Sample records for hemlock tsuga heterophylla

  1. Growth and Infestation by Hemlock Woolly Adelgid of Two Exotic Hemlock Species in a New England Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander M. Evans

    2008-01-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA, Adelges tsugae Annand) an invasive exotic insect, may extirpate eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière) trees from native forests, but other hemlock species could be planted to occupy their ecological niche. This study tests two of the most likely replacement species candidates: western hemlock (T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sargent) and Chinese hemlock (T. chinensis (Franchet) Pritzel).

  2. Evaluation of Hemlock (Tsuga)Species and Hybrids for Resistance to Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera:Adelgidae) Using Artificial Infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemlock species and hybrids were evaluated for resistance to the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand. The adelgid was accidentally introduced from Asia to the eastern United States, where it is causing widespread mortality of native hemlocks, Tsuga canadensis and T. caroliniana. The two na...

  3. Hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) infestation affects water and carbon relations of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana).

    PubMed

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Rivera, Laura N; King, John S; Peszlen, Ilona; Hain, Fred; Smith, Benjamin; Frampton, John

    2013-07-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) is an exotic insect pest causing severe decimation of native hemlock trees. Extensive research has been conducted on the ecological impacts of HWA, but the exact physiological mechanisms that cause mortality are not known. Water relations, anatomy and gas exchange measurements were assessed on healthy and infested eastern (Tsuga canadensis) and Carolina (Tsuga caroliniana) hemlock trees. These data were then used in a mechanistic model to test whether the physiological responses to HWA infestation were sufficiently significant to induce changes in whole-plant water use and carbon uptake. The results indicated coordinated responses of functional traits governing water relations in infested relative to healthy trees. In response to HWA, leaf water potential, carbon isotope ratios, plant hydraulic properties and stomatal conductance were affected, inducing a reduction in tree water use by > 40% and gross primary productivity by 25%. Anatomical changes also appeared, including the activation of traumatic cells. HWA infestation had a direct effect on plant water relations. Despite some leaf compensatory mechanisms, such as an increase in leaf hydraulic conductance and nitrogen content, tree water use and carbon assimilation were diminished significantly in infested trees, which could contribute to tree mortality. PMID:23560452

  4. Germination ecology in mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. A. El-Kassaby; D. G. W. Edwards

    2001-01-01

    The effect of variable heat sums (440, 400, 320 and 280°h days), expressed as alternating temperatures (25\\/15, 20\\/15, 20\\/10 and 15\\/10°C over 8\\/16h (day\\/night) regimes), and various stratification treatments (0, 4, 8 and 12 weeks) and their interactions on germination, were investigated using eight natural-stand seedlots of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana [Bong.] Carr.). The alternating temperature regimes were obtained using

  5. Dendroclimatic response of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) in Pacific North America

    E-print Network

    Gedalof, Ze'ev

    Dendroclimatic response of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) in Pacific North America Ze (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière) in the context of a dendroclimatological analysis. To better'écologie et la physiologie de la pruche subalpine (Tsuga merten- siana (Bong.) Carrière) dans le cadre d

  6. Allozyme variation and recent evolutionary history of eastern hemlock ( Tsuga canadensis ) in the southeastern United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. M. Potter; W. S. Dvorak; B. S. Crane; V. D. Hipkins; R. M. Jetton; W. A. Whittier; R. Rhea

    2008-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carr.) is a widespread and ecologically important conifer species of eastern North America that is threatened by the\\u000a hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), a pest introduced into the United States from Asia in the 1920s. Information about the genetic composition of eastern\\u000a hemlock is necessary to guide ex situ conservation efforts in the southeastern

  7. Electrophoretic evidence for genetic differentiation in two host races of hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel L. Nickrent; Adam L. Stell

    1990-01-01

    Key Word Index--Arceuthobium tsugense; Viscaceae; dwarf mistletoe; electrophoresis; allozymes; host race. Abstract--Three host races of hemlock dwarf mistletoe have been described: the western hemlock race (mainly parasitic on Tsuga heterophylla), the shore pine race (mainly on Pinus contorta ssp. contorta) and the mountain hemlock race (mainly on Tsuga mertensiana and R monticola). Mistletoe shoots from 21 populations representing the three

  8. Dendroclimatic response of mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana ) in Pacific North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ze'ev Gedalof; Dan J. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we review the ecology and physiology of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong. ) Carrière) in the context of a dendroclimatological analysis. To better understand the relationship between mountain hemlock growth and climate variability throughout its range we have analyzed chronologies from 10 coastal sites, lo-cated along a transect extending from northern California to southern Alaska. The

  9. Reshaping the Ecology of Invading Populations of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in Eastern North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. McClure; Carole A. S.-J. Cheah

    1999-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae), is native to Japan where it is an innocuous inhabitant of Tsuga diversifolia Masters and T. sieboldii Carriere throughout their natural growing areas. Native adelgid populations are regulated by host resistance and natural enemies, in particular the oribatid mite, Diapterobates humeralis (Hermann) and the coccinellid beetle, Pseudoscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure. Invading

  10. Discriminating Tsuga canadensis Hemlock Forest Defoliation Using Remotely Sensed Change Detection

    PubMed Central

    Royle, D. D.; Lathrop, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis) is declining in health and vigor in eastern North America due to infestation by an introduced insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges isugue). Adelgid feeding activity results in the defoliation of hemlock forest canopy over several years. We investigated the application of Landsat satellite imagery and change-detection techniques to monitor the health of hemlock forest stands in northern New Jersey. We described methods used to correct effects due to atmospheric conditions and monitor the health status of hemlock stands over time. As hemlocks defoliate, changes occur in the spectral reflectance of the canopy in near infrared and red wavelengths—changes captured in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. By relating the differences in this index over time to hemlock defoliation on the ground, four classes of hemlock forest health were predicted across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with 82% accuracy. Using a time series of images, we are investigating temporal and spatial patterns in hemlock defoliation across the study area over the past decade. Based on the success of this methodology, we are no expanding out study to monitor hemlock health across the entire Mid-Atlantic region. PMID:19265936

  11. Genetic variation in mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana Bong.): quantitative and adaptive attributes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Benowicz; Yousry A. El-Kassaby

    1999-01-01

    Patterns of genetic variation for adaptive and quantitative attributes in mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.)) seedlings from British Columbia were examined at the population (provenance) and family levels. The population and family levels were represented by 12 provenances and 10 families from a single location, respectively. The adaptive attributes were related to gas exchange (net photosynthesis, transpiration rate, intercellular-to-ambient CO2

  12. Behavior and Daily Activity Patterns of Specialist and Generalist Predators of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Adelges tsugae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Flowers; S. M. Salom; L. T. Kok; D. E. Mullins

    2007-01-01

    The behavior and daily activity patterns of two specialist predators, Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae) and Sasajiscymnus tsugae, Sasaji and McClure (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and a generalist predator, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), were examined using digital video recording in the laboratory. The two specialists are part of a biological control program for

  13. The competitive role of Gaultheria shallon on planted western hemlock and western red cedar saplings on northern Vancouver Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Fraser; C. P. Chanway; Roy Turkington

    1995-01-01

    The presence of competing vegetation, particularly salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh), was studied in relation to growth (measured as height and root collar diameter) of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) saplings planted in cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock-amabilis fir (HA) phases of an ecosystem type on northern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The

  14. The aftermath of an invasion: Structure and composition of Central Appalachian hemlock forests following establishment of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather L. Spaulding; Lynne K. Rieske

    2010-01-01

    As the highly invasive hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, continues to expand its distribution in eastern North America, affected forests will incur drastic changes in composition\\u000a and structure. While these changes have been well-studied in dense hemlock forests in the Northeast, relatively little work\\u000a is known about the effects of the adelgid at the western edge of the range of

  15. Mid-Holocene climate and the hemlock decline: the range limit of Tsuga canadensis in the western Great Lakes region, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Randy Calcote

    2003-01-01

    Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) expanded rapidly across Upper Peninsula Michigan from ~6500 to 5500 cal. yr BP, followed by a sudden decline of hemlock pollen percentages that lasted over 1000 years. Hemlock declined throughout its range, apparently due to insect\\/pathogen outbreaks, which may have been affected by regional climatic shifts. Modern analogues were used to reconstruct submillennial climatic trends from

  16. Patterns of genetic variation in mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) with respect to height growth and frost hardiness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Benowicz; Sylvia L’Hirondelle; Yousry A El-Kassaby

    2001-01-01

    Genetic structure (variance among and within populations) and geographic pattern of variations in growth and frost hardiness of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) populations from coastal British Columbia (BC) were examined. Populations fell into two main groups — south coast (16 sources) and north coast (two sources). Height growth of greenhouse grown seedlings was measured during the first growing

  17. BORRELIA BURGDORFERI INFECTION IN WHITE-FOOTED MICE (PEROMYSCUS LEUCOPUS) IN HEMLOCK (TSUGA CANADENSIS) HABITAT IN WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rexford D. Lord; Jan G. Humphreys; Veronica R. Lord; Robert G. McLean; Curtis L. Garland

    White-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were captured and their tissues sampled from 27 sites in seven counties of western Pennsylvania in 1990 for isolation and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi. Two hundred sixty mice were captured from which there were 27 isolations. Significantly more mice were captured and significantly more isolations made from hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) habitat than from deciduous species forest.

  18. Spatial and population characteristics of dwarf mistletoe infected trees in an old-growth Douglas-fir – western hemlock forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Shaw; Jiquan Chen; Elizabeth A. Freeman; David M. Braun

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the distribution and severity of trees infected with western hemlock dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium tsugense (Rosendahl) G.N. Jones subsp. tsugense) in an old-growth Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) - western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forest. With the use of Hawksworth six-class dwarf mistletoe rating system, infection status was assessed for 3516 hemlock and true firs ?5 cm diameter

  19. Testing the Climate Sensitivity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) Near the Southern Limit of Its Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, S.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the climate sensitivity of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) near the southern limit of its range, tests the stability of its climate-tree relations over the last few decades, and explores its potential as a hydroclimatic proxy for Crater Lake National Park. We collected tree cores at seven locations around the caldera rim, focusing on hemlock growing at higher elevations (2000-2400 masl). The median length of all ring-width series is 283 years, and the oldest hemlock sample extends back to C.E. 1450. Several types of anatomical anomalies, including frost rings, traumatic resin ducts, false rings, and light late-wood bands were observed within the specimens, the most common feature being a false ring in C.E. 1810. Each set of standardized ring-width measurements has a strong common signal, with between-tree correlations (r-bar) ranging from 0.31 to 0.49. Preliminary analysis suggests hemlock growth across the park is strongly and inversely related to total cool-season precipitation, and is also influenced positively (albeit more weakly) by mean summer temperature. Most sites are significantly and negatively correlated with total December-to-February precipitation (r = -0.41) and total precipitation from December to August (r = -0.48). Compared to other ring-width records exhibiting similar negative responses to winter precipitation, these hemlocks appear to track that specific signal quite clearly and, as a result, these data may be suitable to reconstruct past changes in cool-season moisture in Crater Lake National Park and across the broader southern Cascades.

  20. Forest expansion and climate change in the Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) zone, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, U.S.A

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between climate change and the dynamics of ecotonal populations of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana [Bong.] Carr.) was determined by comparing climate and the age structure of trees from 24 plots and seedlings from 13 plots in the subalpine zone of Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Tree establishment was greatest during periods with above normal annual and summer temperatures,

  1. Species richness and abundance of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete sporocarps on a moisture gradient in the Tsuga heterophylla zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dell, Thomas E.; Ammirati, Joseph F.; Schreiner, Edward G.

    1999-01-01

    Sporocarps of epigeous ectomycorrhizal fungi and vegetation data were collected from eight Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. - Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco stands along a wet to dry gradient in Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A. One hundred and fifty species of ectomycorrhizal fungi were collected from a total sample area of 2.08 ha. Over 2 years, fungal species richness ranged from 19 to 67 taxa per stand. Sporocarp standing crop ranged from 0 to 3.8 kg/ha, averaging 0.58 kg/ha, 0.06 kg/ha in spring and 0.97 kg/ha in fall. Sporocarp standing crop and fungal species richness were correlated with precipitation. These results demonstrated that ectomycorrhizal fungal sporocarp abundance and species richness can be partly explained in terms of an environmental gradient.

  2. Defoliation of juvenile western hemlock by western blackheaded budworm in Pacific coastal forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G Nealis; R Turnquist; R Garbutt

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of the western blackheaded budworm [Acleris gloverana (Walsingham)] defoliated 170,000ha of western hemlock [Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.] on the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada, between 1996 and 2001. Defoliation was first noted in mature forests in the southern portion of the archipelago, and was observed occurring progressively northward in subsequent years. Much of the defoliation occurred in

  3. A Case Study: Looking at the Effects of Fragmentation on Genetic Structure in Different Life History Stages of Old-Growth Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DILARA ALLY; KERMIT RITLAND

    2006-01-01

    We examined fine-scale genetic structure of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) in an old-growth stand and an adjacent seedling population, with the goal of detecting the effects of fragmentation. Three hundred and six old-growth trees and 195 naturally regenerating seedlings were genotyped at 5 microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was similar across old-growth life stages and within the clear-cut seedlings. Significant inbreeding

  4. Abundance and attributes of wildlife trees and coarse woody debris at three silvicultural systems study areas in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock Zone, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan K. Stevenson; Michael J. Jull; Bruce J. Rogers

    2006-01-01

    Unmanaged cedar (Thuja plicata)-hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) forests of the northern Interior Wetbelt of British Columbia support standing and dead trees with a variety of structural features that provide habitat for wildlife. We describe the pre-harvest abundance and characteristics of wildlife trees (standing trees with special characteristics that provide habitat for wildlife) and coarse woody debris (CWD) at three silvicultural systems

  5. Forest expansion and climate change in the Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) zone, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, A.H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The relationship between climate change and the dynamics of ecotonal populations of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana [Bong.] Carr.) was determined by comparing climate and the age structure of trees from 24 plots and seedlings from 13 plots in the subalpine zone of Lassen Volcanic National Park, California. Tree establishment was greatest during periods with above normal annual and summer temperatures, and normal or above normal precipitation. Seedling establishment was positively correlated with above normal annual and summer temperatures and negatively correlated with April snowpack depth. The different responses of trees and seedlings to precipitation variation is probably related to site soil moisture conditions. Mountain hemlock populations began to expand in 1842 and establishment increased dramatically after 1880 and peaked during a warm mesic period between 1895 and 1910. The onset of forest expansion coincides with warming that began at the end of the Little Ice Age (1850-1880). These data indicate that stability of the mountain hemlock ecotone is strongly influenced by climate. If warming induced by greenhouse gases does occur as climate models predict, then the structure and dynamics of near timberline forests in the Pacific Northwest will change. 52 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Assessing the Potential Impacts to Riparian Ecosystems Resulting from Hemlock Mortality in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott W. Roberts; Roger Tankersley Jr; Kenneth H. Orvis

    2009-01-01

    Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Adelges tsugae) is spreading across forests in eastern North America, causing mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carr.) and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga caroliniana Engelm.). The loss of hemlock from riparian forests in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) may result in significant\\u000a physical, chemical, and biological alterations to stream environments. To assess the influence of riparian

  7. A case study: looking at the effects of fragmentation on genetic structure in different life history stages of old-growth mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana).

    PubMed

    Ally, Dilara; Ritland, Kermit

    2007-01-01

    We examined fine-scale genetic structure of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) in an old-growth stand and an adjacent seedling population, with the goal of detecting the effects of fragmentation. Three hundred and six old-growth trees and 195 naturally regenerating seedlings were genotyped at 5 microsatellite loci. Genetic diversity was similar across old-growth life stages and within the clear-cut seedlings. Significant inbreeding was found in the adult class (30+ cm diameter at breast height) of old-growth seedlings and in the adjacent natural regeneration. Relatedness was significantly associated with physical distance for both the oldest age class and for regenerating seedlings in the adjacent clear-cut, whereas intermediate classes showed no such association. As intermediate classes show no isolation by distance, the associations that arise probably occur from single cohort regeneration that clearly has taken place in the clear-cut, and possibly when the oldest old-growth trees were established. Parentage analysis suggested that large-scale fragmentation, such as this clear-cut, allowed for increased long-distance seed dispersal. We conclude that long-lived tree populations can consist of a cohort mosaic, reflecting the effects of fragmentation, and resulting in a complex, age-dependent, local population structure with high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:17150981

  8. Breeding Hemlocks for Resistance to Hemlock Woolly Adelgid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. Bentz; Louise G. H. Riedel; Margaret R. Pooler; A. M. Townsend

    The eastern North American native hemlock species, Tsuga canadensis and T. caroliniana, are highly susceptible to injury from the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA); while the Asian species, T. chinensis (Franch.) E. Pritz; T. diversifolia (Maxim.) Mast.; and T. sieboldii Carriere are reported to show more tolerance (McClure 1992, 1995). In western North America, the adelgid is not considered a pest

  9. 77 FR 46373 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...hemlock woolly adelgid is a destructive pest of the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), where it causes needle loss, abortion of buds, and the eventual death of infested trees. Four predatory beetles have been introduced to the eastern United...

  10. Avian response to removal of a forest dominant: consequences of hemlock woolly adelgid infestations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Morgan W. Tingley; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Field; Glenn Motzkin

    2002-01-01

    Aim This study examines changes in avian community composition associated with the decline and loss of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) resulting from chronic hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae Annand) infestations. Location The study was conducted in a 4900-km2 study region extending from Long Island Sound northward to the southern border of Massachusetts and including the Connecticut River

  11. Current and predicted long-term effects of deer browsing in hemlock forests in Michigan, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee E. Frelich; Craig G. Lorimer

    1985-01-01

    Remnants of virgin hemlock Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. forest in the Porcupine Mountains, Michigan, USA, have experienced inadequate hemlock regeneration lasting several decades. White-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann browsing seems to be the major cause of the observed decline of hemlock regeneration, rather than poor seedbed conditions or changing climate. In some areas, -significant changes in the size-structure of the

  12. Hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) induces twig volatiles of eastern hemlock in a forest setting.

    PubMed

    Pezet, Joshua; Elkinton, Joseph S

    2014-10-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) is an invasive species causing high mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L) Carriere) in the forests of eastern North America. Recent findings revealed that sapling eastern hemlocks artificially infested with hemlock woolly adelgid in a plantation setting responded to the insect with an array of induced resin volatile changes. Here we determine if eastern hemlocks growing beneath a forest canopy respond to hemlock woolly adelgid infestation with the same patterns of constitutive and inducible volatile resin production as those plantation specimens. We inoculated previously uninfested branches of mature and immature hemlocks in a central New England forest with hemlock woolly adelgid. We then sampled twig tissue of infested and uninfested trees in late spring, early summer, and mid-autumn, after known intervals of adelgid activity when an induced response might be expected. We identified and quantified resin volatiles by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Constitutive levels of total monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and combined resin volatiles were all several-fold more abundant in forest trees than those previously measured in a plantation setting, pointing to further study of the influence of site factors on hemlock volatile production. Hemlock woolly adelgid infestation induced an array of changes in eastern hemlock's volatile profile, including many-fold increases in benzyl alcohol and methyl salicylate accumulation. Despite differences in constitutive concentrations of volatiles between the two sites, our findings verify that hemlock woolly adelgid elicits patterns of resin volatile induction in forest-grown eastern hemlocks quite similar to those previously observed in plantation grown trees. PMID:25259691

  13. Understory vegetation in old-growth and second-growth Tsuga canadensis forests in western Massachusetts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony W. D’Amato; David A. Orwig; David R. Foster

    2009-01-01

    We compared the understory communities (herbs, shrubs, and tree seedlings and saplings) of old-growth and second-growth eastern hemlock forests (Tsuga canadensis) in western Massachusetts, USA. Second-growth hemlock forests originated following clear-cut logging in the late 1800s and were 108–136 years old at the time of sampling. Old-growth hemlock forests contained total ground cover of herbaceous and shrub species that was

  14. Patchy Invasion and the Origin of a Hemlock-Hardwoods Forest Mosaic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret B. Davis; Randy R. Calcote; Shinya Sugita; Hikaru Takahara

    1998-01-01

    The record of forest invasion by eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) during the course of Holocene migration provides useful information about invasion processes in temperate forest, a system that has been invaded by few exotic species. We used fossil pollen preserved in small forest hollows, which record forest composition on the scale of 1-3 ha, to study hemlock invasion of forests

  15. Water use and carbon exchange of red oak- and eastern hemlock-dominated forests in the northeastern USA: implications for ecosystem-level effects of hemlock woolly adelgid.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Julian L; Kuzeja, Paul S; Daley, Michael J; Phillips, Nathan G; Mulcahy, Thomas; Singh, Safina

    2008-04-01

    Water use and carbon exchange of a red oak-dominated (Quercus rubra L.) forest and an eastern hemlock-dominated (Tsuga canadensis L.) forest, each located within the Harvard Forest in north-central Massachusetts, were measured for 2 years by the eddy flux method. Water use by the red oak forest reached 4 mm day(-1), compared to a maximum of 2 mm day(-1) by the eastern hemlock forest. Maximal carbon (C) uptake rate was also higher in the red oak forest than in the eastern hemlock forest (about 25 versus 15 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Sap flux measurements indicated that transpiration of red oak, and also of black birch (Betula lenta L.), which frequently replaces eastern hemlock killed by hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand.), were almost twice that of eastern hemlock. Despite the difference between species in maximum summertime C assimilation rate, annual C storage of the eastern hemlock forest almost equaled that of the red oak forest because of net C uptake by eastern hemlock during unusually warm fall and spring weather, and a near-zero C balance during the winter. Thus, the effect on C storage of replacing eastern hemlock forest with a forest dominated by deciduous species is unclear. Carbon storage by eastern hemlock forests during fall, winter and spring is likely to increase in the event of climate warming, although this may be offset by C loss during hotter summers. Our results indicate that, although forest water use will decrease immediately following eastern hemlock mortality due to the hemlock woolly adelgid, the replacement of eastern hemlock by deciduous species such as red oak will likely increase summertime water use over current rates in areas where hemlock is a major forest species. PMID:18244947

  16. The competitive role of Gaultheria shallon on planted western hemlock and western red cedar saplings on northern Vancouver Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Fraser af; C. P. Chanway; Roy Turkington

    1995-01-01

    The presence of competing vegetation, particularly salal (Gaultheria shallon F'ursh), was studied in relation to growth (measured as height and root collar diameter) of western hemlock (Tsugu heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) and western red cedar (Thuju plicutu Dorm) saplings planted in cedar-hemlock (CH) and hemlock-amabilis fir (HA) phases of an ecosystem type on northern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada. The

  17. Oak seedling growth and ectomycorrhizal colonization are less in eastern hemlock stands infested with hemlock woolly adelgid than in adjacent oak stands.

    PubMed

    Lewis, James D; Licitra, Jeff; Tuininga, Amy R; Sirulnik, Abby; Turner, Gregory D; Johnson, Jacqui

    2008-04-01

    Invasive, non-indigenous, phytophagous insects have caused widespread declines in several dominant tree species. The decline in dominant tree species may lead to cascading effects on other tree and microbial species and their interactions, affecting forest recovery following the decline. In the eastern USA, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr) is declining because of infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae Annand). Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) is a common replacement species in declining hemlock stands, but reduced mycorrhizal inoculum potential in infested hemlock stands may cause oak to grow more slowly compared with oak in oak stands. We grew red oak seedlings for one growing season in declining hemlock-dominated stands infested with HWA and in adjacent oak-dominated stands. Ectomycorrhizal root tip density and morphotype richness in soil cores were 63 and 27% less, respectively, in declining hemlock stands than in oak stands. Similarly, ectomycorrhizal percent colonization and morphotype richness on oak seedlings were 33 and 30% less, respectively, in declining hemlock stands than in oak stands. In addition, oak seedlings in declining hemlock stands had 29% less dry mass than oak seedlings in oak stands. Analysis of covariance indicated that morphotype richness could account for differences in oak seedling dry mass between declining hemlock stands and oak stands. Additionally, oak seedling dry mass in declining hemlock stands significantly decreased with decreasing ectomycorrhizal percent colonization and morphotype richness. These results suggest that oak seedling growth in declining hemlock stands is affected by reduced ectomycorrhizal inoculum potential. Further, the rate of forest recovery following hemlock decline associated with HWA infestation may be slowed by indirect effects of HWA on the growth of replacement species, through effects on ectomycorrhizal colonization and morphotype richness. PMID:18244948

  18. Dispersal versus climate: Expansion of Fagus and Tsuga into the Upper Great Lakes region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. Davis; K. D. Woods; S. L. Webb; R. P. Futyma

    1986-01-01

    Pollen records for American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) compiled from 50 sites in Michigan and Wisconsin, USA, show that both species entered the Upper Great Lakes region about 7000 yr B.P., reaching their western and southwestern boundaries between 2000 and 1000 yr B.P. Fagus advanced northward into lower Michigan as a continuous front, except where Lake

  19. Mountain Hemlock Growth Responds to Climatic Variability at Annual and Decadal Time Scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Peterson; David L. Peterson

    2001-01-01

    Improved understanding of tree growth responses to climate is needed to model and predict forest ecosystem responses to current and future climatic variability. We used dendroecological methods to study the effects of climatic variability on radial growth of a subalpine conifer, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Tree-ring chronologies were developed for 31 sites, spanning the latitudinal and elevational ranges of mountain

  20. Silviculture alters the genetic structure of an eastern hemlock forest in Maine, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary J. Hawley; Paul G. Schaberg; Donald H. DeHayes; John C. Brissette

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of long-term silvicultural selection on the genetic structure of an eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) forest at the Penobscot Experimental Forest, in Maine, USA. Plots in this forest received one of the following three treatments: (1) selection cuts in which small and poorly formed trees were preferentially re- moved in 1957 and 1977; (2) diameter-limit

  1. Spatial tools for managing hemlock woolly adelgid in the southern Appalachians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Frank Henry, Jr.

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) has recently spread into the southern Appalachians. This insect attacks both native hemlock species (Tsuga canadensis and T. caroliniana ), has no natural enemies, and can kill hemlocks within four years. Biological control displays promise for combating the pest, but counter-measures are impeded because adelgid and hemlock distribution patterns have been detailed poorly. We developed a spatial management system to better target control efforts, with two components: (1) a protocol for mapping hemlock stands, and (2) a technique to map areas at risk of imminent infestation. To construct a hemlock classifier, we used topographically normalized satellite images from Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Employing a decision tree approach that supplemented image spectral data with several environmental variables, we generated rules distinguishing hemlock areas from other forest types. We then implemented these rules in a geographic information system and generated hemlock distribution maps. Assessment yielded an overall thematic accuracy of 90% for one study area, and 75% accuracy in capturing hemlocks in a second study area. To map areas at risk, we combined first-year infestation locations from Great Smoky Mountains National Park and the Blue Ridge Parkway with points from uninfested hemlock stands, recording a suite of environmental variables for each point. We applied four different multivariate classification techniques to generate models from this sample predicting locations with high infestation risk, and used the resulting models to generate risk maps for the study region. All techniques performed well, accurately capturing 70--90% of training and validation samples, with the logistic regression model best balancing accuracy and regional applicability. Areas close to trails, roads, and streams appear to have the highest initial risk, perhaps due to bird- or human-mediated dispersal. Both components of our management system are general enough for use throughout the southern Appalachians. Overlay of derived maps will allow forest managers to reduce the area where they must focus their control efforts and thus allocate resources more efficiently.

  2. Genetic control of germination and the effects of accelerated aging in mountain hemlock seeds and its relevance to gene conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. A. El-Kassaby; D. G. W. Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Genetic control of germination parameters and the effects of accelerated aging in mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana [Bong.] Carr.) seeds were investigated using standard germination tests and simulated aging, respectively. Germination parameters were studied on seeds collected from individual trees from two natural populations (Sooke and San Juan) located on southern Vancouver Island, BC. Strong genetic control was confirmed by the

  3. Survival of tree seedlings on different species of decaying wood maintains tree distribution in Michigan hemlock-hardwood forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Marx; Michael B. Walters

    Summary 1. Seedlings of some tree species are strongly associated with decaying wood in the germination or establishment period. Despite recognition of this pattern in forests around the world, few studies have compared the ability of different species of decaying wood to support seedlings. 2. We measured the abundance, survival, and age distribution of seedlings of Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock),

  4. Density-dependent survival and fecundity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae).

    PubMed

    Sussky, Elizabeth M; Elkinton, Joseph S

    2014-10-01

    The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) has decimated eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis Carrière) in forests throughout the eastern United Sates, but its densities in central New England appear to have stabilized. To find out why, we infested 64 eastern hemlocks with varying densities of adelgid ovisacs in a typical eastern hemlock forest in western Massachusetts. We subsequently documented adelgid density, fecundity, and the amount of new growth on experimental trees over two consecutive years. We used a 2 by 2 randomized block design using previously and newly infested hemlocks that were either 1-m tall saplings or branches of mature trees. There was a density-dependent decline in the survival and fecundity of adelgid in both the spring and winter generations. This response was a function of both previous infestation by adelgid and current year's crawler density in the spring generation. Additionally, the production of sexuparae in the spring generation played a key role in the overall density-dependent survival of adelgid, suggesting that sexuparae production is strongly linked to developing crawler density. PMID:25203223

  5. The effect of disturbance by Phellinus weirii on decomposition and nutrient mineralization in a Tsuga mertensiana forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Cromack; J. A. Entry; T. Savage

    1991-01-01

    Microbial biomass in the upper 7 cm of soil and needle decomposition on the forest floor were measured seasonally for 10 months in a mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) old-growth forest and in a regrowth forest after Phellinus weirii, a root-rot pathogen infection, had caused disturbance. The microbial biomass was higher in the old-growth forest soil than in the regrowth forest

  6. Silvicultural Tools Applicable in Forests Burned by a Mixed Severity Fire Regime Russell T. Graham

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    of the moist, (e.g., western hemlock, Tsuga heterophylla; grand fir, Abies grandis; western redcedar, Thuja plicata ), cold (e.g., subalpine fir, Abies lasiocarpa; Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii), a

  7. Density-dependent eects on tree survival in an old-growth Douglas r forest

    E-print Network

    He, Fangliang

    of the invading late-successional species western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata) on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, to test for intra- and interspeci®c density

  8. Effect of hemlock and deciduous forest canopy on chemistry of throughfall, West Whately, Massachusetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Guswa, A. J.; McNicholas, J.; Mehter, S.; Spence, C.

    2009-12-01

    Ecological forest successions associated with climate change and human disturbance may alter chemical loads to forested New England watersheds. Spread of the invasive insect hemlock wooly adelgid (Adelges tsugae) to eastern North America is causing decline and mortality of the eastern hemlock (Tsuga Canadensis). To begin an evaluation of whether changes in nutrient cycling and rainfall amounts could be altered by this disturbance, we investigated differences in chemistry and volume of rain and throughfall between predominately hemlock and deciduous tree stands in a secondary growth forest located in West Whately, Massachusetts. From 3 June to 25 July 2009, we sampled 14 rain events from two plots: one dominated by eastern hemlock (LAI = 5.6 with 64% of stems as hemlock) and the other dominated by a mix of deciduous species (LAI = 4.7 with 47% of stems as maple and 42% of basal area accounted as white ash). Plots consisted of a 5 x 6 meter grid of 30 collectors for measuring throughfall volume. Half of these were combined into a composite sample and analyzed for pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+), anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42+), dissolved silica, and specific conductance. Throughfall results were compared against precipitation sampled from a collector located in a nearby field. Over the period of the study, rainfall totaled 311 mm. Throughfall amounted to 242 mm (78%) in the hemlock plot and 276 mm (89%) in the deciduous plot. On an event-by-event basis, the fraction of precipitation that appears as throughfall increases with amount. Throughfall from both hemlock and deciduous plots showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher pH, ANC, DOC, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ concentrations than open precipitation, suggesting that the canopy counteracts some acidity in rain and adds organic carbon and nutrients to throughfall. ANC is positively correlated with K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and DOC, indicating that cation exchange between H+ in rain and base cations on leaf and needle surfaces neutralizes acidity. Mean DOC in throughfall from the hemlock plot (9.5 mg/L) is significantly greater than throughfall from the deciduous plot (6.9 mg/L), and mean ANC is significantly less (ANChemlock = 12.5 ?eq/L; ANCdeciduous = 29.7 ?eq/L). Should regional succession of hemlock to deciduous forest occur, the amount of throughfall likely will increase. Alkalinity also should increase due to fewer organic acids added to throughfall from a deciduous canopy.

  9. Influence of age on growth efficiency of Tsuga canadensis and Picea rubens trees in mixed-species, multiaged northern conifer stands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Seymour; Laura S. Kenefic

    2002-01-01

    Well-known patterns in the fundamental relationship between tree-level stemwood volume increment (VINC) and projected leaf area (PLA) are examined and quantified for Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carribre (eastern hemlock) and Picea rubens Sarg. (red spruce) growing in managed, mixed-species, multiaged stands in east-central Maine, U.S.A. Both species follow a sigmoid pattern, suggesting a peak growth efficiency (GE, stemwood volume growth per

  10. Hemlock: murder before the Lord.

    PubMed

    Davies, M L; Davies, T A

    1994-10-01

    Two healthy young men were killed by a plume of hemlock (Conium maculatum) emitted when contaminated incense was vaporized during religious rites about the middle of the thirteenth century BC. PMID:7830518

  11. Characterization of the Soil Hydromorphic Conditions in a Paludified Dunefield during the Mid-Holocene Hemlock Decline near Québec City, Québec

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Najat Bhiry; Louise Filion

    1996-01-01

    The mid-Holocene eastern hemlock [Tsuga canadensisL. (Carr.)] decline has been recently attributed to the activity of insect defoliators. N. Bihiry and L. Filion,Quaternary Research45,312–320 (1996). In this study, soil hydromorphic conditions were investigated for the period 6800–3200 yr B.P. using micromorphological data from a peat section from a swale in a paludified dunefield in southern Québec. After a short period

  12. New lanostanoids of Ganoderma tsugae.

    PubMed

    Su, H J; Fann, Y F; Chung, M I; Won, S J; Lin, C N

    2000-04-01

    Three new compounds, (24R, S)-3alpha-acetoxy-24-hydroxy-5alpha-lanosta-8,25-di en-21-oic acid, named tsugaric acid C (1); 3alpha-acetoxy-5alpha-lanosta-8, 24-diene-21-O-beta-D-xyloside, named tsugarioside B (2); and 3alpha-acetoxy-(Z)-24-methyl-5alpha-lanosta-8,23,25-tr ien-21-oic acid ester beta-D-xyloside, named tsugarioside C (3), and a mixture of two known steroids were isolated from the fruit bodies of Ganoderma tsugae. The structures of 1-3 were determined by spectral and chemical methods. The cytotoxic activity of the lanostanoid constituents of this fungus was evaluated against several different cancer cell lines. PMID:10785428

  13. Thuja plicata exclusion in ectomycorrhiza-dominated forests: testing the role of inoculum potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Weber; Justine Karst; Benjamin Gilbert; J. P. Kimmins

    2005-01-01

    The ability of trees dependent on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to establish in ectomycorrhizal forests is unknown. On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, there are sharp boundaries between mixed red cedar ( Thuja plicata)-hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) (CH) stands, and stands of hemlock and amabilis fir ( Abies amabilis) (HA). We tested differences in AM colonization of red cedar between ectomycorrhiza-dominated

  14. High-spectral-resolution reflectance measurements of red spruce and eastern hemlock foliage over a growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, Barrett N.; Lauten, Gary N.; Moss, David M.

    1993-08-01

    Branch samples were collected from canopies of red spruce (Picea rubens) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) on June 28, July 15 and September 6, 1990, and spectrally characterized by needle age class (first- and second-year). Spectral differences between spruce and hemlock first- and second-year branch segments include differences in green peak reflectance features, red edge parameters, and amplitude features of the NIR plateau. Second- year needles of both species exhibit decreased reflectance in the NIR when compared with first-year needles collected at the same time. It is also apparent from these data that phenological change has a dramatic impact on hyperspectral fine features, such as green peak and red edge parameters, as well as NIR plateau features.

  15. A terrain-based paired-site sampling design to assess biodiversity losses from eastern hemlock decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Snyder, C.D.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2002-01-01

    Biodiversity surveys are often hampered by the inability to control extraneous sources of variability introduced into comparisons of populations across a heterogenous landscape. If not specifically accounted for a priori, this noise can weaken comparisons between sites, and can make it difficult to draw inferences about specific ecological processes. We developed a terrain-based, paired-site sampling design to analyze differences in aquatic biodiversity between streams draining eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forests, and those draining mixed hardwood forests in Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area (USA). The goal of this design was to minimize variance due to terrain influences on stream communities, while representing the range of hemlock dominated stream environments present in the park. We used geographic information systems (GIS) and cluster analysis to define and partition hemlock dominated streams into terrain types based on topographic variables and stream order. We computed similarity of forest stands within terrain types and used this information to pair hemlock-dominated streams with hardwood counterparts prior to sampling. We evaluated the effectiveness of the design through power analysis and found that power to detect differences in aquatic invertebrate taxa richness was highest when sites were paired and terrain type was included as a factor in the analysis. Precision of the estimated difference in mean richness was nearly doubled using the terrain-based, paired site design in comparison to other evaluated designs. Use of this method allowed us to sample stream communities representative of park-wide forest conditions while effectively controlling for landscape variability.

  16. 78 FR 21344 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation, (Polysilicon), Hemlock...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ...Polysilicon), Hemlock, Michigan Pursuant to its authority under...interest; Whereas, the City of Flint, grantee of Foreign-Trade...Corporation, located in Hemlock, Michigan (FTZ Docket 61-2011, filed...Corporation, located in Hemlock, Michigan (Subzone 140C), as...

  17. Comparison of Soil Geochemistry and Nitrogen Cycling beneath Eastern Hemlock and Black Birch Regrowth Forest, West Whately, MA, U.S.A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, A. L.; Blanchett, S.; Sweezy, T.; Mansen, S.

    2011-12-01

    Ecological forest successions associated with introduction of invasive species, human disturbance, and climate change may alter biogeochemical cycles within forested New England watersheds. Spread of the invasive insect hemlock wooly adelgid (Adelges tsungae, HWA) to eastern North America is causing decline and mortality of the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). To evaluate whether changes in nutrient cycling could be altered by this disturbance, we investigated differences in soil geochemistry in secondary growth forest located at the MacLeish Field Station, Whately, MA, where HWA occurrences recently have been observed. Eastern hemlock on this property was selectively logged 20 years ago, with black birch regrowth succeeding hemlock. We hypothesize that such a succession could repeat should hemlock on the property experience mortality due to the HWA. Between 2010-2011, we measured soil pH, exchangeable acidity (Al3+ and H+), exchangeable base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+), and nitrogen mineralization rates of soil cores collected beneath a hemlock stand and beneath an adjacent, younger black birch stand that succeeded hemlock following logging. Although soil pH of organic horizons between hemlock and black birch are both acidic (pH<4.5), the concentration of exchangeable base cations in the organic horizon beneath black birch is approximately 1.5 times higher than hemlock, reflecting its higher total cation exchange capacity. These results suggest that the acidity typically associated with soils that support hemlock forests has not been neutralized by black birch regrowth, and soil acidity may be stabilized by exchangeable Al3+, which is similar for the two sites. More base cations may be becoming available within the cation exchange pool of the black birch soil, possibly reflecting variation in inputs of base cations from throughfall and leaf litter. Net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification rates determined for incubated soil cores, measured between May - July 2011, showed no significant difference between black birch and hemlock tree stands. Percent N mineralization due to nitrification is slightly less than 10%. Both tree stands do show a significant rise in nitrogen mineralization rates between the May-June and June-July incubation periods, primarily due to production of NH4+. Additional data will be presented to assess nitrogen mineralization rates for the remainder of the 2011 growing season.

  18. Dendroclimatic response of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana ) in Pacific North America Ze'ev Gedalof

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan J. Smith

    In this paper we review the ecology and physiology of mountain is believed to be a reflection of the energy re - quired to mature cones initiated in the preceding year. The association with winter precipitation may reflect the role of deep, persistent snowpacks in regulating the duration of the growing season. Résumé : Dans cet article, les auteurs réexaminent

  19. Poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vetter

    2004-01-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, ?-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. ?-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock

  20. Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.).

    PubMed

    Vetter, J

    2004-09-01

    One of the most poisonous species amongst higher plants is Conium maculatum. It is a very common nitrophile weed species, belonging to the Apiaceae (formerly Umbelliferae) family. It contains some piperidine alkaloids (coniine, N-methyl-coniine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, gamma-coniceine), which are formed by the cyclisation of an eight-carbon chain derived from four acetate units. gamma-Coniceine is the precursor of the other hemlock alkaloids. All vegetative organs, flowers and fruits contain alkaloids. The concentrations (both absolute and relative) of the different alkaloids depend on plant varieties, on ecological conditions and on the age of the plant. The characteristic biological effects of the plants are summarised on cattle, sheep, goat, swine, rabbit, elk, birds and insects and the symptoms of the human toxicosis (some cases of poisonings) are discussed according to the literature data. The general symptoms of hemlock poisoning are effects on nervous system (stimulation followed by paralysis of motor nerve endings and CNS stimulation and later depression), vomiting, trembling, problems in movement, slow and weak later rapid pulse, rapid respiration, salivation, urination, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. PMID:15234067

  1. Association of ring shake in eastern hemlock with tree attributes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Brown; Paul E. Sendak

    Eastern hemlock (Tstrga canadensis (L.) Carr.) is a major or minor associate in many forest types in northeastern North America. There has never been the high level of demand for eastern hemlock lumber that characterizes competing softwoods like white pine and spruce. Nevertheless, periodically interest in greater utilization of eastern hemlock for lumber has encouraged attempts to solve some of

  2. A Novel Extractant for Removal of Hazardous Metals from Preservative-Treated Wood Waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomo Kakitani; Toshimitsu Hata; Takeshi Kajimoto; Yuji Imamura

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a one-step metal ex- traction process that would effectively remove hazardous elements from wood powder or chips of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preser- vative. In addition, we tested this method for wood treated with other copper-based preservatives such as ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ) and

  3. RECOVERY FROM SIMULATED SAWN LOGS WITH SWEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT A. MONSERm; DEAN L. PARRY; CHRISTINE L. TODOROKI

    A sawing simulator, AUTOSAW, was used to examine the effect of increasing sweep on lumber recovery. Sample material consisted of 5 1 logs from 22 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. ) trees in western Oregon, United States. All knots on the4.9-m logs were measured, mapped, and converted into 3-dimensional digital formats. The digital logs were then increasingly bent, in

  4. Response of Gaultheria shallon and Epilobium angustifolium to large additions of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer N. Bennett; Brent M. Lapthorne; Leandra L. Blevins; Cindy E. Prescott

    2004-01-01

    A study was established in coastal British Columbia to determine if repeated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization negatively influences the reestablishment of salal (Gaultheria shallon Pursh) on cleared and burned cedar-hemlock (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don - Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) forests. Fertilizers were applied for 3 years, and the biomass of ground vegetation and conifer seedling survival

  5. Calibrating the radial-growth averaging method for detecting releases in old-growth forests of coastal British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda B. Stan; Lori D. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    Dendroecological methods that use growth releases to reconstruct the history of canopy disturbances are most useful when calibrated for specific species in specific forest types. In this study, we calibrate the radial-growth averaging method to detect growth releases of western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis Dougl.

  6. DEMOGRAPHY OF THE PRINCE OF WALES FLYING SQUIRREL, AN ENDEMIC OF SOUTHEASTERN ALASKA TEMPERATE RAIN FOREST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WINSTON P. S MITH; JEFFREY V. N ICHOLS

    2003-01-01

    We studied the Prince of Wales flying squirrel ( Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons ) in tem- perate rain forest of southeastern Alaska to provide the 1st quantitative estimates of de- mography from southeastern Alaska and test predictions of the hypothesis that Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)-western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) forest is primary habitat for G. sabrinus in southeastern Alaska. We expected that

  7. Factors limiting the early survivorship of Thuja plicata on northern Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Weber; Benjamin Gilbert; C. E. Prescott

    2003-01-01

    Adrian Weber, Benjamin Gilbert, J.P. (Hamish) Kimmins, and C.E. Prescott Abstract: Western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), a late successional species on northern Vancouver Island, has a low seedling survival in mature hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.) - amabilis fir (Abies amabilis (Dougl. ex Loud.) Dougl. ex J. Forbes) (HA) stands. Shade, moss competition, and substrate were tested

  8. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and ?-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the

  9. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory lanostanoids from Ganoderma tsugae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai-Wei; Chen, Yen-Ting; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Wei, Bai-Luh; Hung, Chi-Feng; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2013-09-01

    Two new lanostanoids, 3?-acetoxy-22-oxo-5?-lanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid, named tsugaric acid D (1) and 16?-hydroxy-3-oxo-5?-lanosta-6,8,24(24(1))-trien-21-oic acid, named tsugaric acid E (2) were isolated from the fruit bodies of Ganoderma tsugae. The structures 1 and 2 were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compound 1 and known compounds 3 and 6 exhibited significant inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity with an IC50 values of 90.2±24.2, 116.1±3.0, and 181.9±5.8 ?M, respectively. Known compound 5 was able to protect human keratinocytes against damage induced by UVB light, which showed 5 could protect keratinocytes from photodamage. The 1 and 5 ?M 1 combined with 5 ?M cisplatin, respectively, enhanced the cytotoxicity induced by cisplatin. It suggested that 1 and 5 ?M 1 combined with low dose of cisplatin may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin and reduce side effect and cisplatin resistant. PMID:23769935

  10. Bioactive compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Hernández, M L; Villarreal, M L

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds elicited activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, levadura and dermatophytes. PMID:11561451

  11. Bioactive Compounds from Iostephane heterophylla (Asteraceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Isabel Aguilar; Guillermo Delgado; María De Lourdes Hernández; María Luisa Villarreal

    2001-01-01

    The novel bisabolene sesquiterpenes 3-6, were isolated from Iostephane heterophylla, using bioguided fractionation. The new compounds were determined to be (12R\\/12S)-12,13-epoxy-xanthorrhizols (3,4) and (12R\\/12S)-12,13-dihydro-12,13-dihydroxy-xanthorrizols (5,6) and their structures were characterized by analysis of spectroscopic data and by chemical correlation from xanthorrhizol (2). The stereochemistry at C-12 of 5 was deduced using the modified Mosher experiment. Some of the isolated compounds

  12. Lignan biosynthesis in liverworts Jamesoniella autumnalis and Lophocolea heterophylla

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Tazaki; Takaomi Hayashida; Fumiko Ishikawa; Daisuke Taguchi; Toshihide Takasawa; Kensuke Nabeta

    1999-01-01

    The formation of the lignans in liverworts, Jamesoniella autumnalis and Lophocolea heterophylla was investigated. Feeding experiment of |8-2H| caffeic acid (4) on axenic cultures of J. autumnalis has shown that jamesopyrone (2) and scapaniapyrone (3) were derived from the coupling of two intact caffeic molecules. Studies in a cell-free system of J. autumnalis and L. heterophylla have shown the formation

  13. Western Hemlock Looper and Disturbance in ICH Forests

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Western Hemlock Looper and Disturbance in ICH Forests of the Robson Valley Research Note June 2002 Hemlock zone (Meidinger et al. 1991) of the Robson Valley since 1950 (Parfett, Otvos and Van Sickle 1995 zone in the Robson Valley Forest District. Major objectives of the study were to: 1. Determine

  14. 78 FR 21099 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C., (Polysilicon), Clarksville, TN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Authority for Subzone Status, Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C., (Polysilicon), Clarksville...polysilicon manufacturing facility of Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C., located in Clarksville...polysilicon at the facility of Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C., located in...

  15. Ganoderma tsugae supplementation alleviates bronchoalveolar inflammation in an airway sensitization and challenge mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Yuarn; Chen, Miaw-Ling; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2006-02-01

    Ganoderma tsugae (a Chinese mushroom Songshan lingzhi) cultivated in Taiwan is extensively used in Chinese traditional medicine to treat different diseases. To determine whether G. tsugae has anti-inflammatory effects on bronchoalveolar inflammation in vivo, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of G. tsugae products, YK01 and YK07, on bronchoalveolar inflammation using an airway sensitization and challenge mouse model. Female BALB/c mice were weekly sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA) three times and challenged with aerosolized OVA twice. Differential cell counts of infiltrating leukocytes, inflammatory mediators, cytokines in bronchoalvelor lavage fluid (BALF) of OVA-challenged mice were examined after continuously consuming G. tsugae diets for 5 weeks. We found that supplementation of G. tsugae significantly decreased total infiltrating leukocytes and lymphocyte percentage in BALF in the experimental groups. Supplementation of G. tsugae also significantly reduced inflammatory mediators in BALF including histamine, prostaglandin E2, eotaxin, and protein levels, however the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6, in BALF did not significantly change. These results suggest that both G. tsugae supplementation diets YK01 and YK07 might alleviate bronchoalveolar inflammation via decreasing the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the secretion of inflammatory mediators into the local tissues of lungs and airways. Further, these results indicate that the relief of bronchoalveolar inflammation in an airway sensitization murine model provides a possible therapeutic application for G. tsugae in allergic asthma. PMID:16399629

  16. Convective Drying of Ganoderma tsugae Murrill and Effect of Temperature on Basidiospores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siew Kian Chin; Chung Lim Law; Christina Vimala Supramaniam; Poh Guat Cheng; Arun S. Mujumdar

    2008-01-01

    In this study, drying of Ganoderma tsugae Murrill slices was carried out at different temperatures in a hot air circulating oven. The objectives were to investigate the drying characteristic and drying kinetics of the Ganoderma slices under constant air velocity and slice thickness. In addition, the effect of drying temperatures on the size and surface structure of Ganoderma tsugae basidiospores

  17. Host plant associations of an entomopathogenic variety of the fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, recovered from the elongate hemlock scale, Fiorinia externa.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, José A P; Gouli, Svetlana; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; Schwarzberg, Lora; Giordano, Rosanna

    2009-01-01

    A fungal epizootic has been detected in populations of the scale Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in the eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae), of several northeastern states. Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds var. fioriniae Marcelino and Gouli var. nov. inedit (Phyllachorales: Phyllachoraceae), a well-known plant pathogen, was the most commonly recovered fungus from these infected scales. This is the second report of a Colletotrichum sp. infecting scale insects. In Brazil C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae recovered from Orthezia praelonga is under development as a biopesticide for citrus production. C. acutatum was detected growing endophytically in 28 species of plants within the epizootic areas. DNA sequences of the High Mobility Box at the MAT 1-2, mating type gene indicate that Colletotrichum sp. isolates recovered from scale insects and plants within epizootic areas were identical. Results from plant bioassays showed that this entomopathogenic Colletotrichum variety grew endophytically in all of the plants tested without causing external symptoms or signs of infection, with the exception of strawberry plants where mild symptoms of infection were observed. The implications of these findings with respect to the use of this fungus as a biological control agent are discussed. PMID:19613851

  18. Entomopathogenic Activity of a Variety of the Fungus, Colletotrichum acutatum, Recovered from the Elongate Hemlock Scale, Fiorinia externa

    PubMed Central

    Marcelino, José A. P.; Gouli, Svetlana; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; Giordano, Rosanna

    2009-01-01

    A fungal epizootic in populations of Fiorinia externa Ferris (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) infesting hemlock trees, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carrière (Pinales: Pinaceae) in forests of the Northeastern US has been recently detected. The current known distribution of the epizootic spans 36 sites in New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Connecticut. Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds var. fioriniae Marcelino and Gouli var. nov. inedit. (Phyllachorales: Phyllachoraceae) was the most prevalent fungus recovered from infected scales. Bioassays indicated that this C. acutatum variety is highly pathogenic to F. externa. Mortality rates of >90 and >55% were obtained for F. externa crawlers and settlers, respectively. Significantly lower mortality levels, ? 22%, were obtained when three other species of insects were assayed. C. gleosporioides has also been shown to have pathogenic activity towards a scale insect. The data suggest that C. acutatum var. fioriniae from F. externa epizootics in the US, and the previously reported C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae causing Orthezia praelonga epizootics in Brazil, may constitute distinct biotypes of Colletotrichum that have attained the ability to infect insects in addition to the commonly reported plant hosts. PMID:19613442

  19. 76 FR 63282 - Foreign-Trade Zone 140-Flint, Michigan; Application for Subzone; Hemlock Semiconductor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...61-2011] Foreign-Trade Zone 140--Flint, Michigan; Application for Subzone; Hemlock...Board (the Board) by the City of Flint, grantee of FTZ 140, requesting...Corporation (HSC), located in Hemlock, Michigan. The application was...

  20. Interaction of Pseudostellaria heterophylla with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mediated by its root exudates in a consecutive monoculture system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongpo; Wu, Linkun; Chu, Leixia; Yang, Yanqiu; Li, Zhenfang; Azeem, Saadia; Zhang, Zhixing; Fang, Changxun; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-01-01

    In this study, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of Fusarium oxysporum, an important replant disease pathogen in Pseudostellaria heterophylla rhizospheric soil. Moreover, HPLC was used to identify phenolic acids in root exudates then it was further to explore the effects of the phenolic acid allelochemicals on the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla. The amount of F. oxysporum increased significantly in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil under a consecutive replant system as monitored through qPCR analysis. Furthermore, the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium was enhanced by root exudates with a maximum increase of 23.8%. In addition, the number of spores increased to a maximum of 12.5-fold. Some phenolic acids promoted the growth of F. oxysporum f.sp. heterophylla mycelium and spore production. Our study revealed that phenolic acids in the root secretion of P. heterophylla increased long with its development, which was closely related to changes in rhizospheric microorganisms. The population of pathogenic microorganisms such as F. oxysporum in the rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla also sharply increased. Our results on plant-microbe communication will help to better clarify the cause of problems associated with P. heterophylla under consecutive monoculture treatment. PMID:25645742

  1. The impact of hemlock wooly adelgid infestation on understory community composition in an old-growth

    E-print Network

    Peet, Robert K.

    describing floristic composition (species presence and frequency) and habitat location and conditions (eThe impact of hemlock wooly adelgid infestation on understory community composition in an old of forest composition: A) healthy hemlock, B) yellow birch, C) adelgid-killed hemlock, and D) gap. The plots

  2. Toxicoses in livestock from the hemlocks (Conium and Cicuta spp.).

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Baker, D C

    1988-09-01

    The hemlocks, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Cicuta spp. (waterhemlock), are poisonous plants that cause sizeable losss to the livestock industry. Clinical signs of poisonhemlock toxicosis are similar in all species of livestock and include muscular weakness, incordination, trembling, initial central nervous system stimulation, depression and death from respiratory paralysis. Poison-hemlock also causes skeletal defects in the offspring of cattle, pigs and sheep and cleft palate in pigs when ingested during specific periods of gestation. The primary toxicants in poison-hemlock are coniine and gamma-coniceine. Coniine predominates in mature plants and seed, whereas gamma-coniceine predominates in early growth of the plant. Waterhemlock is the most violently toxic poisonous plant known. The toxicant is cicutoxin, which acts on the central nervous system, causing violent convulsions and death. Clinical signs of poisoning appear within 15 min after ingestion of a lethal dose and include excessive salivation, nervousness, tremors, muscular weakness and convulsive seizures interspersed by intermittent periods of relaxation and a final paralytic seizure resulting in anoxia and death. Elevated activities of lactic dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase in blood are observed, indicative of muscular damage. Toxicoses from poisonhemlock and waterhemlock generally occur in early spring when both plants emerge before other, more palatable plants begin to grow. All parts of the poison-hemlock plant are toxic. The root or tubers of waterhemlock are toxic; however, experimental evidence concerning the toxicity of other plant parts is inconclusive. PMID:3049497

  3. The triterpenoids of Ganoderma tsugae prevent stress-induced myocardial injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuok, Qian-Yu; Yeh, Chen-Yu; Su, Bor-Chyuan; Hsu, Pei-Ling; Ni, Hao; Liu, Ming-Yie; Mo, Fan-E

    2013-10-01

    Ganoderma mushrooms (Lingzhi in Chinese) have well-documented health benefits. Ganoderma tsugae (G. tsugae), one of the ganoderma species, has been commercially cultivated as a dietary supplement. Because G. tsugae has high antioxidant activity and because oxidative stress is often associated with cardiac injury, we hypothesized that G. tsugae protects against cardiac injury by alleviating oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis using a work-overload-induced myocardial injury model created by challenging mice with isoproterenol (ISO). Remarkably, oral G. tsugae protected the mice from ISO-induced myocardial injury. Moreover, the triterpenoid fraction of G. tsugae, composed of a mixture of nine structurally related ganoderic acids (GAs), provided cardioprotection by inhibiting the ISO-induced expression of Fas/Fas ligand, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. The antioxidant activity of GAs was tested in cultured cardio-myoblast H9c2 cells against the insult of H?O?. GAs dissipated the cellular reactive oxygen species imposed by H?O? and prevented cell death. Our findings uncovered the cardioprotective activity of G. tsugae and identified GAs as the bioactive components against cardiac insults. PMID:23610080

  4. Estimated persistence of northern flying squirrel populations in temperate rain forest fragments of Southeast Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winston P. Smith; David K. Person

    2007-01-01

    Habitat reserves are a common strategy used to ensure viability of wildlife populations and communities. The efficacy of reserves, however, is rarely empirically evaluated. We examined the likelihood that small (650 ha), isolated habitat reserves composed of old-growth Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)–western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) rain forest (upland-OG) and mixed-conifer peatlands (peatland-MC) would sustain populations of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys

  5. Hemlock alkaloids from Socrates to poison aloes.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Tom

    2005-06-01

    Hemlock (Conium maculatum L. Umbelliferae) has long been known as a poisonous plant. Toxicity is due to a group of piperidine alkaloids of which the representative members are coniine and gamma-coniceine. The latter is the more toxic and is the first formed biosynthetically. Its levels in relation to coniine vary widely according to environmental conditions and to provenance of the plants. Surprisingly, these piperidine alkaloids have turned up in quite unrelated species in the monocotyledons as well as the dicotyledons. Aloes, for instance, important medicinal plants, are not regarded as poisonous although some species are very bitter. Nevertheless a small number of mostly local species contain the alkaloids, especially gamma-coniceine and there have been records of human poisoning. The compounds are recognized by their characteristic mousy smell. Both acute and chronic symptoms have been described. The compounds are neurotoxins and death results from respiratory failure, recalling the effects of curare. Chronic non-lethal ingestion by pregnant livestock leads to foetal malformation. Both acute and chronic toxicity are seen with stock in damp meadows and have been recorded as problems especially in North America. The alkaloids derive biosynthetically from acetate units via the polyketide pathway in contrast to other piperidine alkaloids which derive from lysine. PMID:15955542

  6. Effects of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on Nitrogen Losses from

    E-print Network

    Templer, Pamela

    Forest. Nitrate that was lost via leachate at Harvard Forest came predominantly from atmospheric be reducing nitrogen losses in urban areas due to rapid regrowth of vegetation and up- take of nitrogen; natural abundance stable isotopes; nitrate sources; nitrogen saturation; pest management; Tsuga canadensis

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER Changes in the regional abundance of hemlock associated

    E-print Network

    Liebhold, Andrew

    and Analysis, USDA Forest Service, 4700 Old Kingston Pike, Knoxville, TN 37919, USA e-mail: soswalt@fs.fed.us A tsugae Annand), sudden oak death [Phy- tophthora ramorum (Werres, de Cock and Man in't Veld)], the Asian

  8. Decomposing the mid-Holocene Tsuga decline in eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Booth, Robert K; Brewer, Simon; Blaauw, Maarten; Minckley, Thomas A; Jackson, Stephen T

    2012-08-01

    The mid-Holocene decline of Tsuga canadensis (hereafter Tsuga) populations across eastern North America is widely perceived as a synchronous event, driven by pests/pathogens, rapid climate change, or both. Pattern identification and causal attribution are hampered by low stratigraphic density of pollen-sampling and radiometric dates at most sites, and by absence of highly resolved, paired pollen and paleoclimate records from single sediment cores, where chronological order of climatic and vegetational changes can be assessed. We present an intensely sampled (contiguous 1-cm intervals) record of pollen and water table depth (inferred from testate amoebae) from a single core spanning the Tsuga decline at Irwin Smith Bog in Lower Michigan, with high-precision chronology. We also present an intensively sampled pollen record from Tower Lake in Upper Michigan. Both sites show high-magnitude fluctuations in Tsuga pollen percentages during the pre-decline maximum. The terminal decline is dated at both sites ca. 5000 cal yr BP, some 400 years later than estimates from other sites and data compilations. The terminal Tsuga decline was evidently heterochronous across its range. A transient decline ca. 5350 cal yr BP at both sites may correspond to the terminal decline at other sites in eastern North America. At Irwin Smith Bog, the terminal Tsuga decline preceded an abrupt and persistent decline in water table depths by approximately 200 years, suggesting the decline was not directly driven by abrupt climate change. The Tsuga decline may best be viewed as comprising at least three phases: a long-duration pre-decline maximum with high-magnitude and high-frequency fluctuations, followed by a terminal decline at individual sites, followed in turn by two millennia of persistently low Tsuga populations. These phases may not be causally linked, and may represent dynamics taking place at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Further progress toward understanding the phenomenon requires an expanded network of high-resolution pollen and paleoclimate chronologies. PMID:22928413

  9. Impacts of dwarf mistletoe on the physiology of host Tsuga heterophylla trees as recorded in tree ring C and O stable isotopes

    EPA Science Inventory

    • Dwarf mistletoes, obligate, parasitic plants with diminutive aerial shoots, have long-term effects on host tree water relations, hydraulic architecture, and photosynthetic gas exchange and can eventually induce tree death. • To investigate long-term impacts of dwarf ...

  10. Eastern Hemlock Decline and Persistence of Disjunct Populations Near Its Southern Boundary

    E-print Network

    Shawkey, Matthew

    CONTENTS ARTICLES: Eastern Hemlock Decline and Persistence of Disjunct Populations Near Its DeclineJournal of Alabama Academy of Science Vol. 79, No. 3-4, July/October 2008 EASTERN HEMLOCK DECLINE AND PERSISTENCE OF DISJUNCT POPULATIONS NEAR ITS SOUTHERN BOUNDARY Justin L. Hart Department of Geography

  11. In vivo anti-inflammatory effect and toxicological screening of Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. da Silva; M. Taniça; J. Rocha; R. Serrano; E. T. Gomes; B. Sepodes; O. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl & Zeyh.) Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam). Exell are two African medicinal plants used to treat painful and inflammatory diseases. We evaluated the in vivo (per os) anti-inflammatory activity of M. heterophylla leaf, stem and root extracts and of M. senegalensis leaf and stem extracts. Additionally, we assessed their in vivo acute and sub-acute toxicities. Anti-inflammatory activities

  12. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

  13. [A research on fast-propagation of Pseudostellaria heterophylla].

    PubMed

    Tan, Xianhe; Chao, Jianguo; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ying

    2003-02-01

    The result of fast-propagation of Pseudostellaria heterophylla by tissue culture showed that the best explant was stem tip. It also showed the suitable inducement mediums were MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L or MS + 6-BA 4.0 mg/L + NAA 0.4 mg/L for the clustered bud, MS + 2,4-D 4.0 mg/L + Kt 0.5 mg/L or MS + 2,4-D 3.0 mg/L + Kt 0.5 mg/L for the callus growth and 1/2 MS + NAA 0.3 mg/L for the root growth. PMID:12795214

  14. Poison hemlock-induced respiratory failure in a toddler.

    PubMed

    West, Patrick L; Horowitz, B Zane; Montanaro, Marc T; Lindsay, James N

    2009-11-01

    The ingestion of poison hemlock, or Conium maculatum, is described in a 2-year-old boy. He had the onset of abdominal pain and weakness after being fed C. maculatum picked by his sister from the roadside 2 hours earlier. He had a rapidly progressive muscular weakness and was intubated for respiratory failure. His symptoms completely resolved within 24 hours of the ingestion. Conium maculatum is a common weed that causes toxicity by its primary toxin, coniine, which stimulates nicotinic receptors and causes a syndrome of rapidly progressive muscle weakness and paralysis. We describe the course of a benign-appearing plant ingestion resulting in respiratory failure. PMID:19915429

  15. Evaluation of Antitumor and Antioxidant Activity of Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, A.; Singha, T.; Maity, T. K.; Pal, D.

    2013-01-01

    Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., (family-Cucurbitaceae) popularly known as kundari, has been shown to exhibit antioxidant effects. The main objective was to isolate active constituents of the plant extract. In this study, the ability of M. heterophylla to induce apoptosis was studied in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Treatment of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells with a variety of concentrations of the ethanol extracts of M. heterophylla and gallic acid (100-1000 ?M), to determine the sequences of events marked by apoptosis, assayed by the spectrofluorometric method. Gallic acid and rutin were isolated from plant extract which were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Our results indicate that ethanol extracts of M. heterophylla and gallic acid-induced apoptotic cell death in a dose dependent manner could be due to the generation of reactive oxygen species, especially H2O2, which is confirmed by caspase 3 activation. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w.) of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved hemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage life span. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals were evident from the decline in the levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. The data suggest that M. heterophylla exerts anticancer activity, valuable for application in food and drug products. PMID:24403651

  16. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD) in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962–2009), combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360–450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study). Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh) stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis). CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m3/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated); snags constituted 10–50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9–3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer-term observations because, (a) living biomass is increasingly dominated by very large trees whose dead trunks have longer residence time in the CWD pool, and (b) infrequent major disturbances, thought to be important in the dynamics of these forests, have not occurred during the study period but would be expected to produce major, episodic pulses in CWD input. Few fragments of old-growth cool-temperate forests remain, but such forests can constitute a very large carbon pool on a per-area basis. The carbon sink/source status of these forests remains unclear. While aboveground living biomass at this study site shows no strong aggrading or declining trend over the last half-century, this remains a modest span in the innate time-scale of late-successional forest. The effects of rare disturbances, long-term shifts in composition and size structure, and changes in soil carbon and CWD pools may all influence long-term carbon status. PMID:25289184

  17. Multi-decade biomass dynamics in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Woods, Kerry D

    2014-01-01

    Trends in living aboveground biomass and inputs to the pool of coarse woody debris (CWD) in an undisturbed, old-growth hemlock-northern hardwood forest in northern MI were estimated from multi-decade observations of permanent plots. Growth and demographic data from seven plot censuses over 47 years (1962-2009), combined with one-time measurement of CWD pools, help assess biomass/carbon status of this landscape. Are trends consistent with traditional notions of late-successional forests as equilibrial ecosystems? Specifically, do biomass pools and CWD inputs show consistent long-term trends and relationships, and can living and dead biomass pools and trends be related to forest composition and history? Aboveground living biomass densities, estimated using standard allometric relationships, range from 360-450 Mg/ha among sampled stands and types; these values are among the highest recorded for northeastern North American forests. Biomass densities showed significant decade-scale variation, but no consistent trends over the full study period (one stand, originating following an 1830 fire, showed an aggrading trend during the first 25 years of the study). Even though total above-ground biomass pools are neither increasing nor decreasing, they have been increasingly dominated, over the full study period, by very large (>70 cm dbh) stems and by the most shade-tolerant species (Acer saccharum and Tsuga canadensis). CWD pools measured in 2007 averaged 151 m(3)/ha, with highest values in Acer-dominated stands. Snag densities averaged 27/ha, but varied nearly ten-fold with canopy composition (highest in Tsuga-dominated stands, lowest in Acer-dominated); snags constituted 10-50% of CWD biomass. Annualized CWD inputs from tree mortality over the full study period averaged 1.9-3.2 Mg/ha/yr, depending on stand and species composition. CWD input rates tended to increase over the course of the study. Input rates may be expected to increase over longer-term observations because, (a) living biomass is increasingly dominated by very large trees whose dead trunks have longer residence time in the CWD pool, and (b) infrequent major disturbances, thought to be important in the dynamics of these forests, have not occurred during the study period but would be expected to produce major, episodic pulses in CWD input. Few fragments of old-growth cool-temperate forests remain, but such forests can constitute a very large carbon pool on a per-area basis. The carbon sink/source status of these forests remains unclear. While aboveground living biomass at this study site shows no strong aggrading or declining trend over the last half-century, this remains a modest span in the innate time-scale of late-successional forest. The effects of rare disturbances, long-term shifts in composition and size structure, and changes in soil carbon and CWD pools may all influence long-term carbon status. PMID:25289184

  18. First Cytogenetic Investigation in Populations of Acacia heterophylla, Endemic from La Réunion Island, with Reference to A. melanoxylon

    PubMed Central

    Coulaud, Joelle; Brown, Spencer C.; Siljak-Yakovlev, Sonja

    1995-01-01

    Five populations of tetraploid Acacia heterophylla, endemic from La Réunion island, were compared together and with their Australian diploid relative A. melanoxylon for cytogenetic and DNA characteristics. A. melanoxylon (2n = 26) had 1·59 pg nuclear DNA; A. heterophylla (2n = 4x = 52) had double this value (3·19 pg), and there was no difference between populations within species. Both species had 39 % GC. Interchromosome connections were evident at metaphase and mitotic irregularities at anaphase were twice as frequent in A. heterophylla as in A. melanoxylon, again with no difference between populations within species. These results argue for a recent autotetraploid origin of A. heterophylla from A. melanoxylon. Yet, fluorochrome banding showed that in some A. heterophylla populations, GC-rich bands had slightly changed from the supposed ancestral pattern, probably by means of translocations involving parts of nuclear organizer areas. No clear relation was found between banding patterns and ecological factors. PMID:21247917

  19. Lobaria pulmonaria abundance as an indicator of macrolichen diversity in Interior CedarHemlock

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Lobaria pulmonaria abundance as an indicator of macrolichen diversity in Interior Cedar supported more species than young or mature forests. The abundance of Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm words: macrolichen diversity, Interior Cedar­Hemlock zone, Lobaria pulmonaria, indicator species

  20. Antitumor active polysaccharides from the Chinese mushroom Songshan lingzhi, the fruiting body of Ganoderma tsugae.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Zhang, J; Mizuno, T; Zhuang, C; Ito, H; Mayuzumi, H; Okamoto, H; Li, J

    1993-06-01

    A systematic method of extraction, fractionation, and purification of polysaccharides from Songshan Lingzhi (Ganoderma tsugae) with antitumor activity was established. Seven glycans with strong antitumor activities were obtained from 14 water-soluble, and 15 water-insoluble fractions: FIo-a, FA-1, FII-1, FIII-2, and FIII-2-a, -b, and -c. FIo-a and FA-1 were protein-containing glucogalactans associated with mannose and fucose. FII-1 was a (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan having a lower protein content. The water-insoluble fractions FIII-2-a, -b, and -c were extracted with alkali, and were found to be protein-containing (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans showing the strongest activity. Chemical properties and structure of each antitumor polysaccharide were compared with three fungi of the Ganoderma family, Kofukitake (G. applanatum), Mannentake (G. lucidum), and Songshan Lingzhi (G. tsugae). PMID:7763875

  1. Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) toxicosis in a flock of range turkeys.

    PubMed

    Frank, A A; Reed, W M

    1987-01-01

    Five 20-week-old tom turkeys from a flock of range turkeys were presented for examination; the flock had a history of salivation, tremors, paralysis, and increased mortality. Necropsy revealed numerous seeds identified as seeds from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) within the crop, proventriculus, and gizzard. Histopathologic alterations were limited to catarrhal enteritis. Clinical signs of Conium maculatum toxicosis abated after the turkeys were removed from their range, which was infested with poison hemlock. PMID:3619833

  2. Anthocyanins in cones of Abies, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga and Tsuga ( Pinaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Griesbach

    2003-01-01

    The anthocyanin content of male and female cones of 27 species of Abies, Picea, Pinus, Pseudotsuga and Tsuga (Pinaceae) was determined. Only four anthocyanins were found: cyanidin 3-glucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, peonidin 3-glucoside and petunidin 3-glucoside. Cyanidin 3-glucoside was the major anthocyanin in most of the species analyzed. The methylated anthocyanins (peonidin 3-glucoside and petunidin 3-glucoside) were rare and found in

  3. Callitriche heterophylla var. heterophylla ( ) 

    E-print Network

    Richard V. Lansdown

    2011-08-10

    This paper presents the physiological adaptations to high altitude present in Tibetan and Nepalese populations, and reviews of the cultural practices surrounding childbirth which appear to have a connection to the stresses of hypoxic conditions...

  4. Effect of temperature and host tree on cold hardiness of hemlock looper eggs along a latitudinal gradient.

    PubMed

    Rochefort, Sophie; Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Charest, Martin; Bauce, Eric

    2011-06-01

    The hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria, is an economically important insect pest of Canadian forests which overwinters as eggs. Although the hemlock looper causes extensive damages, no information on the mechanisms related to its cold tolerance is known. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of temperature and exposure duration on hemlock looper winter survival but also to identify seasonal supercooling capacity and cryoprotectant levels of three populations along a latitudinal gradient. As host plant may contribute to offspring overwintering success, cold tolerance of hemlock looper eggs from parents whose larvae were fed on three different tree species was also measured. Mean supercooling point (SCP) of hemlock looper eggs was lower than -30 °C from October through the following spring with values being as low as -47 °C in February. Trehalose was the most abundant sugar found in hemlock looper eggs with a peak concentration of 0.3 ?g mg?¹ DW?¹. Glycerol, a polyol, was more often absent in eggs of the different populations and tree species tested in the study. When exposed to different temperature regimes for various periods of time, significant mortality of hemlock looper eggs occurred at higher temperatures than the mean SCP. Thus, hemlock looper could be considered as a chill tolerant species. No clear pattern of population and host plant effects on SCP and cryoprotectants was detected in this study. However, when exposed to different winter temperatures and exposure duration, hemlock looper from higher latitudes survived better (survival rates ranging between 0 and 89% at -20 °C) than those from lower latitudes (survival rates ranging between 0 and 56% at -20 °C). Our results may contribute to a better understanding of hemlock looper winter biology and thus facilitate predictions of outbreaks and range expansion. PMID:21356214

  5. Ganoderma tsugae mycelium enhances splenic natural killer cell activity and serum interferon production in mice.

    PubMed

    Won, S J; Lin, M T; Wu, W L

    1992-06-01

    Effects of the water-soluble extract of Ganoderma tsugae mycelium (GT), its alcohol-insoluble subfraction (GTI), and its alcohol-soluble subfraction (GTS) on splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity and serum interferon (IFN) production were assessed in mice. Intraperitoneal administration of GT (4-200 mg/kg) or GTI (1-50 mg/kg), but not GTS, augmented the NK cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner in C3H/HeN mice. This augmentation of splenic NK cytolytic activity was not mouse-strain-dependent. The serum IFN titers of mice were also elevated after i.p.-doses of GTI. The GTI-induced serum IFN was reduced by either IFN-(alpha+beta) antiserum or IFN-gamma monoclonal antibody in vitro. The treatment with antiserum neutralizing IFN-(alpha+beta) resulted in a 70% reduction of GTI-induced IFN, while monoclonal antibody against mouse IFN-gamma, moderately neutralized the GTI-induced IFN (50%). These results demonstrated that both the splenic NK activity and serum IFN [IFN-(alpha+beta) and IFN-gamma] titers are elevated by Ganoderma tsugae mycelium extracts in mice. PMID:1279250

  6. Antiproliferative Activities of Hot Water Extracts from Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms, Ganoderma tsugae and Agrocybe cylindracea (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Tsai, Shu-Yao; Lai, Eric Yih-Cherng; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-01-01

    Using anticancer agents to progress chemotherapy to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells is an effective means. Two medicinal mushrooms, Ganoderma tsugae and Agrocybe cylindracea, exhibited various physiological effects, and the antiproliferation effect on HL-60, Hep 3B, and C6 cells was studied. The viability of different cancer cells was decreased significantly by hot water extracts from different forms of G. tsugae and A. cylindracea. The hot water extracts from the fruit body, mycelium, and filtrate of A. cylindracea were less effective in inhibiting the antiproliferation of C6, Hep 3B, and HL-60 cells than were those from G. tsugae, as evidenced by their IC50 values. The IC50 values of G. tsugae on C6, Hep 3B, and HL-60 cells were 1.13, 2.73, and 2.60 mg/mL, respectively, whereas those of baby G. tsugae were 1.87, 2.63, and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the filtrates of G. tsugae on C6 and Hep 3B cells were 2.81 and 2.80 mg/mL, respectively. The morphological transformation of 3 cancer cells was observed clearly, and the possible mechanism would be necrosis, apoptosis, or differentiation. Owing to the noticeable effect on antiproliferation of hot water extracts, especially those from G. tsugae, the extract could be of great potential to be used as an alternative cancer therapy. PMID:26082984

  7. Effects of environment, seedling age, and seed source on leaf resistance of three species of Chamaecyparis and Tsuga chinensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. Zobel; V. T. Liu

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine how stomata of Chamaecyparis spp. react to environmental changes and to determine in what ways leaf resistance patterns may have adaptive value for these confers. Leaf resistances were measured of Chamaecyparis taiwanensis, C. formosensis and C. lawsoniana seedlings in a forest nursery, and of saplings of the first two species and Tsuga

  8. Transcriptome Sequencing and Identification of Cold Tolerance Genes in Hardy Corylus Species (C. heterophylla Fisch) Floral Buds

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qingzhong; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Tiantian; Ma, Qinghua; Wang, Guixi

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Corylus is an important woody species in Northeast China. Its products, hazelnuts, constitute one of the most important raw materials for the pastry and chocolate industry. However, limited genetic research has focused on Corylus because of the lack of genomic resources. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies provides a turning point for Corylus research. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing for the first time to produce a comprehensive database for the Corylus heterophylla Fisch floral buds. Results The C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds transcriptome was sequenced using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We produced 28,930,890 raw reads and assembled them into 82,684 contigs. A total of 40,941 unigenes were identified, among which 30,549 were annotated in the NCBI Non-redundant (Nr) protein database and 18,581 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. Of these annotated unigenes, 25,311 and 10,514 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. We could map 17,207 unigenes onto 128 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway (KEGG) database. Additionally, based on the transcriptome, we constructed a candidate cold tolerance gene set of C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds. The expression patterns of selected genes during four stages of cold acclimation suggested that these genes might be involved in different cold responsive stages in C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds. Conclusion The transcriptome of C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds was deep sequenced, de novo assembled, and annotated, providing abundant data to better understand the C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds transcriptome. Candidate genes potentially involved in cold tolerance were identified, providing a material basis for future molecular mechanism analysis of C. heterophylla Fisch floral buds tolerant to cold stress. PMID:25268521

  9. www.btny.purdue.edu/weedscience/ Poison Hemlock The Toxic Parsnip

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    will usually have a covering of hairs. Description: Poison hemlock can often be found along roadsides, edges are the most toxic and the root the least toxic. The fruit is most dangerous in the fall. Lethal doses can irritation, dilation of pupils, rapid and weak pulse, loss of appetite, salivation, and blue coloration about

  10. Original Contribution INTOXICATION WITH POISON HEMLOCK (CONIUM MACULATUM L.) IN CALVES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Binev; J. Mitev; T. Miteva

    2007-01-01

    The case of spontaneous poisoning of 38 calves with Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum) was described. The following indices were measured, among others: haemoglobin content (HGB), red blood cell counts (RBC), white blood cell counts (WBC), haematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), differential white cell counts (DWC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), etc.

  11. Insect-killing Fungi for Management of Hemlock Woolly Adelgid: A Review of Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Reid; Bruce L. Parker; Margaret Skinner; Svetlana Gouli; H. Brenton Teillon

    Entomopathogenic fungi are viable options to supplement and enhance existing strategies for management of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA). Exploratory activities to isolate insect-killing fungi from HWA were done in Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, and Virginia. Foreign exploration was done in China where this pest is suspected to have originated. From this work, 68 fungal strains were recovered, cultured, identified,

  12. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium Susceptibility of Larch, Hemlock, Sitka Spruce, and

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Fifth Science Symposium 77 Susceptibility of Larch, Hemlock or branches of each species were inoculated with a single isolate of the three genotypes by spraying the foliage with a suspension of zoospores (105 /ml). Seedlings or branches that were sprayed with water alone

  13. Triterpenoids and Polysaccharide Fractions of Ganoderma tsugae Exert Different Effects on Antiallergic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miaw-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate antiallergic effects of triterpenoids (Gt-TRE) and polysaccharide (Gt-PS) extracts from Ganoderma tsugae, using mast cell line RBL-2H3, T cell line EL4, primary T cells, and transfected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that histamine secreted from activated RBL-2H3 mast cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Interleukin- (IL-) 4 secreted from activated EL4 cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Further primary CD4+ T cells cultures also confirmed that Gt-TRE (5 ~ 50?µg/mL) significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 secretions but had no effect on Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon (IFN)-?. Gt-PS did not affect IL-4 and IL-5 secretions until higher doses (400, 500?µg/mL) and significantly suppressed IFN? secretions but enhanced IL-2 at these high doses. The reporter gene assay indicated that Gt-TRE inhibited but Gt-PS enhanced the transcriptional activity of NF-?B in activated transfected RAW264.7 cells and transfected EL4 cells. IL-4 secreted by this transfected EL-4 cells was also significantly decreased by Gt-TRE but not by Gt-PS, suggesting that these two fractions may exert different effects on NF-?B related cytokines expression. These data suggested that triterpenoids fraction of Ganoderma tsugae might be the main constituents to alleviate allergic asthma. PMID:25960757

  14. Aluminum, Fe, Ca, Mg, K, Mn, Cu, Zn and P in above- and belowground biomass. I. Abies amabilis and Tsuga mertensiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Vogt; R. Dahlgren; F. Ugolini; D. Zabowski; E. E. Moore; R. Zasoski

    1987-01-01

    In a mature mixed subalpine stand ofTsuga mertensiana andAbies amabilis, significantly higher Al levels were found in foliage, branch and root tissues ofT. mertensiana.Tsuga mertensiana had significant increases in Al, Ca and Mn levels with increasing foliage age. In current foliage,T. mertensiana had lower levels of Ca, similar levels of Mg and P, and higher levels of Mn thanA. amabilis.

  15. Congenital skeletal malformations induced by maternal ingestion of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock) in newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Buck, W B

    1985-10-01

    Skeletal malformations were induced in newborn pigs from gilts fed Conium maculatum seed or plant during gestation days 43 through 53 and 51 through 61. The teratogenic effects in groups dosed during gestation days 43 through 53 were more severe than those in groups dosed during the later period, with many newborn pigs showing arthrogryposis and twisted and malaligned bones in the limbs and with 1 pig showing scoliosis and deformity of the thoracic cage. The pigs born to gilts given C maculatum during gestation days 51 through 61 had excessive flexure primarily in the carpal joints, without scoliosis or bone malalignment in the limbs. The teratogenicity of poison hemlock depends on the alkaloid concentration and content. Based on the data presented, we speculate that gamma-coniceine is the teratogenic alkaloid in the poison hemlock fed to the gilts. PMID:4062008

  16. Lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp: toxicity and teratogenicity in livestock.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; James, L F; Gardner, D R

    1999-02-01

    Many species of lupines contain quinolizidine or piperidine alkaloids known to be toxic or teratogenic to livestock. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum) and Nicotiana spp. including N. tabacum and N. glauca contain toxic and teratogenic piperidine alkaloids. The toxic and teratogenic effects from these plant species have distinct similarities including maternal muscular weakness and ataxia and fetal contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate. It is believed that the mechanism of action of the piperidine and quinolizidine alkaloid-induced teratogenesis is the same; however, there are some differences in incidence, susceptible gestational periods, and severity between livestock species. Wildlife species have also been poisoned after eating poison-hemlock but no terata have been reported. The most widespread problem for livestock producers in recent times has been lupine-induced "crooked calf disease." Crooked calf disease is characterized as skeletal contracture-type malformations and occasional cleft palate in calves after maternal ingestion of lupines containing the quinolizidine alkaloid anagyrine during gestation days 40-100. Similar malformations have been induced in cattle and goats with lupines containing the piperidine alkaloids ammodendrine, N-methyl ammodendrine, and N-acetyl hystrine and in cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs with poison-hemlock containing predominantly coniine or gamma-coniceine and N. glauca containing anabasine. Toxic and teratogenic effects have been linked to structural aspects of these alkaloids, and the mechanism of action is believed to be associated with an alkaloid-induced inhibition of fetal movement during specific gestational periods. This review presents a historical perspective, description and distribution of lupines, poison-hemlock and Nicotiana spp., toxic and teratogenic effects and management information to reduce losses. PMID:10091132

  17. Chemical characteristics and anti-proliferation activities of Ganoderma tsugae polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Yen, Ming-Tsung; Tseng, Yu-Hsiu; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2015-09-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted by hot-water and hot-alkali from four forms of Ganoderma tsugae including mature and baby Ling chih, mycelium and filtrate. Different profiles of proximate composition and monosaccharide constituents, and element contents were found in the extracted polysaccharides from different extractions and different forms. The molecular weight distributions of polysaccharides were 2.8×10(4)-6.5×10(5)Da and their infrared spectra were comparable. The hot-alkali extracted polysaccharides exhibited better anti-proliferation on IMR32 cells than the hot-water extracted polysaccharides, which were in turn more effective than the hot-water extracts. Besides, most hot-water extracts and both extracted polysaccharides exhibited an anti-proliferation effect on Hep G2 cells. However, the hot-water extracts showed less effective in anti-proliferation of IMR32 and Hep G2 cells. Based on the anti-tumor effects, both polysaccharides could be prepared for use in the formulation of nutraceuticals and functional foods. PMID:26005143

  18. Antitumor active protein-containing glycans from the Chinese mushroom songshan lingzhi, Ganoderma tsugae mycelium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Wang, G; Li, H; Zhuang, C; Mizuno, T; Ito, H; Mayuzumi, H; Okamoto, H; Li, J

    1994-07-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide, FI, extracted from the mycelium of Granoderma tsugae, was fractionated and purified by ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration, and affinity chromatography. Sixteen polysaccharides obtained were examined for antitumor effects on Sarcoma 180 in mice. The three active polysaccharides obtained were as follows: FIo-a: A glycan-protein complex containing 9.3% protein, and having a hetero-glyco-chain of mannose and xylose. FIo-b-alpha: Molecular weight 10,000, glucan-protein complex containing 25.8% protein. The inhibition ratio was 61.8% against the solid cancer Sarcoma 180/mice; the survival ratio was more than 194% of the control group (100). FA-1-b-alpha: Molecular weight 16,000, a complex of glycan:protein = 42:58 w/w, consisting of glucose as a main component, and associated with arabinose, mannose, xylose, and galactose. This had a tumor inhibition ratio of 56% and a survival ratio of more than 182%. Comparison of active glycan with the fruiting body and mycelium: Among water-soluble polysaccharides of fruiting body, FIo-a and FA-1, with antitumor activity, were both glucogalactan-protein complexes of molecular weight 10,000, but that of mycelium was a homoglucan protein complex in FIo-b-alpha and heteroglucan protein in both FA-1-a and FA-1-b-alpha. The heteroglucan had a low tumor inhibition ratio, but caused a high survival ratio in mice. PMID:7765245

  19. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, J.L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  20. The influence of catchment size on lake trophic status during the hemlock decline and recovery (4800 to 3500 BP) in southern Ontario lakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland I. Hall; John P. Smol

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the ecological effects of terrestrial ecosystem change during the hemlock decline and recovery (4,800–3,500 BP) on lake communities (diatoms and chrysophytes). This study specifically assessed the role of catchment area and slope in determining the magnitude of lake eutrophication during the hemlock decline by analyzing sediment cores from five alkaline, holomictic lakes in southeastern Ontario, Canada. The study

  1. A climatic driver for abrupt mid-Holocene vegetation dynamics and the hemlock decline in New England.

    PubMed

    Foster, David R; Oswald, W Wyatt; Faison, Edward K; Doughty, Elaine D; Hansen, Barbara C S

    2006-12-01

    The mid-Holocene decline of eastern hemlock is widely viewed as the sole prehistorical example of an insect- or pathogen-mediated collapse of a North American tree species and has been extensively studied for insights into pest-host dynamics and the consequences to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of dominant-species removal. We report paleoecological evidence implicating climate as a major driver of this episode. Data drawn from sites across a gradient in hemlock abundance from dominant to absent demonstrate: a synchronous, dramatic decline in a contrasting taxon (oak); changes in lake sediments and aquatic taxa indicating low water levels; and one or more intervals of intense drought at regional to continental scales. These results, which accord well with emerging climate reconstructions, challenge the interpretation of a biotically driven hemlock decline and highlight the potential for climate change to generate major, abrupt dynamics in forest ecosystems. PMID:17249218

  2. Radio ultrasound observations of the fetotoxic effects in sheep from ingestion of Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock).

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Bunch, T D; Keeler, R F; Sisson, D V

    1988-01-01

    Fetal movement in pregnant ewes gavaged with Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) was reduced significantly, but temporarily. Fetal movement was observed by radio ultrasound at 45, 54 and 60 days of gestation in control ewes and on days 45, 54, and 60 of gestation immediately before and 1 hour following poison-hemlock feeding in treated ewes. Fetal movement was significantly reduced (P less than 0.01) 1 hour after poison-hemlock administration, but returned to normal within 18 hours post treatment. At parturition seven of eleven lambs born to seven treated ewes had varying degrees of front limb abnormalities. Modest to moderate flexure of the carpal joints, some lateral deviation in the front limbs at the pastern joint and kinked tails were observed. These malformations were transient and resolved spontaneously by 8 weeks after lambing. PMID:3047418

  3. Effect of simulated fall heat waves on cold hardiness and winter survival of hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae).

    PubMed

    Vallières, Rosemarie; Rochefort, Sophie; Berthiaume, Richard; Hébert, Christian; Bauce, Éric

    2015-02-01

    The hemlock looper (Lambdina fiscellaria) is an important pest of eastern Canadian forests. The ongoing climate warming could modify the seasonal ecology of this univoltine species that lays eggs at the end of summer and overwinters at this stage. Indeed, the increase in frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as fall heat waves could interfere with the winter metabolism of the hemlock looper. Moreover, the host plant quality, which influences the quantity of insect energetic reserves, the geographic origin of populations and the conditions prevailing during the cold acclimation period, could cause various responses of this pest to climate warming. The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of these factors on hemlock looper winter biology. In October 2010, hemlock looper eggs initially collected from two geographic areas in the province of Québec, and from parents reared on two host plants, were exposed to fall heat waves of different intensities during 5 consecutive days. Supercooling points and cryoprotectant levels were measured on eggs on four different dates in 2010-2011 and survival rate was measured in April 2011. Our results show that hemlock looper eggs have a very low supercooling point and high levels of trehalose, glucose and mannitol in September and November. However, there is no clear relationship between the concentration of these compounds and the decrease in supercooling points. Contents in trehalose, glucose and mannitol were significantly influenced by fall heat waves and by the origin of the population. Winter survival of eggs from the temperate population was negatively affected by strong heat waves while the boreal population was not affected. This study suggests that the metabolism and winter survival of temperate hemlock looper populations in Québec will be more affected by fall heat waves that will increase in frequency due to climate change, than boreal populations. PMID:25585353

  4. Hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides with different molecular weight of Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstracts Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and to detect molecular size of Pseudostellaria heterophylla polysaccharide (PHP). Pseudostellaria heterophylla is a medicine extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine formulas to treat diabetes and its complications. Methods Molecular weight of PHP was determined by gel permeation chromatography combined with phenol-sulphuric acid method and the monosaccharides composition was determined by HPLC with a precolumn derivatization. Four polysaccharides with different molecular weight were compared for hypoglycemic active on two animal models both high does alloxan induced type1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) and high-fat/lower does streptozotocin induced type2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). Blood sugar, glucose tolerance, and insulin tolerance were detected. Rat serum IL-1?, IL-2, IL-10, Leptin, TNF-?, Acrp30 and CRP were also analyzed by sandwich-ELISA approaches to preliminary probe the hypoglycemic mechanism of PHP. Results The hypoglycemic effects related to molecular size of polysaccharide were more effective against T2DM than T1DM. PHP comprise four monosaccharides of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose and arabinos. T2DM rats daily receiving oral dose of polysaccharide(100?~?400 mg/kg) with 50?~?210 kDa molecular weight (PF40) could not only significantly lower blood sugar but also reduce total triglyceride level in serum. PF40 improves in insulin tolerance inhibited the expression of some biomarkers including inflammatory cytokine TNF-? and elevated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, regulated adiponectin Acrp30 and leptin. Conclusions PF40 prevent the cascade of inflammatory events in the treatment of T2DM to block overweight progresses to obesity. PMID:24131482

  5. Ecology, 82(12), 2001, pp. 33303345 2001 by the Ecological Society of America

    E-print Network

    Wallin, David O.

    of a subalpine conifer, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana). Tree-ring chronologies were developed for 31 sites; temperature; tree growth; Tsuga mertensiana. INTRODUCTION Global mean temperatures may rise 1 ­3 C over

  6. Hemlock Alkaloids in Aloes. Occurrence and Distribution of gamma-Coniceine.

    PubMed

    Dring, J V; Nash, R J; Roberts, M F; Reynolds, T

    1984-10-01

    The hemlock alkaloid gamma-coniceine was identified in a number of ALOE species, namely A. GILLILANDII, Reynolds A. BALLYI Reynolds, A. RUSPOLIANA Baker, A. IBITIENSIS Perrier and A. DELTOIDEODONTA Baker. Coniine was identified in A. VIGUIERI Perrier. The levels of gamma-coniceine are higher than those found in CONIUM MACULATUM L. Some species also contained trace amounts of conhydrinone and pseudoconhydrin. Three of the species are Madagascan endemics, one is restricted to Arabia, while the rest are remote from each other in East Africa. Some of the species are loosely related but there is no overall taxonomic affinity between them. PMID:17340347

  7. Maternal and fetal toxicity of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in sheep.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Bunch, T D; Keeler, R F

    1988-02-01

    Poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) was toxic to pregnant ewes and their fetuses when fed during gestation days 30 through 60. Maternal effects included trembling, muscular weakness in the neck initially, then progressing to the limbs, ataxia, frequent urination and defecation, and death. Convulsive seizures were not observed. Fetotoxic effects included excessive flexure of the carpal joints with lateral deviation in the front limbs and kinked tails. At term, 7 of 11 lambs had varying degrees of the limb abnormalities, but all lambs appeared clinically normal at 8 weeks after parturition. PMID:3348538

  8. Novel microsatellites for Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae) endemic to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of South America1

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Arias, Gustavo Adolfo; Mäder, Geraldo; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Freitas, Loreta B.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae) is a petunia species restricted to the South Atlantic Coastal Plain of South America and presents a recent history of colonization from continental to coastal environments and diversification following the formation of the Coastal Plain during the Quaternary period. Methods and Results: This study reports a suite of 16 microsatellite loci for C. heterophylla. The applicability of these markers was assessed by genotyping 57 individuals from two natural populations. Of the 16 described loci, 12 were found to be polymorphic. Successful cross-amplification tests were obtained using 12 Calibrachoa species. Conclusions: The development of microsatellite markers will be useful to recover the contemporary history of the colonization of the Coastal Plain and to provide information for the conservation of this endemic species.

  9. 78 FR 14509 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ...hemlock woolly adelgid is a destructive pest of the eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), where it causes needle loss, abortion of buds, and the eventual death of infested trees. On August 3, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR...

  10. Forested Communities of the Upper Montane in the Central and Southern

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    ), lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), western white pine (Pinus monticola magnifica), white fir (Abies concolor), sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana), Jeffrey pine (Pinus Jeffreyii

  11. -Predictability, contingency, and convergence in late succession -543 Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 543-554, 2007

    E-print Network

    Woods, Kerry

    saccharum; Betula alleghaniensis; Ecoin- formatics; Fagus grandifolia; Hemlock-northern hardwood forest; Old-growth forest; Permanent plot; Thuja occidentalis; Tsuga canadensis. Nomenclature: Gleason & Cronquist (1991

  12. EFFECTS OF AMMONIUM AND NITRATE ON NUTRIENT UPTAKE AND ACTIVITY OF NITROGEN ASSIMILATING ENZYMES IN WESTERN HEMLOCK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Western hemlock seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions with ammonium, nitrate or ammonium plus nitrate as nitrogen sources. he objectives were to examine (1) possible selectivity for ammonium or nitrate as an N source, (2) the maintenance of charge balance during ammonium and...

  13. Multiple resistance of acetolactate synthase and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors in Euphorbia heterophylla biotypes.

    PubMed

    Trezzi, Michelangelo M; Felippi, C L; Mattei, D; Silva, H L; Nunes, A L; Debastiani, C; Vidal, R A; Marques, A

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides in Brazil has been documented for six species. The probability to select biotypes of Euphorbia heterophylla (EPPHL) with multiple resistance increases in the same order of magnitude as the use of other herbicides belonging to only one mechanism of action. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the distribution of resistant populations (R) in the states of the Parana and Santa Catarina; to determine the existence of populations of EPHHL with multiple resistance to ALS and PROTOX inhibitors, and to confirm the occurrence of cross resistance to compounds of these mechanisms of action. Seeds of EPHHL of areas with suspected resistance had been sampled in 97 places during 2003. In the greenhouse experiment samples of each population were sprayed with imazethapyr or fomesafen, at only one rate. To identify the resistant ones they were sprayed with different levels of the herbicides imazethapyr and fomesafen. Later they were sprayed with diverse herbicides of the same mechanisms of action to confirm the multiple/cross resistance. There is widespread distribution in the region of populations with resistance to ALS inhibitors. Some biotypes demonstrated resistance to herbicides from the two mechanisms of action. The resistance factor (FR), or the relation of resistance between R and susceptible biotypes, confirms the existence of two biotypes of EPHHL with cross resistance to several herbicides inhibitors of ALS and PROTOX. PMID:15656167

  14. Effects of Partial Harvest on the Carbon Stores in Douglas-fir\\/Western Hemlock Forests: A Simulation Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Harmon; Adam Moreno; James B. Domingo

    2009-01-01

    The STANDCARB 2.0 model was used to examine the effects of partial harvest of trees within stands on forest-related carbon\\u000a (C) stores in a typical Pacific Northwest Pseudotsuga\\/Tsuga forest. For harvest rotation intervals of 20 to 250 years the effect of completely dispersed (that is, a checkerboard) versus completely aggregated cutting patterns (that is, single blocks) was compared. The simulations indicated

  15. Comparative toxicity of coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), in chickens, quails, and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Frank, A A; Reed, W M

    1990-01-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid of Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), was administered by gavage to immature chickens, quails, and turkeys at 0, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight. At 25 mg coniine/kg body weight, clinical signs were observed only in quails (2/10) and consisted of excitement, depression, hypermetria, seizures, opisthotonos, and flaccid paralysis. Chickens (9/10) and quails (8/10) dosed at 50 mg/kg body weight were affected, and several birds of each species died (2/10 and 5/10, respectively). Turkeys (7/10) were affected only when dosed at 100 mg/kg body weight, and quails (6/10), turkeys (4/10), and chickens (10/10) died at this dose. There were no gross or microscopic lesions. Coniine was detected in skeletal muscle and liver of birds dying after ingestion and was present in some survivors 7 days post-treatment. PMID:2369382

  16. Estimating structural attributes of Douglas-fir/western hemlock forest stands from Landsat and SPOT imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Warren B.; Spies, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Relationships between spectral and texture variables derived from SPOT HRV 10 m panchromatic and Landsat TM 30 m multispectral data and 16 forest stand structural attributes is evaluated to determine the utility of satellite data for analysis of hemlock forests west of the Cascade Mountains crest in Oregon and Washington, USA. Texture of the HRV data was found to be strongly related to many of the stand attributes evaluated, whereas TM texture was weakly related to all attributes. Data analysis based on regression models indicates that both TM and HRV imagery should yield equally accurate estimates of forest age class and stand structure. It is concluded that the satellite data are a valuable source for estimation of the standard deviation of tree sizes, mean size and density of trees in the upper canopy layers, a structural complexity index, and stand age.

  17. Impacts of forest gaps on soil properties and processes in old growth northern hardwood-hemlock forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Scharenbroch; J. G. Bockheim

    2007-01-01

    We examined the influence of treefall gaps on soil properties and processes in old growth northern hardwood-hemlock forests\\u000a in the upper Great Lakes region, USA. We found significantly greater solar radiation, soil moisture contents and soil temperatures\\u000a in gaps compared to adjacent closed canopy plots. Gaps had significantly less exchangeable base cations (K, Ca, and Mg) compared\\u000a to forest plots

  18. Ganoderma tsugae extract inhibits expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and angiogenesis in human epidermoid carcinoma cells: In vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Chung; Ou, Chien-Chih; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Li, Jhy-Wei; Lee, Yi-Jen; Wang, Vinchi; Liu, Jah-Yao; Chen, Chin-Shiang; Lin, Song-Chow; Kao, Ming-Ching

    2009-08-18

    We examined the anti-angiogenic effects of Ganoderma tsugae methanol extract (GTME) on human epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells. Our data indicate that GTME inhibits the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in vitro and in vivo, and also inhibits the capillary tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We also show that the suppression of VEGF expression by GTME can be restored by treatment with EGF. These results suggest that GTME inhibits VEGF expression via the suppression of EGFR expression, resulting in the downregulation of VEGF secretion from epidermoid carcinoma A-431 cells. These findings reveal a novel role for G. tsugae in inhibiting EGFR and VEGF expression, which are important for tumor angiogenesis and growth. Thus, GTME may provide a potential therapeutic approach for anti-tumor treatment. PMID:19332363

  19. Abietoid seed fatty acid composition—A review of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix , and Tsuga and preliminary inferences on the taxonomy of Pinaceae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Wolff; Olivier Lavialle; Frédérique Pédrono; Elodie Pasquier; Frédéric Destaillats; Anne M. Marpeau; Paul Angers; Kurt Aitzetmüller

    2002-01-01

    The seed fatty acid (FA) compositions of Abietoids (Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga) are reviewed in the present study in conclusion to our survey of Pinaceae seed FA compositions. Many unpublished data are\\u000a given. Abietoids and Pinoids (Pinus, Larix, Ficea, and Pseudotsuga)—constituting the family Pinaceae—are united by the presence of several ?5-olefinic acids, taxoleic (5,9–18?2), pinolenic\\u000a (5,9,12–18?3) coniferonic

  20. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography method for quantification of xanthorrhizol in roots of Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Benth ex Hemsl.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, María Isabel; Osorio, Nadia; Bernal, Israel; Navarrete, Andrés; Bye, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Roots of Iostephane heterophylla (Cav.) Benth ex Hemsl are used mainly in Mexican traditional medicine to heal skin problems. The development of a column high-performance liquid chromatography (LC)-UV detector method for the determination of xanthorrhizol, the major and active component of the roots of I. heterophylla, is described in this paper. The content of this compound was quantitatively determined employing a Symmetry C18 5 microm particle size column with the isocratic mobile phase acetonitrile-water (85 + 15). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min, and UV detection was at 230 nm. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.2 and 0.5 microg/mL, respectively. Quantities of xanthorrhizol measured by this method ranged between 1.8 to 10.94 mg/g of root of the plant in 11 different samples of I. heterophylla. Xanthorrhizol was not detected in a sample of I. madrensis, so xanthorrhizol could be used as a marker compound of I. heterophylla. The LC method described here was shown to be reliable, reproducible, and accurate. PMID:17760325

  1. Functional expression of FIP-gts, a fungal immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae in Sf21 insect cells.

    PubMed

    Jinn, Tzyy-Rong; Wu, Chi-Ming; Tu, Wu-Chun; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Tzen, Jason T C

    2006-11-01

    The mushrooms of diverse Lingzhi species have been traditionally consumed as luxurious functional food supplements in Chinese society. FIP-gts, a fungal immunomodulatory protein found in Song-Shan Lingzhi (Ganodera tsugae) has been proposed to possess therapeutic effects on cancer and autoimmune diseases. To produce active FIP-gts for evaluation of oral administration, a recombinant FIP-gts (rFIP-gts) fused with a 6His-tag at its C-terminus was expressed in Sf21 insect cells by the baculovirus expression system. High yield (about 70%) and purity (about 90%) of rFIP-gts was obtained by one-step nickel-affinity chromatography. The correctness of the harvested rFIP-gts was verified by Western blot and MALDI-MS analyses. Optimal expression of rFIP-gts was observed when the Sf21 cells were infected with multiplicity of infection of 10 for 72 h, and the yield was up to 47.2 microg/3 x 10(6) infected cells. The immunomodulatory activity of the purified rFIP-gts was detected as the induction of interleukin 2 released from murine splenocytes. Compared with the rFIP-gts produced in Escherichia coli cells, the rFIP-gts produced in Sf21 cells possessed evidently higher specific immunomodulatory activity. PMID:17090952

  2. Tree species and soil nutrient profiles in old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    Old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique opportunity to examine tree species – soil relationships in ecosystems that have developed without significant human disturbance. We characterized foliage, forest floor, and mineral soil nutrients associated with four canopy tree species (Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh)) in eight old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range. The greatest forest floor accumulations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, and K occurred under Douglas-fir, primarily due to greater forest floor mass. In mineral soil, western hemlock exhibited significantly lower Ca concentration and sum of cations (Ca + Mg + K) than bigleaf maple, with intermediate values for Douglas-fir and western redcedar. Bigleaf maple explained most species-based differences in foliar nutrients, displaying high concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K. Foliar P and N:P variations largely reflected soil P variation across sites. The four tree species that we examined exhibited a number of individualistic effects on soil nutrient levels that contribute to biogeochemical heterogeneity in these ecosystems. Where fire suppression and long-term succession favor dominance by highly shade-tolerant western hemlock, our results suggest a potential for declines in both soil Ca availability and soil biogeochemical heterogeneity in old-growth forests.

  3. Biological and mechanistic activities of xanthorrizol and 4-(1',5'-dimethylhex-4'-enyl)-2-methylphenol isolated from Iostephane heterophylla.

    PubMed

    Mata, R; Martínez, E; Bye, R; Morales, G; Singh, M P; Janso, J E; Maiese, W M; Timmermann, B

    2001-07-01

    Xanthorrizol (1) and 4-(1',5'-dimethylhex-4'-enyl)-2-methylphenol (2) were identified as the principal antimicrobial components of a CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH (1:1) extract derived from Iostephane heterophylla. Compound 2 is a new natural product, but has been synthesized. Both compounds exhibited low level activity (MICs of 16-32 microg/mL) against methicillin-resistant staphylococci and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. They were either inactive or poorly active against Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. Mechanistic studies performed in Escherichia coli imp suggested nonspecific inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis by both of these compounds. Compound 1 was tested in an in vivo model; it did not provide protection to mice infected with Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:11473422

  4. Abietoid seed fatty acid compositions--a review of the genera Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga and preliminary inferences on the taxonomy of Pinaceae.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Robert L; Lavialle, Olivier; Pédrono, Frédérique; Pasquier, Elodie; Destaillats, Frederic; Marpeau, Anne M; Angers, Paul; Aitzetmüller, Kurt

    2002-01-01

    The seed fatty acid (FA) compositions of Abietoids (Abies, Cedrus, Hesperopeuce, Keteleeria, Pseudolarix, and Tsuga) are reviewed in the present study in conclusion to our survey of Pinaceae seed FA compositions. Many unpublished data are given. Abietoids and Pinoids (Pinus, Larix, Picea, and Pseudotsuga)-constituting the family Pinaceae-are united by the presence of several delta5-olefinic acids, taxoleic (5,9-18:2), pinolenic (5,9,12-18:3), coniferonic (5,9,12,15-1 8:4), keteleeronic (5,11-20:2), and sciadonic (5,11,14-20:3) acids, and of 14-methyl hexadecanoic (anteiso-17:0) acid. These acids seldom occur in angiosperm seeds. The proportions of individual delta5-olefinic acids, however, differ between Pinoids and Abietoids. In the first group, pinolenic acid is much greater than taxoleic acid, whereas in the second group, pinolenic acid is greater than or equal to taxoleic acid. Moreover, taxoleic acid in Abietoids is much greater than taxoleic acid in Pinoids, an apparent limit between the two subfamilies being about 4.5% of that acid relative to total FA. Tsuga spp. appear to be a major exception, as their seed FA compositions are much like those of species from the Pinoid group. In this respect, Hesperopeuce mertensiana, also known as Tsuga mertensiana, has little in common with Abietoids and fits the general FA pattern of Pinoids well. Tsuga spp. and H. mertensiana, from their seed FA compositions, should perhaps be separated from the Abietoid group and their taxonomic position revised. It is suggested that a "Tsugoid" subfamily be created, with seed FA in compliance with the Pinoid pattern and other botanical and immunological criteria of the Abietoid type. All Pinaceae genera, with the exception of Pinus, are quite homogeneous when considering their overall seed FA compositions, including delta5-olefinic acids. In all cases but one (Pinus), variations from one species to another inside a given genus are of small amplitude. Pinus spp., on the other hand, have highly variable levels of delta5-olefinic acids in their FA compositions, particularly when sections (e.g., Cembroides vs. Pinus sections) or subsections (e.g., Flexiles and Cembrae subsections from the section Strobus) are compared, although they show qualitatively the same FA patterns characteristic of Pinoids. Multicomponent analysis of Abietoid seed FA allowed grouping of individual species into genera that coincide with the same genera otherwise characterized by more classical botanical criteria. Our studies exemplify how seed FA compositions, particularly owing to the presence of delta5-olefinic acids, may be useful in sustaining and adding some precision to existing taxonomy of the major family of gymnosperms, Pinaceae. PMID:11876259

  5. Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation in an age sequence of paper birch ( Betula papyrifera) in the Interior Cedar Hemlock zone, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Wang; A. L. Zhong; S. W. Simard; J. P. Kimmins

    1996-01-01

    The aboveground biomass and nutrient content (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) of stands of Betula papyrifera Marsh, aged 2, 8, 15, 45, 60, 75 years were measured in the Thompson Moist Warm Interior Cedar Hemlock variant (ICHmw3) of the southern interior of British Columbia. For four of these ages (2, 8, 60 and 75 years) measurements were made on good,

  6. Prevention of autoantibody formation and prolonged survival in New Zealand Black/New Zealand White F1 mice with an ancient Chinese herb, Ganoderma tsugae.

    PubMed

    Lai, N S; Lin, R H; Lai, R S; Kun, U C; Leu, S C

    2001-01-01

    For centuries, Chinese medicine has regarded Ganoderma, a fungus (Myceteae, Amastigomycota, Busidomycetes, Aphyllophorales, Polyporaceae, Ganoderma) also known as 'Ling Zhi' in Mandarin, as a premium remedy for many diseases. Until now, no convincing data regarding its therapeutic effects in vivo on autoimmune diseases have been demonstrated. In this study, a controlled protocol was conducted in which New Zealand Black/White F1 mice were fed standard chow with prednisolone (0.5 mg/kg/day) or Ganoderma tsugae extract, commencing at 2 months of age. It was found that the F1 mice responded well to Ling Zhi extract. Ling Zhi improved the survival rate of lupus mice, decreased the amount of proteinuria, decreased serum levels of anti-dsDNA autoantibody, and showed evidence of decreased perivascular and parenchyma mononuclear cell infiltration in vital organs. PMID:11480842

  7. Lobaria pulmonaria abundance as an indicator of macrolichen diversity in Interior Cedar–Hemlock forests of east-central British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jocelyn Campbell; Arthur L. Fredeen

    2004-01-01

    Orographic precipitation over interior mountains has resulted in the formation of the inland temperate rain- forest, where certain stands are potentially antique and support a rich flora of epiphytic macrolichens. We documented macrolichen diversity across three age-classes in forests of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone (i.e., ICHwk3 subzone) east of Prince George, British Columbia. Our objectives were to report changes

  8. Retention of canopy lichens after partial-cut harvesting in wet-belt interior cedar–hemlock forests, British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darwyn S. Coxson; Susan K. Stevenson

    2005-01-01

    Old-growth cedar–hemlock forests of the interior wet-belt of British Columbia are rich in abundance and diversity of canopy lichens, but are subject to forest harvesting. If these distinctive canopy lichen communities are to be conserved, it is important to learn how they are affected by forestry practices, including partial-cutting techniques designed to retain old-growth attributes. The retention of canopy lichens

  9. Geological and climatic changes in quaternary shaped the evolutionary history of Calibrachoa heterophylla, an endemic South-Atlantic species of petunia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The glacial and interglacial cycles that characterized the Quaternary greatly affected the distribution and genetic diversity of plants. In the Neotropics, few phylogeographic studies have focused on coastal species outside of the Atlantic Rainforest. Climatic and sea level changes during the Quaternary played an important role in the evolutionary history of many organisms found in coastal regions. To contribute to a better understanding of plant evolution in this environment in Southern South America, we focused on Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae), an endemic and vulnerable wild petunia species from the South Atlantic Coastal Plain (SACP). Results We assessed DNA sequences from two cpDNA intergenic spacers and analyzed them using a phylogeographic approach. The present phylogeographic study reveals the influence of complex geologic and climatic events on patterns of genetic diversification. The results indicate that C. heterophylla originated inland and subsequently colonized the SACP; the data show that the inland haplogroup is more ancient than the coastal one and that the inland was not affected by sea level changes in the Quaternary. The major diversification of C. heterophylla that occurred after 0.4 Myr was linked to sea level oscillations in the Quaternary, and any diversification that occurred before this time was obscured by marine transgressions that occurred before the coastal sand barrier’s formation. Results of the Bayesian skyline plot showed a recent population expansion detected in C. heterophylla seems to be related to an increase in temperature and humidity that occurred at the beginning of the Holocene. Conclusions The geographic clades have been formed when the coastal plain was deeply dissected by paleochannels and these correlate very well with the distributional limits of the clades. The four major sea transgressions formed a series of four sand barriers parallel to the coast that progressively increased the availability of coastal areas after the regressions and that may have promoted the geographic structuring of genetic diversity observed today. The recent population expansion for the entire species may be linked with the event of marine regression after the most recent sea transgression at ~5 kya. PMID:23987105

  10. 2007 The Authors Journal compilation 2007 The Royal Entomological Society

    E-print Network

    Elkinton, Joseph

    that settle on the branch and Factors affecting settlement rate of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, U.S.A. Abstract 1 We assessed the importance of several factors the succes

  11. 101Northwest Science, Vol. 83, No. 2, 2009 2009 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Smith, Dan

    were woody plants and included mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), white mountain-heather (Cassiope mertensiana) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) in order of cover percentage. Thirty-nine vascular plant

  12. Distribution of 15N Tracers Applied to the Canopy of a Mature Spruce-Hemlock Stand: Implications for Carbon Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E.; Dail, D. B.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Davidson, E.; Sievering, H.; Scott, N.; Fernandez, I.; Aber, J.; Gaige, E.

    2007-12-01

    Fertilization, through increases in N deposition, can enhance plant growth and thus impact other elemental cycles including that of carbon. However, in many N fertilization experiments chemical amendments are added to soils, making soils and not plants the short term recipient of additional N (years to decades). In 2001, a dissolved fertilizer addition of 18 kg N/ha to a 21 ha plot in a Maine spruce-hemlock forest was initiated to investigate the importance of canopy N processes and impacts on C sequestration. In smaller subplots (0.3 ha), additional N inputs were made with tracer levels of enriched N, as either 15NH4+ or 15NO3-. Ecosystem pools, canopy gaseous N losses, and dissolved N fluxes in the 15N subplots were analyzed to determine ecosystem N retention and estimate the impact on C sequestration. Ecosystem retention of 15NH4+ and 15NO3- was 38% and 70% respectively, much of this (~75%) was recovered in the canopy, yet little N (<5%) was recovered in woody matter with a high C:N ratio. Despite a large canopy N retention potential in this forest, C sequestration into new wood growth was ~4-5 g C m-2 y-1 or about 2% above the current net annual C sequestration for this site after 3 years of fertilization.

  13. Ganoderma tsugae Extract Inhibits Growth of HER2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells via Modulation of HER2/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Han-Peng; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Ou, Chien-Chih; Li, Jhy-Wei; Tseng, Hsiu-Hsueh; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Liu, Jah-Yao; Chen, Shih-Jung; Su, Muh-Hwan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chou, Wei-Yuan; Kao, Ming-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma, also known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries for centuries. It is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological properties including immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which Ganoderma tsugae (GT), one of the most common species of Ganoderma, inhibits the proliferation of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Here, we show that a quality assured extract of GT (GTE) inhibited the growth of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of antitumor drugs (e.g., taxol and cisplatin) in these cells. We also demonstrate that GTE induced cell cycle arrest by interfering with the HER2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, GTE curtailed the expression of the HER2 protein by modulating the transcriptional activity of the HER2 gene and the stability/degradation of the HER2 protein. In conclusion, this study suggests that GTE may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer cells that highly express HER2. PMID:23662119

  14. Ganoderma tsugae Extract Inhibits Growth of HER2-Overexpressing Cancer Cells via Modulation of HER2/PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Han-Peng; Hsu, Shih-Chung; Li, Jhy-Wei; Tseng, Hsiu-Hsueh; Chuang, Tzu-Chao; Liu, Jah-Yao; Chen, Shih-Jung; Su, Muh-Hwan; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Chou, Wei-Yuan; Kao, Ming-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Ganoderma, also known as Lingzhi or Reishi, has been used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries for centuries. It is a medicinal fungus with a variety of biological properties including immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which Ganoderma tsugae (GT), one of the most common species of Ganoderma, inhibits the proliferation of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Here, we show that a quality assured extract of GT (GTE) inhibited the growth of HER2-overexpressing cancer cells in vitro and in vivo and enhanced the growth-inhibitory effect of antitumor drugs (e.g., taxol and cisplatin) in these cells. We also demonstrate that GTE induced cell cycle arrest by interfering with the HER2/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, GTE curtailed the expression of the HER2 protein by modulating the transcriptional activity of the HER2 gene and the stability/degradation of the HER2 protein. In conclusion, this study suggests that GTE may be a useful adjuvant therapeutic agent in the treatment of cancer cells that highly express HER2. PMID:23662119

  15. Correspondence of pollen assemblages with forest zones across steep

    E-print Network

    Gavin, Daniel G.

    (Abies and Picea) or high elevation ranges (Tsuga mertensiana and Alnus sinuata). Tsuga heterophylla with the modern analogue technique must be calibrated for each vegetation zone. This study indicates that pollen and the close proximity of neighbouring forest zones. Key words: Climate, palynology, modern pollen calibration

  16. Toxicosis in dairy cattle exposed to poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) in hay: isolation of Conium alkaloids in plants, hay, and urine.

    PubMed

    Galey, F D; Holstege, D M; Fisher, E G

    1992-01-01

    Cattle in two herds developed signs of bloating, increased salivation and lacrimation, depression, respiratory distress, ataxia, and death after ingestion of hay that contained large amounts of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). Twenty of 30 Angus cows and calves were affected in the first herd (2 died). In the second herd, 5 of 30 Holstein heifers were affected (1 died). The Conium alkaloids, coniine and gamma-coniceine, were quantified in the hay, the plants from the responsible hayfield, and the urine of affected animals. PMID:1554771

  17. Upper petal lip colour polymorphism in Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): genetic basis within a population and its use as a genetic marker.

    PubMed

    Lankinen, Asa

    2009-08-01

    Understanding the genetics of a polymorphic trait is important to predict its likely evolution. In Collinsia heterophylla, the upper petal lip colour can be either be white or white with a purple band, while the lower petal lip colour is invariably purple. Because the corolla is only partly polymorphic, the polymorphism can not have evolved due to a mutation where a pigment was lost in the entire plant, which is common in other polymorphic species. In a previous study, high frequency of the purple band was found in populations with darker flowers, indicating possible selection for this trait. In this study, I determined inheritance of the colour polymorphism using two populations (one with only white morph and other with both morphs). I conducted experimental crosses within and between floral morphs to determine whether patterns of segregation in offspring conform to single-gene predictions. Data from F1, F2, F3 and backcross progeny are consistent with a genetic model of one major locus with presence of the band being completely dominant, as indicated in earlier studies using distantly related populations. A novel finding in this study was that the two morphs did not show a difference in seed germination frequency or seedling survival. This trait can thus be valuable as a genetic marker. Even though more thorough ecological data are needed to understand the potential selection pressures on upper petal lip colour in C. heterophylla, its simple inheritance may indicate the possibility of fast evolutionary response to selective forces acting on this trait. PMID:19700859

  18. Oenothera heterophylla (Native) 2 

    E-print Network

    James R. Manhart

    2011-08-10

    in the Texas SIP. The Laboratory will continue to provide superior technology to the State of Texas through such efforts with the TCEQ and the US EPA. OSD NOx Reduction Levels (All ERCOT) 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 2005 Cum. 2006 Cum. 2007 Cum. 2008..., and Mr. Eduardo Rameriez. August 2007 Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University System 2006 TERP Report, Vol. II, p. 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...

  19. A Comparative Toxicity Assessment of Materials Used in Aquatic Construction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benoit A. Lalonde; William Ernst; Gary Julien; Paula Jackman; Ken Doe; Rebecca Schaefer

    Comparative toxicity testing was performed on selected materials that may be used in aquatic construction projects. The tests\\u000a were conducted on the following materials: (1) untreated wood species (hemlock [Tsuga ssp], Western red cedar (Thuja plicata), red oak [Quercus rubra], Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii], red pine [Pinus resinosa], and tamarack [Larix ssp]); (2) plastic wood; (3) Ecothermo wood hemlock stakes

  20. An endophytic Coniochaeta velutina producing broad spectrum antimycotics.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jie; Strobel, Gary A; Feng, Tao; Ren, Huishuang; Mends, Morgan T; Zhou, Zeyang; Geary, Brad

    2015-06-01

    An endophyte (PC27-5) was isolated from stem tissue of Western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) in a Pacific Northwest temperate rainforest. Phylogenetic analyses, based on ITS-5.8S rDNA and 18S rDNA sequence data, combined with cultural and morphological analysis showed that endophyte PC27-5 exhibited all characteristics of a fungus identical to Coniochaeta velutina. Furthermore, wide spectrum antimycotics were produced by this endophyte that were active against such plant pathogens as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Pythium ultimum, and Verticillium dahliae and lethal to Phythophthora cinnamomi, Pythium ultimum, and Phytophthora palmivora in plate tests. The bioactive components were purified through organic solvent extraction, followed by silica column chromatography, and finally preparative HPLC. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the active fraction to Pythium ultimum, which was gained from preparative HPLC, was 11 ?g/ml. UPLC-HRMS analysis showed there were two similar components in the antimycotic fraction. Their molecular formulae were established as C30H22O11 (compound I) and C30H22O10 (compound II) respectively, and preliminary spectral results indicate that they are anthroquinone glycosides. Other non-biologically active compounds were identified in culture fluids of this fungus by spectral means as emodin and chrysophanol - anthroquinone derivatives. This is the first report that Coniochaeta velutina as an endophyte produces bioactive antifungal components. PMID:26025171

  1. ACID FOG EFFECTS ON CONIFER SEEDLINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to assess the effects of acid fog on foliar injury, biomass production, and nutrient leaching in selected conifers. ne-year old seedlings of Pseudotsuga menzieii, Pinus ponderosa, Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata were exposed episodically to fog eve...

  2. 13 C content of ecosystem respiration is linked to precipitation and vapor pressure deficit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Bowling; Nate G. McDowell; Barbara J. Bond; Beverly E. Law; James R. Ehleringer

    2002-01-01

    Variation in the carbon isotopic composition of ecosystem respiration (ཉCR) was studied for 3 years along a precipitation gradient in western Oregon, USA, using the Keeling plot approach. Study sites included six coniferous forests, dominated by Picea sitchensis, Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus ponderosa, and Juniperus occidentalis, and ranged in location from the Pacific coast to the eastern side of

  3. 13 C content of ecosystem respiration is linked to precipitation and vapor pressure deficit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Bowling; Nate G. McDowell; Barbara J. Bond; Beverly E. Law; James R. Ehleringer

    2002-01-01

    Variation in the carbon isotopic composition of ecosystem respiration (?13CR) was studied for 3 years along a precipitation gradient in western Oregon, USA, using the Keeling plot approach. Study sites included six coniferous forests, dominated by Picea sitchensis, Tsuga heterophylla, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus ponderosa, and Juniperus occidentalis, and ranged in location from the Pacific coast to the eastern side of

  4. Plant Communities Growing on Boulders in the Allegheny National Forest: Evidence for Boulders as Refugia from Deer and as a Bioassay of Overbrowsing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter P. Carson; Joshua A. Banta; Alejandro A. Royo; Chad Kirschbaum

    Deer have been overabundant throughout much of Pennsylvania since at least the 1940's. We compared plant communities in the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) on boulder tops and the forest floor to test the hypothesis that large boulders serve as refugia for plants threatened by deer herbivory. Five of the ten most common woody species (hemlock, Tsuga canadensis L., mountain maple,

  5. Dendrochronological Mass Balance Reconstruction, Strathcona Provincial Park, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Lewis; Dan Smith

    2004-01-01

    A long-term proxy record of glacier mass balance was developed for Colonel Foster and Septimus glaciers on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. This was accomplished by analyzing the radial growth characteristics of climatically-sensitive mountain hemlock trees (Tsuga mertensiana), and by comparing this response with mass balance records from four glaciers in the Pacific Northwest. A strong (negative) relationship between the

  6. Dendrochronological Mass Balance Reconstruction, Strathcona Provincial Park, Vancouver Island, Briti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Lewis

    A long-term proxy record of glacier mass balance was developed for Colonel Foster and Septimus glaciers on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. This was accomplished by analyzing the radial growth characteristics of climatically-sensitive mountain hemlock trees (Tsuga mertensiana), and by comparing this response with mass balance records from four glaciers in the Pacific Northwest. A strong (negative) relationship between the

  7. 6. Perspective view of the south facade of the mansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Perspective view of the south facade of the mansion and the south lawn, from the southeast. (more distant view). The view includes manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an annual flower bed, white pine (Pinus strobus) and white birch (Betula species). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  8. 49. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion and the east lawn, from the northeast. The view includes manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an annual flower bed, white pine (Pinus strobus), white birch (Betula species), and Norway spruce (Picea abies). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  9. 4. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion and the east lawn, from the northeast (more distant view). The view includes manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an annual flower bed, white pine (Pinus strobus) and white birch (Betula species). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  10. 5. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Perspective view of the east facade of the mansion and the east lawn, from the northeast (less distant view). The view includes manicured hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), an annual flower bed, white pine (Pinus strobus), white birch (Betula species), and Norway spruce (Picea abies). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  11. Nitrogen cycling in a northern hardwood forest: Do species matter?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M. Lovett; Kathleen C. Weathers; Mary A. Arthur; Jack C. Schultz

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the influence of individual tree species on nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, we measured key characteristics of the N cycle in small single-species plots of five dominant tree species in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The species studied were sugar maple (Acer saccharum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), and

  12. 1. View of rustic summer houses at pedestrian pathway entrance ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of rustic summer houses at pedestrian pathway entrance to the southern edge of the mansion grounds. The view illustrates significant grade change and includes rustic stone retaining walls, recently re-planted hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis), and canopy of mature Norway spruces (Picea abies). - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  13. Deer impacts on forest ecosystems: a North American perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Rooney

    2001-01-01

    Summary White-tailed deer have increased in abundance and expanded their geographic range in North America over the past century, and now exist at higher densities than they have in the past several hundred years. This is having numerous impacts on the forest ecosystems they inhabit. Regional recruitment failure of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) trees

  14. 19221 ~e'cordsof Hymenopterous Parasites in Pennsylvania. 95 RECORDS OF HYMENOPTEROUS PARASITES IN

    E-print Network

    flying around and alighting on dying hemlock Tsuga canademis. Upon cutting into the bark a heavy infesta and alighting on cut white pine (Pinus strobus) infested by Scolytoids and Cerambycids. Pammegischia burquei Acer rubrum. Adults fly during May. Macrocentrus delicatus Cress. (Det*.Vier.). Willow Street? Pa

  15. Characterization of an Endophytic Gloeosporium sp. and Its Novel Bioactivity with "Synergistans".

    PubMed

    Schaible, George A; Strobel, Gary A; Mends, Morgan Tess; Geary, Brad; Sears, Joe

    2015-07-01

    Gloeosporium sp. (OR-10) was isolated as an endophyte of Tsuga heterophylla (Western hemlock). Both ITS and 18S sequence analyses indicated that the organism best fits either Hypocrea spp. or Trichoderma spp., but neither of these organisms possess conidiophores associated with acervuli, in which case the endophytic isolate OR-10 does. Therefore, the preferred taxonomic assignment was primarily based on the morphological features of the organism as one belonging to the genus Gloeosporium sp. These taxonomic observations clearly point out that limited ITS and 18S sequence information can be misleading when solely used in making taxonomic assignments. The volatile phase of this endophyte was active against a number of plant pathogenic fungi including Phytophthora palmivora, Rhizoctonia solani, Ceratocystis ulmi, Botrytis cinerea, and Verticillium dahliae. Among several terpenes and furans, the most abundantly produced compound in the volatile phase was 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one, a compound possessing antimicrobial activities. When used in conjunction with microliter amounts of any in a series of esters or isobutyric acid, an enhanced inhibitory response occurred with each test fungus that was greater than that exhibited by Gloeosporium sp. or the compounds tested individually. Compounds behaving in this manner are hereby designated "synergistans." An expression of the "median synergistic effect," under prescribed conditions, has been termed the mSE50. This value describes the amount of a potential synergistan that is required to yield an additional median 50 % inhibition of a target organism. In this report, the mSE50s are reported for a series of esters and isobutyric acid. The results indicated that isoamyl acetate, allyl acetate, and isobutyric acid generally possessed the lowest mSE50 values. The value and potential importance of these microbial synergistic effects to the microbial environment are also discussed. PMID:25501886

  16. Holocene vegetational history of the Kootenai River Valley, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Richard N.; Rutter, N. W.; Valastro, S.

    1983-09-01

    Pollen records in the Kootenai and Fisher River drainages in western Montana reveal a fivezone sequence of Holocene vegetation change. Deposition of Glacier Peak Ash-Layer G (ca. 10,540 ± 660 yr B.P.) in the lowermost sediments (clay intermixed with pebbles) at Tepee Lake gives a minimum date for the initiation of sedimentation. Initial vegetation on the newly deglaciated terrain was dominated by Pinus (probably white bark pine) with small amounts of Gramineae, Picea and Abies, reflecting a relatively cool, moist macroclimate. Two vegetation units appear to contribute to Pollen Zone II (ca. 11,000-7100 yr B.P.): arboreal communities with pines, along with Pseudotsuga or Larix, or both, and treeless vegetation dominated by Artemisia. Pollen Zone II represents an overall warmer macroclimate than occurred upon ice withdrawal. After ca. 7100 yr B.P. (Pollen Zone III) diploxylon pines became a major pollen contributor near both Tepee Lake and McKillop Creek Pond, indicating an expansion of xerophytic forest ( P. contorta and P. ponderosa) along with an increase in the prominence of Pseudotsuga menziesii or Larix occidentalis, or both. Artemisia briefly expanded coverage near Tepee Lake concomitant with the Mazama ashfall ca. 6700 yr B.P. A short-term climatic trend with more available water began after ca. 4000 yr B.P. as Abies (probably A. grandis) along with Picea engelmannii became a more regular component of the forest surrounding both sites. Emergence of the modern macroclimate is indicated primarily with the first regular appearance of Tsuga heterophylla in the pollen record by ca. 2700 yr B.P., synchronous with the development of western hemlock forest within the same latitudes in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington.

  17. A 26,600 yr record of climate and vegetation from Rice Lake in the Eel River drainage of the northern California Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rice Lake, (40'41" N; 123'30" W, 1109 m elev.) lies in the transition zone of the precipitation dipole in the western United States, which is reflected by the present vegetation - a mosaic of mesic northern mixed hardwood-evergreen forests (Quercus spp., Pinus spp., Calocedrus/Juniperus) and more arid southern oak foothill woodlands (Quercus spp.) that borders the westernmost edge of coastal redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) forest. The site, which lies on the active Lake Mountain fault zone, is now a large (~15 ha) sagpond that dries in summer. Between ~26,600 yr - ~15,000 yr, a permanent lake with aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) occupied the core site. Montane conifer forests, with pine (Pinus, spp.), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), spruce (Picea spp), and western hemlock (T. heterophylla) covered the region. Climatic parameters of modern montane coniferous forest and the continued presence of aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) suggest higher precipitation and lower temperatures during the last glacial. Charcoal (fire event frequency) was minimal. Rapid oscillations of oak, the riparian alder (Alnus), pine, Cupressaceae (Juniperus, Calocedrus), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeii), and fir (Abies) characterize the deglacial, and reflect rapid changes in precipitation and temperatures, e.g, Bølling-Allerød warming and Younger Dryas cooling. Between ~15,000 yr and ~13,000 yr, aquatic vegetation of the lake abruptly decreased. Expansion of oak, tanoak (Lithocarpus), shrubs (cf. Ceanothus) and decline of pine and montane conifers, along with the development of marshes with Typha and Cyperaceae on the former lakebed, imply early Holocene warming and decreasing precipitation. This is supported by an increase in charcoal, which is attributed to forest fires. Between ~5,000 yr - ~6,000 yr, a short interval of increased precipitation (inferred from a peak in alder and decrease in Cupressaceae) initiates the development of modern mixed hardwood-evergreen forest. Correlative data from terrestrial and marine climate proxies from a core located 33 km off the mouth of the Eel River, (TN062 0550, 40.9°N, 124.6°W, 569 m water depth) suggest that ENSO-like conditions typified the Holocene.

  18. Structure and dynamics of an ancient montane forest in coastal British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Parish; Joseph A. Antos

    2004-01-01

    Old-growth forests are common in the snowy, montane environments of coastal western North America. To examine dynamics of a stand containing four canopy tree species ( Abies amabilis, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Tsuga mertensiana and T. heterophylla), we used four stem-mapped, 50 m ×50 m plots. From measurements of annual rings, we obtained ages from basal discs of 1,336 live trees, developed master chronologies

  19. Organic nitrogen use by salal ericoid mycorrhizal fungi from northern Vancouver Island and impacts on growth in vitro of Gaultheria shallon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoping Xiao; S. M. Berch

    1999-01-01

    Salal (Gaultheria shallon) recovers quickly from rhizomes after clear-cut timber harvesting and dominates clearcuts of Tsuga heterophylla and Thuja plicata forests. Thus it contributes to considerable problems in regeneration of these sites in coastal British Columbia, Canada.\\u000a Based on what is known about other ericaceous plants, we speculated that mycorrhizal fungi of salal play a vital role in the\\u000a growth

  20. Predicted short-term radial-growth changes of trees based on past climate on Vancouver Island, Briti

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin P. Laroque; Dan J. Smith

    Tree-ring radial expansion estimator (TREE) is an integrated radial growth model that allows users to define short-term climate change scenarios to anticipate the impact upon mature trees found growing at high elevation on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Five individualistic models were built to represent the radial growth behaviour of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong. ) Carr), yellow-cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis (D.

  1. 2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View from the mansion formal entrance driveway toward the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum. The driveway is flanked by granite gateposts surmounted by wrought iron urn lamps. The view includes a manicured hemlock hedge (Tsuga canadensis) retained by a stone wall at left, and white birch (Betula species) under-planted with ferns at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  2. Lags in vegetation response to greenhouse warming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret B. Davis

    1989-01-01

    Fossil pollen in sediments documents vegetation responses to climatic changes in the past. Beech (Fagus grandifolia), with animal-dispersed seeds, moved across Lake Michigan or around its southern margin, becoming established in Wisconsin about 1000 years after populations were established in Michigan. Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), with wind-dispersed seeds, colonized a 50,000 km2 area in northern Michigan between 6000 and 5000 years

  3. Doreen Hemlock, Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel, 2004.10.21

    E-print Network

    Bernstein, Daniel

    and write any user's file. #12;Another setuid security hole Bug announced 2004.08 by Max Vozeler. /dev/cdrom reads CD-ROMs, reads and writes CD-RWs. cdrecord is a setuid program so that it can write to /dev/cdrom process to undo setuid(getuid()). (BSD doesn't.) Say cd user owns /dev/cdrom and cdrecord is setuid cd

  4. Invasive insect effects on nitrogen cycling and host physiology are not tightly linked.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Lucy; Charles, Sherley; Sirulnik, Abby G; Tuininga, Amy R; Lewis, James D

    2015-02-01

    Invasive insects may dramatically alter resource cycling and productivity in forest ecosystems. Yet, although responses of individual trees should both reflect and affect ecosystem-scale responses, relationships between physiological- and ecosystem-scale responses to invasive insects have not been extensively studied. To address this issue, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) cycling, N uptake and allocation, and needle biochemistry and physiology in eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L) Carr) saplings, associated with infestation by the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) (Adelges tsugae Annand), an invasive insect causing widespread decline of eastern hemlock in the eastern USA. Compared with uninfested saplings, infested saplings had soils that exhibited faster nitrification rates, and more needle (15)N uptake, N and total protein concentrations. However, these variables did not clearly covary. Further, within infested saplings, needle N concentration did not vary with HWA density. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rates (Asat) declined by 42% as HWA density increased from 0 to 3 adelgids per needle, but did not vary with needle N concentration. Rather, Asat varied with stomatal conductance, which was highest at the lowest HWA density and accounted for 79% of the variation in Asat. Photosynthetic light response did not differ among HWA densities. Our results suggest that the effects of HWA infestation on soil N pools and fluxes, (15)N uptake, needle N and protein concentrations, and needle physiology may not be tightly coupled under at least some conditions. This pattern may reflect direct effects of the HWA on N uptake by host trees, as well as effects of other scale-dependent factors, such as tree hydrology, affected by HWA activity. PMID:25721368

  5. Reconstruction of annual temperature (1590?1979) for Longmire, Washington, derived from tree rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graumlich, Lisa J.; Brubaker, Linda B.

    1986-03-01

    Annual growth records from trees at timberline in the Cascade Range of Washington are correlated with variations in temperature and snow depth and used to reconstruct climatic variation in the past. Response surfaces indicate that growth of mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) and subalpine larch ( Larix lyallii) is positively correlated with summer (July to September) temperature and negatively correlated with spring (March) snow depth when snow depth is at or below average. During years of above average snow depth, temperature has little effect on mountain hemlock but has a negative effect on growth in subalpine larch. These interactions make it difficult to reconstruct these climatic variables separately using standard methods. Mean annual temperature values, which combine information on both summer temperature and spring snow depth, were estimated from a regression model that reconstructs past temperature at Longmire, Washington, as a function of larch and hemlock tree-ring chronologies. The reconstruction of mean annual temperature shows temperatures between 1590 and 1900 to be approximately 1°C lower than those of the 20th century. Only during a short period from 1650 to 1690 did temperatures approach 20th-century values.

  6. Controls on Nitrogen Retention and Loss in Urban and Rural Forest Ecosystems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templer, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and production of fertilizer, have increased the amount of nitrogen deposited onto terrestrial ecosystems. In addition to changes in atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, other human-induced disturbances have led to dramatic shifts in forest composition of the United States over the last 100 years. Tree species composition of many forests is changing in response to introduced pests and pathogens, competition with introduced plant species and changes in climate. Understanding the combined effects of increased nitrogen inputs and changes in plant species composition on forest nitrogen cycling is critical to our understanding of forest biogeochemistry and nutrient budgets. Despite several decades of research on the effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, there is still significant uncertainty about the factors that regulate nitrogen retention and loss in forest ecosystems. The use of natural abundance stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen has proven to be a powerful tool for tracing the sources of nitrate in water, from inputs to leaching, as it moves through an ecosystem. The evaluation of natural abundance nitrogen values in atmospheric deposition has been used to partition sources of nitrogen, such as coal-fired power plants vs. tailpipe exhaust, since each of their isotopic signatures is distinct. Similarly, natural abundance oxygen values of nitrate in atmospheric inputs and soil leachate have been used as a tool to partition sources of nitrate between precipitation and nitrate produced microbially during nitrification. We measured the natural abundance isotopic composition of nitrate to quantify rates of nitrogen inputs to the forest and to determine rates of nitrogen losses from healthy, declining and preemptively cut eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) stands in both an urban forest at the Arnold Arboretum in Boston, MA, and a rural forest at Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand), an introduced aphid-like insect from Japan, threatens hemlock stands throughout the eastern United States. The hemlock woolly adelgid was first reported in forests of the eastern United States in the early 1950s and is currently leading to mortality of eastern hemlock trees from Georgia to Massachusetts. We found that rates of nitrogen inputs to the forest floor were 4-5 times greater, and rates of nitrogen losses via leachate were more than ten times greater, at the Arnold Arboretum compared to Harvard Forest. Our results also show that current management regimes used to control the hemlock woolly adelgid, such as salvage cutting, may be reducing nitrogen losses in urban areas due to rapid regrowth of vegetation and the associated uptake of nitrogen by those plants. In contrast, cutting of trees in rural areas may be leading to proportionately greater losses of nitrogen in those sites, though the total magnitude of nitrogen lost is still smaller than in urban sites. Results of this study suggest that the combination of the hemlock woolly adelgid, atmospheric nitrogen inputs and management practices lead to changes in the nitrogen cycle within eastern hemlock forest ecosystems.

  7. Three-dimensional Structure of an Old-growth Pseudotsuga-tsuga

    E-print Network

    Chen, Jiquan

    Jiquan Chen,4 Robert Van Pelt,5 Stuart B. Weiss,6 Sean C. Thomas,7 William E. Winner,8 David C. Shaw,9 for Radiation Balance, Microclimate, and Gas Exchange Geoffrey G. Parker,1* Mark E. Harmon,2 Michael A. Lefsky,3, California 94025, USA; 7 Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3B3, Canada; 8

  8. 6000-year record of forest history on Mount Rainier, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Dunwiddie, P.W.

    1986-02-01

    Sediments in three ponds between 1300 - 1500 m on the south side of Mt. Rainier were examined for plant macrofossils and pollen. Macrofossils of seral species such as Abies lasiocarpa, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Pinus monticola, Abies procera, and Pinus contorta are conspicuous from 6000 to 3400 BP. These species suggest a climate that was warmer/drier than today and favored frequent fires. Neoglacial cooling may have begun 3700-3400 BP, as species typical of higher elevations became prominent; a decline in seral species after 3400 BP suggests less frequent fires. In the last 100 yr, Tsuga heterophylla became abundant and then declined at the highest elevation site. General trends in pollen percentages are similar to the macrofossil curves. Tephra deposition from Mt. Rainier and Mt. St. Helens did not produce conspicuous changes in forest composition. Few major fires are evident from charcoal and macrofossils at these sites.

  9. Quantifying residue after an intermediate harvest of a second-growth redwood stand

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, R.A.; Henry, N.

    1985-01-01

    Logging residue at least 1.5 inches in diameter and 4 ft long was sampled in 1982, 6 yr after a harvest removing 40% of the b.a. (365 squared ft/acre) from a 90-yr-old second-growth stand in California. Historically, the stand was dominated by old growth Sequoia sempervirens, with Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies grandis, Tsuga heterophylla and some Pinus muricata. Calble logging produced 844 cubic ft/acre of residue, 22% more than tractor logging (554 cubic ft/acre), possibly because of crushing and breakage by tractors during skidding. It is concluded that low volume and present markets make it uneconomical to use residues for building materials or fuel. 9 references.

  10. A 14,000 year vegetation history of a hypermaritime island on the outer Pacific coast of Canada based on fossil pollen, spores and conifer stomata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Delepine, J. Michelle; Hoffman, Elizabeth H.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2012-11-01

    Pollen and conifer stomata analyses of lake sediments from Hippa Island on the north coast of British Columbia were used to reconstruct the vegetation history of this small hypermaritime island. Between 14,000 and 13,230 cal yr BP, the island supported diverse herb-shrub communities dominated by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix. Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis stomata indicate that these conifers were present among the herb-shrub communities, likely as scattered individuals. Transition to open P. contorta woodland by 13,000 cal yr BP was followed by increases in Alnus viridis, Alnus rubra and P. sitchensis. After 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus-dominated communities were replaced by dense P. sitchensis and Tsuga heterophylla forest with Lysichiton americanus and fern understory. Thuja plicata stomata indicate that this species was present by 8700 cal yr BP, but the pollen record suggests that its populations did not expand to dominate regional rainforests, along with Tsuga and Picea, until after 6600 cal yr BP. Conifer stomata indicate that species may be locally present for hundreds to thousands of years before pollen exceed thresholds routinely used to infer local species arrival. When combined, pollen and conifer stomata can provide a more accurate record of paleovegetation than either when used alone.

  11. 76 FR 81475 - Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78 Applications for Subzone Authority Dow Corning Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ...Authority Dow Corning Corporation, Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation and Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C.; Notice of Public Hearing...63282-63283, 10/12/2011), the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation facility in Hemlock,...

  12. 77 FR 30500 - Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78, Applications for Subzone Authority, Dow Corning Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ...Authority, Dow Corning Corporation, Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation, and Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C.; Reopening of Comment Periods...63283, 10/12/2011), at the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation facility in Hemlock,...

  13. 77 FR 21082 - Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78, Applications for Subzone Authority Dow Corning Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ...Authority Dow Corning Corporation, Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation, and Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C.; Reopening of Rebuttal Periods...63283, 10/12/2011), at the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation facility in Hemlock,...

  14. 76 FR 76934 - Foreign-Trade Zones 140 and 78; Applications for Subzone Authority; Dow Corning Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ...Authority; Dow Corning Corporation, Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation and Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C.; Extension of Comment Periods...October 12, 2011), at the Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation facility in Hemlock,...

  15. Climate, geography, and tree establishment in subalpine meadows of the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Schreiner, Edward G.; Silsbee, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    Noticeable changes in vegetation distribution have occurred in the Pacific Northwest during the last century as trees have established in some subalpine meadows. To study the relationship of this process to climate, recently established trees were aged in six subalpine meadows in the Olympic Mountains, Washington. The sites represent three points along a steep precipitation gradient. Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) has been establishing at the dry end of the gradient, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) at the wet end, and both species in the center. Establishment patterns were compared with deviations from the century-long average for these weather variables: winter precipitation, Palmer Drought Severity Index, and winter, October, and May temperatures. Results show that establishment occurred in dry areas when weather conditions were wetter than average, and in wet areas under drier than average conditions. Establishment at central sites did not show consistent relationships with climate. If future climatic conditions continue to warm, establishment of subalpine fir in subalpine meadows in dry areas may cease and mountain hemlock may resume in wet areas.

  16. Genetic evaluation of alternative silvicultural systems in coastal montane forests: western hemlock and amabilis fir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. A. El-Kassaby; B. G. Dunsworth; J. Krakowski

    2003-01-01

    Genetic diversity and mating system were quantified for shelterwood, patch cut and green tree-retention silvicultural systems, and compared to adjacent old-growth. This is a component of a larger study conducted in montane old-growth forests of coastal British Columbia to evaluate the feasibility and ecological consequences of alternative silvicultural systems. The experiment includes replicated treatments representing a range of overstory removal

  17. A novel toxic alkaloid from poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum L., Apiaceae): Identification, synthesis and antinociceptive activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niko Radulovi?; Nevenka ?or?evi?; Marija Deni?; Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro; Patricia Dias Fernandes; Fabio Boylan

    2-Pentylpiperidine, named conmaculatin, a novel volatile alkaloid related to coniine was identified from the renowned toxic weed Conium maculatum L. (Apiaceae). The structure of conmaculatin was corroborated by synthesis (8 steps starting from cyclohexanol, overall yield 12%). Conmaculatin’s strong peripheral and central antinociceptive activity in mice was observed in a narrow dose range (10–20mg\\/kg). It was found to be lethal

  18. A novel toxic alkaloid from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L., Apiaceae): identification, synthesis and antinociceptive activity.

    PubMed

    Radulovi?, Niko; Dor?evi?, Nevenka; Deni?, Marija; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Fernandes, Patricia Dias; Boylan, Fabio

    2012-02-01

    2-Pentylpiperidine, named conmaculatin, a novel volatile alkaloid related to coniine was identified from the renowned toxic weed Conium maculatum L. (Apiaceae). The structure of conmaculatin was corroborated by synthesis (8 steps starting from cyclohexanol, overall yield 12%). Conmaculatin's strong peripheral and central antinociceptive activity in mice was observed in a narrow dose range (10-20mg/kg). It was found to be lethal in doses higher than 20mg/kg. PMID:22063758

  19. Induction of cleft palate in newborn pigs by maternal ingestion of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum).

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Buck, W B

    1985-06-01

    Cleft palates were induced in newborn pigs of gilts fed Conium maculatum seed or plant during gestation days 30 through 45. Twelve of 23 newborn pigs born to 3 gilts given Utah-grown C maculatum seed and 9 of 12 newborn pigs born to a single gilt given the fresh Utah spring-growth C maculatum plant had cleft palates. The cleft palates ranged from a unilateral cleft, involving only 1 side of the palate, to a full bilateral cleft. Brachygnathia was also observed in some of these newborn pigs with cleft palate. Other malformations were not observed. Chemical analysis of seed and plant samples indicated that gamma-coniceine was the responsible teratogenic alkaloid. A daily dose of plant or seed that provided greater than or equal to 1.07 mg of gamma-coniceine/kg of body weight fed to gilts during the 30th through the 45th day of pregnancy resulted in teratogenic effects. PMID:4026015

  20. Windthrow and salvage logging in an old-growth hemlock-northern hardwoods forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharyn D. Lang; Lisa A. Schulte; Glenn R. Guntenspergen

    2009-01-01

    Although the initial response to salvage (also known as, post-disturbance or sanitary) logging is known to vary among system components, little is known about longer term forest recovery. We examine forest overstory, understory, soil, and microtopographic response 25 years after a 1977 severe wind disturbance on the Flambeau River State Forest in Wisconsin, USA, a portion of which was salvage

  1. Canopy gaps facilitate establishment, growth, and reproduction of invasive Frangula alnus in a Tsuga canadensis dominated forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharine M. Burnham; Thomas D. Lee

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the exotic, invasive shrub, glossy buckthorn (Frangula alnus), is more abundant in canopy gaps created by logging than in uncut forests. Secondary objectives were to determine whether\\u000a buckthorn abundance in gaps is related to gap size, and whether or not buckthorn exhibits advanced regeneration. The abundance\\u000a of glossy buckthorn was

  2. Pistillate flower development and pollen tube growth mode during the delayed fertilization stage in Corylus heterophylla Fisch.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Huidi; Cheng, Yunqing; Kafkas, Salih; Güney, Murat

    2014-09-01

    Unlike most angiosperms, in which fertilization occurs within several days after pollination, fertilization in hazel (Corylus Spp.) is delayed by two to three and a half months. However, the female inflorescences or young fruits are too hard or lignified to be dissected according to regular paraffin sectioning technique. So, what the nature of development during the extended progamic phases of hazel remains unknown. The female inflorescence development and pollen tube growth mode during the delayed fertilization stage in hazel were investigated by improved paraffin sectioning and aniline blue staining of pollen tubes. The results showed ovaries and ovules of hazel were invisible at the time of blooming. Early ovary and ovule primordium began to form from 15 to 20 days after blooming, respectively. Integument and mature embryo sacs differentiated from the nucellus on 40th and 55th day after blooming, respectively. Pollen tubes were retarded in the bottom of the style or the pollen tube cavity (PTC, a specifical lignified cavity structure at the bottom of style for pollen tube to rest during progamic phase) for about 26 days. Then, the pollen tubes were observed to leave the PTC and began to enter the ovary. After that, a single pollen tube passed through the vicinity of the micropyle. Finally, pollen tubes turned a corner and penetrated the embryo sac through the tissue of the chalaza instead of micropyle on 52 and 55 days after blooming, respectively. The results of more in-depth information will be beneficial to better understanding of the delayed fertilization process in hazel. PMID:25073757

  3. Interactions of Carbon Gain and Nitrogen Addition in a Temperate Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzaz, F. A.

    2001-12-01

    In plants, carbon and nitrogen are intimately related. The plant gains carbon using nitrogen because it is a major constituent of both the light reaction (chlorophyll) and dark reaction (Rubisco and PEP carboxylase). The plant also gains more nitrogen by using carbon to grow roots that can forage for nitrogen, especially the less mobile (NH4+). Rising CO2 and increased nitrogen deposition are important elements of global change, both of which may affect ecosystem structure and function. They may cause a particularly large shift in species composition in systems where contrasting groups of species co-occur, e.g. evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved tree species. We studied the impact of nitrogen deposition in a mixed forest in central Massachusetts (Harvard Forest). We found that the early-successional broad-leaved species, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and red maple (Acer rubrum), both showed large increases in biomass, while the late successional species sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and all the coniferous species, hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), red spruce (Picea rubens) and white pine (Pinus strobus), only showed slight increases. As a result, when these species wre grown together, there was a decrease in species diversity. There was a significant correlation between species growth rate and the growth enhancement following nitrogen addition. We used SORTIE, a spatially explicit forest model to speculate about the future of this community. In both hemlock and red oak stands, nitrogen deposition led to shift in forest composition towards further dominance of young forests by yellow birch. We conclude that seedling physiological and demographic responses to increased nitrogen availability will scale up to exaggerate successional dynamics in mixed temperate forests in the future

  4. Bryophyte species associations with coarse woody debris and stand ages in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rambo, T.; Muir, Patricia S.

    1998-01-01

    We quantified the relationships of 93 forest floor bryophyte species, including epiphytes from incorporated litterfall, to substrate and stand age in Pseudotsuga menziesii-Tsuga heterophylla stands at two sites in western Oregon. We used the method of Dufr??ne and Legendre that combines a species' relative abundance and relative frequency, to calculate that species' importance in relation to environmental variables. The resulting 'indicator value' describes a species' reliability for indicating the given environmental parameter. Thirty-nine species were indicative of either humus, a decay class of coarse woody debris, or stand age. Bryophyte community composition changed along the continuum of coarse woody debris decomposition from recently fallen trees with intact bark to forest floor humus. Richness of forest floor bryophytes will be enhanced when a full range of coarse woody debris decay classes is present. A suite of bryophytes indicated old-growth forest. These were mainly either epiphytes associated with older conifers or liverworts associated with coarse woody debris. Hardwood-associated epiphytes mainly indicated young stands. Mature conifers, hardwoods, and coarse woody debris are biological legacies that can be protected when thinning managed stands to foster habitat complexity and biodiversity, consistent with an ecosystem approach to forest management.

  5. 76 FR 63281 - Foreign-Trade Zone 78-Nashville, TN, Application for Subzone, Hemlock Semiconductor, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...Tennessee. The facility will be used for the manufacturing and distribution of polysilicon, silicon tetrachloride, trichlorosilane, dichlorosilane, hydrogen chloride and direct process residue. Components and materials sourced from...

  6. 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 25 HEMLOCK WOOLLY ADELGID BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    E-print Network

    and inexpensive identification of natural enemies, track their population dynamics, and monitor impacts on target and were tagged with different colored dyes. During amplification, the dye associated with the #12;26 2010

  7. Biochemistry of hemlock (Conium maculatum L.) alkaloids and their acute and chronic toxicity in livestock. A review.

    PubMed

    López, T A; Cid, M S; Bianchini, M L

    1999-06-01

    The literature on Conium maculatum biochemistry and toxicology, dispersed in a large number of scientific publications, has been put together in this review. C. maculatum is a weed known almost worldwide by its toxicity to many domestic animals and to human beings. It is an Umbelliferae, characterized by long, hollow stems, reaching up to 2 m height at maturity, producing a large amount of lush foliage during its vegetative growth. Its flowers are white, grouped in umbels formed by numerous umbellules. It produces a large number of seeds that allow the plant to form thick stands in modified soils, sometimes encroaching on cultivated fields, to the extent of impeding the growth of any other vegetation inside the C. maculatum area of growth. Eight piperidinic alkaloids have been identified in this species. Two of them, gamma-coniceine and coniine are generally the most abundant and they account for most of the plant acute and chronic toxicity. These alkaloids are synthesized by the plant from eight acetate units from the metabolic pool, forming a polyketoacid which cyclises through an aminotransferase and forms gamma-coniceine as the parent alkaloid via reduction by a NADPH-dependent reductase. The acute toxicity is observed when animals ingest C. maculatum vegetative and flowering plants and seeds. In a short time the alkaloids produce a neuromuscular blockage conducive to death when the respiratory muscles are affected. The chronic toxicity affects only pregnant animals. When they are poisoned by C. maculatum during the fetuses organ formation period, the offspring is born with malformations, mainly palatoschisis and multiple congenital contractures (MCC; frequently described as arthrogryposis). Acute toxicity, if not lethal, may resolve in the spontaneous recovery of the affected animals provided further exposure to C. maculatum is avoided. It has been observed that poisoned animals tend to return to feed on this plant. Chronic toxicity is irreversible and although MCC can be surgically corrected in some cases, most of the malformed animals are lost. Since no specific antidote is available, prevention is the only way to deal with the production loses caused by this weed. Control with herbicides and grazing with less susceptible animals (such as sheep) have been suggested. C. maculatum alkaloids can be transferred to milk and to fowl muscle tissue through which the former can reach the human food chain. The losses produced by C. maculatum chronic toxicity may be largely underestimated, at least in some regions, because of the difficulty in associate malformations in offspring with the much earlier maternal poisoning. PMID:10340826

  8. Biochemistry of hemlock ( Conium maculatum L.) alkaloids and their acute and chronic toxicity in livestock. A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A López; M. S Cid; M. L Bianchini

    1999-01-01

    The literature on Conium maculatum biochemistry and toxicology, dispersed in a large number of scientific publications, has been put together in this review. C. maculatum is a weed known almost worldwide by its toxicity to many domestic animals and to human beings. It is an Umbelliferae, characterized by long, hollow stems, reaching up to 2 m height at maturity, producing

  9. The effects of gap disturbance on nitrogen cycling and retention in late-successional northern hardwood–hemlock forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C. Scharenbroch; J. G. Bockheim

    2008-01-01

    Late-successional forests in the upper Great Lakes region are susceptible to nitrogen (N) saturation and subsequent nitrate\\u000a (NO3?) leaching loss. Endemic wind disturbances (i.e., treefall gaps) alter tree uptake and soil N dynamics; and, gaps are particular\\u000a susceptible to NO3? leaching loss. Inorganic N was measured throughout two snow-free periods in throughfall, forest floor leachates, and mineral\\u000a soil leachates in

  10. Relationships among environmental variables and distribution of tree species at high elevation in the Olympic Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea

    1998-01-01

    Relationships among environmental variables and occurrence of tree species were investigated at Hurricane Ridge in Olympic National Park, Washington, USA. A transect consisting of three plots was established down one north-and one south-facing slope in stands representing the typical elevational sequence of tree species. Tree species included subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), and Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis). Air and soil temperature, precipitation, and soil moisture were measured during three growing seasons. Snowmelt patterns, soil carbon and moisture release curves were also determined. The plots represented a wide range in soil water potential, a major determinant of tree species distribution (range of minimum values = -1.1 to -8.0 MPa for Pacific silver fir and Douglas-fir plots, respectively). Precipitation intercepted at plots depended on topographic location, storm direction and storm type. Differences in soil moisture among plots was related to soil properties, while annual differences at each plot were most often related to early season precipitation. Changes in climate due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 will likely shift tree species distributions within, but not among aspects. Change will be buffered by innate tolerance of adult trees and the inertia of soil properties.

  11. Winter water relations of New England conifers and factors influencing their upper elevational limits. II. Modeling.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Richard L; Vostral, Chandra B; Friedland, Andrew J

    2002-08-01

    We used the water relations model, WINWAT, to model winter water relations of three conifer species-eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and red pine (P. resinosa Ait.)-growing at their upper elevational limits on Mt. Ascutney, Vermont, USA, in the winters of 1997 and 1999. Modeled relative water contents remained above 60% in the two youngest foliar age classes of all three species during both winters, indicating that desiccation stress in winter is not responsible for setting the upper elevational limits of these species at this site under present climatic conditions. WINWAT indicated that winter water relations of these low-elevational species were sensitive to low relative humidity, which increased transpiration rates, and low temperatures, which inhibited recharge, but are much less sensitive to summer climate than in the case of subalpine conifers in Colorado. Our results indicate that summer and winter temperatures and relative humidities (or precipitation/potential evapotranspiration ratios) should be incorporated into climate change models designed to simulate future tree distributions. PMID:12184984

  12. Role of Nurse Logs in Forest Expansion at Timberline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Yeakley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Nurselogs, known to be key sites of forest regeneration in lower elevation temperate forests, may be important sites for seedling establishment at expanding timberline forests. To determine factors associated with seedling establishment and survival on nurselogs at timberline, fourteen sites, located across a precipitation gradient in the Washington North Cascades Mountains, were examined. Site attributes including seedling type and height, disturbance process introducing downed wood, wood decay type, shading, slope gradient, aspect, and temperature and water content of wood and adjacent soil were determined along 60 m long transects. Nurselogs were found at 13 out of 14 sites; sites typically associated with greater than 80% shade and downed wood having a high level of wood decay. Downed wood serving as nurselogs originated from blowdown, snow avalanches, and forest fires. In total, 46 of 136 downed wood pieces observed served as nurselogs. Seedlings on nurselogs included mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis), yellow cedar (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), and western larch (Larix occidentalis). Nurselogs had significantly higher temperatures (p = 0.015) and higher moisture contents (p = 0.019) than the adjacent soil. Per equal volumes weighed, nurselogs had on average of 23.8 g more water than the adjacent soil. Given predictions of climate warming and associated summer drought conditions in Pacific Northwest forests, the moisture provided by nurselogs may be integral for conifer survival and subsequent timberline expansion in some landscapes.

  13. Energetic considerations and habitat quality for elk in arid grasslands and coniferous forests

    SciTech Connect

    McCorquodale, S.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-04-01

    The author used static modeling to explore the recent success of elk (Cervus elaphus) colonizing the arid shrub-steppe of Washington. Forage-based estimates of metabolizable energy available to elk in the shrub-steppe were compared to energy available in 2 mesic forest communities that historically have served as more typical summer elk habitat. Although precipitation and primary productivity were substantially lower in the shrub-steppe, the estimated calories available in shrub-steppe forage over a 300-km{sup 2} area were 271 and 86%, respectively, of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and cedar-hemlock (Thuja-Tsuga) forests of similar size. Low intercommunity variability in forage production, lack of a significant nonforage overstory, and the large size and relative abundance of foraging areas in the shrub-steppe mitigated reduced primary production. In the shrub-steppe, 92% of the habitat represented potential foraging habitat as determined by minimum forage biomass, whereas only 10 and 40% of the forested habitats, respectively, could be considered prime foraging areas. Whereas forage energy was concentrated in openings within conifer forests, it was more uniformly dispersed over the habitat mosaic in the shrub-steppe. These results provide a bioenergetic framework for understanding the recent success of elk colonizing the arid shrub-steppe of Washington and are consistent with observed patterns of movement and habitat use for elk in shrub-steppe habitat.

  14. Seedling insensitivity to ozone for three conifer species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, H S; Lee, E H; Renfro, J R; Hacker, W D

    2000-05-01

    Field symptoms typical of ozone injury have been observed on several conifer species in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and tropospheric ozone levels in the Park can be high, suggesting that ozone may be causing growth impairment of these plants. The objective of this research was to test the ozone sensitivity of selected conifer species under controlled exposure conditions. Seedlings of three species of conifers, Table Mountain pine (Pinus pungens), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), were exposed to various levels of ozone in open-top chambers for one to three seasons in Great Smoky Mountains National Park in Tennessee, USA. A combination of episodic profiles (1988) and modified ambient exposure regimes (1989-92) were used. Episodic profiles simulated an average 7-day period from a monitoring station in the Park. Treatments used in 1988 were: charcoal-filtered (CF), 1.0x ambient, 2.0x ambient, and ambient air-no chamber (AA). In 1989 a 1.5x ambient treatment was added, and in 1990, additional chambers were made available, allowing a 0.5x ambient treatment to be added. Height, diameter, and foliar injury were measured most years. Exposures were 3 years for Table Mountain pine (1988-90), 3 years for hemlock (1989-91), and 1 and 2 years for three different sets of Virginia pine (1990, 1990-91, and 1992). There were no significant (p<0.05) effects of ozone on any biomass fraction for any of the species, except for older needles in Table Mountain and Virginia pine, which decreased with ozone exposure. There were also no changes in biomass allocation patterns among species due to ozone exposure, except for Virginia pine in 1990, which showed an increase in the root:shoot ratio. There was foliar injury (chlorotic mottling) in the higher two treatments (1.0x and 2.0x for Table Mountain and 2.0x for Virginia pine), but high plant-to-plant variability obscured formal statistical significance in many cases. We conclude, at least for growth in the short-term, that seedlings of these three conifer species are insensitive to ambient and elevated levels of ozone, and that current levels of ozone in the Park are probably having minimal impacts on these particular species. PMID:15092944

  15. Nitrogen uptake in riparian plant communities across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon density

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, DD; Hocking, MD; Reimchen, TE

    2003-01-01

    Background Recent studies of anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) on the Pacific Coast of North America indicate an important and previously unrecognized role of salmonid nutrients to terrestrial biota. However, the extent of this uptake by primary producers and consumers and the influences on community structure remain poorly described. We examine here the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple taxa of riparian vegetation (Blechnum spicant, Menziesii ferruginea, Oplopanax horridus, Rubus spectabilis, Vaccinium alaskaense, V. parvifolium, Tsuga heterophylla) and measure foliar ?15N, total %N and plant community structure at two geographically separated watersheds in coastal British Columbia. To reduce potentially confounding effects of precipitation, substrate and other abiotic variables, we made comparisons across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon density that resulted from a waterfall barrier to salmon migration. Results ?15N and %N in foliage, and %cover of soil nitrogen indicators differed across the waterfall barrier to salmon at each watershed. ?15N values were enriched by 1.4‰ to 9.0‰ below the falls depending on species and watershed, providing a relative contribution of marine-derived nitrogen (MDN) to vegetation of 10% to 60%. %N in foliar tissues was slightly higher below the falls, with the majority of variance occurring between vegetation species. Community structure also differed with higher incidence of nitrogen-rich soil indicator species below the waterfalls. Conclusions Measures of ?15N, %N and vegetation cover indicate a consistent difference in the riparian community across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon density. The additional N source that salmon provide to nitrogen-limited habitats appears to have significant impacts on the N budget of riparian vegetation, which may increase primary productivity, and result in community shifts between sites with and without salmon access. This, in turn, may have cascading ecosystem effects in forests adjacent to salmon streams. PMID:12729462

  16. Evidence for Younger Dryas-age cooling on the North Pacific coast of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathewes, Rolf W.

    A review of the palynological evidence from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State north to the Alaska Panhandle strongly supports the existence of a climatic oscillation similar in timing and effect to the Younger Dryas cooling (11-10 ka BP) of Europe and eastern North America. The evidence includes many late-glacial pollen peaks of mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana), an indicator of cool and moist climate, reversals from forest to non-arboreal vegetation, and paleoclimate analysis using pollen-climate transfer functions on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Evidence of cooler ocean waters, based on fossil foraminifera in cores from the continental shelf, also supports an interpretation of a Younger Dryas-age climatic reversal. On the other hand, geological evidence of glacier readvances during the Younger Dryas chronozone is weak and poorly dated. Although more and better-constrained (AMS) dates are needed to confirm the timing of the Pacific Northwest cold oscillation, results so far point to maximum cooling and increased moisture between ca. 10.7-10 ka BP, followed by rapid warming in the early Holocene. Additional late-glacial sites need to be investigated in detail to confirm the geographical pattern of vegetation and climate change during this interval, which is best expressed in hypermaritime and maritime climate regions, similar to the Younger Dryas event around the North Atlantic. These results suggest that the search for causal mechanisms to drive the Younger Dryas cooling cannot be limited to events in the North Atlantic region, but should focus on possible hemispheric or global processes.

  17. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in a New England forest

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Aaron M.; Jackson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m2 and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA) were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]). The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal) surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus abundance that could be used in conservation assessments and long-term monitoring at Harvard Forest and other northeastern USA forests. PMID:26020008

  18. Surface Soil Carbon, Nitrogen and Tree Species are Tightly Linked in Northeastern USA Forested Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, D. S.; Juillerat, J.

    2008-12-01

    We measured C and N ratios in 608 surface soil horizons (primarily Oa) from ten small watersheds at seven established research sites in the northeastern USA. The dominant tree species included sugar maple (Acer saccharum), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), red spruce (Picea rubens) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). In the soil, both the C (50-530 g/kg) and C/N ratio (11.6- 45.3) had a wide distribution. In all but the Cone Pond watershed, both N concentration and the C/N ratio were positively and linearly related to C content. For these nine watersheds, the average N (g/kg) = 6.9 + 0.030 X C (g/kg), R2 = 0.97. The C/N ratios at Cone were much higher than would be predicted from the other data and charcoal was found in numerous samples, suggesting a source of recalcitrant C. Across all watersheds, C concentration was also positively correlated with forest floor depth (and therefore C pools). Although sugar maple dominance was negatively correlated with C/N ratio and C, better relationships were obtained by combining species. Carbon concentration of the humified surface horizon was negatively related to maple + birch dominance and positively related to conifer + beech dominance. Among nine of these ten watersheds, the average C concentration in the surface soil varied (187-441 g/kg) with a constant C/N ratio of 33. The remarkably tight relationships between C, N, and species suggest predicable patterns in C accumulation.

  19. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in a New England forest.

    PubMed

    Siddig, Ahmed A; Ellison, Aaron M; Jackson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m(2) and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA) were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]). The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal) surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus abundance that could be used in conservation assessments and long-term monitoring at Harvard Forest and other northeastern USA forests. PMID:26020008

  20. Element accumulation patterns of deciduous and evergreen tree seedlings on acid soils: implications for sensitivity to manganese toxicity.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Samuel B; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2005-01-01

    Foliar nutrient imbalances, including the hyperaccumulation of manganese (Mn), are correlated with symptoms of declining health in sensitive tree species growing on acidic forest soils. The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare foliar nutrient accumulation patterns of six deciduous (sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.)) and three evergreen (eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.), white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.)) tree species growing on acidic forest soils; and (2) examine how leaf phenology and other traits that distinguish evergreen and deciduous tree species influence foliar Mn accumulation rates and sensitivity to excess Mn. For the first objective, leaf samples of seedlings from five acidic, non-glaciated field sites on Pennsylvania's Allegheny Plateau were collected and analyzed for leaf element concentrations. In a second study, we examined growth and photosynthetic responses of seedlings exposed to excess Mn in sand culture. In field samples, Mn in deciduous foliage hyperaccumulated to concentrations more than twice as high as those found in evergreen needles. Among species, sugar maple was the most sensitive to excess Mn based on growth and photosynthetic measurements. Photosynthesis in red maple and red oak was also sensitive to excess Mn, whereas white oak, black cherry, white ash and the three evergreen species were tolerant of excess Mn. Among the nine species, relative rates of photosynthesis were negatively correlated with foliar Mn concentrations, suggesting that photosynthetic sensitivity to Mn is a function of its rate of accumulation in seedling foliage. PMID:15519989

  1. Forest responses to late Holocene climate change in north-central Wisconsin: a high- resolution study from Hell's Kitchen Lake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M. A.; Booth, R. K.; Jackson, S. T.; Minckley, T. A.

    2007-12-01

    Forest dynamics at centennial to millennial timescales can be identified using paleoecological records with high spatial, temporal, and taxonomic resolution. These dynamics are linked to climate changes by comparing the paleoecological records with independent paleoclimate records of complementary sensitivity and temporal resolution. We analyzed plant macrofossils at contiguous 1cm intervals (representing 5 to 35 yr/cm) from late Holocene sediments of Hell's Kitchen Lake (3 ha) in north-central Wisconsin. Most of the plant macrofossils derive from trees growing on the slopes directly adjacent to the lake, and were identified to the species. We also analyzed pollen at an approximately100 year resolution to provide a regionally integrated record of forest composition. We then compared the macrofossil and pollen records with independent records of climate change in the region, particularly paleohydrological records from kettle bogs. The most notable feature of the late Holocene record occurs between 2300-2000 cal yr BP. During this period yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) macrofossils first appear in the record, along with a corresponding increase in pollen percentages. Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) macrofossils and pollen also show a marked increase at this time. These changes coincide with a major transition towards wetter conditions recorded in the testate amoebae record of Hornet Bog (~200km northwest) and in a number of other kettle bog records from the region. Directly following this transition, tamarack (Larix laricina) and Sphagnum macrofossils at Hell's Kitchen Lake increase dramatically, likely representing the initiation of bog-mat growth along the southwest margin of the lake during the wet period. . We are continuing our high-resolution sampling downcore at Hell's Kitchen Lake. This will permit us to examine additional ecologic and climatic events in the early and mid-Holocene.

  2. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 132(3), 2005, pp. 458470 Changes in a hemlock-dominated forest following woolly

    E-print Network

    Doyle, Martin

    /ha). Ledge and ravine communities, formerly dominated by T. canadensis, became more compositionally distinct, was attacked in the 1930s by Dutch elm disease (Ophiostoma ulmi), a beetle transmitted fungus (Wesley 1998

  3. Growth rate responses of Lobaria pulmonaria to canopy structure in even-aged and old-growth cedar–hemlock forests of central-interior British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darwyn S. Coxson; Susan K. Stevenson

    2007-01-01

    The ability of cyanolichens to sustain growth in even-aged forests that develop after clear-cut harvesting is a major conservation biology concern in British Columbia's inland rainforest. This and other conservation issues have led to proposals advocating partial-cut rather than clear-cut harvesting to better maintain the structures that support biodiversity in old-growth forest stands. However, evaluating the potential impacts of alternative

  4. Proceedings: Symposium on Sustainable Management of Hemlock Ecosystems in Eastern North America GTR-NE-267 High resolution paleoecological analyses from Shepherd

    E-print Network

    McAndrews, John H.

    in the aquatic biodiversity 5,700 to 5,100 years ago. Thermophilic aquatics such as the Bushy pondweed Najas flexilis, charophyte algae and aquatic invertebrates indicate water level fluctuations of several meters

  5. 19. (MICROFILM ORIGINAL): WISCONSIN STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION DIAGRAM N674. "APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. (MICROFILM ORIGINAL): WISCONSIN STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION DIAGRAM N674. "APPROACH PLANS FOR THE HEMLOCK BRIDGE. 8-29-14" - Hemlock Bridge, Spanning Black River on Warner Drive, Greenwood, Clark County, WI

  6. 18. (MICROFILM ORIGINAL): WISCONSIN STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION DIAGRAM N673. 'TUBULAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. (MICROFILM ORIGINAL): WISCONSIN STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION DIAGRAM N673. 'TUBULAR STEEL PIERS FOR THE HEMLOCK BRIDGE. 8-26-14.' - Hemlock Bridge, Spanning Black River on Warner Drive, Greenwood, Clark County, WI

  7. May 18, 2012 -Issue 8Purdue Cooperative Extension Service USDA-NIFA Extension IPM Grant

    E-print Network

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Emergence Weeds · Corn Replant Decisions · Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum) - A Mini · A Recipe,FAW=FallArmyworm,AW=Armyworm ECB=EuropeanCornBorer,WBC=WesternBeanCutworm,CEW=Corn We e d s Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum

  8. Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Biology, Ecology, and Management

    E-print Network

    Research Disciplines: Ecology ~ Geology ~ Geomorphology ~ Hydrology ~ Pedology ~ Silviculture Systems ~ Wildlife Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe in Coastal British.W. Negrave. 2007. Biology, Ecology, and Management of Western Hemlock Dwarf Mistletoe in Coastal British

  9. dynamic processes in cells (a systems approach to biology)

    E-print Network

    Gunawardena, Jeremy

    the mechanical affections of the particles of rhubarb, hemlock, opium and a man ... we should be able to tell beforehand that rhubarb will purge, hemlock kill and opium make a man sleepy" * * John Locke, An Essay

  10. Effects of forest die-off on hydrologic processes in southern Appalachian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vose, J.; Ford, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Forests in the southern Appalachian region of the eastern U.S. have been impacted by numerous disturbances over the past century. Many of these disturbances have resulted in non-random species losses. For example, in the early 1900s, American chestnut (Castenea dentata) was decimated by the chestnut blight. Severe droughts in the 1980s and 1990s resulted in significant southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis, SPB) outbreaks; and, most of the native pines (Pinus rigida) were killed. These same droughts resulted in a pulse of mortality of older red oaks and extensive SPB infestation of white pine (Pinus strobus) plantations. In the 2000s, the introduction of the hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) resulted in widespread mortality of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Linking hydrologic responses to partial or complete changes in forest conditions due to die-off is especially challenging in the eastern U.S. because high vegetation diversity and substantial differences in tree-level water use makes it difficult to generalize or predict responses. Gauged watersheds and sapflow monitoring across multiple tree species at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in western NC provides a unique opportunity to quantify the impacts of large-scale forest die-off on hydrologic processes. Here, we provide three examples of our efforts to quantify and predict impacts. First, we analyzed long-term streamflow data from WS17, a 53 year old white pine plantation, where approximately 15% of the watershed was killed by SPB in the late 1990s. Second, we examined the effects of losing an individual species (i.e., loss of eastern hemlock from HWA) using sapflow, long-term permanent plot data, and models to scale from the individual tree to the watershed. Third, sapflow data from 11 forest canopy species were used to evaluate the potential impacts of losses of individual species on stand transpiration. Annual streamflow responses are exponentially related to decreases in forest cover (e.g., from forest cutting or die-off). First year responses in streamflow after a 15% reduction in forest cover are small: less than 30 mm yr-1. However, we observed a significant increase in low flows in the years following pine mortality, especially in the winter. Using sapflow measurements and scaling, we predict that HWA mortality would reduce annual transpiration by 10%, and winter and spring transpiration by 30%. Finally, analyses of long-term sapflow measurements across a range of species suggest a wide variation in potential responses to the loss of individual species or species groups. For example, growing season water use is lowest for oaks (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) and highest for yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), suggesting that the effects of forest die-off on hydrologic responses are dependent on species composition.

  11. Molecular Structure of pseudo-Conhydrine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-27

    Hemlock is an herb with a purple-spotted stem and leaves resembling parsley. The leaves are nauseating to eat, and ingestion may be fatal. The chemical poisons in hemlock are alkaloids like coniine and they affect the nervous system. Hemlock is the poison that Socrates was offered to cause his death.

  12. Variation in forest biomass change highlights regional differences in forest succession in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, D. M.; Gray, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Forest successional theory describes the changes in forest biomass and community composition from forest establishment to climax communities, but the drivers of succession are still widely debated. For example, successional models have related biomass and community change to stand age, species rarity within the community, small-scale disturbance, or the ability of species to survive under low resource conditions. The degree to which these drivers might vary regionally limits our ability to model and predict ecosystem change. Our objective was to assess whether forest successional theory explains observed changes in species biomass and community composition across forests of the U. S. Pacific Northwest. Using remeasurements of 9,700 Current Vegetation Survey (CVS) National Forest inventory plots primarily in Oregon and Washington, we quantified the effects of forest stand age, community composition, disturbance, and moisture (i.e., topography and climate) on changes in species-specific proportional live biomass (?B) and species dominance (?D). We focused on differences in forest successional patterns in two vegetation zones: the Tsuga heterophylla (TSHE) zone, found at low elevations on the wet, west side of the Cascade Mountains; and the Abies concolor (ABCO) zone, found at mid-elevations on the dry, east side of the Cascade Mountains. Preliminary results indicate that the regional differences in tree species biomass change and dominance appear to be related to responses to climate and disturbance. Strong positive effects of cover change on ?B were observed in the drier ABCO zone, but not the wetter TSHE zone. ?B and ?D were more often sensitive to precipitation and topographic position in the ABCO zone. In both regions, we found that ?B was strongly negatively related to species biomass and stand age while ?D was strongly negatively related to relative density, highlighting the importance of both age and community in shaping succession. Given that the importance of different forest successional processes in shaping ecosystem change varied regionally, this work provides valuable insights into potential risks of changing climate and disturbance regimes to species persistence and ecosystem stability across forests of the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

  13. Impacts of a changing winter precipitation regime on the Great Snowforest of British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knudsvig, H.; Dery, S. J.; Coxson, D.

    2012-12-01

    Rising air temperatures have profoundly impacted British Columbia (BC) mountain ecosystems, including its Interior Wetbelt. This region supports the sole Interior Temperate Rainforest (ITR), or perhaps more appropriately "snowforest", of North America. This snowforest encompasses about 30,500 km2 and contains Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) and western hemlock (Tsuga heteropylla) in excess of 1500 years old. This region is projected to be one of the more vulnerable biogeoclimatic zones in BC due to forest operations and climate change. Loss of snow as a storage medium has the potential to negatively affect the forest. A decrease in snow water equivalent (SWE) has the potential to decrease soil moisture values; impacts of decreased water availability in this region have the possibility to affect soil moisture storage, vegetative species composition, flora and fauna interdependence, and pathogen outbreaks. Given the projected climate change in high latitude and altitude areas, this project analyzes the contemporary and potential future climate of BC's Interior Wetbelt and explores the possible environmental and ecohydrological impacts of climate change on the snowforest. Models project an increase in air temperature and precipitation but a decrease in snowfall in this region. Analyses of the snow depth, SWE, and temperature from the Upper Fraser River Basin automated snow pillow sites of the BC River Forecast Centre (RFC) were conducted; snow depth, SWE, and temperature were also measured at the field site via automated weather stations and bi-monthly snow surveys. Surveys recorded depth and SWE after observed peak accumulation and continued until snowpack was depleted in 80% of the field site. To determine the influence of precipitation on the soil moisture levels in the ITR, soil moisture and water table levels were measured for the 2011-12 water year in addition to meteorological conditions; snow, spring water, and near surface ground water samples were collected and analyzed for the environmental isotopes of deuterium and oxygen-18. Analysis of the RFC's snow pillow data shows April 1 snow depth has been highly variable in the last 25 years with an overall decline in depth and SWE values. Soil moisture values at the study site were consistent through the year but showed a peak during spring melt and a decline during August, the driest month of summer in this region. Isotopic analysis on the water samples is on-going. The Upper Fraser River Basin experienced an above-normal to record snowpack the winter of 2011-12, thus observed values may not be indicative of the overall trend for this area. Trends in this interconnected ecosystem can assist in determining impacts of climate change to northern climates.

  14. Phenology of belowground carbon allocation in a mid-latitude forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramoff, R. Z.; Klosterman, S.; Finzi, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    Annual forest productivity and carbon storage are affected by the amount and timing of carbon allocated belowground. Despite clear relationships between some climate factors (e.g. temperature) and NPP, there are still large gaps in our understanding of the partitioning between above and belowground C allocation. It is generally assumed that above and belowground phenology is synchronous, but a number of recent studies show that there is wide variability. Some phenological studies suggest that root production peaks are offset from leaf out and shoot elongation. Related belowground processes such as root respiration and nonstructural carbohydrate accumulation may also be offset from root or shoot production as a result of tradeoffs in C allocation. Due to uncertainties in the seasonal pattern and magnitude of allocation to roots, we have collected measurements of root phenology for three temperate tree species at Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA: eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), red oak (Quercus rubra), and white ash (Fraxinus americana). Bi-weekly to monthly measurements of root production, root respiration, and root nonstructural carbohydrate content are used to determine when roots are receiving C from aboveground and patterns of C use. Minirhizotron and soil core data suggest that fine root biomass does not accumulate in a unimodal peak. In T.canadensis stands, fine root production peaks in late May, coinciding with green up and shoot elongation. In Q.rubra stands, fine root production begins in early June, about 3 weeks after leaf out and continues throughout the season in oscillating peaks. Average turnover times for Q.rubra and T.canadensis were 3.76 years and 6.83 years respectively. Standing root biomass for all stands fluctuates seasonally but with high spatial variability, with live fine root biomass averaging 210 ± 75.2 gC m-2 in F.americana stands, 554 ± 241 gC m-2 in Q.rubra, and 449 ± 172 gC m-2 in T.canadensis. Root respiration for all stands increases with temperature from early May to mid-June, with an average seasonal Q10 of 2.1. Nonstructural carbohydrates in F.americana and Q.rubra roots experience a slight drawdown from mid-May to late-June, coinciding with increases in root production and respiration. Nonstructural carbohydrates in all stands accumulate after June. The lack of synchronicity of these processes suggests that trade-offs in C allocation, in addition to abiotic factors such as temperature and soil water content, govern the timing of belowground processes.

  15. Landtype-forest community relationships: A case study on the Mid-Cumberland Plateau.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D H; Smalley, G W; Buckner, E R

    1996-01-01

    Relationships between forest communities and landtypes (the most detailed level of a hierarchical land classification system) were determined for the Prentice Cooper State Forest (PCSF), located on the southern tip of Walden Ridge, west of Chattanooga, Tennessee.Four extensive landtypes within the Mullins Cove area of PCSF were sampled: 1) broad sandstone ridges-south aspect (LT-3), 2) north sandstone slopes (LT-5), 3) south sandstone slopes (LT-6), and 4) plateau escarpment and upper sandstone slopes and benches-south aspect (LT-17). Rectangular, 0.04-hectare plots specified sub-plots for sampling overstory, midstory, sapling/shrub, seedling/herb forest strata, and physical site characteristics. Plots (139) were allocated by landtype using a random start with subsequent systematic location.Multivariate statistical techniques were used to 1) examine the distinctness of forest communities occurring among landtypes (discriminant analysis), 2) describe the forest communities occurring within landtypes (cluster analysis), and 3) determine factors controlling the spatial distribution of forest communities on the landscape (factor analysis).Different relative importance values of species among communities along with different community combinations among landtypes resulted in distinct forest vegetation among landtypes.Chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), and shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Miller) communities occurred on all four landtypes. Scarlet oak (Quercus coccinia Muenchh.) communities occurred on LT-5, LT-6, and LT-17. Black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) communities occurred on LT-3 and LT-5. Yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.), communities occurred only on LT-17.Landscape scale factors that varied along an elevation gradient were dominant in controlling spatial distribution of forest communities. Microsite factors were secondary controllers. Specific ecological factors could not be determined by factor analysis.Relatively distinct vegetation occurs among sampled landtypes on the PCSF. This study provides additional evidence that the land classification system divides the Mid-Cumberland Plateau landscape into distinct ecological units. PMID:24198014

  16. Inferring long-term carbon sequestration from tree rings at Harvard Forest: A calibration approach using tree ring widths and geochemistry / flux tower data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmecheri, S.; Maxwell, S.; Davis, K. J.; Alan, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    Improving the prediction skill of terrestrial carbon cycle models is important for reducing the uncertainties in global carbon cycle and climate projections. Additional evaluation and calibration of carbon models is required, using both observations and long-term proxy-derived data. Centennial-length data could be obtained from tree-rings archives that provide long continuous series of past forest growth changes with accurate annual resolution. Here we present results from a study conducted at Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts). The study examines the potential relationship between ?13C in dominant trees and GPP and/or NEE measured by the Harvard Forest flux tower (1992-2010). We have analyzed the ?13C composition of late wood-cellulose over the last 18 years from eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) and northern red oak (Quercus rubra) trees growing in the flux tower footprint. ?13C values, corrected for the declining trend of atmospheric ?13C, show a decreasing trend from 1992 to 2010 and therefore a significant increase in discrimination (?). The intra-cellular CO2 (Ci) calculated from ? shows a significant increase for both tree species and follows the same rate of atmospheric CO2 (Ca) increase (Ci/Ca increases). Interestingly, the net Ci and ? increase observed for both species did not result in an increase of the iWUE. Ci/Ca is strongly related to the growing season Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for both species thus indicating a significant relationship between soil moisture conditions and stomatal conductance. The Ci trend is interpreted as a result of higher CO2 assimilation in response to increasing soil moisture allowing a longer stomata opening and therefore stimulating tree growth. This interpretation is consistent with the observed increase in GPP and the strengthening of the carbon sink (more negative NEE). Additionally, the decadal trends of basal area increment (BAI) calculated from tree-ring widths exhibit a positive trend over the last two decade. Tree-ring width and ?13C results show the potential of these parameters as proxies for reconstructions of past CO2 assimilation and carbon sequestration by woody biomass beyond the time span covered by calibration data, and extending to the centennial time scales encompassed by tree-ring records.

  17. 76 FR 27183 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lepidium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...common yarrow), Phacelia heterophylla (varileaf phacelia), Astragalus purshii (Pursh's milkvetch), Phlox longifolia (longleaf phlox), and Aristida purpurea var. longiseta (purple threeawn). Lepidium papilliferum is...

  18. Plant Reports..............1 What's In a Name? ....2

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    ). [An ornamental grass oft-used for dried bouquets; adventive.] Pedicularis bracteosa Bentham subsp heterophylla (Nuttall) Greene var. quentinii Baird (Asteraceae): Catron, Grant, & Hidalgo counties (NMC

  19. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in humid coastal and inland cedar

    E-print Network

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    classification built on species composition partitioned species into stands of different ages and mesohabitat: biodiversity, bryophytes, cedar­hemlock, CWH, disturbance, ecosystem management, floristic habitat sampling

  20. Biochemical Systematlcsand Ecology,Vol. 18,No. 4, pp. 267-280, 1990. 0305-1978/90 $3.00+ 0.00 Printed in GreatBritain. 1990PergamonPressplc.

    E-print Network

    Nickrent, Daniel L.

    Tusgamertensiana Pinusalblcaulis Pinus monticola Abies lasiocarpa Abies grandis Picea engelmannii Piceabreweriana TsugamertensJana Abies amabifis Pinus monticola Abies procera Piceasitchensis II. Mountain hemlock

  1. 80 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 AERIAL APPLICATION OF THE INSECT-KILLING

    E-print Network

    80 2010 USDA Research Forum on Invasive Species GTR-NRS-P-75 AERIAL APPLICATION OF THE INSECT-KILLING of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA) were reduced using an operational formulation of the insect-killing fungus. Spores of the insect-killing fungus were delivered throughout the hemlock canopy as indicated by recovery

  2. (htxwidth,infeet) OherKeyPests

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    include the Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), emerald ash borer (EAB), hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA and rates their susceptibility to attack by the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Emerald Ash Borer, Hemlock Woolly of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees. Since its initial detection in Michigan in 2002, it has spread across

  3. Welcome everyone, thank you for coming. My name is ___. I'm a volunteer with Speaking for Wildlife. Speaking for Wildlife is a program by the University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension that brings

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    and forests, two of which are present in the state: emerald ash borer (pictured at the top) and hemlock yourselves. Emerald ash borer and hemlock woolly adelgid are already here in New Hampshire, and Asian being impacted. For example, the emerald ash borer is native to northern China, North Korea, South

  4. Spatial Patterns of HWA Damage and Impacts on Tree Physiology and Water Use in the Black Rock Forest, Southern New York

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Kimple; William Schuster

    This study was designed to document spatial patterns in HWA damage in three hemlock stands in the Black Rock Forest, southeastern New York, 4 to 8 years after adelgid infestation, and to quantify HWA impact on hemlock operating physiology and water use. In all three stands, damage was more severe along the stream courses and less severe away from the

  5. Mapping Forest Change Walk

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation depicts a virtual walk through a Virginia forest to examine the impact of a non-native, invasive insect, the hemlock woolly adelgid, on a population of eastern hemlocks. Field research is conducted using the same scientific methodologies and tools that Smithsonian scientists use to monitor forest biodiversity, including scatter graph comparisons and field observations.

  6. Paleofire reconstruction for high-elevation forests in the Sierra Nevada, California, with implications for wildfire synchrony and climate variability in the late Holocene

    E-print Network

    Anderson, R. Scott

    -dominated forest and montane chaparral shrubs. High charcoal influx after 8000 cal yr BP marks the arrival of Tsuga mertensiana and Abies magnifica, and a higher-than-present treeline that persisted into the mid

  7. Abies lasiocarpa establishment of subalpine meadows in Glacier National Park, Montana

    E-print Network

    meadows occurred after the warming of the Little Ice Age (Franklin et al. 1971). An increase in temperature showed an increase of growth and productivity for Abies amabilis and Tsuga mertensia in this area (Graumlich et al. 1989). Studies show...

  8. Ami. Sri. forest., 1976, 33 (2), 87-107, P R O D U C T I O N D E L I T I R E E T A P P O R T

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    heterophyîla et Abies grandis, au cours de 4 années : 1071, 1972, 1973 et 1974, I N T R O D U C T I O N sylvestris, Pinus nigra laricio, Pinus murrayana, Picea abies, Picea sitchensis, Pscudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga

  9. Ascomycota 1 Lecanoromycetes

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Lecanoromycetes Lecanorales Hypogymniaceae Hypogymnia imshaugii #12;Division Class Order Family Notes Division Ascomycota 1 6 Lichens Lecanoromycetes Lecanorales Hypogymniaceae Hypogymnia enteromorpha Ascomycota 1 7 Lichens Lecanoromycetes Lecanorales Hypogymniaceae Hypogymnia heterophylla Ascomycota 1 8 Lichens

  10. Reproductive Isolation in a Native Population of Petunia sensu Jussieu (Solanaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshio Ando; Masashi Nomura; Jun Tsukahara; Hitoshi Watanabe; Hisashi Kokubun; Tatsuya Tsukamoto; Goro Hashimoto; Eduardo Marchesi; Ian J. Kitching

    2001-01-01

    Reproductive isolation was studied in four syntopic species of Petunia sensu Jussieu (Solanaceae) at a site in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Reciprocal artificial crossing experiments confirmed that a genetic barrier exists between Petunia(P. axillaris and P. integrifolia) andCalibrachoa (C. parviflora and C. heterophylla), and also between C. parviflora andC. heterophylla . Petunia axillaris(white, nocturnally scented flower) is genetically

  11. Dr. Scott McG. Wilson MICFor Consultant Forester and Forest Ecologist

    E-print Network

    group ­ Western Red Cedar and Coast Redwood, Japanese Cedar White group ­ Western Hemlock, Noble Fir and European/ Hybrid Larch Red group ­ Western Red Cedar and Coast Redwood, Japanese Cedar White group

  12. Western Conifer Seed Bug Family, Home & Garden Education Center

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    the seed pulp. The list of host plants includes white pine, red pine, Scotch pine, Austrian pine, Mugho pine, white spruce, Douglas fir and hemlock. Because these species commonly appear in home landscapes

  13. 17. (MICROFILM ORIGINAL): WISCONSIN STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION DIAGRAM M374. 'STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. (MICROFILM ORIGINAL): WISCONSIN STATE HIGHWAY COMMISSION DIAGRAM M374. 'STEEL HIGHWAY BRIDGE WITH WOOD BLOCK FLOOR. 8-26-14.' - Hemlock Bridge, Spanning Black River on Warner Drive, Greenwood, Clark County, WI

  14. Some statistical associations between Northern Hemisphere sea level pressure patterns and temperatures at selected U.S. climate stations

    E-print Network

    Bryan, Janine Marie

    1988-01-01

    Hartington, NE Hay Springs, NE Imperial, NE Kimball, NE Loup City, NE Madison, NE Minden, NE North Loup, NE St. Paul, NE Wakefiteld, NE Bethlehem, NH Belvidere, NJ Charlottesburg, JN Flemington, JN Angelica, NY Hemlock, NY Lowville, NY Mohonk...

  15. Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site

    E-print Network

    Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site Petersham, MA Evan Goldman Harvard University #12;Site Descrip>on · Mixed hardwood and conifer forest · 40 Storm · Hemlock Wooly Adelgid 1850 1910 1930 Harvard Forest Dioramas #12

  16. ADDITIONS, ERRATA, EMENDATA, EXCUSES 16 Mar. 2008

    E-print Network

    Sanderson, Mike

    and under the species (right column, first paragraph), the C. virosa should be Conium maculatum. Page 215 was altered. Page 210 ­ Under Cicuta, Old World hemlock was Conium virosa. Both in the genus etymology

  17. PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE This article was downloaded by: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network

    E-print Network

    Moore, Tim

    vegetation (sugar maple, American beech and eastern hemlock). The fastest potential consumption of N2O occurred under anoxic conditions with little soil nitrate and under elevated headspace N2O concentration

  18. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY REDUCTION OF CAD DRAWING (FROM COLLECTION OF GIFFORD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY REDUCTION OF CAD DRAWING (FROM COLLECTION OF GIFFORD PINCHOT NATIONAL FOREST). HEMLOCK DAM (TROUT CREEK) SITE PLAN. 1995 FISH LADDER ?ATTRACTION FLOW? MODIFICATIONS - Trout Creek Dam, River Mile 1.8 on Trout Creek, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  19. International Sirex Symposium, Pretoria, South Africa 9-16 May 2007

    E-print Network

    . where he helped shape the current USDA cooperative approach to managing gypsy moth in the United States in the planning and implementation of the Gypsy Moth Slow the Spread project and the hemlock woolly adelgid

  20. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

  1. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

  2. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Proclamation of April 28, 1916 (39 Stat. 1777), as the waters within three thousand feet from the shore lines at mean low tide of Annette Island, Ham Island, Walker Island, Lewis Island, Spire Island, Hemlock Island, and adjacent rocks and...

  3. Climate Changes Inferred from Pollen Record of Recent 3000 years in Sonluo Lake, Northeastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng-Huan; Liew, Ping-Mei; Lee, Sep; Hsieh, Meng-Long; Huang, Sue-Yue

    2010-05-01

    Palynological studies can detect the impact of rapid climate changes on terrestrial ecosystems, since vegetation variation in response to climate fluctuation can occur on the order of decades. In this study, we provide a new pollen record from Sonluo Lake and intend to discover the relationship between winter monsoon and climate conditions of northeastern Taiwan during the recent 3000 years. Sonluo Lake, at an elevation of 1300 m AMSL, is an isolated basin located in Shueshan Range, northeastern Taiwan. Annual precipitation is approximately 4,400 mm, and almost occurs evenly through one year. Vegetation surrounding the basin is of the Machilus-Castanopsis vegetation type and lower Quercus vegetation type. Four climatic phases are determined with the aid of palynological studies. During the interval 3000 to 2200 yr BP (Zone IV), abundant pollens of Tsuga and fern spores indicate that the climate conditions were cool and wet than present. Subsequently, the warm climate conditions prevailed between 2200 and 1500 yr BP (Zone III) as suggested by the decline of Tsuga. From 1500 to 700 yr BP (Zone II), the lowest percentage of Tsuga and fern spores indicates a warmest and driest period. Following that, the basin experienced again cool and wet climate conditions since 700 yr BP, evidenced by the return of Tsuga and fern spore. The last climatic phases can be corresponded to the Little Ice Age. The high correlation(R=0.73)between pollen of Tsuga and fern spores indicates that winter monsoon dominant condition in this region.

  4. Identification of medicinal Ganoderma species based on PCR with specific primers and PCR-RFLP.

    PubMed

    Xuanwei, Zhou; Qizhang, Li; Yizhou, Yin; Yiyuan, Chen; Juan, Lin

    2008-02-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is an interesting shelf fungus that is also of medical importance in East Asian countries such as China, Japan and Korea. The fruit bodies of different Ganoderma species have similar colors and shapes, but are different regarding their medicinal properties. In order to provide molecular evidence for the genuine origin of G. lucidum, G. sinense and G. tsuga, fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP) genes were cloned using genomic walker technology and their sequences were then determined. Based on the sequences of cloned FIP genes, we designed three pairs of species-specific primers for amplification and sequencing of FIP genes. These new primers allowed an effective amplification and sequencing of FIP genes from representative species of G. lucidum, G. sinense and G. tsuga. Phylogenetic relationships were resolved quite efficiently by the FIP gene sequences, which proved to be more useful than other genetic marker techniques in phylogenetic reconstruction of G. lucidum, G. sinense and G. tsuga. PMID:18247261

  5. [Child poisoning after ingestion of a wild apiaceae: a case report].

    PubMed

    Durand, M-F; Pommier, P; Chazalette, A; de Haro, L

    2008-02-01

    Apiaceae family (formerly Umbelliferae) contains several highly toxic species, including Poison Hemlock (Conium maculatum), Water Hemlock (Cicuta virosa) and Hemlock Water Dropwort (Oenanthe crocata) which are the three main poisonous Apiaceae species growing in France. Thinking he was identifying wild carrots, an 11-year-old boy without previous history ingested the root from a wild Apiaceae. One hour later, he was confused, had drowsiness, headache as well as abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Upon hospital admission, myosis, ophtalmoplegia and a moderate rhabdomyolysis were noted. The patient recovered after 24 h of symptomatic treatments. In this case, the description of the ingested plant allowed to identify the Apiaceae family but not the species involved. The geographical location (Southern France in a humid area), the clinical features and the aspect of the ingested root, with an orange secretion led to implicate Oenanthe crocata as the origin of this unusual poisoning. PMID:18206356

  6. Role of acid and aluminum-rich media in the growth and nutrition of Pacific Northwest conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    Forest soils of coastal Washington and Oregon tend to be very acidic with large accumulations of organic matter. Yet the productivity of forest species on these sites can attain record levels. The effect of acid and aluminum-rich media on the growth and nutrition of Pacific Northwest conifer species was investigated for western hemlock, Douglas-fir, western redcedar, and Sitka spruce. The four different types of growth media utilized were solution cultures, sand cultures, mineral soils, and forest floor organic matter. Hydroponic nutrient solutions and sand cultures were used in experiments designed to differentiate the effect of aluminum ions from the hydrogen ions generated by hydrolysis of Al/sup 3 +/. Relative to agronomic plants, all the conifers were found tolerant of the acid solutions and high levels of aluminum. Species differed in their relative tolerance to H/sup +/ and Al/sup 3/ ions. Western hemlock seedling growth was superior to Douglas-fir in the acidified soils and forest floor media, while Ca(OH)/sub 2/ amendment favored Douglas-fir. The marginal increase in western hemlock growth in N + P treated soils was highest in acidified soils. Western hemlock exhibited an ability to absorb nutrients in the presence of excess solution H/sup +/ ions, maintain growth with low tissue requirements of Ca and Mg, and accumulate high levels of aluminum in its roots and foliage without major adverse effect. These attributes are considered to make western hemlock the most acid and Al-tolerant of the four Pacific Northwest forest species studied. Western redcedar was second in acid tolerance to western hemlock. This species' ability to accumulate Ca minimized Al absorption and H/sup +/ damage to its roots.

  7. A record of Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation and climate change from Woods Lake, Seymour Inlet, coastal British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susann Stolze; Helen M. Roe; R. Timothy Patterson; Thomas Monecke

    2007-01-01

    The Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation and environmental history recorded in a small coastal lake in the Seymour Inlet area, British Columbia, is described. Pinus-dominated vegetation and a cool and moist climate prevailed in the early phase of the Lateglacial. Later stages of the Lateglacial were characterised by a mixed coniferous forest with Tsuga species, Picea and Abies and slightly warmer

  8. Dendroglaciological evidence for Holocene glacial advances in the Todd Icefield area, northern British Columbia Coast Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott I. Jackson; Sarah C. Laxton; Dan J. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Accelerated glacial recession and downwasting in Pacific North America is exposing land surfaces and fea- tures buried by glacial advances that, in many locations, predate the recent Little Ice Age (LIA). Dendrochronologic analyses of increment core samples from living trees (Abies lasiocarpa, Tsuga mertensiana) and samples of subfossil wood collected in the Todd Icefield area, Boundary Ranges, British Columbia Coast

  9. The effects of feeding by Oniscus asellus on leaf litter sulfur constituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Morgan; M. J. Mitchell

    1987-01-01

    Feeding by the isopod, Oniscus asellus, produced changes in the sulfur constituents of leaf litter substrates (Acer negundo, A. saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Picea rubens, and Tsuga canadensis). Isopod consumption of leaf litter generally accelerated the mineralization of carbon-bonded S and increased the formation of ester sulfate in all substrates. After the isopod egestion of A. negundo leaves, fecal decomposition over

  10. OIKOS72: 323-332. Copenhagen1995 Delineationof ecologicalboundaries:comparisonof approaches

    E-print Network

    Fortin, Marie Josee

    58 29.0 Ulmus americana 72 36.0 The 103 51.5 Betula populifolia 88 44.0 Fraxinus americana 88 44.0 Fagus grandifolia 46 23.0 Fraxinus nigra 53 26.5 Pinus strobus 40 20.0 Tilia americana 82 41.0 Tsuga canadensis 136 68.0 Thuja occidentalis

  11. Mapped plant-macrofossil and pollen records of late quaternary vegetation change in Eastern North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen T. Jackson; Jonathan T. Overpeck; Sharen E. Keattch; Katherine H. Anderson

    1997-01-01

    Macrofossil presence\\/absence maps and isopoll maps in 3000-year intervals show how ranges and abundance maxima for 12 eastern North American tree and shrub taxa (Picea, P. glauca, P. mariana, Larix laricina, Abies balsamea, Tsuga canadensis, Pinus strobus, P. resinosa, P. banksiana, Betula papyrifera, B. alleghaniensis, B. Series Humiles) have changed from the last glacial maximum to the present. The macrofossil

  12. Molecular Phylogeny of Pinaceae and Pinus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Liston; David S. Gernandt; Thomas F. Vining; Christopher S. Campbell; Daniel Piñero

    Molecular phylogenetic reconstructions of Pinaceae based on immunological approaches plus nuclear and organellar DNA sequences consistently resolve the generic pairs Larix - Pseudotsuga and Abies - Keteleeria. In most analyses Pseudolarix and Tsuga (including Nothotsuga) form a clade that is sister to the Abies - Keteleeria clade, and Cathaya, Picea, and Pinus make up an unresolved trichotomy. The position of

  13. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-63. 2011. 235 ExtendedAbstract

    E-print Network

    's (Pinus albicaulis) notable ecological values, combined with its precarious state, underscore the need activity from mature western white pine (Pinus mon- ticola), or whitebark pine of any age, appear absent (Tsuga mertensiana) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. murrayana) are common co-dominants. Shasta

  14. N d'ordre : 298 -2010 Anne 2010 en cotutelle

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    the Messinian Salinity Crisis, North Aegean vegetation was mainly characterized by open plant ecosystems nearby by relict thermophilous plants: Liquidambar orientalis, Parrotia persica, Pterocarya fraxinifolia, Zelkova Salinity Crisis), herbs prevailed in the Dardanelles area while mid- (Tsuga) and high-altitude (Abies

  15. chapter thirty Restoring dry and moist forests ofthe

    E-print Network

    Fried, Jeremy S.

    allowed dense stands of Abies grandis, Pseudotsuga menziesii, and small Pinus ponderosa to develop Forests and Oregon, an increase in homogeneity of mid-seral forests containing Abies grandis, Tsuga them from wildfire. In contrast, the Abies- and Pseudotsuga-dominated forests of today contain nutrient

  16. The Periodicity of Spore Release from a Gonifer, a Liverwort, and a Bracket Fungus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard T. Haard

    Field obsewations of pollen and spore release from plants are relatively rare. This study represents a continuing attempt to gather this basic information from a variety of native plants in the Pacific Northwest. The Krarner-Coliins samplers were set up primarily to observe pollen release ftom Tsuga ar the actual soulce, but interesting data wete also obtained from nearby sporulation of

  17. Comparison of ultrastructure, pollen tube growth pattern and starch content in developing and abortive ovaries during the progamic phase in hazel

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Huidi; Cheng, Yunqing; Wang, Ju; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting

    2014-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS In an abortive ovary of hazel, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed.In an abortive ovary of hazel, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded.Ovary abortion in the four hybrid cultivars was indicated to be associated with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla was at least partly determined by pollen availability. In Northeast China, a high frequency of ovary abortion contributes to serious losses in yield of hazelnut. The development of pistillate inflorescences and fruit clusters of four large-fruited hybrid hazel cultivars and the small-fruited Corylus heterophylla were used to study ovary abortion and its possible causes during the progamic phase in hazel. The average number of pistillate (ANP) flowers per inflorescence and average number of fruit (ANF) per cluster of four hybrid hazel cultivars were 7.6–8.5 and 2.4–3.0 respectively; in C. heterophylla, its ANP and ANF was 5.8–6.2 and 3.5, respectively. The total drop varied from 50 to 67%. Ovary abortion in hazel initiated from about 30 days after blooming. The percentage of abortive ovaries (PAO) in the four hybrid hazel cultivars ranged from 63 to 72%, and was significantly higher than that of C. heterophylla (29–42%). Only the abortive ovary ratio of C. heterophylla was significantly reduced after artificial pollination. Fruit number per cluster was positively and negatively correlated with yield and nut mass, respectively. In abortive ovaries, the diameter remained less than 2 mm during the entire fruit development, an integument seldom differentiated and a mature embryo sac never developed. In addition, pollen tube growth was arrested at the style base about 40 days after blooming. Thus, fertilization of the ovule was precluded. Compared with abortive ovary, starch content in developing ovary of four hybrid hazel cultivars and C. heterophylla were significantly higher. This study suggests that abortive ovary was incapable to finish fertilization process due to the absence of mature embryo sac and arrested pollen tubes, and this is likely associate with insufficient resource availability to support fruit set by all flowers in four hybrid hazel cultivars, whereas ovary abortion in C. heterophylla is at least partly determined by pollen availability. PMID:25339969

  18. News from the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Kemp Natural Resources Station Kemp's Point

    E-print Network

    News from the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Kemp Natural Resources Station Kemp's Point Volume on lakeshores that are over-developed, and comparing different species of animals and plants that are found or Not to Be by Cindy Fiser Among the great white pines, hemlocks, lakes and bustling summer towns, Wisconsin is also

  19. Canopy Carbon Gain and Water Use: Analysis of Old-growth Conifers in the Pacific Northwest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Winner; Sean C. Thomas; Joseph A. Berry; Barbara J. Bond; Clifton E. Cooper; Thomas M. Hinckley; James R. Ehleringer; Julianna E. Fessenden; Brian Lamb; Sarah McCarthy; Nate G. McDowell; Nathan Phillips; Mathew Williams

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes our current knowledge of leaf-level physiological processes that regulate carbon gain and water loss of the dominant tree species in an old-growth forest at the Wind River Canopy Crane Research Facility. Analysis includes measurements of photosynthesis, respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential, stable carbon isotope values, and biogenic hydrocarbon emissions from Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii), western hemlock (

  20. Does fungus consumption by the woodland jumping mouse vary with habitat type or the abundance of other small mammals?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Orrock; Deborah Farley; John F. Pagels

    2003-01-01

    Fungi are important in the diet of many small mammal species, but patterns of fungus consumption (mycophagy) in eastern forests of North America have received little attention. Examination of stomach contents of the woodland jumping mouse, Napaeozapus insignis, revealed that fungi were an important dietary component in both eastern hemlock and mixed mesophytic habitats. Jumping mice in both forest types

  1. Changes in Landscape Greenness: Anthropogenic or Natural: Proof of Concept, Selected Study Areas

    EPA Science Inventory

    We selected four National Forest areas that span east to west of USA to conduct the study over the 25-year period from 1989 through 2013: GWJ (Virginia), Chatt-O (Georgia), Kisatchie (Louisiana), Hemlock Restoration (California). The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDV...

  2. Physiology and metabolism of ectomycorrhizae C. Bledsoe1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - ogists, soil microbiologists, tree nutri- tionists and mycorrhizal research workers. The study mycorrhizal group in forestry at the Uni- versity of Washington. Our research pro- gram has focused on two (Douglas fir, western hemlock and Sitka spruce) which were either non- mycorrhizal or mycorrhizal

  3. Forest Age and Relative Abundance of Pileated Woodpeckers on Southeastern Vancouver Island1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol L. Hartwig; Donald S. Eastman; Alton S. Harestad

    2002-01-01

    We estimated relative abundance of the pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) at four sites in the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic zone, on southeastern Vancouver Island during 1996-1997. The number of pileated woodpecker calls was correlated with age and structure of forests. Pileated woodpeckers did not use intensively managed forests < 80 years old that had low densities of dead wood (large

  4. Characteristics of pileated woodpecker ( Dryocopus pileatus) cavity trees and their patches on southeastern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Hartwig; D. S Eastman; A. S Harestad

    2004-01-01

    Cavity trees and cavity patches (areas around cavity trees) used by pileated woodpeckers were located in Coastal Western Hemlock and Coastal Douglas-fir forest types on southeastern Vancouver Island during 1996 and 1997. Trees with active nests and with apparent pileated cavities (n=28) were larger than trees without cavities (n=200). Of the seven confirmed nest trees, three were grand fir (Abies

  5. Influence of high-contrast and low-contrast forest edges on growth rates of Lobaria pulmonaria in the inland rainforest, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darwyn S. Coxson; Susan K. Stevenson

    2007-01-01

    Forested landscapes in the upper Fraser River watershed face increasing fragmentation from forest harvesting. The resultant edge effects may have a major impact on canopy lichen communities in the surrounding forest matrix. Growth rate responses of large and small thalli of Lobaria pulmonaria were evaluated in transplant experiments conducted in old-growth cedar–Hemlock forest stands located adjacent to clearcut harvest blocks

  6. Characterizing Structure, Microclimate and Decomposition of Peatland, Beachfront, and Newly Logged Forest Edges in Southeastern Alaska

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Ann Concannon

    1995-01-01

    In this study, I examined the forest structure, composition, microclimate, and decomposition of three common edge types in southeastern Alaska including; peatland, beachfront, and new clearcuts adjacent to productive western hemlock-Sitka spruce forests. Sites were located on 4 larger islands of the Alexander Archipelago in southeastern Alaska. The study was focussed on transects extending from the open area, through the

  7. Fetal-muscle type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells, and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be due to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR which re...

  8. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  9. Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol S. Forsythn; Robert C. Speth; Lynn Wecker; Francis D. Galey; Anthony A. Frank

    1996-01-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this

  10. Steroselective Potencies and Relative Toxicities of Coniine Enantiomers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coniine, one of the major toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), occurs in two optically active forms. A comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers has not been previously reported. In this study, we separated the enantiomers of coniine and dete...

  11. Popular Botany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred W. Bennett

    1893-01-01

    WE do not expect accurate scientific information from journalists; but so much confusion and error are seldom compressed into a small space as are to be found in a paragraph of which I send you extracts, cut from a London daily:-``A sad case of accidental poisoning by wild hemlock is reported from Tyne Dock. A little band of school children

  12. Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of y-Coniceine and N-Methylconiine enantiomers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    '-Coniceine, coniine, and N-methylconiine are toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). We previously reported the comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers. In this study, we synthesized '-coniceine and the enantiomers of N-methylconiine and dete...

  13. Gods behaving badly.

    PubMed

    Retsas, Spyros

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses the myths surrounding the birth and death of Asclepios, the popular healing God of the Greeks and his place among other deities of the Greek Pantheon. The enigmatic invocation of Asclepios by Socrates, the Athenian philosopher condemned to take the hemlock, in his final moments is also discussed. PMID:24585610

  14. Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in

    E-print Network

    Coxson, Darwyn

    Guidance and Technical Background Information for Biodiversity Management in the Interior Cedar is to share information with other forest professionals on biodiversity management in Interior Cedar Hemlock licensees to implement this guidance. If biodiversity management in the ICH is significantly inconsistent

  15. Damage and recovery of tree species after two different tornadoes in the same old growth forest: a comparison of infrequent wind disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Peterson

    2000-01-01

    Catastrophic wind disturbances in natural forests remain poorly studied, and the literature allows few comparisons of damage and recovery in the same forests disturbed by distinct wind events. Thus, it is still uncertain whether published findings are idiosyncratic or representative. Here I describe damage and recovery patterns in a large, primary hemlock–hardwoods forest in Pennsylvania, USA, which was struck by

  16. Process feasibility study in support of silicon material Task I. Quarterly technical progress report (XIX), March 1-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Yaws, C.L.; Li, K.Y.

    1980-06-01

    Analyses of process system properties were continued for chemical materials important in the production of silicon. Major physical, thermodynamic and transport property data are reported for silicon including critical constants, vapor pressure, heat of vaporization, heat of sublimation, heat capacity, density, surface tension, viscosity and thermal conductivity. The property data covers both liquid and solid phases and are reported as a function of temperature for rapid engineering usage. Major efforts in chemical engineering analysis centered on the HSC process (Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation). The approach for the process involves performing initial analysis for DCS production (dichlorosilane) and then perorming analysis of polysilicon production from the DCS. For the DCS production, status and progress are reported for primary activities of base case conditions (65%), reaction chemistry (65%), process flowsheet (60%), material balance (50%) and energy balance (40%). Two key features - redistribution reactor relocation and final distillation - are introduced to increase yield of DCS by about 10 to 20%, help insure purity and reduce potential dust (fine particle nucleation) components in the polysilicon feed material. The preliminary flowsheet for DCS production was forwarded to Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation for initial screening and review. Hemlock Semiconductor is in agreement in regards to relocation of the redistribution reactor to increase yield. Additional follow-up review is in progress including boron removal options identified by Hemlock Semiconductor. 166 references.

  17. The mountain forests of british columbia and the american northwest: Floristic patterns and syntaxonomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby Spribille

    2002-01-01

    An overview of the montane and subalpine forests ofAbies lasiocarpa, Picea engelmannii, Abies amabilis andTsuga mertensiana of northwestern North America is provided based on 541 relevés of forest vegetation from coastal and inland British Columbia,\\u000a Washington and northwestern Montana. A new classification is proposed based on an examination of the floristic patterns across\\u000a these communities. Owing to their broadscale floristic

  18. Interspecific Variation in Tree Growth Response to 20th Century Climate Variability in the Circumpolar Boreal Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Lloyd; A. Bunn

    2007-01-01

    We examined relationships between tree ring-width and climate at 232 existing tree-ring sites around the circumpolar boreal forest (north of 55° N). The data set included ten common boreal species: Larix gmelinii, Larix sibirica, Picea abies, Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Picea obovata, Picea sitchensis, Pinus banksiana, Pinus sylvestris, Tsuga mertensiana. We used moving-window correlation analysis for eight 30-year time windows,

  19. Immunomodulating Activities of Ganoderma, a Mushroom with Medicinal Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yihuai Gao; Eli Chan; Shufeng Zhou

    2004-01-01

    This review highlights the recent research progress in the study of immunomodulating effects of Ganoderma, which belongs to the basidiomycotina class of fungi. The commonly used Ganoderma species include G. lucidum, G. tsugae, G. capense, and G. applanatum. Several major substances with potent immunomodulating action have been isolated from Ganoderma. These include polysaccharides (in particular ?-d-glucan), proteins (e.g., Ling Zhi-8)

  20. Late Pliocene vegetation and climate of the Lake Baikal region, southern East Siberia, reconstructed from palynological data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Demske; Barbara Mohr; Hedi Oberhänsli

    2002-01-01

    Palynomorphs from a palaeomagnetically dated Late Pliocene sediment core (3.6–2.35 Ma) reflect highly variable climatic conditions and repeated expansion of steppe and boreo-alpine vegetation. Mixed coniferous forests (Picea, Tsuga, Pinus) with associated broadleaved taxa (Quercus, Corylus, Ulmus, Tilia) were affected by dry and cold intervals already between 3.48 and 3.39 Ma. Peak records of non-arboreal pollen types and spores, including

  1. Mapped plant macrofossil and pollen records of late Quaternary vegetation change in eastern North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. T. Jackson; J. T. Overpeck; T. Webb

    1995-01-01

    We compiled a plant macrofossil database for 12 eastern North American tree and shrub taxa (Picea sp., P. glauca, P. mariana, Larix laricina, Abies balsamea, Tsuga canadensis, Pinus strobus, P. banksiana, P. resinosa, Betula papyrifera, B. alleghaniensis, B. Series Humiles) at 264 late Quaternary sites. Presence\\/absence maps for these taxa at 18,000, 15,000, 12,000, 9000, 6000, 3000, and 0 ¹⁴C

  2. Late quaternary dynamics of pollen influx at mineral lake, Washington

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matsuo Tsukada; Shinya Sugita

    1982-01-01

    Pollen influx analysis at Mineral Lake, Washington, indicates that immediately south of the Puget Lobe of the Fraser Glaciation,\\u000a tundra was a characteristic vegetation until 16,300 years ago. Invasion ofPinus contorta began 17,500 years B.P., and boreal climax conifers (Abies, Picea andTsuga mertensiana), 16,300, but was temporarily interrupted by the Vashon advance (14,500–14,000 yr B.P.).Pseudotsuga menziesii began to grow in

  3. Climate changes inferred from integrated multi-site pollen data in northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang-Chi; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Lee, Teh-Quei; Lee, Pei-Fen; Chen, Su-Hwa

    2011-04-01

    In this study, we synthesized the fossil pollen data from 10 lake sediments and 2 land cores to integrate the alteration of forest covered areas in northern Taiwan with changes in humidity and temperature over the last 2000 years. The abundance of arboreal pollen, fern spores and Tsuga pollen in the pollen and spore assemblages were used as indicators. Our results suggested that the climate in northern Taiwan was stably cool and dry during 2000-1000 cal. yr BP, but changed to wet and warm during 1000-500 cal. yr BP, which corresponded to the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). In addition, an increased density and dispersal of Tsuga pollen corresponding to 500-200 cal. yr BP was observed, which corresponded to the Little Ice Age (LIA). In recent years, a decline in Tsuga pollen density and increased fern spore density has been observed, which indicates an increase in temperature associated with elevated rainfall. Based on the synthesized data set, we conducted GIS mapping of such changes in the north of Taiwan over time. The results revealed that the temporal and spatial climate changes could be inferred from the palynological GIS mapping method, and that the fluctuations in temperature over time matched well with the global climate events, including MWP, LIA and recent warming.

  4. A Long Term View of Forest Response to Environmental Change: 25 Years of Studying Harvard Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Lindaas, J.; David, F.; David, O.

    2014-12-01

    Forests influence the budgets of greenhouse gases, and understanding how they will respond to environmental change is critical to accurately predicting future GHG trends. The time scale for climate change is long and forest growth is slow, thus very long measurement periods are required to observe meaningful forest response. We established an eddy flux tower within a mixed forest stand dominated by red oak and red maple at the Harvard Forest LTER site in 1989 where CO2, H2O and energy fluxes together with meteorological observations have been measured continuously. An array of plots for biometric measurements was established in 1993. Flux measurement at an adjacent hemlock stand began in 2000. Records of land use and disturbance and vegetation plot data extend back to 1907. The combined suite of measurements merges observations of instantaneous ecosystem responses to environmental forcing with details of vegetation dynamics and forest growth that represent the emergent properties relevant to long-term ecosystem change. Both the deciduous stand and hemlock stand are accumulating biomass. Each has added over 20 Mg-C ha-1 as woody biomass in trees >10cm dbh since 1990, even though the hemlock stand is older. Net carbon exchange shows enhanced uptake in early spring and late fall months in response to warmer temperatures and likely an increase in evergreen foliage at the deciduous site. Net carbon uptake efficiency at the deciduous stand has increased over time as well as indicated by peak NEE under optimum light conditions. The trend is only partly explained by variation in mean leaf area index and cannot be directly attributed to climate response. The combination of longer growing season and increased uptake efficiency yields a general trend of increasing annual NEE (Fig. 1). However, significant excursions in the trend highlight the sensitivity of forest carbon stocks. The pulse of high annual carbon uptake (peak 6 Mg-C ha-1y-1 in 2008) from 2000-2008 is only partially matched by carbon stored in woody biomass, leaving a large fraction of carbon to have accumulated in litter and fine roots in the forest floor, which has as much carbon as the above-ground woody biomass, but shorter turnover time. Invasion by Hemlock wooly adelgid, an insect that kills hemlock trees portends a major shift in NEE for the hemlock stand in the next decade.

  5. Changes in Carbon Storage Efficiency Following a Shelterwood Harvest at Howland Forest, Maine, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Scott; D. Y. Hollinger; E. A. Davidson; C. A. Rodrigues; B. Dail; H. Hughes; J. T. Lee

    2006-01-01

    Forest disturbance has a major impact on forest carbon (C) cycling processes, yet few measurements exist of the direct impact of disturbances such as forest management practices on whole-ecosystem C exchange. We are evaluating the impact of a commercial shelterwood harvest on whole-ecosystem C sequestration at a spruce-hemlock dominated forest in Howland, Maine. Harvesting began in fall of 2001, and

  6. Bald eagle nest site and nest tree characteristics in select biogeoclimatic zones of the 100 Mile House Forest District, British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Packham

    Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nest site and nest tree characteristics were studied in the Sub-Boreal Spruce (SBS), Interior Cedar-Hemlock (ICH), Sub-Boreal Pine-Spruce (SBPS), and Interior Douglas-fir (IDF) biogeoclimatic zones in the 100 Mile House Forest District, British Columbia. Dominant or codominant Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) containing large trunk forks or multiple forks of the trunk comprised 85% of 121 bald eagle

  7. THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF BROAD-WINGED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SCOTT T. CROGOLL; JAMES W. PARKER

    Nesting Red-shouldered (Buteo lineatus; RSH) and Broad-winged Hawks (Buteo platypterus; BWH) were studied in 1978-1980 in Chautauqua County, New York. Both species nested predominantly in upland maple-beech-hemlock associations. Six of 18 BWH nests were in larch (Larix decidua); 7 of 18 RSH nests were in American beech (Fagus grandifolia). BWH nested closer to woodland openings and lower in a tree

  8. Forest management and temporal effects on food abundance for a ground-foraging bird ( Catharus guttatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason C. Johnston; Rebecca L. Holberton

    2009-01-01

    While food abundance is known to limit bird populations, few studies have simultaneously examined both temporal and habitat-related variation in food abundance for ground-foraging birds. We surveyed ground-dwelling arthropods throughout the breeding season and in three forest harvest types (clearcut, selection, and shelterwood stands managed for spruce, fir and hemlock) at the Penobscot Experimental Forest (PEF), Bradley, Maine, USA. Pitfall

  9. Associations between regional moisture gradient, tree species dominance, and downed wood abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A. C.; Mills, J.

    2007-12-01

    Downed wood functions as a source of nurse logs, physical structure in streams, food, and carbon. Because downed wood is important in upland and aquatic habitats, an understanding of wood recruitment along a continuum from wet to dry landscapes is critical for both preservation of biodiversity and restoration of natural ecosystem structure and function. We assessed downed wood in public and private forests of Washington and Oregon by using a subset of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) database including 15,842 sampled conditions. Multivariate regression trees, ANOVA, and t-tests were used to discern environmental conditions most closely associated with abundance of woody debris. Of the 16 parameters included in the analysis, rainfall, forest ownership, number of damaged standing trees, and forest elevation were most indicative of woody debris abundance. The Hemlock/spruce Group, including hemlock, spruce, cedar, and white pine, most associated with wetter soils, had significantly more downed wood than 12 other forest groups. The Ponderosa Pine Group, indicative of drier sites with higher fire frequencies, included ponderosa pine, sugar pine, and incense cedar, and had significantly less downed wood volume. Overall, the amount of woody debris in either the Spruce/hemlock Group or the Ponderosa Pine Group did not change significantly as tree age increased from 5 to 350 years. Plots within the Hemlock/spruce with greater standing tree volume also had significantly greater downed wood volume. In contrast, greater downed wood volume was not associated with greater standing tree volume in the Ponderosa Pine Group. Knowledge of linkages among environmental variables and stand characteristics are useful in development of regional forest models aimed at understanding the effects of climate change and disturbance on forest succession.

  10. ABOVE GROUND PERFORMANCE OF PRESERVATIVE-TREATEDWESTERN WOOD SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Morrell

    Abstact: Incised and non-incised Douglas-fir, western hemlock, andponderosa pine L-joints were treated with ammoniacal-based pentachlorophenol, chromated zinc chloride, thiocyanomethylthiobenzothiazole (TCMBT) or TCMTB plus methylenebisthiocyanate or 3 iodo-2-propynyl carbamate with or without chlorpyrifos to retentions between 0.8 and 6.4 kg\\/m 3 and exposed, uncoated, above ground on a test fence located in Corvallis, Oregon. Additionaljoints dipped in solutions of zinc naphthenatewere

  11. Antifeedant Compounds from Three Species of Apiaceae Active Against the Field Slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Birkett; Catherine J. Dodds; Ian F. Henderson; Lucy D. Leake; John A. Pickett; Martin J. Selby; Peter Watson

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of volatiles from foliage of three plants in the Apiaceae, Conium maculatumL. (hemlock), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), and Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Nym.) (parsley), previously shown to exhibit antifeedant activity in assays with the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller) (Limacidae: Pulmonata), were studied further to identify the active components. Coupled gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and neurophysiological assays using tentacle nerve

  12. Augmenting summer streamflow by use of a silicone antitranspirant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Belt; J. G. King; H. F. Haupt

    1977-01-01

    A 65-ac (26.3-ha) cedar-hemlock catchment in northern Idaho was sprayed with a 5% aqueous emulsion of silicone oil to reduce transpiration. The antitranspirant, Dow Corning XEF-4-3561, was applied by helicopter at the rate of 40 gal.\\/ac (375 1\\/ha). From June 1 to September 15, 1974, streamflow, soil water, and leaf water potential were monitored on the 65-ac (26.3-ha) treated watershed

  13. SPATIAL INCIDENCE OF BARRED OWL (STRIX VARIA) REPRODUCTION IN OLD-GROWTH FOREST OF THE APPAI ACHIAN PLATEAU

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. CHRISTOPHER HANEY

    DuBois, PA 15801 U.S.A. ABSTRACT.--Barred Owl (Strix varia) occtwrence and breeding were evaluated in old-growth forest using Poisson and binomial models constructed with seven spatially-explicit parameters derived from territorial density. Reproduction was evidenced by owl chicks heard inside cavity nests or being fed by adults in old- growth deciduous (beech-maple, oak-hickory) and old-growth mixed forest types (hemlock-white pine-decid- uous). Barred

  14. A record of late Quaternary vegetation from Davis Lake, southern Puget Lowland, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnosky, Cathy W.

    1981-09-01

    Pollen and macrofossil analyses of a core spanning 26,000 yr from Davis Lake reveal late Pleistocene and Holocene vegetational patterns in the Puget Lowland. The core ranges lithologically from a basal inorganic clay to a detritus gyttja to an upper fibrous peat and includes eight tephra units. The late Pleistocene pollen sequence records two intervals of tundra-parkland vegetation. The earlier of these has high percentages of Picea, Gramineae, and Artemisia pollen and represents the vegetation during the Evans Creek Stade (Fraser Glaciation) (ca. 25,000-17,000 yr B.P.). The later parkland interval is dominated by Picea, Tsuga mertensiana, and Gramineae. It corresponds to the maximum ice advance in the Puget Lowland during the Vashon Stade (Fraser Glaciation) (ca. 14,000 yr B.P.). An increase in Pinus ontorta pollen between the two tundra-parkland intervals suggests a temporary rise in treeline during an unnamed interstade. After 13,500 yr B.P., a mixed woodland of subalpine and lowland conifers grew at Davis Lake during a period of rapid climatic amelioration. In the early Holocene, the prolonged expansion of Pseudotsuga and Alnus woodland suggests dry, temperate conditions similar to those of present rainshadow sites in the Puget Lowland. More-mesic forests of Tsuga eterophylla, Thuja plicata, and Pseudotsuga, similar to present lowland vegetation, appeared in the late Holocene (ca. 5500 yr B.P.).

  15. Community Structure and Survival of Tertiary Relict Thuja sutchuenensis (Cupressaceae) in the Subtropical Daba Mountains, Southwestern China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cindy Q.; Yang, Yongchuan; Ohsawa, Masahiko; Momohara, Arata; Yi, Si-Rong; Robertson, Kevin; Song, Kun; Zhang, Shi-Qiang; He, Long-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    A rare coniferous Tertiary relict tree species, Thuja sutchuenensis Franch, has survived in the Daba Mountains of southwestern China. It was almost eliminated by logging during the past century. We measured size and age structures and interpreted regeneration dynamics of stands of the species in a variety of topographic contexts and community associations. Forest communities containing T. sutchuenensis were of three types: (1) the Thuja community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, growing on cliffs; (2) the Thuja-Quercus-Cyclobalanopsis community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Quercus engleriana and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon, along with Fagus engleriana and Carpinus fargesiana, on steep slopes; (3) the Thuja-Tsuga-Quercus community dominated by T. sutchuenensis, Tsuga chinensis, and Quercus spinosa, on crest ridges. The established seedlings/saplings were found in limestone crevices, on scarred cliff-faces, cliff-edges, fallen logs, canopy gaps and forest margins. The radial growth rate was 0.5-1.1 mm per year. Its growth forms were distorted. It had strong sprouting ability after disturbances. The T. sutchuenensis population thrives on cliffs where there is little competition from other species because of harsh conditions and rockslide disturbances. It is shade-intolerant but stress-tolerant. Its regeneration has depended on natural disturbances. PMID:25928845

  16. Late-glacial and Holocene Vegetation and Climate Variability, Including Major Droughts, in the Sky Lakes Region of Southeastern New York State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menking, Kirsten M.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Anderson, Roger Y.

    2012-01-01

    Sediment cores from Lakes Minnewaska and Mohonk in the Shawangunk Mountains of southeastern New York were analyzed for pollen, plantmacrofossils, macroscopic charcoal, organic carbon content, carbon isotopic composition, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and lithologic changes to determine the vegetation and landscape history of the greater Catskill Mountain region since deglaciation. Pollen stratigraphy generally matches the New England pollen zones identified by Deevey (1939) and Davis (1969), with boreal genera (Picea, Abies) present during the late Pleistocene yielding to a mixed Pinus, Quercus and Tsuga forest in the early Holocene. Lake Minnewaska sediments record the Younger Dryas and possibly the 8.2 cal kyr BP climatic events in pollen and sediment chemistry along with an 1400 cal yr interval of wet conditions (increasing Tsuga and declining Quercus) centered about 6400 cal yr BP. BothMinnewaska andMohonk reveal a protracted drought interval in themiddle Holocene, 5700-4100 cal yr BP, during which Pinus rigida colonized the watershed, lake levels fell, and frequent fires led to enhanced hillslope erosion. Together, the records show at least three wet-dry cycles throughout the Holocene and both similarities and differences to climate records in New England and central New York. Drought intervals raise concerns for water resources in the New York City metropolitan area and may reflect a combination of enhanced La Niña, negative phase NAO, and positive phase PNA climatic patterns and/or northward shifts of storm tracks.

  17. High-level expression, purification and production of the fungal immunomodulatory protein-gts in baculovirus-infected insect larva.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tzong-Yuan; Chen, Hsin-An; Li, Feng-Yin; Lin, Ching-Ting; Wu, Chi-Ming; Hsieh, Feng-Chia; Tzen, Jason Tze-Cheng; Hsieh, Sheng-Kuo; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Jinn, Tzyy-Rong

    2013-02-01

    Fip-gts, a fungal immunomodulatory protein (Fip) isolated from Ganoderma tsugae (gts), has been reported to possess therapeutic effects in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disease. To cost-effectively produce Fip-gts and bypass the bottleneck involved in its time-consuming purification from G. tsugae, in this study, we incorporated the SP(bbx) secretion signal into recombinant baculovirus for expressing glycosylated and bioactive rFip-gts in baculovirus-infected insect cells and Trichoplusia ni larva. This is the first study to employ the aerosol infecting T. ni larva with recombinant baculovirus for economical and high-level production of foreign proteins. In this study, one purification could yield 10 mg of rFip-gts protein merely from ?100 infected T. ni larvae by aerosol inoculation, corresponding to 5 L (5?×?10? cells) of the infected Sf21 culture. In addition, the rFip-gts purified from T. ni larvae could induce the expression of interleukin-2 in murine splenocytes with an immunoresponsive level similar to that induced by LZ-8 (a known potent immunomodulatory protein purified from Ling zhi, Ganoderma lucidum). Thus, our results demonstrated that the larva-based baculovirus expression system can successfully express rFip-gts with the assembling capability required for maintaining immunomodulatory and anticancer activity. Our approach will open a new avenue for the production of rFip-gts and facilitate the immunoregulatory activity of rFip-gts available in the future. PMID:23296801

  18. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Huttlinger, N. V.; Oneill, B. A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The toxicity of the pyrolysis gases from nine wood samples was investigated. The samples of hardwoods were aspen poplar, beech, yellow birch, and red oak. The samples of softwoods were western red cedar, Douglas fir, western hemlock, eastern white pine, and southern yellow pine. There was no significant difference between the wood samples under rising temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a developing fire, or under fixed temperature conditions, which are intended to simulate a fully developed fire. This test method is used to determine whether a material is significantly more toxic than wood under the preflashover conditions of a developing fire.

  19. A streptomycete antagonist to Phellinus weirii, Fomes annosus, and Phytophthora cinnamomi.

    PubMed

    Rose, S L; Li, C Y; Hutchins, A S

    1980-05-01

    An actinomycete isolated from the rhizoplane of nitrogen-fixing nodules of Ceanothus velutinus was identified as a variety of Streptomyces griseoloalbus. Streptomyces griseoloalbus is a strong antagonist to three destructive root pathogens, Phellinus weirii, Fomes annosus, and Phytophthora cinnamomi, inhibiting all three on several culture media and preventing establishment of F. annosus on hemlock wood disks. The stability and longevity of the antimicrobial substance produced by it, its consistent effect on the pathogens on all substrates, its ability to colonize wood, and its ability to grow at 10 degrees C suggest biological control possibilities for this organism in the Pacific Northwest. PMID:7397603

  20. [Mites (Acari) from rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg., Euphorbiaceae) and spontaneous euphorbiaceous in rubber trees cultivation].

    PubMed

    Bellini, Marcos R; Feres, Reinaldo J F; Buosi, Renato

    2008-01-01

    Quarterly samples were done in 2001 on three rubber tree plantation in the northwest of the state of São Paulo. Three rubber trees of each locality were sampled. Between the rows of rubber tree four species of spontaneous euphorbiaceous were collected: Chamaesyce hirta, C. hyssopifolia, Euphorbia heterophylla and Phyllanthus tenellus. A total of 8.954 mites of 38 species, belonging to 31 genera of 11 families were collected. Tydeidae and Phytoseiidae had the highest diversity of species, 9 and 7, respectively. The most abundant families were Eriophyidae (3.594), Tydeidae (2.825) and Tenuipalpidae (1.027). The most abundant species on the rubber trees were: phytophagous - Calacarus heveae Feres, Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, Lorryia sp.2, Lorryia formosa Cooreman and Lorryia sp.1; predators - Zetzellia quasagistemas Hernandes & Feres, Pronematus sp., Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma and Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma. Among the spontaneous euphorbiaceous, predatory mites were abundantly found on C. hirta and E. heterophylla, mainly Pronematus sp. and E. citrifolius, suggesting that these plants could be important in the maintenance of these predators in the rubber tree cultivation areas. However, plants that can shelter predators and at the same time exert strong competition (nutrients, water etc) to rubber trees, can not be recommended for pest management programs. Studies about competition between rubber trees and spontaneous plants need to be conducted for feasible efficient programs of environmental management, aiming at the control of pest mites of rubber tree. PMID:18813750

  1. A study of weeds as potential inoculum sources for a tomato-infecting begomovirus in central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barreto, S S; Hallwass, M; Aquino, O M; Inoue-Nagata, A K

    2013-05-01

    Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV) is the most important begomovirus species in Brazilian tomato production. Many weeds are associated with tomato, and some are hosts of begomoviruses. Only one species of weed, Nicandra physaloides, has been found to be infected with ToSRV. In this study, four weed species were investigated for their capacity to be infected by ToSRV and serve as a potential source of inoculum for tomato. Begomoviruses from naturally infected Crotalaria spp., Euphorbia heterophylla, N. physaloides, and Sida spp. were successfully transferred to tomato plants by biolistic inoculation. ToSRV was the major virus transferred to tomato. In contrast, other begomoviruses were transferred to weeds, such as Sida micrantha mosaic virus and Euphorbia yellow mosaic virus. Furthermore, a new strain of Sida micrantha mosaic virus is reported. We also confirmed that Crotalaria spp., E. heterophylla, and Sida spp. are infected with ToSRV but at low viral titers and in mixed infections with weed-infecting begomoviruses. Thus, it was demonstrated that weeds are potential sources of ToSRV for tomato in central Brazil. PMID:23489523

  2. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis for the characterization of triterpenoids from Ganoderma.

    PubMed

    Su, C H; Yang, Y Z; Ho, H O; Hu, C H; Sheu, M T

    2001-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of triterpenoids from Ganoderma is developed and validated in an attempt to explore a way to differentiate a number of species of the genus Ganoderma. Results show that 64 samples examined in this study could be divided into 18 groups based on characteristics of the HPLC pattern of triterpenoids. This result also conforms with those of the morphological examination and the interfertility test by di-monokaryotic mating. The HPLC analysis of triterpenoids further reveals that differentiation among samples from three different regions each of the two species G. lucidum and G. tsugae is workable. Even then, an incorrect designation is found for two of the groups of samples that were originally classified as G. resinaceum but showed different morphological characteristics and mating incompatibility. In conclusion, an HPLC analysis of triterpenoids is a simple and easy way to differentiate among different species of the genus Ganoderma. PMID:11277258

  3. Modern pollen deposition in Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beuning, Kristina R.M.; Fransen, Lindsey; Nakityo, Berna; Mecray, Ellen L.; Bucholtz ten Brink, Marilyn R.

    2000-01-01

    Palynological analyses of 20 surface sediment samples collected from Long Island Sound show a pollen assemblage dominated by Carya, Betula, Pinus, Quercus, Tsuga, and Ambrosia, as is consistent with the regional vegetation. No trends in relative abundance of these pollen types occur either from west to east or associated with modern riverine inputs throughout the basin. Despite the large-scale, long-term removal of fine-grained sediment from winnowed portions of the eastern Sound, the composition of the pollen and spore component of the sedimentary matrix conforms to a basin-wide homogeneous signal. These results strongly support the use of select regional palynological boundaries as chronostratigraphic tools to provide a framework for interpretation of the late glacial and Holocene history of the Long Island Sound basin sediments.

  4. Mapped plant macrofossil and pollen records of late Quaternary vegetation change in eastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.T.; Overpeck, J.T.; Webb, T. III [Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff, AZ (United States)]|[NOAA/NGDC, Boulder, CO (United States)]|[Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States)

    1995-06-01

    We compiled a plant macrofossil database for 12 eastern North American tree and shrub taxa (Picea sp., P. glauca, P. mariana, Larix laricina, Abies balsamea, Tsuga canadensis, Pinus strobus, P. banksiana, P. resinosa, Betula papyrifera, B. alleghaniensis, B. Series Humiles) at 264 late Quaternary sites. Presence/absence maps for these taxa at 18,000, 15,000, 12,000, 9000, 6000, 3000, and 0 {sup 14}C yr B.P. show changes in geographic ranges of these species in response to climatic change. Comparison of the macrofossil maps with isopoll maps for corresponding taxa corroborates inferences from the pollen data, and reveals species-level patterns not apparent in the pollen maps.

  5. Inhibition of methane consumption in forest soils by monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, J.A.; Knowles, R. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Natural Resource Sciences] [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Natural Resource Sciences

    1998-04-01

    Selected monoterpenes were tested for their ability to inhibit atmospheric methane consumption by three forest soils from different vegetation types and by the cultured methanotrophic strain, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Subsurface soil from coniferous (Pinus banksiana), deciduous (Populus tremuloides), and mixed hardwood (Tsuga canadensis and Prunus pensylvanica) stands was used under field-moist and slurry conditions. Most of the hydrocarbon monoterpenes tested significantly inhibited methane consumption by soils at environmentally relevant levels, with ({minus})-{alpha}-pinene being the most effective. With the exception of {beta}-myrcene, monoterpenes also strongly inhibited methane oxidation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. Carbon dioxide production was stimulated in all of the soils by the monoterpenes tested. In one case, methane production was stimulated by ({minus})-{alpha}-pinene in an intact, aerobic core. Oxide and alcohol monoterpenoids stimulated methane production. Thus, monoterpenes appear to be potentially important regulators of methane consumption and carbon metabolism in forest soils.

  6. Late Holocene forest dynamics, volcanism, and climate change at Whitewing Mountain and San Joaquin Ridge, Mono County, Sierra Nevada, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, Constance I.; King, John C.; Westfall, Robert D.; Alden, Harry A.; Delany, Diane L.

    2006-09-01

    Deadwood tree stems scattered above treeline on tephra-covered slopes of Whitewing Mtn (3051 m) and San Joaquin Ridge (3122 m) show evidence of being killed in an eruption from adjacent Glass Creek Vent, Inyo Craters. Using tree-ring methods, we dated deadwood to AD 815-1350 and infer from death dates that the eruption occurred in late summer AD 1350. Based on wood anatomy, we identified deadwood species as Pinus albicaulis, P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. contorta, P. jeffreyi, and Tsuga mertensiana. Only P. albicaulis grows at these elevations currently; P. lambertiana is not locally native. Using contemporary distributions of the species, we modeled paleoclimate during the time of sympatry to be significantly warmer (+3.2°C annual minimum temperature) and slightly drier (-24 mm annual precipitation) than present, resembling values projected for California in the next 70-100 yr.

  7. Phylogeny and divergence times in Pinaceae: evidence from three genomes.

    PubMed

    Wang, X Q; Tank, D C; Sang, T

    2000-05-01

    In Pinaceae, the chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes are paternally, maternally, and biparentally inherited, respectively. Examining congruence and incongruence of gene phylogenies among the three genomes should provide insights into phylogenetic relationships within the family. Here we studied intergeneric relationships of Pinaceae using sequences of the chloroplast matK gene, the mitochondrial nad5 gene, and the low-copy nuclear gene 4CL. The 4CL gene may exist as a single copy in some species of Pinaceae, but it constitutes a small gene family with two or three members in others. Duplication and deletion of the 4CL gene occurred at a tempo such that paralogous loci are maintained within but not between genera. Exons of the 4CL gene have diverged approximately twice as fast as the matK gene and five times more rapidly than the nad5 gene. The partition-homogeneity test indicates that the three data sets are homogeneous. A combined analysis of the three gene sequences generated a well-resolved and strongly supported phylogeny. The combined phylogeny, which is topologically congruent with the three individual gene trees based on the Templeton test, is likely to represent the organismal phylogeny of Pinaceae. This phylogeny agrees to a certain extent with previous phylogenetic hypotheses based on morphological, anatomical, and immunological data. Disagreement between the previous hypotheses and the three-genome phylogeny suggests that morphology of both vegetative and reproductive organs has undergone convergent evolution within the pine family. The strongly supported monophyly of Nothotsuga longibracteata, Tsuga mertensiana, and Tsuga canadensis on all three gene phylogenies provides evidence against previous hypotheses of intergeneric hybrid origins of N. longibracteata and T. mertensiana. Divergence times of the genera were estimated based on sequence divergence of the matK gene, and they correspond well with the fossil record. PMID:10779538

  8. Mapped plant-macrofossil and pollen records of late quaternary vegetation change in Eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Stephen T.; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Webb-, Thompson; Keattch, Sharen E.; Anderson, Katherine H.

    Macrofossil presence/absence maps and isopoll maps in 3000-year intervals show how ranges and abundance maxima for 12 eastern North American tree and shrub taxa ( Picea, P. glauca, P. mariana, Larix laricina, Abies balsamea, Tsuga canadensis, Pinus strobus, P. resinosa, P. banksiana, Betula papyrifera, B. alleghaniensis, B. Series Humiles) have changed from the last glacial maximum to the present. The macrofossil maps corroborate patterns shown by the isopoll maps and provide spatial detail and taxonomic resolution. The macrofossils confirm the inference from pollen data that unglaciated southeastern North America was cooler during the last glacial maximum (18 and 15 ka) than simulated by the COHMAP experiments with the NCAR CCM0 general circulation model. The geographic distribution of macrofossil occurrences during the Late glacial (12 and 9 ka) indicate that migration lag of boreal species did not occur at regional to subcontinental scales, and that pollen assemblages lacking modern analogs resulted from climate gradients lacking modern analogs. Early Holocene (9 and 6 ka) macrofossil maps show rapid northward expansion of tree species ranges into deglaciated regions. The data also show modest contractions of northern range limits of temperate species and expansions of southern range limits of boreal species in response to cooling trends during the late Holocene (3 and 0 ka). Comparison of modern macrofossil maps of nine of these taxa with corresponding range maps confirm that the macrofossils record the geographic ranges accurately. Comparison of the modern macrofossil maps with maps of tree growing-stock volume shows that for some taxa ( Abies, Tsuga) macrofossil occurrences were most frequent in regions of maximum tree abundance. Comparison of modern isopoll maps with the modern range and growing-stock volume maps indicate that, in contrast to the macrofossil data, the pollen data provide poorer resolution of range limits for most taxa, but better indications of abundance maxima and minima within the ranges.

  9. Monitoring Forest Change and Ice Storm Disturbance to Forest Structure Using Echidna° Ground-Based Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, T.; Strahler, A. H.; Schaaf, C.; Yang, X.; zhao, F.; Woodcock, C. E.; Jupp, D. L.; Culvenor, D.; Lovell, J.; Newnham, G.; Li, X.; Wang, J.

    2011-12-01

    The ground-based, upward-scanning, near-infrared (1064 nm), full-waveform lidar, the Echidna° Validation Instrument (EVI), built by CSIRO Australia, is used to monitor forest change over a 2- or 3-year time period through changes in retrievals of mean stem diameter, stem density, basal area, above-ground standing biomass, leaf area index, foliage profile, and canopy height. The changes were validated by comparison with direct field measurements, or in the case of canopy height, with data from the Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). Site-level EVI-retrieved values of mean DBH, stem count density, basal area and above-ground biomass matched the field measurements well, with R2 values of 0.84, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.98 respectively. Furthermore, the changes in EVI retrievals had the same trend as the change in field measurements over these 2-3 year periods. Based on five scans within each 1-ha plot, we focused on detecting forest change over a 2- or 3-year period at three New England forest stands: a second-growth conifer stand thinned as a shelterwood, an aging hemlock plantation, and a young second-growth hardwood stand. The first stand provided the opportunity to look for change in a stand containing many co-dominant and intermediate trees recently released by removal of selected over-story trees, while the other two stands suffered significant damage in an ice storm during the change period. At the shelterwood conifer site at Howland Experimental Forest, mean DBH, aboveground biomass, and leaf area index (LAI) all increased between 2007 and 2009. An ice storm struck the Harvard Forest in December, 2008, providing the opportunity to detect damage between 2007 and 2009 or 2010 with EVI scans at two sites : hemlock and hardwood. Retrieved leaf area index (LAI) was 13 percent lower in the hemlock site in 2009 and 10 percent lower in the hardwood site in 2010 as compared to 2007. The decrease of LAI quantifies a loss of biomass from the canopy, and broken tops were both recorded by the field teams and visible in the Echidna scans in the 2010 data. Stem density decreased and mean DBH increased at both sites, as smaller and weaker trees were felled by the ice. Canopy heights derived from the EVI-retrieved foliage profile closely matched those derived from the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS).

  10. Correct names for some of the closest relatives of Carica papaya: A review of the Mexican/Guatemalan genera Jarilla and Horovitzia

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Fernanda Antunes; Renner, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Using molecular data, we recently showed that Carica papaya L. is sister to a Mexican/Guatemalan clade of two genera, Jarilla Rusby with three species and Horovitzia V.M. Badillo with one. These species are herbs or thin-stemmed trees and may be of interest for future genomics-enabled papaya breeding. Here we clarify the correct names of Jarilla heterophylla (Cerv. ex La Llave) Rusby and Jarilla caudata (Brandegee) Standl., which were confused in a recent systematic treatment of Jarilla (McVaugh 2001). We designate epitypes for both, provide weblinks to type specimens, a key to the species of Jarilla and Horovitzia, and notes on their habitats and distribution. PMID:24399895

  11. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for a federally threatened species, Hexastylis naniflora (Aristolochiaceae), and co-occurring congeners1

    PubMed Central

    Hamstead, Jacqueline W.; Snider, Brandon L.; Oaks, Robyn; Fitzgerald, Evan; Woodward, Jason; Teat, Alyssa; Hay, Nikolai M.; Estep, Matt C.; Murrell, Zack E.

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Twenty microsatellite loci were developed for the federally threatened species Hexastylis naniflora (Aristolochiaceae) to examine genetic diversity and to distinguish this species from co-occurring congeners, H. heterophylla and H. minor. Methods and Results: Next-generation sequencing approaches were used to identify microsatellite loci and design primers. One hundred fifty-two primer pairs were screened for repeatability, and 20 of these were further characterized for polymorphism. In H. naniflora, the number of alleles identified for polymorphic loci ranged from two to 23 (mean ?8.8), with a mean heterozygosity of 0.39. Conclusions: These 16 polymorphic primers for H. naniflora will be useful tools in species identification and quantifying genetic diversity within the genus. PMID:26191466

  12. Pushed to the limit: consequences of climate change for the Araucariaceae: a relictual rain forest family

    PubMed Central

    Offord, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Under predicted climate change scenarios, increased temperatures are likely to predispose trees to leaf and other tissue damage, resulting in plant death and contraction of already narrow distribution ranges in many relictual species. The effects of predicted upward temperatures may be further exacerbated by changes in rainfall patterns and damage caused by frosts on trees that have been insufficiently cold-hardened. The Araucariaceae is a relictual family and the seven species found in Australia have limited natural distributions characterized by low frost intensity and frequency, and warm summer temperatures. The temperature limits for these species were determined in order to help understand how such species will fare in a changing climate. Methods Experiments were conducted using samples from representative trees of the Araucariaceae species occurring in Australia, Agathis (A. atropurpurea, A. microstachya and A. robusta), Arauacaria (A. bidwilli, A. cunninghamii and A. heterophylla) and Wollemia nobilis. Samples were collected from plants grown in a common garden environment. Lower and higher temperature limits were determined by subjecting detached winter-hardened leaves to temperatures from 0 to –17 °C and summer-exposed leaves to 25 to 63 °C, then measuring the efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm) and visually rating leaf damage. The exotherm, a sharp rise in temperature indicating the point of ice nucleation within the cells of the leaf, was measured on detached leaves of winter-hardened and summer temperature-exposed leaves. Key Results Lower temperature limits (indicated by FT50, the temperature at which PSII efficiency is 50 %, and LT50 the temperature at which 50 % visual leaf damage occurred) were approx. –5·5 to –7·5 °C for A. atropurpurea, A. microstachya and A. heterophylla, approx. –7 to –9 °C for A. robusta, A. bidwillii and A. cunninghamii, and –10·5 to –11 °C for W. nobilis. High temperature damage began at 47·5 °C for W. nobilis, and occurred in the range 48·5–52 °C for A. bidwillii and A. cunninghamii, and in the range 50·5–53·5 °C for A. robusta, A. microstachya and A. heterophylla. Winter-hardened leaves had ice nucleation temperatures of –5·5 °C or lower, with W. nobilis the lowest at –6·8 °C. All species had significantly higher ice nucleation temperatures in summer, with A. atropurpurea and A. heterophylla forming ice in the leaf at temperatures >3 °C higher in summer than in winter. Wollemia nobilis had lower FT50 and LT50 values than its ice nucleation temperature, indicating that the species has a degree of ice tolerance. Conclusions While lower temperature limits in the Australian Araucariaceae are generally unlikely to affect their survival in wild populations during normal winters, unseasonal frosts may have devastating effects on tree survival. Extreme high temperatures are not common in the areas of natural occurrence, but upward temperature shifts, in combination with localized radiant heating, may increase the heat experienced within a canopy by at least 10 °C and impact on tree survival, and may contribute to range contraction. Heat stress may explain why many landscape plantings of W. nobilis have failed in hotter areas of Australia. PMID:21727080

  13. Corroborating molecular species discovery: Four new pine-feeding species of Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae)

    PubMed Central

    Vea, Isabelle M.; Gwiazdowski, Rodger A.; Normark, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The genus Chionaspis (Hemiptera, Diaspididae) includes two North American species of armored scale insects feeding on Pinaceae: Chionaspis heterophyllae Cooley, and Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch). Despite the economic impact of conifer-feeding Chionaspis on horticulture, the species diversity in this group has only recently been systematically investigated using samples from across the group’s geographic and host range. This paper provides morphological recognition characters for four new species that were recently hypothesized to exist on the basis of molecular evidence. The new species, here described, are Chionaspis brachycephalon Vea sp. n., Chionaspis caudata Vea sp. n., Chionaspis sonorae Vea sp. n. and Chionaspis torreyanae Vea sp. n.  One of the new species, Chionaspis caudata Vea, has a gland spine at the apex of the pygidium, between the median lobes, unlike any other species of Chionaspis. An identification key to the species of Chionaspis feeding on pine in North America is provided. PMID:23717184

  14. Sexual antagonism in the pistil varies among populations of a hermaphroditic mixed-mating plant.

    PubMed

    Hersh, E; Madjidian, J A; Andersson, S; Strandh, M; Armbruster, W S; Lankinen, Å

    2015-07-01

    Sexual conflicts and their evolutionary outcomes may be influenced by population-specific features such as mating system and ecological context; however, very few studies have investigated the link between sexual conflict and mating system. The self-compatible, mixed-mating hermaphrodite Collinsia heterophylla (Plantaginaceae) is thought to exhibit a sexual conflict over timing of stigma receptivity. This conflict involves (i) delayed stigma receptivity, which intensifies pollen competition, and (ii) early fertilization forced by pollen, which reduces seed set. We investigated the potential for the conflict to occur under field conditions and performed glasshouse crosses within eight populations to assess its consistency across populations. Flowers were visited, and produced seeds after pollination, at all developmental stages, suggesting that the conflict can be of significance under natural conditions. In the glasshouse, early pollination imposed costs in all populations. Overall, the timing of first seed set was most strongly affected by the maternal parent, denoting stronger female than male ability to influence the onset of stigma receptivity. Crosses also revealed a negative relationship between donor- and recipient-related onset of receptivity within individuals, a novel result hinting at trade-offs in sex allocation or a history of antagonistic selection. Neither timing of stigma receptivity, timing of first seed set, nor pollen competitive ability covaried with population outcrossing rate. In conclusion, these results indicate that sexually antagonistic selection may be present in varying degrees in different populations of C. heterophylla, but this variation does not appear to be directly related to mating system variation. PMID:26011732

  15. A review of the silicon material task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutwack, R.

    1984-01-01

    The Silicon Material Task of the Flat-Plate Solar Array Project was assigned the objective of developing the technology for low-cost processes for producing polysilicon suitable for terrestrial solar-cell applications. The Task program comprised sections for process developments for semiconductor-grade and solar-cell-grade products. To provide information for deciding upon process designs, extensive investigations of the effects of impurities on material properties and the performance of cells were conducted. The silane process of the Union Carbide Corporation was carried through several stages of technical and engineering development; a pilot plant was the culmination of this effort. The work to establish silane fluidized-bed technology for a low-cost process is continuing. The advantages of the use of dichlorosilane is a siemens-type were shown by Hemlock Semiconductor Corporation. The development of other processes is described.

  16. Evaluating Paleoecological Patterns Using Paleoenvironmental Proxies: The Promise and the Peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, S. T.; Booth, R. K.

    2007-12-01

    For the past seven years we have been studying the vegetational history of the western Great Lakes region in the context of mid- to late Holocene climate change and variability. Our work has included diverse archives and proxies for both paleoecological and paleoclimatic inference. The former consist of pollen, plant-macrofossil, and charcoal records from sediments of small lakes and peatlands. Paleoclimate inferences have been based on lake-level records, peatland-inception dates, dune and lakeshore dynamics, and paleohydrological reconstructions from ombrotrophic and kettle peatlands. Our greatest success has been in pairing lake-based paleoecological records with peatland-based paleohydrological records. Peatland hydrology is sensitive to annual and seasonal moisture variation, and peatland-sediment archives contain diverse proxies including testate-amoeba assemblages, humification, organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and plant macrofossils. Our work has resolved old controversies while unveiling unforeseen patterns. Examples include: (1) A mid-Holocene decline in hemlock populations, long attributed to a pest/pathogen outbreak, coincided with a rapid, unprecedented drop in peatland water levels. However, the decline shows complex structure in time, both ecologically and climatically. Hemlock's final demise 5000 yr BP was preceded by several centuries of multidecadal hydrological fluctuation accompanied by time- lagged hemlock fluctuations. (2) A late Holocene decline in beech populations, variously attributed to human-set fires and the Little Ice Age, occurred during a series of severe multidecadal droughts. This event is also structured in time and space: in some areas the droughts were dampened and beech increased, and at sites where beech decline and droughts occurred, beech pollen, charcoal concentrations, and water-levels fluctuated dramatically between 1000 and 700 yr BP. (3) Yellow birch populations expanded rapidly across a broad swath of Upper Michigan and Wisconsin during an extended pluvial period (4000-3000 yr BP) that followed on a drought of extraordinary duration and severity (4200-4000 yr BP). Continued expansion of yellow birch, as well as hemlock and beech, after 3000 yr BP was mediated by edaphic mosaics and centennial-scale pluvial events. Our experience indicates that integrated paleoecological and paleoclimatological studies have payoffs for ecology, paleoecology, and paleoclimatology. Perils, though real, are no different from those encountered in other interdisciplinary enterprises in the historical sciences. We identify six key challenges for continued progress in this area: (1)identifying, refining, and applying paleoclimate proxies that are sensitive to the same climate variables and at the same timescales as the ecological systems of interest. (2) correlating events in time among records, particularly when paleoecological and paleoclimate data derive from different archives. (3) identifying and modeling lags in ecological response to climate forcings. (4) determining proximal mechanisms of past ecological responses to climate changes. (5) assessing indirect responses to climate forcing, and interactions between climate and other factors (e.g., pests, wildfires). (6) determining "when to quit" - when to conclude that climate forcing of an observed ecological event is insupportable (versus assuming that the proxies examined to date simply aren't sensitive to whatever the ecological system is responding to). Meeting these challenges will require engagement and collaboration among paleoecologists, paleoclimatologists, geochronologists, and ecologists.

  17. Evaluating the Contribution of Climate Forcing and Forest Dynamics to Accelerating Carbon Sequestration by Forest Ecosystems in the Northeastern U.S.: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Munger, J. William [Harvard University, SEAS; Foster, David R. [Harvard University, Harvard Forest; Richardson, Andrew D. [Harvard University, OEB

    2014-10-01

    This report summarizes work to improve quantitative understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem processes that control carbon sequestration in unmanaged forests It builds upon the comprehensive long-term observations of CO2 fluxes, climate and forest structure and function at the Harvard Forest in Petersham, MA. This record includes the longest CO2 flux time series in the world. The site is a keystone for the AmeriFlux network. Project Description The project synthesizes observations made at the Harvard Forest HFEMS and Hemlock towers, which represent the dominant mixed deciduous and coniferous forest types in the northeastern United States. The 20+ year record of carbon uptake at Harvard Forest and the associated comprehensive meteorological and biometric data, comprise one of the best data sets to challenge ecosystem models on time scales spanning hourly, daily, monthly, interannual and multi-decadal intervals, as needed to understand ecosystem change and climate feedbacks.

  18. Antifeedant compounds from three species of Apiaceae active against the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller).

    PubMed

    Birkett, Michael A; Dodds, Catherine J; Henderson, Ian F; Leake, Lucy D; Pickett, John A; Selby, Martin J; Watson, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Extracts of volatiles from foliage of three plants in the Apiaceae, Conium maculatum L. (hemlock), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), and Petroselinum crispum Mill. (Nym.) (parsley), previously shown to exhibit antifeedant activity in assays with the field slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Muller) (Limacidae: Pulmonata), were studied further to identify the active components. Coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and neurophysiological assays using tentacle nerve preparations resulted in the identification of 11 active compounds from the three extracts. Wheat flour feeding bioassays were used to determine which of these compounds had the highest antifeedant activity. One of the most active compounds was the alkaloid gamma-coniceine, from C. maculatum. The role of potentially toxic alkaloids as semiochemicals and the potential for using such compounds as crop protection agents to prevent slug feeding damage is discussed. PMID:15139308

  19. Congenital skeletal malformations and cleft palate induced in goats by ingestion of Lupinus, Conium and Nicotiana species.

    PubMed

    Panter, K E; Keeler, R F; Bunch, T D; Callan, R J

    1990-01-01

    Three piperidine alkaloid containing plants, Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock), Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and Lupinus formosus (lunara lupine), induced multiple congenital contractures (MCC) and palatoschisis in goat kids when their dams were gavaged with the plant during gestation days 30-60. The skeletal abnormalities included fixed extension or flexure of the carpal, tarsal, and fetlock joints, scoliosis, lordosis, torticollis and rib cage abnormalities. Clinical signs of toxicity included those reported in sheep, cattle and pigs--ataxia, incoordination, muscular weakness, prostration and death. One quinolizidine alkaloid containing plant, Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine), on the other hand, which is also known to cause MCC in cows, caused only slight signs of toxicity in pregnant goats and no teratogenic effects in their offspring. PMID:2089736

  20. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. PMID:22449544

  1. Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of coniine enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen T; Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2008-10-01

    Coniine, one of the major toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum), occurs in two optically active forms. A comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers has not been previously reported. In this study, we separated the enantiomers of coniine and determined the biological activity of each enantiomer in vitro and in vivo. The relative potencies of these enantiomers on TE-671 cells expressing human fetal nicotinic neuromuscular receptors had the rank order of (-)-coniine > (+/-)-coniine > (+)-coniine. A mouse bioassay was used to determine the relative lethalities of (-)-, (+/-)-, and (+)-coniine in vivo. The LD 50 values of the coniine enantiomers were 7.0, 7.7, and 12.1 mg/kg for the (-)-, (+/-)-, and (+)- forms of coniine, respectively. The results from this study demonstrate that there is a stereoselective difference in the in vitro potencies of the enantiomers of coniine that directly correlates with the relative toxicities of the enantiomers in vivo. PMID:18763813

  2. [The attempts at drug therapy of cancer by Anton Störck (1731-1803). History of experimental pharmacology in the old Vienna Medical School].

    PubMed

    Schweppe, K W; Probst, C

    1982-03-15

    The essay deals with the development of medical research in Vienna - especially the development of therapeutic drugs. This progress is related to the philosophical, historical, and political background of the enlightened absolutism and the reformatory efforts of van Swieten during the regency of Maria Theresia in Austria. Anton Störck's research on hemlock (Conium maculatum) is used as an example. The method of Störck's research-work is described. Furthermore it is demonstrated to what extent Störck's data, deduced from empirical examinations, are integrated in the official medical system, i.e. Boerhaave's iatromechanic system. Finally the attempt is made to correlate these processes of medical history with the scientific-historical model of Thomas Kuhn. PMID:7043908

  3. Millennial scale climate variability of the northeast Pacific Ocean and northwest North America based on radiolaria and pollen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisias, N. G.; Mix, A. C.; Heusser, L.

    2001-08-01

    Radiolaria and pollen abundances in marine sediment cores from the northeast Pacific are used to reconstruct oceanographic and continental climate change during the past glacial cycle (0-150 kyr). These data allow direct comparison of the climate response of continental and oceanic systems. Detailed ? 18O and AMS- 14C measurements provide a link into global stratigraphic frameworks. Canonical correlation analysis extracts two modes of variation common to both the Radiolaria and pollen records. The first mode of variation correlates an assemblage of Radiolaria associated with coastal upwelling with increased redwood, western hemlock, and alder pollen. This association is consistent with the modern relationship between coastal upwelling, coastal fog and redwood forests. A second canonical mode relates an oceanic fauna now found in highest abundance in the far North Pacific with reduced pine and western hemlock pollen abundance. Comparison of these records to an ice core ? 18O record suggests that at wavelengths >3000 years, warm events in Greenland are correlated to intervals of increased coastal upwelling off Oregon, decreases in importance of very cold North Pacific fauna (suggesting warming), and increases in pollen associated with wetter coastal environments. Radiolarian based sea-surface temperature estimates suggest that the variability of the northeast Pacific on this time scale is about 2°C. Warming in the coastal regions reflects reduced advection of the California Current, but is moderated by increases in cool coastal upwelling. We infer that the response of the northeast Pacific to millennial scale climate changes is related to changes in atmospheric circulation at mid- to high latitudes. Preliminary analysis suggests that oceanic variability off Oregon at wavelengths <3000 years is similar to the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles of the ice core ? 18O records. This variability is associated with changes in subtropical faunal elements without similar changes in other faunal elements. This finding suggests that, unlike longer-period millennial scale events, the propagation of the shorter wavelength events to the Northeast Pacific is through subtropical or tropical teleconnections.

  4. Ecosystem, location, and climate effects on foliar secondary metabolites of lodgepole pine populations from central British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Christopher M; Huber, Dezene P W; Lewis, Kathy J

    2011-06-01

    Lodgepole pines, Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson, are encountering increased abiotic stress and pest activity due to recent increases in temperature and changes in precipitation throughout their range. This tree species counters these threats by producing secondary metabolites, including phenolics and terpenoids. We examined foliar levels of lignin, soluble phenolics, monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and diterpenoids in 12 stands in British Columbia, Canada. We used these data to assess associations among foliar secondary metabolite levels and ecosystem, geographic, and climatic variables. Regressions were also performed to observe which combinations of variables best explained secondary metabolite variance. Stands of P. c. latifolia in the Coastal Western Hemlock and Interior Cedar/Hemlock biogeoclimatic zones had consistently greater foliar levels of almost all measured secondary metabolites than did other stands. Lignin was present in greater amounts in Boreal White/Black Spruce ecosystem (i.e., northern) stands than in southern stands, suggesting a role for this metabolite in pine survival in the boreal forest. Attempts to develop regression models with geographic and climatic variables to explain foliar secondary metabolite levels resulted in multiple models with similar predictive capability. Since foliar secondary metabolite levels appeared to vary most between stand ecosystem types and not as much due to geographic and climatic variables, metabolic profiles appeared best matched to the stress levels within local environments. It is unknown if differences in secondary metabolite levels are the result of genetic adaptation or phenotypic plasticity, but results from this and other studies suggest that both are important. These results are interpreted in light of ongoing efforts to assist in the migration of certain populations of P. c. latifolia northward in an effort to counter predicted effects of climate change. PMID:21537900

  5. Climate and vegetation history from a 14,000-year peatland record, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Miriam C.; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Kurdyla, Dorothy; Guilderson, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    Analysis of pollen, spores, macrofossils, and lithology of an AMS 14C-dated core from a subarctic fen on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska reveals changes in vegetation and climate beginning 14,200 cal yr BP. Betula expansion and contraction of herb tundra vegetation characterize the Younger Dryas on the Kenai, suggesting increased winter snowfall concurrent with cool, sunny summers. Remarkable Polypodiaceae (fern) abundance between 11,500 and 8500 cal yr BP implies a significant change in climate. Enhanced peat preservation and the occurrence of wet meadow species suggest high moisture from 11,500 to 10,700 cal yr BP, in contrast to drier conditions in southeastern Alaska; this pattern may indicate an intensification and repositioning of the Aleutian Low (AL). Drier conditions on the Kenai Peninsula from 10,700 to 8500 cal yr BP may signify a weaker AL, but elevated fern abundance may have been sustained by high seasonality with substantial snowfall and enhanced glacial melt. Decreased insolation-induced seasonality resulted in climatic cooling after 8500 cal yr BP, with increased humidity from 8000 to 5000 cal yr BP. A dry interval punctuated by volcanic activity occurred between 5000 and 3500 cal yr BP, followed by cool, moist climate, coincident with Neoglaciation. Tsuga mertensiana expanded after ~ 1500 cal yr BP in response to the shift to cooler conditions.

  6. Ganodermataceae: natural products and their related pharmacological functions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuanwei; Lin, Juan; Yin, Yizhou; Zhao, Jingya; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review the natural products and the pharmacological functions of Ganodermataceae family. Presently, studies on the bioactive components of Lingzhi are focused on polysaccharides and triterpenes/triterpenoids compounds. New Ganoderma polysaccharides, including their molecular weights, glycosyl residue compositions, glycosyl linkage and branches, are summarized in this paper. Also presented are new types of triterpenes and their characteristics from Lingzhi. Taking Ganoderma lucidum as an example, we reviewed its pharmacological functions in anti-tumor and immune-modulating activities for treating hypoglycemosis, hepatoprotection, and the effect on blood vessel system. Based on the advances in Lingzhi research in the past few decades, both G. lucidum and G. sinense are considered as the representative species of medicinal mushroom Lingzhi in China. Until 2001, G. tsugae was only advised to be used as the materials of the health products. The biologically-active components related to pharmacological functions of these three species were studied more than other Ganodermataceae family species; however, which have been used in less modern folk medicine. PMID:17708623

  7. Near-Surface Soil Carbon, C/N Ratio and Tree Species Are Tightly Linked across Northeastern USA Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, D. S.; Bailey, S. W.; Lawrence, G. B.; Shanley, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Forest soils hold large stores of carbon, with the highest concentrations in the surface horizons. In these horizons, both the total C mass and the C/N ratio may respond more rapidly to changes in tree species than lower horizons. We measured C and C/N ratios in the Oa or A horizon from twelve watersheds at eight established forested research sites in the northeastern USA. The dominant tree species included Acer saccharum, Betula alleghaniensis, Fagus grandifolia, Picea rubens and Tsuga canadensis. In 710 plots, both soil C (50-530 g kg-1) and the C/N ratio (11.6-45.3) had a wide range. In all but the Cone Pond watershed, both N concentration and the C/N ratio were strongly related to C content. For these eleven watersheds, the average C/N = 9.5 + 0.030 X C g kg-1, R2 = 0.97, P < 0.001. Ratios at Cone Pond were much higher than would be predicted from this equation and charcoal was found in numerous samples, suggesting a source of recalcitrant C. Averaged by watershed, C concentration was also significantly related to C pools. Carbon concentration of the horizons sampled was negatively related to Acer saccharum + Betula alleghaniensis dominance and positively related to conifer + Fagus grandifolia dominance. The strong relationships between C, C/N ratio, and species suggest predictable patterns in C accumulation in near-surface soils.

  8. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2009-30 September 2009.

    PubMed

    Abdoullaye, Doukary; Acevedo, I; Adebayo, Abisola A; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca; Benjamin, R C; Bock, Dan G; Born, Céline; Brouat, Carine; Caccone, Adalgisa; Cao, Ling-Zhen; Casado-Amezúa, P; Catanéo, J; Correa-Ramirez, M M; Cristescu, Melania E; Dobigny, Gauthier; Egbosimba, Emmanuel E; Etchberger, Lianna K; Fan, Bin; Fields, Peter D; Forcioli, D; Furla, P; Garcia de Leon, F J; García-Jiménez, R; Gauthier, Philippe; Gergs, René; González, Clementina; Granjon, Laurent; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, Carla; Havill, Nathan P; Helsen, P; Hether, Tyler D; Hoffman, Eric A; Hu, Xiangyang; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Ishizaki, S; Ji, Heyi; Ji, X S; Jimenez, M L; Kapil, R; Karban, R; Keller, Stephen R; Kubota, S; Li, Shuzhen; Li, Wansha; Lim, Douglas D; Lin, Haoran; Liu, Xiaochun; Luo, Yayan; Machordom, A; Martin, Andrew P; Matthysen, E; Mazzella, Maxwell N; McGeoch, Mélodie A; Meng, Zining; Nishizawa, M; O'Brien, Patricia; Ohara, M; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Ortu, M F; Pedersen, Amy B; Preston, L; Ren, Qin; Rothhaupt, Karl-Otto; Sackett, Loren C; Sang, Qing; Sawyer, G M; Shiojiri, K; Taylor, Douglas R; Van Dongen, S; Van Vuuren, Bettine Jansen; Vandewoestijne, S; Wang, H; Wang, J T; Wang, L E; Xu, Xiang-Li; Yang, Guang; Yang, Yongping; Zeng, Y Q; Zhang, Qing-Wen; Zhang, Yongping; Zhao, Y; Zhou, Yan

    2010-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci and 72 pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Adelges tsugae, Artemisia tridentata, Astroides calycularis, Azorella selago, Botryllus schlosseri, Botrylloides violaceus, Cardiocrinum cordatum var. glehnii, Campylopterus curvipennis, Colocasia esculenta, Cynomys ludovicianus, Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys gunnisoni, Epinephelus coioides, Eunicella singularis, Gammarus pulex, Homoeosoma nebulella, Hyla squirella, Lateolabrax japonicus, Mastomys erythroleucus, Pararge aegeria, Pardosa sierra, Phoenicopterus ruber ruber and Silene latifolia. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Adelges abietis, Adelges cooleyi, Adelges piceae, Pineus pini, Pineus strobi, Tubastrea micrantha, three other Tubastrea species, Botrylloides fuscus, Botrylloides simodensis, Campylopterus hemileucurus, Campylopterus rufus, Campylopterus largipennis, Campylopterus villaviscensio, Phaethornis longuemareus, Florisuga mellivora, Lampornis amethystinus, Amazilia cyanocephala, Archilochus colubris, Epinephelus lanceolatus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Symbiodinium temperate-A clade, Gammarus fossarum, Gammarus roeselii, Dikerogammarus villosus and Limnomysis benedeni. This article also documents the addition of 72 sequencing primer pairs and 52 allele specific primers for Neophocaena phocaenoides. PMID:21565018

  9. Does canopy position affect wood specific gravity in temperate forest trees?

    PubMed

    Woodcock, D W; Shier, A D

    2003-04-01

    The radial increases in wood specific gravity known in many tree species have been interpreted as providing mechanical support in response to the stresses associated with wind loading. This interpretation leads to the hypothesis that individuals reaching the canopy should (1) be more likely to have radial increases in specific gravity and (2) exhibit greater increases than individuals in the subcanopy. Wood specific gravity was determined for three species of forest trees (Acer rubrum, Fagus grandifolia and Tsuga canadensis) growing in central Massachusetts, USA. Acer rubrum shows radial increases in specific gravity, but these increases are not more pronounced in canopy trees; the other two species show a pattern of radial decreases. The degree of radial increase or decrease is influenced by tree height and diameter. Of the dominant tree species for which we have data, A. rubrum, Betula papyrifera and Pinus strobus show radial increases in specific gravity, whereas F. grandifolia, T. canadensis and Quercus rubra show decreases. The occurrence of radial increases in B. papyrifera and P. strobus, which are often canopy emergents, suggests that it is overall adaptive strategy that is important rather than position (canopy vs. subcanopy) of any individual tree. It is suggested that radial increases in specific gravity are associated with early-successional status or characteristics and decreases with late-successional status or persistence in mature forest. PMID:12646497

  10. Macrofossil and Leaf Wax Biomarkers Reveal Vegetational and Climate History of Tamarack Pond, Black Rock Forest, Southeastern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, M.; Peteet, D. M.; Nichols, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Tamarack Pond (41.39500°N 74.02505°W) is located at an elevation of 1305 ft, within the variable topography (Fig. 3) of Black Rock Forest, a 3830-acre oak (Quercus) dominated forest located in the Hudson Highlands Physiographic Province in southeastern New York State. A 7.2 m core retrieved in 4 m of water with a modified Livingstone piston corer was subsampled at 2 and 4-cm intervals from the base of the core through the early Holocene. The basal date of 16, 200 cal. yr BP on Dryas integrifolia leaves in inorganic clays demonstrates the pond formation in a landscape of sparse tundra with Salix, Daphnia, and craneflies. Subsequent inorganic layers record Dryas, Salix, Alnus, Polytrichum juniperum, Sphagnum, and bryozoan statoblasts. A dramatic shift to 25% organic matter in the pond records Picea needles and the first record of charcoal. Continued increases in LOI in the pond are correlative with the presence of Abies balsamea and Betula papyrifera appears as the boreal forest develops and tundra disappears. A return to colder conditions is suggested with a slight decline in LOI as Betula glandulosa and Larix laricina are present along with the boreal mixture, and a large increase in Daphnia ephippia. A return to warmer conditions ensues with the decline of the boreal conifers and the presence of Tsuga canadensis. Leaf wax data will be presented along with the macrofossil results.

  11. Ice storm damage and early recovery in an old-growth forest.

    PubMed

    Duguay, S M; Arii, K; Hooper, M; Lechowicz, M J

    2001-01-01

    We quantified the damage caused by a major ice storm to individual trees in two 1-ha permanent plots located at Mont St. Hilaire in southwestern Québec, Canada. The storm, which occurred in January 1998, is the worst on record in eastern North America; glaze ice on the order of 80-100 mm accumulated at our study site. All but 3% of the trees (DBH > or = 10 cm) lost at least some crown branches, and 35% lost more than half their crown. Damage to trees increased in the order: Tsuga canadensis, Betula alleghaniensis, Ostrya virginiana, Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Quercus rubra, Betula papyrifera, Acer rubrum, Tilia americana, and Fraxinus americana. Only 22% of the saplings and small trees (4 cm < DBH < 10 cm) escaped being broken or pinned to the ground by falling material. Levels of damage generally were greater in an exposed ridge top forest than in a cove protected from wind. By August 1999 only 53% of the trees had new shoots developing from the trunk or broken branches; among the more dominant canopy trees, Fagus grandifolia had the least sprouting and Acer saccharum and Quercus rubra the most. We anticipate and will monitor both significant turnover in the tree community and some shift in composition of the canopy dominants. PMID:11339708

  12. Small latitudinal shift in the Kuroshio Extension (Central Pacific) during glacial times: evidence from pollen transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahata, Hodaka; Ohshima, Hideaki

    2002-08-01

    The mid-latitude area of the Central Pacific is sensitive to ocean environmental change because latitudinal fluctuation in a transition zone between subtropical and subarctic waters has played an important role in climatic change in East Asia, the North Pacific and North America. Higher amounts of pollen and spores were found in core H3571 on the Hess Rise during the glacials than during the interglacials. Pollen originating from broadleaf deciduous forest in warm and humid environments as well as from boreal conifers and tundra/park-tundra in cold and wet environments occurred during the glacials. The boreal conifer pollen such as Tsuga, Picea, and Haploxylon could originate from the central Japanese archipelago, that Ephedra was supplied from the Asian continent, and that the main source regions for the rest of the pollen and spores were from the southern Japanese archipelago to the area around the East China Sea. Therefore, ocean current transportation was important for the transportation of pollen and spores to the Hess Rise. This evidence demonstrates a small southward shift in the Kuroshio Extension during the glacials. It also suggests that terrestrial organic matter (OM) deposited in the open sea may also be transported by ocean currents, reflecting coastal terrestrial environments, although it is widely believed that terrestrial OM in open sea sediments is of aerosol origin.

  13. Paleoecology of late-glacial terrestrial deposits with in situ conifers from the submerged continental shelf of western canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Mathewes, Rolf W.; Fedje, Daryl W.

    2003-09-01

    Extensive portions of the continental shelf off the coast of British Columbia were subaerially exposed during Late Wisconsinan deglaciation due to lowering of relative sea level by as much as 150 m. Paleoecological analyses were conducted at two sites on the emergent continental shelf where terrestrial surfaces with in situ conifers are preserved. The woody plant remains confirm that, during the latest period of subaerial exposure, terrestrial vegetation was established on the continental shelf. Microscopic identification of fossil wood, and analyses of pollen and plant macrofossils from the associated paleosols and overlying shallow pond sediments indicate that productive Pinus contorta-dominated communities with abundant Alnus crispa and ferns grew on the shelf adjacent to and on the Queen Charlotte Islands around 12,200 14C yr B.P. Dwarf shrubs including Salix and Empetrum, and herbaceous plants such as Heracleum lanatum and Hippuris vulgaris, were also important components of the shelf vegetation. Near northern Vancouver Island, mixed coniferous forests dominated by Pinus contorta with Picea, Tsuga spp., Alnus spp., and ferns occupied the shelf at 10,500 14C yr B.P.

  14. Holocene vegetation history and Lake Michigan lake-level fluctuations on the southern shore of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, W.H. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1994-06-01

    A 250-cm sediment core with a base radiocarbon date of 7960 yrs BP was collected in June of 1993 from Elbow Lake, Mackinac Co., Michigan. Radiocarbon dates and fossil pollen preserved in lake sediments indicate that changes in vegetation are related to changes in climate and proximity to the Lake Michigan shoreline. Basal radiocarbon dates on sediment cores from a transect of ponds combined with tree-ring cores and GLO surveyor notes of a shipwreck reveal an average late-Holocene rate of regression of 3 feet per year. The pollen record, sediment stratigraphy, and sediment accumulation rates show that this general retreat of the shoreline was punctuated by periodic high stands. Radiocarbon dates of [approximately]6900 yrs BP indicate a high stand of Lake Michigan during the late-Chippewa state of Lake Michigan, prior to the classically recognized Nipissing-I high stand at [approximately]4500 yrs PB. Pollen percentages for Tsuga canadensis and Fagus grandifolia both reach > 1% by 5500 yrs BP, indicating that the northern shore of Lake Michigan provided suitable habitat for colonization by these species. Establishment of F. grandifolia at this time is associated with a rise in water table and is [approximately]2000 years prior to its expansion into the interior of the Upper Peninsula after 3500 yrs BP. A further increase in mesic hardwoods along with T. canadensis to their modern level by 2200 yrs BP is associated with an increase in sediment accumulation rate, indicative of a rising lake level and moister climate.

  15. Vegetation and Water Level Changes for the Northeast U.S. During the "8.2 ka Event"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, P. E.; Donnelly, J. P.; Shuman, B.; MacDonald, D.

    2006-12-01

    Cool conditions, known as the "8.2 ka event", occurred between 8400 and 7900 cal yr B.P. in Greenland, Europe and elsewhere in the North Atlantic. The impact of this brief cool interval on local forests is recorded in radiocarbon-dated, high-resolution pollen stratigraphies for New Long Pond (41^{0}50'N, 70^{0}42'W) and Davis Pond (42^{0}30'N, 73^{0}19'W), Massachusetts. The vegetation response to the event is recorded differently for regions with contrasting soil types. At New Long Pond, the sandy outwash derived soils are associated with changes in jack/red, white and pitch pine populations, whereas the dominant changes in vegetation for the clay-rich, proglacial lake derived soils around Davis Pond are among oak, hemlock, and beech. At both sites, pollen evidence for the "8.2 ka event" may be easily overlooked within the more dominant regional pattern for the Northeast, which shows a shift from dry to moist conditions in conjunction with changes from predominantly white pine to oak with more mesic plant taxa between 9000 and 8000 cal yr B.P. At New Long Pond, the "8.2 ka event" is brief, preceded by a low-stand in water-level during the early Holocene and dominated by white pine pollen. After 9000 cal yr B.P., pitch pine with beech, maple, hop/hornbeam, elm and ash pollen indicate a mixed mesophytic forest. A radiocarbon-dated decrease in loss-on-ignition values at 8400 cal yr B.P., likely related to a drawdown in lake level, distinguishes the "8.2 event" and helps highlight subtle shifts in vegetation that favor colder and drier conditions than before the event. Following this brief episode, the pollen data indicate a return to warm and moist conditions until about 5600 years ago. At Davis Pond, increased oak and decreased hemlock pollen abundances, followed by an increase in beech pollen abundance is evident and show what may be the dominant regional pollen signature for the "8.2 ka event" in the Northest. This pattern is also recorded at nearby Berry and North Ponds in western Massachusetts. The appearance of ragweed pollen at both Davis and New Long Pond may indicate perturbations to the vegetation that also relate to the "8.2 ka event".

  16. Detection of long-term trends in carbon accumulation by forests in Northeastern U. S. and determination of causal factors: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    J. William Munger; Steven C. Wofsy; David R. Foster

    2012-01-31

    The overall project goal was to quantify the trends and variability for Net ecosystem exchange of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and energy by northeastern forests, with particular attention to the role of succession, differences in species composition, legacies of past land use, and disturbances. Measurements included flux measurements and observations of biomass accumulation using ecosystem modeling as a framework for data interpretation. Continuation of the long-term record at the Environmental Measurement Site (EMS) Tower was a priority. The final quality-assured CO{sub 2}-flux data now extend through 2010. Data through 2011 are collected but not yet finalized. Biomass observations on the plot array centered on the tower are extended to 2011. Two additional towers in a hemlock stand (HEM) and a younger deciduous stand (LPH) complement the EMS tower by focusing on stands with different species composition or age distribution and disturbance history, but comparable climate and soil type. Over the period since 1993 the forest has added 24.4 Mg-C ha{sup -1} in the living trees. Annual net carbon uptake had been increasing from about 2 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} in the early 1990s to nearly 6 Mg-C ha{sup -1}y{sup -1} by 2008, but declined in 2009-2010. We attribute the increasing carbon uptake to a combination of warmer temperatures, increased photosynthetic efficiency, and increased influence by subcanopy hemlocks that are active in the early spring and late autumn when temperatures are above freezing but the deciduous canopy is bare. Not all of the increased carbon accumulation was found in woody biomass. Results from a study using data to optimize parameters in an ecosystem process model indicate that significant changes in model parameters for photosynthetic capacity and shifts in allocation to slow cycling soil organic matter are necessary for the model to match the observed trends. The emerging working hypothesis is that the pattern of increasing carbon uptake over the early 2000's represents a transient pulse that will eventually end as decomposition of the accumulated carbon catches up.

  17. Forest fuel reduction alters fire severity and long-term carbon storage in three Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen R; Harmon, Mark E; O'Connell, Kari E B

    2009-04-01

    Two forest management objectives being debated in the context of federally managed landscapes in the U.S. Pacific Northwest involve a perceived trade-off between fire restoration and carbon sequestration. The former strategy would reduce fuel (and therefore C) that has accumulated through a century of fire suppression and exclusion which has led to extreme fire risk in some areas. The latter strategy would manage forests for enhanced C sequestration as a method of reducing atmospheric CO2 and associated threats from global climate change. We explored the trade-off between these two strategies by employing a forest ecosystem simulation model, STANDCARB, to examine the effects of fuel reduction on fire severity and the resulting long-term C dynamics among three Pacific Northwest ecosystems: the east Cascades ponderosa pine forests, the west Cascades western hemlock-Douglas-fir forests, and the Coast Range western hemlock-Sitka spruce forests. Our simulations indicate that fuel reduction treatments in these ecosystems consistently reduced fire severity. However, reducing the fraction by which C is lost in a wildfire requires the removal of a much greater amount of C, since most of the C stored in forest biomass (stem wood, branches, coarse woody debris) remains unconsumed even by high-severity wildfires. For this reason, all of the fuel reduction treatments simulated for the west Cascades and Coast Range ecosystems as well as most of the treatments simulated for the east Cascades resulted in a reduced mean stand C storage. One suggested method of compensating for such losses in C storage is to utilize C harvested in fuel reduction treatments as biofuels. Our analysis indicates that this will not be an effective strategy in the west Cascades and Coast Range over the next 100 years. We suggest that forest management plans aimed solely at ameliorating increases in atmospheric CO2 should forgo fuel reduction treatments in these ecosystems, with the possible exception of some east Cascades ponderosa pine stands with uncharacteristic levels of understory fuel accumulation. Balancing a demand for maximal landscape C storage with the demand for reduced wildfire severity will likely require treatments to be applied strategically throughout the landscape rather than indiscriminately treating all stands. PMID:19425428

  18. Free-living ciliates from epiphytic tank bromeliads in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Durán-Ramírez, Carlos Alberto; García-Franco, José Guadalupe; Foissner, Wilhelm; Mayén-Estrada, Rosaura

    2015-02-01

    The ciliate diversity of Mexican bromeliads is poorly known. We studied the ciliate community of two species of epiphytic tank bromeliads from 48 individuals of Tillandsia heterophylla and four of T. prodigiosa. The bromeliads occurred on over 22 tree host species. Samples were collected during 2009 and 2010 in a mountain cloud forest and in two coffee plantations and in a pine-oak forest. The ciliates were identified in live and protargol preparations. We recorded 61 ciliate species distributed in 39 genera grouped in eight classes. Ten species were frequent in the 52 samples (20 ± 3.2) and Leptopharynx bromeliophilus was the most frequent recorded in 25 samples. Thirty-three species are new for the fauna of Mexico, 24 species have been recorded for the first time in tank bromeliads. The classes Spirotrichea, Oligohymenophorea and Colpodea presented the highest number of species, 16, 14, and 12, respectively. Colpoda was the most species-rich genus being present with six species. A low similarity between areas and seasons was obtained with Jaccard's index. We conclude that the two bromeliads species host a rich ciliate diversity whose knowledge contributes to the question of ciliate distribution and specifically, in tank bromeliads. PMID:25497463

  19. Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec., a gonostomatid ciliate (Ciliophora, Hypotricha) from tank bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with de novo originating dorsal kineties.

    PubMed

    Foissner, Wilhelm; Stoeck, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Cotterillia bromelicola nov. gen., nov. spec. was discovered in the tanks of the Mexican bromeliad Tillandsia heterophylla. Its morphology, ontogenesis, and 18S rDNA were studied with standard methods. Cotterillia has many cirral rows on both sides of the body. Uniquely, and thus used to diagnose the new genus Cotterillia, it has dorsal kineties originating de novo, producing neokinetal waves where the parental dorsal kineties reorganize to "combined rows", consisting of dorsal bristles anteriorly and of cirri posteriorly. Thus, up to four generations of bristles and cirri occur on the dorsal body surface. Cotterillia bromelicola has a gonostomatid body and adoral zone of membranelles, while the dense ciliature and the neokinetal waves resemble kahliellid hypotrichs. However, the de novo origin of anlage 1 and the molecular analyses show convincingly that Cotterillia belongs to the GonostomatidaeSmall and Lynn, 1985, for which an improved diagnosis is provided. Thus, neokinetal waves originated several times independently. The molecular differences between Trachelostyla, Gonostomum, and Cotterillia are small (? 5%) compared to their distinct morphologies and ontogeneses, suggesting that the 18S rDNA underestimates generic diversity. Our study emphasizes the need of combined morphological, ontogenetic, and molecular investigations to unravel the complex phylogeny and evolution of hypotrich ciliates. PMID:20971620

  20. [Effects of relative abundance of Quercus mongolica acorns on five tree species seed dispersal in Xiaoxing' an Mountains, Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Shi, Xiao-Xiao; Yi, Xian-Feng; Wang, De-Xiang

    2013-06-01

    An investigation was conducted in a forest farm in the Xiaoxing' an Mountains in autumn, 2009 and 2010 to study the effects of Quercus mongolica acorn quantity and rodent density on the seed dispersal of five tree species (Juglans mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, Corylus mandshurica, Corylus heterophylla, and Q. mongolica). In the farm, there was an annual change in rodent density. The total capture rate of small rodents in 2009 (31.0%) was significantly higher than that in 2010 (16.7%). The acorn quantity and relative seed abundance (per capita rodent) of Quercus mongolica in 2009 (6.2 +/- 2.1 acorns x m(-2) and 20.0, respectively) were significantly lower than those in 2010 (26.7 +/- 10.2 acorns x m(-2) and 160.0, respectively). In 2009, all the seeds of the five tree species except J. mandshurica were dispersed or eaten in situ, among which, the acorns of Q. mongolica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. In 2010, the seeds of J. mandshurica were scatter-hoarded most, and their average dispersal distance was the furthest. The relative seed abundance of Q. mongolica could be the key factor determining the seed dispersal of the other tree species in the study area. PMID:24066536

  1. Extracts from plants used in Mexican traditional medicine activate Ca(2+)-dependent chloride channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Moreno, J; Arellano, R O

    2003-01-01

    The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effects of chloroform-methanol (1:1) extracts derived from five medicinal plants on Xenopus laevis oocytes. When evaluated at concentrations of 1 to 500 microg/ml, the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Baccharis heterophylla H.B.K (Asteraceae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Desmodium grahami Gray (Leguminosae) and Solanum rostratum Dun (Solanaceae) produced concentration-dependent oscillatory inward currents in the oocytes, while the extract of Gentiana spathacea did not induce any response. The reversal potential of the currents elicited by the active extracts was -17 +/- 2 mV and was similar to the chloride equilibrium potential in oocytes. These ionic responses were independent of extracellular calcium. However, they were eliminated by overnight incubation with BAPTA-AM (10 microM), suggesting that the currents were dependent on intracellular Ca2+ increase. Thus the plant extracts activate the typical oscillatory Ca(2+)-dependent Cl- currents generated in the Xenopus oocyte membrane more probably via a mechanism that involves release of Ca2+ from intracellular reservoirs. These observations suggest that Xenopus oocyte electrophysiological recording constitutes a suitable assay for the study of the mechanisms of action of herbal medicines. PMID:12834007

  2. Delayed tree mortality in the Atchafalaya Basin of Southern Louisiana following Hurricane Andrew

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeland, B.D.; Gorham, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Hurricanes can damage trees in forested wetlands, and the potential for mortality related to these storms exists due to the effects of tree damage over time. In August 1992, Hurricane Andrew passed through the forested wetlands of southern Louisiana with winds in excess of 225 kph. Although more than 78 of the basal area was destroyed in some areas, most trees greater than 2.5 cm dbh were alive and resprouting prolifically the following year (98.8). Survival of most tree species was similarly high two years after the hurricane, but mortality rates of some species increased dramatically. For example, Populus heterophylla (swamp cottonwood) mortality increased from 7.8 to 59.2 (n 76) and Salix interior (sandbar willow) mortality increased from 4.5 to 57.1 (n 21). Stem sprouts on many up-rooted hardwood trees of other species were still alive in 1998, 6 years after the hurricane. Due to the understory tree species composition, regeneration, and high levels of resprouting, there was little change in species composition or perhaps a slight shift toward more shade and flood tolerant species six years following the hurricane event. Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow) was found on some of the sites heavily disturbed by Hurricane Andrew, and may proliferate at the expense of native tree species. ?? 2009 The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  3. Comparisons between conventional, ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted methods for extraction of anthraquinones from Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook f. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Barrera Vázquez, M F; Comini, L R; Martini, R E; Núñez Montoya, S C; Bottini, S; Cabrera, J L

    2014-03-01

    This work reports a comparative study about extraction methods used to obtain anthraquinones (AQs) from stems and leaves of Heterophyllae pustulata Hook (Rubiáceae). One of the conventional procedures used to extract these metabolites from a vegetable matrix is by successive Soxhlet extractions with solvents of increasing polarity: starting with hexane to eliminate chlorophylls and fatty components, following by benzene and finally ethyl acetate. However, this technique shows a low extraction yield of total AQs, and consumes large quantities of solvent and time. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) have been investigated as alternative methods to extract these compounds, using the same sequence of solvents. It was found that UAE increases the extraction yield of total AQs and reduces the time and amount of solvent used. Nevertheless, the combination UAE with benzene, plus MAE with ethyl acetate at a constant power of 900 W showed the best results. A higher yield of total AQs was obtained in less time and using the same amount of solvent that UAE. The optimal conditions for this latter procedure were UAE with benzene at 50 °C during 60 min, followed by MAE at 900 W during 15 min using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. PMID:24071561

  4. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  5. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    PubMed

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced. PMID:19261068

  6. Xanthorrhizol induces endothelium-independent relaxation of rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Campos, M G; Oropeza, M V; Villanueva, T; Aguilar, M I; Delgado, G; Ponce, H A

    2000-06-01

    Xanthorrhizol, a bisabolene isolated from the medicinal plant Iostephane heterophylla, was assayed on rat thoracic aorta rings to elucidate its effect and likely mechanism of action, by measuring changes of isometric tension. Xanthorrhizol (1, 3, 10, 30 and 100 microg/mL) significantly inhibited precontractions induced by KCI-; (60mM), noradrenaline (10(-6) M) or CaCl2 (1.0 mM). Increasing concentrations of external calcium antagonized the inhibitory effect on KCl-induced contractions. The vasorelaxing effect of xanthorrhizol was not affected by indomethacin (10 microM) or L-NAME (100 microM) in intact rat thoracic aorta rings precontracted by noradrenaline, which suggested that the effect was not mediated through either endothelium-derived prostacyclin (PGI2) or nitric oxide release from endothelial cells. Endothelium removal did not affect the relaxation induced by xanthorrhizol on rat thoracic aorta rings, discarding the participation of any substance released by the endothelium. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect was greater on KCI- and CaCl2-induced contractions than on those induced by noradrenaline. Xanthorrhizol inhibitory effect in rat thoracic aorta is likely explained for interference with calcium availability by inhibiting calcium influx through both voltage- and receptor-operated channels. PMID:10983876

  7. Light brown apple moth in California: a diversity of host plants and indigenous parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Geng; Levy, Karmit; Mills, Nicholas J; Daane, Kent M

    2012-02-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), an Australia native tortricid, was found in California in 2006. A field survey of host plants used by E. postvittana was conducted in an urban region of the San Francisco Bay Area. An inspection of 152 plant species (66 families), within a 23-ha residential community, found E. postvittana on 75 species (36 families). Most (69 species) host plants were not Australian natives, but had a wide geographic origin; 34 species were new host records for E. postvittana. Heavily infested species were the ornamental shrubs Myrtus communis L., Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Aiton, Euonymus japonicus Thunb., and Sollya heterophylla Lindl. To survey for parasitoids, four urban locations were sampled, with E. postvittana collected from five commonly infested plants [M. communis, P. tobira, E. japonicus, Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Genista monspessulana (L.) L.A.S. Johnson]. Twelve primary parasitoid species and two hyperparasitoids were reared; the most common were the egg parasitoid Trichogramma fasciatum (Perkins), the larval parasitoids Meteorus ictericus Nees, and Enytus eureka (Ashmead), and the pupal parasitoid Pediobius ni Peck. Meteorus ictericus accounted for >80% of the larval parasitoids, and was recovered from larvae collected on 39 plant species. Across all samples, mean parasitism was 84.4% for eggs, 43.6% for larvae, and 57.5% for pupae. The results are discussed with respect to the potential for resident parasitoid species to suppress E. postvittana populations. PMID:22525062

  8. Simultaneous prediction of density and moisture content of wood by terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Tetsuya; Ahmed, Belal; Hartley, Ian D.; Tsuchikawa, Satoru; Reid, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    In this study, demonstration of simultaneous prediction of solid wood density and moisture content, both of which are critical in manufacturing operations, of 4 species (Aspen, Birch, Hemlock and Maple) was accomplished using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). THz measurements of wood at various moisture contents were taken for two orientations of the THz field (parallel and perpendicular) with respect to the visible grain. The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function averaged over the frequency range of 0.1 to 0.2 THz had strong correlation with density and moisture content of the wood. We extend a model that has been applied previously to oven-dry wood to include the effects of moisture below the fiber saturation point by combining two effective medium models, which allows the dielectric function of water, air and oven-dry cell wall material to be modeled to give an effective dielectric function for the wood. A strong correlation between measured and predicted values for density and moisture content were observed.

  9. Evaluating the performance of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) for a western US coniferous forest under annual drought stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, H.; Lin, J. C.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Community Land Model (CLM) is the land model of NCAR's Community Earth System Model (CESM), encompassing land biogeophysics, biogeochemistry, hydrology, and ecosystem dynamics components. Several modifications were implemented in its most recent release (CLM4.5), including a revised photosynthesis scheme and improved hydrology, among an extensive list of updates. Since version 4.0, CLM also includes parameterizations related to photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination. In this study we evaluate the performance of CLM4.5 at the Wind River Field Station AmeriFlux site (US-Wrc), with particular attention to its parameterization of ecosystem drought response. US-Wrc is located near the WA/OR border in a coniferous forest (Douglas-fir/western hemlock), in a region characterized by strongly seasonal climate and summer drought. Long-term meteorological/biological data are available through the AmeriFlux repository (almost a decade of L4 (gap-filled) data available, starting in 1998). Another factor that makes the site so unique is the availability of a decade-long record of carbon isotope ratios (?13C). Here we run CLM in offline mode, forced by the observed meteorological data, and then compare modeled surface fluxes (CO2, sensible heat, and latent heat) against observed eddy-covariance fluxes. We also use the observed ?13C values to assess the parameterizations of carbon isotope discrimination in the model. We will present the result of the analysis and discuss possible improvements in the model.

  10. Changes in winter conditions impact forest management in north temperate forests.

    PubMed

    Rittenhouse, Chadwick D; Rissman, Adena R

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may impact forest management activities with important implications for forest ecosystems. However, most climate change research on forests has focused on climate-driven shifts in species ranges, forest carbon, and hydrology. To examine how climate change may alter timber harvesting and forest operations in north temperate forests, we asked: 1) How have winter conditions changed over the past 60 years? 2) Have changes in winter weather altered timber harvest patterns on public forestlands? 3) What are the implications of changes in winter weather conditions for timber harvest operations in the context of the economic, ecological, and social goals of forest management? Using meteorological information from Climate Data Online and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models we document substantial changes in winter conditions in Wisconsin, including a two- to three-week shortening of frozen ground conditions from 1948 to 2012. Increases in minimum and mean soil temperatures were spatially heterogeneous. Analysis of timber harvest records identified a shift toward greater harvest of jack pine and red pine and less harvest of aspen, black spruce, hemlock, red maple, and white spruce in years with less frozen ground or snow duration. Interviews suggested that frozen ground is a mediating condition that enables low-impact timber harvesting. Climate change may alter frozen ground conditions with complex implications for forest management. PMID:25463581

  11. Glacial geology, glacial recession, proglacial lakes, and postglacial environments, Fishers Island, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sirkin, L. (Adelphi Univ., Garden City, NY (United States)); Funk, R.E. (New York State Museum, Albany, NY (United States). Anthropological Survey)

    1993-03-01

    The Fishers Island Moraine, a complex of three parallel ice margin depositional trends, forms the west-central segment of a major recessional moraine of the Connecticut-Rhode Island Lobe of the late Wisconsinan glacier. As such, the moraine links the Orient Point Moraine of eastern Long Island and the Charlestown Moraine of western Rhode Island and marks a prominent recessional ice margin. The moraine is correlative with the Roanoke Point Moraine of the Connecticut Lobe of northeastern Long Island. Pollen stratigraphy of >13,180 ka bog sediments begins early in the spruce (A) pollen zone with evidence of a cold, late-glacial climate. The pine (B) pollen zone, beginning prior to 11,145 ka, and the oak (C) pollen zone, dating from about 9,000 ka with hickory and hemlock subzones, are well represented. However, after about 2,000 ka, the stratigraphic record in the bog sections is missing in most cases due to peat harvesting. Pollen spectra from several archeological sites fall within the late oak pollen zone, well within the land clearing interval with evidence of hardwood forests and locally holly and cedar. Evidence of cultigens in the pollen record is sparse. Marine deposits over fresh water bog and proglacial lake sediments show that some coastal bogs were drowned by sea level rise.

  12. Effects of mycorrhizas and pH on nitrogen and potassium fluxes in Pacific Northwest coniferous roots

    SciTech Connect

    Rygiewicz, P.T.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation research studied mechanisms by which mycorrhizal tree roots take up ammonium and nitrate over a range of solution pH. Using mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal Douglas-fir, Sitka spruce and western hemlock seedlings, fluxes of N, H/sup +/, OH/sup -/, K/sup +/ and Ca/sup + +/ were measured. As pH increased, ammonium uptake rates increased and mycorrhizas significantly increased uptake for all three tree species. Surprisingly, nitrate uptake rates also increased with increasing pH, although not as dramatically as for ammonium. Even though mycorrhizas increased nitrate uptake rates, the effect was observed only to a small extent for Douglas-fir. Ammonium rates were substantially greater than nitrate rates for all coniferous seedlings. Calcium fluxes increased with increasing pH and ranged from efflux at low pH to uptake at high pH. Potassium was consistently released and these dynamic fluxes were the largest measured. Bicarbonate was also released during ammonium uptake and in significantly greater amounts by mycorrhizal roots. Total cation fluxes were much faster than anion fluxes and may have resulted in increased organic acid synthesis. This relative importance of cation flux was particularly significant for these coniferous seedlings, because cation fluxes were tenfold greater than comparable fluxes reported for agricultural species. In conclusion, this research suggests that ectomycorrhizas can significantly improve nutrient acquisition and have particular importance for nitrogen, the major nutrient limitation in Pacific Northwest forests.

  13. Mortality rates associated with crown health for eastern forest tree species.

    PubMed

    Morin, Randall S; Randolph, KaDonna C; Steinman, Jim

    2015-03-01

    The condition of tree crowns is an important indicator of tree and forest health. Crown conditions have been evaluated during inventories of the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program since 1999. In this study, remeasured data from 55,013 trees on 2616 FIA plots in the eastern USA were used to assess the probability of survival among various tree species using the suite of FIA crown condition variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to develop models for predicting tree survival. Results of the regression analyses indicated that crown dieback was the most important crown condition variable for predicting tree survival for all species combined and for many of the 15 individual species in the study. The logistic models were generally successful in representing recent tree mortality responses to multiyear infestations of beech bark disease and hemlock woolly adelgid. Although our models are only applicable to trees growing in a forest setting, the utility of models that predict impending tree mortality goes beyond forest inventory or traditional forestry growth and yield models and includes any application where managers need to assess tree health or predict tree mortality including urban forest, recreation, wildlife, and pest management. PMID:25655130

  14. Rapid Vegetational Change in Coastal North America: The Response to Climate Since the LGM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peteet, Dorothy; Kneller, Margaret

    1999-01-01

    The late-glacial interval provided rapid shifts in climate which are mirrored by dramatic vegetational changes in North America. Through a transect of lake and mire sites from Connecticut to Virginia on the east coast and Kodiak Island on the western coast, we trace the warming following the LGM with the response of forests and tundra. A brief cold reversal in Virginia is seen from 12,260 to 12,200. The subsequent longer and extreme Younger Dryas event is marked in the southern New England - New Jersey region by dramatic boreal and deciduous forest changes. In the southeastern US, forests also change rapidly, with hemlock forest expansion suggesting increased moisture. In Kodiak Island, the warm, moist tundra of the Bolling/Allerod is replaced by colder, windswept Empetrum-dominated tundra during the Younger Dryas. The Pleistocene/Holocene shift in vegetation is remarkably pronounced in eastern North America as well as the Alaskan coastline. Response time of vegetation to climate change appears to be on the order of decades throughout these coastal locations, probably because of the proximity of sites to important ecotonal boundaries, and the magnitude of the events. Even in Virginia's Holocene record, a cold reversal inferred from increases in spruce and fir is noted at 7500 C14 yr BP. This response of the forests to a short-lived cooling shows the sensitivity of the biosphere to a rapid climate shifts.

  15. Groundwater-discharge wetlands in the Tanana Flats, interior Alaska. Study report

    SciTech Connect

    Racine, C.H.; Walters, J.C.

    1991-07-01

    In the northwest corner of the Tanana Flats, a lowland basin just south of Fairbanks in interior Alaska, there is a vast network of floating-mat wetlands or fens that appears to be unique in terms of their origin, large areal extent, and absence of sphagnum moss and associated peat. During the summers of 1989 and 1990 a study of the impacts of airboats on these wetlands included aerial and ground reconnaissance of 20 sites to characterize the vegetation, hydrology and subsurface conditions. These wetlands consist of a floating vegetation mat up to 1 m thick, forming an almost complete cover over deeper water bodies. The mats consist of a tall, dense and productive network of emergent vascular plants, including buckbean (menyanthes trifoliata), swamp horsetail(Equisetum fluviatile), sedges (Carexaquatilis), marshfivefinger(potentilla palustris),water hemlock (Cicuta mackenzieana) and bladderwort (Utricularia sp.). Evidence that these wetlands are formed by groundwater discharge includes (a) the apparent absence of permafrost under these wetlands but its presence on the adjacent forested uplands, (b) nearby winter icings resulting from artesian springs, (c) the relatively high pH, conductivity, calcium and magnesium concentrations of the water, (d) the vascular plant species composition and in particular the absence of Sphagnum moss, and (e) the flow of water and the geological history of the area. Expansion of these fens in several places is suggested by dead and dying white birch along the upland-fen margin, were permafrost thaw and subsidence (thermokarst) is taking place.

  16. A novel circumpolar map for upscaling of carbon fluxes and pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widhalm, Barbara; Bartsch, Annett; Heim, Birgit; Sabel, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    A circumpolar representative and consistent wetland map is required for a range of applications spanning from upscaling of carbon fluxes and pools to climate modeling and wildlife habitat assessments. Currently available datasets lack sufficient accuracy in many regions of the Arctic. Synthetic Aperture Radar data from satellites have already been shown to be suitable for wetland mapping. ENVISAT Advanced SAR (ASAR) provides global medium resolution data, which in this study is examined with particular focus on wetness patterns. A novel wetness level classification has been developed using ASAR backscatter statistics within the framework of PAGE21 (www.page21.eu). The wetness level product distinguishes between three wetness classes 'wet', 'medium' and 'dry' and a class 'other' which mostly covers flat sandy soils. The comparison with conventional vegetation maps, such as the Circumpolar Arctic Vegetation Map, Northern Land Cover of Canada-Circa 2000, the (USGS) vegetation map of Alaska, GBFM Siberia and the thematic map of wetlands throughout Alaska showed promising results. For instance the comparison with the (USGS) vegetation map of Alaska showed that the class of 'wet sedge tundra' consisted of over 60% wet class pixels and only less than 10% dry pixels, while the non-wet class of 'closed spruce & hemlock forest' showed over 80% dry class pixels and less than 10% wet pixels. This novel map may be utilized for wetland related circumpolar land-atmosphere exchange studies.

  17. Impact of Canopy Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Carbon Storage: Initial Results from a manipulative Experiment at the Howland AmeriFlux Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollinger, D. Y.; Aber, J.; Dail, B.; Davidson, E.; Fernandez, I.; Goltz, S.; LeClerc, M.; Sievering, H.

    2001-12-01

    We are conducting a large-scale ecosystem manipulation experiment to evaluate the hypothesis that anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is enhancing forest ecosystem carbon sequestration. About 21 ha of spruce-hemlock forest in central Maine was fertilized at a rate of 18 kg N/ha/y in 2001 with additional applications planned in 2002-3. The N application is in liquid form to the canopy to more closely duplicate actual N deposition processes than previous studies that have applied fertilizer to the forest floor. The impact of this treatment on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) is being evaluated with the eddy covariance technique. Model simulations suggest that with low-moderate N uptake efficiency (20-50 percent), canopy photosynthesis (GEE) and NEE will each increase in the experimental treatment by readily detectable amounts (7-17 percent and 12-33 percent) after the first year of N addition, with further increases possible in subsequent years. We are using 15N labeled fertilizer on subplots in the treatment area and biomass measurements to independently assess C sequestration changes and partitioning following N addition.

  18. Intraspecific variation in sapling mortality and growth predicts geographic variation in forest composition

    SciTech Connect

    Kobe, R.K. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1996-05-01

    With a view toward understanding variation in species composition among different forest communities, I examined species-specific growth and mortality of juvenile tree (2.3-78 mm diameter at 10cm above the ground) at three contrasting sites. Two sites differing in soil mineralogy and elevation (schists/gneiss uplands vs. calcareous bedrock valley) were situated in northwestern Connecticut, USA. To examine variation over a more extensive geographic scale, I located the third site in central-western Michigan, USA. Among the three sites, the deciduous species (American beech, white ash, and sugar maple) showed little intraspecific variation in models of relative radial growth at the Michigan site could be explained by sapling growth models originally calibrated for the Connecticut sites. in contrast to the deciduous species, the evergreen species (white pine and eastern hemlock) exhibited between the two Connecticut sites. Intraspecific species, mortality processes exhibited more variation among the sites than did growth. I found significant site differences in mortality as a function of recent growth for both sugar maple and white ash on the calcareous soils in comparison to the schist/gneiss soils in Connecticut site were similar, and both differed from the Connecticut calcareous site. 65 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation in TE-671 cells and inhibition of fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model by optical isomers of the piperidine alkaloid coniine.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Pfister, James A; Panter, Kip E

    2013-01-01

    Coniine is an optically active toxic piperidine alkaloid and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist found in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum L.). Coniine teratogenicity is hypothesized to be attributable to the binding, activation, and prolonged desensitization of fetal muscle-type nAChR, which results in the complete inhibition of fetal movement. However, pharmacological evidence of coniine actions at fetal muscle-type nAChR is lacking. The present study compared (-)-coniine, (+)-coniine, and nicotine for the ability to inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model and in TE-671 cells that express fetal muscle-type nAChR. Furthermore, ?-conotoxins (CTx) EI and GI were used to antagonize the actions of (+)- and (-)-coniine in TE-671 cells. (-)-Coniine was more effective at eliciting electrical changes in TE-671 cells and inhibiting fetal movement than was (+)-coniine, suggesting stereoselectivity by the receptor. The pyridine alkaloid nicotine did not inhibit fetal movement in a day 40 pregnant goat model, suggesting agonist specificity for the inhibition of fetal movement. Low concentrations of both CTxs potentiated the TE-671 cell response and higher concentrations of CTx EI, and GI antagonized the actions of both coniine enantiomers demonstrating concentration-dependent coagonism and selective antagonism. These results provide pharmacological evidence that the piperidine alkaloid coniine is acting at fetal muscle-type nAChR in a concentration-dependent manner. PMID:23086230

  20. Ultrasound studies of the effects of certain poisonous plants on uterine function and fetal development in livestock.

    PubMed

    Bunch, T D; Panter, K E; James, L F

    1992-05-01

    Ingestion of locoweed (Astragalus spp. and Oxytropis spp.) by pregnant livestock may result in fetal malformations, delayed placentation, reduced placental and uterine vascular development, hydrops amnii, hydrops allantois, abnormal cotyledonary development, interruption of fetal fluid balance, and abortion. Ultrasonography of pregnant sheep fed locoweed demonstrated that abortion was first preceded by changes in fetal heart rate and strength of contraction and structural changes of the cotyledons, followed by increased accumulation of fetal fluid within the placental membranes and death of the fetus. During pregnancy the toxic agent in locoweed (swainsonine) apparently passes through the placental barrier to the fetus and during lactation through the milk to the neonate. Poison-hemlock (Conium maculatum), wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca), and lunara lupine (Lupinus formosus) all contain piperidine alkaloids and induce fetal malformations, including multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate in livestock. Ultrasonography studies of pregnant sheep and goats gavaged with these plants during 30 to 60 d of gestation suggests that the primary cause of multiple congenital contractures and cleft palate is the degree and the duration of the alkaloid-induced fetal immobilization. PMID:1526931

  1. Potyviruses, novel and known, in cultivated and wild species of the family Apiaceae in Australia.

    PubMed

    Moran, J; van Rijswijk, B; Traicevski, V; Kitajima, E W; Mackenzie, A M; Gibbs, A J

    2002-10-01

    Three potyviruses were identified by gene sequencing and found to be widespread in species of Apiaceae in Australia. Only celery mosaic virus was found in celery crops and in one of 180 specimens of feral carrot ( Daucus carota). Another related but distinct novel potyvirus, carrot virus Y, was the only virus found in carrot crops and all except one feral carrot. A more distantly related novel potyvirus, apium virus Y, was found in plants of sea celery ( Apium prostratum), cultivated parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) and the immigrant weed species poison hemlock ( Conium maculatum). These three potyviruses, together with celery yellow mosaic virus of South America and the closely related carrot thin leaf virus and carrot virus B of North America, form a distinct subgenus of the Potyviridae most closely related to turnip mosaic virus and two potyviruses of yam; yam mosaic virus from the Ivory Coast and Japanese yam mosaic virus. Celery mosaic and carrot virus Y are probably recent migrants to Australia, but apium virus Y may have been endemic longer. In ELISA tests using polyclonal antibodies against virions of celery mosaic virus, some isolates of carrot virus Y were indistinguishable from celery mosaic virus, whereas others gave smaller absorbancy values, and those of apium virus Y did not react. This study shows the value of virus identification based on gene sequencing for planning control measures. PMID:12376749

  2. Stereoselective potencies and relative toxicities of ?-coniceine and N-methylconiine enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen T; Green, Benedict T; Welch, Kevin D; Jordan, Glenn T; Zhang, Qian; Panter, Kip E; Hughes, David; Chang, Cheng-Wei Tom; Pfister, James A; Gardner, Dale R

    2013-04-15

    ?-Coniceine, coniine, and N-methylconiine are toxic alkaloids present in poison hemlock (Conium maculatum). We previously reported the comparison of the relative potencies of (+)- and (-)-coniine enantiomers. In this study, we synthesized ?-coniceine and the enantiomers of N-methylconiine and determined the biological activity of ?-coniceine and each of the N-methylconiine enantiomers in vitro and in vivo. The relative potencies of these piperidine alkaloids on cells expressing human fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors had the rank order of ?-coniceine > (-)-N-methylconiine > (±)-N-methylconiine > (+)-N-methylconiine. The relative lethalities of ?-coniceine and (-)-, (±)-, and (+)-N-methylconiine in vivo using a mouse bioassay were 4.4, 16.1, 17.8, and 19.2 mg/kg, respectively. The results from this study suggest ?-coniceine is a more potent agonist than the enantiomers of N-methylconiine and that there is a stereoselective difference in the in vitro potencies of the enantiomers of N-methylconiine that correlates with the relative toxicities of the enantiomers in vivo. PMID:23514442

  3. Can We Monitor Ecosystem Function Using Keeling Plot Analyses of Nocturnal Cold-Air Drainage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, B. J.; Ocheltree, T.; Pypker, T.; Unsworth, M. H.; Mix, A. C.; William, R.

    2003-12-01

    The carbon isotope signature of ecosystem respiration, ? 13CR, as measured by the Keeling Plot approach, has been related to short-term variations in weather and ecosystem function in several recent studies. In order to obtain an adequate range of [CO2] and to sample a consistent vegetation type, investigators typically select sampling locations in relatively flat terrain and uniform canopy cover, but these are unusual conditions for many forested ecosystems. In a pilot study, we are collecting samples for Keeling Plot analyses in cold-air drainage systems in small (60-100 ha), deeply-incised watersheds, one covered with old-growth (ca 450-years-old) Douglas-fir/hemlock forest and one covered with young (ca 45-years-old) Douglas-fir forest. We found that the nightly range of [CO2] was typically 380-460 ppm, sufficient to develop good estimates of ? 13CR. At any point in time there was little variation in [CO2] with height through the canopy (0.5-30m), so the required range was obtained by sampling over several hours. There was no indication that samples taken from different heights or at different times of night represented sources with different isotopic signatures. The isotopic signature of respired CO2 in the older watershed averaged about 1 per mil greater than that of the young watershed, and ? 13CR of both locations correlated with modeled stomatal conductance 6 days prior to flask sampling.

  4. Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Berri, Dulcy A.; Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    The Wind River Valley, on the west slope of the Cascade Range, is a northwest-trending drainage that joins the Columbia River near Carson, Washington. The region has been heavily dissected by fluvial and glacial erosion. Ridges have sharp crests and deep subsidiary valleys typical of a mature topography, with a total relief of as much as 900 m. The region is vegetated by fir and hemlock, as well as dense, brushy ground-cover and undergrowth. The lower 8 km of the valley is privately owned and moderately populated. The upper reaches lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and include several campgrounds and day parks, the Carson National Fish Hatchery, and the Wind River Ranger Station and Wind River Nursery of the US Forest Service. Logging activity is light due to the rugged terrain, and consequently, most valley slopes are not accessible by vehicle. The realization that a potential for significant geothermal resources exists in the Wind River area was brought about by earlier exploration activities. Geologic mapping and interpretation was needed to facilitate further exploration of the resource by providing a knowledge of possible geologic controls on the geothermal system. This report presents the detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource.

  5. Effects of introduced insects and diseases on forest ecosystems in the Catskill Mountains of New York.

    PubMed

    Lovett, Gary M; Arthur, Mary A; Weathers, Kathleen C; Griffin, Jacob M

    2013-09-01

    Repeated invasions of non-native insects and pathogens have altered the structure and function of forest ecosystems in the Catskill Mountains of New York State, and will continue to do so in the future. Gypsy moth, beech bark disease, and hemlock woolly adelgid are among the insects and diseases currently established in the Catskills that are having significant effects on forests. Many others, including emerald ash borer, Asian long-horned beetle, Phytophthora ramorum, and Sirex wood wasp, are either very recently established in the Catskills or have been found elsewhere in North America and threaten to spread to this region. Short-term disturbances associated with these pests include reduction of productivity, tree decline and mortality, disruption of nutrient cycles, and reduction of seed production. Longer-term impacts are associated with shifts in tree species composition that alter productivity, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity. Catskill forests at mid to high elevations, such as the New York State Forest Preserve lands, are dominated by sugar maple and are particularly vulnerable to pests that use maple as a host, including the Asian long-horned beetle. The simultaneous effects of multiple invading insects and pathogens, and their interactions with changing climate and air pollution regimes, make it very difficult to predict the future composition of Catskill forests. PMID:23844706

  6. Natural forests of Maryland: an explanaton of the vegetation map of Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, G.S.; Lenk, C.; Smith, J.

    1980-03-01

    The forests of Maryland have been mapped at a scale of 1:250,000 on the basis of 15 regional associations: (1) tamarack, (2) bald cypress, (3) hemlock-yellow birch-black birch, (4) river birch-sycamore, (5) sycamore-green ash-box elder-silver maple, (6) shingle oak, (7) chestnut oak-post oak-blackjack oak, (8) chestnut oak-bear oak, (9) chestnut oak, (10) loblolly pine, (11) basket oak-lobolly pine, (12) willow oak-loblolly pine, (13) basket oak, (14) sugar maple-basswood, and (15) tulip poplar. The associations differ from each other in species composition and in abundances of species common to many associations. Each was identified in the field by the presence of relatively few common discontinuous tree species referred to as characteristic species. Correlations between forest associations and geologic, topographic, and soils units mapped at a similar scale suggest that patterns of available water are important in controlling distribution of woody species throughout Maryland.

  7. Interspecific Variation in Tree Growth Response to 20th Century Climate Variability in the Circumpolar Boreal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, A. H.; Bunn, A.

    2007-12-01

    We examined relationships between tree ring-width and climate at 232 existing tree-ring sites around the circumpolar boreal forest (north of 55° N). The data set included ten common boreal species: Larix gmelinii, Larix sibirica, Picea abies, Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Picea obovata, Picea sitchensis, Pinus banksiana, Pinus sylvestris, Tsuga mertensiana. We used moving-window correlation analysis for eight 30-year time windows, lagged by 10 years, to characterize the climate response at each site from 1902-2002. We identified two categories of response to temperature: a browning response characterized by inverse correlations between growth and temperature, and a greening response characterized by positive correlations between growth and temperature. Inverse growth responses to temperature were widespread, occurring to some extent in all species, during all time periods, and in nearly all geographic areas. Although the browning response did occur during all time periods, its frequency increased after 1942, during which time the frequency of the greening response declined. Although the trend in the frequency of browning paralleled the rise in Northern Hemisphere temperature in recent decades, the two were not significantly correlated. Browning was concentrated in five species ( Picea abies, Picea glauca, Picea mariana, Picea obovata and Pinus banksiana), and occurred infrequently in the remaining five species. The genus Picea thus appeared to be particularly prone to experience inverse responses to temperature: the only Picea species included in the analysis in which browning did not commonly occur was Picea sitchensis, which is restricted to the coastal temperate rainforests of southeastern and south-central Alaska. Our analyses identified two possible causes of inverse growth responses. First, browning occurred significantly more frequently in the warmer parts of species" sampled ranges, supporting the hypothesis that direct temperature stress might be a cause of inverse growth responses to temperature. Second, in some species, dry sites were also more likely to experience browning; moisture stress might thus be an additional explanation in some cases.

  8. Do oxygen isotopes in tree rings from coastal Alaska record atmospheric circulation patterns?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeeva, Galina; Haug, Gerald; Treydte, Kerstin

    2013-04-01

    Oxygen isotopes in tree-ring cellulose are a promising proxy to reconstruct the dynamics of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, which are the drivers of regional to local climate variability (temperature, precipitation and drought). In this project 112-year long (1900-2011) annually resolved tree-ring width (TRW) and tree-ring ?18O chronologies of Tsuga mertensiana from coastal Alaska (Seward, Kenai Peninsula) were developed and tested for their potential to record the origin of oceanic moisture and atmospheric circulation patterns such as the Pacific North American pattern (PNA) and/or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Alaska is one of the most sensitive regions on Earth to climate change of the 20th/21st centuries and thereforeof specific interest in the context of past/pre-industrial climatic variability. Our study site is under a strong maritime influence with high annual precipitation amount and moderate temperatures. Preliminary results of TRW measurements indicate that the main drivers of tree growth are early summer temperatures (May-July) of the current year stimulating photosynthetic activity, and the winter precipitation amount (previous December to current March) providing snow melt water at the beginning of the growth period. We also found a significant positive correlation of tree growth with monthly PNA from the previous December to the current March, whereas PDO correlates significantly with tree growth from April to July of the current year. Measurements of oxygen isotopes of four individual trees are still in progress and out coming results will be shown and discussed in the presentation. We hypothesize that the oceanic moisture from advective precipitation events is the most important factor for oxygen isotope variations in tree rings of our coastal site. We expect to find enhanced climatic signals in ?18O compared to TRW and potential to reconstruct large-scale atmospheric circulation variability in the Gulf of Alaska/North Pacific.

  9. Conspecific Plant-Soil Feedbacks of Temperate Tree Species in the Southern Appalachians, USA

    PubMed Central

    Reinhart, Kurt O.; Johnson, Daniel; Clay, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Many tree species have seedling recruitment patterns suggesting that they are affected by non-competitive distance-dependent sources of mortality. We conducted an experiment, with landscape-level replication, to identify cases of negative distance-dependent effects and whether variation in these effects corresponded with tree recruitment patterns in the southern Appalachian Mountains region. Specifically, soil was collected from 14 sites and used as inocula in a 62 day growth chamber experiment determining whether tree seedling growth was less when interacting with soil from conspecific (like) than heterospecific (other) tree species. Tests were performed on six tree species. Three of the tree species had been previously described as having greater recruitment around conspecifics (i.e. facilitator species group) compared to the other half (i.e. inhibitor species group). We were then able to determine whether variation in negative distance-dependent effects corresponded with recruitment patterns in the field. Across the six species, none were negatively affected by soil inocula from conspecific relative to heterospecific sources. Most species (four of six) were unaffected by soil source. Two species (Prunus serotina and Tsuga canadensis) had enhanced growth in pots inoculated with soil from conspecific trees vs. heterospecifics. Species varied in their susceptibility to soil pathogens, but trends across all species revealed that species classified as inhibitors were not more negatively affected by conspecific than heterospecific soil inocula or more susceptible to pathogenic effects than facilitators. Although plant-soil biota interactions may be important for individual species and sites, it may be difficult to scale these interactions over space or levels of ecological organization. Generalizing the importance of plant-soil feedbacks or other factors across regional scales may be especially problematic for hyperdiverse temperate forests where interactions may be spatially variable. PMID:22808231

  10. Geology and paleoecology of a mid-Wisconsin peat from the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Barry G.; Clague, John J.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    1984-05-01

    A peat bed on east-central Graham Island of the Queen Charlotte Islands occurs within a nonglacial fluvial succession that is both overlain and underlain by glacial deposits. Radiocarbon dates of 27,500 ± 400 and 45,700 ± 970 yr B.P. at the top and base of the peat, respectively, indicate that it was deposited during the mid-Wisconsin nonglacial interval. The peat is the first documented mid-Wisconsin organic deposit in northern coastal areas of British Columbia. Three local pollen zones are represented. The lowest zone (PM-1) is restricted to sandy silt directly underlying the dated peat. Very high Cyperaceae and moderate Poaceae pollen percentages characterize zone PM-1, and a variety of other herbs are common, suggesting an open landscape rather than a forested one. The middle zone (PM-2) is characterized by abundant pollen of Picea, Tsuga mertensiana, and Cyperaceae, and also contains pollen of Abies, a genus now absent from the Queen Charlotte Islands. Graham Island probably had extensive forests at this time, but abundant pollen and macrofossils of Cyperaceae and emergent aquatics such as Hippuris vulgaris, Veronica scutellata, Potentilla palustris, and Menyanthes trifoliata indicate that there also were open wetland areas. Zone PM-3 also contains abundant arboreal pollen. Large amounts of Sphagnum spores and Selaginella selaginoides megaspores indicate succession of the wetland area at the sample site to a peat bog. Paleoecological analysis of the data suggests that subalpine vegetation elements were depressed by at least 400 m, probably due to a cooler climate. Probable modern analogs in southeastern Alaska and the presence of Abies (probably A. amabilis) indicate that precipitation was higher on eastern Graham Island during the mid-Wisconsin than at present.

  11. Reconstructing a Past Climate Using Current Multi-species' Climate Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westfall, R. D.; Millar, C. I.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analysis of a ghost forest on WhiteWing Mt at 3000 m in the eastern Sierra Nevada, southeast of Yosemite NP. Killed by a volcanic eruption about 650 years ago, the deadwood on WhiteWing dates by standard tree-ring analysis to 800-1330 CE, during the Medieval Warm Anomaly. Individual stems have been identified by wood anatomical characteristics as Pinus albicualis, P. monticola, P. jeffreyi, P. contorta, P. lambertiana, and Tsuga mertensiana. With the exception of P. albicualis, which is currently in krummholz form at this elevation, the other species are 200 m or more lower in elevation. One, P. lambertiana, is west of the Sierran crest and 600 m lower in elevation. Assuming that climatic conditions on Whitewing during this period were mutually compatible with all species, we reconstruct this climate by the intersection of the current climatic spaces of these species. We did this by first generating individual species' ranges in the Sierran ecoregions through selecting vegetation GIS polygons from the California Gap Analysis database (UCSB) that contain the individual species. Climatic spaces for each species were generated by the GIS intersection of its polygons with 4 km gridded polygons from PRISM climatic estimates (OSU); this was done for annual, January, and July maximum and minimum temperature, and precipitation, merged together for each species. Climatic intersections of the species were generated from the misclassified polygons of a discriminant analysis of species by the climatic data. The average data from these misclassified polygons suggest that the climate on WhiteWing during the existence of this forest community was 230 mm, 1oC, and 3oC greater than present in precipitation, and maximum and minimum temperature, respectively.

  12. Occurrence of ectomycorrhizal fungi on the forefront of retreating Lyman Glacier (Washington, USA) in relation to time since deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Jumpponen, Ari; Trappe, James M; Cázares, Efren

    2002-02-01

    Glacier forefronts provide a unique system for studying primary succession of plants and fungi. We constructed a chronosequence of ectomycorrhizal fungus occurrence on the forefront of Lyman Glacier in the North Cascades mountain range in Washington, USA. The plant communities established on non-vegetated substrate as patchily distributed plant individuals and developed towards complex vegetation with a variety of ectomycorrhizal hosts, including Salix commutata, S. phylicifolia, Abies lasiocarpa, Larix lyallii, Pinus contorta, Tsuga mertensiana and additional infrequent taxa. A most probable number assay of non-vegetated substrates over the chronosequence indicated that ectomycorrhizal propagules were few or absent in the non-vegetated areas adjacent to the glacier terminus but increased with time since deglaciation. Ectomycorrhizal fungus sporocarps occurred as soon as the first host plants of substantial size were present. However, none were observed with the most recently established hosts--small A. lasiocarpa seedlings. Only four species (Cortinarius decipiens, C. tenebricus, Inocybe lacera, and Laccaria cf. montana) occurred on substrate deglaciated for less than 40 years. Three of these species (C. tenebricus, I. lacera, and L. cf. montana) occurred along the chronosequence to the terminal moraine on substrate deglaciated for 70-100 years. An additional five species (one unidentified species each of Cortinarius and Lactarius, Cortinarius mutabilis, Lactarius uvidus var. montanus, and Suillus cavipes) occurred only on the oldest substrate. Our results support the current "early- and late-stage" model of ectomycorrhizal fungus succession in that additional species enter the community over time. However, we hypothesize that diversification of the mycorrhizal fungus community in this primary successional habitat resulted from an increasing diversity of host plants along with changing habitat attributes. PMID:11968946

  13. [Quantitative analysis of different restoration stages during natural succession processes of subalpine dark brown coniferous forests in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiang-Ming; Liu, Shi-Rong; Shi, Zuo-Min; Zhang, Yuan-Dong; Chen, Bao-Yu

    2007-08-01

    By adopting space as a substitute for time, and based on the approaches of inter-specific association, PCA and optimal division, the restoration stages of various secondary forest communities originated from the natural succession processes of bamboo-dark brown coniferous and moss-dark brown coniferous old-growth forests after clear-cut were quantified at different temporal series (20, 30, 30, 40, 50 and 160-200 years). The results showed that Betula albo-sinensis, Salix rehderiana, Acer mono, A. laxiflorum, Prunus tatsienensis, Hydrangea xanthoneura, Tilia chinensis and Salix dolia were the declining species groups with progressive restoration processes from secondary forest to mature moss and bamboo-dark brown coniferous forests, Sorbus hupehensis, S. koehneana and P. pilosiuscula were the transient species groups, and Abies faxoniana, Picea purpurea, Tsuga chinensis and P. wilsonii were the progressive species groups. During the period of 20-40 years restoration, the secondary forests were dominated by broad-leaved tree species, such as B. albo-sinensis, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis forest. Through 50 years natural succession, the secondary forests turned into conifer/broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by B. albo-sinensis and A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--B. albo-sinensis--A. faxoniana forest. The remained 160-200 years old coniferous forests without cutting were dominated by old-growth stage A. faxoniana, and the main forest types were moss--A. faxoniana forest and bamboo--A. faxoniana forest. PMID:17974231

  14. AMBIENT POLLEN CONCENTRATIONS AND EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT VISITS FOR ASTHMA AND WHEEZE

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Hess, Jeremy; Rogers, Christine A.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Klein, Mitchel; Sarnat, Stefanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies report associations between aeroallergen exposure and asthma exacerbations. Aeroallergen burdens and asthma prevalence are increasing worldwide and are projected to increase further with climate change, highlighting the importance of understanding population-level relationships between ambient pollen concentrations and asthma. Objective To examine short-term associations between ambient concentrations of various pollen taxa and emergency department (ED) visits for asthma and wheeze in the Atlanta metropolitan area between 1993 and 2004. Methods We assessed associations between the three-day moving average (lag 0-1-2) of Betulaceae (except Alnus), Cupressaceae, Quercus, Pinaceae (except Tsuga), Poaceae, and Ambrosia pollen concentrations and daily asthma and wheeze ED visit counts, controlling for covarying pollen taxa and ambient pollutant concentrations. Results We observed a 2–3% increase in asthma and wheeze ED visits per standard deviation increase in Quercus and Poaceae pollen and a 10–15% increased risk on days with the highest concentrations (comparing the top 5% of days to the lowest 50% of days). A standard deviation increase in Cupressaceae concentrations was associated with a 1% decrease in ED visits. The association for Quercus pollen was strongest for children age 5 to 17 years. Effects of Ambrosia pollen on asthma exacerbations were difficult to assess in this large-scale temporal analysis due to possible confounding by the steep increase in circulating rhinoviruses every September. Conclusion Poaceae and Quercus pollen contribute to asthma morbidity in Atlanta. Altered Quercus and Poaceae pollen production due to climate change could affect allergen-induced asthma morbidity in the southeastern United States. PMID:22840851

  15. Distribution and hosts of Callidiellum rufipenne (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an asian cedar borer established in the eastern United States.

    PubMed

    Maier, Chris T

    2007-08-01

    The distribution and hosts of the exotic cedar-boring beetle, Callidiellum rufipenne (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), were determined in five northeastern U.S. states by capturing adults on cedar trap logs and by rearing adults from various conifers. This beetle was detected in the coastal states of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. In these states, adults emerged from the live or dead wood of four genera and eight species of Cupressaceae; species of Pinaceae were not hosts. Through its entire range, C. rufipenne is reported to infest at least 14 species of Cupressaceae, four species of Pinaceae, and one species of Taxaceae; but, records of Pinaceae and possibly Taxaceae are suspect. Based on the number of adults that emerged from coniferous poles in a five-way choice test in the field, the infestation level was significantly greater in Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) Britton, Sterns, and Poggenburg and Juniperus virginiana L. than in Pinus rigida Miller, Pinus strobus L., and Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carribre (last three species uninfested). In a second test of host preference in the wild, beetles infested four cupressaceous species, but not Abies balsamea (L.) Miller, Picea rubens Sargent, Pinus rigida, P. strobus, and Ts. canadensis in the Pinaceae. Infestation level was highest in Ch. thyoides, followed in decreasing order by Juniperus communis L., Thuja occidentalis L., and J. virginiana. In a comparison of live and dead J. virginiana, beetles developed to adults only in dead trees (36 beetles per tree). When trunk sections of Th. occidentalis with and without bark were offered to females in cages, beetles of the next generation emerged exclusively from wood with bark. In the Northeast, only species of Cupressaceae apparently are suitable hosts for C. rufipenne. Infestation of these species may be prevented or reduced by proper care of live plants and by debarking trees after harvesting. PMID:17849882

  16. Agricultural impacts of glyphosate-resistant soybean cultivation in South America.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Antonio L; Gazziero, Dionsio L P; Duke, Stephen O; Matallo, Marcus B

    2011-06-01

    In the 2009/2010 growing season, Brazil was the second largest world soybean producer, followed by Argentina. Glyphosate-resistant soybeans (GRS) are being cultivated in most of the soybean area in South America. Overall, the GRS system is beneficial to the environment when compared to conventional soybean. GRS resulted in a significant shift toward no-tillage practices in Brazil and Argentina, but weed resistance may reduce this trend. Probably the highest agricultural risk in adopting GRS in Brazil and South America is related to weed resistance due to use of glyphosate. Weed species in GRS fields have shifted in Brazil to those that can more successfully withstand glyphosate or to those that avoid the time of its application. Five weed species, in order of importance, Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist, Lolium multiflorum Lam., Digitaria insularis (L.) Mez ex Ekman, and Euphorbia heterophylla L., have evolved resistance to glyphosate in GRS in Brazil. Conyza spp. are the most difficult to control. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of Sorghum halepense L. has evolved in GRS in Argentina and one of D. insularis in Paraguay. The following actions are proposed to minimize weed resistance problem: (a) rotation of GRS with conventional soybeans in order to rotate herbicide modes of action; (b) avoidance of lower than recommended glyphosate rates; (c) keeping soil covered with a crop or legume at intercrop intervals; (d) keeping machinery free of weed seeds; and (d) use of a preplant nonselective herbicide plus residuals to eliminate early weed interference with the crop and to minimize escapes from later applications of glyphosate due to natural resistance of older weeds and/or incomplete glyphosate coverage. PMID:20839871

  17. Redox potential: An indicator of site productivity in forest management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajedi, Toktam; Prescott, Cindy; Lavkulich, Les

    2010-05-01

    Redox potential (Eh) is an integrated soil measurement that reflects several environmental conditions in the soil associated with aeration, moisture and carbon (organic matter) dynamics. Its measurement can be related to water table fluctuations, precipitation and landscape gradients, organic matter decomposition rates, nutrient dynamics, biological diversity and plant species distribution. Redox is an excellent indicator of soil biological processes, as it is largely a reflection of microbial activities which to a large extent govern carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling. Redox thus serves as an ecological indicator of site productivity at the ecosystem scale and may be used for management purposes as its magnitude can be altered by activities such as harvesting and drainage. A threshold value of 300 mv has been documented as the critical value below which anaerobic conditions in the soil develop. However, redox measurements and its impacts on ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling and productivity, especially in forest ecosystems, have not received the attention that this "master" variable deserves, On northern Vancouver Island, Canada, regenerating stands of western redcedar-western hemlock (CH) sites exhibit symptoms of nutrient deficiencies and slow growth, but this phenomenon does not occur on adjacent western hemlock- amabalis fir (HA) sites. We tested the hypothesis that differences in nutrient supply and distribution of plant species was caused by differences in moisture regime and redox potential. Redox potential, pH, soil aeration depth (steel rods), organic matter thickness, bulk density, soil carbon store, plant species distribution and richness were measured at five old-growth and five 10-year-old cutover blocks. Results of investigations confirmed that CH forests were wetter, had redox values lower than the critical 300mv and a shallower aerated zone, compared with adjacent regenerating HA sites. Fifty percent of the CH plots had redox values less than +300 mv in the forest floor; whereas only 15 percent of the HA plots had such low values. Composition of the forest understory species was related to soil moisture/aeration. Soil aeration was the most important soil variable influencing plant species composition, explaining 25% of the plant community variability. Eh was always greater than +300 mv in the mineral soil of old growth HA forests but below +300 mv in HA clearcuts, suggesting paludification; however it was below or at this threshold in both CH forests and clearcuts. The reduction in measured redox without a noticeable change in the watertable in HA sites suggests that harvesting HA forests shifts the ecosystem towards more anaerobic conditions more similar to CH sites. In a complimentary study, the significance of redox was assessed in a cedar swamp cutover by exploring the relationships between soil redox potential and tree growth, and mineralization of C and soil C store along a gradient of moisture caused by drainage. Drainage improved aeration in the rooting zone, expressed as redox, and above- and below ground C storage; however C mineralization measured as CO2 evolution was not affected. Tree growth was positively correlated with redox potential. Our results indicate that drainage could be a useful silvicultural practice for improving the productivity of these ecosystems and that it may be possible to improve tree growth without stimulating loss of soil C. This requires that drainage improve aeration in the rooting zone while maintaining redox levels of less than +300 mV in the bulk soil, indicating that redox measurements should be incorporated into silviculture interventions to improve productivity of these forests.

  18. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days (a mat day is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Most of the sampling occurred in the post-Libby dam spawning reach (rkm 229.0 to 246.0) but some sampling occurred near Crossport (rkm 253.5) and in the Canyon reach above Hemlock Bar (rkm 261.0). We collected eight white sturgeon eggs near Shortys Island in 2004. Sampling for larval white sturgeon began June 8 and continued until July 22, 2004. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from the Set and Jet Program. We collected 103 larval fish, but none were white sturgeon larvae or embryos. Juvenile white sturgeon sampling started July 26 and continued through September 27, 2004. A total of 271 hours of gillnetting effort captured 256 juvenile hatchery white sturgeon and two juvenile wild white sturgeon.

  19. Fine-scale, multidimensional spatial patterns of forest canopy structure derived from remotely sensed and simulated datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazer, Gordon Wilson

    Forests are not simply storehouses of timber or wood fibre for human consumption and economic development. They represent structurally and ecologically rich habitat for an estimated 40 percent of the earth's extant species, and form the functional interface between the biosphere and atmosphere for some 27 percent of the earth's terrestrial surface. Forests, therefore, play a vital role in the maintenance of biodiversity and the regulation of local to global scale ecosystem processes and functions. Present strategies for conserving biodiversity in managed forests are based on the notion that maintaining the full range of structural conditions historically present in natural forests is the best approach for assuring the long-term persistence of a broad range of native species. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to contribute to the development of novel forest measurements that are relevant to organisms and ecosystems, and much needed by forest scientists and managers to recognize and retain the key elements and patterns of forest structure that are crucial for the conservation of forest biodiversity. This study focuses explicitly on fine-spatial-scale, multidimensional patterns of forest canopy structure based on the assumption that the 'canopy' is the primary focal site of complex interactions between vegetation and the physical environment. Two disparate remote sensing technologies---ground-based hemispherical (fisheye) canopy photography and airborne discrete-return LiDAR---are employed to characterize angular, vertical, and horizontal patterns of forest canopy structure. A quantitative technique is developed for precise measurements of gap fraction (P), element clumping (O), mean projection coefficient (G), and leaf area index (L) from sequences (sets) of black and white pixels extracted at specific view angles in digital fisheye photos. Results are compared with three other leading techniques and validated using well-documented simulated and real fisheye photosets. Variables P, O, G, and L control light capture and penetration in forest canopies, and are key input parameters for process-based models of stand productivity, stand dynamics, and material (CO2 and H2O) and energy fluxes between the canopy and atmosphere. Findings show that this new technique consistently produced the best estimates of stand LAI in each of the three experimental forest sites. However, further validation work is required to determine the adequacy of these methods in other closed and discontinuous canopies. Finally, a methodological framework is devised for quantifying, classifying, and comparing fine-spatial-scale vertical and horizontal patterns of canopy structure derived from airborne LiDAR data. This methodology is tested with simulated forest canopies and ultimately demonstrated using an airborne LiDAR dataset collected over very young to old, coastal Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A pseudo 'space-for-time substitution' sampling approach is used to investigate age-related developmental changes in canopy structure at decadal and century time scales. Discrete classes of vertical and horizontal canopy structure are identified by k-means partitioning. The structural differences found among age-classes were consistent with the characteristics, patterns, and dynamics predicted by generalized models of stand development for similar coastal Douglas-fir/western hemlock forests of northwestern North America.

  20. Vegetation/oceanographic changes in the mid-latitudes of southwestern North Atlantic during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naughton, Filipa; Keigwin, Lloyd; Oliveira, Dulce; Desprat, Stephanie; Abrantes, Fatima

    2013-04-01

    The direct correlation between terrestrial (pollen) and marine (planktonic ?18O) proxies from a slope core (KNR 178-2 JPC 32), retrieved in the Cape Hatteras (35°58.58'N, 74°42.77'W, 1006 m), provide substantial information on the Eastern North American vegetation response to the Holocene climate and oceanographic changes of the western North Atlantic. The end of the last glacial-interglacial transition is marked by the gradual replacement of the Boreal forest and herbs by temperate trees reflecting a general warming. Within this overall gradual warming, several abrupt vegetation shifts reveal episodes of relative cool and warm events. The most notorious continental warming of this transition, occurred at around 9650 cal yr BP and is synchronous with the increase of sea surface temperature as revealed by the planktonic foraminifera ?18O. The first maxima of temperate trees expansion, reflecting one of the most warmest events within the Holocene, occurred between 8700 and 7200 cal yr BP. Within this period 4 abrupt vegetation and hydrological changes suggest centennial scale returning cool conditions, being the most extreme detected at around 8400 cal yr BP. Between 7200 and 5300 cal yr BP temperate trees were partially replaced by hemlock suggesting a relative cool episode. The re-expansion of temperate trees marking a climatic warming is detected between 5300 and 2500 cal yr BP. Within this interval it is detected an important change in both vegetation and hydrology, marking a relative long lasting cooling between 4100 and 3550 cal yr BP. Finally the last 2500 cal yr BP is marked by important vegetation and hydrological shifts reflecting important climatic changes.

  1. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions favorable for a fish parasite, Heteropolaria lwoffi. Educational activities further the likelihood that future generations will continue to understand and enjoy the presence of native fish stocks in the Wind River basin.

  2. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher C.

    2001-08-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I. = 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m{sup 2}, respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline.

  3. Pharmacologically active plant metabolites as survival strategy products.

    PubMed

    Attardo, C; Sartori, F

    2003-01-01

    The fact that plant organisms produce chemical substances that are able to positively or negatively interfere with the processes which regulate human life has been common knowledge since ancient times. One of the numerous possible examples in the infusion of Conium maculatum, better known as Hemlock, a plant belonging to the family umbelliferae, used by the ancient Egyptians to cure skin diseases. The current official pharmacopoeia includes various chemical substances produced by secondary plant metabolisms. For example, the immunosuppressive drugs used to prevent organ transplant rejection and the majority of antibiotics are metabolites produced by fungal organisms, pilocarpin, digitalis, strophantus, salicylic acid and curare are examples of plant organism metabolites. For this reason, there has been an increase in research into plants, based on information on their medicinal use in the areas where they grow. The study of plants in relation to local culture and traditions is known as "ethnobotany". Careful study of the behaviour of sick animals has also led to the discovery of medicinal plants. The study of this subject is known as "zoopharmacognosy". The aim of this article is to discuss the fact that "ad hoc" production of such chemical substances, defined as "secondary metabolites", is one of the modes in which plant organisms respond to unfavourable environmental stimuli, such as an attack by predatory phytophagous animals or an excessive number of plant individuals, even of the same species, in a terrain. In the latter case, the plant organisms produce toxic substances, called "allelopathic" which limit the growth of other individuals. "Secondary metabolites" are produced by metabolic systems that are shunts of the primary systems which, when required, may be activated from the beginning, or increased to the detriment of others. The study of the manner in which such substances are produced is the subject of a new branch of learning called "ecological biochemistry". PMID:12705091

  4. Rapid in situ detection of alkaloids in plant tissue under ambient conditions using desorption electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Talaty, Nari; Takáts, Zoltán; Cooks, R Graham

    2005-12-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry is applied to the in situ detection of alkaloids in the tissue of poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), jimsonweed (Datura stramonium) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna). The experiment is carried out by electrospraying micro-droplets of solvent onto native or freshly-cut plant tissue surfaces. No sample preparation is required and the mass spectra are recorded under ambient conditions, in times of a few seconds. The impact of the sprayed droplets on the surface produces gaseous ions from organic compounds originally present in the plant tissue. The effects of operating parameters, including the electrospray high voltage, heated capillary temperature, the solvent infusion rate and the carrier gas pressure on analytical performance are evaluated and optimized. Different types of plant material are analyzed including seeds, stems, leaves, roots and flowers. All the previously reported alkaloids have been detected in C. maculatum, while fifteen out of nineteen known alkaloids for D. stramonium and the principal alkaloids of A. belladonna were also identified. All identifications were confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results obtained show similar mass spectra, number of alkaloids, and signal intensities to those obtained when extraction and separation processes are performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Evidence is provided that DESI ionization occurs by both a gas-phase ionization process and by a droplet pick-up mechanism. Quantitative precision of DESI is compared with conventional electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (after sample workup) and the RSD values for the same set of 25 dicotyledonous C. maculatum seeds (one half of each seed analyzed by ESI and the other by DESI) are 9.8% and 5.2%, respectively. PMID:16284661

  5. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of coniine to rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A

    1993-07-01

    Conium maculatum (poison hemlock, CM) is teratogenic in several domestic species, presumably due to its piperidine alkaloids, including coniine, which has been verified to be teratogenic in cattle. Coniine/CM teratogenicity culminates in production of arthrogryposis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine-induced teratogenicity in two laboratory animal species, Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Pregnant rats were given coniine (25 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 16-18. Pregnant rabbits were given coniine (40 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 20-24. Rats were killed on day 19 and rabbits on day 29. Fetuses were immediately removed, weighed, and examined for external abnormalities. Alternate fetuses were either stained for skeletal examinations with alizarin red-S or fixed in Bouin's solution for visceral examination. Symptoms of maternal intoxication due to coniine administration were observed in both the rat and the rabbit, and higher doses were uniformly lethal. Rabbits treated with coniine appeared to lose more weight and eat less than controls, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Fetal weights were significantly lower in coniine-exposed rat and rabbit fetuses indicating fetotoxicity. The only statistically significant treatment-related visceral or skeletal malformation was a reduction of cranial ossification of rabbit fetuses, probably related to maternal toxicity. Coniine-exposed rabbit litters tended to be affected by arthrogryposis (no bony deformities noted on skeletal exam) more than controls (2/6 vs. 0/9). PMID:8351649

  6. Comparison of nicotinic receptor binding and biotransformation of coniine in the rat and chick.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, C S; Speth, R C; Wecker, L; Galey, F D; Frank, A A

    1996-12-31

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), is a known teratogen in many domestic species with maternal ingestion resulting in arthrogryposis of the offspring. We have previously shown that rats are not susceptible and rabbits only weakly susceptible to coniine-induced arthrogryposis. However, the chick embryo does provide a reproducible laboratory animal model of coniine-induced teratogenesis. The reason for this cross-species variation is unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine binding to nicotinic receptors and to measure coniine metabolism in vitro between susceptible and non-susceptible species. Using the chick model, neither the peripheral nicotinic receptor antagonist d-tubocurarine chloride nor the central nicotinic receptor antagonist trimethaphan camsylate blocked the teratogenesis or lethality of 1.5% coniine (50 microliters/egg). Trimethaphan camsylate enhanced coniine-induced lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Neither nicotinic receptor blocker prevented nicotine sulfate-induced malformations but d-tubocurarine chloride did block lethality in a dose-dependent manner. Competition by coniine for [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors isolated from adult rat diaphragm and chick thigh muscle and competition by coniine for [3H]-cytisine to receptors from rat and chick brain were used to assess coniine binding to nicotinic receptors. The IC50 for coniine in rat diaphragm was 314 microM while that for chick leg muscle was 70 microM. For neuronal nicotinic receptors, the IC50s of coniine for maternal rat brain, fetal rat brain, and chick brain were 1100 microM, 820 microM, and 270 microM, respectively. There were no differences in coniine biotransformation in vitro by microsomes from rat or chick livers. Differences in apparent affinity of coniine for nicotinic receptors or differences in the quantity of the nicotinic receptor between the rat and chick may explain, in part, the differences in susceptibility of coniine-induced teratogenesis between these two species. PMID:9001585

  7. Effect of coniine on the developing chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A; Watrous, B J; Bohn, A A

    1994-04-01

    Coniine, an alkaloid from Conium maculatum (poison hemlock), has been shown to be teratogenic in livestock. The major teratogenic outcome is arthrogryposis, presumably due to nicotinic receptor blockade. However, coniine has failed to produce arthrogryposis in rats or mice and is only weakly teratogenic in rabbits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of coniine and nicotine in the developing chick. Concentrations of coniine and nicotine sulfate were 0.015%, 0.03%, 0.075%, 0.15%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%, and 6% and 1%, 5%, and 10%, respectively. Both compounds caused deformations and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. All concentrations of nicotine sulfate caused some lethality but a no effect level for coniine lethality was 0.75%. The deformations caused by both coniine and nicotine sulfate were excessive flexion or extension of one or more toes. No histopathological alterations or differences in bone formation were seen in the limbs or toes of any chicks from any group; however, extensive cranial hemorrhage occurred in all nicotine sulfate-treated chicks. There was a statistically significant (P < or = 0.01) decrease in movement in coniine and nicotine sulfate treated chicks as determined by ultrasound. Control chicks were in motion an average of 33.67% of the time, while coniine-treated chicks were only moving 8.95% of a 5-min interval, and no movement was observed for nicotine sulfate treated chicks. In summary, the chick embryo provides a reliable and simple experimental animal model of coniine-induced arthrogryposis. Data from this model support a mechanism involving nicotinic receptor blockade with subsequent decreased fetal movement. PMID:8073369

  8. Four centuries of change in northeastern United States forests.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jonathan R; Carpenter, Dunbar N; Cogbill, Charles V; Foster, David R

    2013-01-01

    The northeastern United States is a predominately-forested region that, like most of the eastern U.S., has undergone a 400-year history of intense logging, land clearance for agriculture, and natural reforestation. This setting affords the opportunity to address a major ecological question: How similar are today's forests to those existing prior to European colonization? Working throughout a nine-state region spanning Maine to Pennsylvania, we assembled a comprehensive database of archival land-survey records describing the forests at the time of European colonization. We compared these records to modern forest inventory data and described: (1) the magnitude and attributes of forest compositional change, (2) the geography of change, and (3) the relationships between change and environmental factors and historical land use. We found that with few exceptions, notably the American chestnut, the same taxa that made up the pre-colonial forest still comprise the forest today, despite ample opportunities for species invasion and loss. Nonetheless, there have been dramatic shifts in the relative abundance of forest taxa. The magnitude of change is spatially clustered at local scales (<125 km) but exhibits little evidence of regional-scale gradients. Compositional change is most strongly associated with the historical extent of agricultural clearing. Throughout the region, there has been a broad ecological shift away from late successional taxa, such as beech and hemlock, in favor of early- and mid-successional taxa, such as red maple and poplar. Additionally, the modern forest composition is more homogeneous and less coupled to local climatic controls. PMID:24023749

  9. Tradeoffs between chilling and forcing in satisfying dormancy requirements for Pacific Northwest tree species

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Constance A.; Gould, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Many temperate and boreal tree species have a chilling requirement, that is, they need to experience cold temperatures during fall and winter to burst bud normally in the spring. Results from trials with 11 Pacific Northwest tree species are consistent with the concept that plants can accumulate both chilling and forcing units simultaneously during the dormant season and they exhibit a tradeoff between amount of forcing and chilling. That is, the parallel model of chilling and forcing was effective in predicting budburst and well chilled plants require less forcing for bud burst than plants which have received less chilling. Genotypes differed in the shape of the possibility line which describes the quantitative tradeoff between chilling and forcing units. Plants which have an obligate chilling requirement (Douglas-fir, western hemlock, western larch, pines, and true firs) and received no or very low levels of chilling did not burst bud normally even with long photoperiods. Pacific madrone and western redcedar benefited from chilling in terms of requiring less forcing to promote bud burst but many plants burst bud normally without chilling. Equations predicting budburst were developed for each species in our trials for a portion of western North America under current climatic conditions and for 2080. Mean winter temperature was predicted to increase 3.2–5.5°C and this change resulted in earlier predicted budburst for Douglas-fir throughout much of our study area (up to 74 days earlier) but later budburst in some southern portions of its current range (up to 48 days later) as insufficient chilling is predicted to occur. Other species all had earlier predicted dates of budburst by 2080 than currently. Recent warming trends have resulted in earlier budburst for some woody plant species; however, the substantial winter warming predicted by some climate models will reduce future chilling in some locations such that budburst will not consistently occur earlier. PMID:25784922

  10. Biomass accumulation and soil nitrogen availability in an 87-year-old Populus grandidentata chronosequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, L.L.; Zak, D.R.; Barnes, B.V.

    2004-01-01

    The Upper Lake States region is marked by major disturbances of fire and logging over 100 years ago that created a landscape mosaic of early successional forests. Given the intimate link between soil N availability and forest growth in this region, it is important to understand how temporal changes in soil N constrain the rate at which forest biomass accumulates following a stand-destroying disturbance. Bigtooth aspen (Populus grandidentata Michx.) currently dominates sites where primarily old-growth pine-hemlock-oak forests once thrived, which provides an opportunity to observe nearly 100 years of succession following severe disturbance. In this study, we examine the relationship between soil N availability and biomass accrual in a series of plots undergoing secondary succession following logging and burning. Our results demonstrate that total aboveground biomass and nitrogen accrual patterns are strongly and positively related on a highly disturbed, bigtooth aspen-dominated ecosystem in northern Lower Michigan. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrification were highest immediately following disturbance, and then decreased over the next approximately 20 years of succession. Following this short-term decrease, these processes increased and attained a maximum value after 70 years of forest succession. Understory biomass accumulation showed the opposite trend of nutrient availability, with highest values during the first 20 years of succession, followed by a dramatic decrease for the next 70 years. Understory biomass began to decrease as plants grew into the overstory or died. Total aboveground biomass was correlated with N mineralization (r=0.894; P=0.041) and nitrification (r=0.782; P=0.118) and appears to be increasing steadily to some maximum that has not yet been reached. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of SACCHACHITIN and its mechanism of action on skin wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hung, W S; Fang, C L; Su, C H; Lai, W F; Chang, Y C; Tsai, Y H

    2001-07-01

    SACCHACHITIN membrane, a weavable skin substitute made from the residual fruiting body of Ganoderma tsugae, has been demonstrated to promote skin wound healing. Prior to its clinical application, it is critical to learn more about any possible cytotoxicity, immunogenicity, or allergy response, and at least some of its mechanism(s) of action(s). In the present studies, it has been found that SACCHACHITIN suspension at less than 0.05% shows no cytotoxicity to the primary culture of rat fibroblasts. However, at higher concentrations (> or = 0.1%), it does reduce the growth of fibroblasts, based on MTT assays. This might be caused by positive charges on chitin molecules that are too strong, and may be harmful to the cell membrane. SACCHACHITIN showed no immunogenicity after it was inoculated into rats three times; however, the unmodified, purified rabbit type I and type II collagens did. Subcutaneous injection of SACCHACHITIN suspension into rats showed no gross allergic responses on skin. Nevertheless, it did cause local acute inflammation, as observed by histological investigation. This is similar to what occurred in the wound site covered with SACCHACHITIN membrane. The chemotactic effect of SACCHACHITIN was exhibited in both intact and wounded skin tissues. This may be one of the initial beneficial effects of SACCHACHITIN membrane to wound healing. The rapid acute inflammatory process was followed by the appearance of angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation, which occurred earlier than it normally would. Coverage of the wound area with SACCHACHITIN membrane also induced an earlier formation of scar tissue to replace the granulation tissue. A 1.5 x 1.5 cm(2) wound area covered by SACCHACHITIN completely healed by 21 days, while that covered with cotton gauze did not. Therefore, SACCHACHITIN is a safe biomaterial for use as a wound dressing for skin healing. Its promoting action for wound healing might be due to its chemotactic effect for inflammatory cells. This, in turn, may facilitate subsequent angiogenesis, granulation tissue formation, and faster new tissue formation, leading to faster wound healing. PMID:11309795

  12. Last glacial pollen record from Lanzhou (Northwestern China) and possible forcing mechanisms for the MIS 3 climate change in Middle to East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hanchao; Mao, Xue; Xu, Hongyan; Thompson, Jessica; Wang, Ping; Ma, Xiaolin

    2011-03-01

    The vegetation on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau is highly sensitive to climatic changes and thus represents a potentially interesting environmental archive. Pollen samples from the Fanjiaping Loess section in Lanzhou on the western Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) were analyzed in conjunction with OSL dating. The results indicate that pollen zone B (60.6-46.0 ka, correlative to the early MIS 3) had the greatest abundances of Cupressaceae, Tsuga, Gramineae and Cyperaceae of the entire section, suggesting a warm phase during the last glacial period. These pollen taxa decreased significantly in abundance in the zones C (46.0-39.0 ka) and D (39.0-27.0 ka), reflecting a substantial climate cooling from the middle MIS 3 to MIS 2. These results correlate with climate records from the South China Sea, the CLP, Baikal Lake, North America, North Atlantic Ocean and other regions, and probably correspond with the decline of northern high-latitude insolation and the increase of global ice volume from 50 to 20 ka. In particular, arboreal pollen, fern spore and algae abundances declined sharply since ˜40 ka, while shrub and herb pollen reached the highest abundances. Conifer pollen Picea and Abies abundance also rose markedly and increased up the section. This implies significant climate deterioration and likely corresponded with substantial growth of the polar ice sheets since ˜40 ka. The decreasing temperature caused by an insolation decline during the last glacial period probably reinforced the cooling effect in a 'snow/ice/albedo' feedback, which would result in less climate sensitivity to radiative forcing. Meanwhile, vegetation decline in the Northern Hemisphere during the last glacial period and tundra development at high latitudes possibly caused additional cooling, enhancing the growth of polar ice sheets since 40 ka. The development of polar ice sheets increased the polar-to-equator temperature and pressure gradients, strengthening the westerlies and supplying plenty of moisture to Northwest China during 40-30 ka. Lake sediments developed widely on the Tibetan Plateau during 40-30 ka, probably related to an increase in the seasonality of middle-to-low latitude insolation which caused an enhancement of glacier melting on the Plateau.

  13. Modelling diameter distributions of two-cohort forest stands with various proportions of dominant species: a two-component mixture model approach.

    PubMed

    Podlaski, Rafa?; Roesch, Francis A

    2014-03-01

    In recent years finite-mixture models have been employed to approximate and model empirical diameter at breast height (DBH) distributions. We used two-component mixtures of either the Weibull distribution or the gamma distribution for describing the DBH distributions of mixed-species, two-cohort forest stands, to analyse the relationships between the DBH components, age cohorts and dominant species, and to assess the significance of differences between the mixture distributions and the kernel density estimates. The data consisted of plots from the ?wi?tokrzyski National Park (Central Poland) and areas close to and including the North Carolina section of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (USA; southern Appalachians). The fit of the mixture Weibull model to empirical DBH distributions had a precision similar to that of the mixture gamma model, slightly less accurate estimate was obtained with the kernel density estimator. Generally, in the two-cohort, two-storied, multi-species stands in the southern Appalachians, the two-component DBH structure was associated with age cohort and dominant species. The 1st DBH component of the mixture model was associated with the 1st dominant species sp1 occurred in young age cohort (e.g., sweetgum, eastern hemlock); and to a lesser degree, the 2nd DBH component was associated with the 2nd dominant species sp2 occurred in old age cohort (e.g., loblolly pine, red maple). In two-cohort, partly multilayered, stands in the ?wi?tokrzyski National Park, the DBH structure was usually associated with only age cohorts (two dominant species often occurred in both young and old age cohorts). When empirical DBH distributions representing stands of complex structure are approximated using mixture models, the convergence of the estimation process is often significantly dependent on the starting strategies. Depending on the number of DBHs measured, three methods for choosing the initial values are recommended: min.k/max.k, 0.5/1.5/mean, and multistart. For large samples (number of DBHs measured ? 80) the multistage method is proposed--for the two-component mixture Weibull or gamma model select initial values using the min.k/max.k (for k=1,5,10) and 0.5/1.5/mean methods, run the numerical procedure for each method, and when no two solutions are the same, apply the multistart method also. PMID:24491286

  14. Late Pliocene and early Pleistocene environments of the north-eastern Russian Arctic inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. A.; Tarasov, P. E.; Wennrich, V.; Raschke, E.; Herzschuh, U.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2013-08-01

    The 318 m thick lacustrine sediment record in Lake El'gygytgyn, northeastern Russian Arctic cored by the international El'gygytgyn Drilling Project provides unique opportunities allowing the time-continuous reconstruction of the regional paleoenvironmental history for the past 3.6 Myr. Pollen studies of the lower 216 m of the lacustrine sediments show their value as an excellent archive of vegetation and climate changes during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. About 3.50-3.35 Myr BP the vegetation at Lake El'gygytgyn, in nowadays tundra area, was dominated by spruce-larch-fir-hemlock forests. After ca. 3.4 Myr BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared. A very pronounced environmental changes took place at ca. 3.305-3.275 Myr BP, corresponding with the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2, when treeless tundra- and steppe-like habitats became dominant in the regional vegetation. Climate conditions were similar to those of Late Pleistocene cold intervals. Numerous coprophilous fungi spores identified in the pollen samples suggest the presence of grazing animals around the lake. Following the MIS M2 event, larch-pine forests with some spruce mostly dominated in the area until ca. 2.6 Myr BP, interrupted by colder and drier intervals ca. 3.04-3.02, 2.93-2.91, and 2.725-2.695 Myr BP. At the beginning of the Pleistocene, ca. 2.6 Myr BP, noticeable climatic deterioration occurred. Forested habitats changed to predominantly treeless and shrubby environments, which reflect a relatively cold and dry climate. Revealed peaks in green algae colonies (Botryococcus) around 2.53, 2.45, 2.320-2.305 and 2.175-2.150 Myr BP suggest a spread of shallow water environments. Few intervals (i.e. 2.55-2.53, ca. 2.37, and 2.35-2.32 Myr BP) with a higher presence of coniferous taxa (mostly pine and larch) document some relatively short-term climate ameliorations.

  15. Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene vegetation history of northeastern Russian Arctic inferred from the Lake El'gygytgyn pollen record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, A. A.; Tarasov, P. E.; Wennrich, V.; Raschke, E.; Herzschuh, U.; Nowaczyk, N. R.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Melles, M.

    2014-05-01

    The 318 m thick lacustrine sediment record from Lake El'gygytgyn, northeastern Russian Arctic cored by the international El'gygytgyn Drilling Project provides unique opportunities for the time-continuous reconstruction of the regional paleoenvironmental history for the past 3.6 Myr. Pollen studies of the lower 216 m of the lacustrine sediments demonstrate their value as an excellent archive of vegetation and climate changes during the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. About 3.5-3.35 Myr BP, the vegetation at Lake El'gygytgyn, now an area of tundra was dominated by spruce-larch-fir-hemlock forests. After ca. 3.35 Myr BP dark coniferous taxa gradually disappeared. A very pronounced environmental change took place ca. 3.31-3.28 Myr BP, corresponding to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2, when treeless tundra- and steppe-like habitats became dominant in the regional vegetation. Climate conditions were similar to those of Late Pleistocene cold intervals. Numerous coprophilous fungi spores identified in the pollen samples suggest the presence of grazing animals around the lake. Following the MIS M2 event, larch-pine forests with some spruce mostly dominated the area until ca. 2.6 Myr BP, interrupted by colder and drier intervals ca. 3.043-3.025, 2.935-2.912, and 2.719-2.698 Myr BP. At the beginning of the Pleistocene, ca. 2.6 Myr BP, noticeable climatic deterioration occurred. Forested habitats changed to predominantly treeless and shrubby environments, which reflect a relatively cold and dry climate. Peaks in observed green algae colonies (Botryococcus) around 2.53, 2.45, 2.32-2.305, 2.20 and 2.16-2.15 Myr BP suggest a spread of shallow water environments. A few intervals (i.e., 2.55-2.53, ca. 2.37, and 2.35-2.32 Myr BP) with a higher presence of coniferous taxa (mostly pine and larch) document some relatively short-term climate ameliorations during Early Pleistocene glacial periods.

  16. Day-roosts of female long-eared myotis in Western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldien, David L.; Hayes, J.P.; Arnett, Edward B.

    2000-01-01

    Roosts are a critical habitat component for bats and may influence their survival and fitness. We used radiotelemetry to investigate characteristics of day-roosts of female long-eared myotis (Myotis evotis) in watersheds characterized by different forest conditions and the spatial relationships between day-roosts and available water. We tracked 21 bats to 73 roosts (n = 102 occasions) from June to August 1996 and 1997 on the western slope of the Cascade Mountains, Oregon. Bats primarily used conifer stumps as day-roosts in watersheds dominated by younger forests and used conifer snags, and to a lesser extent conifer stumps, in watersheds with greater proportions of older forests. Individual long-eared myotis used different types of structures as day-roosts, and type of structure used did not differ with reproductive condition. Day-roosts were primarily located in upslope habitat and averaged 0.59 A? 0.03 km from available water and 0.66 A? 0.02 km from capture sites. Roosts were not located closer to available water than random points, but were closer than random points to captures sites. Conifer snags used as day-roosts averaged 34 A? 5 m in height and 93 A? 12 cm diameter at breast height (dbh); snags in intermediate stages of decay had highest use. Use of conifer snags was positively associated with the number of snags within 20 m and negatively associated with distance from stand edge. Conifer stumps used as day-roosts averaged 133 A? 9 cm in height and 59 A? 4 cm dbh. Western hemlock and Douglas-fir stumps were used more often than western redcedar stumps as day-roosts. Odds of a stump being used as a day-roost increased with increasing height of the stump (downhill side) and whether it was situated in a gap in vegetation. We contend that management of day-roosts for forest-dwelling bats should focus on maintaining large conifer snags across landscapes through space and time. In landscapes where there are relatively few large conifer snags, stumps appear to provide important, but ephemeral, roosts for long-eared myotis.

  17. Occurrence of neonatal and postnatal mortality in range beef cattle. II. Factors contributing to calf death.

    PubMed

    Bellows, R A; Patterson, D J; Burfening, P J; Phelps, D A

    1987-11-01

    Results are summarized of necropsy findings from 798 calves lost from birth to weaning over a 15-yr period. Autopsies determined cause of death and ascertained anatomical normalcy of the skeletal, musculature and organ systems and functinal status of the lungs. Of the 798 calves, 77.7% were anatomically normal and 22.3% were abnormal (P < 0.01) and 75.0% of the total deaths of abnormal calves occurred by Day 2 postpartum. Birth weights of normal calves averaged 4.2 kg heavier (P < 0.05) than that of abnormal calves. Internal hydrocephalus was identified and confirmed heritable as a lethal recessive trait. The number of calves lost from dystocia (406 calves, 50.9%) exceeded losses from all other causes (392 calves, 49.1%). Lung status was determined for 492 calves dying at birth, with 39.6 and 60.4% having functional and nonfunctional lungs, respectively (P < 0.01). Diseases, mainly scours and pneumonia, ranked second in importance as cause of death (12.8%), followed by exposure-chilling (5.6%) due to cold and wet conditions. Abnormalities observed included heart anomalies (24 calves), hydrocephalus (38 calves) and a missing segment of the caudal gut (8 calves). Multiple congenital malformations were found in 15 calves with findings similar to those resulting from maternal consumption of toxins from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) during gestation. Twelve calves died from peritonitis resulting from a perforated abomasal ulcer caused by accumulated hair. Of the 373 dystocia deaths in anatomically normal calves, 121 (32.4%) involved abnormal presentation, with calves involved in backward or breech presentation accounting for 62.0% of the losses from abnormal presentation. Calves experiencing hiplock or retained forelimb were heavier (P < 0.05) than calves presented in normal, back-ward or breech positions. Dystocia scores were assigned to 253 calves dying at parturition. Percentage losses within score were 52.6, 6.7, 30.8 and 9.9 (P < 0.05) and birth weights were 33.9, 36.1, 39.2 and 37.4 kg (P < 0.05) for scores of 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. PMID:16726340

  18. Using Land Surface Phenology as the Basis for a National Early Warning System for Forest Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S. P.; Hoffman, F. M.

    2011-12-01

    The National Early Warning System (EWS) provides an 8-day coast-to-coast snapshot of potentially disturbed forests across the U.S.. A prototype system has produced national maps of potential forest disturbances every eight days since January 2010, identifying locations that may require further investigation. Through phenology, the system shows both early and delayed vegetation development and detects all types of unexpected forest disturbances, including insects, disease, wildfires, frost and ice damage, tornadoes, hurricanes, blowdowns, harvest, urbanization, landslides, drought, flood, and climate change. The USDA Forest Service Eastern Forest Environmental Threat Assessment Center is collaborating with NASA Stennis Space Center and the Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center to develop the tool. The EWS uses differences in phenological responses between an expectation based on historical data and a current view to strategically identify potential forest disturbances and direct attention to locations where forest behavior seems unusual. Disturbance maps are available via the Forest Change Assessment Viewer (FCAV) (http://ews.forestthreats.org/gis), which allows resource managers and other users to see the most current national disturbance maps as soon as they are available. Phenology-based detections show not only vegetation disturbances in the classical sense, but all departures from normal seasonal vegetation behavior. In 2010, the EWS detected a repeated late-frost event at high elevations in North Carolina, USA, that resulted in delayed seasonal development, contrasting with an early spring development at lower elevations, all within close geographic proximity. Throughout 2011, there was a high degree of correspondence between the National Climatic Data Center's North American Drought Monitor maps and EWS maps of phenological drought disturbance in forests. Urban forests showed earlier and more severe phenological drought disturbance than surrounding non-urban forests. An EWS news page (http://www.geobabbble.org/~hnw/EWSNews) highlights disturbances the system has detected during the 2011 season. Unsupervised statistical multivariate clustering of smoothed phenology data every 8 days over an 11-year period produces a detailed map of national vegetation types, including major disturbances. Examining the constancy of these phenological classifications at a particular location from year to year produces a national map showing the persistence of vegetation, regardless of vegetation type. Using spectral unmixing methods, national maps of evergreen decline can be produced which are a composite of insect, disease, and anthropogenic factors causing chronic decline in these forests, including hemlock wooly adelgid, mountain pine beetle, wildfire, tree harvest, and urbanization. Because phenology shows vegetation responses, all disturbance and recovery events detected by the EWS are viewed through the lens of the vegetation.

  19. Simulation of Water and Energy Fluxes in an Old Growth Seasonal Temperate Rainforest Using the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, T. E.; Unsworth, M. H.; Marks, D. G.; Flerchinger, G. N.

    2001-12-01

    In the Pacific Northwest (PNW), concern about the impacts of climate and land cover change on water resources and flood-generating processes emphasize the need for a mechanistic understanding of the interactions between forest canopies and hydrological processes. A detailed measurement and modeling program in the 1999 and 2000 hydrologic years characterized hydrological processes in a 500-600 year old Douglas fir-western hemlock seasonal temperate rainforest. The measurement program included sub-canopy arrays of radiometers, tipping bucket rain gauges, and soil temperature and moisture probes, to supplement a vertical temperature and humidity profile within the forest canopy. The measurements were used to modify the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model for application in forested systems. Changes to the model include improved representation of interception dynamics, stomatal conductance, and within- canopy energy transfer processes. The model was calibrated for the 1999 hydrologic year, and validated for the 2000 season. The model effectively simulated canopy air and vapor density profiles, snowcover processes, throughfall, soil water content profiles, shallow soil temperatures, and transpiration fluxes for both years. The largest discrepancies between soil moisture and temperature were observed during periods of discontinuous snowcover. Soil warming at bare locations was delayed until most of the snowcover ablated due to the large heat sink associated with the residual snow patches. During the summer, simulated evapotranspiration decreased from a maximum monthly mean of 2.17 mm day-1 in July to 1.34 mm day-1 in September, as a result of decreasing soil moisture and declining net radiation. Our results indicate that a relatively simple parameterization of the SHAW model for the vegetation canopy can accurately simulate seasonal hydrological fluxes in this environment. The model could be used to assess the potential effects of climate or landcover changes on hydrological processes in PNW old-growth ecosystems. Application and validation of the model in other forest systems will establish similarities and differences in the interactions of vegetation and hydrology, and assess the sensitivity of other systems to natural and anthropogenic perturbations. >http://ucs.orst.edu/~linkt/wrccrf/index.html

  20. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate regeneration of shade-tolerant trees and underestimate total tree density (i.e., higher rates of tree mortality). However, comparisons with the chronosequences of forest inventory data indicated that the simulated data are within the range of variability observed in the Coast Range. Further exploration and improvement of ZELIG is warranted in three key areas: (1) modeling rapid rates of conifer tree growth without the need for a diameter-growth multiplier; (2) understanding and remedying rates of tree mortality that were higher than those observed in the independent data; and (3) improving the tree regeneration module to account for competition with understory vegetation. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Environmental history and tephrostratigraphy at Carp Lake, southwestern Columbia Basin, Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlock, C.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Bartlein, P.J.; Nickmann, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sediment cores from Carp Lake provide a pollen record of the last ca. 125,000 years that helps disclose vegetational and climatic conditions from the present day to the previous interglaciation (120-133 ka). The core also contained 15 tephra layers, which were characterised by electron-microprobe analysis of volcanic glass shards. Identified tephra include Mount St. Helens Ye, 3.69 ka; Mazama ash bed, 7.54 ka; Mount St. Helens layer C, 35-50 ka; an unnamed Mount St. Helens tephra, 75-150 ka; the tephra equivalent of layer E at Pringle Falls, Oregon, <218 ka; and an andesitic tephra layer similar to that at Tulelake, California, 174 ka. Ten calibrated radiocarbon ages and the ages of Mount St. Helens Ye, Mazama ash, and the unnamed Mount St. Helens tephra were used to develop an age-depth model. This model was refined by also incorporating the age of marine oxygen isotope stage (IS) boundary 4/5 (73.9 ka) and the age of IS-5e (125 ka). The justification for this age-model is based on an analysis of the pollen record and lithologic data. The pollen record is divided into 11 assemblage zones that describe alternations between periods of montane conifer forest, pine forest, and steppe. The previous interglacial period (IS-5e) supported temperate xerothermic forests of pine and oak and a northward and westward expansion of steppe and juniper woodland, compared to their present occurrence. The period from 83 to 117 ka contains intervals of pine forest and parkland alternating with pine-spruce forest, suggesting shifts from cold humid to cool temperate conditions. Between 73 and 83 ka, a forest of oak, hemlock, Douglas-fir, and fir was present that has no modem analogue. It suggests warm wet summers and cool wet winters. Cool humid conditions during the mid-Wisconsin interval supported mixed conifer forest with Douglas-fir and spruce. The glacial interval featured cold dry steppe, with an expansion of spruce in the late-glacial. Xerothermic communities prevailed in the early Holocene, when temperate steppe was widespread and the lake dried intermittently. The middle Holocene was characterised by ponderosa pine forest, and the modem vegetation was established in the last 3900 yr, when ponderosa pine, Douglas-fir, fir, and oak were part of the local vegetation.

  2. Vegetation and fire dynamics in different geological settings since the last ice age, Klamath Mountains, northwestern, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briles, C.; Whitlock, C.; Bartlein, P.

    2006-12-01

    The Klamath Mountains of northwestern California are a floristic hotspot and their diversity likely results from a combination of geological, ecological and historical factors (e.g., long-term climate change). To evaluate how climate change has influenced past composition, structure, and disturbance regime of the Klamath forests in different geological settings, vegetation and fire histories from four sites, Bolan (1), Sanger (in prog.), Campbell (in prog.), and Bluff (2) lakes are compared. Bolan and Sanger lakes are underline by nutrient-rich diorite soils, Campbell Lake by nutrient-poor and poorly-drained soils derived from mudstone and shales and Bluff Lake by ultramafics which pose severe nutrient limitations to plants. All sites experience the same modern climate and vegetation. The vegetation and fire records from the four sites suggest that substrates have influenced the sensitivity of plant communities and fire regimes to past variations in climate. Cool, dry late-glacial (>11ka cal yr BP) conditions resulted in a subalpine parkland in the Klamath region. P. jeffreyi and Abies were the main tree species at Bluff Lake and fires occurred frequently. Campbell Lake supported more species than Bluff (excluding P. jeffreyi) such as P. monticola, Picea and T. mertensiana and experienced few fires. Bolan and Sanger Lake harbored similar species as Campbell, as well as a small population of Pseudotsuga and experienced few fires. Warm, dry Early Holocene (7-11ka cal yr BP) conditions led to an increase in C. decurrens and a slight decrease in P. jeffreyi at Bluff Lake than before and fires were very frequent. At Campbell Lake, P. monticola increased, C. decurrens became more abundant than before, and Abies, Picea and T. mertensiana were scarce. Similar vegetation occurred at Bolan and Sanger lakes although the sites continued to harbor Pseudotsuga. Campbell, Bolan and Sanger all experienced frequent fires. Cool, wet conditions in the Middle Holocene (3-7ka cal yr BP) allowed P. jeffreyi to increase at the expense of C. decurrens at Bluff Lake. At Campbell, Sanger and Bolan lakes there was a decrease in P. monticola and a significant increase in Abies than before. Bolan and Sanger lakes still maintained a significant population of Pseudotsuga. Fire frequency at all sites was moderate. Modern (3ka cal yr BP to present) climate conditions in the Late Holocene resulted in increases in P. jeffreyi and Abies than before at Bluff Lake. P. monticola and Abies were abundant at Campbell Lake with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga and T. mertensiana. Most tree species occurred at Bolan and Sanger Lake (with the exception of P. jeffreyi at both sites and T. mertensiana at Sanger Lake). Abies and P.monticola were the primary species in the Bolan, Sanger and Campbell lake forests. Fires were frequent at all sites. In conclusion, Bluff Lake was dominated by ultramafic tolerant taxa such as Pinus jeffreyi, Calocedrus decurrens and Abies, while Bolan and Sanger lakes harbored mostly ultramafic intolerant species such as Pinus monticola, Pseudotsuga, Picea, and Tsuga mertensiana since the last ice age. The forest at Campbell Lake was more open, was dominated by Pinus monticola and had less Picea and T. mertensiana than Bolan and Sanger lakes since the last ice age. REFS. 1 Briles, C. et al 2005. Quaternary Research 64. 2 Mohr, J.A. et al 2000. The Holocene 10.

  3. Deglacial-postglacial paleoclimatic reconstruction in NE Japan based on pollen records from Tashiro Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashibara, K.; Minoura, K.; Yamanoi, T.; Nishi, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Tashiro Marsh is located in the northmost part of Northeast (NE) Japan (40°41' N, 144°55' E) at an altitude of 570 m above sea level. The marsh is covered by heavy snow in winter. After fast completion of the plant growth process during summer, the plants die fast with the arrival of the long cold season. It is probable that the degree of humification of the dead plants is lower and the plant remains preserved in peat deposition are more intact. As the Tashiro Marsh does not receive river input and is not drained by rivers, the swamp water originates from precipitation. Therefore the formed peat layer was not disturbed. We collected an 880-cm-long core from the central part of the marsh. The core sediments are composed mainly of peat sediments, with five tephra layers interbedded in the peat, and many layers consist of undecomposed Sphagnum. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the climate changes, particularly moisture and air temperature fluctuations, in NE Japan through the deglacial and the postglacial stages. We carried out fossil pollen analysis on the sediment core from the Tashiro Marsh covering the last 15 cal ka BP. For pollen extraction, 200 samples (~1 cm3) were taken from the core. A standard pretreatment procedure was used, including KOH-HF treatment, heavy liquid separation by acetolysis. For confirming the precise chronostratigraphy of vegetational changes, we conducted 42 radiocarbon analyses of bulk sediment samples. The measured 14C values were calibrated to calendar ages using the calibration program CALIB-6.0 (http://calib.qub.ac.uk/calib/). And then, we regard carbon content obtained during graphite preparation as total organic carbon (TOC). About 40 pollen spectra were identified, and total pollen concentration in the core started to increase after 11-10 cal ka BP, and the high pollen concentration (up to 9.0 × 105 grains /cm3) was observed during the interval from 10 to 5 cal ka BP. Before 11.3 cal ka BP, sub-boreal coniferous and broad-leaved plants (e.g. Abies, Picea, Tsuga, Pinus and Betula) dominated. After that, sub-boreal coniferous retreated and cool-temperate broad-leaved plants (e.g. Quercus, Carpinus, Juglans and Pterocarya) dominated. At about 8.4 cal ka BP, Quercus had a little decrease and Fagus increased greatly and it keeps high rate still now. We applied the best modern analogue technique for determining climate indices quantitatively from pollen records. From 11.3 cal ka BP, annual temperature started to increase and reached maximum at about 8.8 cal ka BP by 8~9°C. Annual precipitation mainly reflect winter precipitation, which shows a sudden increase at about 8 cal ka BP. This abrupt increase correspond to the beginning of intrusion of the Tsushima Current into the Japan Sea, showing the establishment of modern winter climate in NE Japan at that time.

  4. Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The major aims of IODP Expedition 313 are estimating amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea-level change and the evaluation of sequence stratigraphic facies models that predict depositional environments, sediment compositions, and stratal geometries in response to sea-level change. Cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved during May to July 2009, using an ECORD "mission-specific" jack-up platform. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey. For this study, we have focused on pollen studies for the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. For most samples, the pollen assemblages were not highly diverse. The most abundant taxa through all samples were Quercus (oak) and Carya (hickory). Typical wetland elements like Cyperaceae, Taxodium (cypress), Nyssa (tupelo tree) and taxa today growing in the tropics and subtropics like Sapotaceae, Symplocaceae, Arecaceae (palm trees) and Alangium, which indicate particularly warm climate conditions, were only sporadically found, but indicate warmer phases during the second half of the MMCO. Herbal pollen was generally rare, but members of the Asteraceae, Apiaceae, and Ericaceae families, together with infrequent occurences of Poaceae pollen indicate the presence of areas with open vegetation. The Mid-Miocene pollen assemblages reflect a vegetation in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf which was reminiscent of Oligocene and early Miocene ecosystems analyzed in previous studies (e.g. Kotthoff et al. 2014). The ecosystem was characterized by oak-hickory forests which probably dominated in the lowlands, while frequent occurrence of conifer pollen (Pinus, Picea, Abies, Sciadopitys, and Tsuga canadensis) indicate that conifer forests prevailed in higher altitudes during the MMCO. We assume that the Miocene uplift of the Appalachian Mountains (e.g. Gallen et al., 2013) led to the proliferation of mountainous taxa and thus to an increase of related pollen taxa in the palynological record. References: Gallen, S. F., Wegmann, K. W., Bohnenstieh, D. W. R.: Miocene rejuvenation of topographic relief in the southern Appalachians, GSA Today, 23, 4-10, 2013. Kotthoff, U., McCarthy, F.M.G., Greenwood, D.R., Müller-Navarra, K., Prader, S., Hesselbo, S.P., (2014): Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from 33 to 13 million years ago (IODP expedition 313). Climate of the Past 10, 1523-1539.

  5. Do Fungi Transport 10Be During Wood Degradation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conyers, G.; Granger, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Meteoric cosmogenic 10Be is increasingly used to determine erosion and soil transport rates. To calculate these rates, it is assumed that 10Be is a conservative passive tracer of soil particles. However, there is experimental evidence that beryllium is mobilized in natural soils complexed with organic acids. For example, up to 50% of beryllium can be mobilized by humic acids in soils at pH 7 (Takahashi et al., 1999). Beryllium is also known to be taken up in plants such as tobacco and vegetables (World Health Organization, 1990) at ppm levels, primarily as organic acid chelates. It is not known to what extent biological beryllium transport in the environment affects the cosmogenic 10Be budget, or how it influences beryllium mobility. In this study, we address a problem recognized early in the development of meteoric 10Be methods. It has been observed that decayed organic matter in soils and sediments contains very high concentrations of 10Be of up to 109-1010 atoms/g (Lundberg, et al., 1983). On the other hand, living trees contain much lower concentrations of 106 atoms/g (Klein et al., 1982). The driving question for this study is how 10Be becomes bound to decayed organic matter. Direct fallout seems unlikely as the residence time of organic matter in soil is too short. One possibility is that 10Be is transported by fungi. Wood-degrading fungi are known to transport and bioaccumulate metals from large areas, facilitated by acids such as oxalic acid in the fungal hyphae. To test the hypothesis that fungi transport 10Be, we analyzed both intact and fungally degraded wood of oak, hickory, and hemlock. From these data, we reached two conclusions (observations?): 1) Oak has a 10Be concentration of about 2x106 at/g, similar to that observed by Klein et al. (1982). Hickory has a significantly higher concentration of about 3x107 atoms/g, confirming observations that hickory bioaccumulates beryllium. Using these data, the inventory of 10Be in a temperate forest is expected to be about 6x106 atoms/cm2, equivalent to only a few years of fallout. The flux of beryllium remains unconstrained. 2) We observed two patterns of metal accumulation by wood-degrading fungi. One group of samples showed enrichment in Mn, Fe, and Cr, which are metals that can be used for energy by fungi in a Fenton-like process. This group showed no enrichment in 10Be. Another group of samples showed enrichment primarily in Al and Ti, and also five-fold enrichment in 10Be. Neither group showed fungal enrichment of 10Be sufficient to account for the 1000-fold difference between living trees and soil organic matter. References Klein, J, Middleton, R, & Tang, Hongqing. (1982). Nucl. Instr. Meth., 193:601-616. Lundberg, L., et al. (1983). JGR 88(C7):4498-4504. Takahashi, Y, et al. (1999). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 63: 815-836. World Health Organization, (1990). Beryllium, Environmental Health Criteria 106.