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Sample records for hemolysin proteins

  1. Fungal hemolysins

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Ajay P.; Green, Brett J.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2015-01-01

    Hemolysins are a class of proteins defined by their ability to lyse red cells but have been described to exhibit pleiotropic functions. These proteins have been extensively studied in bacteria and more recently in fungi. Within the last decade, a number of studies have characterized fungal hemolysins and revealed a fascinating yet diverse group of proteins. The purpose of this review is to provide a synopsis of the known fungal hemolysins with an emphasis on those belonging to the aegerolysin protein family. New insight and perspective into fungal hemolysins in biotechnology and health are additionally presented. PMID:22769586

  2. Hemolysin coregulated protein 1 as a molecular gluing unit for the assembly of nanoparticle hybrid structures.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Schreiber, Andreas; Sturm Née Rosseeva, Elena V; Schiller, Stefan; Cölfen, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid nanoparticle (NP) structures containing organic building units such as polymers, peptides, DNA and proteins have great potential in biosensor and electronic applications. The nearly free modification of the polymer chain, the variation of the protein and DNA sequence and the implementation of functional moieties provide a great platform to create inorganic structures of different morphology, resulting in different optical and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the design and modification of a protein structure with functional groups or sequences for the assembly of biohybrid materials is not trivial. This is mainly due to the sensitivity of its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure to the changes in the interaction (e.g., hydrophobic, hydrophilic, electrostatic, chemical groups) between the protein subunits and the inorganic material. Here, we use hemolysin coregulated protein 1 (Hcp1) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a building and gluing unit for the formation of biohybrid structures by implementing cysteine anchoring points at defined positions on the protein rim (Hcp1_cys3). We successfully apply the Hcp1_cys3 gluing unit for the assembly of often linear, hybrid structures of plasmonic gold (Au NP), magnetite (Fe3O4 NP), and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NP). Furthermore, the assembly of Au NPs into linear structures using Hcp1_cys3 is investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, TEM and cryo-TEM. One key parameter for the formation of Au NP assembly is the specific ionic strength in the mixture. The resulting network-like structure of Au NPs is characterized by Raman spectroscopy, showing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by a factor of 8·10(4) and a stable secondary structure of the Hcp1_cys3 unit. In order to prove the catalytic performance of the gold hybrid structures, they are used as a catalyst in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol showing similar catalytic activity as the pure Au NPs. To further extend the functionality of the

  3. Hemolysin coregulated protein 1 as a molecular gluing unit for the assembly of nanoparticle hybrid structures

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Tuan Anh; Schreiber, Andreas; Sturm (née Rosseeva), Elena V

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hybrid nanoparticle (NP) structures containing organic building units such as polymers, peptides, DNA and proteins have great potential in biosensor and electronic applications. The nearly free modification of the polymer chain, the variation of the protein and DNA sequence and the implementation of functional moieties provide a great platform to create inorganic structures of different morphology, resulting in different optical and magnetic properties. Nevertheless, the design and modification of a protein structure with functional groups or sequences for the assembly of biohybrid materials is not trivial. This is mainly due to the sensitivity of its secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure to the changes in the interaction (e.g., hydrophobic, hydrophilic, electrostatic, chemical groups) between the protein subunits and the inorganic material. Here, we use hemolysin coregulated protein 1 (Hcp1) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa as a building and gluing unit for the formation of biohybrid structures by implementing cysteine anchoring points at defined positions on the protein rim (Hcp1_cys3). We successfully apply the Hcp1_cys3 gluing unit for the assembly of often linear, hybrid structures of plasmonic gold (Au NP), magnetite (Fe3O4 NP), and cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (CoFe2O4 NP). Furthermore, the assembly of Au NPs into linear structures using Hcp1_cys3 is investigated by UV–vis spectroscopy, TEM and cryo-TEM. One key parameter for the formation of Au NP assembly is the specific ionic strength in the mixture. The resulting network-like structure of Au NPs is characterized by Raman spectroscopy, showing surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by a factor of 8·104 and a stable secondary structure of the Hcp1_cys3 unit. In order to prove the catalytic performance of the gold hybrid structures, they are used as a catalyst in the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol showing similar catalytic activity as the pure Au NPs. To further extend the functionality

  4. Hemolysin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: A cloak or a dagger?

    PubMed

    Ristow, Laura C; Welch, Rodney A

    2016-03-01

    Hemolysin from uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a hemolytic and cytotoxic protein active against a broad range of species and cell types. Expression of hemolysin correlates with severity of infection, as up to 78% of UPEC isolates from pyelonephritis cases express hemolysin. Despite decades of research on hemolysin activity, the mechanism of intoxication and the function of hemolysin in UPEC infection remain elusive. Early in vitro research established the role of hemolysin as a lytic protein at high doses. It is hypothesized that hemolysin is secreted at sublytic doses in vivo and recent research has focused on understanding the more subtle effects of hemolysin both in vitro and in elegant infection models in vivo, including inoculation by micropuncture of individual kidney nephrons. As the field continues to evolve, comparisons of hemolysin function in isolates from a range of UTI infections will be important for delineating the role of this toxin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale. PMID:26299820

  5. Functional role of tlyC1 encoding a hemolysin-like protein from Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 in bile tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; An, Haoran; Zhang, Jingsheng; Zhou, Hui; Ren, Fazheng; Hao, Yanling

    2014-11-01

    Bifidobacteria are normal inhabitants of the human gut, and members of which are generally considered to be probiotic. Before exerting their beneficial properties, they must survive and persist in the physiological concentrations (0.05-2%) of bile in the gut. In this work, the functional role of tlyC1 encoding a hemolysin-like protein from Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 in bile tolerance was tested. Analysis using the program TMHMM and homologous alignment indicated that TlyC1 is a nontransporter membrane protein and is conserved in many bifidobacteria. Heterologous expression of tlyC1 in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 was shown to confer 45-fold higher tolerance to 0.15% ox-bile. Notably, the recombinant strains showed threefold higher survival when exposed to sublethal concentration of TCA and TDCA, while no significant change was observed when exposed to GCA and GDCA. Furthermore, real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that the transcription of tlyC1 was up-regulated c. 2.5- and 2.7-fold in B. longum BBMN68 exposed to sublethal concentration of TCA and TDCA, while no significant change was observed with GCA and GDCA challenges. This study indicated that tlyC1 was specifically induced by tauroconjugates, which provided enhanced resistance to sodium taurocholate and sodium taurodeoxycholate. PMID:25227940

  6. RNase A Does Not Translocate the Alpha-Hemolysin Pore

    PubMed Central

    Krasniqi, Besnik; Lee, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    The application of nanopore sensing utilizing the α-hemolysin pore to probe proteins at single-molecule resolution has expanded rapidly. In some studies protein translocation through the α-hemolysin has been reported. However, there is no direct evidence, as yet, that proteins can translocate the α-hemolysin pore. The biggest challenge to obtaining direct evidence is the lack of a highly sensitive assay to detect very low numbers of protein molecules. Furthermore, if an activity based assay is applied then the proteins translocating by unfolding should refold back to an active confirmation for the assay technique to work. To overcome these challenges we selected a model enzyme, ribonuclease A, that readily refolds to an active conformation even after unfolding it with denaturants. In addition we have developed a highly sensitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction based activity assay for ribonuclease A. Initially, ribonuclease A, a protein with a positive net charge and dimensions larger than the smallest diameter of the pore, was subjected to nanopore analysis under different experimental conditions. Surprisingly, although the protein was added to the cis chamber (grounded) and a positive potential was applied, the interaction of ribonuclease A with α-hemolysin pore induced small and large blockade events in the presence and the absence of a reducing and/or denaturing agent. Upon measuring the zeta potential, it was found that the protein undergoes a charge reversal under the experimental conditions used for nanopore sensing. From the investigation of the effect of voltage on the interaction of ribonuclease A with the α-hemolysin pore, it was impossible to conclude if the events observed were translocations. However, upon testing for ribonuclease A activity on the trans chamber it was found that ribonuclease A does not translocate the α-hemolysin pore. PMID:24505349

  7. POSSIBLE ROLE OF FUNGAL HEMOLYSINS IN SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many fungi produce proteinaceous hemolytic agents. Like bacterial hemolysins, fungal hemolysins create pores or holes in membranes. Depending on which membranes are damaged, fungal hemolysins can produce a variety of effects. Fungal hemolysins can cause histamine release from ...

  8. Erythrocyte lysis and Xenopus laevis oocyte rupture by recombinant Plasmodium falciparum hemolysin III.

    PubMed

    Moonah, Shannon; Sanders, Natalie G; Persichetti, Jason K; Sullivan, David J

    2014-10-01

    Malaria kills more than 1 million people per year worldwide, with severe malaria anemia accounting for the majority of the deaths. Malaria anemia is multifactorial in etiology, including infected erythrocyte destruction and decrease in erythrocyte production, as well as destruction or clearance of noninfected erythrocytes. We identified a panspecies Plasmodium hemolysin type III related to bacterial hemolysins. The identification of a hemolysin III homologue in Plasmodium suggests a potential role in host erythrocyte lysis. Here, we report the first characterization of Plasmodium falciparum hemolysin III, showing that the soluble recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III is a pore-forming protein capable of lysing human erythrocytes in a dose-, time-, and temperature-dependent fashion. The recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III-induced hemolysis was partially inhibited by glibenclamide, a known channel antagonist. Studies with polyethylene glycol molecules of different molecular weights indicated a pore size of approximately 3.2 nm. Heterologous expression of recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated early hypotonic lysis similar to that of the pore-forming aquaporin control. Live fluorescence microscopy localized transfected recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged P. falciparum hemolysin III to the essential digestive vacuole of the P. falciparum parasite. These transfected trophozoites also possessed a swollen digestive vacuole phenotype. Native Plasmodium hemolysin III in the digestive vacuole may contribute to lysis of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane derived from the host erythrocyte. After merozoite egress from infected erythrocytes, remnant P. falciparum hemolysin III released from digestive vacuoles could potentially contribute to lysis of uninfected erythrocytes to contribute to severe life-threatening anemia. PMID:25148832

  9. Erythrocyte Lysis and Xenopus laevis Oocyte Rupture by Recombinant Plasmodium falciparum Hemolysin III

    PubMed Central

    Moonah, Shannon; Sanders, Natalie G.; Persichetti, Jason K.

    2014-01-01

    Malaria kills more than 1 million people per year worldwide, with severe malaria anemia accounting for the majority of the deaths. Malaria anemia is multifactorial in etiology, including infected erythrocyte destruction and decrease in erythrocyte production, as well as destruction or clearance of noninfected erythrocytes. We identified a panspecies Plasmodium hemolysin type III related to bacterial hemolysins. The identification of a hemolysin III homologue in Plasmodium suggests a potential role in host erythrocyte lysis. Here, we report the first characterization of Plasmodium falciparum hemolysin III, showing that the soluble recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III is a pore-forming protein capable of lysing human erythrocytes in a dose-, time-, and temperature-dependent fashion. The recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III-induced hemolysis was partially inhibited by glibenclamide, a known channel antagonist. Studies with polyethylene glycol molecules of different molecular weights indicated a pore size of approximately 3.2 nm. Heterologous expression of recombinant P. falciparum hemolysin III in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated early hypotonic lysis similar to that of the pore-forming aquaporin control. Live fluorescence microscopy localized transfected recombinant green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged P. falciparum hemolysin III to the essential digestive vacuole of the P. falciparum parasite. These transfected trophozoites also possessed a swollen digestive vacuole phenotype. Native Plasmodium hemolysin III in the digestive vacuole may contribute to lysis of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane derived from the host erythrocyte. After merozoite egress from infected erythrocytes, remnant P. falciparum hemolysin III released from digestive vacuoles could potentially contribute to lysis of uninfected erythrocytes to contribute to severe life-threatening anemia. PMID:25148832

  10. HEMOLYSIN, CHRYSOLYSIN FROM PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM PROMOTES INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Some strains of Penicillium chrysogenum produce a proteinaceous hemolysin, chrysolysin, when incubated on sheep's blood agar at 37 �C but not at 23 �C. Chrysolysin is an aggregating protein composed of approximately 2 kDa monomers, contains one cysteine amino acid, and has an is...

  11. Genetic and biochemical properties of a hemolysin (pyolysin) produced by a swine isolate of Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, M; Hashimoto, N; Kaidoh, T; Sekizaki, T; Takeuchi, S

    2000-01-01

    Arcanobacterium (Actinomyces) pyogenes, a causative agent of various pyogenic diseases in domestic animals, produces a hemolysin which is thought to be an important virulence factor. This hemolysin was purified from the culture supernatant of A. pyogenes swine isolate. The purified hemolysin showed a single band with a molecular mass of 56 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and its isoelectric point was 9.2. The activity of this hemolysin was not enhanced by the addition of L-cysteine or sodium thioglycolate, but it was inhibited by cholesterol. The gene encoding the hemolysin was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli by means of ZAP Express vector. Analysis by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with immunoblotting showed that the molecular weight of the hemolysin expressed in E. coli is the same as that of the hemolysin purified from A. pyogenes. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 1,605 bp encoding a 534 amino acid protein of 57,989 Da. The nucleotide sequence of the hemolysin gene from A. pyogenes swine isolate differed only slightly (97.6% identity) from the sequence of plo gene from A. pyogenes strain BBR1 reported by Billington et al (J. Bacteriol. 179: 6100-6106, 1997). The cysteine residue existed in the undecapeptide region of the hemolysin, which is highly conserved in thiol-activated cytolysins (cholesterol-binding cytolysins), and is replaced with alanine. Therefore, the hemolysin of A. pyogenes seems to be a novel member of the thiol-activated cytolysin family. PMID:10711593

  12. Staphylococcus cohnii hemolysins - isolation, purification and properties.

    PubMed

    Rózalska, M; Szewczyk, E M

    2008-01-01

    A total 355 of Staphylococcus cohnii isolates from hospital environment, patients (newborns), medical staff and from non-hospital environment were tested for hemolytic activity. Ninety-one % of S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and 74.5 % S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus strains exhibited hemolysis synergistic to S. aureus ATCC 25923 strain. Crude preparations of hemolysins of both bacterial subspecies presented delta-hemolysin, but not alpha- and beta-toxin activity. Highly pure hemolysins were obtained by semipreparative SDS-PAGE or by organic solvent extraction from the freeze-dried crude preparations. Native-PAGE and 2D-PAGE showed their high heterogeneity. Molar masses of single hemolysin units estimated by the Tris-Tricine-SDS-PAGE were calculated as 3.47 kDa for S. cohnii ssp. cohnii and 3.53 kDa for S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus. PMID:19381478

  13. In vitro directed evolution of alpha-hemolysin by liposome display

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Satoshi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a method to enable in vitro directed evolution that can be applied to membrane proteins. This method, termed liposome display, uses liposomes as compartments in which membrane proteins are synthesized and as scaffolds for membrane protein integration. Thus, the synthesized membrane proteins are displayed on the surface of the liposome and exhibit their functions. A randomly mutated DNA library of the membrane protein was generated, encapsulated in the liposomes at the single-molecule level, and used to generate a liposome library. Liposomes displaying the desired membrane protein function were selected, thus accumulating the DNA molecule encoding the desired membrane protein. We have applied this method to alpha-hemolysin, a membrane protein derived from Staphylococcus aureus. Alpha-hemolysin forms a nanopore in the membrane, which allows the penetration of small molecules. We aimed to improve this nanopore activity by using the liposome display method. Consequently, alpha-hemolysin evolved and attained a higher specific affinity for the liposome membrane. In this review, we describe the essential characteristics of liposome display and the properties of the evolved alpha-hemolysin obtained by this method.

  14. Lack of functional complementation between Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin and Proteus mirabilis HpmA hemolysin secretion machineries.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob-Dubuisson, F; Buisine, C; Willery, E; Renauld-Mongénie, G; Locht, C

    1997-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis has adapted specific secretion machineries for each of its major secretory proteins. In particular, the highly efficient secretion of filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is mediated by the accessory protein FhaC. FhaC belongs to a family of outer membrane proteins which are involved in the secretion of large adhesins or in the activation and secretion of Ca2+-independent hemolysins by several gram-negative bacteria. FHA shares with these hemolysins a 115-residue-long amino-proximal region essential for its secretion. To compare the secretory pathways of these hemolysins and FHA, we attempted functional transcomplementation between FhaC and the Proteus mirabilis hemolysin accessory protein HpmB. HpmB could not promote the secretion of FHA derivatives. Likewise, FhaC proved to be unable to mediate secretion and activation of HpmA, the cognate secretory partner of HpmB. In contrast, ShlB, the accessory protein of the closely related Serratia marcescens hemolysin, was able to activate and secrete HpmA. Two invariant asparagine residues lying in the region of homology shared by secretory proteins and shown to be essential for the secretion and activation of the hemolysins were replaced in FHA by site-directed mutagenesis. Replacements of these residues indicated that both are involved in, but only the first one is crucial to, FHA secretion. This slight discrepancy together with the lack of functional complementation demonstrates major differences between the hemolysins and FHA secretion machineries. PMID:9006033

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HEMOLYSIN, FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys chartarum is a toxigenic fungus that has been associated with human health concerns, including pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis. This fungus produces a hemolysin, stachylysin, which in its apparent monomeric form has a molecular mass of 11,920
    Da as determ...

  16. Interactions between earthworm hemolysins and sheep red blood cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Roch, P; Canicatti, C; Valembois, P

    1989-08-01

    The hemolytic activity exhibited by the coelomic fluid of the Annelid Eisenia fetida andrei is mediated by two lipoproteins of mass 40 and 45 kDa, each of them capable of hemolysis. Such an activity is not inhibited by zymosan, inulin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), nor by hydrazine or methylamine, suggesting that earthworm hemolysins are not related to C3 or C3b complement components. Among the membrane lipids tested (phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, sphingomyelin and cholesterol) only sphingomyelin inhibited hemolysis. The analysis of E.f. andrei proteins bound to sphingomyelin microvesicles, as well as to sheep red blood cell (SRBC) membranes, revealed a polymerization of E.f. andrei 40 kDa and/or 45 kDa hemolysins. Consequently, sphingomyelin appears a likely candidate for hemolytic complex receptor. Electron microscopy observations suggested that the polymerization causes an open channel through the lipid bilayer. As demonstrated using metal ions, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, poly(L-lysine) and protamine chloride, the mode of action of earthworm hemolytic complex is not analogous to that of C9 or perforine. PMID:2758056

  17. ADAM10 Cell Surface Expression but Not Activity Is Critical for Staphylococcus aureus α-Hemolysin-Mediated Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ezekwe, Ejiofor A.D.; Weng, Chengyu; Duncan, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus toxin, α-hemolysin, is an important and well-studied virulence factor in staphylococcal infection. It is a soluble monomeric protein that, once secreted by the bacterium, forms a heptameric pore in the membrane of a broad range of host cell types. Hemolysin was recently discovered to bind and activate a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). In epithelial and endothelial cells, ADAM10 activation is required for the toxin’s activity against these cells. In host monocytic cells, α-hemolysin activates the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome leading to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death. We now show that ADAM10 is critical for α-hemolysin-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes as siRNA knockdown or chemical blockade of ADAM10-α-hemolysin interaction leads to diminished inflammasome activation and cell death by reducing the available ADAM10 on the cell surface. Unlike epithelial cell and endothelial cell damage, which requires α-hemolysin induced ADAM10 activation, ADAM10 protease activity was not required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. This work confirms the importance of ADAM10 in immune activation by α-hemolysin, but indicates that host cell signal induction by the toxin is different between host cell types. PMID:27043625

  18. Overexpression, Purification, Characterization, and Pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi Hemolysin VHH

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yingbin; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Jixiang; Chi, Zhenghao; Sun, Boguang; Li, Yun; Austin, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi VHH hemolysin is a putative pathogenicity factor in fish. In this study, the hemolysin gene vhhA was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the purified VHH was characterized with regard to pH and temperature profiles, phospholipase activity, cytotoxicity, pathogenicity to flounder, and the signal peptide. PMID:16988279

  19. Nucleotide sequence of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed Central

    Nishibuchi, M; Kaper, J B

    1985-01-01

    The gene encoding the thermostable direct hemolysin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was characterized. This gene (designated tdh) was subcloned into pBR322 in Escherichia coli, and the functional tdh gene was localized to a 1.3-kilobase HindIII fragment. This fragment was sequenced, and the structural gene was found to encode a mature protein of 165 amino acid residues. The mature protein sequence was preceded by a putative signal peptide sequence of 24 amino acids. A putative tdh promoter, determined by its similarity to concensus sequences, was not functional in E. coli. However, a promoter that was functional in E. coli was shown to exist further upstream by use of a promoter probe plasmid. A 5.7-kilobase SalI fragment containing the structural gene and both potential promoters was cloned into a broad-host-range plasmid and mobilized into a Kanagawa phenomenon-negative V. parahaemolyticus strain. In contrast to E. coli, where the hemolysin was detected only in cell lysates, introduction of the cloned gene into V. parahaemolyticus resulted in the production of extracellular hemolysin. Images PMID:3988703

  20. In vitro evolution of α-hemolysin using a liposome display

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Satoshi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Sunami, Takeshi; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    In vitro methods have enabled the rapid and efficient evolution of proteins and successful generation of novel and highly functional proteins. However, the available methods consider only globular proteins (e.g., antibodies, enzymes) and not membrane proteins despite the biological and pharmaceutical importance of the latter. In this study, we report the development of a method called liposome display that can evolve the properties of membrane proteins entirely in vitro. This method, which involves in vitro protein synthesis inside liposomes, which are cell-sized phospholipid vesicles, was applied to the pore-forming activity of α-hemolysin, a membrane protein derived from Staphylococcus aureus. The obtained α-hemolysin mutant possessed only two point mutations but exhibited a 30-fold increase in its pore-forming activity compared with the WT. Given the ability to synthesize various membrane proteins and modify protein synthesis and functional screening conditions, this method will allow for the rapid and efficient evolution of a wide range of membrane proteins. PMID:24082135

  1. Purification and Properties of Staphylococcal Delta Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Kreger, Arnold S.; Kim, Kwang-Shin; Zaboretzky, Frank; Bernheimer, Alan W.

    1971-01-01

    Large amounts (200 mg per liter of culture supernatant fluid) of highly purified staphylococcal soluble delta hemolysin were obtained by adsorption to and selective elution from hydroxyapatite followed by exhaustive dialysis against water, concentration by polyvinylpyrrolidone or polyethylene glycol 20,000 dialysis, and a final water dialysis. No carbohydrate, phosphorus, or inactive 280-nm absorbing material was detected in the preparation; however, analysis by density gradient centrifugation, gel filtration, analytical ultracentrifugation, carboxymethyl cellulose chromatography, polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, and electron microscopy revealed that the lysin was molecularly heterogeneous. The preparation contained an acidic fibrous lysin (S20,w of 11.9) and a basic lysin component composed of a population of granular aggregates of various sizes, with a maximum S20,w of approximately 4.9. No other staphylococcal products were detected in the preparation. The lysin was active against erythrocytes from many animal species and acted synergistically with staphylococcal beta hemolysin against sheep erythrocytes. It was soluble in chloroform-methanol (2:1), was inactivated by various phospholipids, normal sera, and proteolytic enzymes, but was partially resistant to heat inactivation. Activity was not affected by Ca2+, Mg2+, citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, or cysteine. The lysin preparation also disrupted bacterial protoplasts and spheroplasts, erythrocyte membranes, lysosomes, and lipid spherules, was growth-inhibitory for certain bacteria, and clarified egg yolk-agar. Large amounts produced dermonecrosis in rabbits and guinea pigs. The minimum lethal intravenous dose for mice and guinea pigs was approximately 110 and 30 mg/kg, respectively. Images PMID:16557995

  2. [Effect of Bacillus cereus hemolysin II on hepatocyte cells].

    PubMed

    Kholodkov, O A; Budarina, Zh; Kovalevskaya, J I; Si'unov, A V; Solonin, A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of increasing the permeability (permeabilization) of cell membranes in primary liver cells by Bacillus cereus hemolysin II. An assessment of the degree of permeabilization was car ried out by measuring the fluorescence intensity of various low molecular weight dyes, which enter through pores into hepatocyte cells cultivated with hemolysin. We uncovered a high efficacy of hemolysin HlyII action on hepatocyte cell walls, which exceeded the effect of nonionic detergent, digitonin, which is commonly employed for pore formation in various cell membranes. Our results also point to the reversibility of membrane permeabilization in primary hepatocytes. The data obtained in this study can be utilized for assessments of pore-forming activity, in studies of hepatic mechanisms of action, and also the determination of the liver toxicity for different low molecular weight drugs. PMID:26027363

  3. Properties of Hemolysin and Protease Produced by Aeromonas trota

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Eizo; Ozaki, Haruka; Fujii, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2014-01-01

    We examined the properties of exotoxins produced by Aeromonas trota (A. enteropelogenes), one of the diarrheagenic species of Aeromonadaceae. Nine of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing erythrocytes showed hemolytic activity. However, the hemolytic activities of the culture supernatants of these hemolytic strains of A. trota were markedly lower than those of A. sobria when cultured in liquid medium, and the amount of hemolysin detected by immunoblotting using antiserum against the hemolysin produced by A. sobria was also low. A mouse intestine loop assay using living bacterial cells showed that A. trota 701 caused the significant accumulation of fluid, and antiserum against the hemolysin produced suppressed the enterotoxic action of A. trota 701. These results indicated that A. trota 701 was diarrheagenic and the hemolysin produced was the causative agent of the enterotoxic activity of A. trota. The hemolysin in A. sobria was previously shown to be secreted in a preform (inactive form) and be activated when the carboxy-terminal domain was cleaved off by proteases in the culture supernatant. Since mature hemolysin was detected in the culture supernatants of A. trota, we analyzed the extracellular protease produced by A. trota. Fifteen of 19 A. trota isolates that grew on solid media containing skim milk showed proteolytic activity. We subsequently found that most A. trota isolates possessed the serine protease gene, but not the metalloprotease gene. Therefore, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the serine protease gene and its chaperone A. trota gene. The results obtained revealed that the deduced amino acid sequences of serine protease and the chaperone were homologous to those of A. sobria with identities of 83.0% and 75.8%, respectively. PMID:24633045

  4. Serine/Threonine Phosphatase Stp1 Mediates Post-transcriptional Regulation of Hemolysin, Autolysis, and Virulence of Group B Streptococcus*

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, Kellie; Lembo, Annalisa; Harrell, Maria Isabel; Gurney, Michael; Xue, Liang; BinhTran, Nguyen-Thao; Connelly, James E.; Jewell, Kelsea A.; Schmidt, Byron Z.; de los Reyes, Melissa; Tao, Weiguo Andy; Doran, Kelly S.; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating how serine/threonine phosphatases regulate kinase function and bacterial virulence is critical for our ability to combat these infections. Group B streptococci (GBS) are β-hemolytic Gram-positive bacteria that cause invasive infections in humans. To adapt to environmental changes, GBS encodes signaling mechanisms comprising two component systems and eukaryotic-like enzymes. We have previously described the importance of the serine/threonine kinase Stk1 to GBS pathogenesis. However, how the presence or absence of the cognate serine/threonine phosphatase Stp1 affects Stk1 function and GBS virulence is not known. Here, we show that GBS deficient only in Stp1 expression are markedly reduced for their ability to cause systemic infections, exhibit decreased β-hemolysin/cytolysin activity, and show increased sensitivity to autolysis. Although transcription of genes important for β-hemolysin/cytolysin expression and export is similar to the wild type (WT), 294 genes (excluding stp1) showed altered expression in the stp1 mutant and included autolysin genes. Furthermore, phosphopeptide enrichment analysis identified that 35 serine/threonine phosphopeptides, corresponding to 27 proteins, were unique to the stp1 mutant. This included phosphorylation of ATP synthase, DNA and RNA helicases, and proteins important for cell division and protein synthesis. Collectively, our results indicate that Stp1 is important for appropriate regulation of Stk1 function, hemolysin activity, autolysis, and GBS virulence. PMID:22081606

  5. Signal transduction in human platelets and inflammatory mediator release induced by genetically cloned hemolysin-positive and -negative Escherichia coli strains.

    PubMed Central

    König, B; Schönfeld, W; Scheffer, J; König, W

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of human platelets with the hemolysin-producing Escherichia coli strain K-12 (pANN5211) induced the activation of protein kinase C, aggregation of platelets, calcium influx, low amounts of 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE), and release of serotonin from dense granules. Nonhemolytic isogenic strains of E. coli 536/21 which differed only in their types of adhesins (MSH+ MS-Fim+; S-MRH+ S-Fim+; P-MRH+ P-Fim+) released neither serotonin nor 12-HETE from human platelets nor induced platelet aggregation. All hemolysin-negative bacteria except E. coli 536/21, without any adhesins, were able to activate protein kinase C reversibly but did not induce calcium influx. Activation of platelets with fluoride, an activator of the GTP-binding protein, was associated with protein kinase C activation, calcium influx, platelet aggregation, serotonin release, and 12-HETE formation. The simultaneous stimulation of platelets with NaF and the nonhemolytic E. coli strains suppressed several of the NaF-induced platelet responses. Membrane preparations isolated from stimulated platelets with hemolysin-negative and hemolysin-positive E. coli showed increased binding of guanylylimidodiphosphate, a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, and enhanced GTPase activity. PMID:1971256

  6. Aeromonas hydrophila Beta-Hemolysin Induces Active Chloride Secretion in Colon Epithelial Cells (HT-29/B6)

    PubMed Central

    Epple, H. J.; Mankertz, J.; Ignatius, R.; Liesenfeld, O.; Fromm, M.; Zeitz, M.; Chakraborty, T.; Schulzke, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    The diarrheal mechanisms in Aeromonas enteritis are not completely understood. In this study we investigated the effect of aeromonads and of their secretory products on ion secretion and barrier function of monolayers of human intestinal cells (HT-29/B6). Ion secretion was determined as a short-circuit current (ISC) of HT-29/B6 monolayers mounted in Ussing-type chambers. Transepithelial resistance (Rt) served as a measure of permeability. A diarrheal strain of Aeromonas hydrophila (strain Sb) added to the mucosal side of HT-29/B6 monolayers induced a significant ISC (39 ± 3 μA/cm2) and decreased the Rt to ∼10% of the initial value. A qualitatively identical response was obtained with sterile supernatant of strain Sb, and Aeromonas supernatant also induced a significant ISC in totally stripped human colon. Tracer flux and ion replacement studies revealed the ISC to be mainly accounted for by electrogenic Cl− secretion. Supernatant applied serosally completely abolished basal ISC. The supernatant-induced ISC was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine, whereas a protein kinase A inhibitor (H8) and a Ca2+ chelator (BAPTA-AM) had no effect. Physicochemical properties indicated that the supernatant's active compound was an aerolysin-related Aeromonas beta-hemolysin. Accordingly, identical ISC and Rt responses were obtained with Escherichia coli lysates harboring the cloned beta-hemolysin gene from strain SB or the aerA gene encoding for aerolysin. Sequence comparison revealed a 64% homology between aerolysin and the beta-hemolysin cloned from Aeromonas sp. strain Sb. In conclusion, beta-hemolysin secreted by pathogenic aeromonads induces active Cl− secretion in the intestinal epithelium, possibly by channel insertion into the apical membrane and by activation of protein kinase C. PMID:15271947

  7. Water transport by the bacterial channel alpha-hemolysin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Akeson, M.; Deamer, D.

    1999-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the ability of the bacterial channel alpha-hemolysin to facilitate water permeation across biological membranes. alpha-Hemolysin channels were incorporated into rabbit erythrocyte ghosts at varying concentrations, and water permeation was induced by mixing the ghosts with hypertonic sucrose solutions. The resulting volume decrease of the ghosts was followed by time-resolved optical absorption at pH 5, 6, and 7. The average single-channel permeability coefficient of alpha-hemolysin for water ranged between 1.3x10-12 cm/s and 1.5x10-12 cm/s, depending on pH. The slightly increased single-channel permeability coefficient at lower pH-values was attributed to an increase in the effective pore size. The activation energy of water transport through the channel was low (Ea=5.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that the properties of water inside the alpha-hemolysin channel resemble those of bulk water. This conclusion was supported by calculations based on macroscopic hydrodynamic laws of laminar water flow. Using the known three-dimensional structure of the channel, the calculations accurately predicted the rate of water flow through the channel. The latter finding also indicated that water permeation data can provide a good estimate of the pore size for large channels.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE HEMOLYSIN, STACHYLYSIN, FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys chartarum is a toxigenic fungus that has been associated with human health concerns, including pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis. This fungus produces a hemolysin, stachylysin, which in its monomeric form, has a molecular wieght of 11,920 daltons as determined by m...

  9. Single-molecule study of thymidine glycol and i-motif through the alpha-hemolysin ion channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lidong

    Nanopore-based devices have emerged as a single-molecule detection and analysis tool for a wide range of applications. Through electrophoretically driving DNA molecules across a nanosized pore, a lot of information can be received, including unfolding kinetics and DNA-protein interactions. This single-molecule method has the potential to sequence kilobase length DNA polymers without amplification or labeling, approaching "the third generation" genome sequencing for around $1000 within 24 hours. alpha-Hemolysin biological nanopores have the advantages of excellent stability, low-noise level, and precise site-directed mutagenesis for engineering this protein nanopore. The first work presented in this thesis established the current signal of the thymidine glycol lesion in DNA oligomers through an immobilization experiment. The thymidine glycol enantiomers were differentiated from each other by different current blockage levels. Also, the effect of bulky hydrophobic adducts to the current blockage was investigated. Secondly, the alpha-hemolysin nanopore was used to study the human telomere i-motif and RET oncogene i-motif at a single-molecule level. In Chapter 3, it was demonstrated that the alpha-hemolysin nanopore can differentiate an i-motif form and single-strand DNA form at different pH values based on the same sequence. In addition, it shows potential to differentiate the folding topologies generated from the same DNA sequence.

  10. Size-dependent forced PEG partitioning into channels: VDAC, OmpC, and α-hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Aksoyoglu, M. Alphan; Podgornik, Rudolf; Bezrukov, Sergey M.; Gurnev, Philip A.; Muthukumar, Murugappan; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Nonideal polymer mixtures of PEGs of different molecular weights partition differently into nanosize protein channels. Here, we assess the validity of the recently proposed theoretical approach of forced partitioning for three structurally different β-barrel channels: voltage-dependent anion channel from outer mitochondrial membrane VDAC, bacterial porin OmpC (outer membrane protein C), and bacterial channel-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Our interpretation is based on the idea that relatively less-penetrating polymers push the more easily penetrating ones into nanosize channels in excess of their bath concentration. Comparison of the theory with experiments is excellent for VDAC. Polymer partitioning data for the other two channels are consistent with theory if additional assumptions regarding the energy penalty of pore penetration are included. The obtained results demonstrate that the general concept of “polymers pushing polymers” is helpful in understanding and quantification of concrete examples of size-dependent forced partitioning of polymers into protein nanopores. PMID:27466408

  11. Size-dependent forced PEG partitioning into channels: VDAC, OmpC, and α-hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Aksoyoglu, M Alphan; Podgornik, Rudolf; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Gurnev, Philip A; Muthukumar, Murugappan; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2016-08-01

    Nonideal polymer mixtures of PEGs of different molecular weights partition differently into nanosize protein channels. Here, we assess the validity of the recently proposed theoretical approach of forced partitioning for three structurally different β-barrel channels: voltage-dependent anion channel from outer mitochondrial membrane VDAC, bacterial porin OmpC (outer membrane protein C), and bacterial channel-forming toxin α-hemolysin. Our interpretation is based on the idea that relatively less-penetrating polymers push the more easily penetrating ones into nanosize channels in excess of their bath concentration. Comparison of the theory with experiments is excellent for VDAC. Polymer partitioning data for the other two channels are consistent with theory if additional assumptions regarding the energy penalty of pore penetration are included. The obtained results demonstrate that the general concept of "polymers pushing polymers" is helpful in understanding and quantification of concrete examples of size-dependent forced partitioning of polymers into protein nanopores. PMID:27466408

  12. Duplication of Hemolysin Genes in a Virulent Isolate of Vibrio harveyi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X.-H.; Meaden, P. G.; Austin, B.

    2001-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi VIB 645, which is very pathogenic towards salmonids and produces extracellular product with a high titer of hemolytic activity towards fish erythrocytes, was found to contain two closely related hemolysin genes (designated vhhA and vhhB), whereas the majority of strains examined (11 of 13) carried only a single hemolysin gene. Both genes from VIB 645 were cloned and sequenced. The open reading frames (ORFs) of vhhA and vhhB shared a high level of identity (98.8%) and were predicted to encode identical polypeptides comprising 418 amino acid residues. The VHH protein shows homology to the lecithinase of V. mimicus and V. cholerae. Transformants of Escherichia coli containing the ORF of either vhhA or vhhB displayed weak hemolytic activity in rainbow trout blood agar. The hemolytic activity was very high when the ORF of vhhB was cloned in E. coli together with the native promoter. Surprisingly, the level of vhh-specific RNA transcript produced by VIB 645 was found to be very low. We conclude that the hemolytic phenotype of VIB 645 is not due to increased expression of one or both copies of the vhh gene. PMID:11425736

  13. Hemagglutinin, urease, and hemolysin production by Proteus mirabilis from clinical sources.

    PubMed

    Mobley, H L; Chippendale, G R

    1990-03-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a common cause of urinary tract infection, can lead to serious complications including pyelonephritis. Adherence factors, urease, and hemolysin may be virulence determinants. These factors were compared for bacteria cultured from 16 patients with acute pyelonephritis and 35 with catheter-associated bacteriuria and for 20 fecal isolates. Pyelonephritis isolates were more likely (P less than .05) to express the mannose-resistant/Proteus-like (MR/P) hemagglutinin in the absence of mannose-resistant/Klebsiella-like (MR/K) hemagglutinin than were catheter-associated or fecal isolates. Pyelonephritis isolates produced urease activity of 63 +/- 27 (mean +/- SD) mumol of NH3/min/mg of protein, not significantly different from catheter-associated or fecal isolates. Hybridization of Southern blots of P. mirabilis chromosomal DNA with two urease gene probes demonstrated that urease gene sequences were conserved in all isolates. Geometric mean of reciprocal hemolytic titers for pyelonephritis isolates was 27.9; for urinary catheter isolates, 18.0; and for fecal isolates, 55.7 (not significantly different, P greater than .1). Although in vivo expression of urease and hemolysin may not be reliable indexes of virulence, MR/P hemagglutination in the absence of MR/K hemagglutination may be necessary for development of pyelonephritis. PMID:2179424

  14. Cytotoxic Action of Serratia marcescens Hemolysin on Human Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hertle, Ralf; Hilger, Martina; Weingardt-Kocher, Sandra; Walev, Iwan

    1999-01-01

    Incubation of human epithelial cells with nanomolar concentrations of chromatographically purified Serratia marcescens hemolysin (ShlA) caused irreversible vacuolation and subsequent lysis of the cells. Vacuolation differed from vacuole formation by Helicobacter pylori VacA. Sublytic doses of ShlA led to a reversible depletion of intracellular ATP. Restoration to the initial ATP level was presumably due to the repair of the toxin damage and was inhibited by cycloheximide. Pores formed in epithelial cells and fibroblasts without disruption of the plasma membrane, and the pores appeared to be considerably smaller than those observed in artificial lipid membranes and in erythrocytes and did not allow the influx of propidium iodide or trypan blue. All cytotoxic effects induced by isolated recombinant ShlA were also obtained with exponentially growing S. marcescens cells. The previously suggested role of the hemolysin in the pathogenicity of S. marcescens is supported by these data. PMID:9916096

  15. The RTX pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: progress and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Wiles, Travis J; Mulvey, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Members of the RTX family of protein toxins are functionally conserved among an assortment of bacterial pathogens. By disrupting host cell integrity through their pore-forming and cytolytic activities, this class of toxins allows pathogens to effectively tamper with normal host cell processes, promoting pathogenesis. Here, we focus on the biology of RTX toxins by describing salient properties of a prototype member, α-hemolysin, which is of ten encoded by strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli. It has long been appreciated that RTX toxins can have distinct effects on host cells aside from outright lysis. Recently, advances in modeling and analysis of host–pathogen interactions have led to novel findings concerning the consequences of pore formation during host–pathogen interactions. We discuss current progress on longstanding questions concerning cell specificity and pore formation, new areas of investigation that involve toxin-mediated perturbations of host cell signaling cascades and perspectives on the future of RTX toxin investigation. PMID:23252494

  16. Hemolysin as a Virulence Factor for Systemic Infection with Isolates of Mycobacterium avium Complex

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Joel N.; Dawson, David; Carlin, Elizabeth A.; Holland, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    Isolates of the Mycobacterium avium complex were examined for hemolysin expression. Only invasive isolates of M. avium were observed to be hemolytic (P < 0.001), with activity the greatest for isolates of serovars 4 and 8. Thus, M. avium hemolysin appears to represent a virulence factor necessary for invasive disease. PMID:9889239

  17. Direct microwave transmission on single α-hemolysin pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Sujatha; van der Weide, Daniel W.; Blick, Robert H.

    2011-08-01

    We integrated an ultra-broadband microwave circuit for direct sampling of single α-Hemolysin pores in a suspended bilipid membrane. Simultaneous direct current recordings reveal that we can monitor and correlate the radio-frequency transmission signal, with correspondence between open-close states of the direct current and the RF signals. This proves the ability of an RF-readout technique to perform real-time in-vitro recordings of pores. The technique thus holds great promise for research and drug screening applications, since the sampling rate of single channels can be drastically enhanced and the recording bandwidth allows for tracking the passage of single ions.

  18. Hybrid MD-Nernst Planck Model of Alpha-hemolysin Conductance Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cozmuta, Ioana; O'Keefer, James T.; Bose, Deepak; Stolc, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by experiments in which an applied electric field translocates polynucleotides through an alpha-hemolysin protein channel causing ionic current transient blockade, a hybrid simulation model is proposed to predict the conductance properties of the open channel. Time scales corresponding to ion permeation processes are reached using the Poisson-Nemst-Planck (PNP) electro-diffusion model in which both solvent and local ion concentrations are represented as a continuum. The diffusion coefficients of the ions (K(+) and Cl(-)) input in the PNP model are, however, calculated from all-atom molecular dynamics (MD). In the MD simulations, a reduced representation of the channel is used. The channel is solvated in a 1 M KCI solution, and an external electric field is applied. The pore specific diffusion coefficients for both ionic species are reduced 5-7 times in comparison to bulk values. Significant statistical variations (17-45%) of the pore-ions diffusivities are observed. Within the statistics, the ionic diffusivities remain invariable for a range of external applied voltages between 30 and 240mV. In the 2D-PNP calculations, the pore stem is approximated by a smooth cylinder of radius approx. 9A with two constriction blocks where the radius is reduced to approx. 6A. The electrostatic potential includes the contribution from the atomistic charges. The MD-PNP model shows that the atomic charges are responsible for the rectifying behaviour and for the slight anion selectivity of the a-hemolysin pore. Independent of the hierarchy between the anion and cation diffusivities, the anionic contribution to the total ionic current will dominate. The predictions of the MD-PNP model are in good agreement with experimental data and give confidence in the present approach of bridging time scales by combining a microscopic and macroscopic model.

  19. Analysis of the in vivo activation of hemolysin (HlyA) from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, A; Garcia, F; Bauer, S; Jarchau, T; Benz, R; Hoppe, J; Goebel, W

    1996-01-01

    Hemolysin (HlyA) from Escherichia coli containing the hlyCABD operon separated from the nonhemolytic pro-HlyA upon two-dimensional (2-D) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The migration distance indicated a net loss of two positive charges in HlyA as a result of the HlyC-mediated activation (modification). HlyA activated in vitro in the presence of [U-14C]palmitoyl-acyl carrier protein comigrated with in vivo-activated hemolysin on 2-D gels and was specifically labelled, in agreement with the assumption that the activation is accomplished in vitro and in vivo by covalent fatty acid acylation. The in vivo-modified amino acid residues were identified by peptide mapping and 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of mutant and truncated HlyA derivatives, synthesized in E. coli in the presence and absence of HlyC. These analyses indicated that the internal residues Lys-564 and Lys-690 of HlyA, which have recently been shown by others to be fatty acid acylated by HlyC in vitro, are also the only modification sites in vivo. HlyA activated in E. coli was quantitatively fatty acid acylated at both sites, and the double modification was required for wild-type hemolytic activity. Single modifications in mutant and truncated HlyA derivatives suggested that both lysine residues are independently fatty acid acylated by a mechanism requiring additional sequences or structures flanking the corresponding acylation site. The intact repeat domain of HlyA was not required for the activation. The pore-forming activities of pro-HlyA and singly modified HlyA mutants in planar lipid bilayer membranes suggested that the activation is not essential for transmembrane pore formation but rather required for efficient binding of the toxin to target membranes. PMID:8808931

  20. The thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: Sequence variation and implications for detection and function.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, William B; Turner, Jeffrey W

    2016-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of bacterial food-related illness associated with the consumption of undercooked seafood. Only a small subset of strains is pathogenic. Most clinical strains encode for the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and/or the TDH-related hemolysin (TRH). In this work, we amplify and sequence the trh gene from over 80 trh+strains of this bacterium and identify thirteen genetically distinct alleles, most of which have not been deposited in GenBank previously. Sequence data was used to design new primers for more reliable detection of trh by endpoint PCR. We also designed a new quantitative PCR assay to target a more conserved gene that is genetically-linked to trh. This gene, ureR, encodes the transcriptional regulator for the urease gene cluster immediately upstream of trh. We propose that this ureR assay can be a useful screening tool as a surrogate for direct detection of trh that circumvents challenges associated with trh sequence variation. PMID:27094247

  1. Hybrid pore formation by directed insertion of alpha hemolysin into solid-state nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Adam R.; Scott, Andrew; Rotem, Dvir; Mehta, Kunal K.; Bayley, Hagan; Dekker, Cees

    2011-01-01

    Nanopores hold great potential for genomic screening and sequencing technologies. Thus far, most studies have concentrated on the Staphylococcus aureus pore-forming protein alpha hemolysin (αHL)1 and artificial pores in solid-state (SS) membranes2. While biological pores offer an atomically precise structure3 and genetic engineering potential4, SS-pores offer durability, size and shape control5 and integratability. Each system, however, also has significant limitations: αHL is difficult to integrate because it relies on delicate lipid bilayers for mechanical support, and the fabrication of SS-pores at precise dimensions remains challenging. Here we show that these limitations may be overcome by inserting a single αHL pore into a SS-nanopore. A double-stranded DNA attached to a protein pore is threaded into a SS-nanopore by electrophoretic translocation. Protein insertion is observed in 30-40% of our attempts and translocation of single-stranded DNA demonstrates that the hybrid nanopore remains functional. The resulting hybrid structure offers a platform to create wafer-scale device arrays for genomic analysis including sequencing6. PMID:21113160

  2. In vivo quantification of the secretion rates of the hemolysin A Type I secretion system.

    PubMed

    Lenders, Michael H H; Beer, Tobias; Smits, Sander H J; Schmitt, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 secretion systems (T1SS) of Gram-negative bacteria secrete a broad range of substrates into the extracellular space. Common to all substrates is a C-terminal secretion sequence and nonapeptide repeats in the C-terminal part that bind Ca(2+) in the extracellular space, to trigger protein folding. Like all T1SS, the hemolysin A (HlyA) T1SS of Escherichia coli consists of an ABC transporter, a membrane fusion protein and an outer membrane protein allowing the one step translocation of the substrate across both membranes. Here, we analyzed the secretion rate of the HlyA T1SS. Our results demonstrate that the rate is independent of substrate-size and operates at a speed of approximately 16 amino acids per transporter per second. We also demonstrate that the rate is independent of the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration raising the question of the driving force of substrate secretion by T1SS in general. PMID:27616645

  3. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (<12 kDa) for Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P<0.05, Bonferroni test). The two fractions of Crotalaria spectabilis showed the same ovicidal activity (P>0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties. PMID:25054490

  4. Structure and Functional Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Thermostable Direct Hemolysin*

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Itaru; Nakahira, Kumiko; Yamane, Tsutomu; Kaieda, Shuji; Mayanagi, Kouta; Hamada, Daizo; Fukui, Takashi; Ohnishi, Kiyouhisa; Kajiyama, Shin'ichiro; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Sato, Mamoru; Ikegami, Takahisa; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Honda, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) is a major virulence factor of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that causes pandemic foodborne enterocolitis mediated by seafood. TDH exists as a tetramer in solution, and it possesses extreme hemolytic activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the TDH tetramer at 1.5 Å resolution. The TDH tetramer forms a central pore with dimensions of 23 Å in diameter and ∼50 Å in depth. π-Cation interactions between protomers comprising the tetramer were indispensable for hemolytic activity of TDH. The N-terminal region was intrinsically disordered outside of the pore. Molecular dynamic simulations suggested that water molecules permeate freely through the central and side channel pores. Electron micrographs showed that tetrameric TDH attached to liposomes, and some of the tetramer associated with liposome via one protomer. These findings imply a novel membrane attachment mechanism by a soluble tetrameric pore-forming toxin. PMID:20335168

  5. Characterization of hemolysins of Staphylococcus strains isolated from human and bovine, southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moraveji, Z; Tabatabaei, M; Shirzad Aski, H; Khoshbakht, R

    2014-01-01

    The staphylococci are important pathogenic bacteria causing various infections in animals and human. Hemolysin is one of the virulence factors of coagulase-positive (CPS) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The aims of the study were to characterize hemolysins of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from human and bovine origin, phenotypic- and genotypically. Characterization of hemolysin phenotypically based on hemolysis pattern of Staphylococcus spp. was done on the sheep, horse and rabbit blood agar plates. Genes encoding hemolysin were amplified with specific primers by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Hemolytic activities phenotypically were determined in 60 and 90% of the total bovine and human isolates, respectively. All non hemolytic isolates were CNS (P≤0.05). In all isolates, hla and hld genes were determined by PCR amplification. None of the bovine and human isolates showed phenotypically and genotypically gamma hemolysin. The results from this study suggest that, in accordance with what is generally believed, some differences are apparent in hemolysin types among Staphylococcus strains of bovine and human origin. Furthermore, this study showed that CNS can be important as new pathogens. PMID:27175125

  6. Directionality of substrate translocation of the hemolysin A Type I secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Lenders, Michael H. H.; Weidtkamp-Peters, Stefanie; Kleinschrodt, Diana; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Smits, Sander H. J.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 secretion systems (T1SS) of Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for the secretion of various proteases, lipases, S-layer proteins or toxins into the extracellular space. The paradigm of these systems is the hemolysin A (HlyA) T1SS of Escherichia coli. This multiple membrane protein complex is able to secrete the toxin HlyA in one step across both E. coli membranes. Common to all secreted T1SS substrates is a C-terminal secretion sequence being necessary as well as sufficient for secretion. However, it is not known whether transport occurs directionally, i.e. the N- or the C-terminus of T1SS substrates is secreted first. We have addressed this question by constructing HlyA fusions with the rapidly folding eGFP resulting in a stalled T1SS. Differential labeling and subsequent fluorescence microscopic detection of C- and N-terminal parts of the fusions allowed us to demonstrate vectorial transport of HlyA through the T1SS with the C-terminus appearing first outside the bacterial cells. PMID:26212107

  7. Induction of eryptosis by low concentrations of E. coli alpha-hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Fernanda Carrizo; Maté, Sabina; Bakás, Laura; Herlax, Vanesa

    2015-11-01

    Uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli deliver the toxin alpha-hemolysin (HlyA) to optimize the host environment for the spread of infection. It was reported that at high concentrations, the toxin forms pores in eukaryotic membranes, leading to cell lysis, while lower concentrations have appeared to interfere with host-cell-signaling pathways causing cell death by apoptosis. Nevertheless, what is not clear is how often HlyA reaches levels that are high enough to lyse host target cells during the course of an infection. In the present investigation, we demonstrate that a low toxin concentration induces the suicidal death of erythrocytes (eryptosis), the major cell type present in blood. Eryptosis is triggered both by an increment in intracellular calcium and by ceramide. Since we have previously demonstrated that a low concentration of HlyA induces an increase in intraerythrocyte calcium, in the present experiments we have shown that this ion activates calpains, which hydrolyze skeleton proteins such as spectrin, ankyrin, protein 4.1 and the electrophoretic Band-3 species, thus resulting in morphologic changes in the erythrocytes. We furthermore observed that a low toxin concentration induced the activation of endogenous sphingomyelinases that in turn increased the amount of ceramide in erythrocyte membranes. Both spectrin proteolysis and ceramide formation may cause the exposure of phosphatidylserine on the membrane so as to trigger a macrophage engulfment of the erythrocyte. By this means eryptosis may be an advantageous mechanism for removing defective erythrocytes before hemolysis. PMID:26301569

  8. Stochastic Detection of MPSA-Gold Nanoparticles Using a α-Hemolysin Nanopore Equipped with a Noncovalent Molecular Adaptor.

    PubMed

    Campos, Elisa J; McVey, Colin E; Astier, Yann

    2016-06-21

    We present the first study of a novel, more sensitive method for the characterization of nanoparticles (NPs). This approach combines detection via a protein nanopore with modification of its interaction behavior using a molecular adaptor. We identify different populations of 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate (MPSA)-modified-gold NPs using the biological nanopores α-hemolysin (αHL) and its M113N mutant equipped with a noncovalently bound γ-cyclodextrin molecule as a stochastic sensor. Identification takes place on the basis of the extent of current blockades and residence times. Here, we demonstrate that noncovalently attached adaptors can be used to change the sensing properties of αHL nanopores, allowing the detection and characterization of different populations of MPSA NPs. This is an advance in sensitivity and diversity of NP sensing, as well as a promising and reliable technology to characterize NPs by using protein nanopores. PMID:27238076

  9. Contribution of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin to bacterial virulence and to intraperitoneal alterations in peritonitis.

    PubMed

    May, A K; Gleason, T G; Sawyer, R G; Pruett, T L

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-hemolysin (Hly) is a common exotoxin produced by Escherichia coli that enhances virulence in a number of clinical infections. The addition of hemolysin production to laboratory bacterial strains is known to increase the lethality of E. coli peritonitis. However, the mechanisms involved have not been determined and the contribution of hemolysin to the alterations in the host intraperitoneal environment and the leukocyte response is not known. Utilizing a rat peritonitis model, we show that wild-type hemolytic E. coli strains have a significant competitive advantage over nonhemolytic strains within the peritoneum. To examine the specific contribution of Hly to E. coli-induced virulence and alterations within the peritoneum, a mixed peritonitis model of E. coli, Bacteroides fragilis, and sterile fecal adjuvant was used. Three transformed E. coli strains were utilized: one strongly secretes active hemolysin (WAF 270), a second secretes active hemolysin but a reduced amount (WAF 260), and the third does not produce hemolysin (WAF 108). After an equal inoculum of each of the three strains, WAF 270 produced a markedly increased lethality and an increased recovery of both E. coli and B. fragilis from the host relative to the other strains. Changes in the intraperitoneal pH, degree of erythrocyte lysis, and recruitment and viability of leukocytes within the peritoneum following the induction of peritonitis differed significantly between the strongly hemolytic and nonhemolytic strains. Induction of peritonitis with WAF 270 caused a pronounced decrease in intraperitoneal pH, lysis of most of the intraperitoneal erythrocytes, and a marked decrease in recoverable viable leukocytes compared to WAF 108. Thus, hemolysin production by E. coli within the peritoneum may alter not only the host's ability to control the hemolytic strain itself but also other organisms. PMID:10603385

  10. Electroosmosis through α-Hemolysin That Depends on Alkali Cation Type.

    PubMed

    Piguet, Fabien; Discala, Francoise; Breton, Marie-France; Pelta, Juan; Bacri, Laurent; Oukhaled, Abdelghani

    2014-12-18

    We demonstrate experimentally the existence of an electroosmotic flow (EOF) through the wild-type nanopore of α-hemolysin in a large range of applied voltages and salt concentrations for two different salts, LiCl and KCl. EOF controls the entry frequency and residence time of small neutral molecules (β-cyclodextrins, βCD) in the nanopore. The strength of EOF depends on the applied voltage, on the salt concentration, and, interestingly, on the nature of the cations in solution. In particular, EOF is stronger in the presence of LiCl than KCl. We interpret our results with a simple theoretical model that takes into account the pore selectivity and the solvation of ions. A stronger EOF in the presence of LiCl is found to originate essentially in a stronger anionic selectivity of the pore. Our work provides a new and easy way to control EOF in protein nanopores, without resorting to chemical modifications of the pore. PMID:26273988

  11. Auto-Assembling Detoxified Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Hemolysin Mimicking the Wild-Type Cytolytic Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi, Luigi; Di Palo, Benedetta; Scarselli, Maria; Pozzi, Clarissa; Tomaszewski, Kelly; Galletti, Bruno; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Arcidiacono, Letizia; Mishra, Ravi P. N.; Mori, Elena; Pallaoro, Michele; Falugi, Fabiana; Torre, Antonina; Fontana, Maria Rita; Soriani, Marco; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; Grandi, Guido; Rappuoli, Rino

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla) assembles into heptameric pores on the host cell membrane, causing lysis, apoptosis, and junction disruption. Herein, we present the design of a newly engineered S. aureus alpha-toxin, HlaPSGS, which lacks the predicted membrane-spanning stem domain. This protein is able to form heptamers in aqueous solution in the absence of lipophilic substrata, and its structure, obtained by transmission electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction analysis, resembles the cap of the wild-type cytolytic Hla pore. HlaPSGS was found to be impaired in binding to host cells and to its receptor ADAM10 and to lack hemolytic and cytotoxic activity. Immunological studies using human sera as well as sera from mice convalescent from S. aureus infection suggested that the heptameric conformation of HlaPSGS mimics epitopes exposed by the cytolytic Hla pore during infection. Finally, immunization with this newly engineered Hla generated high protective immunity against staphylococcal infection in mice. Overall, this study provides unprecedented data on the natural immune response against Hla and suggests that the heptameric HlaPSGS is a highly valuable vaccine candidate against S. aureus. PMID:27030589

  12. Glycophorin as a receptor for Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin in erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Cortajarena, A L; Goñi, F M; Ostolaza, H

    2001-04-20

    Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin (HlyA) can lyse both red blood cells (RBC) and liposomes. However, the cells are lysed at HlyA concentrations 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than liposomes (large unilamellar vesicles). Treatment of RBC with trypsin, but not with chymotrypsin, reduces the sensitivity of RBC toward HlyA to the level of the liposomes. Since glycophorin, one of the main proteins in the RBC surface, can be hydrolyzed by trypsin much more readily than by chymotrypsin, the possibility was tested of a specific binding of HlyA to glycophorin. With this purpose, a number of experiments were performed. (a) HlyA was preincubated with purified glycophorin, after which it was found to be inactive against both RBC and liposomes. (b) Treatment of RBC with an anti-glycophorin antibody protected the cells against HlyA lysis. (c) Immobilized HlyA was able to bind glycophorin present in a detergent lysate of RBC ghosts. (d) Incorporation of glycophorin into pure phosphatidylcholine liposomes increased notoriously the sensitivity of the vesicles toward HlyA. (e) Treatment of the glycophorin-containing liposomes with trypsin reverted the vesicles to their original low sensitivity. The above results are interpreted in terms of glycophorin acting as a receptor for HlyA in RBC. The binding constant of HlyA for glycophorin was estimated, in RBC at sublytic HlyA concentrations, to be 1.5 x 10(-9) m. PMID:11134007

  13. Auto-Assembling Detoxified Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Hemolysin Mimicking the Wild-Type Cytolytic Toxin.

    PubMed

    Fiaschi, Luigi; Di Palo, Benedetta; Scarselli, Maria; Pozzi, Clarissa; Tomaszewski, Kelly; Galletti, Bruno; Nardi-Dei, Vincenzo; Arcidiacono, Letizia; Mishra, Ravi P N; Mori, Elena; Pallaoro, Michele; Falugi, Fabiana; Torre, Antonina; Fontana, Maria Rita; Soriani, Marco; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; Grandi, Guido; Rappuoli, Rino; Ferlenghi, Ilaria; Bagnoli, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin (Hla) assembles into heptameric pores on the host cell membrane, causing lysis, apoptosis, and junction disruption. Herein, we present the design of a newly engineered S. aureus alpha-toxin, HlaPSGS, which lacks the predicted membrane-spanning stem domain. This protein is able to form heptamers in aqueous solution in the absence of lipophilic substrata, and its structure, obtained by transmission electron microscopy and single-particle reconstruction analysis, resembles the cap of the wild-type cytolytic Hla pore. HlaPSGS was found to be impaired in binding to host cells and to its receptor ADAM10 and to lack hemolytic and cytotoxic activity. Immunological studies using human sera as well as sera from mice convalescent from S. aureus infection suggested that the heptameric conformation of HlaPSGS mimics epitopes exposed by the cytolytic Hla pore during infection. Finally, immunization with this newly engineered Hla generated high protective immunity against staphylococcal infection in mice. Overall, this study provides unprecedented data on the natural immune response against Hla and suggests that the heptameric HlaPSGS is a highly valuable vaccine candidate against S. aureus. PMID:27030589

  14. Fluorinated amphiphiles control the insertion of α-hemolysin pores into lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Raychaudhuri, Pinky; Li, Qiuhong; Mason, Amy; Mikhailova, Ellina; Heron, Andrew J; Bayley, Hagan

    2011-03-15

    The insertion of fully folded and assembled ion channels and pores into planar lipid bilayers for electrical recording has been facilitated by the use of conventional detergents at a final concentration below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). After the desired number of channels or pores (often one) has been incorporated into a bilayer, it is important to prevent further insertion events, which is often done by awkward techniques such as perfusion. Here, we show that the addition of single-chain fluorinated amphiphiles (F-amphiphiles) with zwitterionic, simple neutral, and neutral oligomeric headgroups at a concentration above the CMC prevents the further insertion of staphylococcal α-hemolysin pores, MspA pores, and Kcv potassium channels into lipid bilayers. We found the commercially available F(6)FC (fluorinated fos-choline with a C(6)F(13)C(2)H(4) chain) to be the least perturbing and most effective agent for this purpose. Bilayers are known to be resistant to F-amphiphiles, which in this case we suppose sequester the pores and channels within amphiphile aggregates. We suggest that F-amphiphiles might be useful in the fabrication of bilayer arrays for nanopore sensor devices and the rapid screening of membrane proteins. PMID:21275394

  15. Beta-Hemolysin Promotes Skin Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Yuki; Sekine, Miwa; Fukuda, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus is a characteristic feature of several inflammatory skin diseases and is often followed by epidermal damage and invasive infection. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of skin colonization by a virulent community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) strain, MW2, using a murine ear colonization model. MW2 does not produce a hemolytic toxin, beta-hemolysin (Hlb), due to integration of a prophage, ϕSa3mw, inside the toxin gene (hlb). However, we found that strain MW2 bacteria that had successfully colonized murine ears included derivatives that produced Hlb. Genome sequencing of the Hlb-producing colonies revealed that precise excision of prophage ϕSa3mw occurred, leading to reconstruction of the intact hlb gene in their chromosomes. To address the question of whether Hlb is involved in skin colonization, we constructed MW2-derivative strains with and without the Hlb gene and then subjected them to colonization tests. The colonization efficiency of the Hlb-producing mutant on murine ears was more than 50-fold greater than that of the mutant without hlb. Furthermore, we also showed that Hlb toxin had elevated cytotoxicity for human primary keratinocytes. Our results indicate that S. aureus Hlb plays an important role in skin colonization by damaging keratinocytes, in addition to its well-known hemolytic activity for erythrocytes. PMID:23292775

  16. [Antibacterial and anti-hemolysin activities of tea catechins and their structural relatives].

    PubMed

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Shimamura, T

    1990-03-01

    Among catechins tested, (-)epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)epicatechin gallate (ECg), (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae O1 classical Inaba 569B and El Tor Inaba V86. S. aureus was more sensitive than V. cholerae O1 to these compounds. EGCg showed also a bactericidal activity against V. cholerae O1 569B. Pyrogallol showed a stronger antibacterial activity against S. aureus and V. cholerae O1 than tannic and gallic acid. Rutin or caffein had no effect on them. ECg and EGCg showed the most potent anti-hemolysin activity against S. aureus alpha-toxin, Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin (Vp-TDH) and cholera hemolysin. Among catechin relatives, only tannic acid had a potent anti-hemolysin activity against alpha-toxin. These results suggest that the catechol and pyrogallol groups are responsible for the antibacterial and bactericidal activities, while the conformation of catechins might play an important role in the anti-hemolysin activity. PMID:2381042

  17. Crystal structure of the octameric pore of staphylococcal γ-hemolysin reveals the β-barrel pore formation mechanism by two components

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Keitaro; Kawai, Yuka; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hirano, Nagisa; Kaneko, Jun; Tomita, Noriko; Ohta, Makoto; Kamio, Yoshiyuki; Yao, Min; Tanaka, Isao

    2011-01-01

    Staphylococcal γ-hemolysin is a bicomponent pore-forming toxin composed of LukF and Hlg2. These proteins are expressed as water-soluble monomers and then assemble into the oligomeric pore form on the target cell. Here, we report the crystal structure of the octameric pore form of γ-hemolysin at 2.5 Å resolution, which is the first high-resolution structure of a β-barrel transmembrane protein composed of two proteins reported to date. The octameric assembly consists of four molecules of LukF and Hlg2 located alternately in a circular pattern, which explains the biochemical data accumulated over the past two decades. The structure, in combination with the monomeric forms, demonstrates the elaborate molecular machinery involved in pore formation by two different molecules, in which interprotomer electrostatic interactions using loops connecting β2 and β3 (loop A: Asp43-Lys48 of LukF and Lys37-Lys43 of Hlg2) play pivotal roles as the structural determinants for assembly through unwinding of the N-terminal β-strands (amino-latch) of the adjacent protomer, releasing the transmembrane stem domain folded into a β-sheet in the monomer (prestem), and interaction with the adjacent protomer. PMID:21969538

  18. Internal vs Fishhook Hairpin DNA: Unzipping Locations and Mechanisms in the α-Hemolysin Nanopore

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the interaction of hairpin DNA with the α-hemolysin (α-HL) nanopore have determined hairpin unzipping kinetics, thermodynamics, and sequence-dependent DNA/protein interactions. Missing from these results is a systematic study comparing the unzipping process for fishhook (one-tail) vs internal (two-tail) hairpins when they are electrophoretically driven from the cis to the trans side of α-HL via a 30-mer single-stranded tail. In the current studies, fishhook hairpins showed long unzipping times with one deep blockage current level. In contrast, the internal hairpins demonstrated relatively fast unzipping and a characteristic pulse-like current pattern. These differences were further explored with respect to stem length and sequence context. Further, a series of internal hairpins with asymmetric tails were studied, for which it was determined that a second tail longer than 12 nucleotides results in internal hairpin unzipping behavior, while tail lengths of 6 nucleotides behaved like fishhook hairpins. Interestingly, these studies were able to resolve a current difference of ∼6% between hairpin DNA immobilized in the nanopore waiting to unzip vs the translocating unzipped DNA, with the latter showing a deeper current blockage level. This demonstration of different currents for immobilized and translocating DNA has not been described previously. These results were interpreted as fishhook hairpins unzipping inside the vestibule, while the internal hairpins unzip outside the vestibule of α-HL. Lastly, we used this knowledge to study the unzipping of a long double-stranded DNA (>50 base pairs) outside the vestibule of α-HL. The conclusions drawn from these studies are anticipated to be beneficial in future application of nanopore analysis of nucleic acids. PMID:25333648

  19. Swarming Behavior of and Hemolysin BL Secretion by Bacillus cereus▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ghelardi, Emilia; Celandroni, Francesco; Salvetti, Sara; Ceragioli, Mara; Beecher, Douglas J.; Senesi, Sonia; Wong, Amy C. L.

    2007-01-01

    An association between swarming and hemolysin BL secretion was observed in a collection of 42 Bacillus cereus isolates (P = 0.029). The highest levels of toxin were detected in swarmers along with swarm cell differentiation (P = 0.021), suggesting that swarming B. cereus strains may have a higher virulence potential than nonswarming strains. PMID:17449693

  20. NIGERLYSINTM, HEMOLYSIN PRODUCED BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER, CAUSES LETHALITY OF PRIMARY RAT CORTICAL NEURONAL CELLS IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aspergillus niger produced a proteinaceous hemolysin, nigerlysinTM when incubated on sheep's blood agar at both 23° C and 37°C. Nigerlysin was purified from tryptic soy broth culture filtrate. Purified nigerlysin has a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa, with an...

  1. INITIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES AGAINST THE FUNGAL HEMOLYSIN STACHYLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stachybotrys chartarum is known to produce the hemolysin stachylysin and its detection in human serum has been proposed as a biomarker for exposure to the fungus. In this study we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against stachylysin and the dev...

  2. The amino acid sequences and activities of synergistic hemolysins from Staphylococcus cohnii.

    PubMed

    Mak, Pawel; Maszewska, Agnieszka; Rozalska, Malgorzata

    2008-10-01

    Staphylococcus cohnii ssp. cohnii and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus are a coagulase-negative staphylococci considered for a long time as unable to cause infections. This situation changed recently and pathogenic strains of these bacteria were isolated from hospital environments, patients and medical staff. Most of the isolated strains were resistant to many antibiotics. The present work describes isolation and characterization of several synergistic peptide hemolysins produced by these bacteria and acting as virulence factors responsible for hemolytic and cytotoxic activities. Amino acid sequences of respective hemolysins from S. cohnii ssp. cohnii (named as H1C, H2C and H3C) and S. cohnii ssp. urealyticus (H1U, H2U and H3U) were identical. Peptides H1 and H3 possessed significant amino acid homology to three synergistic hemolysins secreted by Staphylococcus lugdunensis and to putative antibacterial peptide produced by Staphylococcus saprophyticus ssp. saprophyticus. On the other hand, hemolysin H2 had a unique sequence. All isolated peptides lysed red cells from different mammalian species and exerted a cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts. PMID:18752624

  3. The β-Hemolysin and Intracellular Survival of Streptococcus agalactiae in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sagar, Anubha; Klemm, Carolin; Hartjes, Lara; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    S. agalactiae (group B streptococci, GBS) is a major microbial pathogen in human neonates and causes invasive infections in pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. The S. agalactiae β-hemolysin is regarded as an important virulence factor for the development of invasive disease. To examine the role of β-hemolysin in the interaction with professional phagocytes, the THP-1 monocytic cell line and human granulocytes were infected with a serotype Ia S. agalactiae wild type strain and its isogenic nonhemolytic mutant. We could show that the nonhemolytic mutants were able to survive in significantly higher numbers than the hemolytic wild type strain, in THP-1 macrophage-like cells and in assays with human granulocytes. Intracellular bacterial multiplication, however, could not be observed. The hemolytic wild type strain stimulated a significantly higher release of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α than the nonhemolytic mutant in THP-1 cells, while similar levels of the chemokine Interleukin-8 were induced. In order to investigate bacterial mediators of IL-8 release in this setting, purified cell wall preparations from both strains were tested and found to exert a potent proinflammatory stimulus on THP-1 cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that the β-hemolysin has a strong influence on the intracellular survival of S. agalactiae and that a tightly controlled regulation of β-hemolysin expression is required for the successful establishment of S. agalactiae in different host niches. PMID:23593170

  4. Characterization of a Hemolysin-like Activity of Ornithobacterium Rhinotracheale Field Strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) infection of chickens and turkeys causes significant losses to the poultry industry. Little information is available in the literature on the virulence factors of ORT. This study describes a hemolysin-like activity of ORT strains, as observed on sheep b...

  5. Secretion of Alpha-Hemolysin by Escherichia coli Disrupts Tight Junctions in Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mirsepasi-Lauridsen, Hengameh Chloé; Du, Zhengyu; Struve, Carsten; Charbon, Godefroid; Karczewski, Jurgen; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Petersen, Andreas Munk; Wells, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The potential of Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients to damage the integrity of the intestinal epithelium was investigated. Methods: E. coli strains isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and healthy controls were tested for virulence capacity by molecular techniques and cytotoxic assays and transepithelial electric resistance (TER). E. coli isolate p19A was selected, and deletion mutants were created for alpha-hemolysin (α-hemolysin) (hly) clusters and cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (cnf1). Probiotic E. coli Nissle and pathogenic E. coli LF82 were used as controls. Results: E. coli strains from patients with active UC completely disrupted epithelial cell tight junctions shortly after inoculation. These strains belong to phylogenetic group B2 and are all α-hemolysin positive. In contrast, probiotic E. coli Nissle, pathogenic E. coli LF82, four E. coli from patients with inactive UC and three E. coli strains from healthy controls did not disrupt tight junctions. E. coli p19A WT as well as cnf1, and single loci of hly mutants from cluster I and II were all able to damage Caco-2 (Heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma) cell tight junctions. However, this phenotype was lost in a mutant with knockout (Δ) of both hly loci (P<0.001). Conclusions: UC-associated E. coli producing α-hemolysin can cause rapid loss of tight junction integrity in differentiated Caco-2 cell monolayers. This effect was abolished in a mutant unable to express α-hemolysin. These results suggest that high Hly expression may be a mechanism by which specific strains of E. coli pathobionts can contribute to epithelial barrier dysfunction and pathophysiology of disease in IBD. PMID:26938480

  6. Genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals novel host factors required for Staphylococcus aureus α-hemolysin-mediated toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Virreira Winter, Sebastian; Zychlinsky, Arturo; Bardoel, Bart W.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes a wide variety of infections and antibiotic resistant strains are a major problem in hospitals. One of the best studied virulence factors of S. aureus is the pore-forming toxin alpha hemolysin (αHL) whose mechanism of action is incompletely understood. We performed a genome-wide loss-of-function screen using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to identify host targets required for αHL susceptibility in human myeloid cells. We found gRNAs for ten genes enriched after intoxication with αHL and focused on the top five hits. Besides a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 10 (ADAM10), the host receptor for αHL, we identified three proteins, Sys1 golgi trafficking protein (SYS1), ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARFRP1), and tetraspanin-14 (TSPAN14) which regulate the presentation of ADAM10 on the plasma membrane post-translationally. Interestingly, we also showed that cells lacking sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SGMS1) resist αHL intoxication, but have only a slightly reduced ADAM10 surface expression. SGMS1 regulates lipid raft formation, suggesting that αHL requires these membrane microdomains for attachment and cytotoxicity. PMID:27066838

  7. Soft Wall Ion Channel in Continuum Representation with Application to Modeling Ion Currents in α-Hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Simakov, Nikolay A.

    2010-01-01

    A soft repulsion (SR) model of short range interactions between mobile ions and protein atoms is introduced in the framework of continuum representation of the protein and solvent. The Poisson-Nernst-Plank (PNP) theory of ion transport through biological channels is modified to incorporate this soft wall protein model. Two sets of SR parameters are introduced: the first is parameterized for all essential amino acid residues using all atom molecular dynamic simulations; the second is a truncated Lennard – Jones potential. We have further designed an energy based algorithm for the determination of the ion accessible volume, which is appropriate for a particular system discretization. The effects of these models of short-range interaction were tested by computing current-voltage characteristics of the α-hemolysin channel. The introduced SR potentials significantly improve prediction of channel selectivity. In addition, we studied the effect of choice of some space-dependent diffusion coefficient distributions on the predicted current-voltage properties. We conclude that the diffusion coefficient distributions largely affect total currents and have little effect on rectifications, selectivity or reversal potential. The PNP-SR algorithm is implemented in a new efficient parallel Poisson, Poisson-Boltzman and PNP equation solver, also incorporated in a graphical molecular modeling package HARLEM. PMID:21028776

  8. Clinical isolates of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii harbor a nonfunctional gene similar to the thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin (trh) gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    PubMed

    Raghunath, Pendru; Maiti, Biswajit; Shekar, Malathi; Karunasagar, Iddya; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2010-06-01

    Thermostable direct hemolysin-related hemolysin encoded by the trh gene is considered a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections. In this study, we report the presence of a trh homolog in three clinical isolates of Aeromonas veronii biovar veronii. The presence of a trh homolog in these strains of A. veronii was confirmed by PCR, followed by cloning, sequencing and colony hybridization using a digoxigenin-labelled probe. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the A. veronii trh gene had an identity of 99% and 84% to the trh1 and trh2 genes of V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. However, the expression of a trh-like gene in A. veronii could not be detected by reverse transcription PCR. Hence, the role of the gene product in the virulence of A. veronii strains is not clear. Further, these A. veronii isolates were negative for the ure gene encoding urease and the transposase gene by PCR. These genes are part of the trh gene cluster in V. parahaemolyticus. However, the presence of a trh homolog in a pathogen other than V. parahaemolyticus points to the fact that detection of the trh gene in stool samples, seafood enrichments or environmental samples does not always imply that trh-carrying V. parahaemolyticus are present. PMID:20636974

  9. Curcumin protects mice from Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia by interfering with the self-assembly process of α-hemolysin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Wenhua; Deng, Xuming; Deng, Yanhong; Niu, Xiaodi

    2016-01-01

    α-hemolysin (Hla) is a self-assembling extracellular protein secreted as a soluble monomer by most Staphylococcus aureus strains and is an essential virulence factor for the pathogenesis of various S. aureus infections. Here, we show that curcumin (CUR), a natural compound with weak anti-S. aureus activity, can inhibit the hemolysis induced by Hla. Molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and mutagenesis assays were further employed for the Hla-CUR complex to determine the mechanism of such inhibition. The analysis of this combined approach indicated that the direct binding CUR to Hla blocks the conformational transition of Hla from the monomer to the oligomer, leading to an inhibition of Hla hemolytic activity. We also found that the addition of CUR significantly attenuated Hla-mediated injury of human alveolar cell (A549) co-cultured with S. aureus. The in vivo data further demonstrated that treatment with CUR protects mice from pneumonia caused by S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA). These findings suggest that CUR inhibits the pore-forming activity of Hla through a novel mechanism, which would pave the way for the development of new and more effective antibacterial agents to combat S. aureus pneumonia. PMID:27345357

  10. Curcumin protects mice from Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia by interfering with the self-assembly process of α-hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfeng; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Wenhua; Deng, Xuming; Deng, Yanhong; Niu, Xiaodi

    2016-01-01

    α-hemolysin (Hla) is a self-assembling extracellular protein secreted as a soluble monomer by most Staphylococcus aureus strains and is an essential virulence factor for the pathogenesis of various S. aureus infections. Here, we show that curcumin (CUR), a natural compound with weak anti-S. aureus activity, can inhibit the hemolysis induced by Hla. Molecular dynamics simulations, free energy calculations, and mutagenesis assays were further employed for the Hla-CUR complex to determine the mechanism of such inhibition. The analysis of this combined approach indicated that the direct binding CUR to Hla blocks the conformational transition of Hla from the monomer to the oligomer, leading to an inhibition of Hla hemolytic activity. We also found that the addition of CUR significantly attenuated Hla-mediated injury of human alveolar cell (A549) co-cultured with S. aureus. The in vivo data further demonstrated that treatment with CUR protects mice from pneumonia caused by S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA). These findings suggest that CUR inhibits the pore-forming activity of Hla through a novel mechanism, which would pave the way for the development of new and more effective antibacterial agents to combat S. aureus pneumonia. PMID:27345357

  11. α-Hemolysin enhances Staphylococcus aureus internalization and survival within mast cells by modulating the expression of β1 integrin.

    PubMed

    Goldmann, Oliver; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Rohde, Manfred; Medina, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are important sentinels of the host defence against invading pathogens. We previously reported that Staphylococcus aureus evaded the extracellular antimicrobial activities of MCs by promoting its internalization within these cells via β1 integrins. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms governing this process. We found that S. aureus responded to the antimicrobial mediators released by MCs by up-regulating the expression of α-hemolysin (Hla), fibronectin-binding protein A and several regulatory systems. We also found that S. aureus induced the up-regulation of β1 integrin expression on MCs and that this effect was mediated by Hla-ADAM10 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10) interaction. Thus, deletion of Hla or inhibition of Hla-ADAM10 interaction significantly impaired S. aureus internalization within MCs. Furthermore, purified Hla but not the inactive HlaH35L induced up-regulation of β1 integrin expression in MCs in a dose-dependent manner. Our data support a model in which S. aureus counter-reacts the extracellular microbicidal mechanisms of MCs by increasing expression of fibronectin-binding proteins and by inducing Hla-ADAM10-mediated up-regulation of β1 integrin in MCs. The up-regulation of bacterial fibronectin-binding proteins, concomitantly with the increased expression of its receptor β1 integrin on the MCs, resulted in enhanced S. aureus internalization through the binding of fibronectin-binding proteins to integrin β1 via fibronectin. PMID:26595647

  12. Brief heat treatment causes a structural change and enhances cytotoxicity of the Escherichia coli α-hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Aulik, Nicole A; Atapattu, Dhammika N; Czuprynski, Charles J; McCaslin, Darrel R

    2013-02-01

    α-Hemolysin (HLY) is an important virulence factor for uropathogenic Escherichia coli. HLY is a member of the RTX family of exotoxins secreted by a number of Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, it was reported that a related RTX toxin, the Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, exhibits increased cytotoxicity following brief heat treatment. In this article, we show that brief heat treatment (1 min at 100°C) increases cytotoxicity of HLY for human bladder cells, kidney epithelial cells (A498) and neutrophils. Heat treatment also increased hemolysis of human red blood cells (RBCs). Furthermore, heat treatment of previously inactived HLY restored its cytotoxicity. Heat-activated and native HLY both required glycophorin A to lyse RBCs. Native and heat-activated HLY appeared to bind equally well to the surface of A498 cells; although, Western blot analyses demonstrated binding to different proteins on the surface. Confocal microscopy revealed that heat-activated HLY bound more extensively to internal structures of permeabilized A498 cells than did native HLY. Several lines of spectroscopic evidence demonstrate irreversible changes in the structure of heat activated compared to native HLY. We show changes in secondary structure, increased exposure of tryptophan residues to the aqueous environment, an increase in molecular dimension and an increase in hydrophobic surface area. These properties are among the most common characteristics described for the molten globule state, first identified as an intermediate in protein folding. We hypothesize that brief heat treatment of HLY causes a conformational change leading to significant differences in protein-protein interactions that result in increased cytotoxicity for target cells. PMID:22994841

  13. Indolo[3,2-b]quinoline Derivatives Suppressed the Hemolytic Activity of Beta-Pore Forming Toxins, Aerolysin-Like Hemolysin Produced by Aeromonas sobria and Alpha-Hemolysin Produced by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eizo; Fujinami, Chiaki; Kuroda, Teruo; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to discover inhibitory compounds against pore-forming toxins, some of the major toxins produced by bacteria, we herein examined the effects of four kinds of indolo[3,2-b]quinoline derivatives on hemolysis induced by the aerolysin-like hemolysin (ALH) of Aeromonas sobria and also by the alpha-hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that hemolysis induced by ALH was significantly reduced by every derivative, while that induced by alpha-hemolysis was significantly reduced by three out of the four derivatives. However, the degrees of reduction induced by these derivatives were not uniform. Each derivative exhibited its own activity to inhibit the respective hemolysin. Compounds 1 and 2, which possessed the amino group bonding the naphthalene moiety at the C-11 position of indolo[3,2-b]quinoline, had strong inhibitory effects on the activity of ALH. Compound 4 which consisted of benzofuran and quinoline had strong inhibitory effects on the activity of alpha-hemolysin. These results indicated that the amino group bonding the naphthalene moiety of compounds 1 and 2 assisted in their ability to inhibit ALH activity, while the oxygen atom at the 10 position of compound 4 strengthened its interaction with alpha-hemolysin. These compounds also suppressed the hemolytic activity of the supernatant of A. sobria or A. hydrophila, suggesting that these compounds were effective at the site of infection of these bacteria. PMID:26725434

  14. Crystal structure of HlyU, the hemolysin gene transcription activator, from Vibrio cholerae N16961 and functional implications.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Debadrita; Datta, Ajit Bikram; Chakrabarti, Pinak

    2014-10-18

    HlyU in Vibrio cholerae is known to be the transcriptional activator of the hemolysin gene, HlyA and possibly a regulator of other virulence factors influencing growth, colonization and pathogenicity of this infective agent. Here we report the crystal structure of HlyU from V. cholerae N16961 (HlyU_Vc) at 1.8Å. The protein, with five α-helices and three β-strands in the topology of α1-α2-β1-α3-α4-β2-β3-α5, forms a homodimer. Helices α3-α4 and a β sheet form the winged helix-turn-helix (wHTH) DNA-binding motif common to the transcription regulators of the SmtB/ArsR family. In spite of an overall fold similar to SmtB/ArsR family, it lacks any metal binding site seen in SmtB. A comparison of the dimeric interfaces showed that the one in SmtB is much larger and have salt bridges that can be disrupted to accommodate metal ions. A model of HlyU-DNA complex suggests bending of the DNA. Cys38 in the structure was found to be modified as sulfenic acid; the oxidized form was not seen in another structure solved under reducing condition. Although devoid of any metal binding site, the presence of a Cys residue exhibiting oxidation-reduction suggests the possibility of the existence of a redox switch in transcription regulation. A structure-based phylogenetic analysis of wHTH proteins revealed the segregation of metal and non-metal binding proteins as well as those in the latter group that are under redox control. PMID:25450504

  15. Tripartite hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus. Hemolytic analysis of component interactions and a model for its characteristic paradoxical zone phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Beecher, D J; Wong, A C

    1997-01-01

    Hemolysin BL (HBL) is a unique membrane-lytic toxin from Bacillus cereus composed of three distinct proteins, designated B, L1, and L2. HBL produces a paradoxical zone phenomenon in gel diffusion assays in sheep blood agar. Lysis does not begin immediately adjacent to the source of diffusion; rather, it begins several millimeters away. Cells near the source and at intersections of lysis zones remain intact longer. Here, we developed a spectrophotometric hemolysis assay system that measures the activities of the individual HBL components and used it to analyze the mechanisms of hemolysis and the paradoxical zone phenomenon. The B component was rate-limiting, and erythrocytes were slowly primed by B at an optimal concentration of about 1.3 nM to rapid lytic action by the combination of the L components (L(1+2)). All of the individual components bound to cells independently, and membrane-associated HBL components were neutralized by specific antibodies, suggesting that lysis was caused by formation of a membrane attack complex on the cell surface. Osmotic protection experiments indicate a colloid osmotic lysis mechanism. Concentrations of the B component above 1.3 nM caused inhibition of L1-mediated lysis, and L1 inhibited the priming reaction of B over a similar concentration range. From analyses of spectrophotometric and diffusion assays we constructed a basic model for the interactions between HBL components and for the paradoxical zone phenomenon in blood agar. In the latter, areas of slow lysis near diffusion sources are caused primarily by the accumulation of inhibitory levels of L1 reached before cells are primed by B. PMID:8995253

  16. Use of the alpha-hemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli for antigen delivery in the Salmonella typhi Ty21a vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Gentschev, Ivaylo; Dietrich, Guido; Spreng, Simone; Neuhaus, Beatrice; Maier, Elke; Benz, Roland; Goebel, Werner; Fensterle, Joachim; Rapp, Ulf R

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the suitability of the hemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli for expression and delivery of alpha-hemolysin (HlyA) by the S. typhi Ty21a strain, the only live oral Salmonella vaccine strain licensed for human use, under in vitro and in vivo conditions. For this purpose, two plasmid vectors encoding either the whole alpha-hemolysin of E. coli (pANN202-812/pMOhly2) or the hemolysin secretion signal (pMOhly1) were transferred into S. typhi Ty21a. S. typhi Ty21a carrying pANN202-812/pMOhly2 revealed efficient secretion of hemolysin in vitro. After formulation according to a process suitable for commercial production of Salmonella-based live bacterial vaccines, plasmids were shown to be stable in Ty21a and hemolysin secretion was demonstrated even after storage of the strains under real-time and stress conditions. After intranasal immunization of mice with S. typhi Ty21a/pANN202-812 plasmids are stable in vivo, and immunization induced a profound immune response against the heterologous HlyA antigen. Therefore, the combination of the hemolysin secretion system and S. typhi Ty21a could form the basis for a new generation of live bacterial vaccines. PMID:15595386

  17. Staphylococcus aureus Hijacks a Skin Commensal to Intensify Its Virulence: Immunization Targeting β-Hemolysin and CAMP Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chih-Wei; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Liu, Yu-Tsueng; Gallo, Richard L.; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The need for a new anti-Staphylococcus aureus therapy that can effectively cripple bacterial infection, neutralize secretory virulence factors, and lower the risk of creating bacterial resistance is undisputed. Here, we propose what is, to our knowledge, a previously unreported infectious mechanism by which S. aureus may commandeer Propionibacterium acnes, a key member of the human skin microbiome, to spread its invasion and highlight two secretory virulence factors (S. aureus β-hemolysin and P. acnes CAMP (Christie, Atkins, Munch-Peterson) factor) as potential molecular targets for immunotherapy against S. aureus infection. Our data demonstrate that the hemolysis and cytolysis by S. aureus were noticeably augmented when S. aureus was grown with P. acnes. The augmentation was significantly abrogated when the P. acnes CAMP factor was neutralized or β-hemolysin of S. aureus was mutated. In addition, the hemolysis and cytolysis of recombinant β-hemolysin were markedly enhanced by recombinant CAMP factor. Furthermore, P. acnes exacerbated S. aureus-induced skin lesions in vivo. The combination of CAMP factor neutralization and β-hemolysin immunization cooperatively suppressed the skin lesions caused by coinfection of P. acnes and S. aureus. These observations suggest a previously unreported immunotherapy targeting the interaction of S. aureus with a skin commensal. PMID:21085191

  18. Hemolysin-producing Listeria monocytogenes affects the immune response to T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Hage-Chahine, C M; Del Giudice, G; Lambert, P H; Pechere, J C

    1992-01-01

    A murine experimental infection with a hemolysin-producing (Hly+) strain of Listeria monocytogenes and a non-hemolysin-producing (Hly-) mutant was used as an in vivo model to evaluate the role of hemolysin production in the immune response. No antilisterial antibodies were detectable following sublethal infection with Hly+ bacteria, but consistent antilisterial immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibody production was observed following sublethal infection with the Hly- mutant. Hly+ but not Hly- L. monocytogenes induced transient inhibition of antibody response to Hly- bacteria and to unrelated T-cell-dependent (tetanus toxoid) and T-cell-independent (pneumococcal polysaccharide 3) antigens. Transient inhibition of the activation of an antigen-specific T-cell clone was also observed following Hly+ infection of antigen-presenting cells but not following Hly- infection. These results suggest that hemolysin production by L. monocytogenes is an important factor in modulating the immune response to T-cell-dependent and T-cell-independent antigens in infected individuals. Images PMID:1548067

  19. Structure and Function of Thermostable Direct Hemolysin (TDH) from Vibrio Parahaemolyticus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Yamane, Tsutomu; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Nakahira, Kumiko; Yanagihara, Itaru

    Thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) is a major virulence factor of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that causes pandemic food-borne enterocolitis mediated by seafood. TDH exists as a tetramer in solution, and it possesses extreme hemolytic activity. Here, we present the crystal structure of the TDH tetramer at 1.5 Å resolution. The TDH tetramer forms a central pore with dimensions of 23 Å in diameter and ∼50 Å in depth. π-cation interactions between protomers comprising the tetramer were indispensable for hemolytic activity of TDH. The N-terminal region was intrinsically disordered outside the pore. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggested that water molecules permeate freely through the central and side channel pores. These findings imply a novel membrane attachment mechanism by a soluble tetrameric pore-forming toxin.

  20. Itraconazole-resistant Candida auris with phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity from a case of vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dharmendra; Banerjee, Tuhina; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Tilak, Ragini

    2015-04-01

    Since the emergence of pathogenic non-albicans Candida species, a number of new isolates have been added to the list. One such unusual species is Candida auris (C. auris), recently isolated and studied in few reports. In this study, a case of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida auris incidentally identified by molecular methods using internal transcribed spacer polymerase chain reaction (ITS PCR) is described. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed the isolate to be resistant to itraconazole (MIC ≥ 2 µg/ml) and expressed important virulence factors including phospholipase, proteinase and hemolysin activity. The patient was successfully treated with oral fluconazole and did not have any invasive fungemia. Very few cases of this emerging pathogen have been reported. However, its isolation from clinical specimens reveals the significance of non-albicans candida species over C. albicans and the diversity of Candida spp causing infections. PMID:25881537

  1. Multi-isotype antibody responses against the multimeric Salmonella Typhi recombinant hemolysin E antigen.

    PubMed

    Ong, Eugene Boon Beng; Ignatius, Joshua; Anthony, Amy Amilda; Aziah, Ismail; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

    2015-01-01

    The detection and measurement of different antibody isotypes in the serum provide valuable indicators of the different stages of typhoid infection. Here, the ability of S. Typhi recombinant hemolysin E (HlyE) to detect multi-isotype antibody responses in sera of patients with typhoid and paratyphoid A was investigated using an indirect antibody immunoassay. Nanogram amounts of HlyE were found to be sufficient for detection of IgG and IgA isotypes and, in a study of individuals' sera (n = 100), the immunoassay was able to distinguish between typhoid and non-typhoid sera. The overall sensitivity, specificity and efficiency of the ELISA were 70% (39/56), 100% (44/44) and 83% respectively. PMID:25399538

  2. Molecular detection of HpmA and HlyA hemolysin of uropathogenic Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Silvia Emanoele; Ludovico, Marilucia Santos; Martins, Fernando Henrique; da Rocha, Sérgio Paulo Dejato; Elias, Waldir Pereira; Pelayo, Jacinta Sanchez

    2013-12-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the bacterial infections frequently documented in humans. Proteus mirabilis is associated with UTI mainly in individuals with urinary tract abnormality or related with vesicular catheterism and it can be difficult to treat because of the formation of stones in the bladder and kidneys. These stones are formed due to the presence of urease synthesized by the bacteria. Another important factor is that P. mirabilis produces hemolysin HpmA, used by the bacteria to damage the kidney tissues. Proteus spp. samples can also express HlyA hemolysin, similar to that found in Escherichia coli. A total of 211 uropathogenic P. mirabilis isolates were analyzed to detect the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes by the techniques of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot and hlyA by PCR. The hpmA and hpmB genes were expressed by the RT-PCR technique and two P. mirabilis isolates were sequenced for the hpmA and hpmB genes. The presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes was confirmed by PCR in 205 (97.15 %) of the 211 isolates. The dot blot confirmed the presence of the hpmA and hpmB genes in the isolates that did not amplify in the PCR. None of the isolates studied presented the hlyA gene. The hpmA and hpmB genes that were sequenced presented 98 % identity with the same genes of the HI4320 P. mirabilis sample. This study showed that the PCR technique has good sensitivity for detecting the hpmA and hpmB genes of P. mirabilis. PMID:23884594

  3. Proteus virulence: involvement of the pore forming alpha-hemolysin (a short review).

    PubMed

    Tóth, V; Emódy, L

    2000-01-01

    The genus Proteus belongs to the tribe of Proteae in the family of Enterobacteriaceae, and consists of five species: P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, P. morganii, P. penneri and P. myxofaciens. They are distinguished from the rest of Enterobacteriaceae by their ability to deaminate phenylalanine and tryptophane. They hydrolyze urea and gelatin and fail to ferment lactose, mannose, dulcitol and malonate; and do not form lysine and arginine decarboxylase or beta-galactosidase [1]. Colonies produce distinct "burned chocolate" odor and frequently show the characteristics of swarming motility on solid media. P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris and P. morganii are widely recognized human pathogens. They have been isolated from urinary tract infections, wounds, ear, and nosocomial bacteremic infections, often in immuncompromised patients [2-6]. P. myxofaciens has no clinical interest to this time. P. penneri as species nova was nominated by the recommendation of Hickman and co-workers [7]. Formerly it was recognized as P. vulgaris biogroup 1 or indole negative P. vulgaris [8, 9]. Although it has been less commonly isolated from clinical samples than the other three human pathogenic Proteus species, it has nevertheless been connected with infections of the urinary tract, wounds and has been isolated from the feces of both healthy and diarrheic individuals [10-12]. Potential virulence factors responsible for virulence of Proteae are: IgA protease, urease, type3 fimbriae associated with MR/K haemagglutinins of at least two antigenic types, endotoxin, swarming motility and HlyA and/or HpmA type hemolysins [for review see ref. 13]. In the followings we give a survey of accumulated concepts about the position and characteristics of HlyA type alpha-hemolysins both in general and with emphasis on virulence functions in the tribe of Proteae. PMID:11056765

  4. Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale North American Field Isolates Express a Hemolysin-Like Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale is a Gram-negative bacterium responsible for the sporadic outbreaks of airsacculitis in poultry, accounting for millions of dollars in losses to the poultry industry annually. Although the organism was originally classified as non-beta-hemolytic, recent North America...

  5. Antibody-Forming Cells and Serum Hemolysin Responses of Pastel and Sapphire Mink Inoculated with Aleutian Disease Virus

    PubMed Central

    Lodmell, Donald L.; Bergman, R. Kaye; Hadlow, William J.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of Aleutian disease virus (ADV) on serum hemolysin titers and antibody-forming cells in lymph nodes and spleens of sapphire and pastel mink inoculated with goat erythrocytes (G-RBC) was investigated. ADV injected 1 day after primary antigenic stimulation with G-RBC did not depress the immune responses of either color phase for a period of 26 days. However, when G-RBC were injected 47 days after ADV, both the number of antibody-forming cells and hemolysin titers were more markedly depressed in sapphire than in pastel mink. The results are discussed in relation to the greater susceptibility of sapphire mink and the variable susceptibility of pastel mink to the Pullman isolate of ADV. PMID:4584051

  6. Hyperexpression of α-hemolysin explains enhanced virulence of sequence type 93 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) ST93 clone is becoming dominant in Australia and is clinically highly virulent. In addition, sepsis and skin infection models demonstrate that ST93 CA-MRSA is the most virulent global clone of S. aureus tested to date. While the determinants of virulence have been studied in other clones of CA-MRSA, the basis for hypervirulence in ST93 CA-MRSA has not been defined. Results Here, using a geographically and temporally dispersed collection of ST93 isolates we demonstrate that the ST93 population hyperexpresses key CA-MRSA exotoxins, in particular α-hemolysin, in comparison to other global clones. Gene deletion and complementation studies, and virulence comparisons in a murine skin infection model, showed unequivocally that increased expression of α-hemolysin is the key staphylococcal virulence determinant for this clone. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics of strains with divergent exotoxin profiles demonstrated that, like other S. aureus clones, the quorum sensing agr system is the master regulator of toxin expression and virulence in ST93 CA-MRSA. However, we also identified a previously uncharacterized AraC/XylS family regulator (AryK) that potentiates toxin expression and virulence in S. aureus. Conclusions These data demonstrate that hyperexpression of α-hemolysin mediates enhanced virulence in ST93 CA-MRSA, and additional control of exotoxin production, in particular α-hemolysin, mediated by regulatory systems other than agr have the potential to fine-tune virulence in CA-MRSA. PMID:24512075

  7. Gene detection and toxin production evaluation of hemolysin BL of Bacillus cereus isolated from milk and dairy products marketed in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Reis, Andre L S; Montanhini, Maike T M; Bittencourt, Juliana V M; Destro, Maria T; Bersot, Luciano S

    2013-12-01

    Bacillus cereusis an ubiquitous, spore-forming bacteria that can survive pasteurization and the majority of the heating processes used in the dairy industry. Besides, it is a pathogen responsible for different types of food poisoning. One type of foodborne disease caused by B.cereusis the diarrheal syndrome, which is caused by the ingestion of vegetative cells producing toxins in the small intestine. One virulence factor for the diarrheal syndrome is the toxin hemolysin BL (HBL), a three-component protein formed by the L1, L2 and B components. In order to evaluate the presence of diarrheal strains isolated from milk and dairy products, 63 B. cereus isolates were obtained from 260 samples of UHT milk, pasteurized milk and powdered milk, sold in commercial establishments and from different brands. The isolates were subjected to the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the detection of the encoding genes for the L1, L2 and B components and the toxin production capacity were evaluated with an immunoassay. A total of 23 [36.5%] isolates were identified carrying simultaneously the three tested genes, from which, 20 [86.9%] showed toxigenic capacity. 26 [41.3%] isolates did not carry any of genes tested and the other 14 [22.2%] were positive for one or two of them. The results showed a high toxigenic capacity among the B. cereus isolates able to produce the HBL, indicating a potential risk for consumers. PMID:24688511

  8. Serodiagnosis of Acute Typhoid Fever in Nigerian Pediatric Cases by Detection of Serum IgA and IgG Against Hemolysin E and Lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Davies, D Huw; Jain, Aarti; Nakajima, Rie; Liang, Li; Jasinskis, Algis; Supnet, Medalyn; Felgner, Philip L; Teng, Andy; Pablo, Jozelyn; Molina, Douglas M; Obaro, Stephen K

    2016-08-01

    Inexpensive, easy-to-use, and highly sensitive diagnostic tests are currently unavailable for typhoid fever. To identify candidate serodiagnostic markers, we have probed microarrays displaying the full Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) proteome of 4,352 different proteins + lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), with sera from Nigerian pediatric typhoid and other febrile cases, Nigerian healthy controls, and healthy U.S. adults. Nigerian antibody profiles were broad (∼500 seropositive antigens) and mainly low level, with a small number of stronger "hits," whereas the profile in U.S. adults was < 1/5 as broad, consistent with endemic exposure in Nigeria. Nigerian profiles were largely unaffected by clinical diagnosis, although the response against t1477 (hemolysin E) consistently emerged as stronger in typhoid cases. The response to LPS was also a strong discriminator of healthy controls and typhoid, although LPS did not discriminate between typhoid and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) disease. As a first step toward the development of a point-of-care diagnostic, t1477 and LPS were evaluated on immunostrips. Both provided good discrimination between healthy controls and typhoid/NTS disease. Such a test could provide a useful screen for salmonellosis (typhoid and NTS disease) in suspected pediatric cases that present with undefined febrile disease. PMID:27215295

  9. First report of an anti-tumor, anti-fungal, anti-yeast and anti-bacterial hemolysin from Albizia lebbeck seeds.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sze Kwan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-05-15

    A monomeric 5.5-kDa protein with hemolytic activity toward rabbit erythrocytes was isolated from seeds of Albizia lebbeck by using a protocol that involved ion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. It was unadsorbed on both Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose, but adsorbed on Phenyl-Sepharose. Its hemolytic activity was fully preserved in the pH range 0-14 and in the temperature range 0-100 °C, and unaffected in the presence of a variety of metal ions and carbohydrates. The hemolysin reduced viability of murine splenocytes and inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells with an IC₅₀ of 0.21, 0.97, and 1.37 μM, respectively. It impeded mycelial growth in the fungi Rhizoctonia solani with an IC₅₀ of 39 μM but there was no effect on a variety of other filamentous fungi, including Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, Valsa mali and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Lebbeckalysin inhibited growth of Escherichia coli with an IC₅₀ of 0.52 μM. PMID:20850957

  10. Human-to-bovine jump of Staphylococcus aureus CC8 is associated with the loss of a β-hemolysin converting prophage and the acquisition of a new staphylococcal cassette chromosome.

    PubMed

    Resch, Grégory; François, Patrice; Morisset, Delphine; Stojanov, Milos; Bonetti, Eve J; Schrenzel, Jacques; Sakwinska, Olga; Moreillon, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus can colonize and infect both humans and animals, but isolates from both hosts tend to belong to different lineages. Our recent finding of bovine-adapted S. aureus showing close genetic relationship to the human S. aureus clonal complex 8 (CC8) allowed us to examine the genetic basis of host adaptation in this particular CC. Using total chromosome microarrays, we compared the genetic makeup of 14 CC8 isolates obtained from cows suffering subclinical mastitis, with nine CC8 isolates from colonized or infected human patients, and nine S. aureus isolates belonging to typical bovine CCs. CC8 isolates were found to segregate in a unique group, different from the typical bovine CCs. Within this CC8 group, human and bovine isolates further segregated into three subgroups, among which two contained a mix of human and bovine isolates, and one contained only bovine isolates. This distribution into specific clusters and subclusters reflected major differences in the S. aureus content of mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Indeed, while the mixed human-bovine clusters carried commonly human-associated β-hemolysin converting prophages, the bovine-only isolates were devoid of such prophages but harbored an additional new non-mec staphylococcal cassette chromosome (SCC) unique to bovine CC8 isolates. This composite cassette carried a gene coding for a new LPXTG-surface protein sharing homologies with a protein found in the environmental bacterium Geobacillus thermoglucosidans. Thus, in contrast to human CC8 isolates, the bovine-only CC8 group was associated with the combined loss of β-hemolysin converting prophages and gain of a new SCC probably acquired in the animal environment. Remaining questions are whether the new LPXTG-protein plays a role in bovine colonization or infection, and whether the new SCC could further acquire antibiotic-resistance genes and carry them back to human. PMID:23505465

  11. Imperatorin inhibits the expression of alpha-hemolysin in Staphylococcus aureus strain BAA-1717 (USA300).

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ping; Chen, Junjie; Sun, Mao; Yin, Zhongqiong; Lin, Juchun; Fu, Hualin; Shu, Gang; He, Changliang; Lv, Cheng; Deng, Xuming; Wang, Kaiyu; Geng, Yi; Yin, Lizi

    2016-07-01

    Both community-associated and hospital-acquired infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been increasingly reported around the world in the past 20 years. In 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported that 64 % of MRSA isolates were of the USA300 clonal type in infected patients in USA. The aim of our study was to estimate the in vitro effect of imperatorin on MRSA strain BAA-1717 (USA300). The effects of imperatorin on alpha-hemolysin (Hla) production, when strain BAA-1717 was co-cultured with sub-inhibitory concentrations of imperatorin, were analysed using susceptibility testing, hemolysis assays, western blotting and real-time PCR. Live/Dead analysis and cytotoxicity assays were employed to examine the protective effect of imperatorin against the strain BAA-1717-mediated injury of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549). The results showed that imperatorin has no anti-S. aureus activity at the tested concentrations in vitro. However, imperatorin can observably inhibit the production of Hla in culture supernatants and reduce the transcriptional levels of hla (the gene encoding Hla) and arg (the accessory gene regulator). Imperatorin prevented Hla-mediated A549 epithelial cell injury in a co-culture system. In conclusion, our results suggested that imperatorin has the potential to be developed as a new anti-virulence drug candidate for managing S. aureus infection. PMID:27043440

  12. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus-hemolysin A on calcium signalling in immortalized human airway epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Eichstaedt, Stefanie; Gäbler, Karoline; Below, Sabine; Müller, Christian; Kohler, Christian; Engelmann, Susanne; Hildebrandt, Petra; Völker, Uwe; Hecker, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter

    2009-02-01

    Part of the innate defence of bronchial epithelia against bacterial colonization is secretion of salt and water which generally depends on coordinated actions of receptor-mediated cAMP- and calcium signalling. The hypothesis that Staphylococcus aureus-virulence factors interfere with endogenous signals in host cells was tested by measuring agonist-mediated changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in S9 cells upon pre-incubation with bacterial secretory products. S9 cells responded to mAChR-activation with calcium release from intracellular stores and capacitative calcium influx. Treatment of cells with culture supernatants of S. aureus (COL) or with recombinant alpha-hemolysin (Hla) resulted in time- and concentration-dependent changes in [Ca(2+)](i). High concentrations of Hla (2000 ng/ml) resulted in elevations in [Ca(2+)](i) elicited by accelerated calcium influx. A general Hla-mediated permeabilization of S9 cell membranes to small molecules, however, did not occur. Lower concentrations of Hla (200 ng/ml) induced a reduction in [Ca(2+)](i)-levels during the sustained plateau phase of receptor-mediated calcium signalling which was abolished by pre-incubation of cells with carboxyeosin, an inhibitor of the plasma membrane calcium-ATPase. This indicates that low concentrations of Hla change calcium signalling by accelerating pump-driven extrusion of Ca(2+) ions. In vivo, such a mechanism may result in attenuation of calcium-mediated cellular defence functions and facilitation of bacterial adherence to the bronchial epithelium. PMID:18922576

  13. Fluctuating bottleneck model studies on kinetics of DNA escape from α-hemolysin nanopores.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yukun; Wang, Zilin; Chen, Anpu; Zhao, Nanrong

    2015-11-14

    We have proposed a fluctuation bottleneck (FB) model to investigate the non-exponential kinetics of DNA escape from nanometer-scale pores. The basic idea is that the escape rate is proportional to the fluctuating cross-sectional area of DNA escape channel, the radius r of which undergoes a subdiffusion dynamics subjected to fractional Gaussian noise with power-law memory kernel. Such a FB model facilitates us to obtain the analytical result of the averaged survival probability as a function of time, which can be directly compared to experimental results. Particularly, we have applied our theory to address the escape kinetics of DNA through α-hemolysin nanopores. We find that our theoretical framework can reproduce the experimental results very well in the whole time range with quite reasonable estimation for the intrinsic parameters of the kinetics processes. We believe that FB model has caught some key features regarding the long time kinetics of DNA escape through a nanopore and it might provide a sound starting point to study much wider problems involving anomalous dynamics in confined fluctuating channels. PMID:26567685

  14. Iron Regulates Expression of Bacillus cereus Hemolysin II via Global Regulator Fur

    PubMed Central

    Shadrin, Andrey; Rodikova, Ekaterina A.; Andreeva-Kovalevskaya, Zhanna I.; Protsenko, Alexey S.; Mayorov, Sergey G.; Galaktionova, Darya Yu; Magelky, Erica

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of pathogens to respond to environmental signals, such as iron concentration, is key to bacterial survival and establishment of a successful infection. Bacillus cereus is a widely distributed bacterium with distinct pathogenic properties. Hemolysin II (HlyII) is one of its pore-forming cytotoxins and has been shown to be involved in bacterial pathogenicity in a number of cell and animal models. Unlike many other B. cereus pathogenicity factors, HlyII is not regulated by pleiotropic transcriptional regulator PlcR but is controlled by its own regulator, HlyIIR. Using a combination of in vivo and in vitro techniques, we show that hlyII expression is also negatively regulated by iron by the global regulator Fur via direct interaction with the hlyII promoter. DNase I footprinting and in vitro transcription experiments indicate that Fur prevents RNA polymerase binding to the hlyII promoter. HlyII expression profiles demonstrate that both HlyIIR and Fur regulate HlyII expression in a concerted fashion, with the effect of Fur being maximal in the early stages of bacterial growth. In sum, these results show that Fur serves as a transcriptional repressor for hlyII expression. PMID:22522892

  15. Driven diffusion against electrostatic or effective energy barrier across α-hemolysin

    SciTech Connect

    Ansalone, Patrizio; Chinappi, Mauro; Rondoni, Lamberto; Cecconi, Fabio

    2015-10-21

    We analyze the translocation of a charged particle across an α-Hemolysin (αHL) pore in the framework of a driven diffusion over an extended energy barrier generated by the electrical charges of the αHL. A one-dimensional electrostatic potential is extracted from the full 3D solution of the Poisson’s equation. We characterize the particle transport under the action of a constant forcing by studying the statistics of the translocation time. We derive an analytical expression of translocation time average that compares well with the results from Brownian dynamic simulations of driven particles over the electrostatic potential. Moreover, we show that the translocation time distributions can be perfectly described by a simple theory which replaces the true barrier by an equivalent structureless square barrier. Remarkably, our approach maintains its accuracy also for low-applied voltage regimes where the usual inverse-Gaussian approximation fails. Finally, we discuss how the comparison between the simulated time distributions and their theoretical prediction results to be greatly simplified when using the notion of the empirical Laplace transform technique.

  16. Role for Serine Protease HtrA (DegP) of Streptococcus pyogenes in the Biogenesis of Virulence Factors SpeB and the Hemolysin Streptolysin S

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, William R.; Caparon, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    The serine protease HtrA is involved in the folding and maturation of secreted proteins, as well as in the degradation of proteins that misfold during secretion. Depletion of HtrA has been shown to affect the sensitivity of many organisms to thermal and environmental stresses, as well as being essential for virulence in many pathogens. In the present study, we compared the behaviors of several different HtrA mutants of the gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus). Consistent with prior reports, insertional inactivation of htrA, the gene that encodes HtrA, resulted in a mutant that grew poorly at 37°C. However, an identical phenotype was observed when a similar polar insertion was placed immediately downstream of htrA in the streptococcal chromosome, suggesting that the growth defect of the insertion mutant was not a direct result of insertional inactivation of htrA. This conclusion was supported by the observation that a nonpolar deletion mutation of htrA did not produce the growth defect. However, this mutation did affect the production of several secreted virulence factors whose biogenesis requires extensive processing. For the SpeB cysteine protease, the loss of HtrA was associated with a failure to proteolytically process the zymogen to an active protease. For the streptolysin S hemolysin, a dramatic increase in hemolytic activity resulted from the depletion of HtrA. Interestingly, HtrA-deficient mutants were not attenuated in a murine model of subcutaneous infection. These data add to the growing body of information that implies an important role for HtrA in the biogenesis of secreted proteins in gram-positive bacteria. PMID:14977969

  17. Role for serine protease HtrA (DegP) of Streptococcus pyogenes in the biogenesis of virulence factors SpeB and the hemolysin streptolysin S.

    PubMed

    Lyon, William R; Caparon, Michael G

    2004-03-01

    The serine protease HtrA is involved in the folding and maturation of secreted proteins, as well as in the degradation of proteins that misfold during secretion. Depletion of HtrA has been shown to affect the sensitivity of many organisms to thermal and environmental stresses, as well as being essential for virulence in many pathogens. In the present study, we compared the behaviors of several different HtrA mutants of the gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus). Consistent with prior reports, insertional inactivation of htrA, the gene that encodes HtrA, resulted in a mutant that grew poorly at 37 degrees C. However, an identical phenotype was observed when a similar polar insertion was placed immediately downstream of htrA in the streptococcal chromosome, suggesting that the growth defect of the insertion mutant was not a direct result of insertional inactivation of htrA. This conclusion was supported by the observation that a nonpolar deletion mutation of htrA did not produce the growth defect. However, this mutation did affect the production of several secreted virulence factors whose biogenesis requires extensive processing. For the SpeB cysteine protease, the loss of HtrA was associated with a failure to proteolytically process the zymogen to an active protease. For the streptolysin S hemolysin, a dramatic increase in hemolytic activity resulted from the depletion of HtrA. Interestingly, HtrA-deficient mutants were not attenuated in a murine model of subcutaneous infection. These data add to the growing body of information that implies an important role for HtrA in the biogenesis of secreted proteins in gram-positive bacteria. PMID:14977969

  18. Probing Peptide and Protein Insertion in a Biomimetic S-Layer Supported Lipid Membrane Platform

    PubMed Central

    Damiati, Samar; Schrems, Angelika; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Sleytr, Uwe B.; Schuster, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The most important aspect of synthetic lipid membrane architectures is their ability to study functional membrane-active peptides and membrane proteins in an environment close to nature. Here, we report on the generation and performance of a biomimetic platform, the S-layer supported lipid membrane (SsLM), to investigate the structural and electrical characteristics of the membrane-active peptide gramicidin and the transmembrane protein α-hemolysin in real-time using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring in combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A shift in membrane resistance is caused by the interaction of α-hemolysin and gramicidin with SsLMs, even if only an attachment onto, or functional channels through the lipid membrane, respectively, are formed. Moreover, the obtained results did not indicate the formation of functional α-hemolysin pores, but evidence for functional incorporation of gramicidin into this biomimetic architecture is provided. PMID:25633104

  19. Probing peptide and protein insertion in a biomimetic S-layer supported lipid membrane platform.

    PubMed

    Damiati, Samar; Schrems, Angelika; Sinner, Eva-Kathrin; Sleytr, Uwe B; Schuster, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The most important aspect of synthetic lipid membrane architectures is their ability to study functional membrane-active peptides and membrane proteins in an environment close to nature. Here, we report on the generation and performance of a biomimetic platform, the S-layer supported lipid membrane (SsLM), to investigate the structural and electrical characteristics of the membrane-active peptide gramicidin and the transmembrane protein α-hemolysin in real-time using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring in combination with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. A shift in membrane resistance is caused by the interaction of α-hemolysin and gramicidin with SsLMs, even if only an attachment onto, or functional channels through the lipid membrane, respectively, are formed. Moreover, the obtained results did not indicate the formation of functional α-hemolysin pores, but evidence for functional incorporation of gramicidin into this biomimetic architecture is provided. PMID:25633104

  20. Cytotoxicity of the HpmA hemolysin and urease of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris against cultured human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mobley, H L; Chippendale, G R; Swihart, K G; Welch, R A

    1991-06-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a common agent of nosocomially acquired and catheter-associated bacteriuria, can cause acute pyelonephritis. In ascending infections, bacteria colonize the bladder and ascend the ureters to the proximal tubules of the kidney. We postulate that Proteus species uses the HpmA hemolysin and urease to elicit tissue damage that allows entry of these bacteria into the kidney. To study this interaction, strains of Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris and their isogenic hemolysin-negative (hpmA) or isogenic urease-negative (ureC) constructs were overlaid onto cultures of human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (HRPTEC) isolated from kidneys obtained by immediate autopsy. Cytotoxicity was measured by release of soluble lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Two strains of P. mirabilis inoculated at 10(6) CFU caused a release of 80% of total LDH after 6 h, whereas pyelonephritogenic hemolytic Escherichia coli CFT073 released only 25% at 6 h (P less than 0.012). Ten P. mirabilis isolates and five P. vulgaris isolates were all hemolytic and cytotoxic and produced urease which was induced by urea. The HpmA hemolysin is apparently responsible for the majority of cytotoxicity in vitro since the hemolysin-negative (hpmA) mutants of P. mirabilis and P. vulgaris were significantly less cytotoxic than wild-type strains. P. mirabilis WPM111 (hemolysin negative) was used to test the effect of urease-catalyzed urea hydrolysis on HRPTEC viability. In the presence of 50 mM urea, WPM111 caused the release of 42% of LDH versus 1% at 6 h in the absence of substrate (P = 0.003). We conclude that the HpmA hemolysin of Proteus species acts as a potent cytotoxin against HRPTEC. In addition, urease apparently contributes to this process when substrate urea is available. PMID:2037363

  1. Five birds, one stone: neutralization of α-hemolysin and 4 bi-component leukocidins of Staphylococcus aureus with a single human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Rouha, Harald; Badarau, Adriana; Visram, Zehra C; Battles, Michael B; Prinz, Bianka; Magyarics, Zoltán; Nagy, Gábor; Mirkina, Irina; Stulik, Lukas; Zerbs, Manuel; Jägerhofer, Michaela; Maierhofer, Barbara; Teubenbacher, Astrid; Dolezilkova, Ivana; Gross, Karin; Banerjee, Srijib; Zauner, Gerhild; Malafa, Stefan; Zmajkovic, Jakub; Maier, Sabine; Mabry, Robert; Krauland, Eric; Wittrup, K Dane; Gerngross, Tillman U; Nagy, Eszter

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen associated with high mortality. The emergence of antibiotic resistance and the inability of antibiotics to counteract bacterial cytotoxins involved in the pathogenesis of S. aureus call for novel therapeutic approaches, such as passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The complexity of staphylococcal pathogenesis and past failures with single mAb products represent considerable barriers for antibody-based therapeutics. Over the past few years, efforts have focused on neutralizing α-hemolysin. Recent findings suggest that the concerted actions of several cytotoxins, including the bi-component leukocidins play important roles in staphylococcal pathogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to isolate mAbs that bind to multiple cytolysins by employing high diversity human IgG1 libraries presented on the surface of yeast cells. Here we describe cross-reactive antibodies with picomolar affinity for α-hemolysin and 4 different bi-component leukocidins that share only ∼26% overall amino acid sequence identity. The molecular basis of cross-reactivity is the recognition of a conformational epitope shared by α-hemolysin and F-components of gamma-hemolysin (HlgAB and HlgCB), LukED and LukSF (Panton-Valentine Leukocidin). The amino acids predicted to form the epitope are conserved and known to be important for cytotoxic activity. We found that a single cross-reactive antibody prevented lysis of human phagocytes, epithelial and red blood cells induced by α-hemolysin and leukocidins in vitro, and therefore had superior effectiveness compared to α-hemolysin specific antibodies to protect from the combined cytolytic effect of secreted S. aureus toxins. Such mAb afforded high levels of protection in murine models of pneumonia and sepsis. PMID:25523282

  2. Interactions of the human telomere sequence with the nanocavity of the α-hemolysin ion channel reveal structure-dependent electrical signatures for hybrid folds.

    PubMed

    An, Na; Fleming, Aaron M; Burrows, Cynthia J

    2013-06-12

    Human telomeric DNA consists of tandem repeats of the sequence 5'-TTAGGG-3', including a 3' terminal single-stranded overhang of 100-200 nucleotides that can fold into quadruplex structures in the presence of suitable metal ions. In the presence of an applied voltage, the α-hemolysin (α-HL) protein ion channel can produce unique current patterns that are found to be characteristic for various interactions between G-quadruplexes and the protein nanocavity. In this study, the human telomere in a complete sequence context, 5'-TAGGG(TTAGGG)3TT-3', was evaluated with respect to its multiple folding topologies. Notably, the coexistence of two interchangeable conformations of the K(+)-induced folds, hybrid-1 and hybrid-2, were readily resolved at a single-molecule level along with triplex folding intermediates, whose characterization has been challenging in experiments that measure the bulk solution. These results enabled us to profile the thermal denaturation process of these structures to elucidate the relative distributions of hybrid-1, hybrid-2, and folding intermediates such as triplexes. For example, at 37 °C, pH 7.9, in 50 mM aqueous KCl, the ratio of hybrid-1:hybrid-2:triplex is approximately 11:5:1 in dilute solution. The results obtained lay the foundation for utilizing the α-HL ion channel as a simple tool for monitoring how small molecules and physical context shift the equilibrium between the many G-quadruplex folds of the human telomere sequence. PMID:23682802

  3. Protein sensing with engineered protein nanopores*

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Mohammad M.; Movileanu, Liviu

    2013-01-01

    The use of nanopores is a powerful new frontier in single-molecule sciences. Nanopores have been used effectively in exploring various biophysical features of small polypeptides and proteins, such as their folding state and structure, ligand interactions, and enzymatic activity. In particular, the α-hemolysin protein pore (αHL) has been used extensively for the detection, characterization and analysis of polypeptides, because this protein nanopore is highly robust, versatile and tractable under various experimental conditions. Inspired by the mechanisms of protein translocation across the outer membrane translocases of mitochondria, we have shown the ability to use nanopore-probe techniques in controlling a single protein using engineered αHL pores. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the preparation of αHL protein nanopores. Moreover, we demonstrate that placing attractive electrostatic traps is instrumental in tackling single-molecule stochastic sensing of folded proteins. PMID:22528256

  4. Genotypic Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus α-Hemolysin Gene (hla) and Its Association with Clonal Background: Implications for Vaccine Development

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xin; O’Sullivan, Matthew V. N.; Li, Dong-Fang; Wang, Xin-Ying; Wu, Hong-Long; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The α-hemolysin, encoded by the hla gene, is a major virulence factor in S. aureus infections. Changes in key amino acid residues of α-hemolysin can result in reduction, or even loss, of toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the diversity of the hla gene sequence and the relationship of hla variants to the clonal background of S. aureus isolates. A total of 47 clinical isolates from China were used in this study, supplemented with in silico analysis of 318 well-characterized whole genome sequences from globally distributed isolates. A total of 28 hla genotypes were found, including three unique to isolates from China, 20 found only in the global genomes and five found in both. The hla genotype generally correlated with the clonal background, particularly the multilocus sequence type, but was not related to geographic origin, host source or methicillin-resistance phenotype. In addition, the hla gene showed greater diversity than the seven loci utilized in the MLST scheme for S. aureus. Our investigation has provided genetic data which may be useful for future studies of toxicity, immunogenicity and vaccine development. PMID:26866483

  5. Identification of a hemolysin from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and characterization of its channel properties in planar phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, G; McDonald, T V; Gardner, P; O'Hanley, P D

    1989-08-15

    A proteinaceous hemolysin secreted by strain 4074 of serotype 1 of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was purified by diafiltration and ion exchange chromatographic techniques. The hemolytic activity is associated with a 107-kDa band as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and confirmed by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. This hemolysin produces pores in membranes as demonstrated by osmotic protection studies using red blood cells and carbohydrate compounds of various molecular weights. These assays suggest a pore diameter in the order of 2 nm. Phospholipid bilayers composed of 1:1 w/w phosphotidylserine:phosphotidylethanolamine exposed to this toxin display discrete current flow events typical of transmembrane channels and consistent with the interpretation that this toxin acts by forming pores in phospholipid membranes. The linear relationship of current amplitude to holding potential when examined over the -60 to +60 mV range indicates that this pore has a constant mean single channel conductance level of 350-400 pS. PMID:2474533

  6. A Single Residue Change in Vibrio harveyi Hemolysin Results in the Loss of Phospholipase and Hemolytic Activities and Pathogenicity for Turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)▿

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Boguang; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Shushan; Zhong, Yingbin; Chen, Jixiang; Austin, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Vibrio harveyi hemolysin, an important virulence determinant in fish pathogenesis, was further characterized, and the enzyme was identified as a phospholipase B by gas chromatography. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that a specific residue, Ser153, was critical for its enzymatic activity and for its virulence in fish. PMID:17220231

  7. Synergistic and Additive Effects of Chromosomal and Plasmid-Encoded Hemolysins Contribute to Hemolysis and Virulence in Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae

    PubMed Central

    Rivas, Amable J.; Balado, Miguel; Lemos, Manuel L.

    2013-01-01

    Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae causes infections and fatal disease in marine animals and in humans. Highly hemolytic strains produce damselysin (Dly) and plasmid-encoded HlyA (HlyApl). These hemolysins are encoded by plasmid pPHDD1 and contribute to hemolysis and virulence for fish and mice. In this study, we report that all the hemolytic strains produce a hitherto uncharacterized chromosome-encoded HlyA (HlyAch). Hemolysis was completely abolished in a single hlyAch mutant of a plasmidless strain and in a dly hlyApl hlyAch triple mutant. We found that Dly, HlyApl, and HlyAch are needed for full hemolytic values in strains harboring pPHDD1, and these values are the result of the additive effects between HlyApl and HlyAch, on the one hand, and of the synergistic effect of Dly with HlyApl and HlyAch, on the other hand. Interestingly, Dly-producing strains produced synergistic effects with strains lacking Dly production but secreting HlyA, constituting a case of the CAMP (Christie, Atkins, and Munch-Petersen) reaction. Environmental factors such as iron starvation and salt concentration were found to regulate the expression of the three hemolysins. We found that the contributions, in terms of the individual and combined effects, of the three hemolysins to hemolysis and virulence varied depending on the animal species tested. While Dly and HlyApl were found to be main contributors in the virulence for mice, we observed that the contribution of hemolysins to virulence for fish was mainly based on the synergistic effects between Dly and either of the two HlyA hemolysins rather than on their individual effects. PMID:23798530

  8. Detection of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene and related DNA sequences in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and other vibrio species by the DNA colony hybridization test.

    PubMed Central

    Nishibuchi, M; Ishibashi, M; Takeda, Y; Kaper, J B

    1985-01-01

    A specific gene probe for the Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin gene was constructed and used to examine the presence or absence of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene or related DNA sequences in V. parahaemolyticus and other vibrios by the DNA colony hybridization method. The gene probe consisted of a 406-base-pair, completely internal fragment covering 71% of the structural gene with PstI linkers added to the ends. Six copies of this 415-base-pair PstI fragment were cloned into plasmid pBR322, which yielded large amounts of the probe DNA. One hundred forty-one V. parahaemolyticus strains were tested with the gene probe, and the results were compared with those of phenotypic assays for the thermostable direct hemolysin. All Kanagawa phenomenon-positive strains were gene positive. However, 86% of the strains that exhibited weak Kanagawa phenomenon and 16% of Kanagawa phenomenon-negative strains also reacted with the gene probe. Immunological methods for the detection of the thermostable direct hemolysin (modified Elek test, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) showed better correlation with gene probe results. All gene-positive strains produced hemolysin detectable in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, although occasional strains showed weak reaction. The modified Elek test was slightly less sensitive than the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All gene-negative strains were also negative in these immunological assays. One hundred twenty-one strains of Vibrio spp. other than V. parahaemolyticus were tested with the gene probe; only Vibrio hollisae strains reacted with the probe under stringent conditions. PMID:4030087

  9. The Deletion of Several Amino Acid Stretches of Escherichia coli Alpha-Hemolysin (HlyA) Suggests That the Channel-Forming Domain Contains Beta-Strands

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Roland; Maier, Elke; Bauer, Susanne; Ludwig, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming protein of 110 kDa belonging to the family of RTX toxins. A hydrophobic region between the amino acid residues 238 and 410 in the N-terminal half of HlyA has previously been suggested to form hydrophobic and/or amphipathic α-helices and has been shown to be important for hemolytic activity and pore formation in biological and artificial membranes. The structure of the HlyA transmembrane channel is, however, largely unknown. For further investigation of the channel structure, we deleted in HlyA different stretches of amino acids that could form amphipathic β-strands according to secondary structure predictions (residues 71–110, 158–167, 180–203, and 264–286). These deletions resulted in HlyA mutants with strongly reduced hemolytic activity. Lipid bilayer measurements demonstrated that HlyAΔ71–110 and HlyAΔ264–286 formed channels with much smaller single-channel conductance than wildtype HlyA, whereas their channel-forming activity was virtually as high as that of the wildtype toxin. HlyAΔ158–167 and HlyAΔ180–203 were unable to form defined channels in lipid bilayers. Calculations based on the single-channel data indicated that the channels generated by HlyAΔ71–110 and HlyAΔ264–286 had a smaller size (diameter about 1.4 to 1.8 nm) than wildtype HlyA channels (diameter about 2.0 to 2.6 nm), suggesting that in these mutants part of the channel-forming domain was removed. Osmotic protection experiments with erythrocytes confirmed that HlyA, HlyAΔ71–110, and HlyAΔ264–286 form defined transmembrane pores and suggested channel diameters that largely agreed with those estimated from the single-channel data. Taken together, these results suggest that the channel-forming domain of HlyA might contain β-strands, possibly in addition to α-helical structures. PMID:25463653

  10. The deletion of several amino acid stretches of Escherichia coli alpha-hemolysin (HlyA) suggests that the channel-forming domain contains beta-strands.

    PubMed

    Benz, Roland; Maier, Elke; Bauer, Susanne; Ludwig, Albrecht

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli α-hemolysin (HlyA) is a pore-forming protein of 110 kDa belonging to the family of RTX toxins. A hydrophobic region between the amino acid residues 238 and 410 in the N-terminal half of HlyA has previously been suggested to form hydrophobic and/or amphipathic α-helices and has been shown to be important for hemolytic activity and pore formation in biological and artificial membranes. The structure of the HlyA transmembrane channel is, however, largely unknown. For further investigation of the channel structure, we deleted in HlyA different stretches of amino acids that could form amphipathic β-strands according to secondary structure predictions (residues 71-110, 158-167, 180-203, and 264-286). These deletions resulted in HlyA mutants with strongly reduced hemolytic activity. Lipid bilayer measurements demonstrated that HlyAΔ71-110 and HlyAΔ264-286 formed channels with much smaller single-channel conductance than wildtype HlyA, whereas their channel-forming activity was virtually as high as that of the wildtype toxin. HlyAΔ158-167 and HlyAΔ180-203 were unable to form defined channels in lipid bilayers. Calculations based on the single-channel data indicated that the channels generated by HlyAΔ71-110 and HlyAΔ264-286 had a smaller size (diameter about 1.4 to 1.8 nm) than wildtype HlyA channels (diameter about 2.0 to 2.6 nm), suggesting that in these mutants part of the channel-forming domain was removed. Osmotic protection experiments with erythrocytes confirmed that HlyA, HlyAΔ71-110, and HlyAΔ264-286 form defined transmembrane pores and suggested channel diameters that largely agreed with those estimated from the single-channel data. Taken together, these results suggest that the channel-forming domain of HlyA might contain β-strands, possibly in addition to α-helical structures. PMID:25463653

  11. Improvement of the live vaccine strain Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a for antigen delivery via the hemolysin secretion system of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hotz, Christian; Fensterle, Joachim; Goebel, Werner; Meyer, Susanne R; Kirchgraber, Gabriel; Heisig, Martin; Fürer, Andreas; Dietrich, Guido; Rapp, Ulf R; Gentschev, Ivaylo

    2009-02-01

    The attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a (Ty21a) is the only attenuated live oral vaccine against typhoid fever. Ty21a is also an attractive carrier for the delivery of heterologous antigens. We have used Ty21a for antigen delivery via the hemolysin (HlyA) secretion system of Escherichia coli, the prototype of the type I secretion system (T1SS). In this study, we identified by genetic complementation that the specific mutation of rpoS correlated with the hemolysin production of strain Ty21a. We furthermore showed that complementation with a plasmid encoding rfaH, which is described to be a downstream target of rpoS, led to increased expression and secretion of hemolysin. Finally, we demonstrated a significant enhancement of antibody responses against the heterologous HlyA antigen of Ty21a after immunization of mice with rfaH complemented S. typhi strain secreting HlyA compared with the same strain without rfaH plasmid. PMID:18706861

  12. Introducing an artificial photo-switch into a biological pore: A model study of an engineered α-hemolysin.

    PubMed

    Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Di Maio, Danilo; Mancini, Giordano; Brancato, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, engineered biological pores responsive to external stimuli have been fruitfully used for various biotechnological applications. Moreover, the strategy of tethering photo-switchable moieties into biomolecules has provided an unprecedented temporal control of purposely designed nanodevices, as demonstrated, for example, by the light-mediated regulation of the activity of enzymes and biochannels. Inspired by these advancements, we propose here a de novo designed nanodevice featuring the α-hemolysin (αHL) membrane channel purposely functionalized by an artificial "on/off" molecular switch. The switch, which is based on the photo-isomerization of the azobenzene moiety, introduces a smart nano-valve into the natural non-gated pore to confer tunable transport properties. We validated through molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations the effective inter-conversion of the engineered αHL pore between two configurations corresponding to an "open" and a "closed" form. The reported switchable translocation of a single-stranded DNA fragment under applied voltage supports the promising capabilities of this nanopore prototype in view of molecular sensing, detection and delivery applications at single-molecule level. PMID:26744229

  13. Detection of benzo[a]pyrene-guanine adducts in single-stranded DNA using the α-hemolysin nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Rukshan T.; Fleming, Aaron M.; Johnson, Robert P.; Burrows, Cynthia J.; White, Henry S.

    2015-02-01

    The carcinogenic precursor benzo[a]pyrene (BP), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, is released into the environment through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Metabolism of BP in the human body yields a potent alkylating agent (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide, BPDE) that reacts with guanine (G) in DNA to form an adduct implicated in cancer initiation. We report that the α-hemolysin (αHL) nanopore platform can be used to detect a BPDE adduct to G in synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides. Translocation of a 41-mer poly-2‧-deoxycytidine strand with a centrally located BPDE adduct to G through αHL in 1 M KCl produces a unique multi-level current signature allowing the adduct to be detected. This readily distinguishable current modulation was observed when the BPDE-adducted DNA strand translocated from either the 5‧ or 3‧ directions. This study suggests that BPDE adducts and other large aromatic biomarkers can be detected with αHL, presenting opportunities for the monitoring, quantification, and sequencing of mutagenic compounds from cellular DNA samples.

  14. Prolonged Residence Time of a Noncovalent Molecular Adapter, β-Cyclodextrin, within the Lumen of Mutant α-Hemolysin Pores

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Li-Qun; Cheley, Stephen; Bayley, Hagan

    2001-01-01

    Noncovalent molecular adapters, such as cyclodextrins, act as binding sites for channel blockers when lodged in the lumen of the α-hemolysin (αHL) pore, thereby offering a basis for the detection of a variety of organic molecules with αHL as a sensor element. β-Cyclodextrin (βCD) resides in the wild-type αHL pore for several hundred microseconds. The residence time can be extended to several milliseconds by the manipulation of pH and transmembrane potential. Here, we describe mutant homoheptameric αHL pores that are capable of accommodating βCD for tens of seconds. The mutants were obtained by site-directed mutagenesis at position 113, which is a residue that lies near a constriction in the lumen of the transmembrane β barrel, and fall into two classes. Members of the tight-binding class, M113D, M113N, M113V, M113H, M113F and M113Y, bind βCD ∼104-fold more avidly than the remaining αHL pores, including WT-αHL. The lower Kd values of these mutants are dominated by reduced values of koff. The major effect of the mutations is most likely a remodeling of the binding site for βCD in the vicinity of position 113. In addition, there is a smaller voltage-sensitive component of the binding, which is also affected by the residue at 113 and may result from transport of the neutral βCD molecule by electroosmotic flow. The mutant pores for which the dwell time of βCD is prolonged can serve as improved components for stochastic sensors. PMID:11696607

  15. Single pyrimidine discrimination during voltage-driven translocation of osmylated oligodeoxynucleotides via the α-hemolysin nanopore

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Summary The influence of an electric field on an isolated channel or nanopore separating two compartments filled with electrolytes produces a constant ion flux through the pore. Nucleic acids added to one compartment traverse the pore, and modulate the current in a sequence-dependent manner. While translocation is faster than detection, the α-hemolysin nanopore (α-HL) successfully senses base modifications in ssDNA immobilized within the pore. With the assistance of a processing enzyme to slow down translocation, nanopore-based DNA sequencing is now a commercially available platform. However, accurate base calling is challenging because α-HL senses a sequence, and not a single nucleotide. Osmylated DNA was recently proposed as a surrogate for nanopore-based sequencing. Osmylation is the addition of osmium tetroxide 2,2’-bipyridine (OsBp) to the C5–C6 pyrimidine double bond. The process is simple, selective for deoxythymidine (dT) over deoxycytidine (dC), unreactive towards the purines, practically 100% effective, and strikingly independent of length, sequence, and composition. Translocation of an oligodeoxynucleotide (oligo) dA10XdA9 via α-HL is relatively slow, and exhibits distinct duration as well as distinct residual current when X = dA, dT(OsBp), or dC(OsBp). The data indicate that the α-HL constriction zone/β-barrel interacts strongly with both OsBp and the base. A 23 nucleotide long oligo with four dT(OsBp) traverses 18-times slower, and the same oligo with nine (dT+dC)(OsBp) moieties traverses 84-times slower compared to dA20, suggesting an average rate of 40 or 180 μs/base, respectively. These translocation speeds are well above detection limits, may be further optimized, and clear the way for nanopore-based sequencing using osmylated DNA. PMID:26925357

  16. Single pyrimidine discrimination during voltage-driven translocation of osmylated oligodeoxynucleotides via the α-hemolysin nanopore.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yun; Kanavarioti, Anastassia

    2016-01-01

    The influence of an electric field on an isolated channel or nanopore separating two compartments filled with electrolytes produces a constant ion flux through the pore. Nucleic acids added to one compartment traverse the pore, and modulate the current in a sequence-dependent manner. While translocation is faster than detection, the α-hemolysin nanopore (α-HL) successfully senses base modifications in ssDNA immobilized within the pore. With the assistance of a processing enzyme to slow down translocation, nanopore-based DNA sequencing is now a commercially available platform. However, accurate base calling is challenging because α-HL senses a sequence, and not a single nucleotide. Osmylated DNA was recently proposed as a surrogate for nanopore-based sequencing. Osmylation is the addition of osmium tetroxide 2,2'-bipyridine (OsBp) to the C5-C6 pyrimidine double bond. The process is simple, selective for deoxythymidine (dT) over deoxycytidine (dC), unreactive towards the purines, practically 100% effective, and strikingly independent of length, sequence, and composition. Translocation of an oligodeoxynucleotide (oligo) dA10XdA9 via α-HL is relatively slow, and exhibits distinct duration as well as distinct residual current when X = dA, dT(OsBp), or dC(OsBp). The data indicate that the α-HL constriction zone/β-barrel interacts strongly with both OsBp and the base. A 23 nucleotide long oligo with four dT(OsBp) traverses 18-times slower, and the same oligo with nine (dT+dC)(OsBp) moieties traverses 84-times slower compared to dA20, suggesting an average rate of 40 or 180 μs/base, respectively. These translocation speeds are well above detection limits, may be further optimized, and clear the way for nanopore-based sequencing using osmylated DNA. PMID:26925357

  17. Molecular characterization on the genome structure of hemolysin toxin isoforms isolated from sea anemone Actineria villosa and Phyllodiscus semoni.

    PubMed

    Uechi, Gen-Ichiro; Toma, Hiromu; Arakawa, Takeshi; Sato, Yoshiya

    2010-12-01

    We recently identified the existence of new isoforms of Avt-I (from sea anemone Actineria villosa) and Pstx20 (from sea anemone Phyllodiscus semoni) hemolytic toxins, and named them Avt-II and Pst-I. Avt-II and Pst-I differ in length by 14 and 7 bp, respectively, as compared to their corresponding isoform genes. Both newly found isoform genes have the coding regions with the identical length of 1033 bp. The restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with endonuclease HphI was able to clearly distinguish between the two Avt isoforms, but not Pstx isoforms, and based on the densitometric analysis of DNA bands, it indicated that relative expression levels of Avt-I and Avt-II genes were 18.3% and 81.7%, respectively. PCR amplification of the two Avt isoform genes using the genomic DNA as template indicated the existence of two introns within each toxin isoform gene. The first intron with the identical 242 bp in length for both Avt isoform was found within the 5'-untranslated region, and the second intron with lengths of 654 bp and 661 bp in Avt-I and Avt-II isoforms, respectively, was found within the signal sequence coding region. This is for the first time to identify the existence of introns within hemolysin genes of sea anemone. Having several unique characteristics that have identified only for a new member of actinoporin family of A. villosa and P. semoni, e.g., strong toxicity and genes with introns, it is plausible to speculate that these toxins have a unique genetic evolutionary linage differed from that for other sea anemone hemolytic toxins. PMID:20837039

  18. Detection of a putative hemolysin operon, hhdBA, of Haemophilus parasuis from pigs with Glässer disease.

    PubMed

    Assavacheep, Pornchalit; Assavacheep, Anongnart; Turni, Conny

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S ribosomal (r)RNA and a putative hemolysin gene operon, hhdBA, can be used to monitor live pigs for the presence of Haemophilus parasuis and predict the virulence of the strains present. Nasal cavity swabs were taken from 30 live, healthy, 1- to 8-week-old pigs on a weekly cycle from a commercial Thai nursery pig herd. A total of 27 of these pigs (90%) tested positive for H. parasuis as early as week 1 of age. None of the H. parasuis-positive samples from healthy pigs was positive for the hhdBA genes. At the same pig nursery, swab samples from nasal cavity, tonsil, trachea, and lung, and exudate samples from pleural/peritoneal cavity were taken from 30 dead pigs displaying typical pathological lesions consistent with Glässer disease. Twenty-two of 140 samples (15.7%) taken from 30 diseased pigs yielded a positive result for H. parasuis. Samples from the exudate (27%) yielded the most positive results, followed by lung, tracheal swab, tonsil, and nasal swab, respectively. Out of 22 positive samples, 12 samples (54.5%) harbored hhdA and/or hhdB genes. Detection rates of hhdA were higher than hhdB. None of the H. parasuis-positive samples taken from nasal cavity of diseased pigs tested positive for hhdBA genes. More work is required to determine if the detection of hhdBA genes is useful for identifying the virulence potential of H. parasuis field isolates. PMID:22379049

  19. Detection of Hemolysin Variants of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli by PCR and Culture on VancomycinCefixime-Cefsulodin Blood Agar

    PubMed Central

    Lehmacher, Anselm; Meier, Heidi; Aleksic, Stojanka; Bockemühl, Jochen

    1998-01-01

    The presence of a hemolysin-encoding gene, elyA or hlyA, from Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) was detected by PCR in each of 95 strains tested. PCR products of elyA from human STEC isolates of serovars frequently detected in Germany, such as O157:H−, O103:H2, O103:H−, O26:H11, and O26:H−, showed nucleotide sequences identical to previously reported ones for O157:H7 and O111:H− strains. Compared to them, four elyA amplicons derived from human isolates of rare STEC serovars showed identity of about 98% but lacked an AluI restriction site. However, the nucleotide sequence of an amplicon derived from a porcine O138:K81:H− STEC strain was identical to the corresponding region of hlyA, encoding alpha-hemolysin, from E. coli. This hlyA amplicon showed 68% identity with the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding elyA fragment. It differed from the elyA PCR product in restriction fragments generated by AluI, EcoRI, and MluI. Of the 95 representative STEC strains, 88 produced hemolysin on blood agar supplemented with vancomycin (30 mg/liter), cefixime (20 μg/liter), and cefsulodin (3 mg/liter) (BVCC). The lowest added numbers of two to six STEC CFU per g of stool or per ml of raw milk were detectable on BVCC plates after seeding of the preenrichment broth, modified tryptic soy broth (mTSB) supplemented with novobiocin (10 mg/liter), with 16 STEC strains. These strains represented the seven prevailing serovars diagnosed from German patients. However, with ground-beef samples, PCR was essential to identify the lowest added numbers of two to six STEC CFU among colonies of hemolyzing Enterobacteriaceae, such as Serratia spp. and alpha-hemolysin-producing E. coli. We conclude that preenrichment of stool and food samples in mTSB for 6 h followed by overnight culturing on BVCC is a simple method for the isolation and presumptive identification of STEC. PMID:9647814

  20. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Moatamedi, Azar; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Mirshokraei, Pejhman

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6%) isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases. PMID:25568683

  1. Biofilm formation, hemolysin production and antimicrobial susceptibilities of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from the mastitis milk of dairy cows in Shahrekord district, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Moatamedi, Azar; Lotfalian, Sharareh; Mirshokraei, Pejhman

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a major contagious pathogen causing bovine sub-clinical mastitis. The present investigation was carried out to determine some phenotypic characteristics of the S. agalactiae strains isolated from bovine mastitis cases in dairy cows of Shahrekord in the west-center of Iran. One hundred eighty California mastitis test (CMT) positive milk samples were bacteriologically studied. A total of 31 (17.2%) S. agalactiae isolated. Twenty eight (90.3%) of the isolates were biofilm producers. This finding may indicate the high potential of pathogenicity in isolated strains. Sixteen (51.6%) isolates were α hemolysin producers. Only 19.3%, 22.5% and 29.0% of the isolates were sensitive to streptomycin, flumequine and kanamycin, respectively. None of these three agents is recommended for treatment of mastitis cases. PMID:25568683

  2. A critical role for hemolysin in Vibrio fluvialis-induced IL-1β secretion mediated by the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Song, Liqiong; Huang, Yuanming; Zhao, Meng; Wang, Zhihao; Wang, Shujing; Sun, Hui; Kan, Biao; Meng, Guangxun; Liang, Weili; Ren, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio fluvialis causes human diarrhea, but the pathogenesis is not well-studied. We hypothesized that V. fluvialis-secreted hemolysin (VFH) may induce IL-1β secretion through the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and contribute to the pathogenicity of V. fluvialis. To examine this possibility, we constructed VFH mutant and complement strains and demonstrated that V. fluvialis-induced IL-1β production and cytotoxicity in human monocytic THP-1 cells and mouse macrophages is attributed to VFH. To evaluate the role of VFH in vivo, we infected adult C57BL/6 mice intraperitoneally and suckling C57/B6 mice orally with various strains. The mice treated with 108 CFU wild-type V. fluvialis or cell-free supernatant containing VFH induced significantly higher IL-1β production in peritoneal lavage fluid or in colon compared with those infected with the mutant strain, while no effect on TNF and IL-6 production was observed at day 5 or 24 h post-infection. VFH contributed to pathological changes and IL-1β release independent of colonization of V. fluvialis in the colon. VFH has no effect on the synthesis of pro-IL-1β, but rather it triggers the processing of pro-IL-1β into IL-1β. Furthermore, using deficient mouse strains, we verified that V. fluvialis-induced IL-1β is mediated through activation of Caspase-1 and the NLRP3 inflammasome ex vivo. Confocal microscopy suggests that VFH contributes to cathepsin B release. Furthermore, V. fluvialis-induced IL-1β secretion requires potassium (K+) efflux and reactive oxygen species production. Our results provide new evidence for the role of VFH in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and pathogenesis in response to V. fluvialis infection. Summary Sentence: Vibrio fluvialis-secreted hemolysin induces IL-1β secretion through the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and contributes to the pathogenicity of V. fluvialis. PMID:26052324

  3. Delivery of Large Heterologous Polypeptides across the Cytoplasmic Membrane of Antigen-Presenting Cells by the Bordetella RTX Hemolysin Moiety Lacking the Adenylyl Cyclase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Jana; Jelinek, Jiri; Tomala, Jakub; Masin, Jiri; Kosova, Martina; Stanek, Ondrej; Bumba, Ladislav; Michalek, Jaroslav; Kovar, Marek; Sebo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA; also called ACT or AC-Hly) targets CD11b-expressing phagocytes and translocates into their cytosol an adenylyl cyclase (AC) that hijacks cellular signaling by conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP). Intriguingly, insertion of large passenger peptides removes the enzymatic activity but not the cell-invasive capacity of the AC domain. This has repeatedly been exploited for delivery of heterologous antigens into the cytosolic pathway of CD11b-expressing dendritic cells by CyaA/AC− toxoids, thus enabling their processing and presentation on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs). We produced a set of toxoids with overlapping deletions within the first 371 residues of CyaA and showed that the structure of the AC enzyme does not contain any sequences indispensable for its translocation across target cell membrane. Moreover, replacement of the AC domain (residues 1 to 371) with heterologous polypeptides of 40, 146, or 203 residues yielded CyaAΔAC constructs that delivered passenger CTL epitopes into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and induced strong antigen-specific CD8+ CTL responses in vivo in mice and ex vivo in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. This shows that the RTX (repeats in toxin) hemolysin moiety, consisting of residues 374 to 1706 of CyaA, harbors all structural information involved in translocation of the N-terminal AC domain across target cell membranes. These results decipher the extraordinary capacity of the AC domain of CyaA to transport large heterologous cargo polypeptides into the cytosol of CD11b+ target cells and pave the way for the construction of CyaAΔAC-based polyvalent immunotherapeutic T cell vaccines. PMID:22215742

  4. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  5. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  6. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Samantha J.; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R.; Frana, Timothy S.; Nicholson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage’s absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a

  7. Comparative Prevalence of Immune Evasion Complex Genes Associated with β-Hemolysin Converting Bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 Isolates from Swine, Swine Facilities, Humans with Swine Contact, and Humans with No Swine Contact.

    PubMed

    Hau, Samantha J; Sun, Jisun; Davies, Peter R; Frana, Timothy S; Nicholson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) draws concern from the public health community because in some countries these organisms may represent the largest reservoir of MRSA outside hospital settings. Recent studies indicate LA-MRSA strains from swine are more genetically diverse than the first reported sequence type ST398. In the US, a diverse population of LA-MRSA is found including organisms of the ST398, ST9, and ST5 lineages. Occurrence of ST5 MRSA in swine is of particular concern since ST5 is among the most prevalent lineages causing clinical infections in humans. The prominence of ST5 in clinical disease is believed to result from acquisition of bacteriophages containing virulence or host-adapted genes including the immune-evasion cluster (IEC) genes carried by β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages, whose absence in LA-MRSA ST398 is thought to contribute to reduced rates of human infection and transmission associated with this lineage. The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of IEC genes associated with β-hemolysin converting bacteriophages in MRSA ST5 isolates obtained from agricultural sources, including swine, swine facilities, and humans with short- or long-term swine exposure. To gain a broader perspective, the prevalence of these genes in LA-MRSA ST5 strains was compared to the prevalence in clinical MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no known exposure to swine. IEC genes were not present in any of the tested MRSA ST5 strains from agricultural sources and the β-hemolysin gene was intact in these strains, indicating the bacteriophage's absence. In contrast, the prevalence of the β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in MRSA ST5 strains from humans with no exposure to swine was 90.4%. The absence of β-hemolysin converting bacteriophage in LA-MRSA ST5 isolates is consistent with previous reports evaluating ST398 strains and provides genetic evidence indicating LA-MRSA ST5 isolates may harbor a reduced

  8. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus urinary tract infection depends on bacterial strain and β-hemolysin/cytolysin that mediates cytotoxicity, cytokine synthesis, inflammation and virulence.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Sophie Y; Sullivan, Matthew J; Ipe, Deepak S; Smith, Joshua P; Cripps, Allan W; Ulett, Glen C

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause urinary tract infection (UTI) including cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). The early host-pathogen interactions that occur during S. agalactiae UTI and subsequent mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, we define the early interactions between human bladder urothelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and mouse bladder using uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) 807 and ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) 834 strains. UPSA 807 adhered, invaded and killed bladder urothelial cells more efficiently compared to ABSA 834 via mechanisms including low-level caspase-3 activation, and cytolysis, according to lactate dehydrogenase release measures and cell viability. Severe UPSA 807-induced cytotoxicity was mediated entirely by the bacterial β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-H/C) because an β-H/C-deficient UPSA 807 isogenic mutant, UPSA 807ΔcylE, was not cytotoxic in vitro; the mutant was also significantly attenuated for colonization in the bladder in vivo. Analysis of infection-induced cytokines, including IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo revealed that cytokine and chemokine responses were dependent on expression of β-H/C that also elicited severe bladder neutrophilia. Thus, virulence of UPSA 807 encompasses adhesion to, invasion of and killing of bladder cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses that elicit neutrophil infiltration, and β-H/C-mediated subversion of innate immune-mediated bacterial clearance from the bladder. PMID:27383371

  9. Prevalence of Pandemic Thermostable Direct Hemolysin-Producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 in Seafood and the Coastal Environment in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Sugiyama, Kanji; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Chowdhury, Ashrafuzzaman; Yatsuyanagi, Jun; Ohtomo, Yoshimitsu; Saito, Akinobu; Nagano, Hidetoshi; Nishina, Tokuhiro; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Konuma, Hirotaka; Miyahara, Michiko; Kumagai, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    Although thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH)-producing Vibrio parahaemolyticus has caused many infections in Asian countries, the United States, and other countries, it has been difficult to detect the same pathogen in seafoods and other environmental samples. In this study, we detected and enumerated tdh gene-positive V. parahaemolyticus in Japanese seafoods with a tdh-specific PCR method, a chromogenic agar medium, and a most-probable-number method. The tdh gene was detected in 33 of 329 seafood samples (10.0%). The number of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus ranged from <3 to 93/10 g. The incidence of tdh-positive V. parahaemolyticus tended to be high in samples contaminated with relatively high levels of total V. parahaemolyticus. TDH-producing strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from 11 of 33 tdh-positive samples (short-necked clam, hen clam, and rock oyster). TDH-producing strains of V. parahaemolyticus were also isolated from the sediments of rivers near the coast in Japan. Representative strains of the seafood and sediment isolates were examined for the O:K serovar and by the PCR method specific to the pandemic clone and arbitrarily primed PCR and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis techniques. The results indicated that most O3:K6 tdh-positive strains belonged to the pandemic O3:K6 clone and suggested that serovariation took place in the Japanese environment. PMID:12839757

  10. Pathogenesis of Streptococcus urinary tract infection depends on bacterial strain and β-hemolysin/cytolysin that mediates cytotoxicity, cytokine synthesis, inflammation and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie Y.; Sullivan, Matthew J.; Ipe, Deepak S.; Smith, Joshua P.; Cripps, Allan W.; Ulett, Glen C.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae can cause urinary tract infection (UTI) including cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). The early host-pathogen interactions that occur during S. agalactiae UTI and subsequent mechanisms of disease pathogenesis are poorly defined. Here, we define the early interactions between human bladder urothelial cells, monocyte-derived macrophages, and mouse bladder using uropathogenic S. agalactiae (UPSA) 807 and ABU-causing S. agalactiae (ABSA) 834 strains. UPSA 807 adhered, invaded and killed bladder urothelial cells more efficiently compared to ABSA 834 via mechanisms including low-level caspase-3 activation, and cytolysis, according to lactate dehydrogenase release measures and cell viability. Severe UPSA 807-induced cytotoxicity was mediated entirely by the bacterial β-hemolysin/cytolysin (β-H/C) because an β-H/C-deficient UPSA 807 isogenic mutant, UPSA 807ΔcylE, was not cytotoxic in vitro; the mutant was also significantly attenuated for colonization in the bladder in vivo. Analysis of infection-induced cytokines, including IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in vitro and in vivo revealed that cytokine and chemokine responses were dependent on expression of β-H/C that also elicited severe bladder neutrophilia. Thus, virulence of UPSA 807 encompasses adhesion to, invasion of and killing of bladder cells, pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine responses that elicit neutrophil infiltration, and β-H/C-mediated subversion of innate immune-mediated bacterial clearance from the bladder. PMID:27383371

  11. Group B Streptococcus β-hemolysin/Cytolysin Breaches Maternal-Fetal Barriers to Cause Preterm Birth and Intrauterine Fetal Demise in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Randis, Tara M.; Gelber, Shari E.; Hooven, Thomas A.; Abellar, Rosanna G.; Akabas, Leor H.; Lewis, Emma L.; Walker, Lindsay B.; Byland, Leah M.; Nizet, Victor; Ratner, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Maternal vaginal colonization with Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is a precursor to chorioamnionitis, fetal infection, and neonatal sepsis, but the understanding of specific factors in the pathogenesis of ascending infection remains limited. Methods. We used a new murine model to evaluate the contribution of the pore-forming GBS β-hemolysin/cytolysin (βH/C) to vaginal colonization, ascension, and fetal infection. Results. Competition assays demonstrated a marked advantage to βH/C-expressing GBS during colonization. Intrauterine fetal demise and/or preterm birth were observed in 54% of pregnant mice colonized with wild-type (WT) GBS and 0% of those colonized with the toxin-deficient cylE knockout strain, despite efficient colonization and ascension by both strains. Robust placental inflammation, disruption of maternal-fetal barriers, and fetal infection were more frequent in animals colonized with WT bacteria. Histopathologic examination revealed bacterial tropism for fetal lung and liver. Conclusions. Preterm birth and fetal demise are likely the direct result of toxin-induced damage and inflammation rather than differences in efficiency of ascension into the upper genital tract. These data demonstrate a distinct contribution of βH/C to GBS chorioamnionitis and subsequent fetal infection in vivo and showcase a model for this most proximal step in GBS pathogenesis. PMID:24474814

  12. Design and Fabrication of Biosensor Device by Use of Receptor Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwana, Yoshihiko; Kojima, Katsura; Tamada, Yasushi

    We have been studying a new type of biosensor that uses and mimics sensory functions of insects. The biosensor can be characterized in combination with immobilized signal transduction biomolecules, i.e., receptor proteins, and a semiconductor device as a transducer. We have developed a lipid bilayer membrane for receptor immobilization and combined it with an insulated-gate field-effect transistor (IGFET). By using this bilayer-IGFET device, we have measured changes in the bilayer membrane potential after introducing α-hemolysin, which acts as a model of receptors. This indicates that the developed device could be used for the biosensor using receptor proteins.

  13. The Abi-domain protein Abx1 interacts with the CovS histidine kinase to control virulence gene expression in group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Firon, Arnaud; Tazi, Asmaa; Da Cunha, Violette; Brinster, Sophie; Sauvage, Elisabeth; Dramsi, Shaynoor; Golenbock, Douglas T; Glaser, Philippe; Poyart, Claire; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS), a common commensal of the female genital tract, is the leading cause of invasive infections in neonates. Expression of major GBS virulence factors, such as the hemolysin operon cyl, is regulated directly at the transcriptional level by the CovSR two-component system. Using a random genetic approach, we identified a multi-spanning transmembrane protein, Abx1, essential for the production of the GBS hemolysin. Despite its similarity to eukaryotic CaaX proteases, the Abx1 function is not involved in a post-translational modification of the GBS hemolysin. Instead, we demonstrate that Abx1 regulates transcription of several virulence genes, including those comprising the hemolysin operon, by a CovSR-dependent mechanism. By combining genetic analyses, transcriptome profiling, and site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that Abx1 is a regulator of the histidine kinase CovS. Overexpression of Abx1 is sufficient to activate virulence gene expression through CovS, overcoming the need for an additional signal. Conversely, the absence of Abx1 has the opposite effect on virulence gene expression consistent with CovS locked in a kinase-competent state. Using a bacterial two-hybrid system, direct interaction between Abx1 and CovS was mapped specifically to CovS domains involved in signal processing. We demonstrate that the CovSR two-component system is the core of a signaling pathway integrating the regulation of CovS by Abx1 in addition to the regulation of CovR by the serine/threonine kinase Stk1. In conclusion, our study reports a regulatory function for Abx1, a member of a large protein family with a characteristic Abi-domain, which forms a signaling complex with the histidine kinase CovS in GBS. PMID:23436996

  14. Molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli hemolysin gene (EHEC-hlyA)-harboring isolates from cattle reveals a diverse origin and hybrid diarrheagenic strains.

    PubMed

    Askari Badouei, Mahdi; Morabito, Stefano; Najafifar, Arash; Mazandarani, Emad

    2016-04-01

    In the present study we investigated the occurrence of Escherichia coli strains harboring the gene encoding enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin (EHEC-HlyA) in cattle and the association of this gene with various diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) pathotypes. First, the bovine E. coli isolates were screened for EHEC-hlyA gene by PCR, and then they were characterized for the phylogenetic groups and the presence of the major virulence genes of different DEC pathotypes. In total, 25 virulence gene profiles were observed in 54 EHEC-hlyA+ isolates that reflect a considerable heterogeneity. The EHEC-hlyA+ strains were mostly associated with EHEC (72%), while only 7.4% were enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). We also showed the presence of estA gene of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) in 6 isolates (11.1%). Interestingly, two of the estA+ strains showed hybrid pathotypes with one carrying eae/estA (EPEC/ETEC), and the other one stx2/astA/estA (EHEC/ETEC). None of the isolates were related to enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC). The EHEC-plasmid encoded genes occurred in seven different combinations with EHEC-hlyA/saa/subA/espP being the most prevalent (46.3%). All stx-/eae+ strains carried O island 57 (OI-57) molecular marker(s) that may indicate these to be the progenitors of EHEC or strains losing stx. The most prevalent phylogroup was B1 (61.1%), but the most heterogeneous strains including the hybrid strains belonged to A phylogroup. Overall, our results indicate that cattle EHEC-hlyA encoding E. coli isolates consist of diverse diarrheagenic strains with the possible existence of hybrid pathotypes. Future studies are required to clarify the evolutionary aspects and clinical significance of these strains in humans and domestic animals. PMID:26855346

  15. P2X Receptor-Dependent Erythrocyte Damage by α-Hemolysin from Escherichia coli Triggers Phagocytosis by THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fagerberg, Steen K.; Skals, Marianne; Leipziger, Jens; Praetorius, Helle A.

    2013-01-01

    The pore-forming exotoxin α-hemolysin from E. coli causes a significant volume reduction of human erythrocytes that precedes the ultimate swelling and lysis. This shrinkage results from activation of Ca2+-sensitive K+ (KCa3.1) and Cl− channels (TMEM16A) and reduced functions of either of these channels potentiate the HlyA-induced hemolysis. This means that Ca2+-dependent activation of KCa3.1 and TMEM16A protects the cells against early hemolysis. Simultaneous to the HlyA-induced shrinkage, the erythrocytes show increased exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) in the outer plasma membrane leaflet, which is known to be a keen trigger for phagocytosis. We hypothesize that exposure to HlyA elicits removal of the damaged erythrocytes by phagocytic cells. Cultured THP-1 cells as a model for erythrocytal phagocytosis was verified by a variety of methods, including live cell imaging. We consistently found the HlyA to very potently trigger phagocytosis of erythrocytes by THP-1 cells. The HlyA-induced phagocytosis was prevented by inhibition of KCa3.1, which is known to reduce PS-exposure in human erythrocytes subjected to both ionomycin and HlyA. Moreover, we show that P2X receptor inhibition, which prevents the cell damages caused by HlyA, also reduced that HlyA-induced PS-exposure and phagocytosis. Based on these results, we propose that erythrocytes, damaged by HlyA-insertion, are effectively cleared from the blood stream. This mechanism will potentially reduce the risk of intravascular hemolysis. PMID:23462688

  16. Unzipping of A-Form DNA-RNA, A-Form DNA-PNA, and B-Form DNA-DNA in the α-Hemolysin Nanopore.

    PubMed

    Perera, Rukshan T; Fleming, Aaron M; Peterson, Amberlyn M; Heemstra, Jennifer M; Burrows, Cynthia J; White, Henry S

    2016-01-19

    Unzipping of double-stranded nucleic acids by an electric field applied across a wild-type α-hemolysin (αHL) nanopore provides structural information about different duplex forms. In this work, comparative studies on A-form DNA-RNA duplexes and B-form DNA-DNA duplexes with a single-stranded tail identified significant differences in the blockage current and the unzipping duration between the two helical forms. We observed that the B-form duplex blocks the channel 1.9 ± 0.2 pA more and unzips ∼15-fold more slowly than an A-form duplex at 120 mV. We developed a model to describe the dependence of duplex unzipping on structure. We demonstrate that the wider A-form duplex (d = 2.4 nm) is unable to enter the vestibule opening of αHL on the cis side, leading to unzipping outside of the nanopore with higher residual current and faster unzipping times. In contrast, the smaller B-form duplexes (d = 2.0 nm) enter the vestibule of αHL, resulting in decreased current blockages and slower unzipping. We investigated the effects of varying the length of the single-stranded overhang, and studied A-form DNA-PNA duplexes to provide additional support for the proposed model. This study identifies key differences between A- and B-form duplex unzipping that will be important in the design of future probe-based methods for detecting DNA or RNA. PMID:26789754

  17. Structural Characterization of Humanized Nanobodies with Neutralizing Activity against the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-Hemolysin: Implications for a Potential Epitope of Toxin-Protective Antigen.

    PubMed

    Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Imtong, Chompounoot; Sookrung, Nitat; Katzenmeier, Gerd; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2016-04-01

    Previously, the 126-kDa CyaA-hemolysin (CyaA-Hly) fragment cloned from Bordetella pertussis--the causative agent of whooping cough--and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli was revealed as a key determinant for CyaA-mediated hemolysis against target erythrocytes. Here, phagemid-transfected E. coli clones producing nanobodies capable of binding to CyaA-Hly were selected from a humanized-camel VH/VHH phage-display library. Subsequently verified for binding activities by indirect ELISA and Western blotting, four CyaA-Hly-specific nanobodies were obtained and designated according to the presence/absence of VHH-hallmark amino acids as VHH2, VH5, VH18 and VHH37. In vitro neutralization assay revealed that all four ~17-kDa His-tagged VH/VHH nanobodies, in particular VHH37, which were over-expressed as inclusions and successfully unfolded-refolded, were able to effectively inhibit CyaA-Hly-mediated hemolysis. Phage-mimotope searching revealed that only peptides with sequence homologous to Linker 1 connecting Blocks I and II within the CyaA-RTX subdomain were able to bind to these four CyaA-Hly-specific nanobodies. Structural analysis of VHH37 via homology modeling and intermolecular docking confirmed that this humanized nanobody directly interacts with CyaA-RTX/Linker 1 through multiple hydrogen and ionic bonds. Altogether, our present data demonstrate that CyaA-RTX/Linker 1 could serve as a potential epitope of CyaA-protective antigen that may be useful for development of peptide-based pertussis vaccines. Additionally, such toxin-specific nanobodies have a potential for test-driven development of a ready-to-use therapeutic in passive immunization for mitigation of disease severity. PMID:27043627

  18. Structural Characterization of Humanized Nanobodies with Neutralizing Activity against the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-Hemolysin: Implications for a Potential Epitope of Toxin-Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Aijaz Ahmad; Imtong, Chompounoot; Sookrung, Nitat; Katzenmeier, Gerd; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2016-01-01

    Previously, the 126-kDa CyaA-hemolysin (CyaA-Hly) fragment cloned from Bordetella pertussis—the causative agent of whooping cough—and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli was revealed as a key determinant for CyaA-mediated hemolysis against target erythrocytes. Here, phagemid-transfected E. coli clones producing nanobodies capable of binding to CyaA-Hly were selected from a humanized-camel VH/VHH phage-display library. Subsequently verified for binding activities by indirect ELISA and Western blotting, four CyaA-Hly-specific nanobodies were obtained and designated according to the presence/absence of VHH-hallmark amino acids as VHH2, VH5, VH18 and VHH37. In vitro neutralization assay revealed that all four ~17-kDa His-tagged VH/VHH nanobodies, in particular VHH37, which were over-expressed as inclusions and successfully unfolded-refolded, were able to effectively inhibit CyaA-Hly-mediated hemolysis. Phage-mimotope searching revealed that only peptides with sequence homologous to Linker 1 connecting Blocks I and II within the CyaA-RTX subdomain were able to bind to these four CyaA-Hly-specific nanobodies. Structural analysis of VHH37 via homology modeling and intermolecular docking confirmed that this humanized nanobody directly interacts with CyaA-RTX/Linker 1 through multiple hydrogen and ionic bonds. Altogether, our present data demonstrate that CyaA-RTX/Linker 1 could serve as a potential epitope of CyaA-protective antigen that may be useful for development of peptide-based pertussis vaccines. Additionally, such toxin-specific nanobodies have a potential for test-driven development of a ready-to-use therapeutic in passive immunization for mitigation of disease severity. PMID:27043627

  19. What controls open-pore and residual currents in the first sensing zone of alpha-hemolysin nanopore? Combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    De Biase, Pablo M; Ervin, Eric N; Pal, Prithwish; Samoylova, Olga; Markosyan, Suren; Keehan, Michael G; Barrall, Geoffrey A; Noskov, Sergei Yu

    2016-06-01

    The electrophoretic transport of single-stranded DNA through biological nanopores such as alpha-hemolysin (αHL) is a promising and cost-effective technology with the potential to revolutionize genomics. The rational design of pores with the controlled polymer translocation rates and high contrast between different nucleotides could improve significantly nanopore sequencing applications. Here, we apply a combination of theoretical and experimental methods in an attempt to elucidate several selective modifications in the pore which were proposed to be central for the effective discrimination between purines and pyrimidines. Our nanopore test set includes the wild type αHL and six mutants (E111N/M113X/K147N) in which the cross-section and chemical functionality of the first constriction zone of the pore are modified. Electrophysiological recordings were combined with all-atom Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) and a recently developed Brownian Dynamics (BROMOC) protocol to investigate residual ion currents and pore-DNA interactions for two homo-polymers e.g. poly(dA)40 or poly(dC)40 blocking the pore. The calculated residual currents and contrast in the poly(dA)40/poly(dC)40 blocked pore are in qualitative agreement with the experimental recordings. We showed that a simple structural metric allows rationalization of key elements in the emergent contrast between purines and pyrimidines in the modified αHL mutants. The shape of the pore and its capacity for hydrogen bonding to a translocated polynucleotide are two essential parameters for contrast optimization. To further probe the impact of these two factors in the ssDNA sensing, we eliminated the effect of the primary constriction using serine substitutions (i.e. E111S/M113S/T145S/K147S) and increased the hydrophobic volume of the central residue in the secondary constriction (L135I). This pore modification sharply increased the contrast between Adenine (A) and Cytosine (C). PMID:27210516

  20. What controls open-pore and residual currents in the first sensing zone of alpha-hemolysin nanopore? Combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biase, Pablo M.; Ervin, Eric N.; Pal, Prithwish; Samoylova, Olga; Markosyan, Suren; Keehan, Michael G.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Noskov, Sergei Yu.

    2016-06-01

    The electrophoretic transport of single-stranded DNA through biological nanopores such as alpha-hemolysin (αHL) is a promising and cost-effective technology with the potential to revolutionize genomics. The rational design of pores with the controlled polymer translocation rates and high contrast between different nucleotides could improve significantly nanopore sequencing applications. Here, we apply a combination of theoretical and experimental methods in an attempt to elucidate several selective modifications in the pore which were proposed to be central for the effective discrimination between purines and pyrimidines. Our nanopore test set includes the wild type αHL and six mutants (E111N/M113X/K147N) in which the cross-section and chemical functionality of the first constriction zone of the pore are modified. Electrophysiological recordings were combined with all-atom Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) and a recently developed Brownian Dynamics (BROMOC) protocol to investigate residual ion currents and pore-DNA interactions for two homo-polymers e.g. poly(dA)40 or poly(dC)40 blocking the pore. The calculated residual currents and contrast in the poly(dA)40/poly(dC)40 blocked pore are in qualitative agreement with the experimental recordings. We showed that a simple structural metric allows rationalization of key elements in the emergent contrast between purines and pyrimidines in the modified αHL mutants. The shape of the pore and its capacity for hydrogen bonding to a translocated polynucleotide are two essential parameters for contrast optimization. To further probe the impact of these two factors in the ssDNA sensing, we eliminated the effect of the primary constriction using serine substitutions (i.e. E111S/M113S/T145S/K147S) and increased the hydrophobic volume of the central residue in the secondary constriction (L135I). This pore modification sharply increased the contrast between Adenine (A) and Cytosine (C).The electrophoretic transport of single

  1. What controls open-pore and residual currents in the first sensing zone of alpha-hemolysin nanopore? Combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Biase, Pablo M.; Ervin, Eric N.; Pal, Prithwish; Samoylova, Olga; Markosyan, Suren; Keehan, Michael G.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Noskov, Sergei Yu.

    2016-06-01

    The electrophoretic transport of single-stranded DNA through biological nanopores such as alpha-hemolysin (αHL) is a promising and cost-effective technology with the potential to revolutionize genomics. The rational design of pores with the controlled polymer translocation rates and high contrast between different nucleotides could improve significantly nanopore sequencing applications. Here, we apply a combination of theoretical and experimental methods in an attempt to elucidate several selective modifications in the pore which were proposed to be central for the effective discrimination between purines and pyrimidines. Our nanopore test set includes the wild type αHL and six mutants (E111N/M113X/K147N) in which the cross-section and chemical functionality of the first constriction zone of the pore are modified. Electrophysiological recordings were combined with all-atom Molecular Dynamics simulations (MD) and a recently developed Brownian Dynamics (BROMOC) protocol to investigate residual ion currents and pore-DNA interactions for two homo-polymers e.g. poly(dA)40 or poly(dC)40 blocking the pore. The calculated residual currents and contrast in the poly(dA)40/poly(dC)40 blocked pore are in qualitative agreement with the experimental recordings. We showed that a simple structural metric allows rationalization of key elements in the emergent contrast between purines and pyrimidines in the modified αHL mutants. The shape of the pore and its capacity for hydrogen bonding to a translocated polynucleotide are two essential parameters for contrast optimization. To further probe the impact of these two factors in the ssDNA sensing, we eliminated the effect of the primary constriction using serine substitutions (i.e. E111S/M113S/T145S/K147S) and increased the hydrophobic volume of the central residue in the secondary constriction (L135I). This pore modification sharply increased the contrast between Adenine (A) and Cytosine (C).The electrophoretic transport of single

  2. Surface proteins of Bordetella pertussis: comparison of virulent and avirulent strains and effects of phenotypic modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, S K; Parker, C D

    1986-01-01

    The surface proteins of several Bordetella strains and their modulated derivatives were examined by surface radioiodination, cell fractionation, and Western blotting. A surface protein with a high Mr, missing in a mutant lacking the filamentous hemagglutinin, was identified in virulent Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis cells and was absent in avirulent B. pertussis strains. The electrophoretic profiles of lipopolysaccharide and the 40,000-Mr anion-selective porin were not determinants which correlated with phase variation or phenotypic modulation. At least three envelope proteins (91,000, 32,000, and 30,000 molecular weight) were found only in virulent B. pertussis strains and were absent or diminished in the avirulent phase and most phenotypically modulated strains. Two transposon-induced mutants unable to produce hemolysin, dermonecrotic toxin, pertussis toxin, and filamentous hemagglutinin also lacked these three envelope proteins, confirming that virulence-associated envelope proteins were genetically regulated with other virulence-associated traits. Images PMID:2876957

  3. Interaction of DNA and Proteins with Single Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasianowicz, J. J.

    2006-03-01

    The bacterial toxins Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin and Bacillus anthracis protective antigen kill cells in part by forming ion channels in target membranes. We are using electrophysiology, molecular biology/protein biochemistry and computer modeling to study how biopolymers (e.g., single-stranded DNA and proteins) bind to and transport through these nanometer-scale pores. The results provide insight into the mechanism by which these toxins work and are the basis for several potential nanobiotechnology applications including ultra-rapid DNA sequencing, the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes and high throughput screening of therapeutic agents against several anthrax toxins. In collaboration with V.M. Stanford, M. Misakian, B. Nablo, S.E. Henrickson, NIST, EEEL, Gaithersburg, MD; T. Nguyen, R. Gussio, NCI, Ft. Detrick, MD; and K.M. Halverson, S. Bavari, R.G. Panchal, USAMRIID, Ft. Detrick, MD.

  4. Discrimination among protein variants using an unfoldase-coupled nanopore.

    PubMed

    Nivala, Jeff; Mulroney, Logan; Li, Gabriel; Schreiber, Jacob; Akeson, Mark

    2014-12-23

    Previously we showed that the protein unfoldase ClpX could facilitate translocation of individual proteins through the α-hemolysin nanopore. This results in ionic current fluctuations that correlate with unfolding and passage of intact protein strands through the pore lumen. It is plausible that this technology could be used to identify protein domains and structural modifications at the single-molecule level that arise from subtle changes in primary amino acid sequence (e.g., point mutations). As a test, we engineered proteins bearing well-characterized domains connected in series along an ∼700 amino acid strand. Point mutations in a titin immunoglobulin domain (titin I27) and point mutations, proteolytic cleavage, and rearrangement of beta-strands in green fluorescent protein (GFP), caused ionic current pattern changes for single strands predicted by bulk phase and force spectroscopy experiments. Among these variants, individual proteins could be classified at 86-99% accuracy using standard machine learning tools. We conclude that a ClpXP-nanopore device can discriminate among distinct protein domains, and that sequence-dependent variations within those domains are detectable. PMID:25402970

  5. Single-molecule investigation of G-quadruplex folds of the human telomere sequence in a protein nanocavity

    PubMed Central

    An, Na; Fleming, Aaron M.; Middleton, Eric G.; Burrows, Cynthia J.

    2014-01-01

    Human telomeric DNA consists of tandem repeats of the sequence 5′-TTAGGG-3′ that can fold into various G-quadruplexes, including the hybrid, basket, and propeller folds. In this report, we demonstrate use of the α-hemolysin ion channel to analyze these subtle topological changes at a nanometer scale by providing structure-dependent electrical signatures through DNA–protein interactions. Whereas the dimensions of hybrid and basket folds allowed them to enter the protein vestibule, the propeller fold exceeds the size of the latch region, producing only brief collisions. After attaching a 25-mer poly-2′-deoxyadenosine extension to these structures, unraveling kinetics also were evaluated. Both the locations where the unfolding processes occur and the molecular shapes of the G-quadruplexes play important roles in determining their unfolding profiles. These results provide insights into the application of α-hemolysin as a molecular sieve to differentiate nanostructures as well as the potential technical hurdles DNA secondary structures may present to nanopore technology. PMID:25225404

  6. Membrane protein biosensing with plasmonic nanopore arrays and pore-spanning lipid membranes

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hyungsoon; Wittenberg, Nathan J.; Lesuffleur, Antoine; Lindquist, Nathan C.; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Integration of solid-state biosensors and lipid bilayer membranes is important for membrane protein research and drug discovery. In these sensors, it is critical that the solid-state sensing material does not have adverse effects on the conformation or functionality of membrane-bound molecules. In this work, pore-spanning lipid membranes are formed over an array of periodic nanopores in free-standing gold films for surface plasmon resonance (SPR) kinetic binding assays. The ability to perform kinetic assays with a transmembrane protein is demonstrated with α-hemolysin (α-HL). The incorporation of α-HL into the membrane followed by specific antibody binding (anti-α-HL) red-shifts the plasmon resonance of the gold nanopore array, which is optically monitored in real time. Subsequent fluorescence imaging reveals that the antibodies primarily bind in nanopore regions, indicating that α-HL incorporation preferentially occurs into areas of pore-spanning lipid membranes. PMID:21218136

  7. Generation of a naïve human single chain variable fragment (scFv) library for the identification of monoclonal scFv against Salmonella Typhi Hemolysin E antigen.

    PubMed

    Lim, Bee Nar; Chin, Chai Fung; Choong, Yee Siew; Ismail, Asma; Lim, Theam Soon

    2016-07-01

    Antibody phage display is a useful tool for the isolation and identification of monoclonal antibodies. Naive antibody libraries are able to overcome the limitations associated with the traditional hybridoma method for monoclonal antibody generation. Antibody phage display is also a preferred method for antibody generation against toxins as it does not suffer from toxicity mediated complications. Here, we describe a naïve multi ethnic scFv antibody library generated via two-step cloning with an estimated diversity of 2 × 10(9). The antibody library was used to screen for monoclonal antibodies against Hemolysin E antigen, a pore forming toxin produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. A soluble monoclonal scFv antibody against the HlyE toxin (IgM scFv D7 anti-hlyE) was isolated from the library. This shows the value of the naïve library to generate antibodies against toxin targets in addition to the potential use of the library to isolate antibodies against other immunogenic targets. PMID:27090555

  8. Nanopore analysis of the effect of metal ions on the folding of peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeremy S

    2014-03-01

    In this minireview, the nanopore analysis of peptides and proteins in the presence of divalent metal ions will be surveyed. In all cases the binding of the metal ions causes the peptide or protein to adopt a more compact conformation which can no longer enter the α-hemolysin pore. In the absence of Zn(II) the 30-amino acid Zn-finger peptide can readily translocate the pore; but upon addition of Zn(II) the peptide folds and only bumping events are observed. Similarly, the octapeptide repeat from the N-terminus of the prion protein binds Cu(II), which prevents it from translocating. The full-length prion protein also undergoes conformational changes upon binding Cu(II), which results in an increase in the proportion of bumping events. Myelin basic protein of 170 residues is intrinsically disordered and, perhaps surprisingly, for a basic protein of this size, can translocate against the electric field based on the observation that the event time increases with increasing voltage. It, too, folds into a more compact conformation upon binding Cu(II) and Zn(II), which prevents translocation. Finally even proteins such as maltose binding protein which does not contain a formal binding site for metal ions undergoes conformational changes in the presence of the metal chelator, EDTA. Thus, contamination of proteins with trace metal ions should be considered when studying proteins and peptides by nanopore analysis. PMID:24370255

  9. Hydra actinoporin-like toxin-1, an unusual hemolysin from the nematocyst venom of Hydra magnipapillata which belongs to an extended gene family.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Eliezra; Rachamim, Tamar; Aharonovich, Dikla; Sher, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Cnidarians rely on their nematocysts and the venom injected through these unique weaponry systems to catch prey and protect themselves from predators. The development and physiology of the nematocysts of Hydra magnipapillata, a classic model organism, have been intensively studied, yet the composition and biochemical activity of their venom components are mostly unknown. Here, we show that hydra actinoporin-like toxins (HALTs), which have previously been associated with Hydra nematocysts, belong to a multigene family comprising six genes, which have diverged from a single common ancestor. All six genes are expressed in a population of Hydra magnipapillata. When expressed recombinantly, HALT-1 (Δ-HYTX-Hma1a), an actinoporin-like protein found in the stenoteles (the main penetrating nematocysts used in prey capture), reveals hemolytic activity, albeit about two-thirds lower than that of the anemone actinoporin equinatoxin II (EqTII, Δ-AITX-Aeq1a). HALT-1 also differs from EqTII in the size of its pores, and likely does not utilize sphingomyelin as a membrane receptor. We describe features of the HALT-1 sequence which may contribute to this difference in activity, and speculate on the role of this unusual family of pore-forming toxins in the ecology of Hydra. PMID:24768765

  10. Geometrical Membrane Curvature as an Allosteric Regulator of Membrane Protein Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Tonnesen, Asger; Christensen, Sune M.; Tkach, Vadym; Stamou, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins are embedded in cellular membranes of varied lipid composition and geometrical curvature. Here, we studied for the first time the allosteric effect of geometrical membrane curvature on transmembrane protein structure and function. We used single-channel optical analysis of the prototypic transmembrane β-barrel α-hemolysin (α-HL) reconstituted on immobilized single small unilamellar liposomes of different diameter and therefore curvature. Our data demonstrate that physiologically abundant geometrical membrane curvatures can enforce a dramatic allosteric regulation (1000-fold inhibition) of α-HL permeability. High membrane curvatures (1/diameter ∼1/40 nm−1) compressed the effective pore diameter of α-HL from 14.2 ± 0.8 Å to 11.4 ± 0.6 Å. This reduction in effective pore area (∼40%) when combined with the area compressibility of α-HL revealed an effective membrane tension of ∼50 mN/m and a curvature-imposed protein deformation energy of ∼7 kBT. Such substantial energies have been shown to conformationally activate, or unfold, β-barrel and α-helical transmembrane proteins, suggesting that membrane curvature could likely regulate allosterically the structure and function of transmembrane proteins in general. PMID:24411252

  11. Stochastic detection of Pim protein kinases reveals electrostatically enhanced association of a peptide substrate

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Leon; Cheley, Stephen; Alexander, Leila T.; Knapp, Stefan; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    In stochastic sensing, the association and dissociation of analyte molecules is observed as the modulation of an ionic current flowing through a single engineered protein pore, enabling the label-free determination of rate and equilibrium constants with respect to a specific binding site. We engineered sensors based on the staphylococcal α-hemolysin pore to allow the single-molecule detection and characterization of protein kinase–peptide interactions. We enhanced this approach by using site-specific proteolysis to generate pores bearing a single peptide sensor element attached by an N-terminal peptide bond to the trans mouth of the pore. Kinetics and affinities for the Pim protein kinases (Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase were measured and found to be independent of membrane potential and in good agreement with previously reported data. Kinase binding exhibited a distinct current noise behavior that forms a basis for analyte discrimination. Finally, we observed unusually high association rate constants for the interaction of Pim kinases with their consensus substrate Pimtide (∼107 to 108 M–1⋅s–1), the result of electrostatic enhancement, and propose a cellular role for this phenomenon. PMID:24194548

  12. Cell envelope of Bordetella pertussis: immunological and biochemical analyses and characterization of a major outer membrane porin protein

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Surface molecules of Bordetella pertussis which may be important in metabolism, pathogenesis, and immunity to whooping cough were examined using cell fractionation and /sup 125/I cell surface labeling. Antigenic envelope proteins were examined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting procedures using monoclonal antibodies and convalescent sera. A surface protein with a high M/sub r/, missing in a mutant lacking the filamentous hemagglutinin, was identified in virulent Bordetella pertussis but was absent in virulent B. pertussis strains. At least three envelope proteins were found only in virulent B. pertussis strains and were absent or diminished in avirulent and most phenotypically modulated strains. Transposon-induced mutants unable to produce hemolysin, dermonecrotic toxin, pertussis toxin, and filamentous hemagglutinin also lacked these three envelope proteins, confirming that virulence-associated envelope proteins were genetically regulated with other virulence-associated traits. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed at least five heat modifiable proteins which migrated as higher or lower M/sub r/ moieties if solubilized at 25/sup 0/C instead of 100/sup 0/C.

  13. Semisynthetic protein nanoreactor for single-molecule chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joongoo; Bayley, Hagan

    2015-01-01

    The covalent chemistry of individual reactants bound within a protein pore can be monitored by observing the ionic current flow through the pore, which acts as a nanoreactor responding to bond-making and bond-breaking events. In the present work, we incorporated an unnatural amino acid into the α-hemolysin (αHL) pore by using solid-phase peptide synthesis to make the central segment of the polypeptide chain, which forms the transmembrane β-barrel of the assembled heptamer. The full-length αHL monomer was obtained by native chemical ligation of the central synthetic peptide to flanking recombinant polypeptides. αHL pores with one semisynthetic subunit were then used as nanoreactors for single-molecule chemistry. By introducing an amino acid with a terminal alkyne group, we were able to visualize click chemistry at the single-molecule level, which revealed a long-lived (4.5-s) reaction intermediate. Additional side chains might be introduced in a similar fashion, thereby greatly expanding the range of single-molecule covalent chemistry that can be investigated by the nanoreactor approach. PMID:26504203

  14. Roles of Hcp family proteins in the pathogenesis of the porcine extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli type VI secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Ying; Wang, Xiangru; Shou, Jin; Zong, Bingbing; Zhang, Yanyan; Tan, Jia; Chen, Jing; Hu, Linlin; Zhu, Yongwei; Chen, Huanchun; Tan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Hcp (hemolysin-coregulated protein) is considered a vital component of the functional T6SS (Type VI Secretion System), which is a newly discovered secretion system. Our laboratory has previously sequenced the whole genome of porcine extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strain PCN033, and identified an integrated T6SS encoding three different hcp family genes. In this study, we first identified a functional T6SS in porcine ExPEC strain PCN033, and demonstrated that the Hcp family proteins were involved in bacterial competition and the interactions with other cells. Interestingly, the three Hcp proteins had different functions. Hcp2 functioned predominantly in bacterial competition; all three proteins were involved in the colonization of mice; and Hcp1 and Hcp3 were predominantly contributed to bacterial-eukaryotic cell interactions. We showed an active T6SS in porcine ExPEC strain PCN033, and the Hcp family proteins had different functions in their interaction with other bacteria or host cells. PMID:27229766

  15. Roles of Hcp family proteins in the pathogenesis of the porcine extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli type VI secretion system.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Wang, Xiangru; Shou, Jin; Zong, Bingbing; Zhang, Yanyan; Tan, Jia; Chen, Jing; Hu, Linlin; Zhu, Yongwei; Chen, Huanchun; Tan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Hcp (hemolysin-coregulated protein) is considered a vital component of the functional T6SS (Type VI Secretion System), which is a newly discovered secretion system. Our laboratory has previously sequenced the whole genome of porcine extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strain PCN033, and identified an integrated T6SS encoding three different hcp family genes. In this study, we first identified a functional T6SS in porcine ExPEC strain PCN033, and demonstrated that the Hcp family proteins were involved in bacterial competition and the interactions with other cells. Interestingly, the three Hcp proteins had different functions. Hcp2 functioned predominantly in bacterial competition; all three proteins were involved in the colonization of mice; and Hcp1 and Hcp3 were predominantly contributed to bacterial-eukaryotic cell interactions. We showed an active T6SS in porcine ExPEC strain PCN033, and the Hcp family proteins had different functions in their interaction with other bacteria or host cells. PMID:27229766

  16. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2014-07-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  17. Protein Condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunton, James D.; Shiryayev, Andrey; Pagan, Daniel L.

    2007-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Globular protein structure; 3. Experimental methods; 4. Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics; 5. Protein-protein interactions; 6. Theoretical studies of equilibrium; 7. Nucleation theory; 8. Experimental studies of nucleation; 9. Lysozyme; 10. Some other globular proteins; 11. Membrane proteins; 12. Crystallins and cataracts; 13. Sickle hemoglobin and sickle cell anemia; 14, Alzheimer's disease; Index.

  18. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your ... nutritional problems, kidney disease or liver disease . If total protein is abnormal, you will need to have more ...

  19. Investigation of Cu2+ binding to human and rat amyloid fragments Aβ (1-16) with a protein nanopore.

    PubMed

    Asandei, Alina; Schiopu, Irina; Iftemi, Sorana; Mereuta, Loredana; Luchian, Tudor

    2013-12-17

    Recent evidence shows that metal coordination by amyloid beta peptides (Aβ) determines structural alterations of peptides, and His-13 from Aβ is crucial for Cu(2+) binding. This study used the truncated, more soluble Aβ1-16 isoforms derived from human and rat amyloid peptides to explore their interaction with Cu(2+) by employing the membrane-immobilized α-hemolysin (α-HL) protein as a nanoscopic probe in conjunction with single-molecule electrophysiology techniques. Unexpectedly, the experimental data suggest that unlike the case of the human Aβ1-16 peptide, Cu(2+) complexation by its rat counterpart leads to an augmented association and dissociation kinetics of the peptide reversible interaction with the protein pore, as compared to the Cu(2+)-free peptide. Single-molecule electrophysiology data reveal that both human and rat Cu(2+)-complexed Aβ peptides induce a higher degree of current flow obstruction through the α-HL pore, as compared to the Cu(2+)-free peptides. It is suggested that morphology changes brought by Cu(2+) binding to such amyloidic fragments depend crucially upon the presence of the His-13 residue on the primary sequence of such peptide fragments, and the α-HL protein-based approach provides unique opportunities and challenges to probing metal-induced folding of peptides. PMID:24274576

  20. Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toru; Nambara, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kazutoshi; Goto, Derek B.; Naito, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Plants accumulate storage substances such as starch, lipids and proteins in certain phases of development. Storage proteins accumulate in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and serve as a reservoir to be used in later stages of plant development. The accumulation of storage protein is thus beneficial for the survival of plants. Storage proteins are also an important source of dietary plant proteins. Here, we summarize the genome organization and regulation of gene expression of storage protein genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:22303197

  1. Dietary Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... grains and beans. Proteins from meat and other animal products are complete proteins. This means they supply all of the amino acids the body can't make on its own. Most plant proteins are incomplete. You should eat different types of plant proteins every day to get ...

  2. Protein Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sam K. C.

    Proteins are an abundant component in all cells, and almost all except storage proteins are important for biological functions and cell structure. Food proteins are very complex. Many have been purified and characterized. Proteins vary in molecular mass, ranging from approximately 5000 to more than a million Daltons. They are composed of elements including hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Twenty α-amino acids are the building blocks of proteins; the amino acid residues in a protein are linked by peptide bonds. Nitrogen is the most distinguishing element present in proteins. However, nitrogen content in various food proteins ranges from 13.4 to 19.1% (1) due to the variation in the specific amino acid composition of proteins. Generally, proteins rich in basic amino acids contain more nitrogen.

  3. Slowing down single-molecule trafficking through a protein nanopore reveals intermediates for peptide translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereuta, Loredana; Roy, Mahua; Asandei, Alina; Lee, Jong Kook; Park, Yoonkyung; Andricioaei, Ioan; Luchian, Tudor

    2014-01-01

    The microscopic details of how peptides translocate one at a time through nanopores are crucial determinants for transport through membrane pores and important in developing nano-technologies. To date, the translocation process has been too fast relative to the resolution of the single molecule techniques that sought to detect its milestones. Using pH-tuned single-molecule electrophysiology and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate how peptide passage through the α-hemolysin protein can be sufficiently slowed down to observe intermediate single-peptide sub-states associated to distinct structural milestones along the pore, and how to control residence time, direction and the sequence of spatio-temporal state-to-state dynamics of a single peptide. Molecular dynamics simulations of peptide translocation reveal the time- dependent ordering of intermediate structures of the translocating peptide inside the pore at atomic resolution. Calculations of the expected current ratios of the different pore-blocking microstates and their time sequencing are in accord with the recorded current traces.

  4. Acidity-Mediated, Electrostatic Tuning of Asymmetrically Charged Peptides Interactions with Protein Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Asandei, Alina; Chinappi, Mauro; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Seo, Chang Ho; Mereuta, Loredana; Park, Yoonkyung; Luchian, Tudor

    2015-08-01

    Despite success in probing chemical reactions and dynamics of macromolecules on submillisecond time and nanometer length scales, a major impasse faced by nanopore technology is the need to cheaply and controllably modulate macromolecule capture and trafficking across the nanopore. We demonstrate herein that tunable charge separation engineered at the both ends of a macromolecule very efficiently modulates the dynamics of macromolecules capture and traffic through a nanometer-size pore. In the proof-of-principle approach, we employed a 36 amino acids long peptide containing at the N- and C-termini uniform patches of glutamic acids and arginines, flanking a central segment of asparagines, and we studied its capture by the α-hemolysin (α-HL) and the mean residence time inside the pore in the presence of a pH gradient across the protein. We propose a solution to effectively control the dynamics of peptide interaction with the nanopore, with both association and dissociation reaction rates of peptide-α-HL interactions spanning orders of magnitude depending upon solution acidity on the peptide addition side and the transmembrane electric potential, while preserving the amplitude of the blockade current signature. PMID:26144534

  5. Partitioning of a polymer into a nanoscopic protein pore obeys a simple scaling law

    PubMed Central

    Movileanu, Liviu; Bayley, Hagan

    2001-01-01

    The dependence of the rate on polymer mass was examined for the reaction of four sulfhydryl-directed poly(ethylene glycol) reagents with cysteine residues located in the lumen of the staphylococcal α-hemolysin pore. The logarithms of the apparent rate constants for a particular site in the lumen were proportional to N, the number of repeat units in a polymer chain. The proportionality constant was −(a/D)5/3, where a is the persistence length of the polymer (≈3.5Å) and D is the diameter of the pore. Despite some incongruencies with the assumptions of the derivation, the result suggests that the polymers partition into the lumen of the pore according to the simple scaling law of Daoud and de Gennes, cpore/csolution = exp(−N(a/D)5/3). Therefore, the measured reaction rates yield an estimate of the diameter of the pore and might be applied to determine the approximate dimensions of cavities within other similar proteins. PMID:11504913

  6. Direct, Specific and Rapid Detection of Staphylococcal Proteins and Exotoxins Using a Multiplex Antibody Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Stieber, Bettina; Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Büchler, Joseph; Ehricht, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Background S. aureus is a pathogen in humans and animals that harbors a wide variety of virulence factors and resistance genes. This bacterium can cause a wide range of mild to life-threatening diseases. In the latter case, fast diagnostic procedures are important. In routine diagnostic laboratories, several genotypic and phenotypic methods are available to identify S. aureus strains and determine their resistances. However, there is a demand for multiplex routine diagnostic tests to directly detect staphylococcal toxins and proteins. Methods In this study, an antibody microarray based assay was established and validated for the rapid detection of staphylococcal markers and exotoxins. The following targets were included: staphylococcal protein A, penicillin binding protein 2a, alpha- and beta-hemolysins, Panton Valentine leukocidin, toxic shock syndrome toxin, enterotoxins A and B as well as staphylokinase. All were detected simultaneously within a single experiment, starting from a clonal culture on standard media. The detection of bound proteins was performed using a new fluorescence reading device for microarrays. Results 110 reference strains and clinical isolates were analyzed using this assay, with a DNA microarray for genotypic characterization performed in parallel. The results showed a general high concordance of genotypic and phenotypic data. However, genotypic analysis found the hla gene present in all S. aureus isolates but its expression under given conditions depended on the clonal complex affiliation of the actual isolate. Conclusions The multiplex antibody assay described herein allowed a rapid and reliable detection of clinically relevant staphylococcal toxins as well as resistance- and species-specific markers. PMID:26624622

  7. Insertion and self-diffusion of a monotopic protein, the Aquifex aeolicus sulfide quinone reductase, in supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Harb, Frédéric; Prunetti, Laurence; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Guiral, Marianne; Tinland, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    Monotopic proteins constitute a class of membrane proteins that bind tightly to cell membranes, but do not span them. We present a FRAPP (Fluorescence Recovery After Patterned Photobleaching) study of the dynamics of a bacterial monotopic protein, SQR (sulfide quinone oxidoreductase) from the thermophilic bacteria Aquifex aeolicus, inserted into two different types of lipid bilayers (EggPC: L-α-phosphatidylcholine (Egg, Chicken) and DMPC: 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) supported on two different types of support (mica or glass). It sheds light on the behavior of a monotopic protein inside the bilayer. The insertion of SQR is more efficient when the bilayer is in the fluid phase than in the gel phase. We observed diffusion of the protein, with no immobile fraction, and deduced from the diffusion coefficient measurements that the resulting inserted object is the same whatever the incubation conditions, i.e. homogeneous in terms of oligomerization state. As expected, the diffusion coefficient of the SQR is smaller in the gel phase than in the fluid phase. In the supported lipid bilayer, the diffusion coefficient of the SQR is smaller than the diffusion coefficient of phospholipids in both gel and fluid phase. SQR shows a diffusion behavior different from the transmembrane protein α-hemolysin, and consistent with its monotopic character. Preliminary experiments in the presence of the substrate of SQR, DecylUbiquinone, an analogue of quinone, component of transmembrane electrons transport systems of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, have been carried out. Finally, we studied the behavior of SQR, in terms of insertion and diffusion, in bilayers formed with lipids from Aquifex aeolicus. All the conclusions that we have found in the biomimetic systems applied to the biological system. PMID:26490251

  8. Total protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  9. Whey Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows that taking whey protein in combination with strength training increases lean body mass, strength, and muscle size. ... grams/kg of whey protein in combination with strength training for 6-10 weeks. For HIV/AIDS-related ...

  10. Protein Microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard-Blum, S.

    Proteins are key actors in the life of the cell, involved in many physiological and pathological processes. Since variations in the expression of messenger RNA are not systematically correlated with variations in the protein levels, the latter better reflect the way a cell functions. Protein microarrays thus supply complementary information to DNA chips. They are used in particular to analyse protein expression profiles, to detect proteins within complex biological media, and to study protein-protein interactions, which give information about the functions of those proteins [3-9]. They have the same advantages as DNA microarrays for high-throughput analysis, miniaturisation, and the possibility of automation. Section 18.1 gives a brief overview of proteins. Following this, Sect. 18.2 describes how protein microarrays can be made on flat supports, explaining how proteins can be produced and immobilised on a solid support, and discussing the different kinds of substrate and detection method. Section 18.3 discusses the particular format of protein microarrays in suspension. The diversity of protein microarrays and their applications are then reported in Sect. 18.4, with applications to therapeutics (protein-drug interactions) and diagnostics. The prospects for future developments of protein microarrays are then outlined in the conclusion. The bibliography provides an extensive list of reviews and detailed references for those readers who wish to go further in this area. Indeed, the aim of the present chapter is not to give an exhaustive or detailed analysis of the state of the art, but rather to provide the reader with the basic elements needed to understand how proteins are designed and used.

  11. Protein Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  12. The artificial synapse chip: From proteins to prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, Mark Charles

    channel recordings from the staphylococcal protein pore alpha-hemolysin. The Artificial Synapse Chip is a platform for investigating a variety of biological systems. Using this device, we have studied membrane-bound proteins and developed a prototype interface for retinal prostheses. While this is only a proof of concept for a retinal prosthetic interface, it is a significant step towards mimicking neurotransmitter release during synaptic transmission.

  13. Protein folds and protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, R. Dustin; Daggett, Valerie

    2011-01-01

    The classification of protein folds is necessarily based on the structural elements that distinguish domains. Classification of protein domains consists of two problems: the partition of structures into domains and the classification of domains into sets of similar structures (or folds). Although similar topologies may arise by convergent evolution, the similarity of their respective folding pathways is unknown. The discovery and the characterization of the majority of protein folds will be followed by a similar enumeration of available protein folding pathways. Consequently, understanding the intricacies of structural domains is necessary to understanding their collective folding pathways. We review the current state of the art in the field of protein domain classification and discuss methods for the systematic and comprehensive study of protein folding across protein fold space via atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. Finally, we discuss our large-scale Dynameomics project, which includes simulations of representatives of all autonomous protein folds. PMID:21051320

  14. Protein Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frauenfelder, Hans

    2011-03-01

    Proteins combine properties of solids, liquids, and glasses. Schrödinger anticipated the main features of biomolecules long ago by stating that they had to be solid-like, but able to assume many different conformations. Indeed proteins can assume a gigantic number of conformational substates with the same primary sequence but different conformations. The different substates are described as craters in a very-high-dimensional energy landscape. The energy landscape is organized in a hierarchy of tiers, craters within craters within craters. Protein motions are pictured as transition between substates - jumps from crater to crater. Initially we assumed that these jumps were controlled by internal barriers between substates, but experiments have shown that nature selected a different approach. Proteins are surrounded by one to two layers of water and are embedded in a bulk solvent. Structural motions of the protein are controlled by the alpha fluctuations in the solvent surrounding the protein. Some internal motions most likely involving side chains are controlled electrostatically by beta fluctuations in the hydration shell. The dynamics of proteins is consequently dominated by the environment (H. Frauenfelder et al. PNAS 106, 5129 (2009). One can speculate that this organization permits exchange of information among biomolecules. The energy landscape is not just organized into two tiers, alpha and beta, but cryogenic experiments have revealed more tiers and protein more properties similar to that of glasses. While proteins function at ambient temperatures, cryogenic studies are necessary to understand the physics relevant for biology.

  15. Interfacial Protein-Protein Associations

    PubMed Central

    Langdon, Blake B.; Kastantin, Mark; Walder, Robert; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    While traditional models of protein adsorption focus primarily on direct protein-surface interactions, recent findings suggest that protein-protein interactions may play a central role. Using high-throughput intermolecular resonance energy transfer (RET) tracking, we directly observed dynamic, protein-protein associations of bovine serum albumin on poly(ethylene glycol) modified surfaces. The associations were heterogeneous and reversible, and associating molecules resided on the surface for longer times. The appearance of three distinct RET states suggested a spatially heterogeneous surface – with areas of high protein density (i.e. strongly-interacting clusters) coexisting with mobile monomers. Distinct association states exhibited characteristic behavior, i.e. partial-RET (monomer-monomer) associations were shorter-lived than complete-RET (protein-cluster) associations. While the fractional surface area covered by regions with high protein density (i.e. clusters) increased with increasing concentration, the distribution of contact times between monomers and clusters was independent of solution concentration, suggesting that associations were a local phenomenon, and independent of the global surface coverage. PMID:24274729

  16. Bioinspired Protein Channel-Based Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (Bio-SICM) for Simultaneous Conductance and Specific Molecular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Macazo, Florika C; White, Ryan J

    2016-03-01

    The utility of stochastic single-molecule detection using protein nanopores has found widespread application in bioanalytical sensing as a result of the inherent signal amplification of the resistive pulse method. Integration of protein nanopores with high-resolution scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) extends the utility of SICM by enabling selective chemical imaging of specific target molecules, while simultaneously providing topographical information about the net ion flux through a pore under a concentration gradient. In this study, we describe the development of a bioinspired scanning ion conductance microscopy (bio-SICM) approach that couples the imaging ability of SICM with the sensitivity and chemical selectivity of protein channels to perform simultaneous pore imaging and specific molecule mapping. To establish the framework of the bio-SICM platform, we utilize the well-studied protein channel α-hemolysin (αHL) to map the presence of β-cyclodextrin (βCD) at a substrate pore opening. We demonstrate concurrent pore and specific molecule imaging by raster scanning an αHL-based probe over a glass membrane containing a single 25-μm-diameter glass pore while recording the lateral positions of the probe and channel activity via ionic current. We use the average channel current to create a conductance image and the raw current-time traces to determine spatial localization of βCD. With further optimization, we believe that the bio-SICM platform will provide a powerful analytical methodology that is generalizable, and thus offers significant utility in a myriad of bioanalytical applications. PMID:26848947

  17. Improved Experimental Techniques for Analyzing Nucleic Acid Transport Through Protein Nanopores in Planar Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Justin A.

    The translocation of nucleic acid polymers across cell membranes is a fundamental requirement for complex life and has greatly contributed to genomic molecular evolution. The diversity of pathways that have evolved to transport DNA and RNA across membranes include protein receptors, active and passive transporters, endocytic and pinocytic processes, and various types of nucleic acid conducting channels known as nanopores. We have developed a series of experimental techniques, collectively known as "Wicking", that greatly improves the biophysical analysis of nucleic acid transport through protein nanopores in planar lipid bilayers. We have verified the Wicking method using numerous types of classical ion channels including the well-studied chloride selective channel, CLIC1. We used the Wicking technique to reconstitute α-hemolysin and found that DNA translocation events of types A and B could be routinely observed using this method. Furthermore, measurable differences were observed in the duration of blockade events as DNA length and composition was varied, consistent with previous reports. Finally, we tested the ability of the Wicking technology to reconstitute the dsRNA transporter Sid-1. Exposure to dsRNAs of increasing length and complexity showed measurable differences in the current transitions suggesting that the charge carrier was dsRNA. However, the translocation events occurred so infrequently that a meaningful electrophysiological analysis was not possible. Alterations in the lipid composition of the bilayer had a minor effect on the frequency of translocation events but not to such a degree as to permit rigorous statistical analysis. We conclude that in many instances the Wicking method is a significant improvement to the lipid bilayer technique, but is not an optimal method for analyzing transport through Sid-1. Further refinements to the Wicking method might have future applications in high throughput DNA sequencing, DNA computation, and

  18. Whey Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... intolerance, for replacing or supplementing milk-based infant formulas, and for reversing weight loss and increasing glutathione ( ... allergic reactions compared to infants who receive standard formula. However, taking why protein might not be helpful ...

  19. Designed protein-protein association.

    PubMed

    Grueninger, Dirk; Treiber, Nora; Ziegler, Mathias O P; Koetter, Jochen W A; Schulze, Monika-Sarah; Schulz, Georg E

    2008-01-11

    The analysis of natural contact interfaces between protein subunits and between proteins has disclosed some general rules governing their association. We have applied these rules to produce a number of novel assemblies, demonstrating that a given protein can be engineered to form contacts at various points of its surface. Symmetry plays an important role because it defines the multiplicity of a designed contact and therefore the number of required mutations. Some of the proteins needed only a single side-chain alteration in order to associate to a higher-order complex. The mobility of the buried side chains has to be taken into account. Four assemblies have been structurally elucidated. Comparisons between the designed contacts and the results will provide useful guidelines for the development of future architectures. PMID:18187656

  20. An effective extracellular protein secretion by an ABC transporter system in Escherichia coli: statistical modeling and optimization of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase secretory production.

    PubMed

    Low, Kheng Oon; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Rabu, Amir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Illias, Rosli Md

    2011-09-01

    Direct transport of recombinant protein from cytosol to extracellular medium offers great advantages, such as high specific activity and a simple purification step. This work presents an investigation on the potential of an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter system, the hemolysin transport system, for efficient protein secretion in Escherichia coli (E. coli). A higher secretory production of recombinant cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) was achieved by a new plasmid design and subsequently by optimization of culture conditions via central composite design. An improvement of at least fourfold extracellular recombinant CGTase was obtained using the new plasmid design. The optimization process consisted of 20 experiments involving six star points and six replicates at the central point. The predicted optimum culture conditions for maximum recombinant CGTase secretion were found to be 25.76 μM IPTG, 1.0% (w/v) arabinose and 34.7°C post-induction temperature, with a predicted extracellular CGTase activity of 68.76 U/ml. Validation of the model gave an extracellular CGTase activity of 69.15 ± 0.71 U/ml, resulting in a 3.45-fold increase compared to the initial conditions. This corresponded to an extracellular CGTase yield of about 0.58 mg/l. We showed that a synergistic balance of transported protein and secretory pathway is important for efficient protein transport. In addition, we also demonstrated the first successful removal of the C-terminal secretion signal from the transported fusion protein by thrombin proteolytic cleavage. PMID:21336875

  1. Protein Crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  2. POSSIBLE ROLES OF FUNGAL HEMOLYSINS IN SICK BUILDING SYNDROME

    EPA Science Inventory

    The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of SBS includes such symptoms in the occupants as headache, distraction, dizziness, fatigue, watery eyes, runny or blocked or bleeding nose, dry or sore throat and skin irritation. The WHO has set a criterion for a healthy building ...

  3. Bacteriophage protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Häuser, Roman; Blasche, Sonja; Dokland, Terje; Haggård-Ljungquist, Elisabeth; von Brunn, Albrecht; Salas, Margarita; Casjens, Sherwood; Molineux, Ian; Uetz, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriophages T7, λ, P22, and P2/P4 (from Escherichia coli), as well as ϕ29 (from Bacillus subtilis), are among the best-studied bacterial viruses. This chapter summarizes published protein interaction data of intraviral protein interactions, as well as known phage-host protein interactions of these phages retrieved from the literature. We also review the published results of comprehensive protein interaction analyses of Pneumococcus phages Dp-1 and Cp-1, as well as coliphages λ and T7. For example, the ≈55 proteins encoded by the T7 genome are connected by ≈43 interactions with another ≈15 between the phage and its host. The chapter compiles published interactions for the well-studied phages λ (33 intra-phage/22 phage-host), P22 (38/9), P2/P4 (14/3), and ϕ29 (20/2). We discuss whether different interaction patterns reflect different phage lifestyles or whether they may be artifacts of sampling. Phages that infect the same host can interact with different host target proteins, as exemplified by E. coli phage λ and T7. Despite decades of intensive investigation, only a fraction of these phage interactomes are known. Technical limitations and a lack of depth in many studies explain the gaps in our knowledge. Strategies to complete current interactome maps are described. Although limited space precludes detailed overviews of phage molecular biology, this compilation will allow future studies to put interaction data into the context of phage biology. PMID:22748812

  4. Recombinant protein production technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant protein production is an important technology for antibody production, biochemical activity study, and structural determination during the post-genomic era. Limiting factors in recombinant protein production include low-level protein expression, protein precipitation, and loss of protein...

  5. The auxiliary protein complex SaePQ activates the phosphatase activity of sensor kinase SaeS in the SaeRS two-component system of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Do-Won; Cho, Hoonsik; Jones, Marcus B.; Shatzkes, Kenneth; Sun, Fei; Ji, Quanjiang; Liu, Qian; Peterson, Scott N.; He, Chuan; Bae, Taeok

    2012-01-01

    Summary In bacterial two-component regulatory systems (TCSs), dephosphorylation of phosphorylated response regulators is essential for resetting the activated systems to the pre-activation state. However, in the SaeRS TCS, a major virulence TCS of Staphylococcus aureus, the mechanism for dephosphorylation of the response regulator SaeR has not been identified. Here we report that two auxiliary proteins from the sae operon, SaeP and SaeQ, form a protein complex with the sensor kinase SaeS and activate the sensor kinase’s phosphatase activity. Efficient activation of the phosphatase activity required the presence of both SaeP and SaeQ. When SaeP and SaeQ were ectopically expressed, the expression of coagulase, a sae target with low affinity for phosphorylated SaeR, was greatly reduced, while the expression of alpha-hemolysin, a sae target with high affinity for phosphorylated SaeR, was not, demonstrating a differential effect of SaePQ on sae target gene expression. When expression of SaePQ was abolished, most sae target genes were induced at an elevated level. Since the expression of SaeP and SaeQ is induced by the SaeRS TCS, these results suggest that the SaeRS TCS returns to the pre-activation state by a negative feedback mechanism. PMID:22882143

  6. Protein inference: A protein quantification perspective.

    PubMed

    He, Zengyou; Huang, Ting; Liu, Xiaoqing; Zhu, Peijun; Teng, Ben; Deng, Shengchun

    2016-08-01

    In mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics, protein quantification and protein identification are two major computational problems. To quantify the protein abundance, a list of proteins must be firstly inferred from the raw data. Then the relative or absolute protein abundance is estimated with quantification methods, such as spectral counting. Until now, most researchers have been dealing with these two processes separately. In fact, the protein inference problem can be regarded as a special protein quantification problem in the sense that truly present proteins are those proteins whose abundance values are not zero. Some recent published papers have conceptually discussed this possibility. However, there is still a lack of rigorous experimental studies to test this hypothesis. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of using protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem. Protein inference methods aim to determine whether each candidate protein is present in the sample or not. Protein quantification methods estimate the abundance value of each inferred protein. Naturally, the abundance value of an absent protein should be zero. Thus, we argue that the protein inference problem can be viewed as a special protein quantification problem in which one protein is considered to be present if its abundance is not zero. Based on this idea, our paper tries to use three simple protein quantification methods to solve the protein inference problem effectively. The experimental results on six data sets show that these three methods are competitive with previous protein inference algorithms. This demonstrates that it is plausible to model the protein inference problem as a special protein quantification task, which opens the door of devising more effective protein inference algorithms from a quantification perspective. The source codes of our methods are available at: http://code.google.com/p/protein-inference/. PMID:26935399

  7. FliZ is a global regulatory protein affecting the expression of flagellar and virulence genes in individual Xenorhabdus nematophila bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Jubelin, Grégory; Lanois, Anne; Severac, Dany; Rialle, Stéphanie; Longin, Cyrille; Gaudriault, Sophie; Givaudan, Alain

    2013-10-01

    Heterogeneity in the expression of various bacterial genes has been shown to result in the presence of individuals with different phenotypes within clonal bacterial populations. The genes specifying motility and flagellar functions are coordinately regulated and form a complex regulon, the flagellar regulon. Complex interplay has recently been demonstrated in the regulation of flagellar and virulence gene expression in many bacterial pathogens. We show here that FliZ, a DNA-binding protein, plays a key role in the insect pathogen, Xenorhabdus nematophila, affecting not only hemolysin production and virulence in insects, but efficient swimming motility. RNA-Seq analysis identified FliZ as a global regulatory protein controlling the expression of 278 Xenorhabdus genes either directly or indirectly. FliZ is required for the efficient expression of all flagellar genes, probably through its positive feedback loop, which controls expression of the flhDC operon, the master regulator of the flagellar circuit. FliZ also up- or downregulates the expression of numerous genes encoding non-flagellar proteins potentially involved in key steps of the Xenorhabdus lifecycle. Single-cell analysis revealed the bimodal expression of six identified markers of the FliZ regulon during exponential growth of the bacterial population. In addition, a combination of fluorescence-activated cell sorting and RT-qPCR quantification showed that this bimodality generated a mixed population of cells either expressing ("ON state") or not expressing ("OFF state") FliZ-dependent genes. Moreover, studies of a bacterial population exposed to a graded series of FliZ concentrations showed that FliZ functioned as a rheostat, controlling the rate of transition between the "OFF" and "ON" states in individuals. FliZ thus plays a key role in cell fate decisions, by transiently creating individuals with different potentials for motility and host interactions. PMID:24204316

  8. Interfacing protein lysine acetylation and protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Hue T.; Uhrig, R. Glen; Nimick, Mhairi; Moorhead, Greg B.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition that different protein covalent modifications can operate in concert to regulate a single protein has forced us to re-think the relationship between amino acid side chain modifications and protein function. Results presented by Tran et al. 2012 demonstrate the association of a protein phosphatase (PP2A) with a histone/lysine deacetylase (HDA14) on plant microtubules along with a histone/lysine acetyltransferase (ELP3). This finding reveals a regulatory interface between two prevalent covalent protein modifications, protein phosphorylation and acetylation, emphasizing the integrated complexity of post-translational protein regulation found in nature. PMID:22827947

  9. Structure-function studies of the adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis and the leukotoxin of Pasteurella haemolytica by heterologous C protein activation and construction of hybrid proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Westrop, G; Hormozi, K; da Costa, N; Parton, R; Coote, J

    1997-01-01

    The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) from Bordetella pertussis and the leukotoxin (LktA) from Pasteurella haemolytica are members of the RTX (stands for repeats in toxin) family of cytolytic toxins. They have pore-forming activity and share significant amino acid homology but show marked differences in biological activity. CyaA is an invasive adenylate cyclase and a weak hemolysin which is active on a wide range of mammalian cells. LktA is a cytolytic protein with a high target cell specificity and is able to lyse only leukocytes and platelets from ruminants. Each toxin is synthesized as an inactive protoxin encoded by the A gene, and the product of the accessory C gene is required for posttranslational activation. Heterologous activation of LktA by CyaC did not result in a change in its specificity for nucleated cells, although the toxin showed a greater hemolytic-to-cytotoxic ratio. LktC was unable to activate CyaA. A hybrid toxin (Hyb1), which contained the N-terminal enzymic domain and the pore-forming domain from CyaA (amino acids [aa] 1 to 687), with the remainder of the protein derived from the C-terminal end of LktA (aa 379 to 953), showed no toxic activity. Replacement of part of the LktA C-terminal domain of Hyb1 by the CyaA C-terminal domain (aa 919 to 1706) to create hybrid toxin 2 (Hyb2) partially restored toxic activity. In contrast to CyaA, Hyb2 was activated more efficiently by LktC than by CyaC, showing the importance of the region between aa 379 and 616 of LktA for activation by LktC. LktC-activated Hyb2 was more active against ruminant than murine nucleated cells, whereas CyaC-activated Hyb2 displayed a similar, but lower, activity against both cell types. These data indicate that LktC and the region with which it interacts have an influence on the target cell specificity of the mature toxin. PMID:9006045

  10. Length, protein protein interactions, and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Taison; Frenkel, Daan; Gupta, Vishal; Deem, Michael W.

    2005-05-01

    The evolutionary reason for the increase in gene length from archaea to prokaryotes to eukaryotes observed in large-scale genome sequencing efforts has been unclear. We propose here that the increasing complexity of protein-protein interactions has driven the selection of longer proteins, as they are more able to distinguish among a larger number of distinct interactions due to their greater average surface area. Annotated protein sequences available from the SWISS-PROT database were analyzed for 13 eukaryotes, eight bacteria, and two archaea species. The number of subcellular locations to which each protein is associated is used as a measure of the number of interactions to which a protein participates. Two databases of yeast protein-protein interactions were used as another measure of the number of interactions to which each S. cerevisiae protein participates. Protein length is shown to correlate with both number of subcellular locations to which a protein is associated and number of interactions as measured by yeast two-hybrid experiments. Protein length is also shown to correlate with the probability that the protein is encoded by an essential gene. Interestingly, average protein length and number of subcellular locations are not significantly different between all human proteins and protein targets of known, marketed drugs. Increased protein length appears to be a significant mechanism by which the increasing complexity of protein-protein interaction networks is accommodated within the natural evolution of species. Consideration of protein length may be a valuable tool in drug design, one that predicts different strategies for inhibiting interactions in aberrant and normal pathways.

  11. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  12. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  13. Orientia tsutsugamushi ankyrin repeat-containing protein family members are Type 1 secretion system substrates that traffic to the host cell endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    VieBrock, Lauren; Evans, Sean M.; Beyer, Andrea R.; Larson, Charles L.; Beare, Paul A.; Ge, Hong; Singh, Smita; Rodino, Kyle G.; Heinzen, Robert A.; Richards, Allen L.; Carlyon, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Scrub typhus is an understudied, potentially fatal infection that threatens one billion persons in the Asia-Pacific region. How the causative obligate intracellular bacterium, Orientia tsutsugamushi, facilitates its intracellular survival and pathogenesis is poorly understood. Many intracellular bacterial pathogens utilize the Type 1 (T1SS) or Type 4 secretion system (T4SS) to translocate ankyrin repeat-containing proteins (Anks) that traffic to distinct subcellular locations and modulate host cell processes. The O. tsutsugamushi genome encodes one of the largest known bacterial Ank repertoires plus T1SS and T4SS components. Whether these potential virulence factors are expressed during infection, how the Anks are potentially secreted, and to where they localize in the host cell are not known. We determined that O. tsutsugamushi transcriptionally expresses 20 unique ank genes as well as genes for both T1SS and T4SS during infection of mammalian host cells. Examination of the Anks' C-termini revealed that the majority of them resemble T1SS substrates. Escherichia coli expressing a functional T1SS was able to secrete chimeric hemolysin proteins bearing the C-termini of 19 of 20 O. tsutsugamushi Anks in an HlyBD-dependent manner. Thus, O. tsutsugamushi Anks C-termini are T1SS-compatible. Conversely, Coxiella burnetii could not secrete heterologously expressed Anks in a T4SS-dependent manner. Analysis of the subcellular distribution patterns of 20 ectopically expressed Anks revealed that, while 6 remained cytosolic or trafficked to the nucleus, 14 localized to, and in some cases, altered the morphology of the endoplasmic reticulum. This study identifies O. tsutsugamushi Anks as T1SS substrates and indicates that many display a tropism for the host cell secretory pathway. PMID:25692099

  14. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  15. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  16. Protein folding, protein homeostasis, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Van Drie, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Proteins fold into their functional 3-dimensional structures from a linear amino acid sequence. In vitro this process is spontaneous; while in vivo it is orchestrated by a specialized set of proteins, called chaperones. Protein folding is an ongoing cellular process, as cellular proteins constantly undergo synthesis and degradation. Here emerging links between this process and cancer are reviewed. This perspective both yields insights into the current struggle to develop novel cancer chemotherapeutics and has implications for future chemotherapy discovery. PMID:21272445

  17. Split-Protein Systems: Beyond Binary Protein-Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Sujan S.; Ghosh, Indraneel

    2011-01-01

    It has been estimated that 650,000 protein-protein interactions exist in the human interactome [1], a subset of all possible macromolecular partnerships that dictate life. Thus there is a continued need for the development of sensitive and user-friendly methods for cataloguing biomacromolecules in complex environments and for detecting their interactions, modifications, and cellular location. Such methods also allow for establishing differences in the interactome between a normal and diseased cellular state and for quantifying the outcome of therapeutic intervention. A promising approach for deconvoluting the role of macromolecular partnerships is split-protein reassembly, also called protein fragment complementation. This approach relies on the appropriate fragmentation of protein reporters, such as the green fluorescent protein or firefly luciferase, which when attached to possible interacting partners can reassemble and regain function, thereby confirming the partnership. Split-protein methods have been effectively utilized for detecting protein-protein interactions in cell-free systems, E. coli, yeast, mammalian cells, plants, and live animals. Herein, we present recent advances in engineering split-protein systems that allow for the rapid detection of ternary protein complexes, small molecule inhibitors, as well as a variety of macromolecules including nucleic acids, poly(ADP) ribose, and iron sulfur clusters. We also present advances that combine split-protein systems with chemical inducers of dimerization strategies that allow for regulating the activity of orthogonal split-proteases as well as aid in identifying enzyme inhibitors. Finally, we discuss autoinhibition strategies leading to turn-on sensors as well as future directions in split-protein methodology including possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:22070901

  18. Split-protein systems: beyond binary protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Sujan S; Ghosh, Indraneel

    2011-12-01

    It has been estimated that 650,000 protein-protein interactions exist in the human interactome (Stumpf et al., 2008), a subset of all possible macromolecular partnerships that dictate life. Thus there is a continued need for the development of sensitive and user-friendly methods for cataloguing biomacromolecules in complex environments and for detecting their interactions, modifications, and cellular location. Such methods also allow for establishing differences in the interactome between a normal and diseased cellular state and for quantifying the outcome of therapeutic intervention. A promising approach for deconvoluting the role of macromolecular partnerships is split-protein reassembly, also called protein fragment complementation. This approach relies on the appropriate fragmentation of protein reporters, such as the green fluorescent protein or firefly luciferase, which when attached to possible interacting partners can reassemble and regain function, thereby confirming the partnership. Split-protein methods have been effectively utilized for detecting protein-protein interactions in cell-free systems, Escherichia coli, yeast, mammalian cells, plants, and live animals. Herein, we present recent advances in engineering split-protein systems that allow for the rapid detection of ternary protein complexes, small molecule inhibitors, as well as a variety of macromolecules including nucleic acids, poly(ADP) ribose, and iron sulfur clusters. We also present advances that combine split-protein systems with chemical inducers of dimerization strategies that allow for regulating the activity of orthogonal split-proteases as well as aid in identifying enzyme inhibitors. Finally, we discuss autoinhibition strategies leading to turn-on sensors as well as future directions in split-protein methodology including possible therapeutic approaches. PMID:22070901

  19. Protein-losing enteropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  20. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    ... digestive tract to absorb proteins ( protein-losing enteropathy ) Malnutrition Kidney disorder called nephrotic syndrome Scarring of the ... may indicate: Abnormally low level of LDL cholesterol Malnutrition Increased gamma globulin proteins may indicate: Bone marrow ...

  1. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help ... Protein foods are broken down into parts called amino acids during digestion. The human body needs a number ...

  2. Drugging Membrane Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hang; Flynn, Aaron D

    2016-07-11

    The majority of therapeutics target membrane proteins, accessible on the surface of cells, to alter cellular signaling. Cells use membrane proteins to transduce signals into cells, transport ions and molecules, bind cells to a surface or substrate, and catalyze reactions. Newly devised technologies allow us to drug conventionally "undruggable" regions of membrane proteins, enabling modulation of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this review, we survey the state of the art of high-throughput screening and rational design in drug discovery, and we evaluate the advances in biological understanding and technological capacity that will drive pharmacotherapy forward against unorthodox membrane protein targets. PMID:26863923

  3. Domains mediate protein-protein interactions and nucleate protein assemblies.

    PubMed

    Costa, S; Cesareni, G

    2008-01-01

    Cell physiology is governed by an intricate mesh of physical and functional links among proteins, nucleic acids and other metabolites. The recent information flood coming from large-scale genomic and proteomic approaches allows us to foresee the possibility of compiling an exhaustive list of the molecules present within a cell, enriched with quantitative information on concentration and cellular localization. Moreover, several high-throughput experimental and computational techniques have been devised to map all the protein interactions occurring in a living cell. So far, such maps have been drawn as graphs where nodes represent proteins and edges represent interactions. However, this representation does not take into account the intrinsically modular nature of proteins and thus fails in providing an effective description of the determinants of binding. Since proteins are composed of domains that often confer on proteins their binding capabilities, a more informative description of the interaction network would detail, for each pair of interacting proteins in the network, which domains mediate the binding. Understanding how protein domains combine to mediate protein interactions would allow one to add important features to the protein interaction network, making it possible to discriminate between simultaneously occurring and mutually exclusive interactions. This objective can be achieved by experimentally characterizing domain recognition specificity or by analyzing the frequency of co-occurring domains in proteins that do interact. Such approaches allow gaining insights on the topology of complexes with unknown three-dimensional structure, thus opening the prospect of adopting a more rational strategy in developing drugs designed to selectively target specific protein interactions. PMID:18491061

  4. Nanotechnologies in protein microarrays.

    PubMed

    Krizkova, Sona; Heger, Zbynek; Zalewska, Marta; Moulick, Amitava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Protein microarray technology became an important research tool for study and detection of proteins, protein-protein interactions and a number of other applications. The utilization of nanoparticle-based materials and nanotechnology-based techniques for immobilization allows us not only to extend the surface for biomolecule immobilization resulting in enhanced substrate binding properties, decreased background signals and enhanced reporter systems for more sensitive assays. Generally in contemporarily developed microarray systems, multiple nanotechnology-based techniques are combined. In this review, applications of nanoparticles and nanotechnologies in creating protein microarrays, proteins immobilization and detection are summarized. We anticipate that advanced nanotechnologies can be exploited to expand promising fields of proteins identification, monitoring of protein-protein or drug-protein interactions, or proteins structures. PMID:26039143

  5. PREFACE: Protein protein interactions: principles and predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung

    2005-06-01

    Proteins are the `workhorses' of the cell. Their roles span functions as diverse as being molecular machines and signalling. They carry out catalytic reactions, transport, form viral capsids, traverse membranes and form regulated channels, transmit information from DNA to RNA, making possible the synthesis of new proteins, and they are responsible for the degradation of unnecessary proteins and nucleic acids. They are the vehicles of the immune response and are responsible for viral entry into the cell. Given their importance, considerable effort has been centered on the prediction of protein function. A prime way to do this is through identification of binding partners. If the function of at least one of the components with which the protein interacts is known, that should let us assign its function(s) and the pathway(s) in which it plays a role. This holds since the vast majority of their chores in the living cell involve protein-protein interactions. Hence, through the intricate network of these interactions we can map cellular pathways, their interconnectivities and their dynamic regulation. Their identification is at the heart of functional genomics; their prediction is crucial for drug discovery. Knowledge of the pathway, its topology, length, and dynamics may provide useful information for forecasting side effects. The goal of predicting protein-protein interactions is daunting. Some associations are obligatory, others are continuously forming and dissociating. In principle, from the physical standpoint, any two proteins can interact, but under what conditions and at which strength? The principles of protein-protein interactions are general: the non-covalent interactions of two proteins are largely the outcome of the hydrophobic effect, which drives the interactions. In addition, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions play important roles. Thus, many of the interactions observed in vitro are the outcome of experimental overexpression. Protein disorder

  6. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  7. Whey protein fractionation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated whey protein products from cheese whey, such as whey protein concentrate (WPC) and whey protein isolate (WPI), contain more than seven different types of proteins: alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-LA), beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), immunoglobulins (Igs), lactoferrin ...

  8. Sorghum and millet proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum and millet proteins are an important source of dietary protein for significant numbers of people living throughout Africa and parts of Asia. Compared to other food proteins, such as those found in milk, eggs and wheat, little is known about the functionality of sorghum and millet proteins. ...

  9. Protein in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein. The basic structure of protein is a chain of amino acids. You need protein in your diet to help your body repair cells and make new ones. Protein is also important for growth and development in children, teens, and pregnant women.

  10. Techniques in protein methylation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaeho; Cheng, Donghang; Bedford, Mark T

    2004-01-01

    Proteins can be methylated on the side-chain nitrogens of arginine and lysine residues or on carboxy-termini. Protein methylation is a way of subtly changing the primary sequence of a peptide so that it can encode more information. This common posttranslational modification is implicated in the regulation of a variety of processes including protein trafficking, transcription and protein-protein interactions. In this chapter, we will use the arginine methyltransferases to illustrate different approaches that have been developed to assess protein methylation. Both in vivo and in vitro methylation techniques are described, and the use of small molecule inhibitors of protein methylation will be demonstrated. PMID:15173617

  11. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  12. Biochemical Approaches for Discovering Protein-Protein Interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein-protein interactions or protein complexes are indigenous to nearly all cellular processes, ranging from metabolism to structure. Elucidating both individual protein associations and complex protein interaction networks, while challenging, is an essential goal of functional genomics. For ex...

  13. [Protein expression and purification].

    PubMed

    Růčková, E; Müller, P; Vojtěšek, B

    2014-01-01

    Production of recombinant proteins is essential for many applications in both basic research and also in medicine, where recombinant proteins are used as pharmaceuticals. This review summarizes procedures involved in recombinant protein expression and purification, including molecular cloning of target genes into expression vectors, selection of the appropriate expression system, and protein purification techniques. Recombinant DNA technology allows protein engineering to modify protein stability, activity and function or to facilitate protein purification by affinity tag fusions. A wide range of cloning systems enabling fast and effective design of expression vectors is currently available. A first choice of protein expression system is usually the bacteria Escherichia coli. The main advantages of this prokaryotic expression system are low cost and simplicity; on the other hand this system is often unsuitable for production of complex mammalian proteins. Protein expression mediated by eukaryotic cells (yeast, insect and mammalian cells) usually produces properly folded and posttranslationally modified proteins. How-ever, cultivation of insect and, especially, mammalian cells is time consuming and expensive. Affinity tagged recombinant proteins are purified efficiently using affinity chromatography. An affinity tag is a protein or peptide that mediates specific binding to a chromatography column, unbound proteins are removed during a washing step and pure protein is subsequently eluted. PMID:24945544

  14. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    DOEpatents

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  15. Identification of a Novel Calcium Binding Motif Based on the Detection of Sequence Insertions in the Animal Peroxidase Domain of Bacterial Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Santamaría-Hernando, Saray

    2012-01-01

    Proteins of the animal heme peroxidase (ANP) superfamily differ greatly in size since they have either one or two catalytic domains that match profile PS50292. The orf PP_2561 of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 that we have called PepA encodes a two-domain ANP. The alignment of these domains with those of PepA homologues revealed a variable number of insertions with the consensus G-x-D-G-x-x-[GN]-[TN]-x-D-D. This motif has also been detected in the structure of pseudopilin (pdb 3G20), where it was found to be involved in Ca2+ coordination although a sequence analysis did not reveal the presence of any known calcium binding motifs in this protein. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that a peptide containing this consensus motif bound specifically calcium ions with affinities ranging between 33–79 µM depending on the pH. Microcalorimetric titrations of the purified N-terminal ANP-like domain of PepA revealed Ca2+ binding with a KD of 12 µM and stoichiometry of 1.25 calcium ions per protein monomer. This domain exhibited peroxidase activity after its reconstitution with heme. These data led to the definition of a novel calcium binding motif that we have termed PERCAL and which was abundantly present in animal peroxidase-like domains of bacterial proteins. Bacterial heme peroxidases thus possess two different types of calcium binding motifs, namely PERCAL and the related hemolysin type calcium binding motif, with the latter being located outside the catalytic domains and in their C-terminal end. A phylogenetic tree of ANP-like catalytic domains of bacterial proteins with PERCAL motifs, including single domain peroxidases, was divided into two major clusters, representing domains with and without PERCAL motif containing insertions. We have verified that the recently reported classification of bacterial heme peroxidases in two families (cd09819 and cd09821) is unrelated to these insertions. Sequences matching PERCAL were detected in all kingdoms of life. PMID

  16. Identification of a novel calcium binding motif based on the detection of sequence insertions in the animal peroxidase domain of bacterial proteins.

    PubMed

    Santamaría-Hernando, Saray; Krell, Tino; Ramos-González, María-Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Proteins of the animal heme peroxidase (ANP) superfamily differ greatly in size since they have either one or two catalytic domains that match profile PS50292. The orf PP_2561 of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 that we have called PepA encodes a two-domain ANP. The alignment of these domains with those of PepA homologues revealed a variable number of insertions with the consensus G-x-D-G-x-x-[GN]-[TN]-x-D-D. This motif has also been detected in the structure of pseudopilin (pdb 3G20), where it was found to be involved in Ca(2+) coordination although a sequence analysis did not reveal the presence of any known calcium binding motifs in this protein. Isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that a peptide containing this consensus motif bound specifically calcium ions with affinities ranging between 33-79 µM depending on the pH. Microcalorimetric titrations of the purified N-terminal ANP-like domain of PepA revealed Ca(2+) binding with a K(D) of 12 µM and stoichiometry of 1.25 calcium ions per protein monomer. This domain exhibited peroxidase activity after its reconstitution with heme. These data led to the definition of a novel calcium binding motif that we have termed PERCAL and which was abundantly present in animal peroxidase-like domains of bacterial proteins. Bacterial heme peroxidases thus possess two different types of calcium binding motifs, namely PERCAL and the related hemolysin type calcium binding motif, with the latter being located outside the catalytic domains and in their C-terminal end. A phylogenetic tree of ANP-like catalytic domains of bacterial proteins with PERCAL motifs, including single domain peroxidases, was divided into two major clusters, representing domains with and without PERCAL motif containing insertions. We have verified that the recently reported classification of bacterial heme peroxidases in two families (cd09819 and cd09821) is unrelated to these insertions. Sequences matching PERCAL were detected in all kingdoms of life. PMID

  17. Designing Fluorinated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Marsh, E N G

    2016-01-01

    As methods to incorporate noncanonical amino acid residues into proteins have become more powerful, interest in their use to modify the physical and biological properties of proteins and enzymes has increased. This chapter discusses the use of highly fluorinated analogs of hydrophobic amino acids, for example, hexafluoroleucine, in protein design. In particular, fluorinated residues have proven to be generally effective in increasing the thermodynamic stability of proteins. The chapter provides an overview of the different fluorinated amino acids that have been used in protein design and the various methods available for producing fluorinated proteins. It discusses model proteins systems into which highly fluorinated amino acids have been introduced and the reasons why fluorinated residues are generally stabilizing, with particular reference to thermodynamic and structural studies from our laboratory. Lastly, details of the methodology we have developed to measure the thermodynamic stability of oligomeric fluorinated proteins are presented, as this may be generally applicable to many proteins. PMID:27586337

  18. Surface Mediated Protein Disaggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-03-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is of both biological and industrial importance. Biologically these aggregates are known to cause amyloid type diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Protein aggregation leads to reduced activity of the enzymes in industrial applications. Inter-protein interactions between the hydrophobic residues of the protein are known to be the major driving force for protein aggregation. In the current paper we show how surface chemistry and curvature can be tuned to mitigate these inter-protein interactions. Our results calculated in the framework of the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) lattice model show that, inter-protein interactions can be drastically reduced by increasing the surface hydrophobicity to a critical value corresponding to the adsorption transition of the protein. At this value of surface hydrophobicity, proteins lose inter-protein contacts to gain surface contacts and thus the surface helps in reducing the inter-protein interactions. Further, we show that the adsorption of the proteins inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are most efficient both in reducing inter-protein contacts and simultaneously retaining most of the native-contacts due to strong protein-surface interactions coupled with stabilization due to the confinement. Department of Energy (Grant No DE-FG02-11ER46811).

  19. PINT: Protein-protein Interactions Thermodynamic Database.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M D Shaji; Gromiha, M Michael

    2006-01-01

    The first release of Protein-protein Interactions Thermodynamic Database (PINT) contains >1500 data of several thermodynamic parameters along with sequence and structural information, experimental conditions and literature information. Each entry contains numerical data for the free energy change, dissociation constant, association constant, enthalpy change, heat capacity change and so on of the interacting proteins upon binding, which are important for understanding the mechanism of protein-protein interactions. PINT also includes the name and source of the proteins involved in binding, their Protein Information Resource, SWISS-PROT and Protein Data Bank (PDB) codes, secondary structure and solvent accessibility of residues at mutant positions, measuring methods, experimental conditions, such as buffers, ions and additives, and literature information. A WWW interface facilitates users to search data based on various conditions, feasibility to select the terms for output and different sorting options. Further, PINT is cross-linked with other related databases, PIR, SWISS-PROT, PDB and NCBI PUBMED literature database. The database is freely available at http://www.bioinfodatabase.com/pint/index.html. PMID:16381844

  20. DNA mimicry by proteins.

    PubMed

    Dryden, D T F; Tock, M R

    2006-04-01

    It has been discovered recently, via structural and biophysical analyses, that proteins can mimic DNA structures in order to inhibit proteins that would normally bind to DNA. Mimicry of the phosphate backbone of DNA, the hydrogen-bonding properties of the nucleotide bases and the bending and twisting of the DNA double helix are all present in the mimics discovered to date. These mimics target a range of proteins and enzymes such as DNA restriction enzymes, DNA repair enzymes, DNA gyrase and nucleosomal and nucleoid-associated proteins. The unusual properties of these protein DNA mimics may provide a foundation for the design of targeted inhibitors of DNA-binding proteins. PMID:16545103

  1. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2013-09-01

    Motor proteins are enzymatic molecules that transform chemical energy into mechanical motion and work. They are critically important for supporting various cellular activities and functions. In the last 15 years significant progress in understanding the functioning of motor proteins has been achieved due to revolutionary breakthroughs in single-molecule experimental techniques and strong advances in theoretical modelling. However, microscopic mechanisms of protein motility are still not well explained, and the collective efforts of many scientists are needed in order to solve these complex problems. In this special section the reader will find the latest advances on the difficult road to mapping motor proteins dynamics in various systems. Recent experimental developments have allowed researchers to monitor and to influence the activity of single motor proteins with a high spatial and temporal resolution. It has stimulated significant theoretical efforts to understand the non-equilibrium nature of protein motility phenomena. The latest results from all these advances are presented and discussed in this special section. We would like to thank the scientists from all over the world who have reported their latest research results for this special section. We are also grateful to the staff and editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for their invaluable help in handling all the administrative and refereeing activities. The field of motor proteins and protein motility is fast moving, and we hope that this collection of articles will be a useful source of information in this highly interdisciplinary area. Physics of protein motility and motor proteins contents Physics of protein motility and motor proteinsAnatoly B Kolomeisky Identification of unique interactions between the flexible linker and the RecA-like domains of DEAD-box helicase Mss116 Yuan Zhang, Mirkó Palla, Andrew Sun and Jung-Chi Liao The load dependence of the physical properties of a molecular motor

  2. Protein C blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in the body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... history of blood clots. Protein C helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  3. Protein S blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal substance in your body that prevents blood clotting. A blood test can be done to see ... family history of blood clots. Protein S helps control blood clotting. A lack of this protein or problem with ...

  4. Protein electrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePlus

    ... nephropathy Kidney failure Multiple myeloma Nephrotic syndrome Acute urinary tract infection Risks There are no risks associated with this ... Primary amyloidosis Protein in diet Protein urine test Urinary tract infection - adults Update Date 5/29/2014 Updated by: ...

  5. [Protein-losing enteropathy].

    PubMed

    Amiot, A

    2015-07-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy is a rare syndrome of gastrointestinal protein loss. The primary causes can be classified into lymphatic leakage due to increased interstitial pressure and increased leakage of protein-rich fluids due to erosive or non-erosive gastrointestinal disorders. The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy should be considered in patients with chronic diarrhea and peripheral oedema. The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy is most commonly based on the determination of fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin clearance. Most protein-losing enteropathy cases are the result of either lymphatic obstruction or a variety of gastrointestinal disorders and cardiac diseases, while primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease) is less common. Treatment of protein-losing enteropathy targets the underlying disease but also includes dietary modification, such as high-protein and low-fat diet along with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation. PMID:25618488

  6. Learning about Proteins

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, and protecting you from disease. All About Amino Acids When you eat foods that contain protein, the ... called amino (say: uh-MEE-no) acids. The amino acids then can be reused to make the proteins ...

  7. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.

  8. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-26

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins. PMID:21406855

  9. Understanding protein folding: small proteins in silico.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Olav; Hansmann, Ulrich H E

    2008-01-01

    Recent improvements in methodology and increased computer power now allow atomistic computer simulations of protein folding. We briefly review several advanced Monte Carlo algorithms that have contributed to this development. Details of folding simulations of three designed mini proteins are shown. Adding global translations and rotations has allowed us to handle multiple chains and to simulate the aggregation of six beta-amyloid fragments. In a different line of research we have developed several algorithms to predict local features from sequence. In an outlook we sketch how such biasing could extend the application spectrum of Monte Carlo simulations to structure prediction of larger proteins. PMID:18036571

  10. Imaging Protein-protein Interactions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Seegar, Tom; Barton, William

    2010-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are a hallmark of all essential cellular processes. However, many of these interactions are transient, or energetically weak, preventing their identification and analysis through traditional biochemical methods such as co-immunoprecipitation. In this regard, the genetically encodable fluorescent proteins (GFP, RFP, etc.) and their associated overlapping fluorescence spectrum have revolutionized our ability to monitor weak interactions in vivo using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)1-3. Here, we detail our use of a FRET-based proximity assay for monitoring receptor-receptor interactions on the endothelial cell surface. PMID:20972411

  11. Texturized dairy proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey prote...

  12. Palmitoylation of Hedgehog proteins.

    PubMed

    Buglino, John A; Resh, Marilyn D

    2012-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are secreted signaling proteins that contain amide-linked palmitate at the N-terminus and cholesterol at the C-terminus. Palmitoylation of Hh proteins is critical for effective long- and short-range signaling. The palmitoylation reaction occurs during transit of Hh through the secretory pathway, most likely in the lumen of the ER. Attachment of palmitate to Hh proteins is independent of cholesterol modification and autoprocessing and is catalyzed by Hhat (Hedgehog acyltransferase). Hhat is a member of the membrane bound O-acyltransferase (MBOAT) family, a subgroup of multipass membrane proteins that catalyze transfer of fatty acyl groups to lipids and proteins. Several classes of secreted proteins have recently been shown to be substrates for MBOAT acyltransferases, including Hh proteins and Spitz (palmitoylated by Hhat), Wg/Wnt proteins (modified with palmitate and/or palmitoleate by Porcupine) and ghrelin (octanoylated by ghrelin O-acyltransferase). These findings highlight protein fatty acylation as a mechanism that not only influences membrane binding of intracellular proteins but also regulates the signaling range and efficacy of secreted proteins. PMID:22391306

  13. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    MedlinePlus

    Normal value ranges are: Total protein: 6.4 to 8.3 g/dL (grams per deciliter) Albumin: 3.5 to 5.0 g/dL Alpha-1 ... Decreased total protein may indicate: Abnormal loss of protein from the digestive tract or the inability of the digestive tract ...

  14. CSF total protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 mg/dL. Note: mg/dL = ...

  15. CSF myelin basic protein

    MedlinePlus

    CSF myelin basic protein is a test to measure the level of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The CSF ... less than 4 ng/mL of myelin basic protein in the CSF. Normal value ranges may vary ...

  16. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  17. Destabilized bioluminescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Michael S.; Rakesh, Gupta; Gary, Sayler S.

    2007-07-31

    Purified nucleic acids, vectors and cells containing a gene cassette encoding at least one modified bioluminescent protein, wherein the modification includes the addition of a peptide sequence. The duration of bioluminescence emitted by the modified bioluminescent protein is shorter than the duration of bioluminescence emitted by an unmodified form of the bioluminescent protein.

  18. Modeling Protein Self Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton Buck; Hull, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the structure and function of proteins is an important part of the standards-based science curriculum. Proteins serve vital roles within the cell and malfunctions in protein self assembly are implicated in degenerative diseases. Experience indicates that this topic is a difficult one for many students. We have found that the concept…

  19. Protein - Which is Best?

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  20. A chemical-induced pH-mediated molecular switch

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardhana, Dilani A.; Sengupta, Mrinal K.; Krishantha, D.M. Milan; Gupta, Jyoti; Armstrong, Daniel W.; Guan, Xiyun

    2011-01-01

    The transmembrane protein α-hemolysin pore has been used to develop ultrasensitive biosensors, study biomolecular folding and unfolding, investigate covalent and non-covalent bonding interactions, and probe enzyme kinetics. Here, we report that by addition of ionic liquid tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium chloride solution to the α-hemolysin pore, the α-hemolysin channel can be controlled open or closed by adjusting the pH of the solution. This approach can be employed to develop a novel molecular switch to regulate molecular transport, and should find potential applications as a ‘smart’ drug delivery method. PMID:21919492

  1. Protein crystallization with paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Miki; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Adachi, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Sano, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi

    2016-05-01

    We developed a new protein crystallization method that incorporates paper. A small piece of paper, such as facial tissue or KimWipes, was added to a drop of protein solution in the traditional sitting drop vapor diffusion technique, and protein crystals grew by incorporating paper. By this method, we achieved the growth of protein crystals with reducing osmotic shock. Because the technique is very simple and the materials are easy to obtain, this method will come into wide use for protein crystallization. In the future, it could be applied to nanoliter-scale crystallization screening on a paper sheet such as in inkjet printing.

  2. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  3. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2012-05-01

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  4. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2011-11-29

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  5. Selective Precipitation of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Matulis, Daumantas

    2016-01-01

    Selective precipitation of proteins can be used as a bulk method to recover the majority of proteins from a crude lysate, as a selective method to fractionate a subset of proteins from a protein solution, or as a very specific method to recover a single protein of interest from a purification step. This unit describes a number of methods suitable for selective precipitation. In each of the protocols that are outlined, the physical or chemical basis of the precipitation process, the parameters that can be varied for optimization, and the basic steps for developing an optimized precipitation are described. PMID:26836410

  6. Forces Stabilizing Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pace, C. Nick; Scholtz, J. Martin; Grimsley, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this article is to summarize what has been learned about the major forces stabilizing proteins since the late 1980s when site-directed mutagenesis became possible. The following conclusions are derived from experimental studies of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding variants. 1. Based on studies of 138 hydrophobic interaction variants in 11 proteins, burying a –CH2– group on folding contributes 1.1 ± 0.5 kcal/mol to protein stability. 2. The burial of nonpolar side chains contributes to protein stability in two ways: first, a term that depends on the removal of the side chains from water and, more importantly, the enhanced London dispersion forces that result from the tight packing in the protein interior. 3. Based on studies of 151 hydrogen bonding variants in 15 proteins, forming a hydrogen bond on folding contributes 1.1 ± 0.8 kcal/mol to protein stability. 4. The contribution of hydrogen bonds to protein stability is strongly context dependent. 5. Hydrogen bonds by side chains and peptide groups make similar contributions to protein stability. 6. Polar group burial can make a favorable contribution to protein stability even if the polar group is not hydrogen bonded. 7. Hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds both make large contributions to protein stability. PMID:24846139

  7. Mechanism of protein decarbonylation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chi-Ming; Marcocci, Lucia; Das, Dividutta; Wang, Xinhong; Luo, Haibei; Zungu-Edmondson, Makhosazane; Suzuki, Yuichiro J

    2013-12-01

    Ligand/receptor stimulation of cells promotes protein carbonylation that is followed by the decarbonylation process, which might involve thiol-dependent reduction (C.M. Wong et al., Circ. Res. 102:301-318; 2008). This study further investigated the properties of this protein decarbonylation mechanism. We found that the thiol-mediated reduction of protein carbonyls is dependent on heat-labile biologic components. Cysteine and glutathione were efficient substrates for decarbonylation. Thiols decreased the protein carbonyl content, as detected by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, but not the levels of malondialdehyde or 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts. Mass spectrometry identified proteins that undergo thiol-dependent decarbonylation, which include peroxiredoxins. Peroxiredoxin-2 and -6 were carbonylated and subsequently decarbonylated in response to the ligand/receptor stimulation of cells. siRNA knockdown of glutaredoxin inhibited the decarbonylation of peroxiredoxin. These results strengthen the concept that thiol-dependent decarbonylation defines the kinetics of protein carbonylation signaling. PMID:24044890

  8. Protein solubility modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agena, S. M.; Pusey, M. L.; Bogle, I. D.

    1999-01-01

    A thermodynamic framework (UNIQUAC model with temperature dependent parameters) is applied to model the salt-induced protein crystallization equilibrium, i.e., protein solubility. The framework introduces a term for the solubility product describing protein transfer between the liquid and solid phase and a term for the solution behavior describing deviation from ideal solution. Protein solubility is modeled as a function of salt concentration and temperature for a four-component system consisting of a protein, pseudo solvent (water and buffer), cation, and anion (salt). Two different systems, lysozyme with sodium chloride and concanavalin A with ammonium sulfate, are investigated. Comparison of the modeled and experimental protein solubility data results in an average root mean square deviation of 5.8%, demonstrating that the model closely follows the experimental behavior. Model calculations and model parameters are reviewed to examine the model and protein crystallization process. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Pigment-protein complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Siegelman, H W

    1980-01-01

    The photosynthetically-active pigment protein complexes of procaryotes and eucaryotes include chlorophyll proteins, carotenochlorophyll proteins, and biliproteins. They are either integral components or attached to photosynthetic membranes. Detergents are frequently required to solubilize the pigment-protein complexes. The membrane localization and detergent solubilization strongly suggest that the pigment-protein complexes are bound to the membranes by hydrophobic interactions. Hydrophobic interactions of proteins are characterized by an increase in entropy. Their bonding energy is directly related to temperature and ionic strength. Hydrophobic-interaction chromatography, a relatively new separation procedure, can furnish an important method for the purification of pigment-protein complexes. Phycobilisome purification and properties provide an example of the need to maintain hydrophobic interactions to preserve structure and function.

  10. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.