyme activity. Our results suggest limited increases in N availability with climate warming unless there is a parallel increase in the availability of protein substrates.

Brzostek, Edward R.; Finzi, Adrien C.



Four centuries of change in northeastern United States forests.  


The northeastern United States is a predominately-forested region that, like most of the eastern U.S., has undergone a 400-year history of intense logging, land clearance for agriculture, and natural reforestation. This setting affords the opportunity to address a major ecological question: How similar are today's forests to those existing prior to European colonization? Working throughout a nine-state region spanning Maine to Pennsylvania, we assembled a comprehensive database of archival land-survey records describing the forests at the time of European colonization. We compared these records to modern forest inventory data and described: (1) the magnitude and attributes of forest compositional change, (2) the geography of change, and (3) the relationships between change and environmental factors and historical land use. We found that with few exceptions, notably the American chestnut, the same taxa that made up the pre-colonial forest still comprise the forest today, despite ample opportunities for species invasion and loss. Nonetheless, there have been dramatic shifts in the relative abundance of forest taxa. The magnitude of change is spatially clustered at local scales (<125 km) but exhibits little evidence of regional-scale gradients. Compositional change is most strongly associated with the historical extent of agricultural clearing. Throughout the region, there has been a broad ecological shift away from late successional taxa, such as beech and hemlock, in favor of early- and mid-successional taxa, such as red maple and poplar. Additionally, the modern forest composition is more homogeneous and less coupled to local climatic controls. PMID:24023749

Thompson, Jonathan R; Carpenter, Dunbar N; Cogbill, Charles V; Foster, David R



Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.  

SciTech Connect

The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions favorable for a fish parasite, Heteropolaria lwoffi. Educational activities further the likelihood that future generations will continue to understand and enjoy the presence of native fish stocks in the Wind River basin.

White, Jim



Biomass accumulation and soil nitrogen availability in an 87-year-old Populus grandidentata chronosequence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Upper Lake States region is marked by major disturbances of fire and logging over 100 years ago that created a landscape mosaic of early successional forests. Given the intimate link between soil N availability and forest growth in this region, it is important to understand how temporal changes in soil N constrain the rate at which forest biomass accumulates following a stand-destroying disturbance. Bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.) currently dominates sites where primarily old-growth pine-hemlock-oak forests once thrived, which provides an opportunity to observe nearly 100 years of succession following severe disturbance. In this study, we examine the relationship between soil N availability and biomass accrual in a series of plots undergoing secondary succession following logging and burning. Our results demonstrate that total aboveground biomass and nitrogen accrual patterns are strongly and positively related on a highly disturbed, bigtooth aspen-dominated ecosystem in northern Lower Michigan. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification were highest immediately following disturbance, and then decreased over the next approximately 20 years of succession. Following this short-term decrease, these processes increased and attained a maximum value after 70 years of forest succession. Understory biomass accumulation showed the opposite trend of nutrient availability, with highest values during the first 20 years of succession, followed by a dramatic decrease for the next 70 years. Understory biomass began to decrease as plants grew into the overstory or died. Total aboveground biomass was correlated with N mineralization (r=0.894; P=0.041) and nitrification (r=0.782; P=0.118) and appears to be increasing steadily to some maximum that has not yet been reached. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

White, L. L.; Zak, D. R.; Barnes, B. V.



Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.  


In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage. PMID:20839871

Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B



Evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds around the world: lessons to be learnt.  


Glyphosate is the world's most important herbicide, with many uses that deliver effective and sustained control of a wide spectrum of unwanted (weedy) plant species. Until recently there were relatively few reports of weedy plant species evolving resistance to glyphosate. Since 1996, the advent and subsequent high adoption of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in the Americas has meant unprecedented and often exclusive use of glyphosate for weed control over very large areas. Consequently, in regions of the USA where transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops dominate, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of the economically damaging weed species Ambrosia artemissifolia L., Ambrosia trifida L., Amaranthus palmeri S Watson, Amaranthus rudis JD Sauer, Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq) JD Sauer and various Conyza and Lolium spp. Likewise, in areas of transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops in Argentina and Brazil, there are now evolved glyphosate-resistant populations of Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers and Euphorbia heterophylla L. respectively. As transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops will remain very popular with producers, it is anticipated that glyphosate-resistant biotypes of other prominent weed species will evolve over the next few years. Therefore, evolved glyphosate-resistant weeds are a major risk for the continued success of glyphosate and transgenic glyphosate-resistant crops. However, glyphosate-resistant weeds are not yet a problem in many parts of the world, and lessons can be learnt and actions taken to achieve glyphosate sustainability. A major lesson is that maintenance of diversity in weed management systems is crucial for glyphosate to be sustainable. Glyphosate is essential for present and future world food production, and action to secure its sustainability for future generations is a global imperative. PMID:18273881

Powles, Stephen B



Winter Soil CO2 Flux from Different Mid-Latitude Sites from Middle Taihang Mountain in North China  

PubMed Central

Winter soil respiration is a very important component of the annual soil carbon flux in some ecosystems. We hypothesized that, with all other factors being equal, shorter winter SR result in reduced contribution to annual soil C flux. In this study, the contribution of winter soil respiration to annual soil respiration was measured for three sites (grassland: dominated by Artemisia sacrorum, Bothriochloa ischaemum and Themeda japonica; shrubland: dominated by Vitex negundo var. heterophylla; plantation: dominated by Populus tomatosa) in a mountainous area of north China. Diurnal and intra-annual soil CO2 flux patterns were consistent among different sites, with the maximum soil respiration rates at 12?00 or 14?00, and in July or August. The lowest respiration rates were seen in February. Mean soil respiration rates ranged from 0.26 to 0.45 µmol m?2 s?1 in the winter (December to February), and between 2.38 to 3.16 µmol m?2 s?1 during the growing season (May-September). The winter soil carbon flux was 24.6 to 42.8 g C m?2, which contributed 4.8 to 7.1% of the annual soil carbon flux. Based on exponential functions, soil temperature explained 73.8 to 91.8% of the within year variability in soil respiration rates. The Q10 values of SR against ST at 10 cm ranged from 3.60 to 4.90 among different sites. In addition, the equation between soil respiration and soil temperature for the growing season was used to calculate the “modeled” annual soil carbon flux based on the actual measured soil temperature. The “measured” annual value was significantly higher than the “modeled” annual value. Our results suggest that winter soil respiration plays a significant role in annual soil carbon balance, and should not be neglected when soil ecosystems are assessed as either sinks or sources of atmospheric CO2.

Zhang, Wanjun; Zeng, Xinhua; Wang, Huaru



Last glacial pollen record from Lanzhou (Northwestern China) and possible forcing mechanisms for the MIS 3 climate change in Middle to East Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vegetation on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is highly sensitive to climatic changes and thus represents a potentially interesting environmental archive. Pollen samples from the Fanjiaping Loess section in Lanzhou on the western Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) were analyzed in conjunction with OSL dating. The results indicate that pollen zone B (60.6-46.0 ka, correlative to the early MIS 3) had the greatest abundances of Cupressaceae, Tsuga, Gramineae and Cyperaceae of the entire section, suggesting a warm phase during the last glacial period. These pollen taxa decreased significantly in abundance in the zones C (46.0-39.0 ka) and D (39.0-27.0 ka), reflecting a substantial climate cooling from the middle MIS 3 to MIS 2. These results correlate with climate records from the South China Sea, the CLP, Baikal Lake, North America, North Atlantic Ocean and other regions, and probably correspond with the decline of northern high-latitude insolation and the increase of global ice volume from 50 to 20 ka. In particular, arboreal pollen, fern spore and algae abundances declined sharply since ˜40 ka, while shrub and herb pollen reached the highest abundances. Conifer pollen Picea and Abies abundance also rose markedly and increased up the section. This implies significant climate deterioration and likely corresponded with substantial growth of the polar ice sheets since ˜40 ka. The decreasing temperature caused by an insolation decline during the last glacial period probably reinforced the cooling effect in a 'snow/ice/albedo' feedback, which would result in less climate sensitivity to radiative forcing. Meanwhile, vegetation decline in the Northern Hemisphere during the last glacial period and tundra development at high latitudes possibly caused additional cooling, enhancing the growth of polar ice sheets since 40 ka. The development of polar ice sheets increased the polar-to-equator temperature and pressure gradients, strengthening the westerlies and supplying plenty of moisture to Northwest China during 40-30 ka. Lake sediments developed widely on the Tibetan Plateau during 40-30 ka, probably related to an increase in the seasonality of middle-to-low latitude insolation which caused an enhancement of glacier melting on the Plateau.

Jiang, Hanchao; Mao, Xue; Xu, Hongyan; Thompson, Jessica; Wang, Ping; Ma, Xiaolin



Tree mortality, canopy turnover, and woody detritus in old cove forests of the southern Appalachians  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A long-term study of tree mortality, canopy turnover, and coarse woody detritus inputs was conducted in cove forests of the Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee, USA. Seven old-growth stands were studied over a 10-yr period using 0.6-1.0 ha plots. Annual mortality of trees >10 cm dbh was 0.5-1.4% among stands (mean 0.7%), The highest mortality rate among canopy trees was exhibited by trees >80 cm dbh. An increase in mortality rate with canopy tree size was evident for two (Tsuga canadensis and Acer saccharum) of the three most abundant species in the forest. The increase in mortality with tree size had implications for canopy turnover and detritus input. Gap disturbance frequency was estimated at 0.008-0.019 forest area/yr, giving a return interval of ???130 yr or less. Standing death was the most common mode of mortality (59%). Annual rates of snag formation were 1.4 snags/ha for trees >10 cm dbh and 0.4 snags/ha for trees >50 cm dbh. The density of large snags (>50 cm dbh) was 5 snags/ha. Snags accounted for 8% of the total standing tree basal area and 23% of the coarse woody detritus mass (total of 48 Mg/ ha). The mean annual rate of coarse woody detritus input was 3.0 Mg/ha. A decay rate constant was estimated at 0.07, yielding a detritus half-life of 10 yr. Although mean mortality rates and canopy turnover in old cove forests were moderate in comparison with other old forests of eastern North America, input and accumulation of coarse woody detritus were high for the region. This resulted, in part, from the relatively large sizes attained by canopy trees and the fact that larger trees tended to suffer higher mortality. In comparison to forests worldwide, rates of mortality, canopy gap formation, and decay of coarse woody detritus were intermediate.

Busing, R. T.



Impacts of an exotic disease and vegetation change on foliar calcium cycling in Appalachian forests.  


Because of the high calcium content of its foliage, Cornus florida (flowering dogwood) has been described as a calcium "pump" that draws calcium from deeper mineral soil and enriches surface soil horizons. However, over the last two decades an exotic fungal disease (dogwood anthracnose, Discula destructiva) has decimated populations of this once-common understory species. Its loss, combined with forest stand development, could alter intra-stand calcium cycling. We used data from long-term vegetation monitoring plots to examine the ecological role of C. florida in calcium cycling and to identify changes in annual foliar calcium cycling over a 20-year period between two sampling intervals, 1977-1979 (preanthracnose) and 1995-2000 (post-anthracnose). Published equations were used to estimate foliar biomass per species for five forest types: alluvial, typic cove, acid cove, oak-hickory, and oak-pine. Calcium concentrations derived from foliage samples were used to estimate annual foliar calcium production per species for understory woody stems (<20 cm dbh) and total foliar calcium production for overstory stems (> or =20 cm dbh). At a given level of soil calcium availability, C. florida foliage contained greater concentrations of calcium than three other dominant understory species (Tsuga canadensis, Acer rubrum, and Rhododendron maximum). Between 1977-1979 and 1995-2000, the annual calcium contributions of understory woody vegetation declined across all forest types, ranging from 26% in oak-pine stands to 49% in acid coves. Loss of C. florida was responsible for only 13% of this decline in oak-pine stands, but accounted for 96% of the decline in typic coves. In oak-hickory and oak-pine stands, we observed large increases in the foliar biomass of T. canadensis, a species whose calcium-poor foliage increases soil acidity. Increases in overstory foliar biomass and calcium offset understory losses in three forest types (alluvial, typic coves, and oak-pine) but not in oak-hickory and acid cove stands. Overall, calcium cycling in oak-hickory stands was more negatively affected by the loss of C. florida than the other forest types. Oak-hickory forests comprise over a third of the total forest cover in the eastern United States, and decreases in annual calcium cycling could have cascading effects on forest biota. PMID:17494403

Jenkins, Michael A; Jose, Shibu; White, Peter S



Impacts of traditional land use practices on soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools of mountain ecosystems in Nepal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crop production, animal husbandry and forestry are three closely interlinked components of land use systems in the mountains of Nepal. Forests are the major source of fuel wood, construction materials, fodder and litter. The latter is used as a bedding material for livestock and forms an important component of farmyard manure. In addition forest grazing by cattle is a common practice. Excessive extraction of biomass from the forest leads to a decline of soil organic matter and nutrient contents. On the landscape scale these negative effects will partly be compensated by positive effects on soil organic matter and nutrient stocks of arable soils. The experimental data base for a quantification of such effects at the scale of communities is however poor, in particular for Nepal. Understanding the impact of subsistence farming on ecosystems is imperative in order to recommend successful and sustainable land management practices. The aim of our study is to quantify effects of land use on carbon and nitrogen pools and fluxes for mountain communities in Nepal. Results of a case study in the buffer zone area of the Sagarmatha National Park are presented. The potential vegetation comprises mixed forests of Quercus semicarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Tsuga dumosa. Carbon and nitrogen stocks in soil and vegetation were quantified for three different land use types, namely: forest with low human impact, forests with high human impact and agricultural land. The scale of disturbance of the forests has been classified by visual estimation considering the percentage of litter raked, number of lopped trees, and grazing intensity assessed by signs of trampling and the number of trails. After stratification of the community area, 20 plots of 10 m radius were established (17 forest plots, 3 plots for arable land) where biometric data of the vegetation were determined and sub-samples were taken for chemical analyses. Organic layers (litter remaining after litter raking) and soil samples were collected (volumetric sampling of geometric horizons down to 1 m depth). Fluxes of carbon and nitrogen from the forests were accounted by combining results of sub samples of biomass extracted by local people during the field survey and information on amounts and source areas provided by the farmers. Also the amount of carbon and nutrients applied with farmyard manure and the extraction by harvest was determined for the arable land. First estimates of carbon and nitrogen cycling at the community level and on impacts on soil status will be presented.

Giri, Anjana; Katzensteiner, Klaus



Twentieth-century decline of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park, California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of forest change in western North America often focus on increased densities of small-diameter trees rather than on changes in the large tree component. Large trees generally have lower rates of mortality than small trees and are more resilient to climate change, but these assumptions have rarely been examined in long-term studies. We combined data from 655 historical (1932-1936) and 210 modern (1988-1999) vegetation plots to examine changes in density of large-diameter trees in Yosemite National Park (3027 km2). We tested the assumption of stability for large-diameter trees, as both individual species and communities of large-diameter trees. Between the 1930s and 1990s, large-diameter tree density in Yosemite declined 24%. Although the decrease was apparent in all forest types, declines were greatest in subalpine and upper montane forests (57.0% of park area), and least in lower montane forests (15.3% of park area). Large-diameter tree densities of 11 species declined while only 3 species increased. Four general patterns emerged: (1) Pinus albicaulis, Quercus chrysolepis, and Quercus kelloggii had increases in density of large-diameter trees occur throughout their ranges; (2) Pinus jeffreyi, Pinus lambertiana, and Pinus ponderosa, had disproportionately larger decreases in large-diameter tree densities in lower-elevation portions of their ranges; (3) Abies concolor and Pinus contorta, had approximately uniform decreases in large-diameter trees throughout their elevational ranges; and (4) Abies magnifica, Calocedrus decurrens, Juniperus occidentalis, Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Tsuga mertensiana displayed little or no change in large-diameter tree densities. In Pinus ponderosa-Calocedrus decurrens forests, modern large-diameter tree densities were equivalent whether or not plots had burned since 1936. However, in unburned plots, the large-diameter trees were predominantly A. concolor, C. decurrens, and Q. chrysolepis, whereas P. ponderosa dominated the large-diameter component of burned plots. Densities of large-diameter P. ponderosa were 8.1 trees ha-1 in plots that had experienced fire, but only 0.5 trees ha-1 in plots that remained unburned. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lutz, J. A.; van, Wagtendonk, J. W.; Franklin, J. F.



Occurrence of neonatal and postnatal mortality in range beef cattle. II. Factors contributing to calf death.  


Results are summarized of necropsy findings from 798 calves lost from birth to weaning over a 15-yr period. Autopsies determined cause of death and ascertained anatomical normalcy of the skeletal, musculature and organ systems and functinal status of the lungs. Of the 798 calves, 77.7% were anatomically normal and 22.3% were abnormal (P < 0.01) and 75.0% of the total deaths of abnormal calves occurred by Day 2 postpartum. Birth weights of normal calves averaged 4.2 kg heavier (P < 0.05) than that of abnormal calves. Internal hydrocephalus was identified and confirmed heritable as a lethal recessive trait. The number of calves lost from dystocia (406 calves, 50.9%) exceeded losses from all other causes (392 calves, 49.1%). Lung status was determined for 492 calves dying at birth, with 39.6 and 60.4% having functional and nonfunctional lungs, respectively (P < 0.01). Diseases, mainly scours and pneumonia, ranked second in importance as cause of death (12.8%), followed by exposure-chilling (5.6%) due to cold and wet conditions. Abnormalities observed included heart anomalies (24 calves), hydrocephalus (38 calves) and a missing segment of the caudal gut (8 calves). Multiple congenital malformations were found in 15 calves with findings similar to those resulting from maternal consumption of toxins from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) during gestation. Twelve calves died from peritonitis resulting from a perforated abomasal ulcer caused by accumulated hair. Of the 373 dystocia deaths in anatomically normal calves, 121 (32.4%) involved abnormal presentation, with calves involved in backward or breech presentation accounting for 62.0% of the losses from abnormal presentation. Calves experiencing hiplock or retained forelimb were heavier (P < 0.05) than calves presented in normal, back-ward or breech positions. Dystocia scores were assigned to 253 calves dying at parturition. Percentage losses within score were 52.6, 6.7, 30.8 and 9.9 (P < 0.05) and birth weights were 33.9, 36.1, 39.2 and 37.4 kg (P < 0.05) for scores of 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. PMID:16726340

Bellows, R A; Patterson, D J; Burfening, P J; Phelps, D A



Meltwater discharge and the triggering of Younger Dryas : new data on the chronology of Champlain Sea transgression in the St-Lawrence River Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate chronology of ice retreat is crucial to understand the Ocean-Atmosphere couple at the end of the Pleistocene. The St-Lawrence River Valley is key in this regard, and two sedimentary sequences from Mount Saint-Hilaire, in the middle of the valley, contain a record that sheds new lignt on ice retreat and the penecontemporaneous proglacial marine invasion. Basal AMS-dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils coupled with an extrapolation from the pollen content of underlying postglacial lake sediments at Hemlock Carr (243 m), show that local ice retreat occurred around 11 350 14C yr BP. Cross-dating of such macrofossils (10 510 ± 60 14C yr BP) with shells from marine sediments (~12 200 14C yr BP) catched in the neighbouring Lake Hertel's basin (169 m) show a ca. 1700 14C years difference mainly ascribed to the effect of old, glacially-derived carbon in the upper shallow waters of the Champlain Sea. The pollen-based chronological extrapolation at Lake Hertel indicates that the marine invasion occurred around 11 100 ± 100 14C yr BP. This result supports the chronology based on deep-water invertebrate marine fauna (Rodrigues, 1988). The 14C assessment of the New-England varve chronology (Ridge et al., 1999) is thus confirmed. Deglaciation of the entire Saint-Lawrence River Valley took place within 1000 14C years. The chronology of ice retreat in southern Québec is shortened and made younger. This prompts major revision of all the associated paleohydrological events. Routing of the glacial meltwaters to the North Atlantic was impossible before 11 100 14C yr BP. The abrupt transition from Glacial Lake Candona (ca. 220 m) to the proglacial phase of the Champlain Sea (ca. 190 m) at 11 100 14C yr BP implies an input of glacial meltwater to the ocean estimated at 1500 km3. This may well have affected the thermohaline circulation in the North Atlantic and triggered the Younger Dryas oscillation.

Richard, P.; Occhietti, S.



Forecasting Impacts of Climate Change on Indicators of British Columbia's Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the relationships between biodiversity and climate is essential for predicting the impact of climate change on broad-scale landscape processes. Utilizing indirect indicators of biodiversity derived from remotely sensed imagery, we present an approach to forecast shifts in the spatial distribution of biodiversity. Indirect indicators, such as remotely sensed plant productivity metrics, representing landscape seasonality, minimum growth, and total greenness have been linked to species richness over broad spatial scales, providing unique capacity for biodiversity modeling. Our goal is to map future spatial distributions of plant productivity metrics based on expected climate change and to quantify anticipated change to park habitat in British Columbia. Using an archival dataset sourced from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite from the years 1987 to 2007 at 1km spatial resolution, corresponding historical climate data, and regression tree modeling, we developed regional models of the relationships between climate and annual productivity growth. Historical interconnections between climate and annual productivity were coupled with three climate change scenarios modeled by the Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis (CCCma) to predict and map productivity components to the year 2065. Results indicate we can expect a warmer and wetter environment, which may lead to increased productivity in the north and higher elevations. Overall, seasonality is expected to decrease and greenness productivity metrics are expected to increase. The Coastal Mountains and high elevation edge habitats across British Columbia are forecasted to experience the greatest amount of change. In the future, protected areas may have potential higher greenness and lower seasonality as represented by indirect biodiversity indicators. The predictive model highlights potential gaps in protection along the central interior and Rocky Mountains. Protected areas are expected to experience the greatest change with indirect indicators located along mountainous elevations of British Columbia. Our indirect indicator approach to predict change in biodiversity provides resource managers with information to mitigate and adapt to future habitat dynamics. Spatially specific recommendations from our dataset provide information necessary for management. For instance, knowing there is a projected depletion of habitat representation in the East Rocky Mountains, sensitive species in the threatened Mountain Hemlock ecozone, or preservation of rare habitats in the decreasing greenness of the southern interior region is essential information for managers tasked with long term biodiversity conservation. Forecasting productivity levels, linked to the distribution of species richness, presents a novel approach for understanding the future implications of climate change on broad scale biodiversity.

Holmes, Keith Richard


Stemflow amount, intensity and timing in a mature forest in coastal British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stemflow is the portion of precipitation that falls on the forest canopy and flows along tree branches and stems to the soil at the base of the tree. Previous studies have shown the importance of stemflow for nutrient cycling, groundwater recharge, plant water uptake and soil moisture dynamics; however little is known about stemflow in mature coastal British Columbia forests. Furthermore, most studies focus on the amount of stemflow; few studies have looked at the timing or intensity of stemflow relative to precipitation intensity. We therefore measured stemflow from 18 trees of four different species within a ~1 ha mature western hemlock-western redcedar stand within the Malcolm Knapp Research Forest in British Columbia, Canada, using water collecting containers and tipping bucket rain gauges. Measurements between February and November 2010 showed that stemflow amount was highly variable between the different trees. It did not vary much between species but instead varied mainly with tree size. Trees smaller than 35 cm in diameter contributed relatively more stemflow than larger trees; they represented 24% of the total basal area but contributed ~72% of total stemflow at this site. Funneling ratios were larger than one for the trees smaller than 35 cm in diameter and increased with event size up to 50 mm. Funneling ratios for larger trees were less than one and did not vary much with event size. Stemflow started on average after 3 mm of precipitation. Peak stemflow intensities were much larger than peak precipitation intensity for some events and did not always occur at the same time as peak precipitation intensity; peak stemflow intensities tended to increase for consecutive precipitation bursts and occurred approximately 15 minutes after the corresponding peak precipitation intensity. Peak stemflow intensities were not related to tree species or tree size. Even though stemflow accounted for only ~1% of precipitation, high peak stemflow intensities could contribute to fast groundwater recharge and influence soil moisture dynamics around the trees. Dye tracer experiments showed that stemflow infiltrated primarily along roots and was more frequently found at depth than at the soil surface.

van Meerveld, Ilja; Spencer, Sheena



A review and synthesis of monoterpene speciation from forests in the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The monoterpene composition (emission and tissue internal concentration) of major forest tree species in the United States is discussed. Of the 14 most commonly occurring compounds ( ?-pinene, ?-pinene, ? 3-carene, d-limonene, camphene, myrcene, ?-terpinene, ?-phellandrene, sabinene, ?-cymene, ocimene, ?-thujene, terpinolene, and ?-terpinene), the first six are usually found to be most abundant. Expected regional variability based on the monoterpene composition fingerprints and corresponding tree species distribution and abundance is examined. In the southeast, ?-pinene and ?-pinene seem to dominate monoterpene emissions, while in the northern forests emissions are distributed more evenly among the six major compounds. In some parts of western forests, ?-pinene and ? 3-carene can be more abundant than ?-pinene. Among the other eight compounds, ?-phellandrene and sabinene occasionally are significant percentages of expected local monoterpene emissions. Ocimene and ?-cymene are estimated to be more common in regions dominated by deciduous broadleaf forests, although total emission rates are generally lower for these forests relative to those dominated by conifers. These percentages are compared with monoterpene composition measured in ambient air at various sites. Estimated monoterpene emission composition based on local forest species composition agrees fairly well with ambient measurements for the six major compounds. The past assumption that ?-pinene composes approximately 50% of total monoterpene emissions appears reasonable for many areas, except for possibly the northern coniferous forests and some areas in the west dominated by true firs, spruce, and western pines (lodgepole and ponderosa pines). The oxygenated monoterpenes such as camphor, bornyl acetate, and cineole often compose high percentages of the monoterpenes within plant tissues, but are much less abundant in emission samples. Even after adjusting for lower vapor pressures of these compounds, emission rates relative to the hydrocarbon monoterpenes are often lower than would be expected from their internal concentrations. More study is warranted on monoterpene emission rates and composition, especially from the spruces, true firs, hemlocks, cedars, and some deciduous species such as the maples. Non-invasive canopy level and whole ecosystem flux studies are also needed to establish uncertainty estimates for monoterpene emission models.

Geron, Chris; Rasmussen, Rei; Arnts, Robert R.; Guenther, Alex


Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene vegetation history of northeastern Russian Arctic inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 318 m thick lacustrine sediment record from Lake El'gygytgyn, northeastern Russian Arctic cored by the international El'gygytgyn Drilling Project provides unique opportunities for the time-continuous reconstruction of the regional paleoenvironmental history for the past 3.6 Myr. Pollen studies of the lower 216 m of the lacustrine sediments demonstrate their value as an excellent archive of vegetation and climate changes during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. About 3.5-3.35 Myr BP, the vegetation at Lake El'gygytgyn, now an area of tundra was dominated by spruce-larch-fir-hemlock forests. After ca. 3.35 Myr BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared. A very pronounced environmental change took place ca. 3.31-3.28 Myr BP, corresponding to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2, when treeless tundra- and steppe-like habitats became dominant in the regional vegetation. Climate conditions were similar to those of Late Pleistocene cold intervals. Numerous coprophilous fungi spores identified in the pollen samples suggest the presence of grazing animals around the lake. Following the MIS M2 event, larch-pine forests with some spruce mostly dominated the area until ca. 2.6 Myr BP, interrupted by colder and drier intervals ca. 3.043-3.025, 2.935-2.912, and 2.719-2.698 Myr BP. At the beginning of the Pleistocene, ca. 2.6 Myr BP, noticeable climatic deterioration occurred. Forested habitats changed to predominantly treeless and shrubby environments, which reflect a relatively cold and dry climate. Peaks in observed green algae colonies (Botryococcus) around 2.53, 2.45, 2.32-2.305, 2.20 and 2.16-2.15 Myr BP suggest a spread of shallow water environments. A few intervals (i.e., 2.55-2.53, ca. 2.37, and 2.35-2.32 Myr BP) with a higher presence of coniferous taxa (mostly pine and larch) document some relatively short-term climate ameliorations during Early Pleistocene glacial periods.

Andreev, A. A.; Tarasov, P. E.; Wennrich, V.; Raschke, E.; Herzschuh, U.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.



Using Land Surface Phenology as the Basis for a National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Early Warning System (EWS) provides an 8-day coast-to-coast snapshot of potentially disturbed forests across the U.S.. A prototype system has produced national maps of potential forest disturbances every eight days since January 2010, identifying locations that may require further investigation. Through phenology, the system shows both early and delayed vegetation development and detects all types of unexpected forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, landslides, drought, flood, and climate change. The USDA Forest Service Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center is collaborating with NASA Stennis Space Center and the Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center to develop the tool. The EWS uses differences in phenological responses between an expectation based on historical data and a current view to strategically identify potential forest disturbances and direct attention to locations where forest behavior seems unusual. Disturbance maps are available via the Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV) (, which allows resource managers and other users to see the most current national disturbance maps as soon as they are available. Phenology-based detections show not only vegetation disturbances in the classical sense, but all departures from normal seasonal vegetation behavior. In 2010, the EWS detected a repeated late-frost event at high elevations in North Carolina, USA, that resulted in delayed seasonal development, contrasting with an early spring development at lower elevations, all within close geographic proximity. Throughout 2011, there was a high degree of correspondence between the National Climatic Data Center's North American Drought Monitor maps and EWS maps of phenological drought disturbance in forests. Urban forests showed earlier and more severe phenological drought disturbance than surrounding non-urban forests. An EWS news page ( highlights disturbances the system has detected during the 2011 season. Unsupervised statistical multivariate clustering of smoothed phenology data every 8 days over an 11-year period produces a detailed map of national vegetation types, including major disturbances. Examining the constancy of these phenological classifications at a particular location from year to year produces a national map showing the persistence of vegetation, regardless of vegetation type. Using spectral unmixing methods, national maps of evergreen decline can be produced which are a composite of insect, disease, and anthropogenic factors causing chronic decline in these forests, including hemlock wooly adelgid, mountain pine beetle, wildfire, tree harvest, and urbanization. Because phenology shows vegetation responses, all disturbance and recovery events detected by the EWS are viewed through the lens of the vegetation.

Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S. P.; Hoffman, F. M.



Day-roosts of female long-eared myotis in Western Oregon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Roosts are a critical habitat component for bats and may influence their survival and fitness. We used radiotelemetry to investigate characteristics of day-roosts of female long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis) in watersheds characterized by different forest conditions and the spatial relationships between day-roosts and available water. We tracked 21 bats to 73 roosts (n = 102 occasions) from June to August 1996 and 1997 on the western slope of the Cascade Mountains, Oregon. Bats primarily used conifer stumps as day-roosts in watersheds dominated by younger forests and used conifer snags, and to a lesser extent conifer stumps, in watersheds with greater proportions of older forests. Individual long-eared myotis used different types of structures as day-roosts, and type of structure used did not differ with reproductive condition. Day-roosts were primarily located in upslope habitat and averaged 0.59 A? 0.03 km from available water and 0.66 A? 0.02 km from capture sites. Roosts were not located closer to available water than random points, but were closer than random points to captures sites. Conifer snags used as day-roosts averaged 34 A? 5 m in height and 93 A? 12 cm diameter at breast height (dbh); snags in intermediate stages of decay had highest use. Use of conifer snags was positively associated with the number of snags within 20 m and negatively associated with distance from stand edge. Conifer stumps used as day-roosts averaged 133 A? 9 cm in height and 59 A? 4 cm dbh. Western hemlock and Douglas-fir stumps were used more often than western redcedar stumps as day-roosts. Odds of a stump being used as a day-roost increased with increasing height of the stump (downhill side) and whether it was situated in a gap in vegetation. We contend that management of day-roosts for forest-dwelling bats should focus on maintaining large conifer snags across landscapes through space and time. In landscapes where there are relatively few large conifer snags, stumps appear to provide important, but ephemeral, roosts for long-eared myotis.

Waldien, David L.; Hayes, J. P.; Arnett, Edward B.



Soil greenhouse gas fluxes from different tree species on Taihang Mountain, North China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to investigate seasonal variation of greenhouse gas fluxes from soils on sites dominated by plantation (Robinia pseudoacacia, Punica granatum, and Ziziphus jujube) and natural regenerated forests (Vitex negundo var. heterophylla, Leptodermis oblonga, and Bothriochloa ischcemum), and to identify how tree species, litter exclusion, and soil properties (soil temperature, soil moisture, soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH) explained the temporal and spatial variation in soil greenhouse gas fluxes. Fluxes of greenhouse gases were measured using static chamber and gas chromatography techniques. Six static chambers were randomly installed in each tree species. Three chambers were randomly designated to measure the impacts of surface litter exclusion, and the remaining three were used as a control. Field measurements were conducted biweekly from May 2010 to April 2012. Soil CO2 emissions from all tree species were significantly affected by soil temperature, soil moisture, and their interaction. Driven by the seasonality of temperature and precipitation, soil CO2 emissions demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern, with fluxes significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were not significantly correlated with soil temperature, soil moisture, or their interaction, and no significant seasonal differences were detected. Soil organic carbon and total N were significantly positively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil bulk density was significantly negatively correlated with CO2 and N2O fluxes. Soil pH was not correlated with CO2 and N2O emissions. Soil CH4 fluxes did not display pronounced dependency on soil organic carbon, total N, soil bulk density, and soil pH. Removal of surface litter significantly decreased in CO2 emissions and CH4 uptakes. Soils in six tree species acted as sinks for atmospheric CH4. With the exception of Ziziphus jujube, soils in all tree species acted as sinks for atmospheric N2O. Tree species had a significant effect on CO2 and N2O releases but not on CH4 uptake. The lower net global warming potential in natural regenerated vegetation suggested that natural regenerated vegetation were more desirable plant species in reducing global warming.

Liu, X. P.; Zhang, W. J.; Hu, C. S.; Tang, X. G.



The Northern Apennines palynological record as a contribute for the reconstruction of the Messinian palaeoenvironments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Messinian stage has long been associated with an overall warm and dry climate whereas recent researches indicate either a warm and humid or a cool and dry climate. The integrated stratigraphic record of vegetation and climatic changes from Northern Apennines sites provides the solution to this apparent contradiction. Its integration with the updated geological and sedimentological studies provides additional data for the reconstruction of the depositional palaeoenvironments in both marginal and deeper sub-basins of the Apennines foredeep. The onset of the Mediterranean salinity crisis (MSC) is recorded in the Gessoso-Solfifera of the Vena del Gesso (marginal sub-basin). Cyclical humid conditions, corresponding to precession minima, developed during the deposition of the shales interbedded with the gypsum (5.9 to 5.6 Ma); some cooler events took also place under the effects of global (glacial stadials) and regional factors (Apennines uplift). At present no major changes from moist to dry conditions are attested to just before the salinity crisis, as well as in Sicily. So climate did not play a major role in the onset of the MSC despite the favourable context provided by inferred thermo-xeric conditions in southern Italy. A drier episode indicated by the expansion of the open vegetation including the northward migration of Lygeum postdates the onset of the salinity crisis of about 400 kyr, in the lower post-evaporitic deposits of Maccarone (deeper sub-basin). It falls within a period of global warming whereas at a regional scale it could correlate p.p. to the evaporite deposition in deeper basins and to hiatuses in the marginal basins of Sicily and of the western sector of Northern Apennines. Its sudden end, about 100 kyr later, in coincidence with a significant increase of Pinaceae, indicates a turnover in the terrestrial setting not linked to major climate changes but possibly to a complex interaction between other palaeoenvironmental factors (e.g., tectonics and eustatism). In contrast organic-walled dinoflagellate cysts exclude significant modifications in aquatic settings (insaturation of either open marine or brackish conditions). In the latter, a later change is marked by the arrival of Impagidinium (?) sp. 1., a species here referred instead to Caspidinium rugosum, about 7 m below the first colombaccio. This occurrence together with the spread of Pediastrum indicates a freshwater dilution i.e. the "Lago-Mare" event during wetter climatic conditions on the adjacent landmass (increase of Tsuga and Cedrus). The successive arrival and/or dominance of other "Paratethyan" taxa such as I. (?) sp. 2, I. (?) sp. 3 and Galeacysta etrusca indicate highly variable water environments (marine vs. continental water inputs) during the deposition of the uppermost post-evaporitic deposits. The Lago-Mare is stratigraphically sandwiched between an ash layer (130 m below) dated at 5.5 Ma and the beginning of the Pliocene where a peak of Impagidinium patulum marks the onset of open marine conditions. The dominant humid, subtropical to warm temperate climate indicates differences in both temperature and moisture values with respect to the coeval southern sections, revealing climatic gradients within the Mediterranean, at least from the Messinian. No dramatic vegetation and climate changes have been recorded during the MSC; major changes occurred later as indicated by the palynological record from 2.6 Ma. This palynostratigraphic record is a good reference for more recent models of the development of the MSC and for establishing time-relationships between the Apennine and Sicilian successions.

Bertini, Adele



Do Fungi Transport 10Be During Wood Degradation?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteoric cosmogenic 10Be is increasingly used to determine erosion and soil transport rates. To calculate these rates, it is assumed that 10Be is a conservative passive tracer of soil particles. However, there is experimental evidence that beryllium is mobilized in natural soils complexed with organic acids. For example, up to 50% of beryllium can be mobilized by humic acids in soils at pH 7 (Takahashi et al., 1999). Beryllium is also known to be taken up in plants such as tobacco and vegetables (World Health Organization, 1990) at ppm levels, primarily as organic acid chelates. It is not known to what extent biological beryllium transport in the environment affects the cosmogenic 10Be budget, or how it influences beryllium mobility. In this study, we address a problem recognized early in the development of meteoric 10Be methods. It has been observed that decayed organic matter in soils and sediments contains very high concentrations of 10Be of up to 109-1010 atoms/g (Lundberg, et al., 1983). On the other hand, living trees contain much lower concentrations of 106 atoms/g (Klein et al., 1982). The driving question for this study is how 10Be becomes bound to decayed organic matter. Direct fallout seems unlikely as the residence time of organic matter in soil is too short. One possibility is that 10Be is transported by fungi. Wood-degrading fungi are known to transport and bioaccumulate metals from large areas, facilitated by acids such as oxalic acid in the fungal hyphae. To test the hypothesis that fungi transport 10Be, we analyzed both intact and fungally degraded wood of oak, hickory, and hemlock. From these data, we reached two conclusions (observations?): 1) Oak has a 10Be concentration of about 2x106 at/g, similar to that observed by Klein et al. (1982). Hickory has a significantly higher concentration of about 3x107 atoms/g, confirming observations that hickory bioaccumulates beryllium. Using these data, the inventory of 10Be in a temperate forest is expected to be about 6x106 atoms/cm2, equivalent to only a few years of fallout. The flux of beryllium remains unconstrained. 2) We observed two patterns of metal accumulation by wood-degrading fungi. One group of samples showed enrichment in Mn, Fe, and Cr, which are metals that can be used for energy by fungi in a Fenton-like process. This group showed no enrichment in 10Be. Another group of samples showed enrichment primarily in Al and Ti, and also five-fold enrichment in 10Be. Neither group showed fungal enrichment of 10Be sufficient to account for the 1000-fold difference between living trees and soil organic matter. References Klein, J, Middleton, R, & Tang, Hongqing. (1982). Nucl. Instr. Meth., 193:601-616. Lundberg, L., et al. (1983). JGR 88(C7):4498-4504. Takahashi, Y, et al. (1999). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63: 815-836. World Health Organization, (1990). Beryllium, Environmental Health Criteria 106.

Conyers, G.; Granger, D. E.



Water resources of Monroe County, New York, water years 2003-08: Streamflow, constituent loads, and trends in water quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report, the sixth in a series published since 1994, presents analyses of hydrologic data in Monroe County for the period October 2002 through September 2008. Streamflows and water quality were monitored at nine sites by the Monroe County Department of Health and the U.S. Geological Survey. Streamflow yields (flow per unit area) were highest in Northrup Creek, which had sustained flows from year-round inflow from the village of Spencerport wastewater-treatment plant and seasonal releases from the New York State Erie (Barge) Canal. Genesee River streamflow yields also were high, at least in part, as a result of higher rainfall and lower evapotranspiration rates in the upper part of the Genesee River Basin than in the other study basins. The lowest streamflow yields were measured in Honeoye Creek, which reflected a decrease in flows due to the withdrawals from Hemlock and Canadice Lakes for the city of Rochester water supply. Water samples collected at nine monitoring sites were analyzed for nutrients, chloride, sulfate, and total suspended solids. The loads of constituents, which were computed from the concentration data and the daily flows recorded at each of the monitoring sites, are estimates of the mass of the constituents that was transported in the streamflow. Annual yields (loads per unit area) also were computed to assess differences in constituent transport among the study basins. All urban sites - Allen Creek and the two downstream sites on Irondequoit Creek - had seasonally high concentrations and annual yields of chloride. Chloride loads are attributed to the application of road-deicing salts to the county's roadways and are related to population and road densities. The less-urbanized sites in the study - Genesee River, Honeoye Creek, and Oatka Creek - had relatively low concentrations and yields of chloride. The highest concentrations and yields of sulfate were measured in Black Creek, Oatka Creek, and Irondequoit Creek at Railroad Mills and are attributable to dissolution of sulfate from gypsum (calcium sulfate) deposits in Silurian shale bedrock that crops out upstream from these monitoring sites. Northrup Creek had the highest concentrations of phosphorus, orthophosphate, and nitrogen, and high yields of nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen and ammonia plus organic nitrogen. These results are attributed to discharges from the Spencerport wastewater-treatment plant (which ceased operation in June 2008), diversions from the New York State Erie (Barge) Canal, and manure and fertilizers applied to agricultural fields. Concentrations and yields of nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen also were high in Oatka Creek and Black Creek; basins with substantial agricultural land uses. Allen Creek had the second highest yield of ammonia plus organic nitrogen. Honeoye Creek, which drains a relatively undeveloped basin, had the lowest yields of nitrogen constituents. The second highest median concentrations and highest sample concentrations of phosphorus and orthophosphate, as well as the highest phosphorus yields, were measured in the Genesee River. A comparison of the yields computed for the two downstream sites on Irondequoit Creek - above Blossom Road and at Empire Boulevard - permitted an assessment of the mitigative effects of the Ellison Park wetland on constituent loads, which would otherwise be transported to Irondequoit Bay. These effects also include those provided by a flow-control structure (installed mid-way through the wetland during February 1997), which was designed to increase the dispersal and short-term detention of stormflows in the wetland. The wetland decreased yields of particulate constituents - phosphorus and ammonia plus organic nitrogen - but had little effect on the yields of dissolved constituents - chloride, sulfate, and nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen. Trends in flow-adjusted concentrations were identified at all sites for most of the nutrient constituents that were evaluated. All of the linear time tren

Hayhurst, Brett A.; Coon, William F.; Eckhardt, David A. V.



Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene environments inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic is known to play a crucial role within the global climate system. The mid-Pliocene (3-3.5 Ma) is considered to be the most probable scenario of the future climate changes. However, reliable climate projections are hampered by the complexity of the underlying natural variability and feedback mechanisms. An important prerequisite for the validation and improvement of the future projections is a better understanding of the long-term environmental history of the Arctic. Unfortunately, formation of continuous paleoenvironmental records in the Arctic was widely restricted due to repeated glaciations. Continuous sequences that penetrate the entire Quaternary and further into the Pliocene are highly desired and would enable to validate the temperature rise during the mid-Pliocene that was proposed by former studies. Such a record has now become available from Lake El'gygytgyn (67º30'N, 172º05E') located in a meteorite impact crater in north-eastern Siberia. The impact nearly 3.6 Ma ago formed an 18 km wide hole in the ground that then filled with water. The retrieved lake sediments have trapped pollen from a several thousand square-kilometer source area providing reliable insights into regional and over-regional millennial-scale vegetation and climate changes of the Arctic since the Pliocene. The ''El'gygytgyn Drilling Project" of ICDP has completed three holes in the center of the lake, penetrating about 318 m thick lake sediments and about 200 m of the impact rocks below. Because of its unusual origin and high-latitude setting in western Beringia, scientific drilling at Lake El'gygytgyn offered unique opportunities for paleoclimate research, allowing time-continuous climatic and environmental reconstructions back into the Pliocene. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene pollen assemblages can be subdivided into 55 pollen zones, which reflect the main environmental fluctuations in the region 3.55-2.15 Ma BP. Pollen-based climate reconstructions show that conditions in the study area were the warmest about 3.55-3.4 Ma BP when spruce-pine-fir-hemlock-larch-Pseudotsuga forests dominated in nowadays tundra area. After ca 3.4 Ma BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared from the vegetation. Very pronounced environmental changes are revealed about ca 3.35-3.275 Ma BP when treeless tundra and steppe habitats dominated. Treeless and shrubby environments are also indicative after ca 2.6 Ma. Dry and cold climate conditions were similar to those during the Late Pleistocene. The Early Pleistocene sediments contain pollen assemblages reflecting alternation of treeless intervals with cold and dry climate and warmer intervals when larch forests with stone pines, shrub alders and birches were also common in the region. Very dry environments are revealed after ca 2.175 Ma BP. High amounts of green algae colonies (Botryococcus) in the studied sediments point to shallow-water conditions ca 2.55, 2.45, and ca 2.175 Ma BP. Thus, pollen studies show that sediments accumulated in Lake El'gygytgyn are an excellent archive of environmental changes since 3.55 Myr BP. The record well reflects main regional paleoenvironmental fluctuations. The further high-resolution palynological study of the core will reveal climate fluctuations inside the main glacial/interglacial intervals and will give the first continuous and detailed scheme of environmental changes for a whole Arctic.

Andreev, Andrei; Wennrich, Volker; Tarasov, Pavel; Raschke (Morozova), Elena; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Nowaczyk, Norbert; Melles, Martin



Ecology and behavior of the zenaida dove  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Data are summarized from a 10 year study of the Zenaida Dove (Zenaida aurita) in Puerto Rico and its offshore islands. The dove displays sexual size dimorphism, with males generally larger than females: Most activities (feeding, courtship, fighting) occurred in mornings and afternoons, whereas loafing and maintenance activities were more prevalent at mid-day. I recorded 77 plant species used as food by Zenaida Doves in Puerto Rico. Major food species uncluded Scleria lithosperma, Argemone mexicana, Croton rigidus, Phyllanthus amarus, Cordia angustifolia, Zanthoxylum martinicense, Euphorbia heterophylla, and several species of legumes. Zenaida Doves have two major vocalizations: the 'Coo', or Advertisement Call, given in assertive and sexual contexts, and the Nest Call, primarily used at or near the nest. Doves nested in a wide variety of habitats, including forest edge, mangrove forest, dry scrub, and mixed agriculture-urban areas. Nests were generally placed in trees, but doves nested on the ground where certain terrestrial predators were absent. Nests were found in all months of the year, although a breeding peak occurred from March through Mayor July. Doves replaced clutches when nests were destroyed, and recycled up to four times in a season. Males selected nest sites and initiated building. Eggs (2) were laid on alternate days, beginning about two days after the nest was completed. Incubation and nestling stages averaged 13.9 :t 0.5 [SE] and 14.3 :t 0.6 days. The male attended the nest from mid-morning (X = 08:59 hr) through mid-afternoon (x = 16:53), then the female took over incubation and brooding duties for the night. Nests were continuously covered from the laying of the first egg through day seven of the nestling stage. Thereafter, adult attendance dropped steadily until day 14, when they carne to the nest only for chick feedings. Chicks (days 0-15) showed a mean daily weight gain of 18.3% and attained a fledging weight of about 120g (81% of adult weight). The mean daily growth (culmen, tarsometatarsus, ulna) was 6.8% (range = 4.0-9.8% daily). Dove productivity varied among and within study areas over the 10 years. Mean number of chicks hatched per nest that held eggs ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 for 3 study areas. Mean number fledged per nest ranged from 0.3 to 1.4. Productivity was lowest in the dry southwestern Puerto Rico study area (Susua and Guanica forests; x = 0.7 chicks fledged per nest) and was highest for the lower montane mixed agriculture/urban area (Cidra; 1.2). Populations nesting in scrub and mangrove forests (Roosevelt Roads Naval Station) fledged an average of 0.9 chicks/nest. Nest success followed a similar geographic pattern: southwestern Puerto Rico -40.9% of nests with eggs were successful, Cidra -62.6%, and Roosevelt Roads -52.0%. The most important sources of dove egg and chick loss were Pearly-eyed Thrashers (Margarops fuscatus -49% of losses) and roof rats (Rattus rattus -16%).

Wiley, J. W.