Sample records for hemorrhage sah due

  1. Neuropsychological assessments in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, perimesencephalic SAH, and incidental aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Kara; Dombek, Susanne; Martens, Tobias; Köppen, Johannes; Westphal, Manfred; Regelsberger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is known to be associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Neurosurgical manipulation on the brain itself has been reported to have influence on neuropsychological sequelae. The following is a comparative study on perimesencephalic and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients as well as elective aneurysm patients that was carried out to determine the isolated and combined impact of surgical manipulation and hemorrhage, respectively, on long-term neuropsychological outcome. Inclusion criteria were good neurological recovery at discharge (modified Rankin Scale 0 or 1) without focal neurological deficit. Standardized psychological testing covered attention, memory, executive functions, and mood. Thirteen aneurysmal SAH patients, 15 patients undergoing elective clipping, and 14 patients with perimesencephalic SAH were analyzed. Standardized neuropsychological testing and social/professional history questionnaires were performed 2 years (mean) after discharge. Memory impairment and slower cognitive processing were found in the aneurysmal and perimesencephalic SAH groups, while elective aneurysm patients showed signs of impaired attention. However, compared with norm data for age-matched healthy controls, all groups showed no significant test results. In contrast, signs of clinical depression were seen in 9/42 patients, 45 % of all patients complained of stress disorders and 55 % of patients were unable to work in their previous professions. Nearly normal neuropsychological test results on long-term follow-up in SAH patients were unexpected. However, a 50 % rate of unemployment accompanied with stress disorders and depression manifests insufficient social and workplace reintegration. Therefore, even more specific rehabilitation programs are required following inpatient treatment to attain full recovery. PMID:23949148

  2. Effect of endothelin-1 receptor antagonist BQ-123 on basilar artery diameter after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats.

    PubMed

    Jo?ko, J; Hendryk, S; Jedrzejowska-Szypu?ka, H; S?owi?ski, J; Gwó?d?, B; Lange, D; Harabin-S?owi?ska, M

    2000-06-01

    Aim of the study was to quantify cerebral vasospasm in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by morphometric examination of basilar artery and to evaluate the influence of endothelin receptor blocker BQ-123 on basilar artery constriction. The rat cisterna magna (CM) was cannulated and after 7 days SAH was developed by administration of 100 microl autologic, non-heparinized blood to the CM. The sham subarachnoid hemorrhage was developed by intracisternal administration of 100 microl of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Endothelin receptor blocker BQ-123 was injected into the CM in a dose of 40 nmol diluted in 50 microl of cerebrospinal fluid 20 min. before SAH, and 24h and 48 h after SAH. After perfusion fixation the brains were removed from the skull and histological preparations of basilar artery were done. The internal diameter and wall thickness of basilar arteries was measured by interactive morphometric method. The most severe vasospasm was found in rats after SAH. The presence of numerous infiltrations composed of neutrophils and macrophages correlated with advanced vasospasm (index of constriction 5 times lower than in normal), suggesting the role of other factors participating in the late phase of vasospasms after SAH. Administration of BQ-123 in the late phase after SAH caused the dilatation of basilar artery. Following the administration of BQ-123 in the late phase (48 h after SAH) the basilar artery dilated, its wall became thinner, and the number of leukocyte infiltrations in the subarachnoid space decreased compared to the values after SAH alone. PMID:10898097

  3. Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and its treatment with nimodipine. German tSAH Study Group.

    PubMed

    Harders, A; Kakarieka, A; Braakman, R

    1996-07-01

    A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of nimodipine used to treat traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) was conducted in 21 German neurosurgical centers between January 1994 and April 1995. One hundred twenty-three patients with tSAH appearing on initial computerized tomography (CT) scanning were entered into the study. Requirements for inclusion included age between 16 and 70 and admission into the study within 12 hours after head injury, regardless of the patient's level of consciousness. Eligible patients received either a sequential course of intravenous and oral nimodipine or placebo treatment for 3 weeks. Patients were closely monitored using clinical neurology, computerized tomography, laboratory, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound parameters. Patients treated with nimodipine had a significantly less unfavorable outcome (death, vegetative survival, or severe disability) at 6 months than placebo-treated patients (25% vs. 46%, p = 0.02). The relative reduction in unfavorable outcome in the nimodipine-treated group was even higher (55%, p = 0.002) when only patients who complied with the protocol were considered. PMID:8683286

  4. Monotherapy with stenting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after middle cerebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ajit S; Gounis, Matthew J; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary; Weaver, John; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Isolated middle cerebral artery dissection is a rare clinical entity, with descriptions limited to a few case reports and case series. Symptomatic dissection in the anterior circulation can present as an ischemic stroke in a young population; however, it is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a young patient who presented with acute headache from a subarachnoid hemorrhage that was ultimately determined to be due to a vascular dissection in the middle cerebral artery. The initial angiogram showed vascular irregularities in this area with stenosis. Repeat imaging 4?days after presentation identified a pseudoaneurysm proximal to the stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with a self-expanding nitinol stent and followed up with serial angiography during postoperative recovery in the hospital; additional angiograms were performed approximately 1 and 6?months after treatment. Serial angiograms demonstrated incremental healing of the dissection. The patient was discharged and remains neurologically intact at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:25833904

  5. [Fundus hemorrhage in patients with intracranial hemorrhage caused by cerebrovascular disease--its clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Takano, S; Saito, M; Miyasaka, Y; Yada, K; Kitahara, T; Ohwada, T; Takagi, H

    1992-01-01

    To clarify the significance of fundus hemorrhage in the acute stage of intracranial hemorrhage due to cerebrovascular disease (HCVD), the incidence of such hemorrhage (retinal, preretinal, and subhyaloid hemorrhage) was examined and its correlations with the severity of the disturbance of consciousness and the prognosis were investigated. Two hundred sixteen HCVD patients with intracranial hemorrhage were the subjects of this study, including 87 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 60 cases of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH), 54 cases of arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and 15 cases of Moyamoya disease. Fundus hemorrhage was recognized in 41 cases of SAH (47%), 5 cases of HICH (8%), 3 cases of AVM (6%), and 2 cases of Moyamoya disease (13%). The incidence of fundus hemorrhage was significantly higher in SAH than in the other type of HCVD associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Among patients with severe disturbance of consciousness (JCS 100-300), fundus hemorrhage was recognized in 69% with SAH, 13% with HICH, 17% with AVM, and none with Moyamoya disease. Therefore, patients with both fundus hemorrhage and severe disturbance of consciousness in the acute stage are most likely to have SAH, but HICH and AVM should be also taken into consideration. In patients with slight disturbance of consciousness (JCS 0-30), fundus hemorrhage was only noted in SAH (27%) and not in other types of HCVD associated with intracranial hemorrhage. Thus, SAH is highly likely to be the primary HCVD associated with intracranial hemorrhage, if we recognize fundus hemorrhage in patients with slight disturbance of consciousness in the acute stage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1562380

  6. Ocular tilt reaction due to a cerebellar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Kozue

    2014-01-01

    A 78-year-old man with essential hypertension abruptly developed complete ocular tilt reaction (OTR) which consisted of concomitant skew deviation with left hypertropia, extorsion of the right eye and intorsion of the left, and rightward head tilt. Cranial computed tomography demonstrated a localized cerebellar hemorrhage involving the left nodulus. The patient became asymptomatic within two weeks. This is a first reported case of complete OTR due to a cerebellar hemorrhage. Concomitant skew deviation is a common symptom of cerebellar lesions. Moreover, unilateral damage to the utricular pathway due to involvement of the left nodulus might cause rightward conjugate ocular torsion and rightward head tilt. PMID:25274240

  7. Current Management of Vitreous Hemorrhage due to Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Jaafar El; Carvounis, Petros E.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic vitreous hemorrhage secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy is a cause of severe vision loss in diabetic patients. Laser photocoagulation remains the primary treatment when the view allows. Intravitreous anti-VEGF injections do not appear to have a role as primary treatment but may have an invaluable role as adjuvant to surgery. Pars plana vitrectomy with endolaser panretinal photocoagulation remains the procedure of choice for non-clearing vitreous hemorrhage. The vast majority of patients with vision of 5/200 or less due to diabetic vitreous hemorrhage do not clear spontaneously even after 1 year. With improvements in surgical techniques leading to better outcomes, fewer complications, less discomfort and a faster recovery time it is reasonable to operate on such patients sooner than the 3–4 months that had been generally accepted in the past, if there has been no significant spontaneous improvement. PMID:24613890

  8. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Due to Duodenal Erosion by a Biliary Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Roebuck, Derek J.; Stanley, Philip [Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Katz, Michael D. [Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, 1500 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Parry, Robert L. [Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Haight, Michael A. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States)

    1998-01-15

    A self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent) was used to relieve obstruction of the common bile duct in a young male with a desmoplastic small cell tumor of the abdomen. Two months after insertion and following a course of chemotherapy the lower end of the stent eroded the mucosa of the second part of the duodenum causing severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage which necessitated laparotomy and trimming of the stent. This complication may have been due to shrinking of the tumor as well as thrombocytopenia following chemotherapy.

  9. Microembolic signals in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahmoud Reza Azarpazhooh; Arash Velayati; Brian R. Chambers; Hossain Mashhadi Nejad; Payam Sasan Nejad

    2009-01-01

    Microembolic signals (MES) detected by transcranial Doppler (TCD) have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), although their origin and contribution to brain ischemia remain uncertain. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate the frequency of MES among patients with SAH and to determine their origin. Twenty-seven patients with SAH, comprising 15 aneurysmal and 12 non-aneurysmal patients, participated in the study.

  10. Life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to juvenile polyposis.

    PubMed

    Pashankar, D; Murphy, J J; Ostry, A; Schreiber, R A

    2000-02-01

    A 14-yr-old, previously healthy boy presented with massive lower GI hemorrhage. After the routine endoscopic and radiological evaluation, laparotomy and intraoperative colonoscopy revealed multiple polyps in the colon. A hemicolectomy was performed because of the severity of hemorrhage. A diagnosis of juvenile polyposis was made based upon histological findings and the family history. This is an extremely unusual presentation of juvenile polyposis and has been reported only once before. The clinical features, diagnosis, and therapeutic options for juvenile polyposis are discussed. Juvenile polyposis, although a rare condition in the pediatric population, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of life-threatening GI hemorrhage. PMID:10685766

  11. ANCA-associated diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to benzylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Farah; Sghiri, Rim; Tabarki, Brahim; Ghedira, Ibtissem; Yacoub, Moncef; Essoussi, Ahmed Sahloul

    2006-07-01

    Benzylthiouracil has been recently observed to be associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis, resulting in crescentic glomerulonephritis. We report an 8-year-old girl treated with benzylthiouracil for Graves's disease who developed an ANCA-positive vasculitis with pulmonary hemorrhage. She responded to corticosteroids and discontinuation of benzylthiouracil. This represents the first pediatric case of benzylthiouracil-induced diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. PMID:16622664

  12. ANCA-associated diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to benzylthiouracil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Farah Thabet; Rim Sghiri; Brahim Tabarki; Ibtissem Ghedira; Moncef Yacoub; Ahmed Sahloul Essoussi

    2006-01-01

    Benzylthiouracil has been recently observed to be associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis, resulting in crescentic glomerulonephritis. We report an 8-year-old girl treated with benzylthiouracil for Graves’s disease who developed an ANCA-positive vasculitis with pulmonary hemorrhage. She responded to corticosteroids and discontinuation of benzylthiouracil. This represents the first pediatric case of benzylthiouracil-induced diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

  13. Acute Onset of Intracerebral Hemorrhage due to Autonomic Dysreflexia

    PubMed Central

    Yigitoglu, Pembe Hare; Ipekdal, H. Ilker; Tosun, Aliye

    2014-01-01

    Autonomic dysreflexia is a clinical emergency syndrome of uncontrolled sympathetic output that can occur in patients who have a history of spinal cord injury. Despite its frequency in spinal cord injury patients, central nervous system complications are very rare. We report a man with traumatic high level incomplete spinal cord injury who suffered hypertensive right thalamic hemorrhage secondary to an episode of autonomic dysreflexia. Prompt recognition and removal of the triggering factor, the suprapubic catheter obstruction which led to hypertensive attack, the patient had a favorable functional outcome after the resorption of the hematoma and effective rehabilitation programme. PMID:25132935

  14. Acute paraplegia due to spinal arteriovenous fistula in two patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alice Poisson; Ashok Vasdev; Francis Brunelle; Henri Plauchu; Sophie Dupuis-Girod

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent epistaxis, cutaneous\\u000a telangiectasia, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVM). Of these, spinal AVM is a rare manifestation that concerns\\u000a mainly children. In this report, we describe two cases of spinal AVM revealed by acute paraparesis due to subarachnoid hemorrhage\\u000a in children with HHT and reviewed the literature on spinal

  15. Progesterone alleviates acute brain injury via reducing apoptosis and oxidative stress in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Cao, Shenglong; Chen, Jingyin; Yan, Feng; Chen, Gao; Dai, Yuying

    2015-07-23

    This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of progesterone on acute brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=72) by endovascular perforation. Progesterone (8mg/kg or 16mg/kg) was administered to rats at 1, 6, and 12h after SAH. Mortality, neurologic deficits, cell apoptosis, expression of apoptotic markers, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed at 24h after experimental SAH. Mortality, cell apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 were decreased, and improved neurological function was observed in the progesterone-treated SAH rats. Further, exploration demonstrated that progesterone significantly reduced the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and attenuated the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Progesterone also induced anti-oxidative effects by elevating the activity of SOD and decreasing MDA content after SAH. Furthermore, dose-response relationships for progesterone treatment were observed, and high doses of progesterone enhanced the neuroprotective effects. Progesterone treatment could alleviate acute brain injury after SAH by inhibiting cell apoptosis and decreasing damage due to oxidative stress. The mechanism involved in the anti-apoptotic effect was related to the mitochondrial pathway. These results indicate that progesterone possesses the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of acute brain injury after SAH. PMID:26101829

  16. The Importance of Early Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Hou, Jack; Pluta, Ryszard M.; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a medical emergency that accounts for 5% of all stroke cases. Individuals affected are typically in the prime of their lives (mean age 50 years). Approximately 12% of patients die before receiving medical attention, 33% within 48 hours and 50% within 30 days of aSAH. Of the survivors 50% suffer from permanent disability with an estimated lifetime cost more than double that of an ischemic stroke. Traditionally, spasm that develops in large cerebral arteries 3-7 days after aneurysm rupture is considered the most important determinant of brain injury and outcome after aSAH. However, recent studies show that prevention of delayed vasospasm does not improve outcome in aSAH patients. This finding has finally brought in focus the influence of early brain injury on outcome of aSAH. A substantial amount of evidence indicates that brain injury begins at the aneurysm rupture, evolves with time and plays an important role in patients’ outcome. In this manuscript we review early brain injury after aSAH. Due to the early nature, most of the information on this injury comes from animals and few only from autopsy of patients who died within days after aSAH. Consequently, we began with a review of animal models of early brain injury, next we review the mechanisms of brain injury according to the sequence of their temporal appearance and finally we discuss the failure of clinical translation of therapies successful in animal models of aSAH. PMID:22414893

  17. Idiopathic spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage in the third trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Imga, Narin Nasiroglu; Tutuncu, Yasemin; Tuna, Mazhar Muslum; Do?an, Berçem Ayç?çek; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage (SAH) is seen in the absence of trauma or adrenal tumor in adrenal glands. The incidence of SAH has been reported from 0.14% to 1.1% and it usually involves the right gland. During pregnancy, idiopathic unilateral SAH has been reported rarely. We present a case which comes to emergency department with an acute abdominal pain and the test results showed spontaneous left SAH. PMID:23983715

  18. Idiopathic Spontaneous Adrenal Hemorrhage in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Imga, Narin Nasiroglu; Tutuncu, Yasemin; Tuna, Mazhar Muslum; Ayç?çek Do?an, Berçem; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage (SAH) is seen in the absence of trauma or adrenal tumor in adrenal glands. The incidence of SAH has been reported from 0.14% to 1.1% and it usually involves the right gland. During pregnancy, idiopathic unilateral SAH has been reported rarely. We present a case which comes to emergency department with an acute abdominal pain and the test results showed spontaneous left SAH. PMID:23983715

  19. Continuous Selective Intra-Arterial Application of Nimodipine in Refractory Cerebral Vasospasm due to Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Stephanie; Jedlicka, Sheila; Wolf, Stefan; Peter, Mozes; Pudenz, Christine; Merker, Patrick; Schürer, Ludwig; Lumenta, Christianto Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cerebral vasospasm is one of the leading courses for disability in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Effective treatment of vasospasm is therefore one of the main priorities for these patients. We report about a case series of continuous intra-arterial infusion of the calcium channel antagonist nimodipine for 1–5 days on the intensive care unit. Methods. In thirty patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage and refractory vasospasm continuous infusion of nimodipine was started on the neurosurgical intensive care unit. The effect of nimodipine on brain perfusion, cerebral blood flow, brain tissue oxygenation, and blood flow velocity in cerebral arteries was monitored. Results. Based on Hunt & Hess grades on admission, 83% survived in a good clinical condition and 23% recovered without an apparent neurological deficit. Persistent ischemic areas were seen in 100% of patients with GOS 1–3 and in 69% of GOS 4-5 patients. Regional cerebral blood flow and computed tomography perfusion scanning showed adequate correlation with nimodipine application and angiographic vasospasm. Transcranial Doppler turned out to be unreliable with interexaminer variance and failure of detecting vasospasm or missing the improvement. Conclusion. Local continuous intra-arterial nimodipine treatment for refractory cerebral vasospasm after aSAH can be recommended as a low-risk treatment in addition to established endovascular therapies. PMID:24527461

  20. Activation of TRPV4 channels does not mediate inversion of neurovascular coupling after SAH

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Neurovascular coupling (NVC) allows increased blood flow to metabolically active neurons and involves the Ca2+-dependent release of vasodilator influences by astrocyte endfeet encasing parenchymal arterioles. We have previously reported inversion of NVC from dilation to constriction in brain slices from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) model rats. Corresponding to NVC inversion, there was a marked increase in the amplitude of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in astrocyte endfeet. Calcium-permeable transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channels have been reported in astrocyte endfeet and activators of these channels enhance Ca2+ oscillations in healthy animals. Here, we examined the role of TRPV4 channels in the development of high amplitude spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in astrocyte endfeet and the inversion of neurovascular coupling after SAH. Treatment of brain slices with the TRPV4 channel antagonist, HC-067047 (10 ?M), did not alter the amplitude of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations after SAH. In addition, HC-067047 did not inhibit or change SAH-induced inversion of neurovascular coupling. In summary, TRPV4 channels do not appear to be involved in the inversion of neurovascular coupling after SAH. Further studies examining the impact of SAH on additional Ca2+ signaling pathways in astrocytes are likely to reveal valuable insights into new therapeutic strategies to advance SAH treatments. PMID:25366609

  1. Functionalized graphene oxide as a drug carrier for loading pirfenidone in treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lijun; Wang, Feng; Han, Haie; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Gengshen; Fan, Zhenzeng

    2015-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a life-threatening disease that causes high morbidity and mortality. Pirfenidone is a SAH drug that prevents secondary bleeding and cerebral infarction. To improve its therapeutic efficacy, this study aimed to employ a functionalized graphene oxide nanosheet (FGO) as a drug carrier loading pirfenidone to treat SAH. The graphene oxide nanosheet was introduced with transcription activator peptide (Tat), followed by functionalization with methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) and loading with pirfenidone. The pirfenidone-loaded FGO (pirfenidone-FGO) exhibits better treatment efficacy than the single pirfenidone due to more effective loading and controlled release of the drug in tissue. The introduction of Tat and mPEG onto GO nanosheet contributes to the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and the stability in blood circulation of the drug. At lower pH values, the highly efficient release of the drug from the pirfenidone-FGO exerts effective treatment to acidic inflammatory lesion after severe SAH. Besides its treatment function, FGO is also shown as a strong near infrared absorbing material which can be applied in photoacoustic imaging, allowing rapid real-time monitoring with deep resolution of brain tissues after SAH. The treatment efficacy of pirfenidone-FGO for central nervous system injuries is further demonstrated by hematoxylin and eosin staining of coronal brain slices, as well as measurements of brain water content and blood-brain barrier permeability. Our study supports the potential of FGO in clinical application in treatment of SAH. PMID:25819362

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage due to nonbranching aneurysm of the middle cerebral artery in a young adult with a history of Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Atsushi; Matsuo, Seigo; Kawamura, Shunji; Nishikawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in young adults is relatively rare. Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculopathy that is known to cause coronary artery aneurysms; however, its effect on cerebral arteries remains largely unclear. Case Description: We report the case of a 20-year-old male with a history of Kawasaki disease who presented with SAH caused by the rupture of a nonbranching middle cerebral artery aneurysm. This is the third report of SAH associated with Kawasaki disease. Preoperative echocardiography of the patient rejected the presence of bacterial endocarditis and other heart abnormalities. An emergency craniotomy and clip occlusion of the aneurysm was successfully performed without obstructing the parent artery. Two weeks later, the patient was discharged without any apparent neurological deficit. We also performed a circumstantial pathological study on specimens obtained from the aneurysm wall. Our histological findings suggest that the elastic lamina and tunica intima were completely destroyed during the acute vasculitis phase of Kawasaki disease, which possibly led to the aneurysmal formation. Conclusions: Lack of active inflammatory changes and atherosclerotic lesions may explain the chronic feature of Kawasaki disease, not a typical aneurysmal formation. PMID:24575320

  3. Diffuse Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian; Sabat, Shyamsunder; Agarwal, Amit; Thamburaj, Krishnamoorthy

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Aneurysmal rupture accounts for the majority of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Increasingly recognized is the occurrence of nontraumatic convexity SAH unaccounted for by aneurysmal rupture. Case Report These presentations require consideration of rare but clinically significant sources of SAH. We report a patient presenting with prolonged mild headaches and acute onset of seizure like activity found to have diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage and extensive dural venous sinus thrombosis involving the superior sagittal sinus and right transverse-sigmoid sinuses. Conclusions There are few reported cases of SAH secondary to dural sinus thrombosis; however most of these are convexity hemorrhage. Sinus thrombosis presenting as diffuse SAH is extremely rare, as is showcased in this report.

  4. Angio negative spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage: Is repeat angiogram required in all cases?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajan; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Sahu, Rajni K.; Sharma, Pradeep; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun K.; Sahu, Rabi N.; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K.; Behari, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background: In some cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), the cause of bleed remains obscure on initial evaluation. These patients may harbor structural lesions. We aim to determine the utility of repeat angiogram in these subsets of patients. Methods: In this prospective study, patients with SAH with a negative computed tomographic angiogram (CTA) and digital subtraction angiogram (DSA) were included. A repeat angiogram was done after 6 weeks of initial angiogram. Patients were divided into perimesencephalic SAH (PM-SAH) and diffuse classic SAH (Classic-SAH) groups. Outcome was determined by modified Rankin score (mRS). Results: A total of 22% (39/178) of all SAH were angio-negative. A total of 90% (n = 35) of these were in Hunt and Hess grade 1-3. A total of 22 patients had PM-SAH and 17 had a Classic-SAH. Repeat angiogram did not reveal any pathology in the PM-SAH group, whereas two patients with Classic-SAH were found to have aneurysms. At 6 months follow-up, 95% patients of PM-SAH and 83.3% of Classic-SAH had mRS of 0. Conclusion: Repeat angiogram is probably not necessary in patients of PM-SAH and they tend to have better outcome. Classic-SAH pattern of bleed is associated with fair chances of an underlying pathology and a repeat angiogram is recommended and these cases and they have poorer outcome. PMID:25140284

  5. [Intravesical instillation of Maalox for the treatment of bladder hemorrhage due to prostate cancer invasion: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Hongo, F; Saitoh, M

    1999-05-01

    Two cases treated by intravesical instillation of Maalox for bladder hemorrhage are reported. A 79-year-old man and an 81-year-old man were admitted because of macroscopic hematuria and bladder tamponade. In both cases, bladder hemorrhage caused by bladder invasion of prostate cancer had not improved after bladder lavage, intravenous drip infusion and medication of hemostatics. In the first case, bladder hemorrhage had decreased 4 days after the intravesical instillation of 50-100 ml Maalox for an hour per day. In the second case, irrigation of Maalox was performed because of the difficulty of intravesical instillation of Maalox due to irritable bladder. The bladder hemorrhage had not completely disappeared but improved 5 days after the bladder irrigation of 100 ml of Maalox with 100 ml of 0.9% NaCl for an hour per day. This method is easy and can be performed without complications. This method might be useful as first-line therapy in the case of severe bladder hemorrhage. PMID:10410323

  6. Dietary Intake of Key Nutrients and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Australasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivy Shiue; Hisatomi Arima; Graeme J. Hankey; Craig S. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Background: A healthy, balanced diet can prevent stroke, but little is known about dietary risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We aimed to determine the relationship between common dietary habits and risk of SAH. Methods: In a population-based, case-control study of SAH undertaken across 4 Australasian cities, a standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on the frequency of consumption

  7. Subarachnoid hemorrhage grading scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Rosen; R. Loch MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    Numerous systems are reported for grading the clinical condition of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The\\u000a literature was reviewed for articles pertaining to the grading of such patients, including publications on the Hunt and Hess\\u000a Scale, Fisher Scale, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Scale. This article reviews the\\u000a advantages and limitations of these scales as

  8. Iron and early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C Loftspring

    2010-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects approximately 27,000 Americans per year. Although delayed cerebral vasospasm is of high clinical significance, mortality within the first 2 days may approach 30%. In this issue of the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Lee et al have studied the role of iron in early brain injury after experimental SAH. They found that iron

  9. Orbital apex syndrome due to aspergillosis with subsequent fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Chi-Man; Hsu, Shu-Shong; Liao, Wei-Chuan; Chen, Jun-Yih; Liu, Su-Hao; Chen, Chih-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Background: Orbital apex syndrome has been described previously as a syndrome involving damage to the oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI), and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), in association with optic nerve dysfunction. It may be caused by inflammatory, infectious, neoplastic, iatrogenic, or vascular processes. Case Description: A 73-year-old female having hypertension and rheumatoid arthritis stage 4 under long-term corticosteroid therapy presented to us with the right side orbital apex syndrome. Her magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of orbit showed progression of a lesion at the right orbital apex and adjacent right superior orbital fissure with mild extension to the right posterior ethmoid sinus. She underwent endoscopic endonasal transethmoid approach with the removal of the lesion. The pathology showed a picture of fungal infection and the culture of the specimen proved Aspergillus fumigatus. Her postoperative course was smooth until 5 days after surgery, when she suffered a massive spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from a ruptured aneurysm, which was proven by computed tomography angiography (CTA) of brain. Unfortunately, she expired due to central failure. Conclusion: In cases of immunocompromised patients having orbital apex syndrome, fungal infection should be kept in mind. One of the most lethal but rare sequels of CNS fungal infection is intracranial aneurysms. Early diagnosis and radical resection, combined with antifungal medications is the key to save this particular group of patients. PMID:23226610

  10. A fatal outcome due to pulmonary hemorrhage following Russell’s viper bite

    PubMed Central

    Palangasinghe, Dhammika R.; Weerakkody, Ranga M.; Dalpatadu, Chamila G.; Gnanathasan, Christeine A.

    2015-01-01

    Russell’s viper (RV) envenomation causes local effects, coagulopathy, thrombosis, rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, and neurological manifestations. Although coagulopathy and endothelial destruction causing local and mucosal surface bleeding is known, isolated severe pulmonary hemorrhage is not commonly reported. We report a previously healthy 18-year-old male who had bilateral severe pulmonary hemorrhages, which resulted in a fatal outcome following RV bite. This diagnosis was supported by persistent alveolar shadows, with minimum improvement despite hemodialysis without heparin, mixed acidosis and endotracheal tube bleeding. Other bleeding manifestations were absent. Polyvalent antivenom was administered in lieu of prolonged whole blood clotting time. Thrombocytopenia and mildly deranged clotting parameters were noted. Pulmonary hemorrhages were significant enough to require transfusion. This case highlights the importance of suspecting pulmonary hemorrhages in patients with alveolar shadows and desaturation following RV bite despite the absence of other bleeding manifestations in light of failure of optimum therapy including hemodialysis. PMID:25935188

  11. Factors associated with postpartum hemorrhage severity 1 Postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony after vaginal delivery:1

    E-print Network

    to uterine atony after vaginal delivery:1 Factors associated with severity2 3 Marine Driessen MD MPH1 , Marie with PPH due to uterine atony after36 vaginal delivery in 106 French hospitals between November 2004

  12. De novo aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage 7 years after initial cryptogenic subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wenz, H; Al Mahdi, M-M; Ehrlich, G; Scharf, J; Schmiedek, P; Seiz, M

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually caused by a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Despite the use of initial four-vessel cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA), 15?% of all cases remain idiopathic. According to the initial computed tomographic scan, the spontaneous SAH can be divided into a perimesencephalic group associated with a benign nature and a nonperimesencephalic group with a similar clinical course as aneurysmal SAH. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with a de novo aneurysm formation of the anterior communicating artery with SAH 7 years after initial cryptogenic nonperimesencephalic SAH. This observation suggests that in some cases, long-term angiographic studies might be justified. PMID:24384679

  13. [Continuous EEG monitoring for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Pugin, D; Vulliemoz, S; Bijlenga, P; Gasche, Y

    2014-12-10

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) still carries a high morbidity and mortality, despite improvement in surgical and medical management. Seizures and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) secondary to vasospasm or cortical spreading depression are frequent after SAH. Continuous EEG allows early detection of non-convulsive seizures or delayed cerebral ischemia and may become a promissing tool in the monitoring of SAH patients. However, its use in clinical practice is still limited because many resources are required for recording and analyzing continuous EEG. Moreover, we require more data to confirm the relationship between aggressive treatment of non-convulsive seizure or delayed cerebral ischemia triggered by continuous EEG and outcome. PMID:25632630

  14. Biomarkers as outcome predictors in subarachnoid hemorrhage – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Caron M.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Schreibman, David; Simard, J. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a high fatality rate and many suffer from delayed neurological deficits. Biomarkers may aid in the identification of high-risk patients, guide treatment/management and improve outcome. Objective The aim of this review was to summarize biomarkers of SAH associated with outcome. Methods An electronic database query was completed, including an additional review of reference lists to include all potential human studies. Results A total of 298 articles were identified; 112 were reviewed; 55 studies were included. Conclusion This review details biomarkers of SAH that correlate with outcome. It provides the basis for research investigating their possible translation into the management of SAH patients. PMID:24499240

  15. Hemorrhagic necrosis due to peliosis hepatis: imaging findings and pathological correlation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Vignaux; P. Legmann; G. de Pinieux; S. Chaussade; C. Spaulding; D. Couturier; A. Bonnin

    1999-01-01

    .   Peliosis hepatis is an uncommon liver condition characterized by blood-filled cavities. We report the CT, angiographic and\\u000a MR features of a case of peliosis hepatis with no obvious etiology and spontaneously regressing hemorrhagic necrosis. Helical\\u000a CT showed multiple peripheral low-density regions with foci of spontaneous high density suggesting the presence of blood component.\\u000a On MR imaging, the multiple peripheral

  16. Controversies and Evolving New Mechanisms in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Feng, Hua; Sherchan, Prativa; Klebe, Damon; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Jianmin; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms “early brain injury” and “delayed brain injury” are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications. PMID:24076160

  17. Death resulting from a mesenteric hemorrhage due to acute myeloid leukemia: an autopsy case.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Shigeta, Akio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2014-11-01

    Acute leukemia causes hemorrhage in various sites throughout the body, such as the brain parenchyma, resulting in serious complications. Here, we present an autopsy case where the patient succumbed to a ruptured mesenteric hematoma caused by acute leukemia. A 58-year-old man, without a significant past medical history, was found dead at his workplace. An external examination showed subcutaneous hemorrhage on the left upper extremity. Macroscopic autopsy findings revealed a massive hemoperitoneum (1000mL) and extensive hematoma in the mesentery. Histopathological findings showed monotonous cell proliferation not only in the mesentery, but in many organs, such as the liver, spleen, and kidney; aggregates of the infiltrating cells were also observed in the microvessels of various organs. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the infiltrating cells showed variable myeloperoxidase positivity, and the cells were strongly positive for CD68 (PG-M1). From the autopsy findings and the immunohistochemical staining, we concluded that the underlying cause of death was acute myeloid leukemia (M5). This case was not only a rare presentation of acute leukemia, but provides a lesson to forensic pathologists regarding noting underlying hematological disease, particularly when a case of massive hemorrhage of unknown etiology is encountered. PMID:25082733

  18. Extreme volume expansion of a vestibular schwannoma due to intratumoral hemorrhage after gamma knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shunichiro; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Matsuda, Masahide; Sakamoto, Noriaki; Matsumura, Akira

    2015-07-01

    A 48-year-old man with right hemi-facial palsy and cerebellar ataxia was referred to our hospital. Three years and 10months earlier he had undergone gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) at the referring hospital for an 18mm right vestibular schwannoma. Slight tumor enlargement had been observed on MRI performed at the referring hospital 3years after the GKRS. On close follow-up after another 6months an MRI showed an obvious enlargement of the tumor. An MRI on admission revealed an iso-intense mass lesion measuring 36mm in maximum diameter at the right cerebellopontine angle. A two stage surgery was conducted using a retrosigmoid approach because bleeding from the tumor wall was difficult to control intraoperatively during the first operation. At the second operation, the majority of the tumor capsule had converted to necrotic tissue. A large hematoma cavity was present inside the tumor capsule which explained the rapid increase in size over a short period of time. Near total removal was achieved. Histopathological examination revealed massive intratumoral hemorrhage within a typical vestibular schwannoma with no malignancy. The complication of intratumoral hemorrhage is very rare and the utility of stereotactic radiation surgery/therapy, including GKRS, for vestibular schwannoma is well known. However, we must emphasize that careful follow-up is still required, even after several years. PMID:25840877

  19. Pharmacologic Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Young, Adam M H; Karri, Surya K; Helmy, Adel; Budohoski, Karol P; Kirollos, Ramez W; Bulters, Diederik O; Kirkpatrick, Peter J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Trivedi, Rikin A

    2015-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains a condition with suboptimal functional outcomes, especially in the young population. Pharmacotherapy has an accepted role in several aspects of the disease and an emerging role in several others. No preventive pharmacologic interventions for SAH currently exist. Antiplatelet medications as well as anticoagulation have been used to prevent thromboembolic events after endovascular coiling. However, the main focus of pharmacologic treatment of SAH is the prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Currently the only evidence-based medical intervention is nimodipine. Other calcium channel blockers have been evaluated without convincing efficacy. Anti-inflammatory drugs such as statins have demonstrated early potential; however, they failed to provide significant evidence for the use in preventing DCI. Similar findings have been reported for magnesium, which showed potential in experimental studies and a phase 2 trial. Clazosentane, a potent endothelin receptor antagonist, did not translate to improve functional outcomes. Various other neuroprotective agents have been used to prevent DCI; however, the results have been, at best inconclusive. The prevention of DCI and improvement in functional outcome remain the goals of pharmacotherapy after the culprit lesion has been treated in aneurysmal SAH. Therefore, further research to elucidate the exact mechanisms by which DCI is propagated is clearly needed. In this article, we review the current pharmacologic approaches that have been evaluated in SAH and highlight the areas in which further research is needed. PMID:25701766

  20. Endovascular perforation subarachnoid hemorrhage fails to cause Morris water maze deficits in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Milner, Eric; Holtzman, Jacob C; Friess, Stuart; Hartman, Richard E; Brody, David L; Han, Byung H; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is the primary driver of poor long-term outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) survivors; modeling such deficits preclinically is thus key for mechanistic and translational investigation. Although rat SAH causes long-term deficits in learning and memory, it remains unknown whether similar deficits are seen in the mouse, a species particularly amenable to powerful, targeted genetic manipulation. We thus subjected mice to endovascular perforation SAH and assessed long-term cognitive outcome via the Morris water maze (MWM), the most commonly used metric for rodent neurocognition. No significant differences in MWM performance (by either of two protocols) were seen in SAH versus sham mice. Moreover, SAH caused negligible hippocampal CA1 injury. These results undercut the potential of commonly used methods (of SAH induction and assessment of long-term neurocognitive outcome) for use in targeted molecular studies of SAH-induced cognitive deficits in the mouse. PMID:24938403

  1. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Shan, Yan-Shen; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350–450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future. PMID:26110388

  2. Memantine Attenuates Delayed Vasospasm after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage via Modulating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yuan; Wang, Liang-Chao; Shan, Yan-Shen; Pan, Chia-Hsin; Tsai, Kuen-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm is an important pathological feature of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The cause of vasospasm is multifactorial. Impairs nitric oxide availability and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction has been reported to underlie vasospasm. Memantine, a low-affinity uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) blocker has been proven to reduce early brain injury after SAH. This study investigated the effect of memantine on attenuation of vasospasm and restoring eNOS functionality. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 350-450 g were randomly divided into three weight-matched groups, sham surgery, SAH + vehicle, and SAH + memantine groups. The effects of memantine on SAH were evaluated by assessing the severity of vasospasm and the expression of eNOS. Memantine effectively ameliorated cerebral vasospasm by restoring eNOS functionality. Memantine can prevent vasospasm in experimental SAH. Treatment strategies may help combat SAH-induced vasospasm in the future. PMID:26110388

  3. Update in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Maria I.; Brott, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is defined as bleeding within the brain parenchyma. Intracranial hemorrhage includes bleeding within the cranial vault and encompasses ICH, subdural hematoma, epidural bleeds, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This review will focus only on ICH. This stroke subtype accounts for about 10% of all strokes. The hematoma locations are deep or ganglionic, lobar, cerebellar, and brain stem in descending order of frequency. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurs twice as common as SAH and is equally as deadly. Risk factors for ICH include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, advanced age, antithrombotic therapy and history of cerebrovascular disease. The clinical presentation is “stroke like” with sudden onset of focal neurological deficits. Noncontrast head computerized tomography (CT) scan is the standard diagnostic tool. However, newer neuroimaging techniques have improved the diagnostic yield in terms of underlying pathophysiology and may aid in prognosis. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a neurological emergency. Medical care begins with stabilization of airway, breathing function, and circulation (ABCs), followed by specific measures aimed to decrease secondary neurological damage and to prevent both medical and neurological complications. Reversal of coagulopathy when present is of the essence. Blood pressure management can be key and continues as an area of debate and ongoing research. Surgical evacuation of ICH is of unproven benefit though a subset of well-selected patients may have improved outcomes. Ventriculostomy and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring are interventions also used in this patient population. To date, hemostatic medications and neuroprotectants have failed to result in clinical improvement. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended, with participation of vascular neurology, vascular neurosurgery, critical care, and rehabilitation medicine as the main players. PMID:23983850

  4. Static perfect fluids with Pant-Sah equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Walter

    2008-12-01

    We analyze the 3-parameter family of exact, regular, static, spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions of Einstein’s equations (corresponding to a 2-parameter family of equations of state) due to Pant and Sah and “rediscovered” by Rosquist and by the present author. Except for the Buchdahl solutions which are contained as a limiting case, the fluids have finite radius and are physically realistic for suitable parameter ranges. The equations of state can be characterized geometrically by the property that the 3-metric on the static slices, rescaled conformally with the fourth power of any linear function of the norm of the static Killing vector, has constant scalar curvature. This local property does not require spherical symmetry; in fact it simplifies the proof of spherical symmetry of asymptotically flat solutions which we recall here for the Pant-Sah equations of state. We also consider a model in Newtonian theory with analogous geometric and physical properties, together with a proof of spherical symmetry of the asymptotically flat solutions.

  5. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Stanlies

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  6. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a worldwide health burden with high fatality and permanent disability rates. The overall prognosis depends on the volume of the initial bleed, rebleeding, and degree of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Cardiac manifestations and neurogenic pulmonary edema indicate the severity of SAH. The International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) reported a favorable neurological outcome with the endovascular coiling procedure compared with surgical clipping at the end of 1 year. The ISAT trial recruits were primarily neurologically good grade patients with smaller anterior circulation aneurysms, and therefore the results cannot be reliably extrapolated to larger aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, patients presenting with complex aneurysm morphology, and poor neurological grades. The role of hypothermia is not proven to be neuroprotective according to a large randomized controlled trial, Intraoperative Hypothermia for Aneurysms Surgery Trial (IHAST II), which recruited patients with good neurological grades. Patients in this trial were subjected to slow cooling and inadequate cooling time and were rewarmed rapidly. This methodology would have reduced the beneficial effects of hypothermia. Adenosine is found to be beneficial for transient induced hypotension in 2 retrospective analyses, without increasing the risk for cardiac and neurological morbidity. The neurological benefit of pharmacological neuroprotection and neuromonitoring is not proven in patients undergoing clipping of aneurysms. DCI is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following SAH, and the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial and not yet understood. At present, oral nimodipine has an established role in the management of DCI, along with maintenance of euvolemia and induced hypertension. Following SAH, hypernatremia, although less common than hyponatremia, is a predictor of poor neurological outcome. PMID:25272066

  7. Can S100B Predict Cerebral Vasospasms in Patients Suffering from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Moshgan; Astrand, Ramona; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Protein S100B has proven to be a useful biomarker for cerebral damages. Increased levels of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) S100B have been shown in patients suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), severe head injury and stroke. In patients with SAH, the course of S100B levels has been correlated with neurological deficits and outcome. Cerebral vasospasm is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the potential of S100B protein as a predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients with severe SAH. Materials and Methods: Patients with SAH, Fisher grade 3 and 4, were included in the study. Five samples of CSF and serum S100B were collected from each patient. The first sample (baseline sample) was drawn within the first 3?days following ictus and the following four samples, once a day on days 5–8, with day of ictus defined as day 1. Clinical suspicion of cerebral vasospasm confirmed by computed tomography angiography was used to diagnose cerebral vasospasm. Results: A total of 18 patients were included. Five patients (28%) developed cerebral vasospasm, two (11%) developed ventriculitis. There were no significant differences between S100B for those with and without vasospasm. Serum S100B levels in patients with vasospasm were slightly lower within the first 5?days following ictus, compared to patients without vasospasm. Two out of five patients had elevated and increasing serum S100B prior to vasospasm. Only one showed a peak level of S100B 1?day before vasospasm could be diagnosed. Due to the low number of patients in the study, statistical significance could not be reached. Conclusion: Neither serum nor CSF S100B can be used as predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients suffering from SAH. PMID:23761779

  8. [Complete remission of consciousness disturbances and spasticity due to a severe subarachnoid hemorrhage after intrathecal baclofen therapy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Asahi, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Koh, Masaki; Matsumura, Nobuhisa; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Typically, intrathecal baclofen therapy(ITB)for spasticity is continuously required because the spasticity can recur if the ITB is stopped. Thus, an infusion pump for the ITB is permanently implanted. Some sporadic cases exhibiting remarkable improvements in their spasticity and consciousness disturbances have been reported after implanting the ITB pump. We experienced a rare case involving removal of the ITB pump after the spasticity resolved and the consciousness disturbances markedly improved. A 15-year-old girl developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an aneurysm in the right anterior cerebral artery. Her initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 4(E1V1M2). Trapping of the aneurysm and decompression craniotomy were performed. Subsequently, she underwent a tracheotomy, and a percutaneous gastrostomy(PEG)tube was implanted because of persistent consciousness disturbances. Cranioplasty and lumbar-peritoneal shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus were performed after 1 month. An ITB pump was implanted to improve the spasticity observed mainly in the lower extremities 61 days after hemorrhage onset. Right hemiparesis remained due to Kernohan's notch. After transfer to the rehabilitation hospital, her consciousness disturbances and spasticity remarkably improved(1.9 to 1.0 and 3.5 to 1.0 on the Ashworth scale for the upper and lower extremities, respectively). The tracheostomy and PEG tubes were removed, and the baclofen dose was gradually reduced. She was completely off baclofen after 7 months, and she was discharged with a short leg brace and a cane for walking. The baclofen pump was then removed. In this case, temporary ITB improved the spasticity and consciousness disturbances. PMID:25748812

  9. Hemoglobin and iron handling in brain after subarachnoid hemorrhage and the effect of deferoxamine on early brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Yul Lee; Richard F Keep; Yangdong He; Oren Sagher; Ya Hua; Guohua Xi; J-Y Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate hemoglobin and iron handling after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), examine the relationship between iron and neuroglial cell changes, and determine whether deferoxamine (DFX) can reduce SAH-induced injury. The SAH was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (n=110) using an endovascular perforation technique. Animals were treated with DFX (100 mg\\/kg) or vehicle 2 and 6 hours

  10. ?-Secretase inhibitor (GSI1) attenuates morphological cerebral vasospasm in 24 h after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaomei Yang; Chunhua Chen; Qin Hu; Junhao Yan; Changman Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Notch signaling plays an important role in the arteriogenesis. We hypothesized that the Notch inhibitor—?-secretase inhibitor (GSI1) exerted its effects on the vasospasm via regulation of NF-?B and MMP-9. In this study, 160 male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned into four groups: Sham, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), SAH treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and SAH treated with GSI1. After 24h

  11. SAH-induced MMP activation and KV current suppression is mediated via both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels regulate cerebral artery tone and have been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced pathologies. Here, we examined whether matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activation contributes to SAH-induced KV current suppression and cerebral artery constriction via activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Using patch clamp electrophysiology, we observed that KV currents were selectively decreased in cerebral artery myocytes isolated from SAH model rabbits. Consistent with involvement of enhanced MMP and EGFR activity in SAH-induced KV current suppression, we found that: 1) OxyHb and/or the exogenous EGFR ligand, HB-EGF, failed to induce further KV current suppression after SAH and 2) gelatin zymography detected significantly higher MMP-2 activity after SAH. The removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by combined treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase partially inhibited OxyHb-induced KV current suppression. However, these agents had little effect on OxyHb-induced MMP-2 activation. Interestingly, in the presence of a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM6001), OxyHb failed to cause KV current suppression. These data suggest OxyHb suppresses KV currents through both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways involving MMP activation. The ROS-independent pathway involves activation of MMP-2, whereas the ROS-dependent pathway involves activation of a second unidentified MMP or ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain). PMID:25366605

  12. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade 4 or 5: Treatment Using the Guglielmi Detachable Coil System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond U. Weir; Mary L. Marcellus; Huy M. Do; Gary K. Steinberg; Michael P. Marks

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients in poor clinical condition (Hunt and Hess grade 4 or 5) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have historically fared poorly and many often were excluded from aggressive treatment. Early aggressive surgical treatment of SAH can produce good-quality survival for a higher percentage of patients than previously reported. We assessed the outcome of patients with Hunt and Hess

  13. Acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. An unusual clinical presentation of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ali; Ahmad, Bakhtiar; Ahmed, Zahoor; Al-Quliti, Khalid W

    2015-01-01

    Ruptured cerebral aneurysm is the most common cause of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Rarely cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) may present initially as acute SAH, and clinically mimics aneurysmal bleed. We report 2 cases of CVST who presented with severe headache associated with neck pain and focal seizures. Non-contrast brain CT showed SAH, involving the sulci of the convexity of hemisphere (cSAH) without involving the basal cisterns. Both patients received treatment with anticoagulants and improved. Awareness of this unusual presentation of CVST is important for early diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the inclusion of vascular neuroimaging like MRI with venography or CT venography in the diagnostic workup of SAH, especially in a patient with strong clinical suspicion of CVST or in a patient where neuroimaging showed cSAH. PMID:25630784

  14. Delayed Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage due to Lumbar Artery Pseudoaneurysm after Lumbar Posterolateral Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Min; Choi, Ha Young

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old female patient presented with lower back pain and neurogenic intermittent claudication and underwent L3-L4 posterolateral fusion. To prepare the bone fusion bed, the transverse process of L3 and L4 was decorticated with a drill. On the 9th post-operative day, the patient complained of a sudden onset of severe abdominal pain and distension. Abdominal computed tomography revealed retroperitoneal hematoma in the right psoas muscle and iatrogenic right L3 transverse process fracture. Lumbar spinal angiography showed the delayed hematoma due to rupture of the 2nd lumbar artery pseudoaneurysm and coil embolization was done at the ruptured lumbar artery pseudoaneusyrm. Since then, the patient's postoperative progress proceeded normally with recovery of the hemodynamic parameters. PMID:24294460

  15. Haptoglobin phenotype predicts the development of focal and global cerebral vasospasm and may influence outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Jenna L; Blackburn, Spiros; Neal, Dan; Mendez, Nicholas V; Wharton, Jeffrey A; Waters, Michael F; Doré, Sylvain

    2015-01-27

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) and the resulting delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) significantly contribute to poor outcomes following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Free hemoglobin (Hb) within the subarachnoid space has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CV. Haptoglobin (Hp) binds free pro-oxidant Hb, thereby modulating its harmful effects. Humans can be of three Hp phenotypes: Hp1-1, Hp2-1, or Hp2-2. In several disease states, the Hp2-2 protein has been associated with reduced ability to protect against toxic free Hb. We hypothesized that individuals with the Hp2-2 phenotype would have more CV, DCI, mortality, and worse functional outcomes after aSAH. In a sample of 74 aSAH patients, Hp2-2 phenotype was significantly associated with increased focal moderate (P = 0.014) and severe (P = 0.008) CV and more global CV (P = 0.014) after controlling for covariates. Strong trends toward increased mortality (P = 0.079) and worse functional outcomes were seen for the Hp2-2 patients with modified Rankin scale at 6 wk (P = 0.076) and at 1 y (P = 0.051) and with Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended at discharge (P = 0.091) and at 1 y (P = 0.055). In conclusion, Hp2-2 phenotype is an independent risk factor for the development of both focal and global CV and also predicts poor functional outcomes and mortality after aSAH. Hp phenotyping may serve as a clinically useful tool in the critical care management of aSAH patients by allowing for early prediction of those patients who require increased vigilance due to their inherent genetic risk for the development of CV and resulting DCI and poor outcomes. PMID:25583472

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy fails to reduce hydrocephalus formation following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background & purpose Approximately 40% of hemorrhagic stroke survivors develop hydrocephalus. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been shown to be anti-inflammation following experimental stroke; however, its effect upon post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus formation is not known. The objective of this study is to investigate whether HBO therapy can effectively reduce hydrocephalus formation and improve neurobehavioral functions in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Method Thirty-eight male Sprague–Dawley rats (300-320 g) rats survived for 21 days from SAH by endovascular perforation or sham surgery were used. At 24 hours after SAH, HBO (3 atmospheres absolute) or normobaric oxygen (NBO) administrated for 1 hour once daily for a total of 7 days. Wire hanging and rotarod testing were conducted at 14 days after SAH, and cognitive functions were evaluated via the Morris water maze, between day 17 to day 21 after surgery. At day 21, rats were sacrificed and cerebroventricular volumes were measured histologically. Results Hydrocephalus exacerbated neurological deficits after SAH, and HBO multiple treatment tendentially improved the neurobehavioral functions. Spatial learning and memory deficits were noticed after SAH, and rats with hydrocephalus showed worse learning and memory abilities and HBO treatment showed a minor improvement. In the SAH group (room air) 4 rats showed an increased ventricular volume at day 21 after SAH-induction (n?=?10). HBO or NBO therapy did not alter the occurrence of hydrocephalus after SAH, as 4 rats in each of these groups showed an increased ventricular volume (n?=?10 per group). Conclusion Multiple HBO therapy does not ameliorate hydrocephalus formation in a rat model of SAH; however, HBO tendentially improved the neurological functions and spatial learning and memory abilities in rats with hydrocephalus. PMID:25132956

  17. Control of massive vesical hemorrhage due to radiation cystitis with intravesical instillation of 15 (s) 15-methyl prostaglandin F2-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hemal, A K; Vaidyanathan, S; Sankaranarayanan, A; Ayyagari, S; Sharma, P L

    1988-10-01

    Intravesical instillation of 15 (s) 15-methyl prostaglandin F2-alpha (1 mg in 100 ml of normal saline on days 1 and 2, and 0.5 mg in 50 ml of normal saline on days 3 and 4) controlled massive vesical hemorrhage due to radiation cystitis in a 60-year female with carcinoma of uterine cervix. With the 1 mg dose, she developed severe bladder spasms and mild fever. No cardiac or respiratory side effect was observed. PMID:3235213

  18. Expression signatures of long non-coding RNAs in early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, BINGJIE; LIU, HUAILEI; WANG, RUKE; XU, SHANCAI; LIU, YAOHUA; WANG, KAIKAI; HOU, XU; SHEN, CHEN; WU, JIANING; CHEN, XIN; WU, PEI; ZHANG, GUANG; JI, ZHIYONG; WANG, HONGYU; XIAO, YAO; HAN, JIANYI; SHI, HUAIZHANG; ZHAO, SHIGUANG

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of mortality in stroke patients. Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have important functions in brain disease, however their expression profiles in SAH remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression signatures of LncRNAs and mRNAs in early brain injury (EBI) following SAH in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into an SAH group and a sham operation group. The expression signatures of the LncRNAs and mRNAs in the temporal lobe cortex were investigated using a rat LncRNAs array following experimental SAH. The results revealed that there were 144 downregulated and 64 upregulated LncRNAs and 181 downregulated and 221 upregulated mRNAs following SAH. Additionally, two upregulated (BC092207, MRuc008hvl) and three downregulated (XR_006756, MRAK038897, MRAK017168) LncRNAs were confirmed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The differentially expressed mRNAs were further analyzed using the Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. The pathway analysis results provided by the KEGG database indicated that eight pathways associated with inflammation were involved in EBI following SAH. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the expression profiles of the LncRNAs and mRNAs were significantly different between the SAH-induced EBI group and the sham operation group. These differently expressed LncRNAs may be important in EBI following SAH. PMID:25777551

  19. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relationship to solar activity in the United States, 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Weil, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common condition treated by neurosurgeons. The inherent variability in the incidence and presentation of ruptured cerebral aneurysms has been investigated in association with seasonality, circadian rhythm, lunar cycle, and climate factors. We aimed to identify an association between solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) and the incidence of aneurysmal SAH, all of which appear to behave in periodic fashions over long time periods. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) provided longitudinal, retrospective data on patients hospitalized with SAH in the United States, from 1988 to 2010, who underwent aneurysmal clipping or coiling. Solar activity and SAH incidence data were modeled with the cosinor methodology and a 10-year periodic cycle length. The NIS database contained 32,281 matching hospitalizations from 1988 to 2010. The acrophase (time point in the cycle of highest amplitude) for solar flux and for sunspots were coincident. The acrophase for aneurysmal SAH incidence was out of phase with solar activity determined by non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Aneurysmal SAH incidence peaks appear to be delayed behind solar activity peaks by 64 months (95% CI; 56-73 months) when using a modeled 10-year periodic cycle. Solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) appears to be associated with the incidence of aneurysmal SAH. As solar activity reaches a relative maximum, the incidence of aneurysmal SAH reaches a relative minimum. These observations may help identify future trends in aneurysmal SAH on a population basis. PMID:24979701

  20. IL-33 expression in the cerebral cortex following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Tian; Li, Hua; Sun, Qing; Liu, Ming; Li, Wei-De; Li, Song; Yu, Zhuang; Wei, Wu-Ting; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a pervasive and devastating condition in which inflammatory and apoptotic pathways contribute to poor outcome. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) plays a crucial role in the inflammatory and apoptotic pathways through binding of the transmembrane ST2 receptor. This study investigated the expression and cellular localization of IL-33 in the cerebral cortex after SAH in order to clarify the role of IL-33 after SAH. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and SAH groups and evaluated 2, 6, and 12 h and 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after the surgery, with SAH animals subjected to prechiasmatic cistern SAH. IL-33 expression was measured by western blot analysis, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-1? were also assessed. The expression of IL-33, IL-1?, and TNF-? was markedly elevated in the SAH as compared to the sham group; IL-33 was mainly localized in neurons and astrocytes and not microglia after SAH. Moreover, a significant positive association was observed between IL-33 and IL-1? expression. These findings indicate that IL-33 might play an important role in the inflammatory response following SAH. PMID:25417195

  1. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH+RR, and SAH+Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron-sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH. PMID:25529443

  2. From intracranial aneurysm to subarachnoid hemorrhage : unraveling the genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ynte Marije Ruigrok

    2006-01-01

    The principle aim of this thesis was to identify genes involved in intracranial aneurysms and subsequent aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) especially those implicated in the maintenance of the integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the arterial wall. These genes were identified using a study population with a familial preponderance of the disease. In part 1 of the thesis this

  3. [Tactics and results of treatment of acute hemorrhage in gastroduodenal erosive ulcers due to application of gastro-aggressive preparations].

    PubMed

    Shapryns'ky?, V O; Romanchuk, V D; Koval', V M

    2014-09-01

    Results of treatment of 238 patients, suffering an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage, occurring on background of application of medicinal preparations, were adduced. The incidence rate for an acute medicinal ulcers of foregut was analyzed, as well as possibilities for their treatment. PMID:25509425

  4. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Forceful Sneeze

    PubMed Central

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Rajput, Haris Majid; Iqbal, Mansoor; Jan, Zakir; Irshad, Muhammad; Badshah, Mazhar; Khan, Rao Sohail Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a relatively less common but important neurological condition comprising 5% of all the cerebrovascular accidents. In most populations the reported incidence is 6-7 per 100,000 person-years and one-third of survivors become dependent. It is a serious but potentially treatable cause of neurological morbidity. Multiple authors have identified the most unusual novel associations and triggers of subarachnoid bleeds over the past decade. We herein report a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to focal neurological deficit in a middle aged man secondary to forceful sneeze. PMID:25685569

  5. Insulin like growth factor-I in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stepani Bendel; Timo Koivisto; Olli-Pekka Ryynänen; Esko Ruokonen; Jarkko Romppanen; Vesa Kiviniemi; Ari Uusaro

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Neuroendocrine deficiencies may affect recovery after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates neuronal growth and apoptosis in ischemic stroke. Our study was designed to a) characterize the behavior of serum IGF-I and growth hormone (GH) in the acute and late phases after aSAH reflecting possible pituitary gland function and b) evaluate the association between IGF-I

  6. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of an Intracavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm Coexisting with a Prolactinoma under Cabergoline Treatment.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Nobuyuki; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Ohta, Kohei; Tanaka, Hirotomo; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Kohmura, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    We report an unusual case of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intraoperative rupture of an intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm coexisting with a prolactinoma. A 58-year-old man presenting with diplopia was found to have a left intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm encased by a suprasellar tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. His serum prolactin level was 5036 ng/mL. Proximal ligation of the left internal carotid artery with a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis was scheduled. Because the patient's diplopia had deteriorated, we started him on cabergoline at a dose of 0.25?mg once a week. One month after administration of cabergoline, the diplopia was improved to some extent and serum prolactin was decreased to 290 ng/ml. Six weeks after starting the cabergoline, the patient underwent a left frontotemporal craniotomy to treat the aneurysm. When the dura mater was opened, abnormal brain swelling and obvious subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. Postoperative computed tomography demonstrated a thick subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case suggests that medical therapy for a pituitary adenoma should be started after treatment for a coexisting intracavernous aneurysm is completed. PMID:25083394

  7. Neuroprotective Effect of Radix Trichosanthis Saponins on Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Sun, Haiyan; Huang, Liyong; Li, Juxiang; Zhou, Wenke; Chang, Jingling

    2015-01-01

    Redox homeostasis has been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). As a result, antioxidants and/or free radical scavengers have become an important therapeutic modality. Considering that radix trichosanthis (RT) saponins exhibited strong antioxidant ability both in vivo and in vitro, the present study aimed to reveal whether the neuroprotective activities of RT saponins were mediated by p38/p53 signal pathway after SAH. An established SAH model was used and superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), p-p38, and p53 activation were detected after 48?h of SAH. The results showed that RT saponins inhibited iNOS expression to restore NO to basal level. Moreover, compared with Cu/Zn-SOD, RT saponins (2?mg/kg/d dosage) significantly increased Mn-SOD activity after SAH. Accompanied with lowered NO and elevated SOD, decreased p38 phosphorylation and p53 activities were observed, especially for RT saponins at 2?mg/kg/d dosage. In this setting, the neurological outcome was also improved with less neuronal cells damage after RT saponins pretreatment. Our findings demonstrated the beneficial effects of RT saponins in enhancing neuroprotective effects by deducing iNOS activity, normalizing SOD level, and inhibiting p-p38 and p53 expression, hence offering significant therapeutic implications for SAH.

  8. The influence of race on outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zacharia, Brad E; Grobelny, Bartosz T; Komotar, Ricardo J; Sander Connolly, E; Mocco, J

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between race and outcome following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We identified all SAH discharges in New York City during 2003. An adverse outcome was defined as in-hospital death or discharge other than to home. While correcting for age and gender, we examined the effect of race and payor status on outcome following SAH. Forty-four percent of patients with SAH were white. Being white had a significant relationship with outcome when controlled for payor status (odds ratio 0.56). Among self-pay/Medicaid patients, fewer white (52%) individuals suffered poor outcomes than non-white (66%, p=0.03). Our results establish that white patients in New York City with SAH have better outcomes than non-whites. While it is unclear whether this discrepancy is secondary to pathophysiological differences or unidentified social factors, our findings demonstrate that this effect is independent of insurance status, and emphasize the need for further investigation into racial disparities in outcome following SAH. PMID:20004103

  9. Microglia inflict delayed brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Ulf C; Davids, Anja-Maria; Brandenburg, Susan; Müller, Annett; Elke, Anna; Magrini, Salima; Atangana, Etienne; Turkowski, Kati; Finger, Tobias; Gutenberg, Angelika; Gehlhaar, Claire; Brück, Wolfgang; Heppner, Frank L; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory changes have been postulated to contribute to secondary brain injury after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In human specimens after SAH as well as in experimental SAH using mice, we show an intracerebral accumulation of inflammatory cells between days 4 and 28 after the bleeding. Using bone marrow chimeric mice allowing tracing of all peripherally derived immune cells, we confirm a truly CNS-intrinsic, microglial origin of these immune cells, exhibiting an inflammatory state, and rule out invasion of myeloid cells from the periphery into the brain. Furthermore, we detect secondary neuro-axonal injury throughout the time course of SAH. Since neuronal cell death and microglia accumulation follow a similar time course, we addressed whether the occurrence of activated microglia and neuro-axonal injury upon SAH are causally linked by depleting microglia in vivo. Given that the amount of neuronal cell death was significantly reduced after microglia depletion, we conclude that microglia accumulation inflicts secondary brain injury after SAH. PMID:25956409

  10. SAH-induced MMP activation and K V current suppression is mediated via both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Koide, Masayo; Wellman, George C

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (K V) channels regulate cerebral artery tone and have been implicated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced pathologies. Here, we examined whether matrix metalloprotease (MMP) activation contributes to SAH-induced K V current suppression and cerebral artery constriction via activation of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). Using patch clamp electrophysiology, we observed that K V currents were selectively decreased in cerebral artery myocytes isolated from SAH model rabbits. Consistent with involvement of enhanced MMP and EGFR activity in SAH-induced K V current suppression, we found that: (1) oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and/or the exogenous EGFR ligand, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), failed to induce further K V current suppression after SAH and (2) gelatin zymography detected significantly higher MMP-2 activity after SAH. The removal of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by combined treatment with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase partially inhibited OxyHb-induced K V current suppression. However, these agents had little effect on OxyHb-induced MMP-2 activation. Interestingly, in the presence of a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM6001), OxyHb failed to cause K V current suppression. These data suggest that OxyHb suppresses K V currents through both ROS-dependent and ROS-independent pathways involving MMP activation. The ROS-independent pathway involves activation of MMP-2, whereas the ROS-dependent pathway involves activation of a second unidentified MMP or ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain). PMID:25366605

  11. Effect of remacemide hydrochloride on subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced vasospasm in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zuccarello, M; Lewis, A I; Upputuri, S; Farmer, J B; Anderson, D K

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of an excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonist (remacemide hydrochloride) in a rabbit model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced cerebral vasospasm. Cerebral angiograms were performed on 22 rabbits pre-SAH and 72 h post-SAH: 6 rabbits received an injection of mock cerebrospinal fluid (1 ml/kg) into the cisterna magna (group I, the control group); 6 rabbits were subjected to SAH but received no treatment (group II); autologous blood (1 ml/kg) from the central ear artery was injected into the cisterna magna of these rabbits; 6 rabbits were subjected to SAH (1 ml/kg) and treated with intraperitoneal (IP) bolus injections of remacemide hydrochloride (15 mg/kg) every 12 h beginning 30 minutes after SAH (group III); and 4 rabbits were not subjected to SAH but received IP bolus injections of remacemide hydrochloride every 12 h (group IV). Digital subtraction angiography was used to measure the diameter of the basilar artery. At 72 h post-SAH, vasospasm was evident in all untreated rabbits. The diameter of the basilar artery was reduced significantly below pre-SAH levels by 35.3 +/- 5.8% (mean +/- standard error of the mean). Treatment with remacemide hydrochloride significantly ameliorated vasospasm (27.3 +/- 5.4%, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that in this model EAAs may cooperate in the genesis of SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm and that NMDA receptor antagonism with remacemide hydrochloride can partially prevent the SAH-induced vasospasm of a large cerebral artery. PMID:7723068

  12. Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Lorido, José Carlos; Carretero-Gómez, Juana

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is infrequent. We present the case of a man with CVT of the right transverse sinus who presented with a SAH in the right parietal sinus. In this case, we describe a hyper-homocysteinemia in a heterozygous patient for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C667T mutation. Our report highlights the value of an early diagnosis of CVT, the importance of identifying possible causes that could be reversed with an appropriate treatment, and the controversy about the timing for starting anticoagulation therapy in such cases. PMID:25380613

  13. CSF Catecholamine Profile in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients with Neurogenic Cardiomyopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael MoussouttasEdwin; Edwin W. Lai; Keith Dombrowski; Thanh T. Huynh; John Khoury; Gilberto Carmona; Matthew DeCaro; Karel Pacak

    2011-01-01

    Background  Patients experiencing apoplectic intracranial processes may develop neurogenic cardiomyopathy (NC). The purpose of this research\\u000a is to determine whether cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) catecholamine levels are elevated in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients\\u000a with NC when compared to those without NC.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Observational study of consecutive grades 3–5 SAH patients requiring ventriculostomy. All patients underwent CSF sampling\\u000a for catecholamine levels, and transthoracic echocardiography

  14. Iron and early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Loftspring, Matthew C

    2010-11-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) affects approximately 27,000 Americans per year. Although delayed cerebral vasospasm is of high clinical significance, mortality within the first 2 days may approach 30%. In this issue of the Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, Lee et al have studied the role of iron in early brain injury after experimental SAH. They found that iron chelation with deferoxamine reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage, and lessened the induction of iron-handling proteins. Taken together, these results highlight the deleterious potential of blood breakdown products and provide an insight into future intervention. PMID:20736954

  15. Hemorrhagic stomatitis in a natural hybrid of Vipera ammodytes × Vipera berus due to inappropriate substrate in terrarium

    PubMed Central

    CZIRJÁK, Gábor Árpád; KÖBÖLKUTI, Lóránd Béla; TENK, Miklós; SZAKÁCS, Attila; KELEMEN, Attila; SPÎNU, Marina

    2015-01-01

    A natural hybrid of Vipera ammodytes × Vipera berus was presented having low body weight, seizures and generalized swelling of the cephalic region. Based on the history of the case and clinical examination, hemorrhagic stomatitis of traumatic origin was diagnosed. The snake was kept in a terrarium with wood chips as a substrate, and the material had induced trauma in the oral mucosa which was further complicated with Salmonella Arizonae and Morganella morganii co-infection, abscessation and osteomyelitis. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of bacterial infection in European snake hybrids and one of a few case reports in European snakes. Although wood chips are an inexpensive substrate, based on our findings, they should be avoided when keeping and breeding European vipers. PMID:25715871

  16. Vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage in haptoglobin 2-2 mice can be prevented with a glutathione peroxidase mimetic.

    PubMed

    Froehler, Michael T; Kooshkabadi, Ali; Miller-Lotan, Rachel; Blum, Shany; Sher, Slava; Levy, Andrew; Tamargo, Rafael J

    2010-09-01

    Vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is attributable to inflammation and oxidative stress associated with extracellular hemoglobin (Hb). Haptoglobin (Hp) binds free Hb and the Hp-Hb complex is cleared by macrophages, and the Hp-2 isoform of Hp is associated with more oxidative stress and more severe vasospasm. We hypothesized that treatment with an anti-oxidant, the glutathione peroxidase mimetic SYI-2074, would reduce vasospasm after SAH in Hp-2 mice. We found that SAH induced significant vasospasm in Hp-2 mice (lumen patency reduced to 65.9%), but no vasospasm was seen in mice that received SYI-2074 after SAH (lumen patency of 98.7%). We conclude that vasospasm after SAH in Hp-2 mice can be prevented with SYI-2074, suggesting that oxidative stress contributes significantly to vasospasm. PMID:20541941

  17. Critical Care Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey C. Quinn; Simon P. Holbrook

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a Spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high mortality, and is a significant cause of morbidity\\u000a including permanent functional deficit.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a A thorough clinical assessment including WFNS grading and computed tomography is vital when SAH is suspected.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 3. \\u000a \\u000a All confirmed cases should be referred to a specialist neurosurgical center early.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 4. \\u000a \\u000a Critical-care management should aim to maintain CPP

  18. MR Angiography Follow-Up 10 Years after Cryptogenic Nonperimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Holger; Wenz, Ralf; al Mahdi, Mohamad-Motaz; Scharf, Johann; Groden, Christoph; Schmiedek, Peter; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Long-term magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) follow-up studies regarding cryptogenic nonperimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (nSAH) are scarce. This single-centre study identified all patients with angiographically verified cryptogenic nSAH from 1998 to 2007: The two main objectives were to prospectively assess the incidence of de novo aneurysm with 3.0-MRI years after cryptogenic nSAH in patients without evidence for further hemorrhage, and retrospectively assess patient demographics and outcome. Methods From prospectively maintained report databases all patients with angiographically verified cryptogenic nSAH were identified. 21 of 29 patients received high-resolution 3T-MRI including time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced angiography, 10.2 ± 2.8 years after cryptogenic nSAH. MRA follow-up imaging was compared with initial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT/MRA. Post-hemorrhage images were related to current MRI with reference to persistent lesions resulting from delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and post-hemorrhagic siderosis. Patient-based objectives were retrospectively abstracted from clinical databases. Results 29 patients were identified with cryptogenic nSAH, 17 (59%) were male. Mean age at time of hemorrhage was 52.9 ± 14.4 years (range 4 – 74 years). 21 persons were available for long-term follow-up. In these, there were 213.5 person years of MRI-follow-up. No de novo aneurysm was detected. Mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) during discharge was 1.28. Post-hemorrhage radiographic vasospasm was found in three patients (10.3%); DCI-related lesions occurred in one patient (3.4%). Five patients (17.2%) needed temporary external ventricular drainage; long-term CSF shunt dependency was necessary only in one patient (3.4%). Initial DSA retrospectively showed a 2 x 2 mm aneurysm of the right distal ICA in one patient, which remained stable. Post-hemorrhage siderosis was detected 8.1 years after the initial bleeding in one patient (4.8%). Conclusion Patients with cryptogenic nSAH have favourable outcomes and do not exhibit higher risks for de novo aneurysms. Therefore the need for long-term follow up after cryptogenic nSAH is questionable. PMID:25688554

  19. Expression of Cytoplasmic Gelsolin in Rat Brain After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guang-Bin; Wang, Chun-Xi; Zhou, Chen-Hui; Li, Hua; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Li; Hang, Chun-Hua; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Shi, Ji-Xin

    2015-07-01

    Convincing evidence indicates that apoptosis contributes to the unfavorable prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a significant cause of morbidity and case fatality throughout the world. Gelsolin (GSN) is a Ca(2+)-dependent actin filament severing, capping, and nucleating protein, as well as multifunctional regulator of cell structure and metabolism, including apoptosis. In the present study, we intended to investigate the expression pattern and cell distribution of GSN in rat brain after experimental SAH. GSN expression was examined in sham group and at 3, 6, 12 h, day 1 (1 day), 2, 3, 5, and 7 days after SAH by Western blot analysis as well as real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were performed to detect the localization of GSN. The level of GSN protein expression was significantly decreased in SAH group and reached a bottoming point on 1 day after SAH. GSN mRNA level was significantly decreased in SAH groups in comparison with the sham group, and reached a minimum value at 12 h after SAH. Immunohistochemistry showed that GSN was constitutively and obviously expressed in the cortex of the normal rat brain and significantly decreased in the rat cortex after SAH. In addition, immunofluorescence results revealed that GSN expression could be found in both neurons and microglias, as well as in glialfibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes. The decreased expression of GSN could mainly be found in neurons and astrocytes as well, and GSN-positive microglias showed different cell morphological characteristics. Interestingly, the protein and gene levels of GSN seemed to be constant in the rat hippocampus of sham and SAH groups. These findings suggested a potential role of GSN in the pathophysiology of the brain at the early stage of SAH. PMID:25744577

  20. [Timing of helicopter transportation for patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage on isolated islands].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Yuki; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Takahata, Hideaki; Ono, Tomonori; Toda, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral aneurysm re-rupture following subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)is a serious problem that is related with poor outcome. It is generally said that re-rupture occurs within 6 hours of the initial SAH;in the acute stage, strict management is needed even in the period before hospitalization. The aim of this study was to confirm whether patients on isolated islands should be transferred by helicopter > 6 hours after the initial SAH. Here we reviewed 125 cases of SAH in the isolated islands of Nagasaki prefecture between January 2007 and December 2012 who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by helicopter as a result of consultation via TeleStroke(41 men, 84 women;mean age, 65.76 years). Re-rupture was observed in seven patients(5.6%), five of whom were diagnosed with re-rupture in a prior hospital on the isolated island. No patients demonstrated clinical deterioration during transport. Early helicopter transportation under adequate sedation and control of blood pressure within 6 hours is safe, and patients should be transferred as quickly as possible during the day. On the other hand, at night, flight safety must first be considered. Patients in stable clinical condition may be transferred the next day. We should pay special attention to patients with SAH and intracerebral hemorrhage, severe SAH, or vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm because their condition may gradually become more serious even if initially stable. PMID:24920741

  1. Hemorrhagic shock occurring due to a concealed hematoma after insertion of a subclavian venous catheter in a patient undergoing anticoagulation therapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Boo-Young; Kim, Won-Sung; Cho, Ah-Reum; Cho, Mi-Jung; Lee, Chung-Won

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man who had been receiving warfarin for atrial fibrillation, underwent emergency thrombectomy. A central venous catheter (CVC) was inserted via the left subclavian vein, and heparin was administered to prevent preoperative and postoperative thrombotic events. After an uneventful thrombectomy, the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU). On the second postoperative day, the patient developed syncope and his blood pressure and oxygen saturation decreased. A computed tomography (CT) revealed a huge hematoma under the pectoralis major muscle. The patient was then treated with continuous renal replacement therapy and mechanical ventilation for multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, which developed due to hemorrhagic shock in the ICU. These findings suggest that when a CVC is inserted in patients requiring anticoagulant therapy, the possible risk of excessive bleeding must be carefully considered. Further, choosing a proper insertion site and performing an ultrasound-guided aspiration may be helpful in preventing these complications. PMID:25473468

  2. Prevalence of thoracic aortopathy in patients with juvenile Polyposis Syndrome-Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia due to SMAD4.

    PubMed

    Heald, Brandie; Rigelsky, Christina; Moran, Rocio; LaGuardia, Lisa; O'Malley, Margaret; Burke, Carol A; Zahka, Kenneth

    2015-08-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by abnormal vascular structures that may present as epistaxis, telangiectasias, and/or arteriovenous malformations. The genes associated with HHT (ACVRL1, ENG, and SMAD4) are members of the TGF? pathway. Other syndromes associated with abnormalities in TGF? signaling include Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and related disorders. These disorders have aortic disease as a prominent finding. While there are case reports of patients with HHT and aortopathy (dilatation/aneurysm, dissection, and rupture), this has not been systematically investigated. We conducted a retrospective chart review to determine the prevalence of aortopathy in an HHT cohort. Patients from a single institution were identified who met the Curacao Criteria for a clinical diagnosis of HHT and/or had a mutation in ACVRL1, ENG, or SMAD4 and underwent echocardiogram. Two-dimensional echocardiograms were reviewed by a single pediatric cardiologist, and data were collected on demographics, genotype, HHT features, aortic root measurements, past medical history, and family history. Z scores and nomograms were utilized to identify abnormal results. Twenty-six patients from 15 families (one ACVRL1, four ENG, eight SMAD4, and two clinical diagnoses) were included in the analysis. Aortopathy was found in 6/26 (23%) patients; all had SMAD4 mutations. In our cohort, 6/16 (38%) SMAD4 mutation carriers had evidence of aortopathy. These data suggest that aortopathy could be part of the spectrum of SMAD4-induced HHT manifestations. Routine aortic imaging, including measurements of the aorta, should be considered in patients with SMAD4 mutations to allow for appropriate medical and surgical recommendations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25931195

  3. Management of arterial vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dusick, Joshua R; Gonzalez, Nestor R

    2013-11-01

    Despite recent advances, cerebral vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) still represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Although a significant portion of the morbidity and mortality associated with aSAH is related to the initial hemorrhagic ictus, cerebral vasospasm and DCI are still the leading cause of poor outcomes and death in the acute posthemorrhage period, causing long-term disability or death in more than one in five of all patients who have suffered aSAH and initially survived.Management of patients following aSAH includes four major considerations: (1) prediction of patients at highest risk for development of DCI, (2) prophylactic measures to reduce its occurrence, (3) monitoring to detect early signs of cerebral ischemia, and (4) treatments to correct vasospasm and cerebral ischemia once it occurs. The authors review the pertinent literature related to each, including both the current management guidelines supported by the literature as well as novel management strategies that are currently being investigated. PMID:24504612

  4. Isoflurane Attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption in Ipsilateral Hemisphere after subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Orhan; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Caner, Basak; Krafft, Paul R.; Fujii, Mutsumi; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose We examined effects of isoflurane, volatile anesthetics, on blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in the endovascular perforation model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in mice. Methods Animals were assigned to sham-operated, SAH+vehicle-air, SAH+1% or 2% isoflurane groups. Neurobehavioral function, brain water content, Evans blue dye extravasation and Western blotting for sphingosine kinases (SphKs), occludin, claudin-5, junctional adhesion molecule and vascular endothelial cadherin were evaluated at 24 hours post-SAH. Effects of SphK (DMS) or sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1/3 (S1P1/3) inhibitors (VPC23019) on isoflurane's action were also examined. Results SAH aggravated neurological scores, brain edema and BBB permeability, which were prevented by 2% but not 1% isoflurane posttreatment. 2% isoflurane increased SphK1 expression and prevented a post-SAH decrease in expressions of the BBB-related proteins. Both DMS and VPC23019 abolished the beneficial effects of isoflurane. Conclusions 2% isoflurane can suppress post-SAH BBB disruption, which may be mediated by SphK1 expression and S1P1/3 activation. PMID:22773559

  5. A review of current and future medical therapies for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mocco, J; Zacharia, Brad E; Komotar, Ricardo J; Connolly, E Sander

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to help clarify the current state of medical therapy for cerebral vasospasm, the authors reviewed the relevant literature on the established medical therapies used for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and they discuss burgeoning areas of investigation. Despite advances in the treatment of aneurysmal SAH, cerebral vasospasm remains a common complication and has been correlated with a 1.5- to threefold increase in death during the first 2 weeks after hemorrhage. A number of medical, pharmacological, and surgical therapies are currently in use or being investigated in an attempt to reverse cerebral vasospasm, but only a few have proven to be useful. Although much has been elucidated regarding its pathophysiology, the treatment of cerebral vasospasm remains a dilemma. Although a poor understanding of SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm pathophysiology has, to date, hampered the development of therapeutic interventions, current research efforts promise the eventual production of new medical therapies. PMID:17029348

  6. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

  7. [Hemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Megevand, Bérangère; Celi, Julien; Niquille, Marc

    2014-08-13

    Shock is a life threatening condition. The management of an hemorrhagic shock, whether traumatic or not, requires early identification of the bleeding source and adequate hemodynamic support. The diagnosis accuracy is based on clinical, hemodynamic, radiologic and biochemical findings which also allow appraisal of the treatment efficiency. Treatment should be goal-oriented with rapid hemorrhage control by surgery, interventional radiology or drug support. Circulatory resuscitation is aimed to restore adequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation and should be closely monitored. PMID:25199225

  8. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an ARIA before the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lizana, Eva; Carmona-Iragui, María; Alcolea, Daniel; Gómez-Choco, Manuel; Vilaplana, Eduard; Sánchez-Saudinós, María B; Clarimón, Jordi; Hernández-Guillamon, Mar; Munuera, Josep; Gelpi, Ellen; Gómez-Anson, Beatriz; de Juan-Delago, Manel; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Montaner, Joan; Ois, Angel; Amaro, Sergi; Blesa, Rafael; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Lleó, Alberto; Fortea, Juan

    2015-05-01

    Atraumatic convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH) in elderly patients is a rare entity that has been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and intracerebral hematomas (ICH). To characterize this entity and to study these associations, 22 patients over 60 with cSAH were included in a multicenter ambispective cohort study. Clinical data, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies, APOE genotyping, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were evaluated. Results were compared with data from healthy controls (HC), non-cSAH CAA patients (CAAo), and Alzheimer disease patients. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented with transient sensory or motor symptoms. At follow-up (median 30.7 months), 5 patients had died, 6 survivors showed functional disability (modified Rankins Scale (mRS)>2), and 12 cognitive impairment. Four patients had prior ICH and six had an ICH during follow-up. CSF-Aß40 and Aß42 levels were lower in cSAH and CAAo compared with HC. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage presented an APOE-?2 overrepresentation and CAAo had an APOE-?4 overrepresentation. On MRI, all patients fulfilled CAA-modified Boston criteria and 9 showed cortical ischemia in the surrounding cortex or the vicinity of superficial siderosis. The neuropathologic study, available in one patient, showed severe CAA and advanced Alzheimer-type pathology. Convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the elderly is associated with cognitive impairment and lobar ICH occurrence. Our findings support the existence of an underlying CAA pathology. PMID:25735919

  9. Indications for endovascular therapy for refractory vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norberto Andaluz; Thomas A Tomsick; John M Tew; Harry R van Loveren; Hwa-Shain Yeh; Mario Zuccarello

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUNDTransluminal balloon angioplasty (TBA) and intra-arterial papaverine (IAP) appear to be valuable alternatives for the treatment of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced vasospasm refractory to maximal medical therapy. Although widely used, guiding principles for the implementation of TBA and IAP are not yet established. Based on our retrospective analysis, we define guidelines for endovascular therapy for refractory vasospasm based on our

  10. Rescue Therapy for Refractory Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Julia C.; Hinson, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia remain to be the common causes of increased morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of clinical vasospasm responds to hemodynamic augmentation and direct vascular intervention; however, a percentage of patients continue to have symptoms and neurological decline. Despite suboptimal evidence, clinicians have several options in treating refractory vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), including cerebral blood flow enhancement, intra-arterial manipulations, and intra-arterial and intrathecal infusions. This review addresses standard treatments as well as emerging novel therapies aimed at improving cerebral perfusion and ameliorating the neurologic deterioration associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25501582

  11. Unpredicted Sudden Death due to Recurrent Infratentorial Hemangiopericytoma Presenting as Massive Intratumoral Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yuzuru; Murayama, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Unpredicted sudden death arising from hemangiopericytoma with massive intracranial hemorrhage is quite rare. We encountered a patient with recurrent infratentorial hemangiopericytoma presenting as life-threatening massive intracerebral hemorrhage. A 43-year-old man who had undergone craniotomy for total resection of an infratentorial hemangiopericytoma 17 months earlier presented with morning headache and generalized convulsions. Computed tomography revealed a massive hematoma in the right infratentorial region causing tonsillar herniation and emergency surgery was performed to evacuate the hematoma. Histological findings revealed hemangiopericytoma with hemorrhage. Neurological status remained unimproved and brain death was confirmed postoperatively. Hemangiopericytoma presenting as massive hemorrhage is quite rare. Since the risk of life-threatening massive hemorrhage should be considered, careful postoperative long-term follow-up is very important to identify tumor recurrences, particularly in the posterior cranial fossa, even if the tumor is completely removed. PMID:25478258

  12. Tamoxifen as an effective neuroprotectant against early brain injury and learning deficits induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage: possible involvement of inflammatory signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has successfully been used to treat several animal models of brain injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)-related inflammatory signaling pathway and secondary brain injury in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) control group (n?=?28); (2) SAH group (n?=?28); (3) SAH?+?vehicle group (n?=?28); and (4) SAH?+?tamoxifen group (n?=?28). All SAH animals were subjected to injection of autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern once on day 0. In SAH?+?tamoxifen group, tamoxifen was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 5 mg/kg at 2 h, 12 h, and 36 h after SAH. In the first set of experiments, brain samples were extracted and evaluated at 48 h after SAH. In the second set of experiments, the Morris water maze was used to investigate cognitive and memory changes. Results We found that treatment with tamoxifen markedly inhibited the protein expressions of TLR4, NF-?B and the downstream inflammatory agents, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Administration of tamoxifen following SAH significantly ameliorated the early brain injury (EBI), such as brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, and clinical behavior scale. Learning deficits induced by SAH were markedly alleviated after tamoxifen treatment. Conclusions Post-SAH tamoxifen administration may attenuate TLR4/NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory response in the rat brain and result in abatement of the development of EBI and cognitive dysfunction after SAH. PMID:24373431

  13. Correlation between plasma total nitric oxide levels and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Shruthi Shimoga; Prasanthi, Aripirala; Bhat, Dhananjaya Ishwar; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Cristopher, Rita; Philip, Mariamma

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cerebral vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide has been associated with the development of cerebral vasospasm after aSAH. Such data is not available in Indian population. Aims: The objective of the study was to measure the plasma total nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate-NOx) level in aSAH patients and healthy controls treated at a tertiary hospital in India and to investigate a possible association between plasma total nitric oxide level and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome following treatment in patients with aSAH. Settings and Design: A case-control study of aSAH patients was conducted. Plasma total NOx levels were estimated in aSAH patients with and without vasospasm and compared the results with NOx levels in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: aSAH in patients was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and neuro-imaging findings. Plasma total NOx levels in different subject groups were determined by Griess assay. Results: Plasma total NOx level was found to be significantly decreased in patients with aSAH when compared to controls. Plasma total NOx level in the poor-grade SAH group was lower than that in the good-grade SAH group. Plasma total NOx level further reduced in patients with angiographic (P < 0.05) and clinical vasospasm. Conclusions: Reduced plasma NOx level is seen in aSAH patients as compared to normal individuals. In aSAH patients reduced levels are associated with increased incidence of cerebral vasospasm and poor outcome. Plasma total NOx level could be used as a candidate biomarker for predicting vasospasm and outcome for this pathology. PMID:25540533

  14. A Glutamate Receptor Antagonist, S-4-Carboxyphenylglycine (S-4-CPG), Inhibits Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Haptoglobin 2-2 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Pradilla, Gustavo; Ruzevick, Jacob J.; Bender, Matthew; Edwards, Lindsay; Grossman, Rachel; Zhao, Ming; Rudek, Michelle A.; Riggins, Gregory; M.D., Andrew Levy; Tamargo, Rafael J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Vasospasm contributes to delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Glutamate concentrations increase after aSAH and correlate with vasospasm in experimental SAH. The Hp2-2 genotype is associated with higher risk of vasospasm after SAH. We tested the efficacy of S-4-CPG, a metabotropic glutamate receptor inhibitor, for treatment of vasospasm after SAH in Hp2-2 and Hp1-1 mice. Objective To evaluate the effect on vasospasm and neurobehavioral scores after SAH of systemic S-4-CPG, as well as its toxicity, and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) in Hp 2-2 mice. Methods Western blot was used to assess changes in VASP phosphorylation in response to glutamate with and without S-4-CPG. A pharmacokinetics study was done to evaluate S-4-CPG penetration through the blood brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. Toxicity was assessed by administering escalating S-4-CPG doses. Efficacy of S-4-CPG assessed the effect of S-4-CPG on lumen patency of the basilar artery and animal behavior after SAH in Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-2 mice. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the presence of neutrophils surrounding the basilar artery after SAH. Results Exposure of human brain microvascular endothelial cells to glutamate decreased phosphorylation of VASP (p-VASP), but glutamate treatment in the presence of S-4-CPG maintains p-VASP. S-4-CPG crosses the BBB and was not toxic to mice. S-4-CPG treatment significantly prevents vasospasm after SAH. S-4-CPG administered after SAH resulted in a trend towards improvement of animal behavior. Conclusions S-4-CPG prevents vasospasm after experimental SAH in Hp2-2 mice. S-4-CPG was not toxic and is a potential therapeutic agent for vasospasm after SAH. PMID:23842553

  15. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Endy TP, Rothman AL, Barrett AD. Flaviviruses (Dengue, Yellow ... Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, ...

  16. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. How are hemorrhagic fever viruses grouped? VHFs are ... be prevented and controlled? With the exception of yellow fever and Argentine hemorrhagic fever, for which vaccines have ...

  17. Recombinant osteopontin attenuates experimental cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats through an anti-apoptotic mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Junchi; Liu, Mindi; Liu, Zhen; Luo, Liangsheng

    2015-06-22

    Cerebral vasospasm (CVS) is an important pathological process following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Osteopontin (OPN), a pleiotropic extracellular glycoprotein, has been reported to be able to induce MKP-1 in the spastic cerebral arteries and prevent vasospasm after SAH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of recombinant OPN (r-OPN) on CVS following SAH and the underlying mechanisms associated with its anti-apoptotic effect. Eighty male Sprague Dawley rats (weighing 300-375g) were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) sham+vehicle (n=20), (2) SAH+vehicle (n=20), (3) SAH+OPN0.03 (0.03?g) (n=20), (4) SAH+OPN0.1 (0.1?g) (n=20). The double injection model of cisterna magna was performed on day 0 and 48h after the first induction. r-OPN was administered intraventricularly nearly 30min after the first SAH. After neurological score assessment, rats were sacrificed 72h after the first SAH. The cross-sectional area and thickness of basilar arteries (BA) were measured under Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Endothelial cell apoptosis was identified by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expression of p-Akt and cleaved caspase-3 in BA. Western blot analysis was applied to evaluate the expression of p-Akt, cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2 in BA. r-OPN improved neurological scores and attenuated vasospasm. r-OPN significantly reduced expression of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax in BA following SAH, and increased the level of p-Akt and Bcl-2, coupled with reduced apoptosis of endothelial cell in BA. These results demonstrate that r-OPN can attenuate vasospasm after SAH through a suppressed apoptotic response, which may provide a novel therapeutic target for cerebral vasospasm. PMID:25779039

  18. Reactivity of cerebral arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats after phosphoramidon administered.

    PubMed

    Jo?ko, J; Hendryk, S; Jedrzejowska-Szypu?ka, H; S?owi?ski, J; Gwó?d?, B; Lange, D; Harabin-S?owi?ska, M

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify cerebral vasospasm in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by morphometric examination of basilar artery and to evaluate the influence of Phosphoramidon on basilar artery constriction. The rat cisterna magna (CM) was cannulated and after 7 days SAH was developed by administration of 100 microliters autologic, non-heparinized blood to the CM. The sham subarachnoid hemorrhage was developed by intracisternal administration of 100 microliters of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. After 60 min and after 24 h Phosphoramidon was injected into the CM in a dose of 40 nmol diluted in 50 microliters of cerebrospinal fluid. After perfusion, the brain was removed from the skull and histological preparations of the basilar artery were made. The internal diameter and wall thickness of basilar arteries were measured by interactive morphometric method. The most severe vasospasm was found in rats after SAH and the administration of Phosphoramidon in the late phase after SAH caused the dilatation of the basilar artery. The presence of numerous infiltrations composed of neutrophils and macrophages correlated with advanced vasospasm (index of constriction 5 times lower than normal), suggesting the role of other factors participating in the late phase of vasospasms after SAH. PMID:11208441

  19. A modified double injection model of cisterna magna for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious medical complication, characterized by constriction of cerebral arteries leading to varying degrees of cerebral ischemia. Numerous clinical and experimental studies have been performed in the last decades; however, the pathophysiologic mechanism of cerebral vasospasm after SAH still remains unclear. Among a variety of experimental SAH models, the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used most frequently for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH in last years. Despite the simplicity of the technique, the second blood injection into the cisterna magna may result in brainstem injury leading to high mortality. Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. We describe here step by step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using histological assessment of the diameter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery. PMID:23194464

  20. Insurance Status Is Associated with Treatment Allocation and Outcomes after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Charles; Dortch, John; Ozrazgat Baslanti, Tezcan; Layon, Daniel R.; Roche, Alina; Rioux, Alison; Harman, Jeffrey S.; Fahy, Brenda; Bihorac, Azra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a particularly devastating type of stroke which is responsible for one third of all stroke-related years of potential life lost before age 65. Surgical treatment has been shown to decrease both morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We hypothesized that payer status other than private insurance is associated with lower allocation to surgical treatment for patients with SAH and worse outcomes. Design We examined the association between insurance type and surgical treatment allocation and outcomes for patients with SAH while adjusting for a wide range of patient and hospital factors. We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample hospital discharge database using survey procedures to produce weighted estimates representative of the United States population. Patients We studied 21047 discharges, representing a weighted estimate of 102595 patients age 18 and above with a discharge diagnosis of SAH between 2003 and 2008. Measurements Multivariable logistic and generalized linear regression analyses were used to assess for any associations between insurance status and surgery allocation and outcomes. Main Results Despite the benefits of surgery 66% of SAH patients did not undergo surgical treatment to prevent rebleeding. Mortality was more than twice as likely for patients with no surgical treatment compared to those who received surgery. Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment. Conclusions Nearly two thirds of patients with SAH don't receive operative care, and Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment than other patients. Bias against the elderly and those with chronic illness and disability may play a part in these findings. A system of regionalized care for patients presenting with SAH may reduce disparities and improve appropriate allocation to surgical care and deserves prospective study. PMID:25141303

  1. Embolic Signals during Routine Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, Fernando Mendes; de Almeida Lins Ronconi, Karla; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Nogueira, Ricardo de Carvalho; Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral emboli may occur in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracranial aneurysm surgery. Although embolic signs (ES) have been reported in SAH, their origin remains unclear. The aim of this study was to report the detection of ES during routine TCD monitoring in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Methods. A total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were submitted to TCD evaluation. Patients were monitored almost daily (5 times per week). In each monitoring session, one experienced operator performed TCD to detect or assess vasospasm and ES in arteries of the Willis polygon. Results. Four patients out of a total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were found to present spontaneous cerebral embolization during routine TCD monitoring. The average age of the 4 patients (mean ± standard deviation) was 59.5 ± 8.34 years (range 49–68?ys); female patients predominated representing 75% (3/4) of subjects. Conclusion. Although detection of ES was relatively rare in this study, rates of emboli occurrence may be higher under systematic monitoring. The detection of ES after SAH surgery reinforces the need to study the role of embolus in this condition and may be an indicator for prophylactic antithrombotic treatment. PMID:25893190

  2. Reduced Ca2+ spark activity after subarachnoid hemorrhage disables BK channel control of cerebral artery tone.

    PubMed

    Koide, Masayo; Nystoriak, Matthew A; Krishnamoorthy, Gayathri; O'Connor, Kevin P; Bonev, Adrian D; Nelson, Mark T; Wellman, George C

    2011-01-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) release events ('Ca(2+) sparks') and transient activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels represent an important vasodilator pathway in the cerebral vasculature. Considering the frequent occurrence of cerebral artery constriction after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), our objective was to determine whether Ca(2+) spark and BK channel activity were reduced in cerebral artery myocytes from SAH model rabbits. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy, we observed ?50% reduction in Ca(2+) spark activity, reflecting a decrease in the number of functional Ca(2+) spark discharge sites. Patch-clamp electrophysiology showed a similar reduction in Ca(2+) spark-induced transient BK currents, without change in BK channel density or single-channel properties. Consistent with a reduction in active Ca(2+) spark sites, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting revealed decreased expression of ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR-2) and increased expression of the RyR-2-stabilizing protein, FKBP12.6, in the cerebral arteries from SAH animals. Furthermore, inhibitors of Ca(2+) sparks (ryanodine) or BK channels (paxilline) constricted arteries from control, but not from SAH animals. This study shows that SAH-induced decreased subcellular Ca(2+) signaling events disable BK channel activity, leading to cerebral artery constriction. This phenomenon may contribute to decreased cerebral blood flow and poor outcome after aneurysmal SAH. PMID:20736958

  3. Altered Resting-State Connectivity within Executive Networks after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Monica; Churchill, Nathan W.; de Oliveira Manoel, Airton Leonardo; Graham, Simon J.; Macdonald, R. Loch; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with significant mortality rates, and most survivors experience significant cognitive deficits across multiple domains, including executive function. It is critical to determine the neural basis for executive deficits in aSAH, in order to better understand and improve patient outcomes. This study is the first examination of resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a group of aSAH patients, used to characterize changes in functional connectivity of the frontoparietal network. We scanned 14 aSAH patients and 14 healthy controls, and divided patients into “impaired” and “unimpaired” groups based on a composite executive function score. Impaired patients exhibited significantly lower quality of life and neuropsychological impairment relative to controls, across multiple domains. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that unimpaired patients were not significantly different from controls, but impaired patients had increased frontoparietal connectivity. Patients evidenced increased frontoparietal connectivity as a function of decreased executive function and decreased mood (i.e. quality of life). In addition, T1 morphometric analysis demonstrated that these changes are not attributable to local cortical atrophy among aSAH patients. These results establish significant, reliable changes in the endogenous brain dynamics of aSAH patients, that are related to cognitive and mood outcomes. PMID:26172281

  4. Protective effects of thrombomodulin on microvascular permeability after subarachnoid hemorrhage in mouse model.

    PubMed

    Xu, T; Zhang, W-G; Sun, J; Zhang, Y; Lu, J-F; Han, H-B; Zhou, C-M; Yan, J-H

    2015-07-23

    The enhanced vascular permeability is a major early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, its mechanism is not clear yet. In this work, we explored its potential mechanism and investigated the roles of thrombomodulin (TM) in maintaining microvascular integrity after SAH. SAH models were established in adult male ICR mice (28-32g) by endovascular perforation. TM was immediately administered by femoral vein injection following SAH. The brain water content, Evans Blue content and neurological functions were evaluated. Brain edema was also detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (T2 map). The siRNA technique, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunofluorescence staining and western blotting were performed to explore the potential mechanism of TM treatment. The number of microthrombi in the hippocampus microvessels was also recorded. TM significantly decreased brain water content and Evans Blue content, alleviated brain edema and neurological deficits after SAH. The plasma concentration of activated protein C was increased after TM treatment. In addition, the levels of phospho-p38MAPK, phospho-p53, cleaved caspase-3, phospho-NF-?B (p65) were markedly decreased. Additionally, the loss of VE-cadherin and Occludin (markers of vascular integrity) and the number of microthrombi in the hippocampus were also reduced. Our results indicated that TM has protective effects on preserving microvascular integrity following SAH partly through preserving endothelial junction proteins and quenching apoptosis/inflammation in endothelial cells via blocking p38MAPK-p53/NF-?B (p65) pathway. PMID:25936678

  5. CO2 has no therapeutic effect on early microvasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Benjamin; Michalik, Radoslaw; Oniszczuk, Anna; Abubaker, Khalid; Kozniewska, Ewa; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2014-08-01

    In addition to delayed vasospasm also early brain injury, which occurs during the first few days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) when large cerebral arteries are still fully functional, plays an important role for the outcome after SAH. In the current study, we investigated the hypothesis that carbon dioxide (CO2), a strong cerebral vasodilator, has a therapeutic potential against early posthemorrhagic microvasospasm. C57BL/6 mice (n=36) and Sprague-Dawley rats (n=23) were subjected to sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. The pial microcirculation in the mice was visualized 3 and 24 hours after SAH using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) was modulated by hyper- or hypoventilation or by inhalation of 10% CO2. In rats, CO2-mediated changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured at the same time points using laser Doppler fluxmetry. Increased PaCO2 caused vasodilatation in sham-operated animals. Following SAH, however, cerebral arterioles were nonreactive to CO2. This lack of microvascular CO2 reactivity was accompanied by a complete loss of CO2-induced hyperemia. Our data show that CO2 is not able to dilate spastic microvessels and to increase CBF early after SAH. Future therapeutic approaches will therefore need to address mechanisms beyond CO2. PMID:24865999

  6. The Pb Pb age of Angrite SAH99555 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J. N.; Bizzarro, M.; Thrane, K.; Baker, J. A.

    2008-10-01

    Representing a suite of well-preserved basaltic meteorites with reported ages from 4566.18 ± 0.14 Ma to 4557.65 ± 0.13 Ma, angrites have been recurring targets for cross-calibrating extinct and absolute chronometers. However, inconsistencies exist in the available chronological data set, including a 4566.18 ± 0.14 Ma Pb-Pb age reported by Baker et al. [Baker J., Bizzarro M., Wittig N., Connelly J. and Haack H. (2005) Early planetesimal melting from an age of 4.5662 Gyr for differentiated meteorites. Nature436, 1127-1131] for Sahara 99555 (herein SAH99555) that is significantly older than a Pb-Pb age for D'Orbigny, despite the two meteorites yielding indistinguishable Hf-W and Mn-Cr ages. We re-evaluate the Pb-Pb age of SAH99555 using a stepwise dissolution procedure on a whole rock fragment and a pyroxene separate. The combined data set yields a linear array that reflects a mixture of radiogenic Pb and terrestrial contamination and corresponds to an age of 4564.58 ± 0.14 Ma, which is 1.60 ± 0.20 Ma younger than that reported by Baker et al. [Baker J., Bizzarro M., Wittig N., Connelly J. and Haack H. (2005) Early planetesimal melting from an age of 4.5662 Gyr for differentiated meteorites. Nature436, 1127-1131]. Our conclusion that SAH99555 crystallized at 4564.58 ± 0.14 Ma requires that all initial Pb was removed in the first progressive dissolution steps, an assertion supported by linearity of data generated by stepwise dissolution of a single fragment and the removal of an obvious highly-radiogenic component early in the dissolution process. We infer that the linear array defined by Baker et al. [Baker J., Bizzarro M., Wittig N., Connelly J. and Haack H. (2005) Early planetesimal melting from an age of 4.5662 Gyr for differentiated meteorites. Nature436, 1127-1131] and their older age reflects a ternary mixture of Pb with constant relative proportions of highly-radiogenic initial Pb and radiogenic Pb with varying amounts of a terrestrial contamination. This requires that the phase harboring the initial Pb is insoluble in 2 M HCl, the only acid applied to the samples by Baker et al. [Baker J., Bizzarro M., Wittig N., Connelly J. and Haack H. (2005) Early planetesimal melting from an age of 4.5662 Gyr for differentiated meteorites. Nature436, 1127-1131] prior to dissolution.

  7. Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates early brain injury via reducing oxidative stress and brain edema following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing experimental and clinical data indicate that early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) largely contributes to unfavorable outcomes, and it has been proved that EBI following SAH is closely associated with oxidative stress and brain edema. The present study aimed to examine the effect of hydrogen, a mild and selective cytotoxic oxygen radical scavenger, on oxidative stress injury, brain edema and neurology outcome following experimental SAH in rabbits. Results The level of MDA, caspase-12/3 and brain water content increased significantly at 72 hours after experimental SAH. Correspondingly, obvious brain injury was found in the SAH group by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5’-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and Nissl staining. Similar results were found in the SAH?+?saline group. In contrast, the upregulated level of MDA, caspase-12/3 and brain edema was attenuated and the brain injury was substantially alleviated in the hydrogen treated rabbits, but the improvement of neurology outcome was not obvious. Conclusion The results suggest that treatment with hydrogen in experimental SAH rabbits could alleviate brain injury via decreasing the oxidative stress injury and brain edema. Hence, we conclude that hydrogen possesses the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for EBI after SAH. PMID:22587664

  8. Predictors of 1-year outcome after coiling for poor-grade subarachnoid aneurysmal hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana R. Pereira; Paola Sanchez-Peña; Alessandra Biondi; Nader Sourour; Anne L. Boch; Chantal Colonne; Lise Lejean; Lamine Abdennour; Louis Puybasset

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To describe features in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage\\u000a (SAH) and to identify predictors of 12-month outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a controlled observational study of 51 consecutive patients treated with endovascular coiling within 96 h of\\u000a rupture for poor-grade aneurysmal SAH (20 men and 31 women, age 54 ± 12 years). We recorded co-morbidities; initial severity;\\u000a aneurysm

  9. Outcome correlates with blood distribution in subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Woznica; Steffen K. Rosahl; Ansgar Berlis; Astrid Weyerbrock

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Between 15 and 30 % of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have no bleeding source and usually have a benign clinical\\u000a course and outcome. The objectives of this study were to classify the pattern of blood distribution on initial computed tomography\\u000a (CT) and to correlate it with clinical outcome in aneurysmal (ASAH) and SAH of unknown origin (SAHuO).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We reviewed

  10. Implications of Early Versus Late Bilateral Pulmonary Infiltrates in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas H. Kramer; Thomas P. Bleck; Aaron S. Dumont; Neal F. Kassell; Claire Olson; Bart Nathan

    2009-01-01

    Introduction  Bilateral pulmonary infiltrates occur frequently following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and may be associated\\u000a with worse outcomes. The etiology, natural history, and prognosis of infiltrates occurring soon after SAH may differ from\\u000a the characteristics of infiltrates developing at a later time.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a retrospective cohort study involving 245 consecutive patients with a ruptured cerebral aneurysm to assess the\\u000a association

  11. Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2014-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

  12. Effects of isoflurane on brain inflammation after subarachnoid hemorrhage in mice

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Orhan; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Brain inflammation may play an important role in the pathophysiology of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Our aim was to demonstrate brain inflammation development and to determine whether isoflurane, a clinically available volatile anesthetic agent, prevents brain inflammation after SAH. This study used 162 8-week-old male CD-1 mice. We induced SAH with endovascular perforation in mice and randomly assigned animals to sham-operated (n=21), SAH+vehicle-air (n=35) and SAH+2% isoflurane (n=31). In addition to evaluation of brain injury (neurological scores, brain edema and Evans blue dye extravasation), brain inflammation was evaluated by means of expression changes in markers of inflammatory cells (ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1, myeloperoxidase), cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-?, interleukin-1?), adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule [ICAM]-1, P-selectin), inducers of inflammation (cyclooxygenase-2, phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase [p-JNK]) and endothelial cell activation (von Willebrand factor) at 24 hours post-SAH. Sphingosine kinase inhibitor (N, N-dimethylsphingosine [DMS]) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-1/3 antagonist (VPC23019) were used to block isoflurane’s effects (n=22, each). SAH caused early brain injury, which was associated with inflammation so that all evaluated markers of inflammation were increased. Isoflurane significantly inhibited both brain injury (P<0.001, respectively) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase, P=0.022; interleukin-1?, P=0.002; TNF-?, P=0.015; P-selectin, P=0.010; ICAM-1, P=0.016; p-JNK, P<0.001; cyclooxygenase-2, P=0.003, respectively). This beneficial effect of isoflurane was abolished with DMS and VPC23019. Isoflurane may suppress post-SAH brain inflammation possibly via the sphingosine-related pathway. PMID:24084689

  13. Perioperative critical care management for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, H. Alex; Edwards, Nancy; Chang, Tiffany; Sladen, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant regional and risk factor-related variations, the overall mortality rate in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains high. Compared to ischemic stroke, which is typically irreversible, hemorrhagic stroke tends to carry a higher mortality, but patients who do survive have less disability. Technologies to monitor and treat complications of SAH have advanced considerably in recent years, but good long-term functional outcome still depends on prompt diagnosis, early aggressive management, and avoidance of premature withdrawal of support. Endovascular procedures and open craniotomy to secure a ruptured aneurysm represent some of the numerous critical steps required to achieve the best possible result. In this review, we have attempted to provide a contemporary, evidence-based outline of the perioperative critical care management of patients with SAH. This is a challenging and potentially fatal disease with a wide spectrum of severity and complications and an often protracted course. The dynamic nature of this illness, especially in its most severe forms, requires considerable flexibility in clinician management, especially given the panoply of available treatment modalities. Judicious hemodynamic monitoring and adaptive therapy are essential to respond to the fluctuating nature of cerebral vasospasm and the varying oxygen demands of the injured brain that may readily induce acute or delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25237442

  14. Postpartum Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Pope; Iris Ohel; Gershon Holcberg; Eyal Sheiner

    \\u000a Simply put, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is excessive bleeding after childbirth. It is a leading cause of maternal mortality\\u000a worldwide, but most of the deaths occur in low-income countries. Specifically, PPH is defined as blood loss of >500 ml after\\u000a vaginal delivery or >1,000 ml after cesarean delivery. “Early” PPH occurs within 24 h after delivery, and “late” PPH occurs\\u000a between

  15. Increased ICP promotes CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of neuronal NOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus immediately after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Makino, Kazushige; Osuka, Koji; Watanabe, Yasuo; Usuda, Nobuteru; Hara, Masahito; Aoyama, Masahiro; Takayasu, Masakazu; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2015-08-01

    Early brain injury has recently been identified as an indicator of poor prognosis after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II? (CaMKII?) has been shown to phosphorylate neuronal NOS (nNOS) at Ser(847), resulting in a reduction in nNOS activity. In this study, we revealed chronological changes in the phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus and cortex immediately after SAH. In a rat single-hemorrhage model of SAH, the hippocampus and adjacent cortex were collected up to 24h after SAH. Samples from rats that were not injected with blood were used as controls. NOS was partially purified from the crude samples using ADP-agarose affinity chromatography. Western blot analysis revealed that nNOS phosphorylated (p-nNOS) at Ser(847) was significantly increased in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, at 1h after SAH compared with that resulting from the control treatment. Immunoreactivity of p-nNOS at Ser(847) was observed in interneurons of the hippocampus at 1h after SAH. Injection of saline instead of blood also significantly induced p-nNOS at Ser(847) levels in the hippocampus at 1h after injection. The colocalization of CaMKII? and nNOS was transiently increased in the hippocampus at 0.5h after SAH. Our data suggest that immediately after SAH, an increase in intracranial pressure might induce transient cerebral ischemia, potentially promoting the phosphorylation of nNOS at Ser(847) by CaMKII? in the hippocampus. The activation of p-nNOS at Ser(847) in the hippocampus may alleviate ischemic insults immediately after SAH to exert a neuroprotective effect against early brain injury. PMID:25940762

  16. Insulin like growth factor-I in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Neuroendocrine deficiencies may affect recovery after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) regulates neuronal growth and apoptosis in ischemic stroke. Our study was designed to a) characterize the behavior of serum IGF-I and growth hormone (GH) in the acute and late phases after aSAH reflecting possible pituitary gland function and b) evaluate the association between IGF-I and morbidity assessed by Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with aSAH. Methods In this prospective cohort study, patients with aSAH (n = 30) were compared to patients who underwent elective aneurysm surgery (n = 16). Serum GH and IGF-I concentrations were measured daily for five (controls) or seven (aSAH) days and at three months. GOS and 15d HRQoL was measured at three months. A mixed models method was used for testing between the groups. For factors possibly affecting HRQoL in aSAH patients, we constructed a Bayesian predicting model using a P-course Bayesian classifier. Results The mean IGF-I concentrations for days one to five were 8.1 ± 3.5 nmol/l in patients with aSAH and 11.2 ± 3.1 in the control group (P = 0.01). No corresponding difference was found at three months. Serum GH concentrations were similar in both patient groups. Severity of the aSAH did not affect serum IGF-I concentrations. Patients with GOS ? 4 had lower IGF-I concentrations and lower HRQoL than patients with GOS 5 (P = 0.02 and 0.003 respectively). The 15d HRQoL was 0.81 ± 0.16 in patients with aSAH and 0.86 ± 0.09 in control patients (P = 0.24). In the Bayesian model, the use of statins prior to aSAH, hyponatremia, high maximal sequential organ specific score (SOFAmax), and low cumulative IGF-I concentrations on days one to seven were associated with poor HRQoL (accuracy 89%, sensitivity 86%, and specificity 93%). Conclusions IGF-I concentrations are low during acute aSAH, which may have an impact on morbidity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00614887 PMID:20426845

  17. Carotid rete mirabile associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm: A case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Júnior, Fernando Mendes Paschoal; Piske, Ronie Leo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-02-01

    Carotid rete mirabile (CRM) is a rare physiological vascular network in humans that is most often found in Eastern populations. This paper describes a CRM associated with an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and discusses the details of the patient's treatment. A 28-year-old woman was admitted to our service with clinical signs and symptoms of a spontaneous aSAH. Computed tomography revealed a diffuse and extensive SAH (Fisher group IV), while an angiogram showed an abnormal collateral network in the right carotid system and a hypoplastic aspect to the internal carotid artery (ICA) on the same side. In addition, a saccular aneurysm with a diameter of 9.5?mm was present in the ophthalmic segment of the left ICA. This case is extremely uncommon. To avoid rebleeding in the patient, we successfully treated the patient by clipping the aneurysmal lesion. No procedure was performed for the CRM. PMID:25934776

  18. NONCONVULSIVE SEIZURES IN SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE LINK INFLAMMATION AND OUTCOME

    PubMed Central

    Claassen, Jan; Albers, David; Schmidt, J. Michael; De Marchis, Gian Marco; Pugin, Deborah; Falo, Christina Maria; Mayer, Stephan A.; Cremers, Serge; Agarwal, Sachin; Elkind, Mitchell SV; Connolly, E. Sander; Dukic, Vanja; Hripcsak, George; Badjatia, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Objective Nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) are frequent following acute brain injury and have been implicated as a cause of secondary brain injury but mechanisms that cause NCSz are controversial. Pro-inflammatory states are common after many brain injuries and inflammatory mediated changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability have experimentally been linked to seizures. Methods In this prospective observational study of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients we explored the link between the inflammatory response following SAH and in-hospital NCSz studying clinical (systemic inflammatory response syndrome,SIRS) and laboratory markers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor receptor 1,TNF-R1; high sensitivity C-reactive protein,hsCRP). Logistic regression, cox proportional hazards regression, and mediation analyses were performed to investigate temporal and causal relationships. Results Among 479 SAH patients, 53(11%) had in-hospital NCSz. Patients with in-hospital NCSz had a more pronounced SIRS response (OR1.9 per point increase in SIRS; 95%-CI1.3-2.9), inflammatory surges were more likely immediately preceding NCSz onset, and the negative impact of SIRS on functional outcome at 3 months was mediated in part through in-hospital NCSz. In a subset with inflammatory serum biomarkers we confirmed these findings linking higher serum TNF-R1 and hsCRP to in-hospital NCSz (OR1.2 per 20 point hsCRP increase [95%-CI1.1-1.4]; OR2.5 per 100 point TNF-R1 increase [95%-CI2.1-2.9]). The association of inflammatory biomarkers with poor outcome was mediated in part through NCSz. Interpretation In-hospital NCSz were independently associated with a pro-inflammatory state following SAH reflected in clinical symptoms and serum biomarkers of inflammation. Our findings suggest that inflammation following SAH is associated with poor outcome and this effect is at least in part mediated through in-hospital NCSz. PMID:24771589

  19. Non-aneurysmal non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors based on a single-center experience in 125 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is mainly caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysms but in up to 15% of patients with SAH no bleeding source could be identified. Our objective was to analyze patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors in patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH. Methods From 1999 to 2009, data of 125 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH were prospectively entered into a database. All patients underwent repetitive cerebral angiography. Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (mRS 0–2 favorable vs. 3–6 unfavorable). Also, patients were divided in two groups according to the distribution of blood in the CT scan (perimesencephalic and non-perimesencephalic SAH). Results 106 of the 125 patients were in good WFNS grade (I-III) at admission (85%). Overall, favorable outcome was achieved in 104 of 125 patients (83%). Favorable outcome was associated with younger age (P?SAH, most patients (90%) were in good grade at admission, and 64 achieved favorable outcome. 52 of the 125 patients suffered from non-perimesencephalic SAH and 40 were in good grade at admission. Also 40 patients achieved favorable outcome. Conclusions Patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH have better prognosis compared to aneurysm related SAH and poor admission status was the only independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in the multivariate analysis. Patients with a non-perimesencephalic SAH have an increased risk of a worse neurological outcome. These patients should be monitored attentively. PMID:24986457

  20. The AGTR1 gene A1166C polymorphism as a risk factor and outcome predictor of primary intracerebral and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Adamski, Mateusz G; Golenia, Aleksandra; Turaj, Wojciech; Baird, Alison E; Moskala, Marek; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Slowik, Agnieszka; Pera, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Associations between the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene A1166C polymorphism and hypertension, aortic abdominal aneurysms (as a risk factor) as well as cardiovascular disorders (as a risk factor and an outcome predictor) have been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the role of this polymorphism as risk factors and outcome predictors in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We have prospectively recruited 1078 Polish participants to the study: 261 PICH patients, 392 aSAH patients, and 425 unrelated control subjects. The A1166C AGTR1 gene polymorphism was studied using the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared with other ethnically different populations. The A1166C polymorphism was not associated with the risk of PICH or aSAH. Among the aSAH patients the AA genotype was associated with a good outcome, defined by a Glasgow Outcome Scale of 4 or 5 (p<0.02). The distribution of A1166C genotypes in our cohort did not differ from other white or other populations of European descent. In conclusion, we found an association between the A1166C AGTR1 polymorphism and outcome of aSAH patients, but not with the risk of PICH or aSAH. PMID:25168322

  1. Elevated Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein-I in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Diseases : Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Seung-Ki; Oh, Chang Wan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated cellular retinoic acid binding protein-I (CRABP-I) is thought to be related to the abnormal proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Accordingly, a higher CRABP-I level could cause disorganized vessel walls by causing immature SMC phenotypes and altering extracellular matrix proteins which could result in vulnerable arterial walls with inadequate responses to hemodynamic stress. We hypothesized that elevated CRABP-I level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Moreover, we also extended this hypothesis in patients with vascular malformation according to the presence of hemorrhage. Methods We investigated the CSF of 26 patients : SAH, n=7; unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), n=7; arteriovenous malformation (AVM), n=4; cavernous malformation (CM), n=3; control group, n=5. The optical density of CRABP-I was confirmed by Western blotting and presented as mean±standard error of the measurement. Results CRABP-I in SAH (0.33±0.09) was significantly higher than that in the UIA (0.12±0.01, p=0.033) or control group (0.10±0.01, p=0.012). Hemorrhage presenting AVM (mean 0.45, ranged 0.30-0.59) had a higher CRABP-I level than that in AVM without hemorrhage presentation (mean 0.16, ranged 0.14-0.17). The CRABP-I intensity in CM with hemorrhage was 0.21 and 0.31, and for CM without hemorrhage 0.14. Overall, the hemorrhage presenting group (n=11, 0.34±0.06) showed a significantly higher CRABP-I intensity than that of the non-hemorrhage presenting group (n=10, 0.13±0.01, p=0.001). Conclusion The results suggest that elevated CRABP-I in the CSF could be related with aneurysm rupture. Additionally, a higher CRABP-I level seems to be associated with hemorrhage development in vascular malformation. PMID:25733988

  2. Neurogenic Stress Cardiomyopathy After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Athar N.; Gross, Bradley A.; Rosalind Lai, Pui Man; Moses, Ziev B.; Du, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC) is a known complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Detailed analyses of risk factors for its occurrence across large cohorts are relatively sparse. Methods We reviewed a consecutive group of 300 patients with aSAH, evaluating for the presence of markers of myocardial injury including EKG changes (long QT, TWI), elevated plasma troponin levels (>=0.1), and echocardiogram findings (decreased ejection fraction and wall motion abnormalities). Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy (NSC) was defined as the presence of at least one marker of myocardial injury. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the correlation of NSC as well as individual markers of myocardial injury with age, gender, medical comorbidities, medications, current smoking status, Hunt-Hess (HH) grade, and Fisher grade. Medical comorbidities were assessed based on reported medical history or reported use of comorbidity-specific medications at the time of presentation. Results Across the cohort, 27% of patients had a plasma troponin elevation of at least 0.1, 13% a prolonged QT interval, 16% new T wave inversions, 18% a depressed ejection fraction (less than 55%), and 15% echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities. After a multivariate analysis, significant risk factors for NSC included higher HH grade on presentation (OR 2.33, p = 4.52 × 10?6), current smoking status (OR 2.00, p = 0.030), and older age (OR 1.03, p = 0.048). Hypertension was protective against NSC (OR 0.48, p = 0.031). Patient gender, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, coronary artery disease, statin usage, beta blocker usage, ACE-inhibitor usage, aspirin usage, and thicker SAH (Fisher 3) were not significant risk factors for NSC. Conclusion Higher HH grade, current smoking status, lack of hypertension and older age were the strongest predictors of neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy. PMID:25655685

  3. Astaxanthin alleviates early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of Akt/bad signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Rong; Wang, Chun-Xi; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Li, Hua; Shi, Ji-Xin; Zhou, Meng-Liang

    2014-08-01

    Apoptosis has been proven to play a crucial role in early brain injury pathogenesis and to represent a target for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previously, we demonstrated that astaxanthin (ATX) administration markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis in the early period after SAH. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we tried to investigate whether ATX administration is associated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which can play an important role in the signaling of apoptosis. Our results showed that post-SAH treatment with ATX could cause a significant increase of phosphorylated Akt and Bad levels, along with a significant decrease of cleaved caspase-3 levels in the cortex after SAH. In addition to the reduced neuronal apoptosis, treatment with ATX could also significantly reduce secondary brain injury characterized by neurological dysfunction, cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier disruption. In contrast, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, could partially reverse the neuroprotection of ATX in the early period after SAH by downregulating ATX-induced activation of Akt/Bad and upregulating cleaved caspase-3 levels. These results provided the evidence that ATX could attenuate apoptosis in a rat SAH model, potentially, in part, through modulating the Akt/Bad pathway. PMID:25072152

  4. Possible role of Eptifibatide drip in-patient with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in vasospasm prevention

    PubMed Central

    Dababneh, Haitham; Guerrero, Waldo; Mehta, Siddhart; Moussavi, Mohammad; Kirmani, Jawad F

    2014-01-01

    Objective Approximately 18,000 patients suffer from a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the United States annually. SAH is a form of stroke and comprises 1%–5% of all strokes. Nearly 50% of all SAH cases end in fatality within 30 days of presentation; one of eight patients die before reaching a hospital. Those who survive often have neurological or cognitive impairment. Methods This case report describes the course of two patients who presented to the emergency department with aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage and received external ventricular drainage and endovascular treatment of their aneurysm. Results Both patients required treatment with Eptifibatide drip after endovascular approach and their SAH in the basal cisterns resolved by day 5. Neither patient developed signs of clinical or subclinical vasospasm. Comments Eptifibatide drip facilitated resolution of the thick clot in the subarachnoid space early enough to eliminate the direct toxicity of oxyhemoglobin on the cerebral arteries and arachnoid granulations, thus preventing vasospasm and eliminating the necessity for a long-term shunt. PMID:25298852

  5. Microglia regulate blood clearance in subarachnoid hemorrhage by heme oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Schallner, Nils; Pandit, Rambhau; LeBlanc, Robert; Thomas, Ajith J; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Gallo, David; Otterbein, Leo E; Hanafy, Khalid A

    2015-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) carries a 50% mortality rate. The extravasated erythrocytes that surround the brain contain heme, which, when released from damaged red blood cells, functions as a potent danger molecule that induces sterile tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Free heme is metabolized by heme oxygenase (HO), resulting in the generation of carbon monoxide (CO), a bioactive gas with potent immunomodulatory capabilities. Here, using a murine model of SAH, we demonstrated that expression of the inducible HO isoform (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1) in microglia is necessary to attenuate neuronal cell death, vasospasm, impaired cognitive function, and clearance of cerebral blood burden. Initiation of CO inhalation after SAH rescued the absence of microglial HO-1 and reduced injury by enhancing erythrophagocytosis. Evaluation of correlative human data revealed that patients with SAH have markedly higher HO-1 activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compared with that in patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Furthermore, cisternal hematoma volume correlated with HO-1 activity and cytokine expression in the CSF of these patients. Collectively, we found that microglial HO-1 and the generation of CO are essential for effective elimination of blood and heme after SAH that otherwise leads to neuronal injury and cognitive dysfunction. Administration of CO may have potential as a therapeutic modality in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms. PMID:26011640

  6. Changes in responsiveness of the canine basilar artery to endothelin-1 after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, Katsuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Yutaka (Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)); Miyata, Noriyuki (Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the basilar arteries from control and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) dogs were examined. The maximal contraction of the basilar artery in response to ET-1 was markedly decreased in the SAH group. Treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) reduced the contractile responses to ET-1 in the basilar arteries from control dogs. ET-1-induced contractions of the basilar arteries from control dogs were similar to those in strips from SAH dogs by the treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M PMA. Ca{sup 2+}-induced contraction of the basilar arteries which were depolarized with isotonic K{sup +} were significantly attenuated in SAH dogs. Treatment with PMA also reduced the contractile responses to Ca{sup 2+} in the basilar arteries from control dogs. These results indicate that decreased contractile responses of the basilar arteries to ET-1 and Ca{sup 2+} in the SAH group may be related to changes in the activity of the protein kinase C in vascular smooth muscle.

  7. N-acetylcysteine suppresses oxidative stress in experimental rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Chen, Hui-Ling; Lin, Yi-Xing; Hang, Chun-Hua; Yin, Hong-Xia; Shi, Ji-Xin

    2009-05-01

    The neuroprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl-containing antioxidant, on experimentally induced subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats was assessed. NAC was administered to rats after the induction of SAH. Neurological deficits and brain edema were investigated. The activity of antioxidant defense enzymes, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), were measured in the brain cortex by spectrophotometer. The content of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) was also analyzed. We found that NAC markedly reversed the SAH-induced neurological deficit and brain edema. We further investigated the mechanism involved in the neuroprotective effects of NAC on rat brain tissue and found that NAC significantly increased CuZn-SOD and GSH-Px activity and decreased MDA content in the SAH brain. NAC has the potential to be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SAH, and its neuroprotective effect may be partly mediated via enhancing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting free radical generation. PMID:19264484

  8. SAHIT Investigators--on the outcome of some subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, R Loch; Jaja, Blessing; Cusimano, Michael D; Etminan, Nima; Hanggi, Daniel; Hasan, David; Ilodigwe, Don; Lantigua, Hector; Le Roux, Peter; Lo, Benjamin; Louffat-Olivares, Ada; Mayer, Stephan; Molyneux, Andrew; Quinn, Audrey; Schweizer, Tom A; Schenk, Thomas; Spears, Julian; Todd, Michael; Torner, James; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Wong, George K C; Singh, Jeff

    2013-06-01

    Outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has improved over the last decades. Yet, case fatality remains nearly 40% and survivors often have permanent neurological, cognitive and/or behavioural sequelae. Other than nimodipine drug or clinical trials have not consistently improved outcome. We formed a collaboration of SAH investigators to create a resource for prognostic analysis and for studies aimed at optimizing the design and analysis of phase 3 trials in aneurysmal SAH. We identified investigators with data from randomized, clinical trials of patients with aneurysmal SAH or prospectively collected single- or multicentre databases of aneurysmal SAH patients. Data are being collected and proposals to use the data and to design future phase 3 clinical trials are being discussed. This paper reviews some issues discussed at the first meeting of the SAH international trialists (SAHIT) repository meeting. Investigators contributed or have agreed to contribute data from several phase 3 trials including the tirilazad trials, intraoperative hypothermia for aneurysmal SAH trial, nicardipine clinical trials, international subarachnoid aneurysm trial, intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal SAH, magnesium for aneurysmal SAH and from prospectively-collected data from four institutions. The number of patients should reach 15,000. Some industry investigators refused to provide data and others reported that their institutional research ethics boards would not permit even deidentified or anonymized data to be included. Others reported conflict of interest that prevented them from submitting data. The problems with merging data were related to lack of common definitions and coding of variables, differences in outcome scales used, and times of assessment. Some questions for investigation that arose are discussed. SAHIT demonstrates the possibility of SAH investigators to contribute data for collaborative research. The problems are similar to those already documented in other similar collaborative efforts such as in head injury research. We encourage clinical trial and registry investigators to contact us and participate in SAHIT. Key issues moving forward will be to use common definitions (common data elements), outcomes analysis, and to prioritize research questions, among others. PMID:24323299

  9. Bullous Hemorrhagic Dermatosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Naveen, Kikkeri Narayanasetty; Rai, Vijetha

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of hemorrhagic bullous dermatosis occurring in areas distant from the site of injection of enoxaparin. A 88 year old woman was admitted for inter trochantric fracture. She was put enoxaparin 60mg subcutaneous 12 hrly for deep vein thrombosis. After 5 days she developed huge hemorrhagic bulla on left leg and multiple hemorrhagic bullae at other sites distant from injected site. A diagnosis of Bullous hemorrhagic dermatoses due to enoxaparin was made. Enoxaparin was stopped and started on oral heparin. Lesions started to regress. Only 9 similar cases have been reported throughout world and none from India. PMID:25071288

  10. Minocycline Improves Functional Outcomes, Memory Deficits, and Histopathology after Endovascular Perforation-Induced Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sherchan, Prativa; Lekic, Tim; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hasegawa, Yu; Rolland, William; Duris, Kamil; Zhan, Yan; Tang, Jiping

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in significant long-lasting cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, evaluating acute and long-term outcomes after therapeutic intervention is important for clinical translation. The aim of this study was to use minocycline, a known neuroprotectant agent, to evaluate the long-term benefits in terms of neurobehavior and neuropathology after experimental SAH in rats, and to determine which neurobehavioral test would be effective for long-term evaluation. SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=118). The animals were treated with intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (45?mg/kg or 135?mg/kg) or vehicle 1?h after SAH induction. In the short-term, animals were euthanized at 24 and 72?h for evaluation of neurobehavior, brain water content, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. In the long-term, neurobehavior was evaluated at days 21–28 post-SAH, and histopathological analysis was done at day 28. High-dose but not low-dose minocycline reduced brain water content at 24?h, and therefore only the high-dose regimen was used for further evaluation, which reduced MMP-9 activity at 24?h. Further, high-dose minocycline improved spatial memory and attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex. The rotarod, T-maze, and water maze tests, but not the inclined plane test, detected neurobehavioral deficits in SAH rats at days 21–28. This study demonstrates that minocycline attenuates long-term functional and morphological outcomes after endovascular perforation-induced SAH. Long-term neurobehavioral assessments using the rotarod, T-maze, and water maze tests could be useful to evaluate the efficacy of therapeutic intervention after experimental SAH. PMID:22013966

  11. Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage with Human Albumin: ALISAH Study. Rationale and Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose I. SuarezRenee; Renee H. Martin

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this prospective dose-finding pilot study is to demonstrate the tolerability and safety of four dosages\\u000a of 25% human albumin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For each dosage group, the study will enroll 20 patients\\u000a who meet the eligibility criteria. The enrolled patients will undergo follow-up for 90 days post-treatment. The primary tolerability\\u000a hypothesis is that intravenous

  12. Metamorphosis of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research: from Delayed Vasospasm to Early Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatima A. Sehba; Ryszard M. Pluta; John H. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Delayed vasospasm that develops 3–7 days after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has traditionally been considered\\u000a the most important determinant of delayed ischemic injury and poor outcome. Consequently, most therapies against delayed ischemic\\u000a injury are directed towards reducing the incidence of vasospasm. The clinical trials based on this strategy, however, have\\u000a so far claimed limited success; the incidence of vasospasm is reduced

  13. Correlating Cerebral (18)FDG PET-CT Patterns with Histological Analysis During Early Brain Injury in a Rat Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model.

    PubMed

    Song, Jianping; Li, Peiliang; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Thompson, B Gregory; Xi, Guohua; Pandey, Aditya S

    2015-08-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) plays a significant role in poor outcomes for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Further investigations are required to characterize the cellular metabolic and related histological changes that may contribute to EBI following SAH. We investigated the image patterns of 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ((18)FDG PET-CT) during EBI and correlated histopathological changes utilizing a rat SAH model. SAH was induced in six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by endovascular perforation, and animals were randomly assigned to receive (18)FDG PET-CT imaging at either 3 or 12 h post-procedure. Mean (18)FDG standard uptake value (SUV) of the brain was calculated. Animals were euthanized 48 h post-procedure, and brain samples were used for heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) Mr 32 kDa immunohistochemistry. Rats within the SAH group had higher mean whole brain (18)FDG SUV (2.349?±?0.376 g/ml in the 3-h group and 2.453?±?0.495 g/ml in the 12-h group) compared to that of sham (n?=?3; mean SUV?=?2.030?±?0.247 g/ml; P?SAH (P?>?0.05). Regions of decreasing SUV in SAH rats correlated with neuronal death and increased expression of HO-1. Higher (18)FDG PET SUV was evident in rats post-SAH compared to sham and control groups. Regions of decreasing SUV in SAH rats correlated with neuronal death and increased HO-1 expression as evaluated by histopathology. PMID:25833084

  14. Neurofilament Light Chain Levels in Ventricular Cerebrospinal Fluid Following Acute Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Zanier, Elisa R.; Refai, Daniel; Zipfel, Gregory J.; Zoerle, Tommaso; Longhi, Luca; Esparza, Thomas J.; Spinner, Michael L.; Bateman, Randall J.; Brody, David L.; Stocchetti, Nino

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The contribution of axonal injury to brain damage following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is unknown. Neurofilament light chain (NF-L), a component of the axonal cytoskeleton, has been shown to be elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with many types of axonal injury. We hypothesized that patients with aSAH would have elevated CSF NF-L levels, and sought to explore the clinical correlates of CSF NF-L dynamics. Methods Serial ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (vCSF) samples were collected from 35 aSAH patients for up to 15 days. vCSF NF-L measurements were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. NF-L levels were analyzed in relation to acute clinical status, radiological findings, and 6-month outcomes. Results vCSF NF-L concentrations were elevated in all aSAH patients. Patients with early cerebral ischemia (ECI), defined as a CT hypodense lesion visible within the first 3 days, had higher acute vCSF NF-L levels than patients without ECI. These elevated NF-L levels were similar in patients with ECI associated with intracranial hemorrhage and ECI associated with surgical/endovascular complications. vCSF NF-L levels did not differ as a function of acute clinical status, clinical vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, or 6-month Glasgow Outcome Scale. Conclusions Elevated vCSF NF-L levels may in part reflect increased injury to axons associated with early cerebral ischemia. However our results suggest that axonal injury following aSAH as reflected by release of NF-L into the CSF may not play a major role in either secondary adverse events or long term clinical outcomes. PMID:20571038

  15. Severe microvascular injury induced by lysosomal releasates of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Increase in vasopermeability, hemorrhage, and microthrombosis due to degradation of subendothelial and perivascular matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Movat, H. Z.; Wasi, S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the lesions in the microcirculation of the dermis of rabbits induced with lysosomal releasates of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). No attempt was made in the studies presented in this publication to deal with the offending agent in the releasate. Four parameters of microvascular injury were quantitated: increase in vascular permeability with 125I-labeled serum albumin, hemorrhage with 59Fe-labeled erythrocytes, accumulation (aggregation) of platelets with 111In-labeled platelets. In one experiment accumulation of 51Cr-PMNs was investigated. The lysosomal releasate induced a rapid increase in vasopermeability, but both hemorrhage and exudate formation peaked 1 hour after intradermal injection. Platelet accumulation was also demonstrable in these lesions, and microthrombosis was a very prominent feature. The microvascular injury, including microthrombosis, could be elicited also in animals rendered leukopenic with nitrogen mustard. Simultaneous injection of prostaglandin E2 with the releasate enhanced the microvascular injury. The morphologic changes in the microcirculation of the rabbit's dermis were assessed in lesions 5 minutes to 5 hours old. Several changes were encountered, primarily in the wall of venules and small veins and to a lesser degree in small arteries and capillaries. Ultrastructurally very early lesions (up to 15 minutes) had gaps or spaces in the endothelium, resembling those induced by mediators such as histamine or bradykinin. Older lesions were different, quite characteristic, and represent the hallmark of these lesions. Lysis and disappearance of vascular basement membrane, of perivascular collagen, and of the internal elastic lamina were a frequent finding, best demonstrable when microthrombi did not abut on vessel walls. Cellular components of vessels (endothelium, pericytes, smooth muscle) showed fragmentation, leading to complete disappearance of cellular elements. These lesions were usually walled off by platelet aggregates and fibrin. At times microthrombi occluded an entire vessel. These changes were interpreted as hemostasis. The mild accumulation of PMNs at the site of injury did not contribute significantly to the microvascular injury. The findings indicate that the unique changes in the microcirculation, not described before, may occur quite frequently, when the microvascular injury is elicited primarily by release of lysosomal constituents by phagocytic or nonphagocytic stimuli. One can conclude that the hallmark of this type of injury is disappearance of basement membrane followed secondarily by disintegration of the vascular wall, followed in turn by hemo Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:3907363

  16. Treatment with Sodium Orthovanadate Reduces Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption via Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN) Phosphorylation in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Yu; Suzuki, Hidenori; Altay, Orhan; Chen, Hank; Zhang, John H

    2012-01-01

    Attenuation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the therapeutic candidates for treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, the protective effect of sodium orthovanadate (SOV) on BBB disruption was investigated in SAH using the endovascular perforation model. Fifty-five rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated, SAH treated with saline (as a vehicle) or 10mg/kg SOV groups, and evaluated for neurofunction and Evans blue dye extravasation. The phosphorylation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), occludin, and collagen-IV were examined by Western blot analyses. Cell death on endothelial cells were revealed by immunofluorescence and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5?-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. SOV significantly improved neurofunction and reduced Evans blue dye extravasation in brains after SAH. SOV phosphorylated PTEN, decreased phospho-JNK and MMP-9, and preserved occludin expression. SOV also attenuated SAH-induced capillary endothelial cell death. The current study showed that SOV was protective against BBB disruption after SAH possibly via PTEN phosphorylation. PMID:22183833

  17. Isoflurane delays the development of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage through sphingosine-related pathway activation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Altay, Orhan; Hasegawa, Yu; Sherchan, Prativa; Suzuki, Hidenori; Khatibi, Nikan H.; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Isoflurane, a volatile anesthetic agent, has been recognized for its potential neuroprotective properties and has antiapoptotic effects. We examined whether isoflurane posttreatment is protective against early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and determined whether this effect needs sphingosine-related pathway activation. Design Controlled in vivo laboratory study. Setting Animal research laboratory. Subjects 179 eight-week-old male CD-1 mice weighing 30 to 38 g. Interventions SAH was induced in mice by endovascular perforation. Animals were randomly assigned to sham-operated, SAH-vehicle, and SAH+2% isoflurane. Neurobehavioral function and brain edema were evaluated at 24 and 72 hours. The expression of sphingosine kinase (SphK), phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and cleaved caspase-3 was determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Neuronal cell death was examined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5?-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling staining. Effects of a SphK inhibitor DMS, or a sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor inhibitor VPC23019 on isoflurane’s protective action against post-SAH EBI were also examined. Measurements and Main Results Isoflurane significantly improved neurobehavioral function and brain edema at 24 hours but not 72 hours after SAH. At 24 hours, isoflurane attenuated neuronal cell death in the cortex, associated with an increase in SphK1 and p-Akt, and a decrease in cleaved caspase-3. The beneficial effects of isoflurane were abolished by DMS and VPC23019. Conclusions Isoflurane posttreatment delays the development of post-SAH EBI through antiapoptotic mechanisms including sphingosine-related pathway activation, implying its use for anesthesia during acute aneurysm surgery or intervention. PMID:22488000

  18. Carnosine attenuates early brain injury through its antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-yong; Sun, Bao-liang; Yang, Ming-feng; Li, Da-wei; Fang, Jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-03-01

    Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been demonstrated to provide antioxidative and anti-apoptotic roles in the animal of ischemic brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether carnosine prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) in rats. We found that intraperitoneal administration of carnosine improved neurobehavioral deficits, attenuated brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, and decreased reactive oxygen species level at 48 h following SAH in rat models. Carnosine treatment increased tissue copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymatic activities, and reduced post-SAH elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in rats. Furthermore, carnosine treatment attenuated SAH-induced microglia activation and cortical neuron apoptosis. These results indicated that administration of carnosine may provide neuroprotection in EBI following SAH in rat models. PMID:25179154

  19. Intrathecal application of the nimodipine slow-release microparticle system eg-1962 for prevention of delayed cerebral ischemia and improvement of outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Etminan, Nima; Macdonald, R Loch; Davis, Cara; Burton, Kevin; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The effective reduction of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), a main contributor for poor outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), remains challenging. Previous clinical trials on systemic pharmaceutical treatment of SAH mostly failed to improve outcome, probably because of insensitive pharmaceutical targets and outcome measures, small sample size, insufficient subarachnoid drug concentrations and also detrimental, systemic effects of the experimental treatment per se. Interestingly, in studies that are more recent, intrathecal administration of nicardipine pellets following surgical aneurysm repair was suggested to have a beneficial effect on DCI and neurological outcome. However, this positive effect remained restricted to patients who were treated surgically for a ruptured aneurysm. Because of the favorable results of the preclinical data on DCI and neurological outcome in the absence of neurotoxicity or systemic side effects, we are initiating clinical trials. The PROMISE (Prolonged Release nimOdipine MIcro particles after Subarachnoid hemorrhage) trial is designed as an unblinded, nonrandomized, single-center, single-dose, dose-escalation safety and tolerability phase 1 study in patients surgically treated for aSAH and will investigate the effect of intracisternal EG-1962 administration. The NEWTON (Nimodipine microparticles to Enhance recovery While reducing TOxicity after subarachNoid hemorrhage) trial is a phase 1/2a multicenter, controlled, randomized, open-label, dose-escalation, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic study comparing EG-1962 and nimodipine in patients with aneurysmal SAH. PMID:25366637

  20. Hemostasis and fibrinolysis in delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Boluijt, Jacoline; Meijers, Joost C M; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2015-05-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has been associated with microthrombosis, which can result from activated hemostasis, inhibited fibrinolysis, or both. We systematically searched the PUBMED and EMBASE databases to identify hemostatic or fibrinolytic parameters that can be used for the prediction or diagnosis of DCI, or that inform on the pathogenesis of DCI and may serve as treatment targets. We included 24 studies that fulfilled predefined criteria and described 39 biomarkers. Only one study fulfilled predefined criteria for high quality. Since no parameter on admission was associated with DCI and in none of the included studies blood was drawn at the time of clinical deterioration, none of the studied parameters can presently be used for the prediction or diagnosis of DCI. Regarding the pathogenesis of DCI, it was shown that compared with patients without DCI those with DCI had higher levels of von Willebrand factor and platelet activating factor in plasma 5 to 9 days after aSAH, membrane tissue factor in cerebrospinal fluid 5 to 9 days after aSAH, and D-dimer in plasma 11 to 14 days after aSAH. Confirmation in high-quality studies is needed to investigate whether these parameters can serve as targets for new intervention studies. PMID:25690473

  1. Relationship between angiographic vasospasm, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and cerebral infarction are major contributors to poor functional recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral vasospasm, the narrowing of proximal intracranial arteries after SAH, has long been assumed to be the primary cause of DCI, and has therefore been the primary therapeutic target in attempts to diminish disability after SAH. However, emerging evidence has questioned the strength and causality of the relationship between vasospasm and DCI. To address this fundamental question, we performed two parallel studies assessing the relationship between the presence of vasospasm in a vascular territory and both regional reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and development of cerebral infarction.In a cohort of SAH patients at high-risk for DCI, we identified regions of hypoperfusion using positron emission tomography (PET) and compared their distribution with territories exhibiting vasospasm on concurrent angiography. We found that regional hypoperfusion was common in the absence of proximal vasospasm and that some patients without any significant vasospasm still could have hypoperfused brain regions. Similarly, our parallel study demonstrated that both patients and brain territories without vasospasm could develop delayed cerebral infarction, and that such vasospasm-independent infarcts account for more than a quarter of the infarct burden from DCI. These findings suggest that other processes, perhaps at a microvascular level, contribute at least part of the burden of DCI and future interventions should also address these other pathophysiologic processes. PMID:25366617

  2. Effects of diltiazem on sympathetic activity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takeshi; Takeda, Ririko; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of diltiazem, a calcium antagonist, on sympathetic activity in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during the hyperacute stage. Of patients with aneurysmal SAH who underwent aneurysm repair between August 2008 and June 2011, 119 consecutive patients were enrolled in this prospective study. On admission, patients were assigned to an antihypertensive treatment receiving continuous infusion of diltiazem (67 patients) or nicardipine (52 patients). Plasma levels of adrenaline (AD), noradrenaline (NA), and dopamine (DP) were repeatedly measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). There were no significant differences in patient characteristics or aneurysm topography between the two groups. In all patients, acute surge of catecholamines was observed with mutual correlation. However, patients receiving diltiazem exhibited a significantly lower plasma concentration of DP than those receiving nicardipine, 3 and 6 h after admission. A similar trend was observed for NA, but the difference was not significant at 6 h. Conversely, the concentration of AD was similar between the two groups. Diltiazem may suppress sympathetic activity in the hyperacute stage of aneurysmal SAH. Further studies are needed to verify the beneficial effect of diltiazem in patients with SAH. PMID:25366598

  3. The Neuroprotection of Lysosomotropic Agents in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Probably Involving the Apoptosis Pathway Triggering by Cathepsins via Chelating Intralysosomal Iron.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Gao, Anju; Xu, Xiang; Dang, Baoqi; You, Wanchun; Li, Haiying; Yu, Zhengquan; Chen, Gang

    2014-08-12

    ?-Lipoic acid-plus (LAP), an amine derivative of ?-lipoic acid (LA), could protect cells against oxidant challenges via chelating intralysosomal iron. However, the application of LAP in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still not well known. This study was designed to evaluate the potential neuroprotection of LAP on the early brain injury (EBI) and the underlying mechanisms in a rat model of SAH. The SAH models were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats. LA and LAP were oral administration and lasted for 72 h once a day. The brain tissue samples were obtained for assay at 72 h after SAH. In experiment 1, we found that lysosome amounts in neurons decreased significantly in SAH group, and LAP (100 mg/kg) could stabilize lysosomal membrane markedly based on lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) expression in neurons by immunofluorescence. Hence, the LAP dosages of 100 and 150 mg/kg were applied in experiment 2. Firstly, Western blot analysis showed that the protein levels of cathepsin B/D, caspase-3, Bax, ferritin, and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) markedly increased after SAH, which were further confirmed by double immunofluorescence staining and reversed by LA and LAP treatments. In addition, LA and LAP also reduced oxidative stress and iron deposition in brain tissue. Furthermore, LA and LAP significantly ameliorated brain edema, blood-brain barrier injury, cortical apoptosis, and neurological behavior impairment induced by SAH. Finally, it is noteworthy that LAP exerted more significant effects than LA on these parameters as described above. LAP probably exerted neuroprotective effects via targeting lysosomes and chelating intralysosomal iron in EBI post-SAH in rats. PMID:25112680

  4. The impact of experimental preconditioning using vascular endothelial growth factor in stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Eicker, Sven Oliver; Hoppe, Moritz; Etminan, Nima; Macht, Stephan; Perrin, Jason; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Hänggi, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulating angiogenesis was shown to be a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of ischemic vascular diseases. The goal of the present study was to examine whether transfection of VEGF before occurrence of major stroke (part I) and cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH; part II) develops neuroprotective qualities. A total of 25 (part I) and 26 (part II) brains were analyzed, respectively. In part one, a significant reduction of infarct volume in the VEGF-treated stroke animals (43% reduction, P < 0.05) could be detected. In part two, significant vasospasm was induced in all hemorrhage groups (P < 0.02). Analyzing microperfusion, a significant higher amount of perfused vessels could be detected (P < 0.01), whereas no significant effect could be detected towards macroperfusion. Histologically, no infarctions were observed in the VEGF-treated SAH group and the sham-operated group. Minor infarction in terms of vasospasm-induced small lesions could be detected in the control vector transduced group (P = 0.05) and saline-treated group (P = 0.09). The present study demonstrates the preconditioning impact of systemic intramuscular VEGF injection in animals after major stroke and induced severe vasospasm after SAH. PMID:23634319

  5. Mastication induced retrobulbar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tran, Kimberly D; Scawn, Richard L; Whipple, Katherine M; Korn, Bobby S; Kikkawa, Don O

    2013-12-01

    Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a feared potentially sight threatening complication after orbital decompression surgery. We present a patient, 36 hours after surgery, while forcefully biting, suddenly developed a retrobulbar hemorrhage arising from the temporalis muscle causing an orbital compartment syndrome. Rapid intervention with canthotomy and cantholysis was associated with recovery of vision from absent light perception to 20/20. A mastication induced retrobulbar hemorrhage has not been previously described. PMID:23957737

  6. Significance of C-Reactive Protein and Transcranial Doppler in Cerebral Vasospasm Following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung-Hwan; Kwon, Jeong-Taik; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Hwang, Sung-Nam; Kang, Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cerebral vasospasm is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Inflammatory processes seem to play a major role in the pathogenesis of vasospasm. C-reactive protein (CRP) constitutes a highly sensitive inflammatory marker. Elevation of serum CRP levels has been demonstrated in patients with aSAH. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the possible relationship between CRP levels in the serum and transcranial Doppler (TCD) and the development of vasospasm in patients with aSAH. Methods A total of 61 adult patients in whom aSAH was diagnosed were included in the study from November 2008 to May 2011. The patients' demographics, Hunt and Hess grade, Fisher grade, CT scans, digital subtraction angiography studies, and daily neurological examinations were recorded. Serial serum CRP measurements were obtained on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 and TCD was measured on days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13. All patients underwent either surgical or endovascular treatment within 24 hours of their hemorrhagic attacks. Results Serum CRP levels peaked on the 3rd postoperative day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 1st, 3rd and 5th day. There were significant differences between the vasospasm group and the non-vasospasm group on the 3rd day in the mean middle cerebral artery velocities on TCD. Conclusion Patients with high levels of CRP on the 1st postoperative day and high velocity of mean TCD on the 3rd postoperative day may require closer observation to monitor for the development of vasospasm. PMID:24294451

  7. Predictors and Outcomes of Suspected Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Brijesh P.; Sims, John R.; Baccin, Carlos E.; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Nogueira, Raul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a dreaded complication of heparin-related products and correlates with a worse outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Objective To study the risk factors and outcomes of SAH patients suspected of having HIT, confirmed as present or absent by the platelet factor 4 (PF4) antibody test. Methods All patients with presumed aneurysmal, nontraumatic SAH and having undergone a PF4 test were identified through our research patient database. Charts, laboratory values and images were analyzed retrospectively. Results We identified 166 patients with SAH who were tested for HIT; 42 patients (25%) had a positive antibody test. There was no difference in platelet profiles or mean platelet nadirs of HIT+ and HIT- patients (147 ± 93 vs. 153 ± 86 ×109/l, respectively). Univariate analysis identified gender, magnesium prophylaxis, Fisher group 3, clipping versus coiling, presence of angiographic vasospasm, number of vasospasm treatments, and day of HIT testing as potential risk factors associated with HIT. A multivariate analysis indicated that female gender (OR 8.2, 95% CI 2.0-33.2), greater number of vasospasm treatments (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0), later day of HIT testing (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3), and clipping (OR 5.0, 95% CI 1.42-10.0) were independently associated with HIT positivity. HIT+ patients showed more infarcts on CT, longer ICU and hospital stays and worse modified Rankin Scale scores on discharge. Conclusion The presence of HIT in SAH has adverse consequences and is more likely in female patients who have undergone aneurysm clipping and require multiple endovascular vasospasm treatments. PMID:25337085

  8. Association of Fisher scale and changes of language in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Souza, Moysés Loiola Ponte de

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive deficits caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after rupture of cerebral aneurysms are common, as approximately half of patients have severe, or at least striking, declines in one or more functions of the cognitive domain. The Fisher Scale is associated with the development of vasospasm and thus with the final performance of the patient after SAH. The association of this scale with language disorders in the period preceding the treatment has not been reported yet in the literature. Associate the presence of language deficits with varying degrees of the Fisher Scale in patients with SAH in the period preceding the treatment of aneurysm, as well as compare the various degrees of this scale, identifying the Fisher Scale degrees more associated with the decline of language. The database of 185 preoperative evaluations of language was studied, through the Montreal Toulouse Protocol Alpha version and verbal fluency through CERAD battery, of patients of Hospital da Restauração with aneurysmal SAH. The data relating to the Fisher Scale, the location of the aneurysm, the age and the gender of patients were obtained through review of medical records. Patients were divided according to the Fisher Scale (Fisher I, II, III or IV) and compared with a control group of individuals considered normal. Disorders in language and verbal fluency in patients with SAH in the preoperative period were evidenced. The classification of the patients according to the Fisher Scale allowed to identify differences between the sub-groups and to conclude that patients with bulkier bleeding (Fisher III and IV) have larger declines in the analyzed functions. PMID:25410466

  9. Seizures and intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Karen L; Alexander, James M

    2013-03-01

    Seizures and intracranial hemorrhage are possible medical diseases that any obstetrician may encounter. This article reviews the cause, treatment, and medical management in pregnancy for seizures and intracranial hemorrhage, and how the two can overlap into preeclampsia or eclampsia. This article also highlights some challenging management issues from the obstetrician's perspective. PMID:23466140

  10. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kobbe, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Campbell, Graeme C.; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Bergmann, Christian; Kadyrov, Mamed; Fischer, Horst; Glüer, Christian C.; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Pufe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35?mmHg for 90 minutes). Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-?) were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. ?CT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing. PMID:26106256

  11. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage: evaluation with MDCT.

    PubMed

    Soto, Jorge A; Park, Seong Ho; Fletcher, Joel G; Fidler, Jeff L

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common medical problem, with high associated morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of gastrointestinal hemorrhage varies with the location of the bleeding source, the intensity of the bleed, and the presence of comorbidities that affect the ability to tolerate blood loss. Conventional endoscopic examinations are usually the initial diagnostic tests in patients presenting with overt gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, implementation of upper tract endoscopy and colonoscopy in the emergency setting can be challenging due to inconsistent availability of the service and difficulties in achieving adequate colonic cleansing in emergent situations. Thus, imaging tests are often relied upon to establish the location and the cause of bleeding, either for initial diagnosis or after non-revealing upper and lower tract endoscopies ("obscure" bleeding). This article discusses the imaging evaluation of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding and reviews the imaging appearance of the most common causes, taking into account the two most relevant clinical presentations: overt bleeding and obscure bleeding. PMID:25637128

  12. Disseminated cerebral hemorrhages as unusual manifestation of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Berlit, P; Popescu, O; Weng, Y; Malessa, R

    1996-11-01

    Hemorrhagic lesions are uncommon in central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. We report here the case of a patient with multiple cerebral hemorrhages as the initial manifestation of HIV infection due to CNS toxoplasmosis. PMID:8981323

  13. Disseminated cerebral hemorrhages as unusual manifestation of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Berlit; Octavian Popescu; Yvonne Weng; Rolf Malessa

    1996-01-01

    Hemorrhagic lesions are uncommon in central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. We report here the case of a patient with multiple cerebral hemorrhages as the initial manifestation of HIV infection due to CNS toxoplasmosis.

  14. Trehalose treatment suppresses inflammation, oxidative stress, and vasospasm induced by experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently results in several complications, including cerebral vasospasm, associated with high mortality. Although cerebral vasospasm is a major cause of brain damages after SAH, other factors such as inflammatory responses and oxidative stress also contribute to high mortality after SAH. Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide in which two glucose units are linked by ?,?-1,1-glycosidic bond, and has been shown to induce tolerance to a variety of stressors in numerous organisms. In the present study, we investigated the effect of trehalose on cerebral vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and oxidative stress induced by blood in vitro and in vivo. Methods Enzyme immunoassay for eicosanoids, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and endothelin-1, and western blotting analysis for cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and inhibitor of NF-?B were examined in macrophage-like cells treated with hemolysate. After treatment with hemolysate and hydrogen peroxide, the levels of lipid peroxide and amounts of arachidonic acid release were also analyzed. Three hours after the onset of experimental SAH, 18 Japanese White rabbits received an injection of saline, trehalose, or maltose into the cisterna magna. Angiographic and histological analyses of the basilar arteries were performed. In a separate study, the femoral arteries from 60 rats were exposed to fresh autologous blood. At 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 20?days after treatment, cryosections prepared from the femoral arteries were histologically analyzed. Results When cells were treated with hemolysate, trehalose inhibited the production of several inflammatory mediators and degradation of the inhibitor of NF-?B and also suppressed the lipid peroxidation, the reactive oxygen species-induced arachidonic acid release in vitro. In the rabbit model, trehalose produced an inhibitory effect on vasospasm after the onset of experimental SAH, while maltose had only a moderate effect. When the rat femoral arteries exposed to blood were investigated for 20?days, histological analysis revealed that trehalose suppressed vasospasm, inflammatory response, and lipid peroxidation. Conclusions These data suggest that trehalose has suppressive effects on several pathological events after SAH, including vasospasm, inflammatory responses, and lipid peroxidation. Trehalose may be a new therapeutic approach for treatment of complications after SAH. PMID:22546323

  15. Ginsenoside Rbeta1 reduces neurologic damage, is anti-apoptotic, and down-regulates p53 and BAX in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingbo; Tang, Jiping; Khatibi, Nikan H; Zhu, Mei; Chen, Di; Zheng, Weiping; Wang, Shali

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the number one cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe. A subtype of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), accounts for 7% of all strokes each year and claims one of the highest mortalities and morbidities. Many therapeutic interventions have been used to treat brain injury following SAH but none have reached the level of effectiveness needed to clinically reduce mortality. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of the Chinese traditional medicine Panax Ginseng, has been shown to reduce ischemic brain injury and myocardial injury via anti-apoptotic pathways. In the present study, we investigated the use of GRb1 on SAH induced brain injury in rats. Four groups were used: sham, vehicle (SAH), low dose treatment (SAH+ 5mg/kg GRb1), and high dose treatment (SAH+ 20mg/kg GRb1). Post assessment included wall thickness and mean cross-section area of basilar artery were measured for evaluating cerebral vasospasm, Evans blue extravasations to assess blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis looking for specific pro-apoptotic markers, and tunnel staining for cell death assessment. In addition, mortality, neurological function and brain edema were investigated. The results showed that high dose GRb1 treatment significantly enlarged mean cross-sectional area and decreased wall thickness of basilar artery, reduced neurological deficits, brain edema, BBB disruption, and TUNEL positive cell expression. Same time, we found that the proteins expression of P53, Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of bcl-2 was up-regulated in Rb1 treatment. The results of this study suggest that GRb1 could relieve cerebral vasospasm and potentially provide neuroprotection in SAH victims. The underlying mechanisms may be partly related to inhibition of P53 and Bax dependent proapoptosis pathway. More studies will be needed to confirm these results and determine its potential as a long term agent. PMID:20353383

  16. Migrating lumbar intrathecal catheter fragment associated with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hnenny, Luke; Sabry, Hatem A; Raskin, Jeffrey S; Liu, Jesse J; Roundy, Neil E; Dogan, Aclan

    2015-01-01

    Intrathecal catheter placement into the lumbar cistern has varied indications, including drug delivery and CSF diversion. These Silastic catheters are elastic and durable; however, catheter-associated malfunctions are well reported in the literature. Fractured catheters are managed with some variability, but entirely intradural retained fragments are often managed conservatively with observation. The authors describe a case of a 70-year-old man with an implanted intrathecal morphine pump for failed back surgery syndrome who presented to an outside hospital with a history of headache, neck pain, nausea, and photophobia of 3 days' duration. He also described mild weakness and intermittent numbness of both legs. Unenhanced head CT demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A right C-5 hemilaminectomy was performed. This case is unique in that there was no indication that the lumbar intrathecal catheter had fractured prior to the patient's presentation with SAH. This case demonstrates that intrathecal catheter fragments are mobile and can precipitate intracranial morbidity. Extrication of known fragments is safe and should be attempted to prevent further neurosurgical morbidity. PMID:25360531

  17. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Mimicking Leakage of Contrast Media After Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min Seok; Kwon, Jee Eun; Kim, Kyung Jun; Jo, Joon Hwan; Min, Yun Ju; Byun, Jun Soo; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Sang Wook

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient who developed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) just after coronary angiography (CAG) with non-ionic contrast media (CM) and minimal dose of heparin. The 55-year-old man had a history of acute ST elevation myocardial infarction that had been treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and was admitted for a follow-up CAG. The CAG was performed by the transradial approach, using 1000 U of unfractionated heparin for the luminal coating and 70 mL of iodixanol. At the end of CAG, he complained of nausea and rapidly became stuporous. Brain CT showed a diffusely increased Hounsfield unit (HU) in the cisternal space, similar to leakage of CM. The maximal HU was 65 in the cisternal space. No vascular malformations were detected on cerebral angiography. The patient partially recovered his mental status and motor weakness after 2 days. Two weeks later, subacute SAH was evident on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient was discharged after 28 days. PMID:22493615

  18. Overall outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A prospective study from neurosurgical units in Sweden during a 1-year period.

    PubMed

    Säveland, H; Hillman, J; Brandt, L; Edner, G; Jakobsson, K E; Algers, G

    1992-05-01

    The present prospective study, with participation of five of the six neurosurgical centers in Sweden, was conducted to evaluate the overall management results in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The participating centers covered 6.93 million (81%) of Sweden's 8.59 million inhabitants. All patients with verified aneurysmal SAH admitted between June 1, 1989, and May 31, 1990, were included in this prospective study. A uniform management protocol was adopted involving ultra-early referral, earliest possible surgery, and aggressive anti-ischemic treatment. A total of 325 patients were admitted during the study period, 69% within 24 hours after hemorrhage. On admission, the patients were graded according to the scale of Hunt and Hess: 43 patients (13%) were classified in Grade I, 119 (37%) in Grade II, 53 (16%) in Grade III, 76 (23%) in Grade IV, and 34 (11%) in Grade V. Nimodipine was administered to 269 of the 325 patients: intravenously in 218, orally in 15, and intravenously followed by orally in 36. At follow-up examination 3 to 6 months after SAH, 183 patients (56%) were classified as having made a good neurological recovery, 73 patients (23%) suffered some morbidity, and 69 (21%) were dead. Surgery was performed in 276 (85%) of the patients; emergency surgery with evacuation of an associated intracerebral hematoma was carried out in 30 patients. Early surgery (within 72 hours after SAH) was performed in 170 individuals, intermediate surgery (between Days 4 and 6 post-SAH) in 29 patients, and late surgery (Day 7 or later after SAH) in 47 individuals. Of 145 patients with supratentorial aneurysms who were preoperatively in Hunt and Hess Grades I to III and who were treated within 72 hours, 81% made a good recovery; in 5.5% of patients, the unfavorable outcome was ascribed to delayed ischemia. It is concluded that, among patients with all clinical grades and aneurysmal locations, almost six of 10 SAH victims referred to a neurosurgical unit can be saved and can recover to a normal life. PMID:1564533

  19. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase scavenges biliverdin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Inui, Takashi; Mase, Mitsuhito; Shirota, Ryoko; Nagashima, Mariko; Okada, Tetsuya; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is the second major protein in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and belongs to the lipocalin superfamily composed of various secretory lipophilic ligand transporter proteins. However, the endogenous ligand of L-PGDS has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we purified L-PGDS from the CSF of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Lipocalin-type PG D synthase showed absorbance spectra with major peaks at 280 and 392?nm and a minor peak at around 660?nm. The absorbance at 392?nm of L-PGDS increased from 1 to 9 days and almost disappeared at 2 months after SAH, whereas the L-PGDS activity decreased from 1 to 7 days and recovered to normal at 2 months after SAH. These results indicate that some chromophore had accumulated in the CSF after SAH and bound to L-PGDS, thus inactivating it. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry of L-PGDS after digestion of it with endoproteinase Lys-C revealed that L-PGDS had covalently bound biliverdin, a by-product of heme breakdown. These results suggest that L-PGDS acted as a scavenger of biliverdin, which is a molecule not found in normal CSF. This is the first report of identification of a pathophysiologically important endogenous ligand for this lipocalin superfamily protein in humans. PMID:25005874

  20. Progressive Manifestations of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyu-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome. PMID:25535520

  1. Alveolar hemorrhage in IgA nephropathy treated with plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Afessa, B; Cowart, R G; Koenig, S M

    1997-02-01

    A 66-year-old man had diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis due to IgA nephropathy. The diffuse alveolar hemorrhage resolved after high-dose corticosteroid therapy, and renal function improved after plasmapheresis. This response suggests an adjunctive role for plasmapheresis in the treatment of patients presenting this rare clinical picture. PMID:9042181

  2. Early onset of PRES in a patient with a subarachnoid haemorrhage due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroki; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshiyuki; Endo, Hidehiko; Mase, Tomohiko; Ogasawara, Kuniaki

    2014-12-01

    Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is rarely associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH). We present a case involving a patient who developed PRES, prior to induction of hypertensive therapy, 2 days after the onset of a SAH due to a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. PMID:24799279

  3. Bilateral Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treated by Staged Coil Trapping and Covered Stents Graft

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jai-Joon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of bilateral vertebral artery dissecting aneurysms (VADAs) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is still challenging. The authors report a rare case of bilateral VADA treated with coil trapping of ruptured VADA and covered stents implantation after multiple unsuccessful stent assisted coiling of the contralateral unruptured VADA. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe headache and sudden stuporous consciousness. Brain CT showed thick SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography demonstrated bilateral VADA. Based on the SAH pattern and aneurysm configurations, the right VADA was considered ruptured. This was trapped with endovascular coils without difficulty. One month later, the contralateral unruptured VADA was protected using a stent-within-a-stent technique, but marked enlargement of the left VADA was detected by 8-months follow-up angiography. Subsequently two times coil packing for pseudosacs resulted in near complete occlusion of left VADA. However, it continued to grow. Covered stents graft below the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) origin and a coronary stent implantation across the origin of the PICA resulted in near complete obliteration of the VADA. Covered stent graft can be used as a last therapeutic option for the management of VADA, which requires absolute preservation of VA flow. PMID:22639713

  4. Early release of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from neurons in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Translocation of high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from nucleus could trigger inflammation. Extracellular HMGB1 up-regulates inflammatory response in sepsis as a late mediator. However, little was known about its role in subarachnoid hemorrhage-inducible inflammation, especially in the early stage. This study aims to identify whether HMGB1 translocation occurred early after SAH and also to clarify the potential role of HMGB1 in brain injury following SAH. Methods Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into sham group and SAH groups at 2 h, 12 h and on day 1, day 2. SAH groups suffered experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage by injection of 0.3 ml autoblood into the pre-chiasmatic cistern. Rats injected by recombinant HMGB1(rHMGB1) solution were divided into four groups according to different time points. Cultured neurons were assigned into control group and four hemoglobin (Hb) incubated groups. Mixed glial cells were cultured and stimulated in medium from neurons incubated by Hb. HMGB1 expression is measured by western blot analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) subunit P65 and inflammatory factor Interleukin 1? (IL-1?) were measured by western blot and real-time PCR, respectively. Brain injury was evaluated by cleaved caspase-3 staining. Results Our results demonstrated HMGB1 translocation occurred as early as 2 h after experimental SAH with mRNA and protein level increased. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence results indicated cytosolic HMGB1 was mainly located in neurons while translocated HMGB1 could also be found in some microglia. After subarachnoid injection of rHMGB1, NF-?B, downstream inflammatory response and cleaved caspase-3 were up-regulated in the cortex compared to the saline control group. In-vitro, after Hb incubation, HMGB1 was also rapidly released from neurons to medium. Incubation with medium from neurons up-regulated IL-1? in mixed glial cells. This effect could be inhibited by HMGB1 specific inhibitor glycyrrhizic acid (GA) treatment. Conclusion HMGB1 was released from neurons early after SAH onset and might trigger inflammation as an upstream inflammatory mediator. Extracellular HMGB1 contributed to the brain injury after SAH. These results might have important implications during the administration of specific HMGB1 antagonists early in order to prevent or reduce inflammatory response following SAH. PMID:24924349

  5. Plasma Catecholamine Profile of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients with Neurogenic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Moussouttas, Michael; Mearns, Elizabeth; Walters, Arthur; DeCaro, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the connection between sympathetic function and neurogenic cardiomyopathy (NC), and to determine whether NC is mediated primarily by circulating adrenal epinephrine (EPI) or neuronally transmitted norepinephrine (NE), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods This is a prospective observational investigation of consecutive severe-grade SAH patients. All participants had transthoracic echocardiography and serological assays for catecholamine levels – dopamine (DA), NE and EPI – within 48 h of hemorrhage onset. Clinical and serological independent predictors of NC were determined using multivariate logistic regression analyses, and the accuracy of predictors was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to evaluate correlations among the catecholamines. Results The investigation included a total of 94 subjects: the mean age was 55 years, 81% were female and 57% were Caucasian. NC was identified in approximately 10% (9/94) of cases. Univariate analyses revealed associations between NC and worse clinical severity (p = 0.019), plasma DA (p = 0.018) and NE levels (p = 0.024). Plasma NE correlated with DA levels (? = 0.206, p = 0.046) and EPI levels (? = 0.392, p < 0.001), but was predicted only by plasma EPI in bivariate [parameter estimate (PE) = 1.95, p < 0.001] and multivariate (PE = 1.89, p < 0.001) linear regression models. Multivariate logistic regression analyses consistently demonstrated the predictive value of clinical grade for NC (p < 0.05 for all analyses) except in models incorporating plasma NE, where NC was independently predicted by NE level (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55) over clinical grade (OR 4.19, 95% CI 0.874-20.1). ROC curves similarly revealed the greater accuracy of plasma NE [area under the curve (AUC) 0.727, 95% CI 0.56-0.90, p = 0.02] over clinical grade (AUC 0.704, 95% CI 0.55-0.86, p = 0.05) for identifying the presence or absence of NC. Conclusions Following SAH, the development of NC is primarily related to elevated plasma NE levels. Findings implicate a predominantly neurogenic process mediated by neuronal NE (and not adrenal EPI), but cannot exclude synergy between the catecholamines. PMID:26120322

  6. [A case of acoustic neurinoma presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Tsuda, T; Hondo, H; Matsumoto, K

    1985-09-01

    A case of acoustic neurinoma presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage is reported. The patient, a 33-year-old female, had suffered from left hearing disturbance and tinnitus for several years prior to admission. She had sudden onset of severe headache in the left posterior auricular region, nausea and vomiting while watching a play-going. Immediately she was brought to a neighboring hospital by ambulance. Lumbar puncture demonstrated xanthochromic cerebrospinal fluid with high opening pressure of 380 mmH2O or more and she was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). As her level of consciousness was progressively lowered, she was transferred and admitted to our hospital. Findings of plain CT scan on admission suggested that she had a brainstem hemorrhage with acute obstructive hydrocephalus. After the immediate operation of ventricle drainage, she became alert. Two weeks after admission, contrast-enhanced CT scan, internal meatus tomography and vertebral angiography were performed because she complained of tinnitus and hearing loss of her left ear. A huge lt. C-P angle tumor was revealed and its total removal was carried out successfully after V-P shunt operation for her hydrocephalic condition. Histological examination showed a typical acoustic neurinoma. The postoperative course was uneventful only with a moderate facial paresis on her left side. Acute and severe subarachnoid hemorrhage of the posterior fossa in cases of acoustic neurinoma has been reported very sporadically. However, CT examination revealed such a rare case of acoustic neurinoma and lead us to a successful surgical treatment for the patient. PMID:4069313

  7. Imaging of nontraumatic hemorrhagic hepatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Casillas, V J; Amendola, M A; Gascue, A; Pinnar, N; Levi, J U; Perez, J M

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous hepatic bleeding is a rare condition. In the absence of trauma or anticoagulant therapy, hepatic hemorrhage may be due to underlying liver disease. The most common causes of nontraumatic hepatic hemorrhage are hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic adenoma. Such hemorrhage can also occur in patients with other liver tumors, such as focal nodular hyperplasia, hemangiomas, and metastases. Other conditions associated with this entity include HELLP syndrome, amyloidosis, and miscellaneous causes. Imaging plays a significant role in the diagnosis and management of this potentially lethal entity. In the appropriate clinical setting, the diagnosis of a hemorrhagic liver lesion is suggested when a hyperechoic mass or a mass with hyperechoic areas is seen at ultrasonography, a hyperattenuating mass is seen at computed tomography (CT), or a mass with high-signal-intensity areas is seen at T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The signal intensity of blood can be increased or decreased on MR images depending on when the hemorrhage is imaged. The presence and extent of commonly associated subcapsular hematomas and hemoperitoneum can be easily ascertained with CT. During the first 24-72 hours, acute hematomas are hyperattenuating on nonenhanced CT scans; later, they decrease in attenuation and sometimes develop a pseudocapsule. PMID:10715337

  8. [Management of postoperative hemorrhage following thyroid surgery].

    PubMed

    Lorenz, K; Sekulla, C; Kern, J; Dralle, H

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative hemorrhage following thyroid surgery stands at 1%-2?%. This low incidence contrasts with the significant potential complications of postoperative hemorrhage. Influencing factors and measures mentioned in the literature and own studies are discussed. Although an improvement in the postoperative hemorrhage rate was to be expected indirectly due to the increasing use of coagulation-relevant medication, there has been neither an increase in incidence nor a reduction in resultant complications, including primarily recurrent vocal cord paresis, tracheotomy and mortality. Factors that influence surgical success include a meticulous technique and caution, as well as ensuring intensive and qualified postoperative monitoring for a minimum of 4-6 h, thereby permitting immediate revision surgery at any time. PMID:25532753

  9. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... chronological list of known cases and outbreaks. Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Topics Transmission How do people get Marburg hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

  10. Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage: who remains for surgical treatment in the post-ISAT era?

    PubMed Central

    Czapiga, Bogdan; Jarmundowicz, W?odzimierz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although there have been a number of studies on changes and trends in the management of aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) since publication of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), no data exist on what category of patients still remains for surgical treatment. Our goal was to investigate the changes that occurred in the characteristics of a population of aSAH patients treated surgically in the post-ISAT period in a single neurosurgical center, with limited availability of endovascular service. Material and methods The study included 402 aSAH patients treated surgically in our unit between January 2004 and December 2011. Each year, data regarding number of admissions, age, aneurysm location and size, clinical and radiological presentation, outcome and mortality rates were collected and analyzed. Results The annual number of admissions more than halved in the study period (from 69 in 2004 to 32 in 2011). There were no linear trends regarding patients’ mean age, clinical presentation and outcomes, but the number of patients in Fisher grade 4 increased and mortality slightly decreased. An unexpected, statistically significant increase occurred in the incidence of anterior communicating artery aneurysms (from 36.2% to 50%) and medium size aneurysms (from 34.7% to 56.2%) treated surgically, with a corresponding decrease in the incidence of middle cerebral artery aneurysms (from 40.5% to 34.3%) and large aneurysms (from 21.7% to 12.5%). Conclusions Unexpected trends in characteristics of aSAH patients treated surgically could be related to treatment decision modality. Trend patterns could be properly expressed in the constant availability of endovascular services.

  11. Computed Tomography Angiography Spot Sign Does Not Predict Case Fatality in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage With Intraparenchymal Extension

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, H. Bart; Backes, Daan; Kimberly, W. Taylor; Schwab, Kristin; Romero, Javier M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Klijn, Catharina J.M.; Ogilvy, Christopher S.; Regli, Luca; Greenberg, Steven M.; Rosand, Jonathan; Rinkel, Gabriel J.E.; Goldstein, Joshua N.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Many patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with intraparenchymal extension develop early hematoma expansion, which is not explained by aneurysmal rerupture in half of cases. In patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage, the computed tomography angiography (CTA) spot sign predicts hematoma expansion and poor outcome. We conducted a 2-center prospective cohort study to evaluate whether CTA spot sign predicts case fatality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraparenchymal extension. Methods We studied consecutive patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraparenchymal extension. Two experienced readers, blinded to clinical data, analyzed CTAs for spot sign presence. We assessed the proportion of patients with the CTA spot sign and tested its association with in-hospital and 90-day case fatality, using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results In 32 of 236 patients (14%), we found at least 1 spot sign. Acute surgical hematoma evacuation with aneurysm occlusion occurred in 120 patients (51%). The overall in-hospital case fatality rate was 37%. The CTA spot sign was not associated with in-hospital (multivariable odds ratio, 0.51 [95% confidence interval, 0.06–3.26]) or 90-day (multivariable odds ratio, 0.59 [0.21–1.65]) case fatality. Conclusions The found frequency of CTA spot signs is lower after aneurysmal than primary intracerebral hemorrhage and is not associated with in-hospital or 90-day case fatality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraparenchymal extension. PMID:23572475

  12. Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Induced by a Single-Episode of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Study Using MRI-Enhanced Gradient Echo T2 Star-Weighted Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Jin; Lu, Zhonglie; Wu, Qingjie; Lv, Haijuan; Liu, Hu; Gong, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) could cause superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS).This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirty-two patients with a history of a single episode of tSAH were enrolled in the study. An episode of tSAH was confirmed in patients based on a CT scan or a lumbar puncture, and a follow-up examination was conducted at least six weeks after the brain trauma. A follow-up MRI examination was performed, using enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN) to detect hemosiderin deposition on the cortical surface. The extent to which hemosiderin deposition was associated with several clinical factors was investigated. Various degrees of hemosiderin deposition were detected in 31 of 32 (96.9%) single-episode tSAH patients. Analysis of contingency tables revealed an association between the regions of subarachnoid bleeding based on CT images and the regions of hemosiderin deposition based on ESWAN images (?2 = 17.73, P<0.05). SS-CNS was determined to be a common consequence after a single episode of tSAH. The extent of hemosiderin deposition is closely correlated with the initial bleeding sites and bleeding volume. PMID:25647424

  13. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup

    2015-01-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed a saccular lesion of the upper basilar trunk suggesting a ruptured aneurysm. However, no vascular lesion was observed on immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged with no neurologic deficit. In the other case, the patient showed sudden mental deterioration on the third hospital day and her brain CT showed rebleeding. The immediate follow up DSA showed contrast stagnation in the vicinity of the upper basilar artery, suggestive of pseudoaneurysm. Double stent deployment at the disease segment was performed. Due to the frequent use of CTA, contrast extravasation is an increasingly common observation. Physicians should be aware that basilar artery extravasation can mimic the appearance of an aneurysm. PMID:25874181

  14. Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma with Simultaneous Cranial Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hwan-Su; Kim, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma is reported at a rare level of incidence, and is frequently associated with underlying coagulopathy or those receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents; some cases accompany concomitant intracranial hemorrhage. The spontaneous development of spinal subdural hemorrhage (SDH) is a neurological emergency; therefore, early diagnosis, the discontinuation of anticoagulant, and urgent surgical decompression are required to enable neurological recovery. In this report, we present a simultaneous spinal subdural hematoma and cranial subarachnoid hemorrhage, which mimicked an aneurysmal origin in a female patient who had been taking warfarin due to aortic valve replacement surgery.

  15. Management of gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Hilsden, R. J.; Shaffer, E. A.

    1995-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a common problem that requires prompt recognition and management to prevent serious morbidity and mortality. Management goals are stabilization of the patient with vigorous fluid resuscitation followed by investigation and definitive treatment of the bleeding source. Endoscopy is often the initial diagnostic test and allows therapeutic measures to be performed at the same time. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8563510

  16. Deferoxamine therapy for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hua, Y; Keep, R F; Hoff, J T; Xi, G

    2008-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a subtype of stroke with very high mortality. Experiments have indicated that clot lysis and iron play an important role in ICH-induced brain injury. Iron overload occurs in the brain after ICH in rats. Intracerebral infusion of iron causes brain edema and neuronal death. Deferoxamine, an iron chelator, is an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of acute iron intoxication and chronic iron overload due to transfusion-dependent anemia. Deferoxamine can rapidly penetrate the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain tissue in significant concentration after systemic administration. We have demonstrated that deferoxamine reduces ICH-induced brain edema, neuronal death, brain atrophy, and neurological deficits. Iron chelation with deferoxamine could be a new therapy for ICH. PMID:19066072

  17. Incidence and risk factors associated with in-hospital venous thromboembolism after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kshettry, Varun R; Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Seicean, Andreea; Kelly, Michael L; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Weil, Robert J

    2014-02-01

    Our purpose was to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with in-hospital venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried from 2002 to 2010 for hospital admissions for subarachnoid hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage and either aneurysm clipping or coiling. Exclusion criteria were age <18, arteriovenous malformation/fistula diagnosis or repair, or radiosurgery. Primary outcome was VTE (deep vein thrombosis [DVT] or pulmonary embolus [PE]). Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess association between risk factors and VTE. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, discharge disposition, length of stay and hospital charges. A total of 15,968 hospital admissions were included. Overall rates of VTE (DVT or PE), DVT, and PE were 4.4%, 3.5%, and 1.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, the following factors were associated with increased VTE risk: increasing age, black race, male sex, teaching hospital, congestive heart failure, coagulopathy, neurologic disorders, paralysis, fluid and electrolyte disorders, obesity, and weight loss. Patients that underwent clipping versus coiling had similar VTE rates. VTE was associated with pulmonary/cardiac complication (odds ratio [OR] 2.8), infectious complication (OR 2.8), ventriculostomy (OR 1.8), and vasospasm (OR 1.3). Patients with VTE experienced increased non-routine discharge (OR 3.3), and had nearly double the mean length of stay (p<0.001) and total inflation-adjusted hospital charges (p<0.001). To our knowledge, this is the largest study evaluating the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of VTE after aSAH. The presence of one or more of these factors may necessitate more aggressive VTE prophylaxis. PMID:24128773

  18. Clot-clearance rate in the sylvian cistern is associated with the severity of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Tomikatsu; Yonekura, Ichiro; Iijima, Akira; Shinozaki, Munehisa; Tanishima, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid clot removal and clearance has been proposed as an effective tool for preventing cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We examined the relationship between clot-clearance rate and the severity of cerebral vasospasm in 110 consecutive patients with aneurysmal SAH. We measured clot-clearance rates per day in the basal and Sylvian cisterns, and evaluated the presence of symptomatic vasospasm based on changes in clinical symptoms and the appearance of a new low-density area on a computed tomography (CT) scan. The severity of symptomatic cerebral vasospasm was associated with age and the SAH grade on admission; however, we observed no significant difference between these variables in patients with urokinase irrigation or fasudil hydrochloride treatment. The mean clot-clearance rates per day for patients with asymptomatic and permanent delayed ischemic neurological deficit were 41.9 and 41.5 %, respectively, in the basal cistern (P = 0.7358) and 37.7 and 23.9 %, respectively, in the Sylvian cistern (P = 0.0021). The reduced clot-clearance rate in the Sylvian cistern increased the risk of vasospasm-related infarction (P = 0.0093) and markedly reduced unfavorable outcomes (P = 0.0115). PMID:25366636

  19. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... How is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

  20. Treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Raya, Amanda K; Diringer, Michael N

    2014-10-01

    Nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage from intracranial aneurysm rupture presents with sudden severe headache. Initial treatment focuses on airway management, blood pressure control, and extraventricular drain for hydrocephalus. After identifying the aneurysm, they may be clipped surgically or endovascularly coiled. Nimodipine is administered to maintain a euvolemic state and prevent delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Patients may receive anticonvulsants. Monitoring includes serial neurologic assessments, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, computed tomography perfusion, and angiographic studies. Treatment includes augmentation of blood pressure and cardiac output, cerebral angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusions of vasodilators. Although early mortality is high, about one half of survivors recover with little disability. PMID:25257737

  1. Lessons from 150 years of UK maternal hemorrhage deaths.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Robert Stuart; Weeks, Andrew David

    2015-06-01

    We have reviewed maternal hemorrhage death rates in the UK over the past 150 years in order to draw lessons from this material for current attempts to reduce global maternal mortality. Mortality rates from data in the UK Annual Reports from the Registrar General were entered into a database. Charts were created to display trends in hemorrhage mortality, allowing comparison with historical medical advances. Hemorrhage death rates fell steadily before the 1930s; between 1874 and 1926 they fell by 56%. In contrast, there was no consistent reduction in overall maternal mortality rates until the 1930s; from 1932 to 1952 they fell by 85%, primarily due to a reduction in sepsis deaths. In conclusion the majority of maternal hemorrhage mortality reductions in the UK occurred prior to the availability of effective oxytocics, antibiotics, and blood transfusion. Improving access to and standards of maternal care is key to addressing global maternal mortality today. PMID:25779748

  2. Long term monitoring of immunoreactive endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and 24-h urine of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, H; Lange, M; Near, K A; Anneser, F; Schoeller, L A; Schmid, R; Winkler, P A; Kehrl, J H; Schmiedek, P; Goebel, F D

    1992-01-01

    Endothelins (ETs), peptides that were originally isolated from endothelial cells, have extremely potent and long-lasting vasoconstricting effects on cerebral vessels in vitro and in vivo. Observations that astrocytes produce these peptides and that their ET production can be stimulated, e.g. by thrombin, and potentiated via a self-enhancing autoregulatory mechanism may have shed new light upon the pathogenesis of cerebrovasospasm (CVS). ETs are present at low levels in normal human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Few and contradictory reports exist on ET levels in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-associated CVS. We monitored ventricular CSF, plasma, and 24-h urine levels of immunoreactive endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-3 (ET-3) in seven patients with SAH, who did (five) or did not (two) develop CVS in the course of their disease, as well as in two patients with different conditions (acoustic neuroma/postoperative meningitis; hydro-/hematocephalus) over 7-19 days. A distinct peak of both ET-1 and ET-3 in CSF of patients with SAH coincided with clinically documented signs of CVS and was absent in CSF of patients with SAH but no CVS. CSF levels of ET-1 and ET-3 displayed a striking parallelism in all subjects. Plasma ET-1 levels were essentially in the normal range. ET-3 was not detectable in plasma under our assay conditions. The excretion profiles of ET-1 and ET-3 in 24-h urine revealed again a predominantly parallel behavior of the two peptides. Interestingly, patients with high ET levels in CSF showed simultaneous peaks in urinary ET excretion, expressed as nanograms per gram of creatinine. Our findings support an association of ETs with the pathogenic events following SAH. The well-documented effects of these peptides on cerebral vessels suggest they are mediators rather than markers of disease. PMID:1410800

  3. The changes of von willebrand factor/a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13 balance in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qi-Feng; Lu, Shi-Qi; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Qian, Jin-Xian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Von Willebrand Factor/thrombospondin type I repeats-13 (VWF/ADAMTS13) balance in aSAH. Fifty eight patients with aSAH at the First Affiliated hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China, between January 2012 and January 2014 were eligible for the study. They were divided into delayed cerebral ischemia group (DCI group) and non-delayed cerebral ischemia group (no DCI group), or cerebral vasospasm group (CVS group) and no spasm group (no CVS group), or good outcome group and poor outcome group. The control group consisted of twenty healthy people. All patients underwent CT, DSA, or (and) CTA diagnosed with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage which is caused by aneurysm rupture. Venous blood was drawn in tubes at 3 time points: 1 day after SAH (T1), (4±1) days after SAH (T2), and (9±1) days after SAH (T3) to determine plasma concentrations of ADAMTS13, VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) was used to measure mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA). Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was measured before discharge. Among 58 patients, 12 (20.7%) had DCI, 40 (68.9%) had TCD evidence of CVS, and 20 (34.5%) had poor outcome. The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 on T1, T2 and T3 after SAH were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI, no CVS and good outcome groups. The activity of ADAMTS13 was lower in DCI and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI and good outcome groups (P < 0.05). The activity of ADAMTS13 showed no difference in CVS group and no CVS group (P > 0.05). The results of our study suggest that the increased VWF and decreased ADAMTS13 activity were associated with DCI and poor outcome. The balance of VWF/ADAMTS13 could be used to predict the clinical outcome. The deficiency of ADAMTS13 can not only induce DCI but also accelerate inflammatory reaction. Our results reported in this paper may provide new insights into the possible use of ADAMTS13 as a therapeutic agent in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25785135

  4. The changes of von willebrand factor/a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13 balance in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qi-Feng; Lu, Shi-Qi; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Qian, Jin-Xian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Von Willebrand Factor/thrombospondin type I repeats-13 (VWF/ADAMTS13) balance in aSAH. Fifty eight patients with aSAH at the First Affiliated hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China, between January 2012 and January 2014 were eligible for the study. They were divided into delayed cerebral ischemia group (DCI group) and non-delayed cerebral ischemia group (no DCI group), or cerebral vasospasm group (CVS group) and no spasm group (no CVS group), or good outcome group and poor outcome group. The control group consisted of twenty healthy people. All patients underwent CT, DSA, or (and) CTA diagnosed with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage which is caused by aneurysm rupture. Venous blood was drawn in tubes at 3 time points: 1 day after SAH (T1), (4±1) days after SAH (T2), and (9±1) days after SAH (T3) to determine plasma concentrations of ADAMTS13, VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) was used to measure mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA). Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was measured before discharge. Among 58 patients, 12 (20.7%) had DCI, 40 (68.9%) had TCD evidence of CVS, and 20 (34.5%) had poor outcome. The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 on T1, T2 and T3 after SAH were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI, no CVS and good outcome groups. The activity of ADAMTS13 was lower in DCI and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI and good outcome groups (P < 0.05). The activity of ADAMTS13 showed no difference in CVS group and no CVS group (P > 0.05). The results of our study suggest that the increased VWF and decreased ADAMTS13 activity were associated with DCI and poor outcome. The balance of VWF/ADAMTS13 could be used to predict the clinical outcome. The deficiency of ADAMTS13 can not only induce DCI but also accelerate inflammatory reaction. Our results reported in this paper may provide new insights into the possible use of ADAMTS13 as a therapeutic agent in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25785135

  5. Left ventricular structure in relation to the human SAH gene in the European Project on Genes in Hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Jin; Tatiana Kuznetsova; Valérie Tikhonoff; Lutgarde Thijs; Sandra Hasenkamp; Veronika Bäumer; Katarzyna Stolarz-Skrzypek; Andrew Ryabikov; Tom Richart; Sofia Malyutina; Yuri Nikitin; Edoardo Casiglia; Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz; Agnieszka Olszanecka; Stefan-Martin Brand-Herrmann; Eva Brand; Robert Fagard; Jan A Staessen

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies showed association of the human SAH (Spontaneously hypertensive rat-clone A-Hypertension associated) gene with hypertension and obesity. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) increases with blood pressure and body mass index. In a family-based population study (54.5% women; mean age, 43.1 years), we measured LVMI, mean wall thickness (MWT) and the left ventricular internal diameter (LVID) at end-diastole in 699

  6. Extralobar Pulmonary Sequestration with Hemorrhagic Infarction in a Child: Preoperative Imaging Diagnosis and Pathological Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jooae

    2015-01-01

    We describe a rare case of extralobar pulmonary sequestration with hemorrhagic infarction in a 10-year-old boy who presented with acute abdominal pain and fever. In our case, internal branching linear architecture, lack of enhancement in the peripheral portion of the lesion with internal hemorrhage, and vascular pedicle were well visualized on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging that led to successful preoperative diagnosis of extralobar pulmonary sequestration with hemorrhagic infarction probably due to torsion. PMID:25995698

  7. Protein biomarkers in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, vasospasm, and delayed ischemic neurological deficits.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, Paul A; Wang, Honghui; Suffredini, Anthony F

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. It has many sequelae, including vasospasm and delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DINDs). We explored the blood proteome in patients with aSAH using transcranial Doppler (TCD) velocity as a guide to patients who are at risk for symptomatic vasospasm and DIND. Blood was drawn on all days that patients were observed in the neurocritical care unit (NCCU) after aSAH. A team of neurologists and neurosurgeons identified patients with clinical evidence of vasospasm and DIND. Serum was fractionated using protein chips and surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS). We detected a pattern of protein expression associated with those at risk for elevated TCD velocities by day 8, compared with blood collected in the presymptomatic stage (days 1-3). We further analyzed serum using pooled samples from study entry to the time of elevated TCD velocities using a protein microarray that analyzed 500 human proteins thematically oriented toward inflammation. After identifying several candidates with elevated concentrations in the pooled samples, we then used reverse protein arrays to quantitate the concentration of potential candidate proteins in the individual samples. Proteins with significantly elevated concentrations included apolipoprotein-E, apolipoprotein-A, serum amyloid protein-4, and serum amyloid protein-P. Future studies in larger sample populations are needed to evaluate these biomarkers further as representative of biosystems involved in vasospasm and DIND or as potential biomarkers predictive of risk associated with disease. PMID:22890638

  8. Statins in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Arne; Greenberg, Steven M; Gurol, M Edip

    2015-08-01

    While statins play an indisputable role in primary and secondary prevention of ischemic cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, a concern exists regarding a possible association between low lipoprotein levels and statin use on the risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). While these data may incline physicians to discontinue statins after ICH, an increasing amount of preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that statins might have a beneficial effect on outcome and recovery in this context that goes beyond lipid lowering effects. Different etiologies of ICH and the related risk of recurrence should also be taken into account when deciding about statin use/avoidance in patients with high risk of ICH. The problem is compounded by paucity of data from randomized controlled trials and well-designed prospective observational studies. This review will discuss the existing evidence on potential interactions between statins and risk of ICH as well as outcomes in order to provide practical recommendations for clinical decision-making. PMID:26092038

  9. Intravenous Flat-Detector Computed Tomography Angiography for Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Sheen, Seung Hun; Cho, Yong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of intravenous flat-detector computed tomography (IV FDCT) angiography in assessing hemodynamically significant cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference. DSA and IV FDCT were conducted concurrently in patients suspected of having symptomatic cerebral vasospasm postoperatively. The presence and severity of vasospasm were estimated according to location (proximal versus distal). Vasospasm >50% was defined as having hemodynamic significance. Vasospasms <30% were excluded from this analysis to avoid spectrum bias. Twenty-nine patients (311 vessel segments) were measured. The intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for depicting vasospasm (k = 0.84 and 0.74, resp.). IV FDCT showed a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 92.3%, positive predictive value of 93.6%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% for detecting vasospasm (>50%) with DSA as the reference. Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement of assessing vasospasm between the two tests. The discrepancy of vasospasm severity was more noted in the distal location with high-severity. However, it was not statistically significant (Spearman's rank test; r = 0.15, P = 0.35). Therefore, IV FDCT could be a feasible noninvasive test to evaluate suspected significant vasospasm in SAH. PMID:25383367

  10. Update on endovascular therapies for cerebral vasospasm induced by aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sayama, Christina M; Liu, James K; Couldwell, William T

    2006-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm remains a major source of morbidity and death in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). When vasospasm becomes refractory to maximal medical management consisting of induced hypertension and hypervolemia and administration of calcium channel antagonists, endovascular therapies should be considered. The primary goal of endovascular treatment is to increase cerebral blood flow to prevent cerebral infarction. Two of the more frequently studied endovascular treatments are transluminal balloon angioplasty and intraarterial papaverine infusion. These two have been used either alone or in combination for the treatment of vasospasm. Other pharmacological vasodilating agents currently being investigated are intraarterial nimodipine, nicardipine, verapamil, and milrinone. Newer intraarterial agents, such as fasudil and colforsin daropate, have also been investigated. In this article the authors review the current options in terms of endovascular therapies for treatment of cerebral vasospasm. The mechanism of action, technique of administration, clinical effect and outcomes, and complications of each modality are discussed. PMID:17029336

  11. Two cases of asymptomatic massive fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Peedin, Alexis R; Mazepa, Marshall A; Park, Yara A; Weimer, Eric T; Schmitz, John L; Raval, Jay S

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) in the immediate postpartum period is critical for the timely administration of Rh immunoglobulin (RhIG) prophylaxis to minimize the risk of alloimmunization in D-negative mothers of D-positive newborns. We report a series of two clinically-unsuspected cases of massive FMHs identified at our university medical center. Retrospective records of two cases of massive FMH were investigated using the electronic medical record. After positive fetal bleed screens, flow cytometric analysis for hemoglobin F was performed to quantify the volume of the hemorrhages in both cases. Flow cytometric enumeration with anti-D was also performed in one case. The two patients had 209.5 and 75?mL of fetal blood in circulation, resulting in 8 and 4 doses of RhIG administered, respectively. For the former patient, flow cytometric analysis with anti-D ruled out hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and supported the fetal origin of the red cells. Due to the clinically-silent nature of both hemorrhages, further evaluation of the newborns' blood was not performed. These cases highlight the importance of rapidly obtaining accurate measurements of fetal blood loss via flow cytometric analysis in cases of FMH, particularly in clinically-unsuspected cases, to ensure timely administration of adequate immunoprophylaxis to D-negative mothers. PMID:25736586

  12. Spontaneous Absorption of Extensive Subinternal Limiting Membrane Hemorrhage in Shaken Baby Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, Tatiana Tarules; Zacharias, Leandro Cabral; Pimentel, Sérgio Luis Gianotti

    2014-01-01

    The Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is characterized by subdural hematomas (SH), retinal hemorrhages (RH), and multiple fractures of long bones without external evidence of head trauma. Subinternal limiting membrane (ILM) hemorrhage, also known as macular schisis, is a characteristic finding of this entity. There is no guideline on the right time to indicate surgical treatment. This report describes an abused child with massive sub-ILM hemorrhage, which showed spontaneous absorption after less than two months of follow-up. Due to the possible spontaneous resolution, we suggest an initial conservative treatment in cases of sub-ILM hemorrhage related to SBS. PMID:25548698

  13. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris A. Whitehouse

    2004-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), which is a member of the Nairovirus genus (family Bunyaviridae). CCHF was first recognized during a large outbreak among agricultural workers in the mid-1940s in the Crimean peninsula. The disease now occurs sporadically throughout much of Africa, Asia, and Europe and results in

  14. Experimental subretinal hemorrhage in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Glatt, H; Machemer, R

    1982-12-01

    In order to simulate the hemorrhagic detachment stage of disciform macular degeneration, we injected fresh autologous blood into the subretinal space of albino rabbits and studied these hemorrhages clinically with the ophthalmoscope and by light and electron microscopy. One hour after injection, retinal changes were minimal and limited to occasional photoreceptor edema. At one day, there was marked damage of the photoreceptor cells characterized by edema and disintegration of the photoreceptors and pyknosis of the outer nuclear layer. Some photoreceptors had been pulled off the retina by contraction or movement of the blood clot, or both. By seven days, the photoreceptor cells were almost absent. Subretinal hemorrhage in rabbits led to irreversible retinal destruction within 24 hours. We think that the mechanism of the destruction of the overlying retina consists of a combination of a diffusion barrier by the clot, mechanical damage to the outer segments by contraction of the clot, and iron toxicity. PMID:7180915

  15. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Topics Transmission How do people get Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

  16. Aortic dissection mimicking subarachnoidal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nohé, Boris; Ernemann, Ulrike; Tepe, Gunnar; Ritz, Rainer; Bail, Dorothee

    2005-07-01

    In this report we describe a comatose patient with proximal aortic dissection who presented with the signs of subarachnoidal hemorrhage. Shortly before losing consciousness, the patient complained of an excruciating headache. Upon initial examination, neck stiffness and opisthotonos were present. The cardiovascular examination, chest radiograph, and cerebral computed tomography were normal. Eight hours later, the aortic dissection was verified by a thoracic computed tomography. This case shows that aortic dissection, which causes severe pain and possibly transient malperfusion of the carotid arteries, may present with the misleading signs of subarachnoidal hemorrhage but without classical symptoms of aortic syndromes. PMID:15976237

  17. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  18. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  19. Capgras syndrome with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bouckoms, A; Martuza, R; Henderson, M

    1986-08-01

    Capgras misidentification syndrome after subarachnoid hemorrhage and the surgical repair of a right middle cerebral artery aneurysm is described. This Capgras delusional belief in an imposter assuming the form of a familiar person may result from disruption of cortical-visual-limbic pathways in the right hemisphere. PMID:3734772

  20. A Giant Hemorrhagic Adrenal Pseudocyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goran Stimac; Josip Katusic; Mario Sucic; Mario Ledinsky; Bozo Kruslin; Davor Trnski

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report a rare case of a giant hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst and highlight the importance of this entity to clinicians. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of abdominal pain and distension. Ultrasonography and multislice computed tomography revealed a giant cystic (partially solid) mass over the left suprarenal region measuring 20 × 17 × 15 cm.

  1. Let's Talk about Hemorrhagic Stroke

    MedlinePLUS

    ... high estrogen content) excessive alcohol intake use of illegal drugs How are hemorrhagic strokes diagnosed? When someone has shown symptoms of a stroke or a TIA (transient ischemic attack), a doctor will gather information and make a diagnosis. He or she will ...

  2. Synergistically acting PLA?: peptide hemorrhagic complex from Daboia russelii venom.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Madhukumar; Gowda, Veerabasappa

    2013-10-01

    Snake venoms are complex mixture of enzymatic and non-enzymatic proteins. Non-covalent protein-protein interaction leads to protein complexes, which bring about enhanced pharmacological injuries by their synergistic action. Here we report identification and characterization of a new Daboia russelii hemorrhagic complex I (DR-HC-I) containing phospholipase A? (PLA?) and non-enzymatic peptide. DR-HC-I was isolated from the venom of D. russelii by CM-Shepadex-C25 and gel permeation chromatography. Individual components were purified and identified by RP-HPL chromatography, mass spectrometry and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. DR-HC-I complex was lethal to mice with the LD?? dose of 0.7 mg/kg body weight with hemorrhagic and neurotoxic properties. DR-HC-I complex consists of non-hemorrhagic PLA? and neurotoxic non-enzymatic peptide. The non-enzymatic peptide quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of PLA? in a dose dependent manner, signifying the synergistic interaction between two proteins. PLA? and peptide toxin in a 5:2 M ratio induced skin hemorrhage in mice with MHD 20 ?g. However, addition of ANS (1-Anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate) to DR-HC-I complex inhibited skin hemorrhagic effect and also synergic interaction. But there was no impact on PLA? due to this synergistic interaction, and indirect hemolytic or plasma re-calcification activity. However, the synergistic interaction of PLA? and non-enzymatic peptide contributes to the enhanced venom-induced hemorrhage and toxicity of Daboia russellii venom. PMID:23872188

  3. Putative Role of Prostaglandin Receptor in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Shekher; Ahmad, Abdullah S.; Glushakov, Alexander V.; Chambers, Chase; Doré, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Each year, approximately 795,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke. Of all strokes, 84% are ischemic, 13% are intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) strokes, and 3% are subarachnoid hemorrhage strokes. Despite the decreased incidence of ischemic stroke, there has been no change in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the last decade. ICH is a devastating disease 37–38% of patients between the ages of 45 and 64 die within 30?days. In an effort to prevent ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes we and others have been studying the role of prostaglandins and their receptors. Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. They sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. Most prostaglandins are produced from specific enzymes and act upon cells via distinct G-protein coupled receptors. The presence of multiple prostaglandin receptors cross-reactivity and coupling to different signal transduction pathways allow differentiated cells to respond to prostaglandins in a unique manner. Due to the number of prostaglandin receptors, prostaglandin-dependent signaling can function either to promote neuronal survival or injury following acute excitotoxicity, hypoxia, and stress induced by ICH. To better understand the mechanisms of neuronal survival and neurotoxicity mediated by prostaglandin receptors, it is essential to understand downstream signaling. Several groups including ours have discovered unique roles for prostaglandin receptors in rodent models of ischemic stroke, excitotoxicity, and Alzheimer disease, highlighting the emerging role of prostaglandin receptor signaling in hemorrhagic stroke with a focus on cyclic-adenosine monophosphate and calcium (Ca2+) signaling. We review current ICH data and discuss future directions notably on prostaglandin receptors, which may lead to the development of unique therapeutic targets against hemorrhagic stroke and brain injuries alike. PMID:23097645

  4. Unusual co-existence of dural sinus thrombosis and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a patient with lupus.

    PubMed

    Misra, D P; Chowdhury, A C; Parida, J R; Jain, S K; Agarwal, V

    2015-08-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage and dural sinus thrombosis are important manifestations of neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus. We report the case of a woman with relapsed lupus nephritis, in partial remission, who presented with the unusual combination of dural sinus thrombosis (due to protein S functional deficiency) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. She had a fatal outcome, as has often been reported with subarachnoid hemorrhage in the context of active lupus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such an unusual association in lupus, and highlights unique challenges in the management of intracranial hemorrhage in the context of dural sinus thrombosis. PMID:25661833

  5. BEAM PIPE HOM ABSORBER FOR 750 MHZ SRF CAVITIES * M. Neubauer, R. Sah, A. Dudas, Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL, U.S.A.

    E-print Network

    Hoffstaetter, Georg

    BEAM PIPE HOM ABSORBER FOR 750 MHZ SRF CAVITIES * M. Neubauer, R. Sah, A. Dudas, Muons, Inc, U.S.A. Abstract Superconducting RF (SRF) systems typically contain unwanted frequencies or higher to substrates that are strategically located, often in the drift tubes adjacent to the SRF cavity. These HOM

  6. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masoud Mardani; Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne viral disease reported from more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, South-East Europe, and the Middle East. The majority of human cases are workers in livestock industry, agriculture, slaughterhouses, and veterinary practice. Nosocomial transmission is also well described. Clinical manifestations are nonspecific and symptoms typically include high fever, headache, malaise, arthralgia, myalgia, nausea, abdominal

  7. [Idiopathic adrenal hemorrhage: a case report].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, T; Azuma, H; Iwamoto, Y; Segawa, N; Ubai, T; Noumi, H; Ueda, H; Katsuoka, Y

    1998-11-01

    A 77-year-old man with a low grade fever persisting for 30 days consulted a local physician. A computed tomographic scan of the abdomen showed a mixed density mass on the left adrenal gland. He was referred to our hospital for further examination. Hormonal assay demonstrated a slightly high level of noradrenalin in the serum (18 pg/ml) and vanillyl mandelic acid in the urine (6.2 ng/ml). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogeneous mass lesion 3 cm in diameter with a high signal intensity on both T1 and T2 weighted images. Angiography showed a hypovascular mass in the supra-renal region suggesting an adrenal tumor or malignancy. Left adrenalectomy combined with en bloc nephrectomy was performed because of severe adhesion. Histologic evaluation showed hematoma without malignant cells due to idiopathic adrenal hemorrhage. PMID:9893226

  8. Pulmonary hemorrhage in pediatric lupus anticoagulant hypoprothrombinemia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Min Jae; Bae, E Young

    2014-01-01

    Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS), a very rare disease that is caused by the presence of antifactor II antibodies, is usually counterbalanced by the prothrombotic effect of lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Patients with LAHPS are treated using fresh frozen plasma, steroids, immunosuppressive agents, and immunoglobulins for managing the disease and controlling hemorrhages. Notably, steroids are the important treatment for treating hypoprothrombinemia and controlling the bleeding. However, some patients suffer from severe, life-threatening hemorrhages, when factor II levels remain very low in spite of treatment with steroids. Here, we report a case of LAHPS in a 15-year-old girl who experienced pulmonary hemorrhage with rapid progression. She was referred to our hospital owing to easy bruising and prolonged bleeding. She was diagnosed with LAHPS that presented with pancytopenia, positive antinuclear antibody, proloned prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, positive LAC antibody, and factor II deficiency. Her treatment included massive blood transfusion, high-dose methylprednisolone, vitamin K, and immunoglobulin. However, she died due to uncontrolled pulmonary hemorrhage. PMID:24868219

  9. A statistical study of autopsied cases of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Y; Harada, K; Hashimoto, T; Fukuda, S; Okudera, T; Maruyama, H

    1990-09-01

    We have performed a statistical study of 1218 autopsies of neonates to extract the factors related to fatal neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Prematurity indicated by a short gestational period or a low birth weight was the most significant factor for IVH. Many other factors considered to be related to IVH were also related closely to prematurity. Therefore, we pose the following question throughout the study: Did the factors independently relate to IVH without any confounding effects of prematurity? To obtain the answer, we tried a statistical adjustment for gestational age to eliminate the confounding effects of prematurity. After the adjustment was made, we concluded that the following 10 items, in order, were the actual factors related to fatal IVH: prematurity, subependymal hemorrhage, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, hyaline membrane disease, respiratory acidosis, intracerebral hemorrhage, cyanosis, respirator care, and low Apgar score. There were two distinctive categories in the factors that were eliminated by the adjustment. One was a group that has no significance whatsoever in any subdivided gestational groups, such as meconium aspiration syndrome, due to purely the result of the confounding effect. The other was a group that showed its statistical significance only in a certain period of gestation, such as breech presentation. PMID:2390012

  10. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Image Analysis Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Noel; Valdés, Jose; Guevara, Miguel; Silva, Augusto

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) account for 10-30% of all strokes and are a result of acute bleeding into the brain due to ruptures of small penetrating arteries. Despite major advancements in the management of ischemic strokes and other causes of hemorrhagic strokes, such as ruptured aneurysm, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), or cavernous angioma, during the past several decades, limited progress has been made in the treatment of ICH, and the prognosis for patients who suffer them remains poor. The societal impact of these hemorrhagic strokes is magnified by the fact that affected patients typically are a decade younger than those afflicted with ischemic strokes. The ICH continues to kill or disable most of their victims. Some studies show that those who suffer ICH have a 30-day mortality rate of 35-44% and a 6-month mortality rate approaching 50%. Approximately 700,000 new strokes occur in the United States annually and approximately 15% are hem-orrhagic strokes related to ICH. The poor outcome associated with ICH is related to the extent of brain damage. ICH produces direct destruction and compression of surrounding brain tissue. Direct compression causes poor perfusion and venous drainage to surrounding penumbra at risk, resulting in ischemia to the tissues that most need perfusion [16].

  11. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm - literature review.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, A V; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, D A

    2013-06-15

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

  12. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral vasospasm – Literature review

    PubMed Central

    Ciurea, AV; Palade, C; Voinescu, D; Nica, DA

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage represents a serious disease with high mortality and morbidity. Two important areas are becoming the central research interest of subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury. The authors have reviewed the major contributions in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage documented in the medical literature in the past 5 years. Treatments interfering with nitric oxide - or endothelin-pathways continue to show antispasmotic effects in experimental models of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Inflammation and oxidative stress play a vital role in the pathophysiology of cerebral vasospasm. Apoptosis, a relevant cause of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, also underline the etiology of cerebral vasospasm. Future research studies will continue to elucidate the pathophysiological pathways and treatment modalities targeting cerebral vasospasm and early brain injury, enabling an improvement in outcome for patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:23904869

  13. Upregulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 contributes to restoration of the extracellular matrix in the rabbit basilar artery during cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kurogi, Ryota; Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Satoshi; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2015-08-01

    Vascular remodeling caused by extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism contributes to the development of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The balance between tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in ECM remodeling. We investigated the mechanism of vascular remodeling following cerebral vasospasm in a rabbit double hemorrhage model. Rabbit basilar arteries were harvested on days 3, 5, and 7 after initial hemorrhage. TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, and MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression were investigated with microarray analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression and localization of TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-9, elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagens I, III, and IV were investigated with immuohistochemical staining. After SAH, TIMP-1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased on day 3 and then decreased to the control level on days 5 and 7. MMP-9 protein expression was significantly increased on day 7. TIMP-2 and MMP-2 mRNA and protein expression were significantly increased on day 7. Elastin, fibronectin, laminin, and collagens I, III, and IV protein expression was decreased on day 3 and then restored to control levels on day 7. Upregulation of TIMP-1 during the early phase of cerebral vasospasm may contribute to the recovery of the ECM during the late phase of cerebral vasospasm, resulting in a protective role of TIMP-1 from cerebral vasospasm. Moreover, the increase in arterial compliance by the decrease in ECM during the early phase of cerebral vasospasm may facilitate vasoconstriction of the cerebral artery. PMID:25940763

  14. A non-inflatable anti-shock garment for obstetric hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Brees; P. A. Hensleigh; S. Miller; R. Pelligra

    2004-01-01

    ObjectivesMaternal death from hemorrhage in low resource settings is frequently due to long delays in transportation to referral centers and\\/or in obtaining blood and surgical interventions. This case series was designed to demonstrate the feasibility, efficacy and safety of the non-inflatable anti-shock garment (NI-ASG) for resuscitation and hemostasis in the initial management of obstetric hemorrhage and shock.

  15. Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Renal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Jonathan; Lakin, Charles M; Kellogg Parsons, J

    2008-01-01

    Although shock wave lithotripsy is a safe and efficacious treatment for nephrolithiasis, the most common acute complication is renal hemorrhage. Shock wave-induced renal hemorrhage is a potentially devastating injury if not promptly recognized and treated appropriately. The authors report a large perirenal hematoma occurring after shock wave lithotripsy and review the causes, prevention, and treatment of shock wave-induced renal hemorrhage. PMID:18836562

  16. Endometriosis presenting with hemorrhagic ascites, severe anemia, and shock.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trent L; Tomich, Eric B; Heiner, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic ascites due to endometriosis is an exceedingly uncommon diagnosis rarely reported in the medical literature. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department for flank and neck pain and was found to be hypotensive with massive hemorrhagic ascites and severe anemia. After emergency department resuscitation and hospitalization, her condition was found to be due to complications of endometriosis. A paracentesis of more than 4000 mL of bloody ascitic fluid revealed no evidence of cancer, and she was discharged on hospital day 3 with hormone therapy and no recurrence of symptoms upon outpatient follow-up. This case illustrates the clinical management, diagnostic approach, and underlying etiology of an infrequent but life-threatening complication of endometriosis. PMID:22809773

  17. Cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage: Analysis of predisposing factors and mechanisms causing hemorrhagic strokes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Kibayashi; Angeline R Mastri; Charles S Hirsch

    1995-01-01

    We analyzed 26 autopsy cases of cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage and compared those findings with those of 26 autopsy cases of cocaine induced cerebral aneurysm rupture. The incidence of hypertensive cardiovascular disease (HCVD) was significantly higher in persons with intracerebral hemorrhage than in those with aneurysm rupture. Our findings suggest that HCVD predisposes to cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage. We propose

  18. Optimal management of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Neetika; Khunger, Monica; Gupta, Arjun; Kumar, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known by the eponym Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome, is a group of related disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by the development of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the skin, mucous membranes, and/or internal organs such as brain, lungs, and liver. Its prevalence is currently estimated at one in 5,000 to 8,000. Most cases are due to mutations in the endoglin (HHT1) or ACVRLK1 (HHT2) genes. Telangiectasias in nasal and gastrointestinal mucosa generally present with recurrent/chronic bleeding and iron deficiency anemia. Larger AVMs occur in lungs (~40%–60% of affected individuals), liver (~40%–70%), brain (~10%), and spine (~1%). Due to the devastating and potentially fatal complications of some of these lesions (for example, strokes and brain abscesses with pulmonary AVMs), presymptomatic screening and treatment are of utmost importance. However, due to the rarity of this condition, many providers lack an appreciation for the whole gamut of its manifestations and complications, age-dependent penetrance, and marked intrafamilial variation. As a result, HHT remains frequently underdiagnosed and many families do not receive the appropriate screening and treatments. This article provides an overview of the clinical features of HHT, discusses the clinical and genetic diagnostic strategies, and presents an up-to-date review of literature and detailed considerations regarding screening for visceral AVMs, preventive modalities, and treatment options. PMID:25342923

  19. [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia with Bacillus cereus bacteremia resulting in fatal intracranial hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Moriyama, Y; Tatekawa, T; Tominaga, N; Teshima, H; Hiraoka, A; Masaoka, T; Yoshinaga, T

    1993-12-01

    This manuscript reports Bacillus cereus sepsis in two cases with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who suffered complications of fatal intracranial hemorrhage during remission induction therapy. The first case was 43-year-old male with AML (M0) receiving first consolidation chemotherapy who developed sudden diarrhea, abdominal pain and spiking fever. Two days later, he died of intracranial hemorrhage. The second case was 15-year-old male with AML (M5b) who was receiving first induction chemotherapy. He developed headache and vomiting following spiking fever and diarrhea. He died of subarachnoid hemorrhage the next day. In both cases, Bacillus cereus was isolated from blood culture. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage due to severe bleeding tendency caused rapid to death in both cases. These bleeding tendencies might have been induced by B. cereus sepsis. In addition, we should not overlook B. cereus as contamination, but rather consider it as a potential pathogen, when isolated from blood culture. PMID:8295331

  20. AntiShock Garments for Obstetric Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suellen Miller; Aderinola Ojengbede; Janet Turan; Oladosu Ojengbede; Elizabeth Butrick; Paul Hensleigh

    2007-01-01

    Annually, over 500,000 women die from complications of pregnancy and childbirth; the majority die from hemorrhage and shock. Obstetrical hemorrhage of all etiologies, such as uterine atony, ruptured uterus, and ruptured ectopic, can cause massive blood loss resulting in severe shock. Unless women can access fluid replacement, blood transfusions, and, often, surgery, the shock leads to organ failure and death.

  1. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M., E-mail: migova@terra.es; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Department of Surgery (Spain); Gomez Ramos, M.J. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Intensive Care Unit (Spain); Vazquez Rojas, J.L. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Department of Surgery (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  2. Acute Hemorrhage and Oxygen Free Radicals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kailash Prasad; Jawahar Kalra; Greg Buchko

    1988-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals are known to produce cellular injury. There are various mechanisms during hemorrhagic shock that can lead to an increase in the oxy gen free radicals, which would produce a loss of membrane integrity and a decrease in cardiac function and cardiac contractility. The authors studied the effect of acute hemorrhage and reperfusion on the hemodynamics, blood lac

  3. The Siva1 putative amphipathic helical region (SAH) is sufficient to bind to BCL-XL and sensitize cells to UV radiation induced apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Chu; A. Borthakur; X. Sun; J. Barkinge; R. Gudi; S. Hawkins; K. V. S. Prasad

    2004-01-01

    The human Siva gene is localized to chromosome 14q32-33 and gives rise to the full-length predominant form, Siva-1 and a minor alternate form, Siva-2 that appears to lack the proapoptotic properties of Siva-1. Our recent work has shown that the missing region in Siva-2 encodes a unique twenty amino acid putative amphipathic helical region (SAH, residues 36–55 in Siva-1). Despite

  4. [Severe hemorrhagic form of Rift Valley Fever in Mauritania].

    PubMed

    Boushab, M B; Savadogo, M; Sow, M S; Fall-Malick, F Z; Seydi, M

    2015-03-01

    We report three severe cases of hemorrhagic form of Rift Valley Fever which have been observed in the Hospital of Aïoun (two cases) and in the regional hospital of Tidjikdja (one case). The disease manifested itself by an infectious syndrome, an early infectious syndrome (on the second day) with onset of hemorrhagic complications and disorder of consciousness ranging from an agitation to deep coma. The biological examinations showed a severe anemia. Multiple organ failures were also observed. Of the three patients treated one died. Therefore, the management of both suspected and confirmed cases must be initiated as soon as possible in order to control organ damages and prevent fatality. There is no specific treatment. The importance of the epidemiological survey must be emphasized to avoid outbreaks and control any epidemic due to this virus. PMID:25925806

  5. Genetic separation of tumor growth and hemorrhagic phenotypes in an estrogen-induced tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Wendell, D L; Herman, A; Gorski, J

    1996-01-01

    Chronic administration of estrogen to the Fischer 344 (F344) rat induces growth of large, hemorrhagic pituitary tumors. Ten weeks of diethylstilbestrol (DES) treatment caused female F344 rat pituitaries to grow to an average of 109.2 +/- 6.3 mg (mean +/- SE) versus 11.3 +/- 1.4 mg for untreated rats, and to become highly hemorrhagic. The same DES treatment produced no significant growth (8.9 +/- 0.5 mg for treated females versus 8.7 +/- 1.1 for untreated females) or morphological changes in Brown Norway (BN) rat pituitaries. An F1 hybrid of F344 and BN exhibited significant pituitary growth after 10 weeks of DES treatment with an average mass of 26.3 +/- 0.7 mg compared with 8.6 +/- 0.9 mg for untreated rats. Surprisingly, the F1 hybrid tumors were not hemorrhagic and had hemoglobin content and outward appearance identical to that of BN. Expression of both growth and morphological changes is due to multiple genes. However, while DES-induced pituitary growth exhibited quantitative, additive inheritance, the hemorrhagic phenotype exhibited recessive, epistatic inheritance. Only 5 of the 160 F2 pituitaries exhibited the hemorrhagic phenotype; 36 of the 160 F2 pituitaries were in the F344 range of mass, but 31 of these were not hemorrhagic, indicating that the hemorrhagic phenotype is not merely a consequence of extensive growth. The hemorrhagic F2 pituitaries were all among the most massive, indicating that some of the genes regulate both phenotypes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8755612

  6. Circulatory contributors to the phenotype in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Shovlin, Claire L.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is mechanistically and therapeutically challenging, not only because of the molecular and cellular perturbations that generate vascular abnormalities, but also the modifications to circulatory physiology that result, and are likely to exacerbate vascular injury. First, most HHT patients have visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Significant visceral AVMs reduce the systemic vascular resistance: supra-normal cardiac outputs are required to maintain arterial blood pressure, and may result in significant pulmonary venous hypertension. Secondly, bleeding from nasal and gastrointestinal telangiectasia leads to iron losses of such magnitude that in most cases, diet is insufficient to meet the ‘hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement.’ Resultant iron deficiency restricts erythropoiesis, leading to anemia and further increases in cardiac output. Low iron levels are also associated with venous and arterial thromboses, elevated Factor VIII, and increased platelet aggregation to circulating 5HT (serotonin). Third, recent data highlight that reduced oxygenation of blood due to pulmonary AVMs results in a graded erythrocytotic response to maintain arterial oxygen content, and higher stroke volumes and/or heart rates to maintain oxygen delivery. Finally, HHT-independent factors such as diet, pregnancy, sepsis, and other intercurrent illnesses also influence vascular structures, hemorrhage, and iron handling in HHT patients. These considerations emphasize the complexity of mechanisms that impact on vascular structures in HHT, and also offer opportunities for targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:25914716

  7. Cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage: analysis of predisposing factors and mechanisms causing hemorrhagic strokes.

    PubMed

    Kibayashi, K; Mastri, A R; Hirsch, C S

    1995-06-01

    We analyzed 26 autopsy cases of cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage and compared those findings with those of 26 autopsy cases of cocaine induced cerebral aneurysm rupture. The incidence of hypertensive cardiovascular disease (HCVD) was significantly higher in persons with intracerebral hemorrhage than in those with aneurysm rupture. Our findings suggest that HCVD predisposes to cocaine induced intracerebral hemorrhage. We propose that the foregoing relationship results from a cocaine induced alteration of cerebral autoregulation in the context of increased cerebral blood flow. PMID:7774897

  8. [Blindness caused by retrobulbar hemorrhage (orbital compartment syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Klenk, Gusztáv

    2010-09-19

    In the author's department, 5 patients developed retrobulbar hemorrhage from the 199 patients with midface fractures, between August 2007 and March 2010 (2.5%). 4 of these patients became irreversibly blind on the affected eye. With timely treatment, one patient avoided blindness. The author presents a retrospective analysis of the patients from different departments with midface/orbital fractures and blindness. Bleeding and oedema behind the eyeball due to midface/orbital fractures in the relatively non-expandable orbit results a quick elevation of orbital pressure and consequently diminished circulation, ischemia, and later necrosis of the optic nerve (orbital compartment syndrome) with irreversible blindness. Immediate medical (high dose of intravenous steroids, mannitol, acetazolamide) and surgical intervention (lateral canthotomy, cantholysis, orbitotomy) on noticing the signs (proptosis, ecchymosis, ophthalmoplegia, mydriasis) and symptoms (pain, diplopia, decreased visual acuity, blindness), of a retrobulbar hemorrhage could theoretically give a chance to save the affected eye. Treatment started beyond 20 minutes of onset of blindness, might not revert the vision. Unfortunately, the description and treatment of the retrobulbar hemorrhage and the orbital compartment syndrome is not within the curriculum of the medical university, thus young colleagues could have vague idea about the diagnosis, the urgency and the treatment - as shown in these cases. With the introduction of these cases the author would like to highlight the signs, symptoms and necessary treatment. Knowledge of the disease could also increase the detected number of retrobulbar hemorrhages, which might be less rare than we think. Including the disease into the medical curriculum and postgraduate trainings could help to reduce the number of sad cases in the future. PMID:20826378

  9. Outcome of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a hospital population: a prospective study including early operation, intravenous nimodipine, and transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Seiler, R W; Reulen, H J; Huber, P; Grolimund, P; Ebeling, U; Steiger, H J

    1988-11-01

    A total of 153 consecutive patients with proven aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) admitted immediately after diagnosis regardless of clinical condition were managed according to the same protocol. The initial evaluation included computed tomography (CT), transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), angiography-CT, and/or angiography. Intravenous nimodipine (2 mg/hour) was started after confirmation of the diagnosis. The timing of operation was determined individually according to age, clinical course, and CT and TCD findings. Twenty-one Grade V patients treated with intensive care and ventriculostomy died or did not improve within 24 hours after SAH. Three patients with life-threatening intracerebral hematomas underwent emergency operation. Operation was early in 55 good risk patients and late in 57 patients because of poor initial grade, late admission, or logistic reasons. Seventeen patients had no operation because of old age, persistent poor clinical condition, medical complication, or lethal rebleeding before operation. In the total series, 90 patients (59%) made a full recovery, the overall morbidity rate was 14% (21 of 153 cases), and the mortality rate was 27% (42 of 153). Postoperative mortality including emergency evacuation of hematomas was 7.8% and mortality after elective operation was 6.2%. The causes of disability and death were the initial effect of the hemorrhage in 25 patients (16.3%), rebleeding in 15 (9.8%), delayed cerebral infarction in 8 (5.2%), surgical complications in 7 (4.5%), hydrocephalus in 4 (2.6%), and medical complications in 4 (2.6%). PMID:3059218

  10. Trisomy 13 and massive fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Ryoko; Suzuki, Shunji; Ito, Marie; Terada, Yusuke; Kumasaka, Sakae

    2015-07-01

    This is the first case report of trisomy 13 complicated by massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH). A pale male infant weighing 2,950 g was delivered with low Apgar scores by emergency cesarean section due to non-reassuring fetal status. The umbilical arterial pH and hemoglobin level were 6.815 and 6.9 g/dL (normal: 13 - 22 g/dL), respectively. The maternal hemoglobin-F and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were 6.0% (normal: < 1.0%) and 1,150 ng/mL (4.1 multiple of median), respectively. The neonate was diagnosed as having trisomy 13 by a subsequent chromosome examination. In the placenta, massive intervillous thrombosis was observed microscopically. This placental finding has been reported to be associated with both preeclampsia and massive FMH. In addition, the incidence of preeclampsia in pregnancies complicated by trisomy 13 has been reported to be significantly higher than normal karyotype populations. Therefore, the current finding may support the association between trisomy 13 and the incidence of massive FMH. PMID:26015824

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at high pressure into the thinner walled, less elastic veins. The extra pressure tends to strain and ... autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; capillaries ; cell ; chromosome ; compression ; deficiency ; elastic ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; hemorrhage ; hereditary ; incidence ; inherited ; juvenile ; oxygen ; ...

  12. Genetic markers in the EET metabolic pathway are associated with outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Mark K; Conley, Yvette P; Crago, Elizabeth A; Ren, Dianxu; Sherwood, Paula R; Balzer, Jeffery R; Poloyac, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Preclinical studies show that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) regulate cerebrovascular tone and protect against cerebral ischemia. We investigated the relationship between polymorphic genes involved in EET biosynthesis/metabolism, cytochrome P450 (CYP) eicosanoid levels, and outcomes in 363 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (DHET) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels, as well as acute outcomes defined by delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) or clinical neurologic deterioration (CND), were assessed over 14 days. Long-term outcomes were defined by Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) at 3 and 12 months. CYP2C8*4 allele carriers had 44% and 36% lower mean EET and DHET CSF levels (P=0.003 and P=0.007) and were 2.2- and 2.5-fold more likely to develop DCI and CND (P=0.039 and P=0.041), respectively. EPHX2 55Arg, CYP2J2*7, CYP2C8*1B, and CYP2C8 g.36785A allele carriers had lower EET and DHET CSF levels. CYP2C8 g.25369T and CYP2C8 g.36755A allele carriers had higher EET levels. Patients with CYP2C8*2C and EPHX2 404del variants had worse long-term outcomes while those with EPHX2 287Gln, CYP2J2*7, and CYP2C9 g.816G variants had favorable outcomes. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid levels were associated with Fisher grade and unfavorable 3-month outcomes. Dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids were not associated with outcomes. No associations passed Bonferroni multiple testing correction. These are the first clinical data demonstrating the association between the EET biosynthesis/metabolic pathway and the pathophysiology of aSAH. PMID:25388680

  13. Abdominal pregnancy: Methods of hemorrhage control

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Shipra; Khan, Tamkin; Srivastava, Kumkumrani

    2015-01-01

    Summary Abdominal pregnancy is an extremely rare form of ectopic pregnancy, mostly occurring secondarily after tubal rupture or abortion with secondary implantation anywhere in the peritoneal cavity. Massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage is a life threatening complication associated with secondary abdominal pregnancy. Various methods and techniques have been reported in the literature for controlling hemorrhage. Here, we report a case of massive intraperitoneal haemorrhage following placental removal controlled by abdominal packing and review the literature for diagnostic and management challenges. PMID:25984430

  14. Hypothermia-induced coagulopathy during hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Krause, K R; Howells, G A; Buhs, C L; Hernandez, D A; Bair, H; Schuster, M; Bendick, P J

    2000-04-01

    A porcine model of hemorrhagic shock was used to study the effect of hypothermia on hemodynamic, metabolic, and coagulation parameters. The model was designed to simulate the events of severe blunt injury with hemorrhage occurring initially, to a systolic blood pressure of 30 mm Hg, followed by simultaneous hemorrhage and crystalloid volume replacement, followed by cessation of hemorrhage and blood replacement. Half of the animals were rendered hypothermic by external application of ice, and half remained normothermic. There was seven pigs in each group. Two deaths occurred in each during the hemorrhage phase. The hypothermic pigs demonstrated larger reduction in cardiac output than normothermic pigs. Volume replacement in the normothermic group restored cardiac output to baseline values. In the hypothermic group, cardiac output remained depressed despite volume replacement. Prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times showed significantly more prolongation in the hypothermic group. Furthermore, this was not corrected by replacement of shed blood in the hypothermic group, as was seen in the normothermic group. We conclude that when shock and hypothermia occur together, their deleterious effect on hemodynamic and coagulation parameters are additive. The effects of hypothermia persist despite the arrest of hemorrhage and volume replacement. Thus, it is necessary to aggressively address both shock and hypothermia when they occur simultaneously. PMID:10776871

  15. Artifact quantification and tractography from 3T MRI after placement of aneurysm clips in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The application of advanced 3T MRI imaging techniques to study recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is complicated by the presence of image artifacts produced by implanted aneurysm clips. To characterize the effect of these artifacts on image quality, we sought to: 1) quantify extent of image artifact in SAH patients with implanted aneurysm clips across a range of MR sequences typically used in studies of volumetry, blood oxygen level dependent signal change (BOLD-fMRI), and diffusion-weighted imaging (DW-MRI) and 2) to explore the ability to reconstruct white matter pathways in these patients. Methods T1- and T2-weighted structural, BOLD-fMRI, and DW-MRI scans were acquired at 3T in two patients with titanium alloy clips in ACOM and left ACA respectively. Intensity-based planimetric contouring was performed on aligned image volumes to define each artifact. Artifact volumes were quantified by artifact/clip length and artifact/brain volume ratios and analyzed by two-way (scan-by-rater) ANOVAs. Tractography pathways were reconstructed from DW-MRI at varying distances from the artifacts using deterministic methods. Results Artifact volume varied by MR sequence for length (p = 0.007) and volume (p < 0.001) ratios: it was smallest for structural images, larger for DW-MRI acquisitions, and largest on fMRI images. Inter-rater reliability was high (r = 0.9626, p < 0.0001), and reconstruction of white matter connectivity characteristics increased with distance from the artifact border. In both patients, reconstructed white matter pathways of the uncinate fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus were clearly visible within 2 mm of the artifact border. Conclusions Advanced 3T MR can successfully image brain tissue around implanted titanium aneurysm clips at different spatial ranges depending on sequence type. White matter pathways near clip artifacts can be reconstructed and visualized. These findings provide a reference for designing functional and structural neuroimaging studies of recovery in aSAH patients after clip placement. PMID:21970560

  16. Vasospasm after intraventricular hemorrhage caused by arteriovenous malformation

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Wei-Lung; Tsai, Yi-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) induced vasospasm is rare in clinical practice. We report a case with vasospasm 10 days after IVH due to thalamic bleeding from an arteriovenous malformation. The vasospasm was so severe that transarterial embolization failed. Follow-up angiography could not reveal the vascular lesion and spontaneous thrombosis was considered. The discussion includes literature review and possible mechanism of such phenomenon. IVH-related vasospasm is rare but should always be kept in mind. Early detection with proper treatment provides better clinical outcome in such cases. PMID:25972942

  17. Improving ascertainment and communication of prognosis in intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Prognostication after intracerebral hemorrhage remains a significant challenge for the field of neurocritical care. Despite several available tools that can predict mortality and, to some degree, functional outcomes, deciding which prediction score to use and how best to translate the resultant population-based value to the individual level is not always clear. As more and more scores are published, we need to give due attention to the qualitative aspect of prognostication and explore how best to move this critical aspect of our field forward. PMID:24321182

  18. Secondary Hemorrhage After Total Laparoscopic Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Prathap, Talwar; Kaur, Harneet; Shabnam, Khan; Kandhari, Dimple; Chopade, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to estimate the cumulative incidence, patient characteristics, and potential risk factors for secondary hemorrhage after total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Methods: All women who underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy at Paul's Hospital between January 2004 and April 2012 were included in the study. Patients who had bleeding per vaginam between 24 hours and 6 weeks after primary surgery were included in the analysis. Results: A total of 1613 patients underwent total laparoscopic hysterectomy during the study period, and 21 patients had secondary hemorrhage after hysterectomy. The overall cumulative incidence of secondary hemorrhage after total laparoscopic hysterectomy was 1.3%. The mean size of the uterus was 541.4 g in the secondary hemorrhage group and 318.9 g in patients without hemorrhage, which was statistically significant. The median time interval between hysterectomy and secondary hemorrhage was 13 days. Packing was sufficient to control the bleeding in 13 patients, and 6 patients required vault suturing. Laparoscopic coagulation of the uterine artery was performed in 1 patient. Uterine artery embolization was performed twice in 1 patient to control the bleeding. Conclusions: Our data suggest that secondary hemorrhage is rare but may occur more often after total laparoscopic hysterectomy than after other hysterectomy approaches. Whether it is related to the application of thermal energy to tissues, which causes more tissue necrosis and devascularization than sharp culdotomy in abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies, is not clear. A large uterus size, excessive use of an energy source for the uterine artery, and culdotomy may play a role. PMID:25392609

  19. Bullous-hemorrhagic Darier disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Salas, María Pilar; Latasa de Aranibar, Francisco Javier García; Oncíns Torres, Rosa; Gambó Grasa, Paula

    2011-01-01

    A 48-year-old man presented with a 4-month history of papular hyperkeratotic diffuse lesions on his trunk, arms, and neck that were highly pruritic (Figure 1). He also had "V"-shaped nicks in the nails, mucous white papules on his palate, and diffuse desquamation on the scalp. Abnormal laboratory values included elevated levels of uric acid and triglycerides. Serum electrolytes, blood sugar, and renal and liver function test results were within normal range. X-ray film and abdominal ultrasonography findings were also normal. Histopathologic study of the biopsy from the thorax revealed acantholysis with suprabasal clefting, intraepidermal lacunae, and dyskeratosis with corps ronds. The clinical features and results of the histopathologic studies suggested a diagnosis of Darier disease (Figure 2), but the course was not typical of this entity because the patient had no family or personal history of previous cutaneous lesions and the age of onset was older than usual. In the course of the disease, he developed blisters and small black hemorrhagic macules with jagged borders on the back of his hands (Figure 3). Nikolsky's sign was negative. A biopsy of a blister was performed, which confirmed Darier disease, studied by means of immunofluorescence. Measurement of porphyrins in the urine was also ordered. Direct immunofluorescence did not show deposition of immunoglobulins or complement, and the study of porphyrins was normal. The patient was treated with an oral retinoid (acitretin 10 mg daily), but treatment was stopped because he developed an increase in triglycerides; therefore, control of the disease with oral antihistamines, 5-fluorouracil 1% cream, and topical tazarotene was used, with mild improvement. PMID:21409967

  20. Supratherapeutic anticoagulation at presentation is associated with reduced mortality in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, James; Ferguson, Reid; Weilert, Frank; Smith, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Warfarin is a widely used and easily reversible anticoagulant. Although bleeding is more likely in warfarin users, it may also be more readily treated. This retrospective observational case-control study compares the outcome of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in warfarin users with a supratherapeutic international normalized ratio (INR) and outcome in non?–?warfarin users. Patients and methods: Clinical and endoscopic data for patients presenting with overt upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage were collected between 23rd February 2001 and 12 October 2010.?Patients with variceal hemorrhage were excluded. Warfarin users with a supratherapeutic INR (??3.0) at presentation (supratherapeutic anticoagulation [SA] group) were matched to a cohort with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage not taking warfarin at presentation (control group). Patients were matched by age, sex, Rockall score, year of endoscopy, inpatient or outpatient status, and the presence of disseminated cancer at presentation. The incidence rates of major outcomes in the two groups were compared. Results: A total of 128 patients (SA group) were matched to 135 control patients. The SA group patients were less likely to die within 30 days (6.25?% vs. 15.5?%, odds ratio?=?0.36, P?=?0.028 by Test for Equality of Proportions). There was a trend toward more surgery in the control group (5?% vs. 2?%), and rates of blood transfusion (77?% vs. 70?%) were similar in the two groups. Conclusion: In patients presenting with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, a supratherapeutic INR at presentation due to warfarin use is associated with reduced mortality.

  1. Life or Death? A Physiogenomic Approach to Understand Individual Variation in Responses to Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Klemcke, Harold G; Joe, Bina; Rose, Rajiv; Ryan, Kathy L

    2011-01-01

    Severe hemorrhage due to trauma is a major cause of death throughout the world. It has often been observed that some victims are able to withstand hemorrhage better than others. For decades investigators have attempted to identify physiological mechanisms that distinguish survivors from nonsurvivors for the purpose of providing more informed therapies. As an alternative approach to address this issue, we have initiated a research program to identify genes and genetic mechanisms that contribute to this phenotype of survival time after controlled hemorrhage. From physiogenomic studies using inbred rat strains, we have demonstrated that this phenotype is a heritable quantitative trait, and is therefore a complex trait regulated by multiple genes. Our work continues to identify quantitative trait loci as well as potential epigenetic mechanisms that might influence survival time after severe hemorrhage. Our ultimate goal is to improve survival to traumatic hemorrhage and attendant shock via regulation of genetic mechanisms and to provide knowledge that will lead to genetically-informed personalized treatments. PMID:22379396

  2. Double consecutive retrobulbar hemorrhage in a high-risk patient in treatment with aspirin and warfarin.

    PubMed

    Viterbo, Stefano; Boffano, Paolo; Guglielmi, Valeria; Fasolis, Massimo; Palumbo, Carlo; Berrone, Sid

    2012-11-01

    Retrobulbar hemorrhage is a vision-threatening emergency that may occur spontaneously or following facial trauma, orbital surgery, endoscopic sinus surgery, and retrobulbar injections. It may determine visual loss because of central retinal artery occlusion, optic neuropathy from direct compression, or compression of the circulation from mechanical tamponade. In addition to a deterioration in visual acuity with total blindness in the most severe cases, several symptoms and signs can be found, such as a sudden onset of severe pain, proptosis, and ophthalmoplegia.The knowledge of past medical history and underlying medical conditions is crucial in patients with retrobulbar hemorrhages. In fact, patients with blood dyscrasias have to be considered high-risk patients due to their increased propensity for uncontrolled bleeding.The aim of this article was to present and discuss the management of a case of double consecutive retrobulbar hemorrhage in a high-risk patient in treatment with aspirin and warfarin. PMID:23147322

  3. A Case of Acute Bilateral Retrocochlear Hearing Loss as an Initial Symptom of Unilateral Thalamic Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min-Joon; Yoon, Sung-Won; Kim, Kang-Hyeon; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A speech discrimination test is a test using a list of 25 phonetically balanced monosyllables. It is often overlooked but significant enough for pure tone audiometry. Many physicians have performed pure tone audiometry but without a speech discrimination test. A 73-year-old woman visited our clinic complaining of sudden bilateral hearing loss. Pure tone audiometry showed only bilateral high frequency loss. However, speech discrimination had decreased markedly. We decided to follow-up after 1 week of Ginexin-F® (ginkgo leaf extract) and Nafril® (nafronyl oxalate). She felt a gait disturbance within 2 days. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a left thalamic hemorrhage. After a 1 month hospitalization, the hematoma subsided, and speech discrimination recovered 3 months later. Acute hearing loss due to thalamic hemorrhage that recovered has never been reported. We report the first case of retrocochlear hearing loss that occurred with a thalamic hemorrhage in a patient who recovered. PMID:25279230

  4. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Early Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Huang, Yuan-Jun; Zhang, Gang; Lv, Fa-Jin; Wei, Xiao; Dong, Mei-Xue; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Qin, Xin-Yue; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage is associated with poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to investigate the association between intraventricular hemorrhage and early hematoma expansion in patients with ICH. Patients with ICH who underwent a baseline CT scan within six hours after onset of symptoms were included. The follow-up CT scan was performed within 24?hours after the baseline CT scan. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between presence of intraventricular hemorrhage and early hematoma expansion. A total of 160 patients were included in the study. Significant hematoma growth was observed in 52 (32.5%) patients presenting within six hours after onset of symptoms. Intraventricular hemorrhage was observed in 66 (41.25%) patients with ICH. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that a short time from onset to baseline CT scan, the initial hematoma volume, and the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage on follow-up CT scan were independently associated with hematoma enlargement. The presence of intraventricular hemorrhage on follow-up CT scan can be associated with hematoma expansion in patients with ICH. PMID:26087142

  5. Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Early Hematoma Expansion in Patients with Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Huang, Yuan-Jun; Zhang, Gang; Lv, Fa-Jin; Wei, Xiao; Dong, Mei-Xue; Chen, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Li-Juan; Qin, Xin-Yue; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage is associated with poor functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We aimed to investigate the association between intraventricular hemorrhage and early hematoma expansion in patients with ICH. Patients with ICH who underwent a baseline CT scan within six hours after onset of symptoms were included. The follow-up CT scan was performed within 24?hours after the baseline CT scan. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between presence of intraventricular hemorrhage and early hematoma expansion. A total of 160 patients were included in the study. Significant hematoma growth was observed in 52 (32.5%) patients presenting within six hours after onset of symptoms. Intraventricular hemorrhage was observed in 66 (41.25%) patients with ICH. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that a short time from onset to baseline CT scan, the initial hematoma volume, and the presence of intraventricular hemorrhage on follow-up CT scan were independently associated with hematoma enlargement. The presence of intraventricular hemorrhage on follow-up CT scan can be associated with hematoma expansion in patients with ICH. PMID:26087142

  6. Juvenile polyposis occurring in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Matsumoto, T; Iida, M; Hoshika, K; Shimizu, M; Hisamoto, N; Kihara, T

    1999-01-01

    Various extraintestinal manifestations may occur in juvenile polyposis, but hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia has rarely been reported in this type of polyposis. The authors treated a 14-year-old girl with rectal bleeding and anemia who had multiple polyps of the colorectum. Large polyps were removed and histologically diagnosed as juvenile polyps. She was later diagnosed as having telangiectasia of the skin, and arteriovenous malformations in the lung and in the liver, all of which were compatible with the diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. At age 32, she had multiple ulcers in the ileum and in the colon. The coexistence of juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may be a clue for the understanding of the histopathogenesis of juvenile polyposis. PMID:9892274

  7. Duret hemorrhage: demonstration of ruptured paramedian pontine branches of the basilar artery on minimally invasive, whole body postmortem CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ka Lip; Baber, Yeliena; Iles, Linda; O'Donnell, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    A 25 year old male died suddenly and unexpectedly. Postmortem CT scanning revealed marked raised intracranial pressure with brainstem compression due to subarachnoid, subdural and parenchymal hemorrhage. A hyperdense mass at the termination of the right internal carotid artery was thought to represent an aneurysm. Postmortem, whole body CT angiography failed to fill the aneurysm but did demonstrate multiple central pontine linear enhancing structures in continuity with the mid basilar artery and small foci of contrast leak into the adjacent mid pontine parenchyma. Autopsy confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage, a thrombosed and ruptured proximal right middle cerebral artery aneurysm and Duret hemorrhages in the mid pons. This finding supports the theory that Duret hemorrhages occur as a result of perforating pontine branch of the basilar arterial rupture but does not exclude the contribution of venous congestion. PMID:22484970

  8. [Fetomaternal hemorrhage caused by intraplacental choriocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Touboul, C; Faivre, E; Boithias, C; Mass, A-E; Senat, M-V; Fernandez, H; Deffieux, X

    2010-04-01

    A male infant was born at 41 weeks' gestation to a 34-year-old primiparous woman after an uneventful pregnancy. Physical examination showed extreme paleness. Fetal hemoglobin was 7.6g/dl and Kleihauher exam revealed fetomaternal hemorrhage. Pathology revealed in situ intraplacental choriocarcinoma. Serum human chorionic gonadotrophin level was undetectable 1 month after the delivery both in woman and in newborn. We suggest that a pathological examination of the placenta should be performed in any case of fetomaternal hemorrhage in order to avoid misdiagnosis of intraplacental choriocarcinoma. PMID:20074866

  9. Differential Diagnosis of Nontraumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Linn; Hartmut Brückmann

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   A wide variety of nontraumatic pathologies can result in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Primary causes such as arterial hypertension\\u000a or cerebral amyloid angiopathy can be differentiated from secondary pathologies, such as neoplasms, arterio-venous malformations,\\u000a coagulopathies, hemorrhagic ischemic strokes, and cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis.\\u000a \\u000a Here, the authors first provide some general information on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and imaging appearance of

  10. [Intensive care management [corrected] of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Diedler, J; Sykora, M; Herweh, C; Orakcioglu, B; Zweckberger, K; Steiner, T; Hacke, W

    2011-04-01

    Approximately 10-15% of acute strokes are caused by non-aneurysmatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and incidences are expected to increase due to an aging population. Studies from the 1990s estimated mortality of ICH to be as high as 50%. However, these figures may partly be attributed to the fact that patients suffering from ICH frequently received only supportive therapy and the poor prognosis may therefore be more a self-fulfilling prophecy. Recently it has been shown that treatment in a specialized neurological intensive care unit alone was associated with better outcomes after ICH. In recent years considerable efforts have been undertaken in order to develop new therapies for ICH and to assess them in randomized controlled trials. Apart from admission status, hemorrhage volume is considered to be the main prognostic factor and impeding the spread of the hematoma is thus a basic therapeutic principle. The use of activated factor VIIa (aFVIIa) to stop hematoma enlargement has been assessed in two large randomized controlled trials, however the promising results of the dose-finding study could not be confirmed in a phase III trial. Although hemostatic therapy with aFVIIa reduced growth of the hematoma it failed to improve clinical outcome. Similar results were found in a randomized controlled trial on blood pressure management in acute ICH. The link between reduction of hematoma growth and improved outcome is therefore still lacking. Likewise the value of surgical hematoma evacuation remains uncertain. In the largest randomized controlled trial on surgical treatment in ICH so far, only a small subgroup of patients with superficial hemorrhages seemed to benefit from hematoma evacuation. Whether improved intensive care can contribute to improved outcome after ICH will be shown by data obtained in the coming years. PMID:21431439

  11. [Experimental model of venous hemorrhagic infarction by cerebral sinus occlusion].

    PubMed

    Fujita, K; Kojima, N; Matsumoto, S

    1984-08-01

    A new experimental model of the hemorrhagic infarction was devised to study the pathophysiology of the hemorrhagic infarction of the venous origin. To make a model of the hemorrhagic infarction by sinus occlusion, mixture of alpha-cyanoacrylate monomer and pantopaque was injected through a catheter introduced into the superior sagittal sinus in 15 dogs, using embolization technique. These dogs were divided into three groups according to the volume of the mixture injected into the sinus. In control groups (3 dogs), no mixture was injected. For partial sinus occlusion (5 dogs), 0.5-1.0 ml of mixture was injected into the sinus and 1.0-1.5 ml of mixture, for complete sinus occlusion (7 dogs). Changes of intracranial pressure (ICP), superior sagittal sinus pressure (SSSP), tissue pressure (TP) rCBF and histological changes were evaluated before and after sinus occlusion. The following results were obtained. (1) In control groups, ICP, SSSP and TP were 9 +/- 2.2 mmHg, 4 +/- 2.5 mmHg and 4-5 mmHg respectively, but in partial and complete sinus occlusion, SSSP and TP were higher than ICP. ICP, SSSP & TP were 32 +/- 5.4 mmHg, 35 +/- 6.5 mmHg and 37-42 mg, in partial sinus occlusion and 62 +/- 5.9 mmHg, 65 +/- 6.0 mmHg, 65-72 mmHg in complete sinus occlusion. (2) R-CBF in partial sinus occlusion showed no change even after sinus occlusion, but in complete sinus occlusion, decreased to 20% of that of the control group due to marked venous congestion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6504262

  12. Modulation of Syndecan-1 Shedding after Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky J. Haywood-Watson; John B. Holcomb; Ernest A. Gonzalez; Zhanglong Peng; Shibani Pati; Pyong Woo Park; WeiWei Wang; Ana Maria Zaske; Tyler Menge; Rosemary A. Kozar

    2011-01-01

    The early use of fresh frozen plasma as a resuscitative agent after hemorrhagic shock has been associated with improved survival, but the mechanism of protection is unknown. Hemorrhagic shock causes endothelial cell dysfunction and we hypothesized that fresh frozen plasma would restore endothelial integrity and reduce syndecan-1 shedding after hemorrhagic shock. A prospective, observational study in severely injured patients in

  13. Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis Associated With Autoimmune Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Neeta; Ahmed, Iftekhar; Duggal, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis is a rare acute inflammatory myelinopathy of central nervous system with high mortality. We report a case of an unusual presentation of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis with autoimmune myopathy and a complete recovery with steroids and plasmapheresis. Methods A 24-year-old female admitted with generalized seizure, lethargy, but no focal neurological signs. Head scans revealed right frontal hypodensity with loss of basal cisterns, mild transfalcine shift to the left, a mass lesion with abnormal signal and multiple small hemorrhages. Biopsy pathology showed white matter demyelinating lesions with necrotizing destruction of small vessels and acute inflammation. EMG was consistent with demyelinating diffuse polyneuropathy and myopathy. Pathology of muscle showed myopathic changes suggestive of autoimmune myopathy. Results Patient was initially treated with Dexamethasone, Mannitol, Keppra, Antibiotics and Acyclovir. Later when she developed diffuse polyneuropathy and myopathy, she was given plasmapheresis. The patient responded to the treatment and made a full recovery. Conclusion Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis is a rare and usually fatal disorder. The etiology of AHLE remains clear; cross-reactivity between human myelin antigens and viral or bacterial antigens is thought to initiate an immune process causing demyelination. Usually the autoimmune process targets CNS myelin and spares the peripheral; however, in this case there was diffuse involvement of central and peripheral myelin and muscle. PMID:25422709

  14. Hemorrhagic abdominoscrotal hydrocele. A challenging entity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    José Estevão-Costa; Hélder Morgado; Miguel Soares-Oliveira; Miguel Campos; José Luis Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Abdominoscrotal hydrocele (ASH) is a rare condition in childhood. It presents an intraabdominal portion with homogeneous content that is usually excised through a groin approach. A pale child with a recurrent scrotal hydrocele and a huge solid-cystic retroperitoneal mass is reported. Because the diagnostic workup has not ruled out malignancy, a laparotomy was performed; however, ultimate diagnosis was hemorrhagic ASH.

  15. A Giant Hemorrhagic Adrenal Pseudocyst Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goran Stimac; Josip Katusic; Mario Sucic; Mario Ledinsky; Bozo Kruslin; Davor Trnski

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report a rare case of a giant hemorrhagic ad- renal pseudocyst and highlight the importance of this entity to clinicians. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old woman pre- sented with a 1-year history of abdominal pain and disten- sion. Ultrasonography and multislice computed tomogra- phy revealed a giant cystic (partially solid) mass over the left suprarenal region measuring 20 !

  16. Complications of Hemorrhagic Stroke in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin P. Humphreys

    1992-01-01

    The complications of hemorrhagic stroke in children begin first with one’s failure to establish the correct diagnosis or from the lack of knowledge of attendant phenomena and second, from those events which occur before, during or because of the treatment provided for specific lesions. The fundamental principles of history gathering, clinical evaluation and appropriate neuroimaging will direct safe, uncomplicated patient

  17. [Hemorrhagic stroke and new oral anticoagulants].

    PubMed

    Derlon, V; Corbonnois, G; Martin, M; Toussaint-Hacquard, M; Audibert, G

    2014-01-01

    The recent release of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) raises the question of the management of intracranial hemorrhage occurring during treatment with these molecules. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban have different pharmacological characteristics that physicians need to know to adjust their prescription to each patient. Studies of efficacy and safety prior to the marketing of these molecules showed a decreased risk of intracranial hemorrhage compared with vitamin K antagonists. However, no reliable data are available regarding the prognosis of these hemorrhages occurring during NOAC treatment. In addition, there is no specific antidote and reversal protocol validated in humans. So, physicians are in a difficult situation when critical bleeding occurs. The timing of recovering normal hemostatic capacity is then a determinant factor of prognosis. Studies in animals or healthy volunteers showed a correction of the biological parameters using prothrombin complex concentrates activated or not, without reducing the volume of hematoma. On this basis, proposals have been issued by the french group of interest for perioperative hemostasis (GIHP) for the management of bleeding under NOAC treatment, which include management of intracranial hemorrhage. PMID:25282445

  18. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

  19. Imported Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Tattevin, Pierre; Tarantola, Arnaud; Legay, François; Tall, Adama; Nabeth, Pierre; Zeller, Hervé; Michelet, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease that may also be transmitted through person-to-person transmission by exposure to infected body fluids. Despite its wide geographic distribution in animals, CCHF virus is rarely associated with recognized human diseases. We report the first case of imported CCHF in France. PMID:16145173

  20. Vitreous Hemorrhage in Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; Kahtani, Eman S.; Gikandi, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and study causes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in pediatric age group and to investigate factors predicting visual and anatomical outcomes. Procedure. A retrospective review of patients aged 16 years or less with the diagnosis of vitreous hemorrhage from January 2005 until December 2010. Results. A total number of 230 patients (240 eyes) were identified. Traumatic vitreous hemorrhage accounted for 82.5%. In cases of accidental trauma, final visual acuity of 20/200 was significantly associated with visual acuity of ?20/200 at presentation and the absence of retinal detachment at last follow-up. Patients with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage were significantly younger with higher rates of enucleation/evisceration/exenteration and retinal detachment at last follow-up compared to traumatic cases. Conclusion. Trauma is the most common cause of VH in pediatric age group. In this group, initial visual acuity was the most important predictor for visual outcome, and the presence of retinal detachment is a negative predictor for final good visual outcome. The outcome is significantly worse in nontraumatic cases compared to traumatic cases. PMID:25505975

  1. Uterine artery embolization for primary postpartum hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Jun-Mo; Ryu, Ae-Li; Chung, Soo-Ho; Seok Lee, Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and death. A prompt management of uterine artery embolization (UAE) is important for a good outcome. UAE is generally accepted to be a safe and reliable procedure. Objective: To estimate critical patient characteristics influencing the success of UAE for the treatment of emergent primary postpartum hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: This was a cross sectional study that reviewed 121 patients who were diagnosed primary postpartum hemorrhage between February 2002 and December 2009 at a tertiary treatment center among 4,022 deliveries. We evaluated patient clinical characteristics associated with a successful surgical outcome of UAE. Results: The success rate for UAE was 96%. For two cases, UAE complication was associated with fever (>38.5oC). Five patients had problems that required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Conclusion: To increase the surgical success rate and lower the number of ICU admissions, the decision to treat primary postpartum hemorrhage using UAE should be based on individual patient clinical findings under the direction of obstetrics staff and an interventional radiologist. PMID:24639786

  2. A review of stereotaxy and lysis for intracranial hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Samadani, Uzma; Rohde, Veit

    2009-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage represents a significant cause of human morbidity and mortality, leaving as many as 80% of patients either dead or disabled. Techniques for management of hemorrhage include optimal medical care, craniotomy, endoscopy, and stereotaxy. This work reviews the history of cranial stereotaxy for evacuation of nontraumatic hemorrhage beginning with techniques for mechanical disruption of the coagulated hemorrhage modeled after Archimedes screw. We discuss the properties of urokinase and tissue plasminogen activator, which have been utilized for lysis, and the outcomes after stereotactic fibrinolytic evacuation of intracerebral hemorrhage. The ongoing clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of stereotactic fibrinolysis are also discussed. PMID:18830646

  3. Redefining secondary injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in light of multimodal advanced neuroimaging, intracranial and transcranial neuromonitoring: beyond vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Kapinos, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The classic idea that arterial narrowing, called vasospasm (VSP), represents the hallmark of secondary injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage, has been challenged. The more complex and pleiotropic pathophysiological repercussions from the irruption of arterial blood into the subarachnoid layers go beyond the ascribed VSP. Putting adjectives in front of this term, such as "symptomatic," "microdialytic," or "angiographic" VSP, is misleading. Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a better term but remains restrictive to severe hypoperfusive injury and neglects oligemia, edema, and metabolic nonischemic injuries. In recognition of these issues, the international conference on VSP integrated "neurovascular events" into its name ( www.vasospasm2013.com ) and a multidisciplinary research group was formed in 2010 to study subgroups of DCI/VSP and their respective significance.In three parts, this tiered article provides a broader definitional envelope for DCI and secondary neurovascular insults after SAH, with a rubric for each subtype of delayed neuronal dysfunction. First, it pinpoints the need for nosologic precision and covers current terminological inconsistency. Then, it highlights the input of neuroimaging and neuromonitoring in defining secondary injurious processes. Finally, a new categorization of deteriorating patients is proposed, going beyond a hierarchical or dichotomized definition of VSP/DCI, and common data elements are suggested for future trials. PMID:25366634

  4. A Case of Childhood Vitrectomy Performed for Dense Vitreous Hemorrhage Secondary to Leukemia Therapy and Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Takashi; Suzuki, Yukihiko; Metoki, Tomomi; Nakazawa, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of vitrectomy performed in a child with dense massive vitreous hemorrhage due to secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and tumor lysis syndrome. Case A 4-year-old boy with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma was successfully treated with chemotherapy in 2011. However, in May 2012, he developed secondary AML. Although he was treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation, tumor lysis syndrome occurred with renal and heart failure complications. After an ultrasound examination by pediatricians found bilateral subretinal protrusions, he was referred to our clinic. Fundus examinations confirmed that the protrusions were bilateral subretinal or choroidal hemorrhages. A few weeks later, dense vitreous hemorrhages occurred bilaterally, and he completely lost vision in both eyes. Electroretinograms were extinguished in both eyes. After improvement of his general condition, we performed a 25-gauge vitrectomy combined with lens extraction in his left eye in December 2012. After removal of the vitreous hemorrhage, we found the subretinal hemorrhage had already been absorbed, leaving a mottled fundus color. However, the optic disc was not pale. Nine months after the surgery, his best-corrected visual acuity finally improved to 0.1. Conclusion We successfully treated a case of severe vitreous hemorrhage secondary to leukemia therapy and tumor lysis syndrome using 25-gauge vitrectomy. This procedure may be safe and effective to perform, even in children with complications. PMID:25759668

  5. An update on crimean congo hemorrhagic Fever.

    PubMed

    Appannanavar, Suma B; Mishra, Baijayantimala

    2011-07-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae). CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community. PMID:21887063

  6. An Update on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Appannanavar, Suma B; Mishra, Baijayantimala

    2011-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is one of the deadly hemorrhagic fevers that are endemic in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. It is a tick-borne zoonotic viral disease caused by CCHF virus of genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae). CCHF not only forms an important public health threat but has a significant effect on the healthcare personnel, especially in resource-poor countries. India was always a potentially endemic area until an outbreak hit parts of Gujarat, taking four lives including the treating medical team. The current review is an attempt to summarize the updated knowledge on the disease particularly in modern era, with special emphasis on nosocomial infections. The knowledge about the disease may help answer certain questions regarding entry of virus in India and future threat to community. PMID:21887063

  7. Infection Control During Filoviral Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Vanessa, N Raabe; Matthias, Borchert

    2012-01-01

    Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website. PMID:22529631

  8. Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy: case report.

    PubMed

    Babi?, Sanja; Murat-Susi?, Slobodna; Husar, Karmela; Skerlev, Mihael; Rados, Jaka

    2008-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI) is a benign form of leukocytoclastic vasculitis that typically affects children between 4 and 24 months of age. The etiology remains unknown. The potential triggers of AHEI include preceding bacterial or viral infections, immunizations and drugs. The onset of AHEI is often dramatic with petechiae, ecchymoses, and annular, nummular or targetoid purpuric lesions usually appearing on the extremities, face, or ears. We report on a case of AHEI that occurred after upper respiratory tract infection. PMID:18541105

  9. Chitosan-inducing hemorrhagic pneumonia in dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Minami; M. Oh-oka; Y. Okamoto; K. Miyatake; A. Matsuhashi; Y. Shigemasa; Y. Fukumoto

    1996-01-01

    Various amounts of chitosan (10–200 mg\\/kg) were administered subcutaneously to dogs. Anorexia and mortality were observed in dogs given doses above 50 mg\\/ kg, and above 150 mg\\/kg, respectively. In hematologic findings leukocytosis and increasing of serum LDH2 and LDH3 isoenzymes were characteristic. From the findings of autopsy, severe hemorrhagic pneumonia was observed in all dead dogs. Chitosan causes lethal

  10. Animal Models of Tick-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses (TBHFV) are detected throughout the African and Eurasian continents and are an emerging or re-emerging threat to many nations. Due to the largely sporadic incidences of these severe diseases, information on human cases and research activities in general have been limited. In the past decade, however, novel TBHFVs have emerged and areas of endemicity have expanded. Therefore, the development of countermeasures is of utmost importance in combating TBHFV as elimination of vectors and interrupting enzootic cycles is all but impossible and ecologically questionable. As in vivo models are the only way to test efficacy and safety of countermeasures, understanding of the available animal models and the development and refinement of animal models is critical in negating the detrimental impact of TBHFVs on public and animal health. PMID:25437041

  11. Vaccines for viral hemorrhagic fevers--progress and shortcomings.

    PubMed

    Falzarano, Darryl; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-06-01

    With a few exceptions, vaccines for viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever remain unavailable or lack well-documented efficacy. In the past decade this has not been due to a lack of the ability to develop vaccine platforms against highly pathogenic viruses, but rather the lack of will/interest to invest in platforms that have the potential to become successful vaccines. The two exceptions to this are vaccines against Dengue virus (DENV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which recently have seen significant progress in putting forward new and improved vaccines, respectively. Experimental vaccines for filoviruses and Lassa virus (LASV) do exist but are hindered by a lack of financial interest and only partially or ill-defined correlates/mechanisms of protection that could be assessed in clinical trials. PMID:23773330

  12. Endovascular repair of an actively hemorrhaging aortoduodenal fistula.

    PubMed

    Barleben, Andrew R; Baig, Mirza S; Kubaska, Stephen M; Fujitani, Roy M; Gordon, Ian A; Lane, John S

    2007-09-01

    Aortoenteric fistulae require urgent definitive intervention and traditionally carry a high mortality. We describe a patient who suffered a traumatic aortic dissection following an auto versus pedestrian collision. He underwent open fenestration of his infrarenal aorta and visceral resection, complicated by abdominal sepsis and enterocutaneous fistulae. One month later he developed massive hematemesis, and endoscopic examination revealed an aortoduodenal fistula. Due to an impassable abdominal wall, a stent-graft repair was performed. This report describes the successful use of endovascular techniques to achieve immediate hemostasis in an actively hemorrhaging aortoduodenal fistula. An endovascular approach provides a valuable option in settings where a hostile abdomen precludes the traditional open technique and may serve as a bridge to later definitive repair. PMID:17532604

  13. Intracranial hypotension caused by cisternal irrigation for vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Vasospasm is the most common cause of complication after a subarachnoid hemorrhage and tremendous efforts have been made to prevent it. A subarachnoid clot is the cause of the vasospasm and dissolving and washing it out is considered to be the best practice. Cisternal irrigation with urokinase and ascorbic acid has been widely used due to its proven effect. Case presentation A 60-year-old Japanese male presented with a severe headache was diagnosed with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and an immediate surgical obliteration was successfully performed. After clipping the aneurysm, a cisternal drainage tube was placed in the chiasmatic cistern. In order to clear the thick subarachnoid hemorrhage, a cisternal irrigation was performed. However, his consciousness deteriorated and his left pupil became dilated on the next day. A T1 sagittal magnetic resonance imaging scan showed an evidence of marked brain sagging with mild tonsillar descent. We continued intensive hydration and head-down positioning and the brain sagging was shown to have improved in the follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scan. Conclusions We present a case in which our patient experienced brain sagging after a cisternal irrigation of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. A subdural hematoma and low intracranial pressure suggested intracranial hypotension. Sagittal magnetic resonance imaging images are useful to evaluate brain sagging and are shown sequentially here in our case report. PMID:25223331

  14. Uterine Balloon Tamponade in Combination with Topical Administration of Tranexamic Acid for Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Masato; Tamai, Hanako; Miyake, Mayu; Shimizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    While uterine balloon tamponade is an effective modality for control of postpartum hemorrhage, the reported success rates have ranged from the level of 60% to the level of 80%. In unsuccessful cases, more invasive interventions are needed, including hysterectomy as a last resort. We developed a modified tamponade method and applied it to two cases of refractory postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery. The first case was accompanied by uterine myoma and low-lying placenta. After an induced delivery, the patient had excessive hemorrhage due to uterine atony. Despite oxytocin infusion and bimanual uterine compression, the total blood loss was estimated at 2,800?mL or more. The second case was diagnosed as placental abruption complicated by fetal death and severe disseminated intravascular coagulation, subsequently. A profuse hemorrhage continued despite administration of uterotonics, fluid, and blood transfusion. The total blood loss was more than 5,000?mL. In each case, an intrauterine balloon catheter was wrapped in gauze impregnated with tranexamic acid, inserted into the uterus, and inflated sufficiently with sterile water. In this way, mechanical compression by a balloon and a topical antifibrinolytic agent were combined together. This method brought complete hemostasis and no further treatments were needed. Both the women left hospital in stable condition. PMID:25861495

  15. Clinical and imaging manifestations of hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Setúbal, Sérgio; Zanetti, Gláucia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2011-02-01

    Leptospirosis, a spirochetal zoonosis, is frequently unrecognized due to its manifestation as an undifferentiated fever. It is an emerging infectious disease that has changed from an occupational disease of veterinarians, farmers, butchers, and other animal handlers to a cause of epidemics in poor and decayed urban communities in developing countries. Humans are infected when mucous membranes or abraded skin come into direct contact with the urine of infected animals, especially rats and dogs. Mortality from severe leptospirosis is high, even when optimal treatment is provided. The diagnosis of leptospirosis is based on clinical findings, history of direct or indirect exposure to infected animals in endemic areas, and positive serological tests. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with febrile illnesses associated with pneumonitis and respiratory failure, especially when hemoptysis is present. Severe pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis consists primarily of hemorrhagic pneumonitis. In advanced cases, adult respiratory distress syndrome and massive pulmonary hemorrhage may occur. Chest radiographs show bilateral alveolar infiltrates and/or resemble viral pneumonia, bronchopneumonia, tuberculosis, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and other causes of pulmonary hemorrhage such as Goodpasture syndrome. High-resolution computed tomography scans may show nodular infiltrates, areas of consolidation, ground-glass attenuation, and crazy-paving patterns. Bronchoalveolar lavage and autopsy studies have suggested that ground-glass opacities and air-space consolidations are secondary to pulmonary hemorrhage. Although not specific, the presence of these computed tomography findings in a febrile patient with an appropriate history should suggest a diagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:21152929

  16. Microscopic polyangiitis complicated by intracerebral hemorrhage and pulmonary hemorrhage in a pediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jackson; Hussain, Asrar; Daiwajna, Rajendra; Chai, Lim Kian; Lim, Edwin; Han, Aye

    2013-01-01

    Patient: Female, 10 Final Diagnosis: Polyangiitis Symptoms: Intracranial hemorrhage • swelling • oliguria Medication: Cyclophosphamide • prednisolone Clinical Procedure: Plasmapheresis Specialty: Paediatric nephrology • nephrology • paediatrics Objective: Rare disease Background: MPO ANCA-associated vasculitis is very rare in children. Renal disease is almost universally present but lung and central nervous system involvement are not commonly reported. Case Report: We present a pediatric case of microscopic polyangiitis with the unusual presentation of pauci-immune glomerulonephritis, intracerebral hemorrhage and pulmonary hemorrhage. The neurological and pulmonary symptoms settled after treatment with cyclophosphamide and plasmapheresis. However, there was no renal recovery and the patient was rendered dialysis-dependent. Conclusions: We believe that this is the first reported case of pediatric microscopic polyangiitis with central nervous system involvement. The disease may have a subclinical presentation resulting in chronic damage to different organs. Prompt treatment of acute disease with immunosuppression and plasmapheresis can halt disease progression in these patients. PMID:23901355

  17. Spontaneous retrobulbar hemorrhage in type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saad Shaikh; Maria Braun; Joseph Eliason

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe a case of spontaneous retrobulbar hemorrhage in type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, a disorder characterized by vascular fragility and associated severe bleeding problems.METHODS: Observational case report. Spontaneous unilateral retrobulbar hemorrhage in a 22-year-old man with type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was documented by clinical and radiographic examination.RESULTS: The retrobulbar hemorrhage was self-limited and resolved without visual sequelae.CONCLUSION: Spontaneous retrobulbar

  18. Activation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Following Trauma-Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Bixi; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Chen, Jianguo; Choudhry, Mashkoor; Bland, Kirby; Chaudry, Irshad; Raju, Raghavan

    2008-01-01

    Summary Hemorrhagic trauma leads to organ dysfunction, sepsis and death. There is abnormal production of proinflammatory cytokines by Kupffer cells, tissue hypoxia and liver injury following trauma-hemorrhage. The physiological conditions consequent to trauma-hemorrhage are consistent with factors necessary to initiate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response. However, the contribution of ER stress to apoptosis and liver injury after trauma-hemorrhage is not known. In the present study ER stress was investigated in mice that underwent trauma-hemorrhage or sham operation. Expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins Bip, ATF6, PERK, IRE1?, and PDI were significantly elevated in the liver after trauma-hemorrhage compared to the controls. The ER stress associated proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP protein expression was also significantly elevated in trauma-hemorrhage group. Consistent with this, enhanced DNA fragmentation was observed, confirming apoptosis, in the liver following trauma-hemorrhage. These results demonstrate the initiation of ER stress and its role in apoptosis and liver injury, subsequent to hemorrhagic trauma. PMID:18801427

  19. Iron and Iron-Handling Proteins in the Brain After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimin Wu; Ya Hua; Richard F. Keep; Takehiro Nakamura; Julian T. Hoff; Guohua Xi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—Evidence indicates that brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is due in part to the release of iron from hemoglobin. Therefore, we examined whether such iron is cleared from the brain and the effects of ICH on proteins that may alter iron release or handling: brain heme oxygenase-1, transferrin, transferrin receptor, and ferritin. Methods—Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an

  20. Cortical reafferentation following left subcortical hemorrhage: a serial functional MR study.

    PubMed

    Hund-Georgiadis, M; Lex, U; Norris, D G; von Cramon, D Y

    2000-10-24

    A 48-year-old patient who had aphasia due to a left subcortical hemorrhage underwent three follow-up examinations to assess MR signal changes accompanying recovery. A word classification task was applied. During the 6-month follow-up period, we observed a dynamic change from negative toward positive blood oxygenation level-dependent MR signals, i.e., task-related reafferentation of eloquent cortices occurred. Clinical improvement from aphasia paralleled the MR signal changes. PMID:11071508

  1. Screening of potential small volume resuscitation products using a severe hemorrhage sedated swine model

    PubMed Central

    Burns, John W; Baer, Lisa A; Darlington, Daniel N; Dubick, Michael A; Wade, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    Background Small volumes of resuscitation products to sustain survival until definitive care are desired in extreme environments due to limited resources. A severe controlled hemorrhage model in sedated, sexually mature miniature swine has been developed to evaluate these products. Valproic Acid (VPA) and Pentoxifylline (PTX) have been suggested as potential products for small volume resuscitation following hemorrhage predominately in anesthetized small animal models. We evaluated the survival time of VPA and PTX in the swine model. Methods Fifteen male miniature swine weighing 41.1 ± 2.9 kg were sedated and hemorrhaged 60% of estimated blood volume over 1 hr and treated with one of the following: 1) VPA at 400 mg/kg in a volume of 1.33 ml/kg over 2 min (n=4); 2) VPA at 300 mg/kg in a volume of 2 ml/kg over 30 min (n=3); 3) PTX at 50 mg/kg in a volume of 2 ml/kg over 2 min (n=4); 4) saline vehicle at 2 ml/kg over 2 min (n=4). Survival times were compared to non-resuscitated historic controls (n=16). Survival was determined from the end of hemorrhage/initiation of treatment. Results Median (95% CI) survival times were: Control 55.7 (17.5 - 86) min; VPA (400 mg/kg) 6 (4 - 8) min; VPA (300 mg/kg) 17.5 (12 - 24.5) min; PTX 60.8 (21 - 75) min; and vehicle 92 (15 - 180) min. No treatment increased survival time compared to controls and there were no significant differences in percent survival among groups. Conclusion In this sedated severe hemorrhage model VPA and PTX were unacceptable as small volume resuscitation products at the concentrations and delivery rates used because of early deaths. Considering that these drugs are FDA approved for other indications at lower doses the present data suggest that further investigation of mechanisms involved are warranted. PMID:22928168

  2. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 1 (2002) 191199 Natural nidality in Bolivian hemorrhagic fever and the systematics

    E-print Network

    2002-01-01

    Infection, Genetics and Evolution 1 (2002) 191­199 Natural nidality in Bolivian hemorrhagic fever hemorrhagic fever (BHF), a disease endemic to northeastern Bolivia. The etiological agent is Machupo virus; Bolivian hemorrhagic fever; Systematics; Infection; Bolivia; Beni; Arenaviridae 1. Introduction

  3. [Cortical deafness following bilateral hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, T; Nobuoka, H; Wada, S; Matsukado, Y

    1986-06-01

    A case of cortical deafness is reported, which was caused by two episodes of bilateral hypertensive putaminal hemorrhage. Such a case has not appeared in literature up to this time. The patient was a right-handed, 69-year-old man, admitted to us after the stroke with right hemiparesis and disturbance of consciousness. CT scans showed right putaminal hemorrhage. After recovery of consciousness, the patient complained of hearing difficulty of the right ear. The right hemiparesis improved and he was followed ambulatorily after two months hospitalization. He returned to his work and was able to drive a car. His hearing difficulty of the right ear progressed and became stone deaf six months after onset of the initial stroke. Two years after the first stroke, he was attacked by the second stroke with left hemiparesis. CT scans showed left putaminal hemorrhage larger than the previous one in the right. When the patient recovered consciousness, he complained of total deafness. Audiometry test showed that hearing was lost completely to both high and low notes, and there was absence of bone conduction bilaterally. Auditory brain stem response test revealed normal pattern from wave I through wave V bilaterally. Middle latency response showed normal component Po on the right ear and it was absent on the left. The component Pa was not identified on both ears. He showed skill and reliance on lip reading two years after the onset of the complete deafness. Now he can speak fluently and communicate with lip reading and written language, although no improvement of the complete deafness being noticed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3730198

  4. Administration of ATRA to newly diagnosed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia is delayed contributing to early hemorrhagic death.

    PubMed

    Altman, Jessica K; Rademaker, Alfred; Cull, Elizabeth; Weitner, Bing Bing; Ofran, Yishai; Rosenblat, Todd L; Haidau, Augustin; Park, Jae H; Ram, Sharona Lee; Orsini, James M; Sandhu, Sonia; Catchatourian, Rosalind; Trifilio, Steven M; Adel, Nelly G; Frankfurt, Olga; Stein, Eytan M; Mallios, George; Deblasio, Tony; Jurcic, Joseph G; Nimer, Stephen; Peterson, Loann C; Kwaan, Hau C; Rowe, Jacob M; Douer, Dan; Tallman, Martin S

    2013-09-01

    We hypothesized that the high early death rate (EDR) due to bleeding in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is in part attributable to delays in all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We conducted a retrospective analysis of the timing of ATRA administration. 204 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed APL between 1992 and 2009 were identified. The EDR was 11%. 44% of early deaths occurred in the first week. Hemorrhage accounted for 61% of early deaths. ATRA was ordered the day APL was suspected in 31% of patients. Delays in ATRA administration led to increases in the percentage of early deaths from hemorrhage. PMID:23768930

  5. [An unusual case of "complicated" adrenal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Gallina, M R; Roncati, D; Grassino, E; Tomao, R; Ferrero, F

    2013-08-01

    This case report concerns a newborn with bilateral adrenal massive hemorrhage complicated by inferior cava vein thrombosis, hypertension and encephalopathy to elaborate diagnostic and therapeutic problem of neonatal thromboembolic events. Increasing of risk population (extreme prematurity), improvement of imaging, laboratory and neonatologist care enhanced in recent years the diagnosis of this group of diseases. Even if literature about this subject is poor, we remark the significant effort of neonatologist to revise and update neonatal guidelines and the relevance of the institution of the National Registry of Neonatal Thrombosis (RITI). PMID:24051977

  6. [Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage--case report].

    PubMed

    Hincz, Piotr; Brot, Anna; Podciechowski, Lech; Borowski, Dariusz; Bielak, Adam; Grzesiak, Mariusz; Wojciechowska, Edyta; Wielgos, Miros?aw; Wilczy?ski, Jan

    2006-06-01

    Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage is defined as a loss of more than 30-50ml of fetal blood, transferred into maternal circulation. It can lead to severe anemization of the fetus and its consequences such as fetal hydrops or stillbirth. We present a case in which the diagnosis was based on the decresased fetal movement and pathological cardiotocography record. The Kleihauer-Betke test revealed a high percentage of fetal cells and allowed to state a proper diagnosis. An immediate cesarean section was performed and the lab tests confirmed severe anemization of the newborn. PMID:16964699

  7. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Associated with Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalyn M. Aranas; Shyam Prabhakaran; Vivien H. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Background  Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity characterized by headache, encephalopathy,\\u000a visual disturbances, and seizures in association with reversible vasogenic edema on neuroimaging. Intracerebral hemorrhage\\u000a associated with PRES (PRES-ICH) is generally considered an atypical finding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective case series.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Seven patients were identified with PRES-ICH, four males and three females. The presenting clinical symptoms included headache\\u000a (2), encephalopathy (5),

  8. Minimally invasive treatment of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Rennert, Robert C; Signorelli, Jason W; Abraham, Peter; Pannell, Jeffrey S; Khalessi, Alexander A

    2015-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) cause high levels of morbidity and mortality. Secondary neuronal injury from perihematomal edema is thought to contribute to poor outcomes. Surgical evacuation of ICH is a theoretically promising approach, yet clinical data on the efficacy of standard craniotomy approaches is limited. Recent exploration of minimally invasive techniques for ICH removal includes stereotactic surgery combined with intra-clot thrombolysis, as well as endoscopic hematoma evacuation. Ongoing trials have demonstrated the safety of such minimally invasive approaches, and pending efficacy data from these studies is likely to change the standard management of ICH. PMID:26200128

  9. Experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: double cisterna magna injection rat model-assessment of delayed pathological effects of cerebral vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Güresir, Erdem; Schuss, Patrick; Borger, Valeri; Vatter, Hartmut

    2015-06-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage comprises of an early phase after the bleeding and a late phase of delayed consequences of the bleeding. The development of delayed injury mechanisms, like the reduction of cerebral blood flow (CBF) due to cerebral vasospasm (CVS), seems mainly to depend on the amount and the duration of the subarachnoid blood clot. The reduction of CBF may lead to cerebral ischemia and delayed neurological deterioration. The rat double cisterna magna injection model reproduces the time course of the delayed consequences of CVS and imitates the clinical setting more precise than other rodent subarachnoid hemorrhage models. Therefore, the rat double cisterna magna injection model seems to be predisposed to be used to mimick the delayed consequences of subarachnoid hemorrhage. We reviewed the existing literature on this animal model and propose a standard protocol including technical considerations, as well as advantages and limitations of this model. PMID:25704340

  10. Prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients with hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Farrukh S; Schneck, Michael J; Morales-Vidal, Sarkis; Javaid, Furqan; Ruland, Sean

    2013-01-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) are part of the spectrum of venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is one of the most frequent medical complications in stroke patients. The risk of VTE is even higher after hemorrhagic stroke. This article reviews various screening methods, diagnostic techniques, and pharmacologic as well as nonpharmacologic means of preventing VTE after hemorrhagic stroke. PMID:23611851

  11. Recombinant Activated Factor VII for Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan A. Mayer

    2010-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke and is associated with 30% to 50% mortality rate. Early hematoma growth occurs in 18% to 38% of patients scanned within 3 hours of intracerebral hemorrhage onset, and hematoma volume is an important predictor of poor outcome. Recombinant activated factor VII, a potent initiator of hemostasis, is currently approved for the

  12. Recombinant Activated Factor VII for Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan A. Mayer; Nikolai C. Brun; Kamilla Begtrup; Joseph Broderick; Stephen Davis; Michael N. Diringer; Brett E. Skolnick; Thorsten Steiner

    2005-01-01

    background Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke and is associated with high mortality. Among patients who undergo computed tomography (CT) within three hours after the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage, one third have an increase in the vol- ume of the hematoma related to subsequent bleeding. We sought to determine wheth- er recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) can

  13. Analysis of fatal intracranial hemorrhage in 792 acute leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hawk; Lee, Je-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Jun; Kim, Woo-Kun; Lee, Jung-Shin; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung

    2004-05-01

    Forty-one of 792 acute leukemia patients suffered fatal intracranial hemorrhage (FICH). Acute promyelocytic leukemia was the most common subtype. Achievement of complete remission in AML was significantly influenced by FICH. FICH accounts for about half of deaths from hemorrhage and this proportion has not changed despite improvements in leukemia management. PMID:15136234

  14. An overview of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chinikar S; Goya MM; Zeinali M; Haeri A

    Crimean- Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic tick-born disease with a mortality rate of up to 50% in humans. After a short incubation period, the disease is characterized by sudden fever, chills, severe headache, dizziness, back, and abdominal pain. Additional symptoms can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular changes. In severe cases, hemorrhagic manifestations, ranging from petechiae

  15. TRANSMISSION OF EPIDEMIC DENGUE HEMORRHAGIC FEVER IN EASTERNMOST INDONESIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NONO C. SUKRI; KANTI LARAS; TONI WANDRA; SUKMAN DIDI; RIA P. LARASATI; JOSEF R. RACHDYATMAKA; STEVIE OSOK; PETRUS TJIA; JOHN M. SARAGIH; SRI HARTATI; ERLIN LISTYANINGSIH; KEVIN R. PORTER; CHARMAGNE G. BECKETT; INGERANI S. PRAWIRA; NARAIN PUNJABI; SRI A. SUPARMANTO; H. JAMES BEECHAM; MICHAEL J. BANGS; ANDREW L. CORWIN

    In April 2001, a second suspected outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in the easternmost region of Indonesia was investigated in Merauke, a town located in the southeastern corner of Papua, by the Indonesian Ministry of Health and the U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2. Principal case criteria of hemorrhagic disease provided for a study enrollment of 15 clinically acute

  16. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial of nimodipine after SAH in monkeys. Part 2: Pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, F; Weir, B; Shnitka, T; Overton, T; Boisvert, D

    1984-06-01

    Chronic cerebral vasospasm was induced in monkeys by placement of an autologous blood clot after the basal cisterns had been opened over the arteries of the circle of Willis on one side. The experimental protocol was detailed in Part 1 of this paper. Twenty of the 30 monkeys studied from both groups (one receiving placebo and the other nimodipine) underwent cerebral fixation (Day 14) at controlled pressure by intra-arterial perfusion. The arteries at the base of the brain were studied by light microscopy and scanning (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cerebral angiography on Day 7 showed that vasospasm was significantly more common (p less than 0.0001) and more severe (p less than 0.01) on the clot side compared to the control or non-clot side. Vasospasm was less severe on Day 14, just before sacrifice. On SEM, 80% of the 20 middle cerebral artery (MCA) specimens that had been in spasm (Day 7) showed marked corrugation , and in some the endothelium had a fish-scale appearance. All of the 10 MCA's on the clot side examined by TEM that had been in spasm (Day 7) showed marked changes such as endothelial swelling, subendothelial proliferation, corrugation of the elastic lamina, and myonecrosis. With few exceptions, none of the basilar arteries or MCA's on the non-clot (control) side showed any abnormalities. The pathological findings of vessels in spasm were considered to be slightly less severe in the nimodipine group; however, the trial drug (1 mg/kg/8 hrs) did not prevent such abnormalities from occurring. The ultrastructural changes in the arterial walls of specimens from both placebo and nimodipine groups in vasospasm are described. Since dramatic changes are present in the vessel walls even after radiologically visible vasospasm has almost completely abated, we believe that vasospasm is due to long-lasting smooth-muscle constriction and not to vessel wall thickening caused by a cellular or subcellular infiltrate. PMID:6726361

  17. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: an overview.

    PubMed

    Oncü, Serkan

    2013-08-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral infection that is a serious threat to humans. The disease is widely distributed in Africa, Asia, and Europe and has developed into a serious public health concern. Humans become infected through the bites of ticks, by contact with a patient with CCHF, or by contact with blood or tissues from viremic livestock. Microvascular instability and impaired hemostasis are the hallmarks of the infection. Infection in human begins with nonspecific febrile symptoms, but may progress to a serious hemorrhagic syndrome with high mortality rates. Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the most used and specific tests for the diagnosis. The mainstay of treatment is supportive. Although definitive studies are not available, ribavirin is suggested to be effective especially at the earlier phase of the infection. Uses of universal protective measures are the best way to avoid the infection. In this review, all aspects of CCHF are overviewed in light of the current literature. PMID:23913177

  18. Treatment of Intracranial Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Andrew M.; Rasmussen, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm has been a long known source of delayed morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Delayed ischemic neurologic deficits associated with vasospasm may account for as high as 50% of the deaths in patients who survive the initial period after aneurysm rupture and its treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm has still been met with some controversy. It is clear that subarachnoid hemorrhage is best cared for in tertiary care centers with modern resources and access to cerebral angiography. Ultimately, a high degree of suspicion for vasospasm must be kept during ICU care, and any signs or symptoms must be investigated and treated immediately to avoid permanent stroke and neurologic deficit. Treatment for vasospasm can occur through both ICU intervention and endovascular administration of intra-arterial vasodilators and balloon angioplasty. The best outcomes are often attained when these methods are used in conjunction. The following article reviews the literature on cerebral vasospasm and its treatment and provides the authors’ approach to treatment of these patients. PMID:24904517

  19. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cervical spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Wu, Jau-Ching; Cheng, Henrich; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is an unpredictable and rare complication of spinal surgery. We report five cases of RCH following cervical spinal surgery, and summarize another seven similar cases from the literature. Dural opening with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia seems to be an important factor contributing to RCH following cervical spinal surgery. As other authors have proposed, surgical positioning may be another factor contributing to RCH. RCH is thought to be hemorrhagic venous infarction, resulting from the stretching occlusion of the superior cerebellar vein by the cerebellar sag effect. Either intraoperative CSF loss or a postoperative CSF leak from drainage may cause cerebellar sag, further resulting in RCH. RCH is usually self-limiting, and most patients with RCH have an optimal outcome after conservative treatment. Severe cases that involved surgical intervention because of evidence of brainstem compression or hydrocephalus also had acceptable outcomes, compared to spontaneous CH. It has been suggested that one way to prevent RCH is to avoid extensive perioperative loss of CSF, by paying attention to surgical positioning during spinal surgery. We also underline the importance of early diagnosis and CSF expansion in the early treatment of RCH. PMID:23746536

  20. Hemorrhagic hemangioma in the liver: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Min; Chung, Woo Jin; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Hwang, Jae Seok; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kwon, Jung Hyeok; Choi, Mi Sun

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma is the most common type of benign tumor that arises in the liver. Although rupture and hemorrhage of hepatic hemangioma are rare complications, they can be the cause of mortality. The authors report a case of hemorrhagic hepatic hemangioma: in a 54-year-old woman who was admitted with epigastric pain. She had taken oral contraceptives several weeks prior. The results of a blood examination were normal. An abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a tumor in hepatic segment 4, and a hemorrhage inside the cystic mass was suspected. The mass was removed laparoscopically to confirm the tumor properties and control the hemorrhage. The pathologic findings of the resected mass were consistent with hepatic hemangioma with intratumoral hemorrhage. The patient was discharged 8 d after the surgery, without further complications or complaints, and the patient’s condition was found to have improved during follow-up.

  1. A case of solitary fibrous tumor in the pelvis presenting massive hemorrhage during surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Young; Jeon, Seob; Choi, Seung Do; Nam, Kye Hyun; Sunwoo, Jae Gun; Lee, Ji-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are unique soft-tissue tumors of submesothelial origin. These tumors are mainly located in the pleural space but they can be originated within a variety of sites, including the abdomen, the pelvis, the soft tissues and the retroperitoneum. SFTs from all sites are usually benign, and the surgical resection is curative in almost all cases. According to the review of literatures, during the surgical resection, massive hemorrhage could occur due to the hypervascular nature of SFTs. This is a case report on SFT in the pelvis presenting great vessel injury, which resulted in life threatening hemorrhage during the resection of tumor. We wish this paper alerts gynecologists about the risk of massive bleeding during the resection of tumor located at adjacent to great vessels in the pelvis. PMID:25629023

  2. A case of solitary fibrous tumor in the pelvis presenting massive hemorrhage during surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Choi, Seung Do; Nam, Kye Hyun; Sunwoo, Jae Gun; Lee, Ji-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are unique soft-tissue tumors of submesothelial origin. These tumors are mainly located in the pleural space but they can be originated within a variety of sites, including the abdomen, the pelvis, the soft tissues and the retroperitoneum. SFTs from all sites are usually benign, and the surgical resection is curative in almost all cases. According to the review of literatures, during the surgical resection, massive hemorrhage could occur due to the hypervascular nature of SFTs. This is a case report on SFT in the pelvis presenting great vessel injury, which resulted in life threatening hemorrhage during the resection of tumor. We wish this paper alerts gynecologists about the risk of massive bleeding during the resection of tumor located at adjacent to great vessels in the pelvis. PMID:25629023

  3. Cerebral hemorrhage after systemic fibrinolysis in a patient with severe carotid artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Stapf, C; Mohr, J P; Théallier-Jankó, A; Mast, H

    1999-12-01

    Despite the beneficial effect of systemic fibrinolysis in treatment within 3 hours from ischemic stroke onset, the unpredicted occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage remains a risk from such therapy. Few data exist defining patients at risk for this outcome. We report clinical and neuropathological data on a patient fulfilling NINDS rt-PA study and ECASS-2 inclusion criteria with an acute stroke due to high-grade carotid artery stenosis and preceded by amaurosis fugax. He died from an intracerebral hemorrhage after systemic fibrinolysis. The fatal outcome adds support to recommendations that rapid Doppler-sonographic evaluation of the extra- and intracranial vascular status be undertaken before systemic rt-PA is implemented in acute ischemic stroke. PMID:10589802

  4. Sturge-Weber syndrome with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in childhood.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Madoka; Sugano, Hidenori; Iimura, Yasushi; Higo, Takuma; Nakanishi, Hajime; Shimoji, Kazuaki; Karagiozov, Kostadin; Miyajima, Masakazu; Arai, Hajime

    2014-01-01

    A girl aged 2 years 10 months suddenly went into a deep coma and demonstrated left hemiplegia. At birth, she had exhibited a left-sided facial port-wine stain typical of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) and involving the V1 and V2 distributions of the trigeminal nerve. Computed tomography showed a right thalamic hemorrhage with acute hydrocephalus. Magnetic resonance imaging with Gd enhancement 8 months before the hemorrhage had shown a patent superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and deep venous system. Magnetic resonance imaging and MR angiography studies 2 months before the hemorrhage had revealed obstruction of the SSS and right internal cerebral vein (ICV). Given that a digital subtraction angiography study obtained after the hemorrhage did not show the SSS or right ICV, the authors assumed that impaired drainage was present in the deep venous system at that stage. The authors speculated that the patient's venous drainage pattern underwent compensatory changes because of the occluded SSS and deep venous collectors, shifting outflow through other cortical venous channels to nonoccluded dural sinuses. Sudden congestion (nearly total to total obstruction) of the ICV may have caused the thalamic hemorrhage in this case, which is the first reported instance of pediatric SWS with intracerebral hemorrhage and no other vascular lesion. Findings suggested that the appearance of major venous sinus occlusion in a child with SWS could be a warning sign of hemorrhage. PMID:24160667

  5. Diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Tezer, Hasan; Polat, Meltem

    2015-05-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is the most extensive tick-borne virus, it causes a severe infection, which occurs widely in Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia. In recent years, the dramatic increase in the global distribution of CCHF, with the high mortality rates, highlights the importance of improving diagnostic capacity. Clinical and epidemiological data play a crucial role for early recognition of CCHF. However, CCHF is clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish, a rapid and reliable laboratory confirmation is necessary. Confirmation of infection in the acute phase of the disease can be made by detection of viral nucleic acid using reverse transcription-PCR, by demonstration of viral antigen or by virus isolation. In the convalescent phase of the disease, the diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of an antibody response. The consideration of viral replication kinetics and antiviral humoral immune responses facilitates the selection of appropriate laboratory tests and accurate interpretation of laboratory findings. PMID:25746112

  6. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia with Hepatic Vascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Yujiro; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease. Early diagnosis is important to avoid complications from vascular lesions, but diagnosis is difficult in asymptomatic patients. A 69-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our hospital for evaluation of hepatic vascular malformations. He had mild anemia with iron deficiency, and dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed significant arteriovenous and arterioportal shunts throughout the liver. Telangiectasia from the pharynx to the duodenum was confirmed by gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patient history revealed episodes of epistaxis as well as a family history of epistaxis. He was diagnosed with HHT, although no other family member had been diagnosed with definite HHT. A diagnosis of HHT must be considered in patients with hepatic vascular malformations.

  7. Targeting heme oxygenase after intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Roetling, Jing; Lu, Xiangping; Regan, Raymond F.

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the primary event in approximately 10% of strokes, and has higher rates of morbidity and mortality than ischemic stroke. Experimental evidence suggests that the toxicity of hemoglobin and its degradation products contributes to secondary injury that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention. Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, accumulates in intracranial hematomas to cytotoxic levels. The rate limiting step of its breakdown is catalyzed by the heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes, which consist of inducible HO-1 and constitutively-expressed HO-2. The effect of these enzymes on perihematomal injury and neurological outcome has been investigated in ICH models using both genetic and pharmacological approaches to alter their expression, with variable results reported. These findings are summarized and reconciled in this review; therapeutic strategies that may optimize HO expression and activity after ICH are described. PMID:25642455

  8. Principles of neuroanesthesia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kundra, Sandeep; Mahendru, Vidhi; Gupta, Vishnu; Choudhary, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with high mortality. Understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is important as early intervention can improve outcome. Increasing age, altered sensorium and poor Hunt and Hess grade are independent predictors of adverse outcome. Early operative interventions imposes an onus on anesthesiologists to provide brain relaxation. Coiling and clipping are the two treatment options with increasing trends toward coiling. Intraoperatively, tight control of blood pressure and adequate brain relaxation is desirable, so that accidental aneurysm rupture can be averted. Patients with poor grades tolerate higher blood pressures, but are prone to ischemia whereas patients with lower grades tolerate lower blood pressure, but are prone to aneurysm rupture if blood pressure increases. Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade I or II with uneventful intraoperative course are extubated in operation theater, whereas, higher grades are kept electively ventilated. Postoperative management includes attention toward fluid status and early management of vasospasm. PMID:25190938

  9. Epidemiology and Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Michael; Grant, Ashley; Paessler, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    The etiologic agent of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever (BHF), Machupo virus (MACV) is reported to have a mortality rate of 25 to 35%. First identified in 1959, BHF was the cause of a localized outbreak in San Joaquin until rodent population controls were implemented in 1964. The rodent Calomys collosus was identified as the primary vector and reservoir for the virus. Multiple animal models were considered during the 1970’s with the most human-like disease identified in Rhesus macaques but minimal characterization of the pathogenesis has been published since. A reemergence of reported BHF cases has been reported in recent years, which necessitates the further study and development of a vaccine to prevent future outbreaks. PMID:24636947

  10. Thermal inactivation of Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus.

    PubMed

    Madani, Tariq A; Abuelzein, El-Tayb M E; Azhar, Esam I; Al-Bar, Hussein M S

    2014-10-01

    The physico-chemical and biological characteristics of Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) are not yet known. The present study describes the thermal stability of this virus at different temperatures for different periods. The kinetics of thermal inactivation were studied, linear regressions were plotted, the Arrhenius equation was applied, and the activation energy was calculated accordingly. Titers of the residual virus were determined in median tissue culture infective dose (TCID50), and the rate of destruction of infectivity at various temperatures was determined. Infectivity of AHFV was completely lost upon heating for 3 minutes at 60 °C and for 30 min at 56 °C. However, the virus could maintain 33.2 % of its titer after heating for 60 min at 45 °C and 32 % of its titer after heating for 60 min at 50 °C. In conclusion, AHFV is thermo-labile, and its inactivation follows first-order kinetics. PMID:24906524

  11. Dynamic Increase in Extracellular ATP Accelerates Photoreceptor Cell Apoptosis via Ligation of P2RX7 in Subretinal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Notomi, Shoji; Hisatomi, Toshio; Murakami, Yusuke; Terasaki, Hiroto; Sonoda, Shozo; Asato, Ryo; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Enaida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor degeneration is the most critical cause of visual impairment in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In neovascular form of AMD, severe photoreceptor loss develops with subretinal hemorrhage due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV), growth of abnormal blood vessels from choroidal circulation. However, the detailed mechanisms of this process remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that neovascular AMD with subretinal hemorrhage accompanies a significant increase in extracellular ATP, and that extracellular ATP initiates neurodegenerative processes through specific ligation of Purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2RX7; P2X7 receptor). Increased extracellular ATP levels were found in the vitreous samples of AMD patients with subretinal hemorrhage compared to control vitreous samples. Extravascular blood induced a massive release of ATP and photoreceptor cell apoptosis in co-culture with primary retinal cells. Photoreceptor cell apoptosis accompanied mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, namely activation of caspase-9 and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei, as well as TUNEL-detectable DNA fragmentation. These hallmarks of photoreceptor cell apoptosis were prevented by brilliant blue G (BBG), a selective P2RX7 antagonist, which is an approved adjuvant in ocular surgery. Finally, in a mouse model of subretinal hemorrhage, photoreceptor cells degenerated through BBG-inhibitable apoptosis, suggesting that ligation of P2RX7 by extracellular ATP may accelerate photoreceptor cell apoptosis in AMD with subretinal hemorrhage. Our results indicate a novel mechanism that could involve neuronal cell death not only in AMD but also in hemorrhagic disorders in the CNS and encourage the potential application of BBG as a neuroprotective therapy. PMID:23308196

  12. Dynamic increase in extracellular ATP accelerates photoreceptor cell apoptosis via ligation of P2RX7 in subretinal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Notomi, Shoji; Hisatomi, Toshio; Murakami, Yusuke; Terasaki, Hiroto; Sonoda, Shozo; Asato, Ryo; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Enaida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2013-01-01

    Photoreceptor degeneration is the most critical cause of visual impairment in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In neovascular form of AMD, severe photoreceptor loss develops with subretinal hemorrhage due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV), growth of abnormal blood vessels from choroidal circulation. However, the detailed mechanisms of this process remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that neovascular AMD with subretinal hemorrhage accompanies a significant increase in extracellular ATP, and that extracellular ATP initiates neurodegenerative processes through specific ligation of Purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion channel, 7 (P2RX7; P2X7 receptor). Increased extracellular ATP levels were found in the vitreous samples of AMD patients with subretinal hemorrhage compared to control vitreous samples. Extravascular blood induced a massive release of ATP and photoreceptor cell apoptosis in co-culture with primary retinal cells. Photoreceptor cell apoptosis accompanied mitochondrial apoptotic pathways, namely activation of caspase-9 and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to nuclei, as well as TUNEL-detectable DNA fragmentation. These hallmarks of photoreceptor cell apoptosis were prevented by brilliant blue G (BBG), a selective P2RX7 antagonist, which is an approved adjuvant in ocular surgery. Finally, in a mouse model of subretinal hemorrhage, photoreceptor cells degenerated through BBG-inhibitable apoptosis, suggesting that ligation of P2RX7 by extracellular ATP may accelerate photoreceptor cell apoptosis in AMD with subretinal hemorrhage. Our results indicate a novel mechanism that could involve neuronal cell death not only in AMD but also in hemorrhagic disorders in the CNS and encourage the potential application of BBG as a neuroprotective therapy. PMID:23308196

  13. Should Statins be Avoided after Intracerebral Hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Westover, M. Brandon; Bianchi, Matt T.; Eckman, Mark H.; Greenberg, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Context Statins are widely prescribed for primary and secondary prevention of ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular disease. Although serious adverse effects are uncommon, results from a recent clinical trial suggested increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) associated with statin use. For patients with baseline elevated risk of ICH, it is not known whether this potential adverse effect offsets the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits. Methods We used Markov decision modeling to address the following clinical question: Given a history of prior ICH, should statin therapy be avoided? We investigated how a range of clinical parameters affects this decision, including hemorrhage location (deep vs lobar), ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular risks, and magnitude of ICH risk associated with statins. Findings Avoiding statins was favored over a wide range of values for many clinical parameters, particularly in survivors of lobar ICH who are at highest risk of ICH recurrence. In survivors of lobar ICH without prior cardiovascular events, avoiding statins yielded a life expectancy gain of 2.2 quality-adjusted life years compared with statin use. This net benefit persisted even at the lower 95% confidence interval of the relative risk of statin-associated ICH. In lobar ICH patients with prior cardiovascular events, the annual recurrence risk of myocardial infarction would have to exceed 90% to favor statin therapy. Avoiding statin therapy was also favored, although by a smaller margin, in both primary and secondary prevention settings for survivors of deep ICH. Conclusions Avoiding statins should be considered for patients with a history of ICH, particularly those of lobar location. PMID:21220650

  14. Cerebral Vasospasm in Critically III Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Does the Evidence Support the Ever-Growing List of Potential Pharmacotherapy Interventions?

    PubMed

    Kiser, Tyree H

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a significant event resulting in decreased cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery. Prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm is vital to avert neurological damage and reduced functional outcomes. A variety of pharmacotherapy interventions for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm have been evaluated. Unfortunately, very few large randomized trials exist to date, making it difficult to make clear recommendations regarding the efficacy and safety of most pharmacologic interventions. Considerable debate exists regarding the efficacy and safety of hypervolemia, hemodilution, and hypertension (triple-H therapy), and the implementation of each component varies substantially amongst institutions. There is a new focus on euvolemic-induced hypertension as a potentially preferred mechanism of hemodynamic augmentation. Nimodipine is the one pharmacologic intervention that has demonstrated favorable effects on patient outcomes and should be routinely administered unless contraindications are present. Intravenous nicardipine may offer an alternative to oral nimodipine. The addition of high-dose magnesium or statin therapy has shown promise, but results of ongoing large prospective studies are needed before they can be routinely recommended. Tirilazad and clazosentan offer new pharmacologic mechanisms, but clinical outcome results from prospective randomized studies have largely been unfavorable. Locally administered pharmacotherapy provides a targeted approach to the treatment of cerebral vasospasm. However, the paucity of data makes it challenging to determine the most appropriate therapy and implementation strategy. Further studies are needed for most pharmacologic therapies to determine whether meaningful efficacy exists. PMID:25477565

  15. Neurogenic Cardiopulmonary Complications Associated with Spontaneous Cerebellar Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yui-Rwei Young; Chien-Chang Lee; Bor-Fuh Sheu; Shy-Shin Chang

    2007-01-01

    Introduction  Neurogenic cardiopulmonary complications associated with acute brain injury other then subarachnoid hemorrhage were seldom\\u000a reported, especially in the pediatric population. We report a child who developed cardiac arrhythmia, severe myocardial injury\\u000a and neurogenic pulmonary edema after cerebellar hemorrhage.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods and results  An 11-year-old girl had abrupt onset of spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage presented with a fulminant picture of hypertension,\\u000a supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, markedly

  16. Childhood Hemorrhagic Stroke: An Important but Understudied Problem

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke in children occurs more frequently than is commonly appreciated. There are important differences in the factors associated with hemorrhagic stroke in children when compared with adults. These differences likely play a role in the different outcomes, which tend to worsen with age. In this review, we describe the estimated frequency, clinical presentation, acute management of hemorrhagic stroke, and an overview of rehabilitation techniques. We identify key topics for future basic and clinical research. Findings from future studies will help improve our ability to optimize treatment for and long-term rehabilitation of these patients. PMID:21633104

  17. Prior Statin Use Reduces Mortality in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeraj S. Naval; Tamer A. Abdelhak; Paloma Zeballos; Nathalie Urrunaga; Marek A. Mirski; Juan R. Carhuapoma

    2008-01-01

    Objective  To assess the impact of blood glucose, coagulopathy, seizures and prior statin and aspirin use on clinical outcome following\\u000a intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background  Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10–15% of all strokes with mortality rates approaching 50%. Glasgow Coma Scale\\u000a (GCS), ICH volume, age, pulse pressure, ICH location, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and hydrocephalus are known to impact\\u000a 30-day survival following ICH

  18. R?varoxaban-induced severe diffuse ?ntracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Çal??kan, Fatih; Akdemir, H?z?r Ufuk; Nurata, Hakan; Akdemir, Neslihan; Ba?ara, Gökhan; Yavuz, Yücel

    2015-03-01

    Bleeding, the most frightening adverse effect of anticoagulants,may occur in different parts of the body.When intracerebral hemorrhage in individuals used anticoagulant drugs is compared with normal coagulation function, the volume of bleeding is increased and the prognosis is worse. There are few studies in the literature regarding the presence of intracerebral hemorrhage and the volume and prognosis of bleeding associated with rivaroxaban, a new oral anticoagulant.Therefore, the clinical and radiologic findings and follow-up of an 80-year-old male patient with intracerebral hemorrhage who uses rivaroxaban for anticoagulation are presented in this article. PMID:25218622

  19. Rapid reversal of anticoagulation reduces hemorrhage volume in a mouse model of Warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Foerch, Christian; Arai, Ken; Van Cott, Elizabeth Merrill; van Leyen, Klaus; Lo, Eng H

    2013-01-01

    Warfarin-associated intracerebral hemorrhage (W-ICH) is a severe type of stroke. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment for W-ICH. Using a mouse model, we tested whether the rapid reversal of anticoagulation using human prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) can reduce hemorrhagic blood volume. Male CD-1 mice were treated with warfarin (2 mg/kg over 24 h), resulting in a mean (±s.d.) International Normalized Ratio of 3.5±0.9. First, we showed that an intravenous administration of human PCC rapidly reversed anticoagulation in mice. Second, a stereotactic injection of collagenase was administered to induce hemorrhage in the right striatum. Forty-five minutes later, the animals were randomly treated with PCC (100 U/kg) or saline IV (n = 12 per group). Twenty-four hours after hemorrhage induction, hemorrhagic blood volume was quantified using a photometric hemoglobin assay. The mean hemorrhagic blood volume was reduced in PCC-treated animals (6.5±3.1 ?L) compared with saline controls (15.3±11.2 ?L, P = 0.015). In the saline group, 45% of the mice developed large hematomas (i.e., > 15 ?L). In contrast, such extensive lesions were never found in the PCC group. We provide experimental data suggesting PCC to be an effective acute treatment for W-ICH in terms of reducing hemorrhagic blood volume. Future studies are needed to assess the therapeutic potential emerging from our finding for human W-ICH. PMID:19319147

  20. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schaffran, Tanja; Jiang, Nan; Bergmann, Markus; Küstermann, Ekkehard; Süss, Regine; Schubert, Rolf; Wagner, Franz M; Awad, Doaa; Gabel, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma). With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14), the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids precludes their use in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25114527

  1. Laser-assisted treatment of patients with hemorrhagic diathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Claus P.

    2000-03-01

    Today more and more patients with bleeding disorder come to our office for treatment. The number of patients with therapeutic anticoagulation is growing steadily. Discontinuation of this therapy can often be crucial. On the other hand are oralsurgical procedures extremely sensitive to bleeding due to the constant presents of saliva with its high fibrinolytic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a surgical diode (wavelength 810 nm) laser as accessory tool in the treatment of patients with hemorrhagic diathesis. Enclosed in the study were 123 patients with: (1) Coumarintherapy, a Quick test ratio of 15 - 25%; (2) More than 300 mg of ASS/die; (3) Hemophilia, a factor activity under 35%; (4) Morbus Werlhof with less than 30000 thrombocytes. 179 Surgical procedures: (1) Tooth extraction 86%; (2) Apexectomy 3%; (3) Tumorexcision 9%; (4) Curettage and flapsurgery 1%; (5) Gingivectomy 1%. All procedures were laser-assisted with a diode laser emitting 810 nm. The glass fibers used were depending on the procedures either 200, 400, or 600 micron. No coagulating agents or tissue adhesives were used in addition. The postoperative outcome and complication rates were compared to substitution therapy and tissue adhesives. Laser-assisted treatment of these patients shows a high predictability and success rate leaving out side effects of drugs and human cryoprecipitates. Postoperative impairment is diminished.

  2. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the management of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Darryl; Agerstrand, Cara L; Biscotti, Mauer; Burkart, Kristin M; Bacchetta, Matthew; Brodie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be used to support patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation. However, because systemic anticoagulation is generally required to maintain circuit patency, severe bleeding is often seen as a contraindication to ECMO. We describe our center's experience with four patients who received ECMO for refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure due to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), a condition for which anticoagulation is typically contraindicated, and provide a review of the literature. The mean age was 35.8 ± 16.4 years. The mean pre-ECMO PaO2 to FIO2 ratio was 52.3 ± 9.4 mm Hg. All patients were treated with continuous infusions of heparin with a goal-activated partial thromboplastin time between 40 and 60 seconds (mean, 47.4 ± 11.6 seconds). All four subjects (100%) survived to decannulation, and three subjects (75%) survived to discharge. The results from this case series, along with previously published data, suggest that ECMO is a reasonable management option for patients with DAH-associated severe, refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure. This is especially true in the era of modern ECMO technology where lower levels of anticoagulation are able to maintain circuit patency while minimizing bleeding risk. PMID:25485559

  3. Hemorrhage detection in MRI brain images using images features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraru, Luminita; Moldovanu, Simona; Bibicu, Dorin; Stratulat (Visan), Mirela

    2013-11-01

    The abnormalities appear frequently on Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of brain in elderly patients presenting either stroke or cognitive impairment. Detection of brain hemorrhage lesions in MRI is an important but very time-consuming task. This research aims to develop a method to extract brain tissue features from T2-weighted MR images of the brain using a selection of the most valuable texture features in order to discriminate between normal and affected areas of the brain. Due to textural similarity between normal and affected areas in brain MR images these operation are very challenging. A trauma may cause microstructural changes, which are not necessarily perceptible by visual inspection, but they could be detected by using a texture analysis. The proposed analysis is developed in five steps: i) in the pre-processing step: the de-noising operation is performed using the Daubechies wavelets; ii) the original images were transformed in image features using the first order descriptors; iii) the regions of interest (ROIs) were cropped from images feature following up the axial symmetry properties with respect to the mid - sagittal plan; iv) the variation in the measurement of features was quantified using the two descriptors of the co-occurrence matrix, namely energy and homogeneity; v) finally, the meaningful of the image features is analyzed by using the t-test method. P-value has been applied to the pair of features in order to measure they efficacy.

  4. [Afobazole effect on cerebral circulation under hemorrhagic stroke model conditions].

    PubMed

    Gan'shina, T S; Kurdiumov, I N; Turilova, A I; Mirzoian, R S; Seredenin, S B

    2009-01-01

    Narcotized rats under hemorrhagic stroke model conditions exhibit a significant decrease in the cerebral flow in the region of contralateral cerebral hemisphere symmetric to the zone of lesion. Under these conditions, afobazole produced a significant increase in the local circulation in cerebral cortex, which was violated by hemorrhagic stroke. The cerebrovascular effect of afobazole was not manifested in cases of hemorrhagic stroke on the background of GABA receptor blocking by bicuculline. The obtained results demonstrate that afobazole increases the cerebral blood flow not only under conditions of global transient cerebral ischemia, but on the hemorrhagic stroke model as well, which is probably related to a mediated drug effect on the GABA receptor complex. PMID:20095394

  5. Data Hemorrhages in the Health-Care Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. Eric

    Confidential data hemorrhaging from health-care providers pose financial risks to firms and medical risks to patients. We examine the consequences of data hemorrhages including privacy violations, medical fraud, financial identity theft, and medical identity theft. We also examine the types and sources of data hemorrhages, focusing on inadvertent disclosures. Through an analysis of leaked files, we examine data hemorrhages stemming from inadvertent disclosures on internet-based file sharing networks. We characterize the security risk for a group of health-care organizations using a direct analysis of leaked files. These files contained highly sensitive medical and personal information that could be maliciously exploited by criminals seeking to commit medical and financial identity theft. We also present evidence of the threat by examining user-issued searches. Our analysis demonstrates both the substantial threat and vulnerability for the health-care sector and the unique complexity exhibited by the US health-care system.

  6. The Role of Interventional Radiology in Obstetric Hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, M., E-mail: michael.gonsalves@stgeorges.nhs.uk; Belli, A., E-mail: Anna.Belli@stgeorges.nhs.u [St. Georges Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Obstetric hemorrhage remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally, in cases of obstetric hemorrhage refractory to conservative treatment, obstetricians have resorted to major surgery with the associated risks of general anesthesia, laparotomy, and, in the case of hysterectomy, loss of fertility. Over the past two decades, the role of pelvic arterial embolization has evolved from a novel treatment option to playing a key role in the management of obstetric hemorrhage. To date, interventional radiology offers a minimally invasive, fertility-preserving alternative to conventional surgical treatment. We review current literature regarding the role of interventional radiology in postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation, abortion, and cervical ectopic pregnancy. We discuss techniques, success rates, and complications.

  7. Geographic potential for outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Lash, R. Ryan; Carroll, Darin S.; Johnson, Karl M.

    2006-01-01

    Marburg virus represents one of the least well-known of the hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses worldwide; in particular, its geographic potential in Africa remains quite mysterious. Ecologic niche modeling was used to explore the geographic...

  8. Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Complications of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicolas Bruder; Alejandro Rabinstein

    Cardiopulmonary complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage negatively affect overall morbidity and mortality.\\u000a An electronic literature search was performed for English-language articles focused on cardiopulmonary complications with\\u000a subarachnoid hemorrhage published through October 2010. A total of 278 citations were identified, including 72 clinical studies.\\u000a In most cases, study quality was low or very low. Cardiac injury, evidenced by an elevation in

  9. Scleral buckle hemorrhagic cyst masquerading as an orbital tumor

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David RP; Chin, Eric K; Boldt, H Culver; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 41-year-old man who was referred for evaluation of a choroidal tumor with a remote history of scleral buckle placement for traumatic retinal detachment. Ocular imaging, echography, and magnetic resonance imaging could not rule out a neoplastic process so the patient was taken for surgical exploration where a hemorrhagic cyst was discovered. This is the first case in the literature of a silicone scleral buckle–associated hemorrhagic cyst presenting as orbital mass. PMID:25709397

  10. Fatal intratumoral hemorrhage in posterior fossa tumors following ventriculoperitoneal shunt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Santhanam; Anandh Balasubramaniam; B. A. Chandramouli

    2009-01-01

    We report on two patients with rare major intratumoral hemorrhage following ventriculoperitoneal shunt in posterior fossa tumors. A 28-year-old woman with a midline posterior fossa lesion, whose imaging features suggested a fourth ventricular ependymoma with obstructive hydrocephalus, was subjected to a right ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Her consciousness deteriorated, and she experienced massive intratumoral hemorrhage and later died. An eight-year-old girl presented

  11. Use of Antithrombotics after Hemorrhagic Transformation in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joon-Tae; Heo, Suk-Hee; Park, Man-Seok; Chang, Jane; Choi, Kang-Ho; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds There have been neither appropriate guidelines nor clinical studies about the use of antithrombotics after hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We sought to find whether the use of antithrombotics after hemorrhagic infarction might be associated with aggravation of HT and neurological deterioration. Methods This retrospective study included prospectively registered consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and HT in our tertiary stroke center. We focused on the hemorrhagic infarction. Aggravation of HT was defined as either enlargement of the original HT or newly developed HT within the infarcted area by visual analysis. We analyzed relationships between antithrombotics and HT, and neurological deterioration after HT in patients with hemorrhagic infarction. In addition, we assessed composite outcomes including neurological deterioration, vascular events, and death at 1month after HT. We analyzed relationships between antithrombotics after discharge and composite outcomes within 1month after HT. Results 222 patients were finally analyzed. Of the 150 patients with hemorrhagic infarction, 75 (50.0%) were type 1. The use of warfarin after detection of hemorrhagic infarction more frequently increased aggravation of HT than did the use of antiplatelets (4 of 24 vs 3 of 69; p?=?0.094), but neither warfarin nor antiplatelets caused more HT than no medication. In addition, the use of antithrombotics after hemorrhagic infarction was not significantly associated with neurological deterioration after HT. The frequency of composite events at 1months was significantly lower in patients treated with antithrombotics than those treated without (p?=?0.041). Conclusion In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that antithrombotics can safely be used after hemorrhagic infarction and may not be associated with neurological deterioration and aggravation of HT. Further studies are needed to confirm our results. PMID:24587041

  12. The Diagnostic Pitfalls of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    DeLong, W. Bradford

    1975-01-01

    The subtle manner in which subarachnoid hemorrhage frequently presents may delay appropriate treatment. The patient may deteriorate and die from aneurysmal rebleeding or from cerebral ischemia associated with vasospasm before the true nature of the disease is recognized. Five patients are described in whom subarachnoid hemorrhage was initially not recognized. Pitfalls in diagnosis are discussed, and an outline is presented for the evaluation of patients suspected of harboring ruptured intracranial aneurysms. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:1179734

  13. Hemorrhagic stress effects on blood in irradiated rats 

    E-print Network

    Elissalde, Marcel Howell

    1966-01-01

    XI I, Average Basophil Percent of the Total Leukocytes Postirradiation and Hemorrhage e o o a o 38 XIII. Average Eosinophil Percent of the Total Leukocytes Postirradiation and Hemorrhage. . . . . . . . . . . . 40 XIV. Average Monocyte Percent... of the radiation regime and, over a period of several weeks& developed a neutrophilic leukocytosis which remained slightly higher than that of the control animals. It was also demonstrated in these studies that the eosinophilic granulocytes did not change...

  14. Fatal and Nonfatal Hemorrhagic Complications of Living Kidney Donation

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Amy L.; Peters, Thomas G.; Jones, Kenneth W.; Boulware, L Ebony; Ratner, Lloyd E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: After anecdotal reports of severe hemorrhage from failure of surgical clips to sustain closure of renal artery stumps in live donor nephrectomies were received, this study was designed to identify specific surgical techniques that are associated with an increased risk of failure to control bleeding and might represent opportunities to improve patient safety. Background: Preventing complications for living kidney donors must be paramount in addressing end-stage renal failure through living kidney donation. Major hemorrhage from technical failure, albeit an infrequent occurrence, can cause significant, yet preventable, morbidity or death. Open and laparoscopic approaches to living kidney donation use several vascular control methods, some of which may be more prone to failure and life-endangering hemorrhage than others. Methods: To define hemorrhagic complications of living kidney donation, a survey was sent to all 893 surgeon-members of the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to ascertain study participant characteristics, most frequently used vascular control techniques, and incidence of events (death, transfusion, reexploration or conversion to open nephrectomy, or contralateral [remaining kidney] renal failure). Outcomes of hemorrhage and comments by respondents were sought as were data from other sources. Results: In 213 surveys returned (24%), 66 and 39 episodes of arterial and venous hemorrhage were reported, respectively. Among arterial control problems, 2 resulted in donor death and 2 resulted in renal failure; 19 episodes required transfusion. Open conversions in laparoscopic nephrectomy or late reoperations for hemorrhage were reported for 29 cases. Locking and standard clips applied to the renal artery were associated with the greatest risks. Conclusions: Significant hemorrhagic complications occur with living kidney donation in both open and laparoscopic approaches. Loss of arterial control jeopardizes donor life and health, especially when it occurs in the postoperative period. Vascular transfixion provides the best vascular control of major vessels. PMID:16371747

  15. Unilateral retinal hemorrhages in documented cases of child abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arlene V Drack; Joseph Petronio; Antonio Capone

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE:To describe the occurrence of unilateral retinal hemorrhages in four cases of documented child abuse, including a case in which retinal hemorrhages were an incidental finding on routine examination.METHODS:Case reports.RESULTS:Three children, 5 to 17 months of age, with suspected child abuse had fundus examinations with a dilated pupil as part of their evaluation. An additional child, 6 months of age,

  16. Formalin irrigation for hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng-Hui; Yuan, Zi-Xu; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a modified topical formalin irrigation method in refractory hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). METHODS: Patients with CRP who did not respond to previous medical treatments and presented with grade II-III rectal bleeding according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were enrolled. Patients with anorectal strictures, deep ulcerations, and fistulas were excluded. All patients underwent flexible endoscopic evaluation before treatment. Patient demographics and clinical data, including primary tumor, radiotherapy and previous treatment options, were collected. Patients received topical 4% formalin irrigation in a clasp-knife position under spinal epidural anesthesia in the operating room. Remission of rectal bleeding and related complications were recorded. Defecation, remission of bleeding, and other symptoms were investigated at follow-up. Endoscopic findings in patients with rectovaginal fistulas were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (19 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 61.5 ± 9.5 years were enrolled. The mean time from the end of radiotherapy to the onset of bleeding was 11.1 ± 9.0 mo (range: 2-24 mo). Six patients (25.0%) were blood transfusion dependent. The median preoperative Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was 3 points. Nineteen patients (79.2%) received only one course of topical formalin irrigation, and five (20.8%) required a second course. No side effects were observed. One month after treatment, bleeding cessation was complete in five patients and obvious in 14; the effectiveness rate was 79.1% (19/24). For long-term efficacy, 5/16, 1/9 and 0/6 patients complained of persistent bleeding at 1, 2 and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Three rectovaginal fistulas were found at 1 mo, 3 mo and 2 years after treatment. Univariate analysis showed associations of higher endoscopic VRS and ulceration score with risk of developing rectovaginal fistula. CONCLUSION: Modified formalin irrigation is an effective and safe method for hemorrhagic CRP, but should be performed cautiously in patients with a high endoscopic VRS. PMID:25834325

  17. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus: Recent advances.

    PubMed

    Brinton, Margo A; Di, Han; Vatter, Heather A

    2015-04-16

    The simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV) genome differs from those of other members of the family Arteriviridae in encoding three papain-like one proteases (PLP1?, PLP1? and PLP1?) at the 5' end and two adjacent sets of four minor structural proteins at the 3' end. The catalytic Cys and His residues and cleavage sites for each of the SHFV PLP1s were predicted and their functionality was tested in in vitro transcription/translation reactions done with wildtype or mutant polyprotein constructs. Mass spectrometry analyses of selected autoproteolytic products confirmed cleavage site locations. The catalytic Cys of PLP1? is unusual in being adjacent to an Ala instead of a Typ. PLP1? cleaves at both downstream and upstream sites. Intermediate precursor and alternative cleavage products were detected in the in vitro transcription/translation reactions but only the three mature nsp1 proteins were detected in SHFV-infected MA104 cell lysates with SHFV nsp1 protein-specific antibodies. The duplicated sets of SHFV minor structural proteins were predicted to be functionally redundant. A stable, full-length, infectious SHFV-LVR cDNA clone was constructed and a set of mutant infectious clones was generated each with the start codon of one of the minor structural proteins mutated. All eight of the minor structural proteins were found to be required for production of infectious extracellular virus. SHFV causes a fatal hemorrhagic fever in macaques but asymptomatic, persistent infections in natural hosts such as baboons. SHFV infections were compared in macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells from baboons and macaques. Virus yields were higher from macaque cells than from baboon cells. Macrophage cultures from the two types of animals differed dramatically in the percentage of cells infected. In contrast, similar percentages of myeloid dendritic cells were infected but virus replication was efficient in the macaque cells but inefficient in the baboon cells. SHFV infection induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12/23(p40), TNF-? and MIP-1?, in macaque cells but not baboon cells. PMID:25455336

  18. Predictors of neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants with intraparenchymal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, AJ; Lasky, RE; John, SD; Evans, PW; Kennedy, KA

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine which neuroimaging, clinical and sociodemographic factors predict neurodevelopment at 18–22 months age among extremely preterm infants with intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH). STUDY DESIGN Cranial ultrasounds performed before 42 days of age and cranial ultrasounds/magnetic resonance images of the brain performed near discharge were reviewed for hemorrhage location and other abnormalities. Clinical and sociodemographic factors were extracted from existing databases. The primary outcome was presence of cerebral palsy (CP) and the secondary outcome was cognitive development (Bayley Scales of Infant Development). RESULT Of 1168 infants (<1000 g or <27 weeks), 141 infants had an IPH and 48 infants were seen in follow-up. All infants with extensive hemorrhages (involving three or more lobes) developed CP. In early imaging (before 42 days of age), ventriculomegaly, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and extensive hemorrhage were predictors of CP. In imaging performed near discharge, ventriculomegaly, intraventricular echodensity and having a ventricular shunt were predictors of CP. Clinical, imaging and sociodemographic factors were not associated with low cognitive score. CONCLUSION In preterm infants surviving with IPH, extensive hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly, IVH and having a shunt increased the risk of developing CP. PMID:24556980

  19. Adrenal gland hemorrhage in patients with fatal bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Jeannette; Paddock, Christopher D; Bartlett, Jeanine; Zaki, Sherif R

    2008-09-01

    A wide spectrum of adrenal gland pathology is seen during bacterial infections. Hemorrhage is particularly associated with meningococcemia, while abscesses have been described with several neonatal infections. We studied adrenal gland histopathology of 65 patients with bacterial infections documented in a variety of tissues by using immunohistochemistry. The infections diagnosed included Neisseria meningitidies, group A streptococcus, Rickettsia rickettsii, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Ehrlichia sp., Bacillus anthracis, Leptospira sp., Clostridium sp., Klebsiella sp., Legionella sp., Yersinia pestis, and Treponema pallidum. Bacteria were detected in the adrenal of 40 (61%) cases. Adrenal hemorrhage was present in 39 (60%) cases. Bacteria or bacterial antigens were observed in 31 (79%) of the cases with adrenal hemorrhage including 14 with N. meningitidis, four with R. rickettsii, four with S. pneumoniae, three with group A streptococcus, two with S. aureus, two with B. anthracis, one with T. pallidum, and one with Legionella sp. Bacterial antigens were observed in nine of 26 non-hemorrhagic adrenal glands that showed inflammatory foci (four cases), edema (two cases), congestion (two cases), or necrosis (one case). Hemorrhage is the most frequent adrenal gland pathology observed in fatal bacterial infections. Bacteria and bacterial antigens are frequently seen in adrenal glands with hemorrhage and may play a pathogenic role. Although N. meningitidis is the most frequent bacteria associated with adrenal gland pathology, a broad collection of bacteria can also cause adrenal lesions. PMID:18500257

  20. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage in a neonate with cleidocranial dysostosis.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Marisa A; Li, Ben C; Wu, Yvonne W; Slavotinek, Anne M

    2012-12-01

    We present a case of intraparenchymal hemorrhage in a neonate with cleidocranial dysostosis, a skeletal dysplasia that leads to delayed skull ossification. The patient's details are reported, including neuroimaging, photographs of classic dysmorphic features, and genetic testing. After spontaneous vaginal birth, the patient was hypotonic and encephalopathic, with unusually large and boggy fontanelles. No palpable bone overlay his bilateral temporal lobes, and his facial features were multiply dysmorphic. The patient's father exhibited similar facial features and congenital absence of the right clavicle, suggesting cleidocranial dysostosis. Magnetic resonance imaging at age 4 days confirmed a large right temporal lobe intraparenchymal hemorrhage, with extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage overlying both temporal and parietal lobes. A clinical diagnosis of cleidocranial dysostosis was confirmed by testing of the RUNX2 gene, which revealed a novel sequence alteration predicted to be disease-causing. Given that no palpable bone overlay the location of brain hemorrhage, and no other cause for hemorrhage was identified, we attribute the temporal lobe hemorrhage to forces on the skull incurred during normal vaginal delivery in the setting of decreased skull ossification. PMID:23127269

  1. Intraocular Hemorrhage Causes Retinal Vascular Dysfunction via Plasma Kallikrein

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Clermont, Allen C.; Gao, Ben-Bo; Feener, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Retinal hemorrhages occur in a variety of sight-threatening conditions including ocular trauma, high altitude retinopathy, and chronic diseases such as diabetic and hypertensive retinopathies. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of blood in the vitreous on retinal vascular function in rats. Methods. Intravitreal injections of autologous blood, plasma kallikrein (PK), bradykinin, and collagenase were performed in Sprague-Dawley and Long-Evans rats. Retinal vascular permeability was measured using vitreous fluorophotometry and Evans blue dye permeation. Leukostasis was measured by fluorescein isothiocyanate–coupled concanavalin A lectin and acridine orange labeling. Retinal hemorrhage was examined on retinal flatmounts. Primary cultures of bovine retinal pericytes were cultured in the presence of 25 nM PK for 24 hours. The pericyte-conditioned medium was collected and the collagen proteome was analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Intravitreal injection of autologous blood induced retinal vascular permeability and retinal leukostasis, and these responses were ameliorated by PK inhibition. Intravitreal injections of exogenous PK induced retinal vascular permeability, leukostasis, and retinal hemorrhage. Proteomic analyses showed that PK increased collagen degradation in pericyte-conditioned medium and purified type IV collagen. Intravitreal injection of collagenase mimicked PK's effect on retinal hemorrhage. Conclusions. Intraocular hemorrhage increases retinal vascular permeability and leukostasis, and these responses are mediated, in part, via PK. Intravitreal injections of either PK or collagenase, but not bradykinin, induce retinal hemorrhage in rats. PK exerts collagenase-like activity that may contribute to blood–retinal barrier dysfunction. PMID:23299478

  2. Simian hemorrhagic fever virus infection of rhesus macaques as a model of viral hemorrhagic fever: Clinical characterization and risk factors for severe disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reed F. Johnson; Lori E. Dodd; Srikanth Yellayi; Wenjuan Gu; Jennifer A. Cann; Catherine Jett; John G. Bernbaum; Dan R. Ragland; Marisa St. Claire; Russell Byrum; Jason Paragas; Joseph E. Blaney; Peter B. Jahrling

    2011-01-01

    Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (SHFV) has caused sporadic outbreaks of hemorrhagic fevers in macaques at primate research facilities. SHFV is a BSL-2 pathogen that has not been linked to human disease; as such, investigation of SHFV pathogenesis in non-human primates (NHPs) could serve as a model for hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa viruses. Here we describe

  3. Urokinase versus Alteplase for intraventricular hemorrhage fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Gaberel, Thomas; Montagne, Axel; Lesept, Flavie; Gauberti, Maxime; Lemarchand, Eloïse; Orset, Cyrille; Goulay, Romain; Bertrand, Thomas; Emery, Evelyne; Vivien, Denis

    2014-10-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is the most severe form of stroke with intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF) as a hopeful treatment. Urokinase (uPA) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) are used for IVF in Human. No clinical trial has evaluated the differential impact of these two fibrinolytics for IVF. Thus, we decided here to compare the use of these two fibrinolytics in a pre-clinical study. IVH was induced in rats by injection of collagenase type VII within the brain parenchyma followed by an IVF. Rats were randomized to receive uPA, tPA or saline within the ventricle, and cerebrospinal fluid was aspirated. Hematoma and ventricular volumes, brain water contents, inflammation and neurological deficits were measured at day three post-treatments. We also performed in vitro studies, in which neuronal cultures were subjected to an excitotoxic paradigm in the presence of either uPA or tPA. In the IVH model, we showed that although both uPA and tPA led to reduced ventricular volumes, only uPA significantly improved functional recovery. These results could be explained by the fact that uPA, in contrast of tPA, fails to promote inflammatory processes and neurotoxicity. Our study provides evidence supporting the use of uPA for fibrinolysis of IVH. A clinical trial could be warranted if tPA failed to improve outcomes in human IVH. PMID:24846802

  4. Bleeding and clotting in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Dittus, Christopher; Streiff, Michael; Ansell, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a relatively common inherited vascular disorder that was first described in 1864, and is notable for epistaxis, telangiectasia, and arterial venous malformations. While genetic tests are available, the diagnosis remains clinical, and is based on the Curacao criteria. Patients with HHT are at increased risk for both bleeding and clotting events. Because of these competing complications, hematologists are often faced with difficult clinical decisions. While the majority of management decisions revolve around bleeding complications, it is not infrequent for these patients to require anticoagulation for thrombosis. Any anticoagulation recommendations must take into account the bleeding risks associated with HHT. Recent reviews have found that HHT patients can be safely anticoagulated, with the most frequent complication being worsened epistaxis. Large clinical trials have shown that factor IIa and Xa inhibitors have less intracranial bleeding than warfarin, and basic coagulation research has provided a possible mechanism. This article describes the anticoagulation dilemma posed when a 62-year-old female patient with a history of bleeding events associated with HHT was diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism. The subsequent discussion focuses on the approach to anticoagulation in the HHT patient, and addresses the role of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:25879004

  5. Animal models of viral hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darci R; Holbrook, Michael R; Gowen, Brian B

    2014-12-01

    The term "viral hemorrhagic fever" (VHF) designates a syndrome of acute febrile illness, increased vascular permeability and coagulation defects which often progresses to bleeding and shock and may be fatal in a significant percentage of cases. The causative agents are some 20 different RNA viruses in the families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae and Flaviviridae, which are maintained in a variety of animal species and are transferred to humans through direct or indirect contact or by an arthropod vector. Except for dengue, which is transmitted among humans by mosquitoes, the geographic distribution of each type of VHF is determined by the range of its animal reservoir. Treatments are available for Argentine HF and Lassa fever, but no approved countermeasures have been developed against other types of VHF. The development of effective interventions is hindered by the sporadic nature of most infections and their occurrence in geographic regions with limited medical resources. Laboratory animal models that faithfully reproduce human disease are therefore essential for the evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics. The goal of this review is to highlight the current status of animal models that can be used to study the pathogenesis of VHF and test new countermeasures. PMID:25448088

  6. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Gledovic, Z B; Jeknic, A S; Grgurevic, A D; Rakocevic, B B; Bozovic, B R; Mugosa, B V

    2008-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the epidemiological features of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Montenegro. The study included 169 cases of HFRS diagnosed in the period between 1995 and 2005 according to the clinical symptoms and serological confirmation. For the analysis of the demographic characteristics of the cases, as well as of the chronological and topographical features of the disease, a descriptive epidemiological method was employed. The average incidence rate in the observed period was 2.6 per 100,000. In the observed period, 8 people died; the average case fatality rate was 4.8% (range: 0.1-15%). Among the diseased persons, 116 were males and 53 were females; most of the cases were adults. The greatest number of HFRS cases occurred during the summer months. The highest incidence rates were registered in the northeastern, rural part of the country. The most frequent type of hantaviruses in Montenegro were Dobrava-Belgrade and Hantaan, carried by rodent species, i.e., the yellow-neck mouse and the striped-field mouse. It is likely that HFRS in Montenegro will become more common in the near future, unless public health control measures are taken. PMID:18806348

  7. Swan-Ganz catheter induced pulmonary hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, R V; Marcelli, G; Di Marco, R F; Bekoe, S; Grant, K; Marrangoni, A G

    1987-01-01

    In over 3500 consecutive open heart procedures using Swan-Ganz catheterization at our institution, we have experienced three major pulmonary artery injuries secondary to this procedure. Pulmonary artery hemorrhage is a rare but frequently fatal complication and a mortality rate as high as fifty percent has been reported. In two of these cases, major retraction of the heart was needed for adequate exposure of the cardiac pathology. The Swan-Ganz catheter inadvertently was advanced into the wedge position for prolonged intervals of time, and periodic overdistention of the balloon occurred. The third case occurred in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The need for aggressive surgical approach has been demonstrated. The authors have recommended steps to be taken when massive hemoptysis occurs and Swan-Ganz catheter perforation of the pulmonary artery is suspected. Re-evaluation of the "routine" use of the Swan-Ganz catheter may be necessary and overutilization may be a distinct possibility. When the use of this catheter is deemed appropriate, a more exact positioning of the distal portion of the catheter is mandatory if pulmonary artery perforation is to be avoided. PMID:3667678

  8. Intramyocardial Hemorrhage: An Enigma for Cardiac MRI?

    PubMed Central

    Masselli, Gabriele; Monti, Riccardo; Spreca, Matteo; Gualdi, Gian Franco

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a useful noninvasive technique for determining the presence of microvascular obstruction (MVO) and intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH), frequently occurring in patients after reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). MVO, or the so-called no-reflow phenomenon, is associated with adverse ventricular remodeling and a poor prognosis during follow-up. Similarly, IMH is considered a severe damage after revascularization by percutaneous primary coronary intervention (PPCI) or fibrinolysis, which represents a worse prognosis. However, the pathophysiology of IMH is not fully understood and imaging modalities might help to better understand that phenomenon. While, during the past decade, several studies examined the distribution patterns of late gadolinium enhancement with different CMR sequences, the standardized CMR protocol for assessment of IMH is not yet well established. The aim of this review is to evaluate the available literature on this issue, with particular regard to CMR sequences. New techniques, such as positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), could be useful tools to explore molecular mechanisms of the myocardial infarction healing process. PMID:25759823

  9. Emerging intracellular receptors for hemorrhagic fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Jae, Lucas T; Brummelkamp, Thijn R

    2015-07-01

    Ebola virus and Lassa virus belong to different virus families that can cause viral hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening disease in humans with limited treatment options. To infect a target cell, Ebola and Lassa viruses engage receptors at the cell surface and are subsequently shuttled into the endosomal compartment. Upon arrival in late endosomes/lysosomes, the viruses trigger membrane fusion to release their genome into the cytoplasm. Although contact sites at the cell surface were recognized for Ebola virus and Lassa virus, it was postulated that Ebola virus requires a critical receptor inside the cell. Recent screens for host factors identified such internal receptors for both viruses: Niemann-Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) for Ebola virus and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) for Lassa virus. A cellular trigger is needed to permit binding of the viral envelope protein to these intracellular receptors. This 'receptor switch' represents a previously unnoticed step in virus entry with implications for host-pathogen interactions and viral tropism. PMID:26004032

  10. History of preclinical models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingyi; Khatibi, Nikan H; Chen, Hank; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand a disease process, effective modeling is required that can assist scientists in understanding the pathophysiological processes that take place. Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), a devastating disease representing 15% of all stroke cases, is just one example of how scientists have developed models that can effectively mimic human clinical scenarios. Currently there are three models of hematoma injections that are being used to induce an ICH in subjects. They include the microballoon model introduced in 1987 by Dr. David Mendelow, the bacterial collagenase injection model introduced in 1990 by Dr. Gary Rosenberg, and the autologous blood injection model introduced by Dr. Guo-Yuan Yang in 1994. These models have been applied on various animal models beginning in 1963 with canines, followed by rats and rabbits in 1982, pigs in 1996, and mice just recently in 2003. In this review, we will explore in detail the various injection models and animal subjects that have been used to study the ICH process while comparing and analyzing the benefits and disadvantages of each. PMID:21725723

  11. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  12. Lung vasculitis and alveolar hemorrhage: pathology.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, Gregory A; Fishbein, Michael C

    2011-06-01

    Pulmonary vasculitides are a diverse group of limited and systemic disorders associated with inflammation of pulmonary vessels and parenchyma. These diseases often have distinctive clinical, serological, and histopathological features-extrapulmonary sites of involvement, circulating autoantibodies, predispositions for small or large vessels, and others. Some have characteristic inflammatory lesions; others are characterized by the absence of such lesions. Frequently pathological findings overlap, rendering classification, and diagnosis a challenge. The anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated small-vessel diseases constitute the major pulmonary vasculitides. These include Wegener granulomatosis (WG), Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS), and microscopic polyangiitis (MPA). Less frequently, diseases such as polyarteritis nodosa, Takayasu arteritis, Behçet syndrome, and connective tissue diseases may involve pulmonary vessels, but these entities are better associated with extrapulmonary disease. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a severe manifestation of pulmonary vasculitis. DAH is most commonly seen in small-vessel vasculitides, specifically MPA and WG. Other syndromes associated with DAH include Goodpasture syndrome, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Less commonly, DAH may be secondary to infection or drugs/toxins. Furthermore, in the absence of discernable systemic disease, DAH may be idiopathic-referred to as isolated pulmonary capillaritis (IPC) or idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH), depending on the presence of capillaritis. PMID:21674412

  13. Intracranial Calcifications and Hemorrhages: Characterization with Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiwei; Zhu, Wenzhen; Kovanlikaya, IIhami; Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Liu, Tian; Wang, Shuai; Salustri, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare gradient-echo (GRE) phase magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in the detection of intracranial calcifications and hemorrhages. Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Thirty-eight patients (24 male, 14 female; mean age, 33 years ± 16 [standard deviation]) with intracranial calcifications and/or hemorrhages diagnosed on the basis of computed tomography (CT), MR imaging (interval between examinations, 1.78 days ± 1.31), and clinical information were selected. GRE and QSM images were reconstructed from the same GRE data. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently identified the calcifications and hemorrhages on the QSM and GRE phase images in two randomized sessions. Sensitivity, specificity, and interobserver agreement were computed and compared with the McNemar test and k coefficients. Calcification loads and volumes were measured to gauge intermodality correlations with CT. Results A total of 156 lesions were detected: 62 hemorrhages, 89 calcifications, and five mixed lesions containing both hemorrhage and calcification. Most of these lesions (146 of 151 lesions, 96.7%) had a dominant sign on QSM images suggestive of a specific diagnosis of hemorrhage or calcium, whereas half of these lesions (76 of 151, 50.3%) were heterogeneous on GRE phase images and thus were difficult to characterize. Averaged over the two independent observers for detecting hemorrhages, QSM achieved a sensitivity of 89.5% and a specificity of 94.5%, which were significantly higher than those at GRE phase imaging (71% and 80%, respectively; P < .05 for both readers). In the identification of calcifications, QSM achieved a sensitivity of 80.5%, which was marginally higher than that with GRE phase imaging (71%; P = .08 and .10 for the two readers), and a specificity of 93.5%, which was significantly higher than that with GRE phase imaging (76.5%; P < .05 for both readers). QSM achieved significantly better interobserver agreements than GRE phase imaging in the differentiation of hemorrhage from calcification (?: 0.91 vs 0.55, respectively; P < .05). Conclusion QSM is superior to GRE phase imaging in the differentiation of intracranial calcifications from hemorrhages and with regard to the sensitivity and specificity of detecting hemorrhages and the specificity of detecting calcifications. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24126366

  14. Reversible cerebral vasospasm, multilobular intracerebral hemorrhages, and nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: review of possible interrelationships.

    PubMed

    Hantson, Philippe; Forget, Patrice

    2010-06-01

    "Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome" (RCVS) is a recently described entity that is mainly characterized by the association of severe ("thunderclap") headaches with or without additional neurological symptoms and diffuse, multifocal, segmental narrowings involving large and medium-sized cerebral arteries. By definition, angiographic abnormalities disappear within 3 months. The clinical course is usually benign, with a higher prevalence in young women. RCVS is idiopathic in the majority of the cases. However, recent papers have outlined the role of precipitating factors, including the use of vasoactive substances. Some patients, nevertheless, have a more severe clinical course with transient or permanent ischemic events. Hemorrhagic complications appear to have been underestimated. They are usually restricted to circumscribed cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, in the absence of any ruptured cerebral aneurysm. This limited bleeding is unlikely at the origin of the diffuse vasoconstriction. The finding of an unruptured cerebral aneurysm in RCVS patients is probably incidental. An overlap is possible between RCVS and other syndromes such as posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. There is no standardized treatment regimen for RCVS patients. It appears rational to further investigate the efficacy and safety of the calcium-channel antagonist nimodipine. PMID:20425193

  15. [Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers--pathogens, epidemiology and therapy].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are severe, systemic viral diseases affecting humans and non-human primates. They are characterized by multiple symptoms such as hemorrhages, fever, headache, muscle and abdominal pain, chills, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Elevated liver-associated enzyme levels and coagulopathy are also associated with these diseases. Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are caused by (Lake victoria) Marburg virus and different species of Ebola viruses, respectively. They are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses and belong to the family of filoviridae. Case fatality rates of filovirus disease outbreaks are among the highest reported for any human pathogen, ranging from 25 to 90% or more. Outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fever occur in certain regions of equatorial Africa at irregular intervals. Since 2000, the number of outbreaks has increased. In 2014, the biggest outbreak of a filovirus-induced hemorrhagic fever that has been documented so far occurred from March to July 2014 in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. The outbreak was caused by a new variant of Zaire Ebola-Virus, affected more than 2600 people (stated 20 August) and was associated with case-fatality rates of up to 67% (Guinea). Treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers is symptomatic and supportive, licensed antiviral agents are currently not available. Recently, BCX4430, a promising synthetic adenosine analogue with high in vitro and in vivo activity against filoviruses and other RNA viruses, has been described. BCX4430 inhibits viral RNA polymerase activity and protects cynomolgus macaques from Marburg virus infection when administered as late as 48 hours after infection. Nucleic acid-based products, recombinant vaccines and antibodies appear to be less suitable for the treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:25282746

  16. Disruption of the Cbfa2 Gene Causes Necrosis and Hemorrhaging in the Central Nervous System and Blocks Definitive Hematopoiesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Wang; Terryl Stacy; Michael Binder; Miguel Marin-Padilla; Arlene H. Sharpe; Nancy A. Speck

    1996-01-01

    The CBFA2 (AML1) gene encodes a DNA-binding subunit of the heterodimeric core-binding factor. The CBFA2 gene is disrupted by the (8;21), (3;21), and (12;21) chromosomal translocations associated with leukemias and myelodysplasias in humans. Mice lacking a CBFalpha 2 protein capable of binding DNA die between embryonic days 11.5 and 12.5 due to hemorrhaging in the central nervous system (CNS), at

  17. Vaccine Platforms to Control Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fevers.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Ricardo; Bredenbeek, Peter; Jiang, Xiaohong; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter; Lukashevich, Igor S

    2012-11-20

    Arenaviruses are rodent-borne emerging human pathogens. Diseases caused by these viruses, e.g., Lassa fever (LF) in West Africa and South American hemorrhagic fevers (HFs), are serious public health problems in endemic areas. We have employed replication-competent and replication-deficient strategies to design vaccine candidates potentially targeting different groups "at risk". Our leader LF vaccine candidate, the live reassortant vaccine ML29, is safe and efficacious in all tested animal models including non-human primates. In this study we showed that treatment of fatally infected animals with ML29 two days after Lassa virus (LASV) challenge protected 80% of the treated animals. In endemic areas, where most of the target population is poor and many live far from health care facilities, a single-dose vaccination with ML29 would be ideal solution. Once there is an outbreak, a fast-acting vaccine or post-exposure prophylaxis would be best. The 2(nd) vaccine technology is based on Yellow Fever (YF) 17D vaccine. We designed YF17D-based recombinant viruses expressing LASV glycoproteins (GP) and showed protective efficacy of these recombinants. In the current study we developed a novel technology to clone LASV nucleocapsid within YF17D C gene. Low immunogenicity and stability of foreign inserts must be addressed to design successful LASV/YFV bivalent vaccines to control LF and YF in overlapping endemic areas of West Africa. The 3(rd) platform is based on the new generation of alphavirus replicon virus-like-particle vectors (VLPV). Using this technology we designed VLPV expressing LASV GP with enhanced immunogenicity and bivalent VLPV expressing cross-reactive GP of Junin virus (JUNV) and Machupo virus (MACV), causative agents of Argentinian and Bolivian HF, respectively. A prime-boost regimen required for VLPV immunization might be practical for medical providers, military, lab personnel, and visitors in endemic areas. PMID:23420494

  18. Intersegmental coordination of gait after hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Chow, John W; Stokic, Dobrivoje S

    2015-01-01

    We compared gait using the planar law of intersegmental coordination between 14 hemorrhagic stroke subjects walking at a self-selected normal speed (56 ± 21 cm/s) and 15 age-matched healthy controls walking at a very slow speed (56 ± 19 cm/s). Sagittal plane elevation angles of the thigh, shank, and foot segments were submitted to principal component analysis. Additional outcome measures included the range of elevation angle and timing of peak elevation angle of the thigh, shank, and foot segments. The range of elevation angles at the shank and foot was significantly smaller in the paretic leg than non-paretic and control legs. Also, the peak elevation angle at the thigh occurred significantly later in the gait cycle in the paretic than control leg. Gait of both stroke and control subjects followed the planar law with the first two principal components explaining approximately 99% of the variance. However, the three-dimensional trajectory of elevation angles (gait loop) in stroke subjects deviated from the typical teardrop shape bilaterally, which was more exaggerated in the paretic leg. Compared to the non-paretic and control legs, the paretic leg showed significantly increased absolute loading of the thigh elevation angle and decreased absolute loadings of the shank and foot elevation angles on the first principal component, whereas the opposite was observed for the second principal component. Despite following the planar law, the gait of chronic stroke subjects is characterized by atypical timing of the thigh motion and disrupted intersegmental coordination of both legs. PMID:25224705

  19. Predicting Hematoma Expansion After Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, H. Bart; Chang, Yuchiao; Falcone, Guido J.; Cai, Xuemei; Ayres, Alison M.; Battey, Thomas W. K.; Vashkevich, Anastasia; McNamara, Kristen A.; Valant, Valerie; Schwab, Kristin; Orzell, Susannah C.; Bresette, Linda M.; Feske, Steven K.; Rost, Natalia S.; Romero, Javier M.; Viswanathan, Anand; Chou, Sherry H.-Y.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Many clinical trials focus on restricting hematoma expansion following acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but selecting those patients at highest risk of hematoma expansion is challenging. OBJECTIVE To develop a prediction score for hematoma expansion in patients with primary ICH. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Prospective cohort study at 2 urban academic medical centers among patients having primary ICH with available baseline and follow-up computed tomography for volumetric analysis (817 patients in the development cohort and 195 patients in the independent validation cohort). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Hematoma expansion was assessed using semiautomated software and was defined as more than 6 mL or 33% growth. Covariates were tested for association with hematoma expansion using univariate and multivariable logistic regression. A 9-point prediction score was derived based on the regression estimates and was subsequently tested in the independent validation cohort. RESULTS Hematoma expansion occurred in 156 patients (19.1%). In multivariable analysis, predictors of expansion were as follows: warfarin sodium use, the computed tomography angiography spot sign, and shorter time to computed tomography (? 6 vs >6 hours) (P <.001 for all), as well as baseline ICH volume (<30 [reference], 30–60 [P =.03], and >60 [P =.005] mL). The incidence of hematoma expansion steadily increased with higher scores. In the independent validation cohort (n = 195), our prediction score performed well and showed strong association with hematoma expansion (odds ratio, 4.59; P <.001 for a high vs low score). The C statistics for the score were 0.72 for the development cohort and 0.77 for the independent validation cohort. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE A 9-point prediction score for hematoma expansion was developed and independently validated. The results open a path for individualized treatment and trial design in ICH aimed at patients at highest risk of hematoma expansion with maximum potential for therapeutic benefit. PMID:24366060

  20. Impact of Ethnicity in Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wollenman, Casey S.; Chason, Rebecca; Reisch, Joan S.; Rockey, Don C.

    2014-01-01

    Goals To examine ethnicity's role in the etiology and outcome of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). Background UGIH is a serious condition with considerable associated morbidity and mortality. Study We analyzed 2196 patients admitted with acute UGIH between January 2006 and February 2012. Complete clinical data was gathered prospectively and entered into our GI Bleed Registry, which captures demographic and clinical variables. Results were analyzed using the Chi-square analyses and the analysis of variance techniques with Tukey multiple comparisons. Results Among 2196 patients, 620 (28%) were Black, 625 (29%) White, 881 (40%) Hispanic, and 70 (3%) were members of other ethnicities. Gastroduodenal ulcers (25%), esophageal varices (25%), and esophagitis (12%) were the most frequently identified causes of UGIH. Blacks experienced a high rate of gastroduodenal ulcers (199/620), while Hispanics most commonly had esophageal varices. In all ethnicities, the most common cause of bleeding in patients younger than 35 or older than 65 was gastroduodenal ulcer disease. However, among patients aged 35-64, there were differences in the etiology of UGIH. Blacks aged 50-64 frequently experienced gastroduodenal ulcers, while Hispanics aged 35-49 typically had esophageal varices. Rebleeding rates were significantly lower in Whites (5.8%) than in Hispanics (9.9%) or Blacks (8.7%) (p=0.02). Conclusions By examining a diverse population, we conclude that UGIH may follow trends. Hispanics were likely to have esophageal varices and higher rebleeding rates, while Blacks were likely to have ulcers and the highest mortality. Whites were equally likely to have ulcers or varices, but a lower rate of rebleeding. PMID:24275716

  1. Clinical research for delayed hemorrhage after endoscopic sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yundong; Han, Zhen; Niu, Xiaoping; Jia, Yuliang; Yuan, Heming; Zhang, Guozheng; He, Chiyi

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effect of delayed hemorrhage after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and compare the efficacy in improving complication between medicine treatment alone and medicine combined with endoscopic treatment. 1741 patients with EST admitted in Yijishan hospital of Wannan medical college from September 2009 to May 2014 were enrolled in this study. 32 cases suffered from delayed hemorrhage. The patients with delayed hemorrhage were evaluated through incision length of duodenal papilla, clinical manifestation, stool occult blood test and the difference of hemoglobin concentration between pre and post operation. 32 patients were divided into mild bleeding group, mild serious group and serious group through the speed and amount of bleeding. All cases in mild group accepted medicine treatment. Mild serious group were divided into medicine therapy group and medicine combined with endoscopic therapy group randomly. Serious group accepted vascular intervention therapy even traditional operation. The different treatments for delayed hemorrhage were judged by efficiency. The dates were analyzed by t-test or chi-square test. Nobody endured delayed hemorrhage who accepted small incision. Delayed hemorrhage was found in 7 patients out of 627 cases who accepted medium-large incision, 25 patients of 920 cases who accepted large incision. The patients who accepted lager EST were more dangerous than small EST (?2=4.718, P=0.030) concerning delayed hemorrhage. 32 cases in 1741 patients suffered from delayed hemorrhage. 14 patients only have passed black stool after EST. Among 14 cases, 13 patients stop bleeding after medical therapy, and 1 case received endoscopic hemostasis. 15 cases with hematemesis or melena after EST, 7 patients who received combination therapy stop bleeding. 3 patients from 8 cases stop bleeding after single chemical treatment, 5 cases had to receive endoscopic hemostasis after ineffectual medical therapy. There are significant difference for concerning effect between combination therapy group and medical therapy group (P=0.026). 3 patients repeatedly vomited blood and develop to peripheral circulatory failure. Those patients all received vascular intervention therapy, 2 patients stop bleeding, 1 patient failed in vascular intervention therapy and given up emergency rescue and died. Large EST has more risks than small EST in concerning delayed hemorrhage. Delayed bleeding after EST should be treated by different levels. Adapted therapy should be recommend for patients with different levels bleeding.

  2. EXOGENOUS NITRIC OXIDE INDUCES PROTECTION DURING HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G.; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    This study analyzed the systemic and microvascular hemodynamic changes related to increased nitric oxide (NO) availability during the early phase of hemorrhagic shock. Hemodynamic responses to hemorrhagic shock were studied in the hamster window chamber. Exogenous NO was administered in the form of nitrosothiols (nitrosylated glutathione, GSNO) and was given prior the onset of hemorrhage. Moderate hemorrhage was induced by arterial controlled bleeding of 50% of the blood volume, and the hypovolemic shock was followed over 90 min. Animals pre-treated with GSNO maintained systemic and microvascular conditions during hypovolemic hemorrhagic shock, when compared to animal treated with glutathione (GSH) or the sham group. Low concentrations of NO released during the early phase of hypovolemic shock from GSNO mitigated arteriolar vasoconstriction, increased capillary perfusion and venous return, and improved cardiac function (recovered of blood pressure and stabilized heart rate). GSNO's effect on resistance vessels influenced intravascular pressure redistribution and blood flow, preventing tissue ischemia. In conclusion, increases in NO availability during the early phase of hypovolemic shock, could preserve cardiac function and microvascular perfusion, sustaining organ function. Direct translation into a clinical scenario may be limited, although the pathophysiological importance of NO in the early phase of hypovolemia is clearly highlighted here. PMID:19362408

  3. Improvement of automated detection method of hemorrhages in fundus images.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an improved method for detecting hemorrhages in fundus images. The detection of hemorrhages is one of the important factors in the early diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. So, we had suggested several methods for detecting abnormalities in fundus images, but our methods had some problems. We propose a new method for preprocessing and false positive elimination in the present study. The brightness of the fundus image was changed by the nonlinear curve with brightness values of the hue saturation value (HSV) space. In order to emphasize brown regions, gamma correction was performed on each red, green, and blue-bit image. Subsequently, the histograms of each red, blue, and blue-bit image were extended. After that, the hemorrhage candidates were detected using density analysis. Finally, false positives were removed by using rule-based method and 3 Mahalanobis distance classifiers with a 45-feature analysis. To evaluate the new method for the detection of hemorrhages, we examined 125 fundus images, including 35 images with hemorrhages and 90 normal images. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of abnormal cases were 80% and 80%, respectively. PMID:19163945

  4. EBOLA IN THE NEWS (UPDATED 10-17-14) The likelihood of the arrival of someone at the University of Rochester with hemorrhagic fever

    E-print Network

    EBOLA IN THE NEWS (UPDATED 10-17-14) The likelihood of the arrival of someone at the University of Rochester with hemorrhagic fever due to Ebola virus disease is very low. The potential for transmission in the United States outside healthcare settings is also very low. However, the continued spread of Ebola virus

  5. Expanded dengue syndrome: subacute thyroiditis and intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although most symptomatic dengue infections follow an uncomplicated course, complications and unusual manifestations are increasingly being reported due to rising disease burden. Expanded dengue syndrome is a new entity added into World Health Organization (WHO) classification system to incorporate this wide spectrum of unusual manifestations. We report a case of expanded dengue syndrome with subacute thyroiditis and intracerebral hemorrhage. This is the first case report of thyroiditis in dengue infection. Case presentation A 20?years old man presented with fever, myalgias, arthralgias, retro-orbital pain, vomiting and gum bleeding during a large dengue outbreak in Lahore, Pakistan. On 7th day of illness patient became afebrile, but he developed severe headaches, unconsciousness followed by altered behavior. On 9th day of illness patient developed painful neck swelling accompanied by fever, tremors, palpitations, hoarseness of voice and odynophagia. Examination revealed acutely swollen, tender thyroid gland along with features of hyperthyroidism. Laboratory evaluation revealed stable hematocrit, thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Patient had seroconverted for anti-dengue IgM antibodies on the 10th day of illness. A non-contrast Computed Tomogram (CT) of the brain showed right frontal lobe hematoma. Thyroid profile showed increased free T3 and T4 and low TSH. Technetium thyroid scan showed reduced tracer uptake. He was diagnosed as having subacute thyroiditis and treated with oral prednisolone and propranolol. Follow up CT brain showed resolving hematoma. Patient’s recovery was uneventful. Conclusion Subacute thyroiditis may develop during the course of dengue fever and should be included as a manifestation of expanded dengue syndrome. It should be suspected in patients with dengue fever who develop painful thyroid swelling and clinical features of hyperthyroidism. PMID:23033818

  6. Persistence of Hemorrhage and Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) as the Main Causes of Maternal Mortality: Emergence of Medical Errors in Iranian Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    FARROKH-ESLAMLOU, Hamidreza; AGHLMAND, Siamak; OSHNOUEI, Sima

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background This study aimed to assess factors affecting substandard care and probable medical errors associated with obstetric hemorrhage and HDP at a Northwestern Iranian health care system. Methods In a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study, data on all maternal deaths occurred at West Azerbaijan Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 21, 2002 to March 20, 2011 was analyzed. The principal cause of death, main contributory factors, nature of care, main responsible staff for sub-standard care and medical error were determined. The data on maternal deaths was obtained from the national Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS) which were covered all maternal deaths. The “Three delays model” was used to recognize contributing factors of maternal deaths due to obstetric hemorrhage and HDP. Results There were 183 maternal deaths, therefore the Mean Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) in the province was 32.8 per 100 000 live births (95% CI, 32.64—32.88). The most common causes of maternal deaths were obstetric hemorrhage in 36.6% of cases and HDP in 25.7%. The factors that most contributed to the deaths were all types of medical errors and substandard care with different proportions in management of obstetric hemorrhage and HDP. Conclusion A substandard care and medical error was the major contributing factor in both obstetric hemorrhage and HDP leading to maternal mortality, therefore, it is necessary to improve the quality of health care at all levels especially hospitals.

  7. Gallic acid exhibits risks of inducing muscular hemorrhagic liposis and cerebral hemorrhage--its action mechanism and preventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Lin, Chien-Hong; Wang, Hui-Er; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y

    2015-02-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) (GA) occurs in many plants. The adverse effects of GA are seldom cited. GA (6-14??M) provoked the hemorrhagic liposis of the cervical muscles and intracranial hemorrhage. The cause of these pathological events and the method for prevention are still lacking. Using the chicken embryo model and some selected nutraceutics such as folate, glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine, and vitamin E (Vit E), we carried out this study. Results revealed that the action mechanism of GA involved (i) inducing hypoxia with upregulated gene hif-1? and downregulated ratio vegf-r2/vegf-a, leading to dys-vascularization and myopathy; (ii) impairing cytochrome c oxidase; (iii) stimulating creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase release; (iv) eliciting carnitine accumulation and liposis via downregulating gene CPT1; (v) suppressing superoxide dismutase and stimulating NO, H2O2, and malondialdehyde; and (vi) depleting erythrocytic and tissue GSH, resulting in hemorrhage. When both Vit E and GSH were applied to the day?1 chicks, a better alleviation effect was revealed. Conclusively, GA potentially exhibits adverse effect by eliciting hemorrhagic liposis of cervical muscles and cerebral hemorrhage. Supplementation with GSH, Vit E, and N-acetylcysteine is able to ameliorate these adverse effects, warranting the importance of restricting the clinical phytotherapeutic doses of GA and related compounds. PMID:25403162

  8. [Nervous system involvement in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iushchuk, N D; Dekonenko, E P; Karetkina, G N; Kulagina, G M; Makarova, S A; Rumo, F V; Bakulina, Z E; Dzagurova, T K; Berko, A I; Shakhgil'dian, S V; Tkachenko, E A

    2005-01-01

    The authors of the article describe two cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with prevalence of signs of nervous system involvement. The first case was a 40-year-old woman with moderate HFRS, who developed Guillain-Barre syndrome of axonal-demyelinating polyneuropathy. An important observation was the absence of hemorrhagic or renal syndrome; combined therapy including plasmapheresis was successful. The second case demonstrated polymorphism of HFRS clinical manifestations with prevalence of neurological symptoms, which consisted in encephalopathy and no renal failure signs; hemorrhagic syndrome was moderate. In both cases the diagnosis was confirmed by elevated titer of antibodies to HFRS virus, belonging to the group of hantaviruses. PMID:16502729

  9. Innocent blood: a history of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hemorrhages occurring in the newborn without trauma have been observed by obstetricians since the 17th century, but have been considered different diseases depending on their location. Umbilical hemorrhage associated with obstructed bile canals was described by Cheyne in 1802. Grandidier in 1871 and Townsend in 1894 grouped together various forms of neonatal bleeds and associated them with disturbed coagulation. When the clotting system became better understood in the last decade of the 19th century, effective symptomatic treatment was developed: gelatin, serum injection, and the transfusion of fresh blood. In 1935, Dam detected the function of vitamin K in the coagulation system and 4 years later, Waddell introduced vitamin K administration into therapy and prevention of neonatal hemorrhagic disease. Kernicterus occurred when high doses of synthetic water-soluble vitamin K analogues were given to preterm infants, reminding physicians that progress in neonatal therapy rests on the cornerstones of controlled trials and follow-up. PMID:25678347

  10. Transcatheter Embolization for Delayed Hemorrhage Caused by Blunt Splenic Trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Krohmer, Steven J., E-mail: Steven.J.Krohmer@hitchcock.org; Hoffer, Eric K., E-mail: eric.k.hoffer@hitchcock.or [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Burchard, Kenneth W., E-mail: Kenneth.W.Burchard@hitchcock.or [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Department of Surgery (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented at least 3 days after initial splenic trauma with delayed hemorrhage. During a 24-month period 4 patients (all male; ages 19-49 years) presented with acute onset of pain 5-70 days after blunt trauma to the left upper quadrant. Two had known splenic injuries that had been managed nonoperatively. All had computed axial tomography evidence of active splenic hemorrhage or false aneurysm on representation. All underwent successful SAE. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 370 days. These cases and a review of the literature indicate that SAE is safe and effective for NOM failure caused by delayed manifestations of splenic arterial injury.

  11. Crimean congo hemorrhagic fever appearance in the north of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Mahmood; Asgharzadeh, Seyed Ahmad; Bayani, Masomeh; Alijanpour, Ebrahim; Javaniyan, Mostafa; Jabbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute tick-borne viral, zoonotic disease with hemorrhagic manifestations and considerable mortality in humans. The purpose of this study was to introduce CCHF as a case report from Babol, north of Iran. It is known as an endemic pathogen in some regions of Iran. Case presentation: We present a case of CCHF suffering from sudden onset of fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, melena and hemorrhagic manifestations like petechiae and epistaxis accompanied with evidence of ticks bite in a non-endemic area in the north of Iran. The laboratory dignosis was CCHF. He was treated with ribavirin and recovered completely. Conclusion: CCHF may be seen in non- endemic regions and clinicians must be awarded about its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24009947

  12. Host genetic diversity enables Ebola hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis and resistance.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Angela L; Okumura, Atsushi; Ferris, Martin T; Green, Richard; Feldmann, Friederike; Kelly, Sara M; Scott, Dana P; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; LaCasse, Rachel; Thomas, Matthew J; Sova, Pavel; Carter, Victoria S; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Miller, Darla R; Shaw, Ginger D; Korth, Marcus J; Heise, Mark T; Baric, Ralph S; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G

    2014-11-21

    Existing mouse models of lethal Ebola virus infection do not reproduce hallmark symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, neither delayed blood coagulation and disseminated intravascular coagulation nor death from shock, thus restricting pathogenesis studies to nonhuman primates. Here we show that mice from the Collaborative Cross panel of recombinant inbred mice exhibit distinct disease phenotypes after mouse-adapted Ebola virus infection. Phenotypes range from complete resistance to lethal disease to severe hemorrhagic fever characterized by prolonged coagulation times and 100% mortality. Inflammatory signaling was associated with vascular permeability and endothelial activation, and resistance to lethal infection arose by induction of lymphocyte differentiation and cellular adhesion, probably mediated by the susceptibility allele Tek. These data indicate that genetic background determines susceptibility to Ebola hemorrhagic fever. PMID:25359852

  13. Management of hemorrhage with the target-specific oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Pluym, Mark; Howell, Gregory

    2014-08-01

    The target-specific oral anticoagulants have recently been introduced as alternatives to warfarin for both prophylactic and therapeutic indications. Although their efficacy and side-effect profiles have been favorable, there is significant concern about management of hemorrhage with these agents as there is no direct reversal agent available. It is important for clinicians to be aware of these agents and the issues that surround them. Most of the management of hemorrhage is based on expert opinion and case reviews. Given the potentially catastrophic consequences of acute hemorrhage while patients are on anticoagulation, specific treatments are needed. Some methods that have been described include activated charcoal, hemodialysis, prohemostatic agents, and transfusions. Target-specific therapies have been shown to be effective in early studies in animal models; however, the effects in humans are still under investigation. More investigation is needed on the management of bleeding complications from target-specific oral anticoagulants. PMID:25255409

  14. Fatal intratumoral hemorrhage in posterior fossa tumors following ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Santhanam, R; Balasubramaniam, Anandh; Chandramouli, B A

    2009-01-01

    We report on two patients with rare major intratumoral hemorrhage following ventriculoperitoneal shunt in posterior fossa tumors. A 28-year-old woman with a midline posterior fossa lesion, whose imaging features suggested a fourth ventricular ependymoma with obstructive hydrocephalus, was subjected to a right ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Her consciousness deteriorated, and she experienced massive intratumoral hemorrhage and later died. An eight-year-old girl presented with raised intracranial pressure and ataxia caused by vermian astrocytoma with obstructive hydrocephalus. She also developed a massive tumor bleed following a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and was subjected to emergency decompression of the tumor with the bleeding. She remained vegetative at discharge and died 18 months later. Intratumoral hemorrhage is a rare but important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with posterior fossa tumors who undergo ventriculoperitoneal shunt. PMID:19013806

  15. Cell death in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage: the "black hole" model of hemorrhagic damage.

    PubMed

    Felberg, Robert A; Grotta, James C; Shirzadi, Ali L; Strong, Roger; Narayana, Ponnada; Hill-Felberg, Sandra J; Aronowski, Jaroslaw

    2002-04-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has a poor prognosis that may be the consequence of the hematoma's effect on adjacent and remote brain regions. Little is known about the mechanism, location, and severity of such effects. In this study, rats subjected to intracerebral blood injection were examined at 100 days. Stereology (neuronal count and density) and volume measures in the perihematoma rim, the adjacent and overlying brain, and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) were compared with contralateral brain regions at 100 days and the perihemorrhage region at 24 hours and 7 days. In addition, cytochrome c release was investigated at 24 hours, 3 days, and 7 days. At 100 days, post-ICH rats showed no difference in neuronal density in the perihemorrhagic scar region or regions of the striatum immediately surrounding and distal to the perihemorrhage scar. The cell density index in the ipsilateral field was 16.2 +/- 3.8 versus the contralateral control field of 15.6 +/- 3.2 (not significant). Volume measurements of the ipsilateral striatum revealed a 20% decrease that was compensated by an increase in ipsilateral ventricular size. The area of the initial ICH as measured by magnetic resonance imaging correlated with the degree of atrophy. In the region immediately surrounding the hematoma, cytochrome c immunoreactivity increased at 24 hours and 3 days, and returned toward baseline by day 7. At 24 hours, stereology in the peri-ICH region showed decreased density in the region where cytochrome c immunoreactivity was the highest. Neuronal density of the ipsilateral SNr was significantly less than the contralateral side (9.6 +/- 1.9 vs 11.6 +/- 2.3). Histologic damage from ICH occurred mainly in the immediate perihemorrhage region. Except for SNr, we found no evidence of neuronal loss in distal regions. We have termed this continued destruction of neurons, which occurs over at least 3 days as the neurons come into proximity to the hematoma, the "black hole" model of hemorrhagic damage. PMID:11921058

  16. Impact of Intraventricular Hemorrhage upon Intracerebral Hematoma Expansion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Moussouttas; Rishi Malhotra; Luis Fernandez; Mitchell Maltenfort; Melissa Holowecki; Jennifer Delgado; Nadine Lawson; Neeraj Badjatia

    2011-01-01

    Background  The purpose of this study is to determine whether intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) exerts a “decompressive” effect that limits\\u000a intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) enlargement.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective review of patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH diagnosed within 6 h of onset, who underwent follow-up\\u000a head CT approximately 48 h later. Digital imaging analysis of CT scans was performed to compare hematoma volume changes between\\u000a patients with and

  17. [Chronic suppurative otitis media induced subarachnoid hemorrhage: case analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guannan; Yang, Wenqiang; Zhang, Yi

    2012-08-01

    We present a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage induced by chronic suppurative otitis media and discuss the possible mechanism here. Chronic suppurative otitis media is a common suppurative inflammation of middle ear, which can cause sorts of extracranial and intracranial complications in the situation of lower resistance or higher virulence. However, the condition of subarachnoid haemorrhage caused by chronic suppurative otitis media is quite rare. According to this case and previously published articles, we consider that meningitis may be the main reason of subarachnoid hemorrhage induced by chronic suppurative otitis media. PMID:23213763

  18. Right Sensory Alien Hand Phenomenon from a Left Pontine Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Nastaran

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute onset of a sensory alien hand phenomenon has been observed only from a supratentorial lesion involving the non-dominant hand, mostly from a right posterior cerebral artery infarction. A single acute vascular lesion resulting in a dominant hand sensory alien hand syndrome has not been previously documented. Case Report A 78-year old right-handed woman exhibited right sensory alien hand phenomenon from a left pontine hemorrhage. Disturbance of proprioceptive input and visuospatial perception are likely to play a role in manifesting the sign. Conclusions Dominant-hand sensory alien hand phenomenon may occur in an acute setting from a left pontine hemorrhage. PMID:19513334

  19. Spontaneous fatal intracranial hemorrhage in a child with Evans syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ruggiero, Antonio; Piastra, Marco; Casadei Pistilli, Anna Maria; Serretti, Sara; Beate, Werner; Chiaretti, Antonio; Riccardi, Riccardo

    2003-01-01

    Evans syndrome is a chronic and recurrent disease often resistant to multiagent therapy. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage is a rare but life-threatening complication in children with Evans syndrome. The authors report the fatal course of a child with chronic thrombocytopenia who presented a spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage. The case indicates that this potentially fatal event may occur even in children with a moderate grade of chronic thrombocytopenia. Early recognition and aggressive management is required for an adequate management of this rare complication. PMID:12775539

  20. Hemorrhagic infarction at 33 days after birth in a healthy full-term neonate

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Yoshitaka; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Kurose, Akira; Kashimura, Hiroshi; Koji, Takahiro; Otawara, Yasunari; Kamei, Jun; Akasaka, Manami; Sasaki, Makoto; Ogawa, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the full-term neonate rarely occurs more than 2 weeks after birth, and its definitive cause remains unclear. In the present report, a case of a patient with intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurring 33 days after birth is described. Histological examination of the brain tissue obtained during hematoma evacuation through craniotomy showed hemorrhagic infarction. Patent foramen ovale may have been present and this may have led to spontaneous paradoxical cerebral embolism followed by hemorrhagic infarction. PMID:22140317

  1. Comparative Pathogenesis of Alkhumra Hemorrhagic Fever and Kyasanur Forest Disease Viruses in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Sawatsky, Bevan; McAuley, Alexander J.; Holbrook, Michael R.; Bente, Dennis A.

    2014-01-01

    Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) are genetically closely-related, tick-borne flaviviruses that cause severe, often fatal disease in humans. Flaviviruses in the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex typically cause neurological disease in humans whereas patients infected with KFDV and AHFV predominately present with hemorrhagic fever. A small animal model for KFDV and AHFV to study the pathogenesis and evaluate countermeasures has been lacking mostly due to the need of a high biocontainment laboratory to work with the viruses. To evaluate the utility of an existing mouse model for tick-borne flavivirus pathogenesis, we performed serial sacrifice studies in BALB/c mice infected with either KFDV strain P9605 or AHFV strain Zaki-1. Strikingly, infection with KFDV was completely lethal in mice, while AHFV caused no clinical signs of disease and no animals succumbed to infection. KFDV and high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected in the brain at later time points, but no virus was found in visceral organs; conversely, AHFV Zaki-1 and elevated levels of cytokines were found in the visceral organs at earlier time points, but were not detected in the brain. While infection with either virus caused a generalized leukopenia, only AHFV Zaki-1 induced hematologic abnormalities in infected animals. Our data suggest that KFDV P9605 may have lost its ability to cause hemorrhagic disease as the result of multiple passages in suckling mouse brains. However, likely by virtue of fewer mouse passages, AHFV Zaki-1 has retained the ability to replicate in visceral organs, cause hematologic abnormalities, and induce pro-inflammatory cytokines without causing overt disease. Given these striking differences, the use of inbred mice and the virus passage history need to be carefully considered in the interpretation of animal studies using these viruses. PMID:24922308

  2. Key Role of Sulfonylurea Receptor 1 in Progressive Secondary Hemorrhage after Brain Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Michael; Tsymbalyuk, Orest; Tosun, Cigdem; Caridi, John; Ivanova, Svetlana; Keledjian, Kaspar; Bochicchio, Grant; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2009-01-01

    Abstract An important but poorly understood feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the clinically serious problem of spatiotemporal progression (“blossoming”) of a hemorrhagic contusion, a phenomenon we term progressive secondary hemorrhage (PSH). Molecular mechanisms of PSH are unknown and efforts to reduce it by promoting coagulation have met with equivocal results. We hypothesized that PSH might be due to upregulation and activation of sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1)-regulated NCCa-ATP channels in capillary endothelial cells, predisposing to oncotic death of endothelial cells and catastrophic failure of capillary integrity. Anesthetized adult male rats underwent left parietal craniectomy for induction of a focal cortical contusion. The regulatory subunit of the channel, SUR1, was prominently upregulated in capillaries of penumbral tissues surrounding the contusion. In untreated rats, PSH was characterized by progressive enlargement of the contusion deep into the site of cortical impact, including corpus callosum, hippocampus, and thalamus, by progressive accumulation of extravasated blood, with a doubling of the volume during the first 12?h after injury, and by capillary fragmentation in penumbral tissues. Block of SUR1 using low-dose (non-hypoglycemogenic) glibenclamide largely eliminated PSH and capillary fragmentation, and was associated with a significant reduction in the size of the necrotic lesion and in preservation of neurobehavioral function. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide against SUR1, administered after injury, reduced both SUR1 expression and PSH, consistent with a requirement for transcriptional upregulation of SUR1. Our findings provide novel insights into molecular mechanisms responsible for PSH associated with hemorrhagic contusions, and point to SUR1 as a potential therapeutic target in TBI. PMID:19604096

  3. Subject-specific Model Estimation of Cardiac Output and Blood Volume During Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Maxwell Lewis; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for estimating subject-specific hemodynamics during hemorrhage. First, a mathematical model representing a closed-loop circulation and baroreceptor feedback system was parameterized to match the baseline physiology of individual experimental subjects by fitting model results to 1 min of pre-injury data. This automated parameterization process matched pre-injury measurements within 1.4 ± 1.3% SD. Tuned parameters were then used in similar open-loop models to simulate dynamics post-injury. Cardiac output (CO) estimates were obtained continuously using post-injury measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) as inputs to the first open-loop model. Secondarily, total blood volume (TBV) estimates were obtained by summing the blood volumes in all the circulatory segments of a second open-loop model that used measured CO as an additional input. We validated the estimation method by comparing model CO results to flowprobe measurements in 14 pigs. Overall, CO estimates had a Bland-Altman bias of ?0.30 l/min with upper and lower limits of agreement 0.80 and ?1.40 l/min. The negative bias is likely due to overestimation of the peripheral resistance response to hemorrhage. There was no reference measurement of TBV; however, the estimates appeared reasonable and clearly predicted survival versus death during the post-hemorrhage period. Both open-loop models ran in real time on a computer with a 2.4 GHz processor, and their clinical applicability in emergency care scenarios is discussed. PMID:17846886

  4. Bilateral renal hemorrhage due to polyarteritis nodosa wrongly attributed to blunt trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niall G. Warnock; Anu Roy; Colin H. Jones; Ihab El Madhoun

    2009-01-01

    Background. A 36-year-old, previously healthy man presented to an accident and emergency department with right-sided abdominal pain 7 days after he sustained a trauma to his right flank. He was using no medication other than over-the-counter analgesics since his injury.Investigations. Complete blood count, serum creatinine measurement, liver function tests, hepatitis B and C screening, abdominal CT, renal angiography, surgical exploration

  5. Phonemic Characteristics of Apraxia of Speech Resulting from Subcortical Hemorrhage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Richard K.; Tonkovich, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Reports describing subcortical apraxia of speech (AOS) have received little consideration in the development of recent speech processing models because the speech characteristics of patients with this diagnosis have not been described precisely. We describe a case of AOS with aphasia secondary to basal ganglia hemorrhage. Speech-language symptoms…

  6. Fascioloides magna infection causing fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in a steer.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K; Schumann, Fritz

    2014-11-01

    A feedlot steer died suddenly without exhibiting signs of clinical illness. Cysts containing Fascioloides magna were found in the liver and lung. Fatal pulmonary hemorrhage was associated with these flukes. Neither death nor clinical pulmonary disease has been previously attributed to infections of adult cattle by F. magna. PMID:25392555

  7. The Pathophysiology of Intracerebral Hemorrhage Formation and Expansion.

    PubMed

    Schlunk, Frieder; Greenberg, Steven M

    2015-08-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is a devastating disease. Despite its clinical importance, the pathophysiology of intracerebral hemorrhage is not well understood. Hematoma expansion occurs in a large subset of patients and is a predictor of poor outcomes. Since hematoma growth provides a potential opportunity for therapeutic intervention, a thorough understanding of its biological mechanisms is of key importance. After vessel rupture, an initial hematoma forms. Following this initial phase, accumulating evidence suggests that the mass effect causes secondary vessel rupture, which contributes to the hematoma and may trigger an avalanche of further vessel ruptures. The circumstances under which this occurs and to what extent secondary hemorrhage contributes to final hematoma volume remain unknown, however. To address these questions, a translational approach seems most suitable. Current experimental models include intracranial injections of collagenase or autologous blood. Each has individual strengths and weaknesses in its ability to simulate human intracerebral hemorrhage. The ultimate goal for improved understanding and modeling of the pathophysiology of hematoma expansion is to identify new treatment approaches. PMID:26073700

  8. Advances in the Management of Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeraj S. Naval; Paul A. Nyquist

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with the high- est mortality of all cerebrovascular events, and most survivors never regain functional independence. Many clinicians believe that effective therapies are lacking for patients who have ICH; however, this perception is changing in light of new data on the pathophysiology and treatment of this disorder, in particular, research establishing the role of

  9. HYPERBARIC OXYGEN THERAPY FOR RADIATION INDUCED HEMORRHAGIC CYSTITIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RANJIV MATHEWS; NATARAJAN RAJAN; LAURA JOSEFSON; ENRICO CAMPORESI; ZAHI MAKHULI

    1999-01-01

    PurposeRadiation therapy has been used successfully to treat pelvic malignancy but morbidity from hemorrhagic cystitis remains a major long-term sequela in 1 to 2% of patients. Obliterative endarteritis secondary to ionizing radiation leads to tissue hypoxia and poor healing. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been demonstrated to improve angiogenesis and promote healing in radiation injured tissue, including the bladder. We describe

  10. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  11. Possibilistic Hopfield Neural Network on CT Brain Hemorrhage Image Segmentation

    E-print Network

    ), and fuzzy­ possibilistic c­means (FPCM) algorithms by using both simulated data and real images. The results, possibilistic clustering, c­ means, Hopfield neural network, image segmentation. 1. INTRODUCTION ImagePossibilistic Hopfield Neural Network on CT Brain Hemorrhage Image Segmentation Da­chuan Cheng

  12. Liver hemorrhage during laparotomy in patients with necrotizing enterocolitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne E. VanderKolk; Peggy Kurz; Jennifer Daniels; Brad W. Warner

    1996-01-01

    Major liver hemorrhage (LH) without obvious iatrogenic injury was recently observed in several patients during operation for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors associated with the development of LH in patients with NEC. Methods: The hospital charts of patients with NEC who underwent surgical exploration during a 5-year period (1989–1994)

  13. Minimally-Invasive Intracerebral Hemorrhage Removal Using An Active Cannula

    E-print Network

    Webster III, Robert James

    (i.e. a blood clot) causes increased pressure in the brain. A critical factor in the treatment of ICHMinimally-Invasive Intracerebral Hemorrhage Removal Using An Active Cannula Philip J. Swaney or endoscopic surgical intervention, we propose a new minimally-invasive, image-guided, robotic approach

  14. Environmental hypothermia in porcine polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock is safe.

    PubMed

    Iyegha, Uroghupatei P; Greenberg, Joseph J; Mulier, Kristine E; Chipman, Jeffrey; George, Mark; Beilman, Greg J

    2012-10-01

    We have previously demonstrated survival benefit to induced hypothermia in a porcine model of controlled hemorrhagic shock simulating an associated delay to definitive care. In the current study, we wished to evaluate the effects of environmental hypothermia in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock with the addition of polytrauma. Sixteen pigs were randomized to normothermic (39°C, n = 7) or hypothermic (34°C, n = 9) groups. The model included instrumentation, chest injury (captive bolt device), hemorrhage to systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ?50 mmHg, and crush liver injury. Animals received limited fluid resuscitation for a 1-h period with goal SBP of greater than 80 mmHg and ice packs or warming blankets to achieve goal temperatures, followed by full resuscitation with goal SBP of greater than 90 mmHg, adequate urine output, and hemoglobin by protocol for 20 h. Survivors were observed for an additional 24 h with end points including mortality, markers of organ injury, and neurologic function. There were no differences in survival between the groups (mortality = 1/9, hypothermia group vs. 2/7, normothermia group, P = 0.39). Markers of organ injury were elevated in the hypothermia group at 24 h after injury but were identical between groups at the end of the experimental protocol (48 h after injury). There were no noted differences in neurologic function between the two groups. Environmental hypothermia in a model of polytrauma and hemorrhagic shock was not associated with worse outcomes. PMID:22777118

  15. Neuroprotection by Melatonin after Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Manaenko, Anatol; Rolland, William; Virbel, Kelly; Hartman, Richard; Tang, Jiping

    2013-01-01

    Background Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is a devastating neurological disorder of very low birth weight premature infants that leads to post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, cerebral palsy, and mental retardation. Melatonin is a potent antioxidant known to reverse free-radical mediated injury in the brain. This study investigated the effect of melatonin treatment after GMH injury. Methods Clostridial collagenase was infused into the right germinal matrix region of neonatal rats with stereotaxic technique. Cognitive function, sensorimotor ability, cerebral, cardiac and splenic growths were measured in juvenile animals. Results Systemic melatonin treatment ameliorated cognitive and sensorimotor dysfunction at the juvenile developmental stage. This hormone also normalized brain atrophy, splenomegaly, and cardiac hypertrophy consequences at 1 month after injury. Conclusion This study supports the role of free radicals in acute neonatal hemorrhagic brain injury. Melatonin is an effective antioxidant that can protect the infant’s brain from the post-hemorrhagic consequences of mental retardation and cerebral palsy. Further mechanistic studies are warranted to determine the mechanisms behind these neuroprotective effects. PMID:21725756

  16. Recurrent Torsade de Pointes type ventricular tachycardia in intracranial hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sen; T. Stober; L. Burger; T. Anstätt; G. Rettig

    1984-01-01

    Two out of 72 cases of intracranial hemorrhage-induced polymorphous ventricular tachycardia with typical Torsade de Pointes morphology are presented. Bot patients had marked QTc prolongation more than 550 ms. In one patient (QTc: 669 ms) Torsade de Pointes degenerated into fatal ventricular fibrillation. Even though polymorphous Torsade de Pointes type ventricular tachycardia is rare during the clinical course of intracranial

  17. Management of severe refractory thrombocytopenia in dengue hemorrhagic fever with intravenous anti-D immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Kharya, Gaurav; Yadav, Satya Prakash; Katewa, Satyendra; Sachdeva, Anupam

    2011-11-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a potentially lethal complication of dengue fever due to shock and/or bleeding. Bleeding in DHF is due to thrombocytopenia and/or coagulopathy. The authors present their experience of usage of intravenous anti-D in 5 children with DHF and severe refractory thrombocytopenia (<10,000/mm(3)). It was administered in a dose of 50 to 75 ?g/kg. Mean platelet count was 6800/mm(3) before and 33,600, 44,600, and 79,000/mm(3) after intravenous anti-D administration at 24, 48, and 72 hours, respectively. Average drop in hemoglobin after administration of anti-D was 2.28 g/dL. Intravenous anti-D can possibly be a treatment option for refractory thrombocytopenia in DHF. PMID:21970507

  18. Acute hemorrhage within intradural extramedullary schwannoma in cervical spine presenting with quadriparesis

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Das, Pulin Bihari; Sarangi, Gouri Sankar; Mohanty, Sureswar

    2015-01-01

    Schwannoma with acute hemorrhage is rarely seen. A 44-years-old male patient presented with complaint of neck pain and acute onset of quadriparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of his cervical spine revealed evidence of an intradural extramedullary tumor with intratumoral acute hemorrhage. He was operated in emergency and the mass was found to be schwannoma with acute hemorrhage. Post operatively the patient improved significantly. Though schwannomas show microscopic intratumoral hemorrhage and necrosis at times, schwannoma with acute hemorrhage resulting acute onset of neurological deficit is very uncommon. PMID:25972715

  19. TNF-ALPHA RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST, R-7050, IMPROVES NEUROLOGIAL OUTCOMES FOLLOWING INTRACEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    King, Melanie D.; Alleyne, Cargill H.; Dhandapani, Krishnan M.

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the most common form of hemorrhagic stroke, exhibits the highest acute mortality and the worst long-term prognosis of all stroke subtypes. Unfortunately, treatment options for ICH are lacking due in part to a lack of feasible therapeutic targets. Inflammatory activation is associated with neurological deficits in pre-clinical ICH models and with patient deterioration after clinical ICH. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that R-7050, a novel cell permeable triazoloquinoxaline inhibitor of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) complex, attenuates neurovascular injury after ICH in mice. Up to 2h post-injury administration of R-7050 significantly reduced blood-brain barrier opening and attenuated edema development at 24h post-ICH. Neurological outcomes were also improved over the first three days after injury. In contrast, R-7050 did not reduce hematoma volume, suggesting the beneficial effects of TNFR inhibition were downstream of clot formation/resolution. These data suggest a potential clinical utility for TNFR antagonists as an adjunct therapy to reduce neurological injury and improve patient outcomes after ICH. PMID:23499961

  20. Endovascular treatment of spinal arteriovenous fistula in a young child with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Case report.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Mark J; Nesbit, Gary M; Behrens, Melinda L; Whitaker, Malcolm A; Barnwell, Stanley L; Selden, Nathan R

    2005-11-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia ([HHT] or Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) can manifest as sudden onset of epistaxis or neurological deficit in a child with characteristic mucocutaneous telangiectasias or as an asymptomatic bruit with or without overlying cutaneous vascular lesions. The authors present a case study of a pediatric patient with HHT in whom a screening computerized tomography (CT) scan of the chest revealed an asymptomatic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the spine. An 18-month-old child with a strong family history of HHT, including fatal central nervous system (CNS) hemorrhage and pulmonary AVMs, presented with a cutaneous telangiectasia of the pinna. The child was subsequently screened for potentially morbid pulmonary and CNS AVMs by using chest CT scanning and brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. A spinal MR image revealed a perimedullary macro-AVF (MAVF) resulting in a large venous varix within the parenchyma of the thoracic spinal cord. A transarterial embolization of the fistula was performed using N-butyl cyanoacrylate and ethiodol. Postembolization angiography confirmed obliteration of the fistula, and MR imaging revealed thrombosis and reduction in size of the venous varix. There were no neurological sequelae due to the treatment. In families with HHT and a high risk of sudden severe morbidity or death from undisclosed pulmonary or CNS AVMs, screening chest CT scanning and CNS MR imaging should be considered. Interdisciplinary teams of neurosurgery and interventional radiology specialists should evaluate and treat such patients by using diagnostic and therapeutic angiography and, if necessary, surgery. PMID:16302622

  1. Liver repair and hemorrhage control using laser soldering of liquid albumin in a porcine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadia, Yasmin; Xie, Hua; Kajitani, Michio; Gregory, Kenton W.; Prahl, Scott A.

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate laser soldering using liquid albumin for welding liver lacerations and sealing raw surfaces created by segmental resection of a lobe. Major liver trauma has a high mortality due to immediate exsanguination and a delayed morbidity and mortality from septicemia, peritonitis, biliary fistulae and delayed secondary hemorrhage. Eight laceration injuries (6 cm long X 2 cm deep) and eight non-anatomical resection injuries (raw surface 6 cm X 2 cm) were repaired. An 805 nm laser was used to weld 53% liquid albumin-ICG solder to the liver surface, reinforcing it with a free autologous omental scaffold. The animals were heparinized to simulate coagulation failure and hepatic inflow occlusion was used for vascular control. For both laceration and resection injuries, eight soldering repairs each were evaluated at three hours. A single suture repair of each type was evaluated at three hours. All 16 laser mediated liver repairs were accompanied by minimal blood loss as compared to the suture controls. No dehiscence, hemorrhage or bile leakage was seen in any of the laser repairs after three hours. In conclusion laser fusion repair of the liver is a quick and reliable technique to gain hemostasis on the cut surface as well as weld lacerations.

  2. Endomyocardial biopsy in a patient with hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma presenting as inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Iio, Kohei; Sakurai, Shunpei; Kato, Tamon; Nishiyama, Shigeki; Hata, Takeki; Mawatari, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Chihiro; Takekoshi, Kazuhiro; Higuchi, Kayoko; Aizawa, Toru; Ikeda, Uichi

    2013-03-01

    A 29-year-old female patient presented with shock and dyspnea due to heart failure and pulmonary edema. Echocardiography indicated excessive contraction limited to the left ventricular apex and akinesis of the basal and middle ventricle, which were confirmed by emergency left ventriculography. The finding was diagnostic of inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a tumor in the left adrenal gland with a central low-density area, and the plasma and urinary catecholamines were strikingly elevated. Taken together, these findings suggested the presence of a hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma. A myocardial biopsy in the very acute stage on the day of admission revealed neutrophilic infiltration and contraction-band necrosis, which was indistinguishable from the previously reported pathology in the acute phase of idiopathic Takotsubo cardiomyopathy without pheochromocytoma. The diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in this case was confirmed 7 weeks later by surgical removal of the left adrenal gland with massive hemorrhage at the center of the pheochromocytoma. The marked similarity of the endomyocardial pathology between this case and cases with idiopathic Takotsubo cardiomyopathy strongly points to catecholamine excess as a common causality for Takotsubo cardiomyopathy with or without pheochromocytoma. PMID:22476628

  3. Rodent neonatal germinal matrix hemorrhage mimics the human brain injury, neurological consequences, and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Lekic, Tim; Manaenko, Anatol; Rolland, William; Krafft, Paul R.; Peters, Regina; Hartman, Richard E.; Altay, Orhan; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns. GMH causes neurological sequelae such as cerebral palsy, post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Despite this, there is no standardized animal model of spontaneous GMH using newborn rats to depict the condition. We asked whether stereotactic injection of collagenase type VII (0.3 U) into the ganglionic eminence of neonatal rats would reproduce the acute brain injury, gliosis, hydrocephalus, periventricular leukomalacia, and attendant neurological consequences found in humans. To test this hypothesis, we used our neonatal rat model of collagenase-induced GMH in P7 pups, and found that the levels of free-radical adducts (nitrotyrosine and 4-hyroxynonenal), proliferation (mammalian target of rapamycin), inflammation (COX-2), blood components (hemoglobin and thrombin), and gliosis (vitronectin and GFAP) were higher in the forebrain of GMH pups, than in controls. Neurobehavioral testing showed that pups with GMH had developmental delay, and the juvenile animals had significant cognitive and motor disability, suggesting clinical relevance of the model. There was also evidence of white-matter reduction, ventricular dilation, and brain atrophy in the GMH animals. This study highlights an instructive animal model of the neurological consequences after germinal matrix hemorrhage, with evidence of brain injuries that can be used to evaluate strategies in the prevention and treatment of post-hemorrhagic complications. PMID:22524990

  4. BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after pediatric stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Beom; Cho, Bin; Kang, Jin Han

    2014-12-01

    Hemorrhagic cystitis is a common stem cell transplantation-related complication. The incidence of early-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is related to the pretransplant conditioning regimen, has decreased with the concomitant use of mesna and hyperhydration. However, late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, which is usually caused by the BK virus, continues to develop. Although the BK virus is the most common pathogenic microorganism of poststem cell transplantation late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis, pediatricians outside the hemato-oncology and nephrology specialties tend to be unfamiliar with hemorrhagic cystitis and the BK virus. Moreover, no standard guidelines for the early diagnosis and treatment of BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis after stem cell transplantation have been established. Here, we briefly introduce poststem cell transplantation BK virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:25653684

  5. Acute abdomen and hemorrhagic shock caused by spontaneous rupture of renal cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yaman, ?smail; Sa?lam, ?smet; Kurt, Kamile

    2013-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is an important cause of end stage renal failure. Rarely, these patients may present with hemorrhagic shock caused by rupture of the renal cyst. The aim of this study was to report a rare case of a patient who arrived at the emergency department with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with acute abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock. A 58-year-old male with chronic renal failure was admitted to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock. The patient was admitted to the Department of Surgery with diagnosis of acute abdomen and perirenal hematoma. Although the patient was on conservative treatment, his symptoms did not improve and the patient was operated emergently. During exploration, there was bleeding from the right polycystic kidney, which was 30×20 cm in dimension. The patient underwent nephrectomy and drainage of the hematoma, and was discharged on the fifth postoperative day without any problems. Bleeding due to rupture of a cyst in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease occurs rarely but it may be life threatening. Although conservative methods are often preferable in treatment, surgery can be life saving for patients in whom the clinical situation does not improve. PMID:25931844

  6. Satellite Detection of Ebola River Hemorrhagic Fever Epidemics Trigger Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Compton J.; Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2006-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever, named after the Ebola River in Central Africa, first appeared in June 1976, during an outbreak in Nzara and Maridi, Sudan. In September 1976, a separate outbreak was recognized in Yambuku, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). One fatal case was identified in Tandala, DRC, in June 1977, followed by another outbreak in Nzara, Sudan, in July 1979. Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks results in a very high mortality of patients who contract the disease: from 50 to 80% of infected people perish from this highly virulent disease. Death is gruesome, with those afflicted bleeding to death from massive hemorrhaging of organs and capillaries. The disease was not identified again until the end of 1994, when three outbreaks occurred almost simultaneously in Africa. In October, an outbreak was identified in a chimpanzee community studied by primatologists in Tal, Cote d'lvoire, with one human infection. The following month, multiple cases were reported in northeast Gabon in the gold panning camps of Mekouka, Andock, and Minkebe. Later that same month, the putative index case of the 1995 Kikwit, DRC, outbreak was exposed through an unknown mechanism while working in a charcoal pit. In Gabon, two additional outbreaks were reported in February and JuIy,1996, respectively, in Mayibout II, a village 40 km south of the original outbreak in the gold panning camps, and a logging camp between Ovan and Koumameyong, near Booue. The largest Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic occurred in Gulu District, Uganda from August 2000 to January 2001. In December 2001, Ebola reappeared in the Ogooue-lvindo Province, Gabon with extension into Mbomo District, The Republic of the Congo lasting until July 2002. Since 2002 there have been several outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Gabon and adjacent areas of Congo. Of interest is the seasonal context and occasional temporal clustering of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. Near simultaneous appearances of Ebola epidemics in Nzara, Sudan and Yambuku, DRC in 1976 occurred within two months of each other in two geographic locations separated by hundreds of kilometers involving two separate viral strains (Sudan and Zaire EBO strains). The outbreaks of Tal, Cote d'lvoire; Mekouka, Gabon; and Kikwit, DRC in late 1994 also occurred within months of each other in three different geographic regions involving two different viral strains (Cote d'lvoire and Zaire EBO strains). Fifteen years passed between the 1976-9 and 1994-6 temporal clusters of Ebola cases without identification of additional cases.

  7. Hemorrhagic activity of the vascular apoptosis-inducing proteins VAP1 and VAP2 from Crotalus atrox.

    PubMed

    Kikushima, Eiichi; Nakamura, Shiho; Oshima, Yasunori; Shibuya, Tomoko; Miao, Jun Ying; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Nikai, Toshiaki; Araki, Satohiko

    2008-09-15

    Vascular apoptosis-inducing proteins (VAPs) from hemorrhagic snake venom are apoptosis-inducing toxins that target vascular endothelial cells. We now show that VAP1 and VAP2 from Crotalus atrox have hemorrhagic activity in mouse skin following intradermal injection. Following intravenous injection, VAP2 induced hemorrhage in the lung, intestine and kidney. Although the hemorrhagic activity was relatively weak, these apoptosis toxins may play a role in the complex mechanism of snake venom-induced hemorrhage. PMID:18657564

  8. Recurrent Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage in Treatment with Dasatinib in a Patient Showing SMAD4 Mutation with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Philadelphia Positive and Juvenile Polyposis Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Chiara; Papayannidis, Cristina; Chiara Abbenante, Maria; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Broccoli, Alessandro; Venturi, Claudia; Testoni, Nicoletta; Ferrari, Anna; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2013-06-28

    We report a case of a patient affected by juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia linked to a SMAD4 mutation who developed acute lymphoblastic leukemia positive for the Philadelphia chromosome translocation and with a complex karyotype. During the treatment with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib the patient presented recurrent severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages linked to the genetic background and aggravated by thrombocytopenia. PMID:23888243

  9. Neuroprotective effects of afobazol in experimental cerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Galaeva, I P; Garibova, T L; Voronina, T A; Seredenin, S B

    2005-11-01

    The study of novel selective anxiolytic afobazol on rats with experimental intracerebral post-traumatic hematoma (cerebral hemorrhage) demonstrated its efficiency in a dose of 5 mg/kg applied by a single or repeated administration for 2 weeks. The preparation significantly decreased the incidence of neurological disturbances in most rats (pareses, paralyses, convulsive movements, lateral posture). The therapeutic course of afobazol improved survival rate. Afobazol improved learning and memory in rats with cerebral hemorrhage in the conditioned passive avoidance test and positively affected motor activity in the open field test, which was documented by significant increase in total motor activity indices. The effects of afobazol were more pronounced after course treatment. PMID:16758618

  10. Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2012-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these outbreaks are a direct consequence of impoverished conditions. We will discuss aspects of EHF and MHF disease, in comparison to the “classic” NTDs, and examine potential ways forward in the prevention and control of EHF and MHF in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as examine the potential for application of novel vaccines or antiviral drugs for prevention or control of EHF and MHF among populations at highest risk for disease. PMID:22761967

  11. [An update of the obstetrics hemorrhage treatment protocol].

    PubMed

    Morillas-Ramírez, F; Ortiz-Gómez, J R; Palacio-Abizanda, F J; Fornet-Ruiz, I; Pérez-Lucas, R; Bermejo-Albares, L

    2014-04-01

    Obstetric hemorrhage is still a major cause of maternal and fetal morbimortality in developed countries. This is an underestimated problem, which usually appears unpredictably. A high proportion of the morbidity of obstetric hemorrhage is considered to be preventable if adequately managed. The major international clinical guidelines recommend producing consensus management protocols, adapted to local characteristics and keep them updated in the light of experience and new scientific publications. We present a protocol updated, according to the latest recommendations, and our own experience, in order to be used as a basis for those anesthesiologists who wish to use and adapt it locally to their daily work. This last aspect is very important to be effective, and is a task to be performed at each center, according to the availability of resources, personnel and architectural features. PMID:24560060

  12. Imported Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever cases in Istanbul

    PubMed Central

    Midilli, Kenan; Garg?l?, Ay?en; Ergonul, Onder; ?engöz, Gönül; Ozturk, Recep; Bakar, Mehmet; Jongejan, Frans

    2007-01-01

    We described a series of imported cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Istanbul and investigated the genetic diversity of the virus. All the suspected cases of CCHF, who were applied to the health centers in Istanbul, were screened for CCHF virus (CCHFv) infection by using semi-nested Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) following RT-PCR. Simultaneous blood samples were also sent to the national reference laboratory in Ankara for serologic investigation. In 10 out of 91 patients, CCHFv was detected by PCR, and among 9 out of 10, anti-CCHFv IgM antibodies were also positive. Clinical features were characterized by fever, myalgia, and hemorrhage. The levels of liver enzymes, creatinine phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase were elevated, and bleeding markers were prolonged. All the cases were treated with ribavirin. There was no fatal case. All the strains clustered within the same group as other Europe/Turkey isolates. PMID:17553137

  13. Minimally invasive evacuation of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage using sonothrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Newell, David W.; Shah, M. Mohsin; Wilcox, Robert; Hansmann, Douglas R.; Melnychuk, Erik; Muschelli, John; Hanley, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Object Catheter-based evacuation is a novel surgical approach for the treatment of brain hemorrhage. The object of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ultrasound in combination with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) delivered through a microcatheter directly into spontaneous intraventricular (IVH) or intracerebral (ICH) hemorrhage in humans. Methods Thirty-three patients presenting to the Swedish Medical Center in Seattle, Washington, with ICH and IVH were screened between November 21, 2008, and July 13, 2009, for entry into this study. Entry criteria included the spontaneous onset of intracranial hemorrhage ? 25 ml and/or IVH producing ventricular obstruction. Nine patients (6 males and 3 females, with an average age of 63 years [range 38–83 years]) who met the entry criteria consented to participate and were entered into the trial. A ventricular drainage catheter and an ultrasound microcatheter were stereotactically delivered together, directly into the IVH or ICH. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and 24 hours of continuous ultrasound were delivered to the clot. Gravity drainage was performed. In patients with IVHs, 3 mg of rt-PA was injected; in patients with intraparenchymal hemorrhages, 0.9 mg of rt-PA was injected. The rt-PA was delivered in 3 doses over 24 hours. Results All patients had significant volume reductions in the treated hemorrhage. The mean percentage volume reduction after 24 hours of therapy, as determined on CT and compared with pretreatment stability scans, was 59 ± 5% (mean ± SEM) for ICH and 45.1 ± 13% for IVH (1 patient with ICH was excluded from analysis because of catheter breakage). There were no intracranial infections and no significant episodes of rebleeding according to clinical or CT assessment. One death occurred by 30 days after admission. Clinical improvements as determined by a decrease in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score were demonstrated at 30 days after treatment in 7 of 9 patients. The rate of hemorrhage lysis was compared between 8 patients who completed treatment, and patient cohorts treated for IVH and ICH using identical doses of rt-PA and catheter drainage but without the ultrasound (courtesy of the MISTIE [Minimally Invasive Surgery plus T-PA for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Evacuation] and CLEAR II [Clot Lysis Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage II] studies). Compared with the MISTIE and CLEAR data, the authors observed a faster rate of lysis during treatment for IVH and ICH in the patients treated with sonolysis plus rt-PA versus rt-PA alone. Conclusions Lysis and drainage of spontaneous ICH and IVH with a reduction in mass effect can be accomplished rapidly and safely through sonothrombolysis using stereotactically delivered drainage and ultrasound catheters via a bur hole. A larger clinical trial with catheters specifically designed for brain blood clot removal is warranted. PMID:21663412

  14. [Therapeutic vascular embolization in life-threatening gynecologic hemorrhages].

    PubMed

    Banaschak, A; Stösslein, F; Kielbach, O; Bilek, K; Elling, D

    1985-01-01

    Report on 12 women with acute massive or chronic tumor hemorrhage, treated with embolisation. There were 7 women with cervical cancer T3/T4, 3 women with adenocarcinoma (2mal primary progressive, one with metastases in lymph-nodes), one woman with progressive malignant mesenchymale tumor in vagina and one with local persistent ovarian cancer. In 10/12 cases hemorrhage stopped immediately after embolisation. In 3 cases, after one-sided embolization, repeated procedure of the contralateral vessel was necessary. In 2/12 cases side-effects like fever and subileus, and, in one case, complications like skin necrosis and bladder-vagina-fistula were seen. In all patients temporary improvement of life-quality were found. Low risk and good tolerance of this palliative therapy are emphasized. PMID:2414947

  15. Neuroprotective Effects of Afobazol in Experimental Cerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. P. Galaeva; T. L. Garibova; T. A. Voronina; S. B. Seredenin

    2005-01-01

    The study of novel selective anxiolytic afobazol on rats with experimental intracerebral post-traumatic hematoma (cerebral\\u000a hemorrhage) demonstrated its efficiency in a dose of 5 mg\\/kg applied by a single or repeated administration for 2 weeks. The\\u000a preparation significantly decreased the incidence of neurological disturbances in most rats (pareses, paralyses, convulsive\\u000a movements, lateral posture). The therapeutic course of afobazol improved survival

  16. [Neuroprotective effects of afobazole in a hemorrhagic stroke model].

    PubMed

    Seredenin, S B; Kra?neva, V A

    2009-01-01

    The model of posttraumatic hematoma was used to imitate the condition of hemorrhagic stroke in rats. Afobazole (5-ethoxy-2-[2-(morpholino)-ethylthio] benzimidazole dihydrochloride) administered in doses of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days was shown to be able to decrease the pathological manifestations of this model. Afobazole administration decreased mortality and the neurological deficits, including motor discoordination, and improve the learning and memory. PMID:19334507

  17. Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock using polymerized hemoglobin compared to blood.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Daniel; Barros, Marcelo; Yan, Su; Cabrales, Pedro

    2014-03-01

    The development of an alternative to blood transfusion to treat severe hemorrhage remains a challenge, especially in far forward scenarios when blood is not available. Hemoglobin level (Hb)-based oxygen (O2) carriers (HBOCs) were developed to address this need. Hemopure (HBOC-201, bovine Hb glutamer-250; OPK Biotech, Cambridge, MA), one such HBOC, has been approved for clinical use in South Africa and Russia. At the time of its approval, however, few studies aimed to understand Hemopure's function, administration, and adverse effects compared to blood. We used intravital microscopy to study the microcirculation hemodynamics (arteriolar and venular diameters and blood flow and functional capillary density [FCD]) and oxygenation implications of Hemopure administration at different Hb concentrations-4, 8, and 12 gHb/dL-compared to fresh blood transfusion during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Experiments were performed in unanesthetized hamsters instrumented with a skinfold window chamber, subjected to hemorrhage (50% of the blood volume), followed by 1-hour hypovolemic shock and fluid resuscitation (50% of the shed volume). Our results show that fluid resuscitation with Hemopure or blood restored systemic and microvascular parameters. Microcirculation O2 delivery was directly correlated with Hemopure concentration, although increased vasoconstriction was as well. Functional capillary density reflected the balance between enhanced O2 transport and reduced blood flow: 12 gHb/dL of Hemopure and blood decreased FCD compared to the lower concentrations of Hemopure (P < .05). The balance between O2 transport and tissue perfusion can provide superior resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock compared to blood transfusion by using a low Hb concentration of HBOCs relative to blood. PMID:24418449

  18. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and juvenile polyposis: an overlap of syndromes.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Erica D; Trinh, Angela M; Levin, Terry L; Tsirilakis, Kalliope; Loizides, Anthony M

    2010-07-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) is a syndrome characterized by multiorgan telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations. A subset of patients with a mutation in the MADH4 gene on chromosome 18 exhibits an overlapping syndrome of HHT and juvenile polyposis (JPS). We present one such family. Genetic testing is warranted when either HHT or JPS is diagnosed, as early recognition of this syndrome overlap allows appropriate management of these patients. PMID:20012952

  19. Molecular Biology of the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramon Flick

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the family Bunyaviridae. This family comprises more than 300\\u000a virus species grouped into five distinct genera: Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus, Phlebovirus, Nairovirus, and Tospovirus [15]. The genus Nairovirus consists of seven different serogroups, but only two of them are human pathogens [9]. The CCHF group contains CCHFV and the\\u000a nonhuman pathogenic Hazara virus;

  20. CHRONIC CEREBRAL PARAGONIMIASIS COMBINED WITH ANEURYSMAL SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUK-DONG CHOO; BUMN-SUK SUH; HYUN-SUNG LEE; JONG-SOO LEE; CHANG-JUNE SONG; DAE-WHAN SHIN; YOUNG-HA LEE

    A 67-year-old Korean woman attended our hospital complaining of a severe headache. A brain computed tomography scan showed conglomerated, high-density, calcified nodules in the left temporo-occipito-parietal area and high-density subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain shows multiple conglomerated iso- or low-signal intensity round nodules with peripheral rim enhancement. She underwent craniotomies to clip the

  1. Transcatheter Embolization for Delayed Hemorrhage Caused by Blunt Splenic Trauma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Krohmer; Eric K. Hoffer; Kenneth W. Burchard

    2010-01-01

    Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients\\u000a with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely\\u000a addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented\\u000a at least 3 days after initial

  2. The first reported case of rabbit hemorrhagic disease in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Embury-Hyatt, Carissa; Postey, Rosemary; Hisanaga, Tamiko; Burton, Lynn; Hooper-McGrevy, Kathleen; McIntyre, Leanne; Millar, Kevin; Pasick, John

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) was suspected in a 1-year-old male neutered lop-eared rabbit that had acute onset liver failure. Gross pathology, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, partial nucleic acid sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the major capsid protein (VP60) and animal inoculation studies all supported this diagnosis making it the first confirmed case of RHD in Canada. PMID:23450867

  3. Influence of amphetamine on recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela M. Auriat; Frederick Colbourne

    2008-01-01

    d-amphetamine (AMP) paired with physical activity (e.g., beam walking) improves recovery after ischemic injury to the cortical motor system of rodents. We tested whether AMP promotes recovery after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in rats. A moderate-sized ICH was produced by stereotaxically injecting collagenase into the striatum. Five days later rats were placed into either environmental enrichment cages (EE) or a control

  4. Temporal MRI Assessment of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Knight; Yuxia Han; Tavarekere N. Nagaraja; Polly Whitton; Jennifer Ding; Michael Chopp; Donald M. Seyfried

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose—MRI was used to evaluate the effects of experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on brain tissue injury and recovery. Methods—Primary ICH was induced in rats (n6) by direct infusion of autologous blood into the striatum. The evolution of ICH damage was assessed by MRI estimates of T2 and T1sat relaxation times, cerebral blood flow, vascular permeability, and susceptibility-weighted imaging

  5. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in Colombian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Cañas; Gabriel J. Tobón; Marcela Granados; Liliana Fernández

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare life-threatening complication seen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus\\u000a (SLE). This paper describes the clinical features and outcome of seven SLE patients with DAH admitted to a medical intensive\\u000a care unit (ICU) in a referral center. Of a total of 122 SLE patients, seven patients presented this complication (5.7%). Five\\u000a patients were women

  6. Management of primary hypertensive hemorrhage of the brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James C. Grotta

    2004-01-01

    Opinion statement  Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can be prevented by adequate treatment of hypertension. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors,\\u000a angiotensin receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers seem particularly effective. ICH also is associated with apolipoprotein\\u000a E 4 genotype and with low cholesterol, but not statin therapy for high cholesterol. Microbleeds identified on magnetic resonance\\u000a imaging scans also confer increased risk of ICH. Experimental drug

  7. Abciximab-induced alveolar hemorrhage after percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Maria; Patino, Gilberto; Romick, Benjamin; Almaleh, Michael; Campbell, Charles; Hawkins, Karin; Moore, Scott; Allan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Abciximab, a platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitor, has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, there is a well-documented increase in bleeding risk associated with the use of this agent. Spontaneous pulmonary hemorrhage is a particularly rare and easily misdiagnosed complication that requires early diagnosis to ensure patient survival. A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department with chest pain and inferolateral ST elevation on electrocardiogram. A paclitaxel drug-eluting stent was then placed in the left circumflex artery, without complications. Abciximab (a bolus of 0.25 mg/kg followed by an infusion of 10 mg/min for 12 h) was given. Approximately 20 min later, the patient developed dyspnea and hemoptysis. A chest radiograph revealed new bilateral diffuse interstitial infiltrates, and the patient was started on empirical antibiotics for pneumonia. Because of increasing dyspnea and somnolence, the patient was intubated and bronchoscopy was performed, revealing serial hemorrhagic returns from the left lower lobe, diagnostic of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and judged to be secondary to abciximab, given the time course. All antiplatelet and antithrombotic agents were stopped. The patient stabilized over the next several days, with some recurrent hemoptysis, and was successfully extubated seven days later. Prognosis remains poor in GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor-induced pulmonary hemorrhage, and early diagnosis is critical so that antithrombotic and antiplatelet agents may be discontinued in a timely manner. A high degree of suspicion is required when treating a patient who presents with dyspnea and new radiological infiltrates after receiving a GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor. PMID:18273491

  8. [Chemotherapy for Bolivian hemorrhagic fever in experimentally infected guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Syromiatnikova, S I; Khmelev, A L; Pantiukhov, V B; Shatokhina, I V; Pirozhkov, A P; Khamitov, R A; Markov, V I; Birisevich, I B; Bondarev, V P

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of the antiviral agents nucleoside analogues manufactured in Russia and foreign countries against Bolivian hemorrhagic fever in the treatment and rapid prevention regimens was studied in guinea pigs. In rapid prevention and treatment of guinea pigs, the intraperitoneal injection of 1/10 of the equivalent dose of vero-ribavirin for this animal species was ascertained to protect 70% of the animals infected with Machupo virus strain Carvallo in doses 8 and 10 LD50. PMID:20030281

  9. [Brazilian guidelines for the manegement of intracerebral hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Pontes-Neto, Octávio M; Oliveira-Filho, Jamary; Valiente, Raul; Friedrich, Maurício; Pedreira, Bruno; Rodrigues, Bruno Castelo Branco; Liberato, Bernardo; Freitas, Gabriel Rodriguez de

    2009-09-01

    Among the stroke subtypes, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has the worst prognosis and still lacks a specific treatment. The present manuscript contains the Brazilian guidelines for the management of ICH. It was elaborated by the executive committee of the Brazilian Cerebrovascular Diseases Society and was based on a broad review of articles about the theme. The text aims to provide a rational for the management of patients with an acute ICH, with the diagnostic and therapeutic resources that are available in Brazil. PMID:19838537

  10. Healthy individuals' immune response to the Bulgarian Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mousavi-Jazi, Mehrdad; Karlberg, Helen; Papa, Anna; Christova, Iva; Mirazimi, Ali

    2012-09-28

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) poses a great threat to public health due to its high mortality and transmission rate and wide geographical distribution. There is currently no specific antiviral therapy for CCHF. This study provides the first in-depth analysis of the cellular and humoral immune response in healthy individuals following injection of inactivated Bulgarian vaccine, the only CCHFV vaccine available at present. Vaccinated individuals developed robust, anti-CCHFV-specific T-cell activity as measured by IFN-? ELISpot assay. The frequency of IFN-? secreting T-cells was 10-fold higher in individuals after vaccination with four doses than after one single dose. High levels of CCHFV antibodies were observed following the first dose, but repeated doses were required to achieve antibodies with neutralizing activity against CCHFV. However, the neutralizing activity in these groups was low. PMID:22902680

  11. Role of cognitive parameters in dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jih-Jin; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Chen, Po-Chih; Liu, Li-Teh; Hsiao, Hui-Mien; Lo, Yu-Chih; Perng, Guey Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is becoming recognized as one of the most important vector-borne human diseases. It is predominant in tropical and subtropical zones but its geographical distribution is progressively expanding, making it an escalating global health problem of today. Dengue presents with spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic, undifferentiated mild fever, dengue fever (DF), to dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with or without shock (DSS), a life-threatening illness characterized by plasma leakage due to increased vascular permeability. Currently, there are no antiviral modalities or vaccines available to treat and prevent dengue. Supportive care with close monitoring is the standard clinical practice. The mechanisms leading to DHF/DSS remains poorly understood. Multiple factors have been attributed to the pathological mechanism, but only a couple of these hypotheses are popular in scientific circles. The current discussion focuses on underappreciated factors, temperature, natural IgM, and endotoxin, which may be critical components playing roles in dengue pathogenesis. PMID:24305068

  12. Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis and Venous Hemorrhagic Infarction in a Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Yuri; Lee, Jun-Beom; Kim, Young-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is an uncommon cause of cerebral infarction, compared to arterial diseases. It is often unrecognized at initial presentation due to the diversity of causes and clinical manifestations. A 29-year-old female patient complained of severe headache and presented at the emergency room with altered consciousness. Brain computed tomography and brain magnetic resonance image revealed the left sigmoid sinus thrombosis with venous hemorrhagic infarction (VHI) in the left temporal lobe. The patient had no past medical and family history of bleeding diathesis. The laboratory finding at the admission showed severe iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), and protein C and S activities were decreased. After the neurosurgery, iron replacement, and neurorehabilitation, the patient had a good recovery. There has been no known recurrence. We report our therapeutic intervention on a very rare case of CVST and VHI, with IDA as a probable cause of cerebral thrombosis. PMID:25379501

  13. Necrostatin-1 Reduces Neurovascular Injury after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    King, Melanie D.; Whitaker-Lea, Wittstatt A.; Campbell, James M.; Alleyne, Cargill H.; Dhandapani, Krishnan M.

    2014-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most common form of hemorrhagic stroke, accounting for 15% of all strokes. ICH has the highest acute mortality and the worst long-term prognosis of all stroke subtypes. Unfortunately, the dearth of clinically effective treatment options makes ICH the least treatable form of stroke, emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic targets. Recent work by our laboratory identified a novel role for the necroptosis inhibitor, necrostatin-1, in limiting neurovascular injury in tissue culture models of hemorrhagic injury. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that necrostatin-1 reduces neurovascular injury after collagenase-induced ICH in mice. Necrostatin-1 significantly reduced hematoma volume by 54% at 72?h after-ICH, as compared to either sham-injured mice or mice administered an inactive, structural analogue of necrostatin-1. Necrostatin-1 also limited cell death by 48%, reduced blood-brain barrier opening by 51%, attenuated edema development to sham levels, and improved neurobehavioral outcomes after ICH. These data suggest a potential clinical utility for necrostatin-1 and/or novel necroptosis inhibitors as an adjunct therapy to reduce neurological injury and improve patient outcomes after ICH. PMID:24729786

  14. pak2a mutations cause cerebral hemorrhage in redhead zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Buchner, David A; Su, Fengyun; Yamaoka, Jennifer S; Kamei, Makoto; Shavit, Jordan A; Barthel, Linda K; McGee, Beth; Amigo, Julio D; Kim, Seongcheol; Hanosh, Andrew W; Jagadeeswaran, Pudur; Goldman, Daniel; Lawson, Nathan D; Raymond, Pamela A; Weinstein, Brant M; Ginsburg, David; Lyons, Susan E

    2007-08-28

    The zebrafish is a powerful model for studying vascular development, demonstrating remarkable conservation of this process with mammals. Here, we identify a zebrafish mutant, redhead (rhd(mi149)), that exhibits embryonic CNS hemorrhage with intact gross development of the vasculature and normal hemostatic function. We show that the rhd phenotype is caused by a hypomorphic mutation in p21-activated kinase 2a (pak2a). PAK2 is a kinase that acts downstream of the Rho-family GTPases CDC42 and RAC and has been implicated in angiogenesis, regulation of cytoskeletal structure, and endothelial cell migration and contractility among other functions. Correction of the Pak2a-deficient phenotype by Pak2a overexpression depends on kinase activity, implicating Pak2 signaling in the maintenance of vascular integrity. Rescue by an endothelial-specific transgene further suggests that the hemorrhage seen in Pak2a deficiency is the result of an autonomous endothelial cell defect. Reduced expression of another PAK2 ortholog, pak2b, in Pak2a-deficient embryos results in a more severe hemorrhagic phenotype, consistent with partially overlapping functions for these two orthologs. These data provide in vivo evidence for a critical function of Pak2 in vascular integrity and demonstrate a severe disease phenotype resulting from loss of Pak2 function. PMID:17715297

  15. Fatal hemorrhage in mice lacking gamma-glutamyl carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Aihua; Sun, Hongmin; Raymond, Richard M; Furie, Barbara C; Furie, Bruce; Bronstein, Mila; Kaufman, Randal J; Westrick, Randal; Ginsburg, David

    2007-06-15

    The carboxylation of glutamic acid residues to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) by the vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (gamma-carboxylase) is an essential posttranslational modification required for the biological activity of a number of proteins, including proteins involved in blood coagulation and its regulation. Heterozygous mice carrying a null mutation at the gamma-carboxylase (Ggcx) gene exhibit normal development and survival with no evidence of hemorrhage and normal functional activity of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors IX, X, and prothrombin. Analysis of a Ggcx(+/-) intercross revealed a partial developmental block with only 50% of expected Ggcx(-/-) offspring surviving to term, with the latter animals dying uniformly at birth of massive intra-abdominal hemorrhage. This phenotype closely resembles the partial midembryonic loss and postnatal hemorrhage previously reported for both prothrombin- and factor V (F5)-deficient mice. These data exclude the existence of a redundant carboxylase pathway and suggest that functionally critical substrates for gamma-carboxylation, at least in the developing embryo and neonate, are primarily restricted to components of the blood coagulation cascade. PMID:17327402

  16. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: new outbreaks, new discoveries.

    PubMed

    Ergonul, Onder

    2012-04-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a fatal viral infection described in Asia, Africa and Europe. Humans become infected through the bites of ticks, by contact with a patient with CCHF during the acute phase of infection, or by contact with blood or tissues from viremic livestock. The occurrence of CCHF closely approximates the known world distribution of Hyalomma spp. ticks. The novel studies of phylogenetic analyses reveal the interesting relations between the strains from distant outbreaks. The clinical features show common dramatic progress characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia, and fever. Besides the direct infection of endothelium, indirect damage by viral or virus mediated host-derived soluble factors that cause endothelial activations and dysfunction occur. In diagnosis, enzyme linked immunoassay and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction are used. Early diagnosis is critical for the patient and potential nosocomial infections. Supportive therapy is the essential part of the case management. Ribavirin was suggested as an effective drug in recent studies, and it was found to be beneficial. The health care workers are under serious risk of transmission of the infection, particularly during the follow-up of the patient, with hemorrhages from the nose, mouth, gums, vagina, and injection sites. PMID:22482717

  17. Orbital dermoid cyst with intratumoral inflammatory hemorrhage: case report.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Kentaro; Tsutsumi, Satoshi; Suga, Yasuo; Okura, Hidehiro; Abe, Yusuke; Yasumoto, Yukimasa; Ito, Masanori

    2008-08-01

    An 85-year-old female presented with a 3-month history of worsening hyperlacrimation and blurred vision following blunt head injury. Her past medical history was unremarkable. Her blood examination identified no abnormal findings. Neuroophthalmological inspection revealed extraocular movement disorder and mild exophthalmos on the affected side. Her visual acuity was not disturbed. Neuroimaging showed a cystic mass located extraconally in the superolateral compartment of the anterior orbit, without enhancement by contrast medium. Surgical exploration resulted in escape of chocolate-colored, liquefied hematoma during dissection. No vascular lesion was found. A grayish-white cyst wall was found adhering strongly to the lateral and superior rectus muscles. The lacrimal gland was not identified. The mass was totally resected. Histological examination indicated dermoid cyst with inflammatory interstitial hemorrhage. No component of vascular malformation or atypia was found. Hyperlacrimation and extraocular movement improved postoperatively. We thought that the previous blunt head injury might have induced intratumoral hemorrhage in the preexisting dermoid cyst and that the escaped contents caused inflammatory irritation, resulting in the hyperlacrimation. Dermoid cyst may show atypical presentation with intratumoral hemorrhage and should always be included in the differential diagnosis of orbital tumor. PMID:18719327

  18. A fatal case of pontine hemorrhage related to methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Tomoko; Hayashi, Takahito; Ishida, Yuko; Tsuneyama, Kouichi; Kimura, Akihiko; Kondo, Toshikazu

    2007-10-01

    In this report, we describe a fatal case of pontine hemorrhage related with methamphetamine abuse. A 54-year-old male was found dead in a prone position in his parents' house, and a medico-legal autopsy was carried out to determine the cause of his death. Externally, although an injection mark-like injury with subcutaneous hemorrhage was observed in the left cubital fossa, the autopsy revealed no severe trauma leading to death. Internally, every organ was moderately congested. The brain weighed 1330 g. Macroscopically, there was no vascular abnormality such as aneurysm or malformation. In the sections of the brain stem, a massive hematoma occupied the central area of the pons. Drug screening test using Triage was weakly positive for amphetamines. Moreover, in the blood and urine samples, methamphetamine was quantitatively detected at concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mg/l, respectively, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Other drugs and poison were not detected in the blood and urine samples collected at autopsy. Histopathologically, necrotizing angiitis characterized by fibrinoid necrosis of the intima and media was observed with cell infiltration. Thus, the pontine hemorrhage seemingly resulted from methamphetamine-induced angiitis, with an acute elevation of blood pressure after methamphetamine abuse. PMID:17720598

  19. PPAR-Alpha Agonist Used at the Acute Phase of Experimental Ischemic Stroke Reduces Occurrence of Thrombolysis-Induced Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Sophie; Ouk, Thavarak; Pétrault, Olivier; Bérézowski, Vincent; Bordet, Régis

    2015-01-01

    The impact of fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-?) agonist, on the risk of thrombolysis-induced hemorrhage during the acute phase of stroke in a rat model of stroke was studied. One-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by thrombolysis with tissue plasminogen activator was made in rats receiving either fenofibrate or vehicle for 72?h after stroke. Evaluation of infarct, hemorrhage, middle cerebral artery vasoreactivity, and immunochemistry (CD11b for microglial activation, myeloperoxidase, and ICAM-1 for neutrophil infiltration) was performed. The PPAR-alpha agonist significantly reduced the risk of hemorrhage after thrombolysis in parallel with a decrease in the infarct volume and in the stroke-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction. These effects are concomitant with a reduction in microglial activation and neutrophil infiltration in infarct area. Our results strengthen the idea that using drugs such as fenofibrate, with pleiotropic properties due to PPAR-alpha agonism, may be of value to reduce thrombolysis-induced hemorrhage during acute stroke.

  20. Intracerebral tumor-associated hemorrhage caused by overexpression of the vascular endothelial growth factor isoforms VEGF121 and VEGF165 but not?VEGF189

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shi-Yuan; Nagane, Motoo; Huang, H.-J. Su; Cavenee, Webster K.

    1997-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be a significant mediator of angiogenesis during a variety of normal and pathological processes, including tumor development. Human U87MG glioblastoma cells express the three VEGF isoforms: VEGF121, VEGF165, and VEGF189. Here, we have investigated whether these three isoforms have distinct roles in glioblastoma angiogenesis. Clones that overexpressed each isoform were derived and inoculated into mouse brains. Mice that received VEGF121- and VEGF165-overexpressing cells developed intracerebral hemorrhages after 60–90 hr. In contrast, mice implanted with VEGF189-overexpressing cells had only slightly larger tumors than those caused by parental cells and little evidence of hemorrhage at these early times after implantation, whereas, after longer periods of growth, enhanced angiogenicity and tumorigenicity were apparent. There was rapid blood vessel growth and breakdown around the tumors caused by cells overexpressing VEGF121 and VEGF165, whereas there was similar vascularization but no eruption in the vicinity of those tumors caused by cells overexpressing VEGF189, and none on the border of the tumors caused by the parental cells. Thus, by introducing VEGF-overexpressing glioblastoma cells into the brain, we have established a reproducible and predictable in vivo model of tumor-associated intracerebral hemorrhage caused by the enhanced expression of single molecular species. Such a model should be useful for uncovering the role of VEGF isoforms in the mechanisms of angiogenesis and for investigating intracerebral hemorrhage due to ischemic stroke or congenital malformations. PMID:9342366

  1. Evidence of ventricular contamination of the optical signal in preterm neonates with post hemorrhagic ventricle dilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, J.; Diop, M.; McLachlan, P.; de Ribaupierre, S.; Lee, D. S. C.; St. Lawrence, K.

    2015-03-01

    Dilation of the cerebral ventricles is a common condition in preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). This post hemorrhagic ventricle dilation (PHVD) can lead to lifelong neurological impairment through ischemic injury due to increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Interventions, such as ventricular tapping to remove cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), are used to prevent injury, but determining the optimal time for treatment is difficult as clinical signs of increased ICP lack sensitivity. There is a growing interest in using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) because of its ability to monitor cerebral oxygen saturation (StO2) at the bedside. However, the accuracy of NIRS may be affected by signal contamination from enlarged ventricles, especially if there are blood breakdown products (bbp) in CSF following IVH. To investigate this, serial NIR spectra from the head and from CSF samples were acquired over a month from seven IVH patients undergoing treatment for PHVD. Over time, the visual appearance of the CSF samples progressed from dark brown ("tea color") to clear yellow, reflecting the reduction in bbp concentration as confirmed by the stronger absorption around 760 nm at the earlier time points. All CSF samples contained strong absorption at 960 nm due to water. More importantly the same trend in these absorption features was observed in the in vivo spectra, and Monte Carlo simulations confirmed the potential for signal contamination from enlarged ventricles. These findings highlight the challenges of accurately measuring StO2 in this patient population and the necessity of using a hyperspectral NIRS system to resolve the additional chromophores.

  2. Arterial vs venous blood gas differences during hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristopher Burton; Christmas, Ashley Britton; Heniford, Brant Todd; Sing, Ronald Fong; Messick, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To characterize differences of arterial (ABG) and venous (VBG) blood gas analysis in a rabbit model of hemorrhagic shock. METHODS: Following baseline arterial and venous blood gas analysis, fifty anesthetized, ventilated New Zealand white rabbits were hemorrhaged to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg until a state of shock was obtained, as defined by arterial pH ? 7.2 and base deficit ? -15 mmol/L. Simultaneous ABG and VBG were obtained at 3 minute intervals. Comparisons of pH, base deficit, pCO2, and arteriovenous (a-v) differences were then made between ABG and VBG at baseline and shock states. Statistical analysis was applied where appropriate with a significance of P < 0.05. RESULTS: All 50 animals were hemorrhaged to shock status and euthanized; no unexpected loss occurred. Significant differences were noted between baseline and shock states in blood gases for the following parameters: pH was significantly decreased in both arterial (7.39 ± 0.12 to 7.14 ± 0.18) and venous blood gases (7.35 ± 0.15 to 6.98 ± 0.26, P < 0.05), base deficit was significantly increased for arterial (-0.9 ± 3.9 mEq/L vs -17.8 ± 2.2 mEq/L) and venous blood gasses (-0.8 ± 3.8 mEq/L vs -15.3 ± 4.1 mEq/L, P < 0.05). pCO2 trends (baseline to shock) demonstrated a decrease in arterial blood (40.0 ± 9.1 mmHg vs 28.9 ± 7.1 mmHg) but an increase in venous blood (46.0 ± 10.1 mmHg vs 62.8 ± 15.3 mmHg), although these trends were non-significant. For calculated arteriovenous differences between baseline and shock states, only the pCO2 difference was shown to be significant during shock. CONCLUSION: In this rabbit model, significant differences exist in blood gas measurements for arterial and venous blood after hemorrhagic shock. A widened pCO2 a-v difference during hemorrhage, reflective of poor tissue oxygenation, may be a better indicator of impending shock. PMID:24892020

  3. A serologic investigation of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) in cattle and gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Harun; Ozan, Emre; Gur, Sibel

    2010-12-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a vector-borne disease of ruminants disseminated in the tropic and subtropic zone of the world. Gazella subgutturosa subgutturosa (goitered gazelle) is native species of Anatolia. Due to risk of extinction, captured gazelles have been taken under protection in a restricted area at Ceylanpinar state farm. In this study, the presence of EHDV was investigated serologically in 82 goitered gazelle and 399 cattle. Seropositivity rates in goitered gazelle and cattle were detected as 2.43% and 3.50%, respectively. PMID:20521105

  4. Small Arteriovenous Malformation of the Common Bile Duct Causing Hemobilia in a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Sadao, E-mail: hayashi@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Baba, Yasutaka; Ueno, Kazuto; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2008-07-15

    We report a 54-year-old male patient with arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. The patient was treated as gallstone pancreatitis at first. Three days after endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) for biliary drainage to subside gallstone pancreatitis, hemobilia was drained from the ENBD tube and the serum hemoglobin level gradually decreased. Cholangioscopy and angiography revealed that hemobilia was due to a small arteriovenous malformation located at the common bile duct. Subsequently, the patient was successfully treated by endovascular intervention.

  5. Major Risk Factors for Intracerebral Hemorrhage in the Young Are Modifiable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Feldmann; Joseph P. Broderick; Walter N. Kernan; Catherine M. Viscoli; Lawrence M. Brass; Thomas Brott; Lewis B. Morgenstern; Janet Lee Wilterdink; Ralph I. Horwitz

    Background and Purpose—To identify risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we examined data from the Hemorrhagic Stroke Project (HSP), a case-control study of hemorrhagic stroke among men and women aged 18 to 49 years. Methods—Case subjects for the HSP were recruited from 44 hospitals in the United States. Eligibility criteria included an ICH within 30 days preceding enrollment, no history

  6. A New Embolus Injection Method to Evaluate Intracerebral Hemorrhage in New Zealand White Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Lapchak, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit large clot embolic stroke model has been used for over 23 years to study methods to manipulate hemorrhage and to test drugs and devices for safety, because the rabbit model is particularly sensitive to embolism-induced hemorrhage. This study refined the original embolization procedure using an automated, pump-assisted injection method to introduce large blood clots or macroscopic emboli into the middle cerebral artery (MCA) via an indwelling carotid artery catheter. The study shows that rapid injection of blood clots (3ml/30 seconds) produced a model where there is a high hemorrhage incidence rate (79%) and a high stroke success rate (63%), compared to a low stroke success rate (19%) with no hemorrhages when clots were injected at a slow rate (3ml/90 seconds). The rapid injection method, which produces a high hemorrhage rate is particularly useful to study neuroprotective agents to attenuate embolism-induced hemorrhage. In addition, we show that manual injection of blood clots, which produces a lower baseline hemorrhage rate (41%) with a similar stroke success rate (65%), may allow investigators to study pharmacological agents to either up or down-regulate hemorrhage incidence. Lastly, we show that in the rabbit embolic stroke model, hemorrhages are adjacent to areas of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium (TTC)-negative tissue, normally associated with infarcted or ischemic tissue. Thus, there is clear separation of ischemia and hemorrhage in the model, suggesting that therapeutics that are neuroprotective may also be useful to limit the evolution of ischemic damage associated with a hemorrhage, if not attenuate hemorrhage itself. PMID:20599833

  7. Reduced oxygen consumption precedes the drop in body core temperature caused by hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R A; Whitehurst, M E; Morgan, K R; Carroll, R G

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the early time course in core temperature change and oxygen consumption at 4 levels of hemorrhage. Chronically instrumented rats were acclimatized to a respirometry chamber for 30 min. The rats were briefly (10 min) removed from the chamber for a fixed volume hemorrhage of 0 mL/kg (sham), 8 mL/kg, 16 mL/kg, 24 mL/kg, or 32 mL/kg. Rats were then returned to the chamber, and oxygen consumption and body core temperature were monitored for the next 2 h. Oxygen consumption (control 1.26 mL O2/g/h) fell significantly 5 min after hemorrhage in all but the sham and 8 mL/kg hemorrhage groups, with the decrease proportional to the hemorrhage volume. The 32 mL/kg hemorrhage group showed the greatest decrease, to 0.47 mL O2/g/h. Body core temperature (control 37.5 degrees C) fell more gradually, declining to 35.6 degrees C 110 min after the 24 mL/kg hemorrhage, and to 33.2 degrees C at 6 h after the 32 mL/kg hemorrhage. In the 16 mL/kg hemorrhage group, oxygen consumption fell significantly by 5 min after hemorrhage, but a drop in body temperature was not seen until 25 min after hemorrhage. The data from this study indicate that the drop in core temperature does not cause the observed decrease in oxygen consumption. In fact, the timing and magnitude of the drop in oxygen consumption indicate that the reduced metabolic rate may mediate the hemorrhage-induced drop in body core temperature in conscious rats. PMID:10774622

  8. The use of US health insurance data for surveillance of rare disorders: hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Scott D.; Boulet, Sheree L.; Grant, Althea M.; Hulihan, Mary M.; Faughnan, Marie E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the utility of US health insurance data for surveillance of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, an autosomal-dominant blood vasculature disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1.5–2.0 per 10,000 persons worldwide. Methods We used 2005–2010 MarketScan Research Databases to identify individuals with employer-sponsored health insurance and International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes of 448.0 present in either one inpatient claim or two outpatient claims 30 days apart to define hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. We examined frequencies of International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification codes for conditions that are complications of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia among individuals with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and the general population to identify combinations of codes associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Results Excluding observations from one state, the average prevalence of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia was 0.3 per 10,000 persons. The reported prevalence rose with age from ~0.1 per 10,000 at ages <30 years to 1.0–1.1 per 10,000 at ages 70 years and above. The condition codes that were most specific to presumed hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia were lung arteriovenous malformations and upper gastrointestinal angiodysplasia. Combinations of those codes and codes for brain arteriovenous malformation and epistaxis were highly predictive of reporting of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, with 20–57% of enrollees with those codes also meeting the study definition for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Conclusion Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is underrecognized in US administrative data. Administrative health data can be used to identify individuals with combinations of signs that are suggestive of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Studies are needed to test the hypothesis that referral for evaluation of individuals with administrative records suggestive of undiagnosed hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia could lead to diagnosis and access to life-saving treatments for both them and affected family members. PMID:23703685

  9. Cerebellar hemorrhage on MRI in preterm newborns associated with abnormal neurological outcome

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Emily W.Y.; Rosenbluth, Glenn; Rogers, Elizabeth E.; Ferriero, Donna M.; Glidden, David; Goldstein, Ruth B.; Glass, Hannah C.; Piecuch, Robert E.; Barkovich, A. James

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between cerebellar hemorrhage in preterm infants seen on MRI but not ultrasound and neurodevelopmental outcome. Study design MR images from a cohort study of MRI in preterm newborns were reviewed for cerebellar hemorrhage. Children were assessed at mean 4.8 years with neurological examination and developmental testing using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-III). Results Of 131 preterm newborns, cerebellar hemorrhage was seen on both ultrasound and MRI in 3 newborns; smaller hemorrhages seen only on MRI in 10 (total of incidence of 10%). Adjusting for gestational age at birth, intraventricular hemorrhage, and white matter injury, cerebellar hemorrhage detectable only by MRI was associated with 5.0-fold increased odds of abnormal neurological examination compared with those without hemorrhage (outcome data in 74%). No association was found with scores on WPPSI-III testing. Conclusions Cerebellar hemorrhage is not uncommon in preterm newborns. Although associated with neurologic abnormalities, hemorrhage seen only on MRI is associated with much more optimistic outcomes than that visible by ultrasound. PMID:20833401

  10. Therapeutic Benefit of Human Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Intracerebral Hemorrhage Rat: Implications of Anti-inflammation and Angiogenesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenbin Liao; Jian Zhong; Jingxia Yu; Jiang Xie; Yongjun Liu; Lei Du; Shaoguang Yang; Pengxia Liu; Jie Xu; Jiming Wang; Zhibo Han; Zhong Chao Han

    2009-01-01

    Cell-based therapy represents a promising strategy in the treatment of neurological disorders. Human umbilical cord tissue has recently been recognized as an ideal source of mesenchymal stromal cells due to accessibility, vast abundance and safety. Here, an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) rat model was established by injection of bacterial collagenase VII and CM-DiI labeled human umbilical cord tissue derived mesenchymal stromal

  11. Comparative Efficacy of Meloxicam and Placebo in Vasospasm of Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  12. Comparative efficacy of meloxicam and placebo in vasospasm of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohebbi, Niayesh; Naderi, Soheil; Anbarloie, Mousareza; Aoude, Ahmad; Habibi Pasdar, Seyed Sohail

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm considered to be a serious cause of morbidity and mortality following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH).Despite several available therapeutic options, current protocols do not prevent major consequences of vasospasm. Inflammation is believed to play an important role in post-haemorrhagic vasospasm. Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of meloxicam versus placebo on vasospasm in patients with SAH. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, SAH patients randomly received 7.5 mg meloxicam or placebo twice daily for 7 days. End points were, middle cerebral artery velocity obtained with transcranial doppler, in-hospital mortality, hospital stay and discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale. Eighty-one patients enrolled in the study. (40 received meloxicam, 41 received placebo). Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. There were no differences in length of hospitalization (17.4 ± 3.1 vs 18.6 ± 4.2 days; p = 0.145), in-hospital mortality rate (15 vs 22%; p-value=0.569), or GOS (p = 0.972) between the two groups. MCA velocity were slightly less in patients who had received meloxicam, but not to a significant degree (p-value=0. 564(. No side effect has been detected for meloxicam. This study did not prove meloxicam efficacy in vasospasm of SAH patients. But it demonstrated that clinical trial of meloxicam in these patients is feasible and probably safe. The effectiveness of meloxicam on cerebral vasospasm has to be studied in larger trials. PMID:25561918

  13. Finite element analysis of mechanics of neovessels with intraplaque hemorrhage in carotid atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Intraplaque hemorrhage is a widely known factor facilitating plaque instability. Neovascularization of plaque can be regarded as a compensatory response to the blood supply in the deep intimal and medial areas of the artery. Due to the physiological function, the deformation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque would happen under the action of blood pressure and blood flow. Neovessels are subject to mechanical loading and likely undergo deformation. The rupture of neovessels may deteriorate the instability of plaque. This study focuses on the local mechanical environments around neovessels and investigates the relationship between the biomechanics and the morphological specificity of neovessels. Methods Stress and stretch were used to evaluate the rupture risk of the neovessels in plaque. Computational structural analysis was performed based on two human carotid plaque slice samples. Two-dimensional models containing neovessels and other components were built according to the plaque slice samples. Each component was assumed to be non-linear isotropic, piecewise homogeneous and incompressible. Different mechanical boundary conditions, i.e. static pressures, were imposed in the carotid lumen and neovessels lumen respectively. Finite element method was used to simulate the mechanical conditions in the atherosclerotic plaque. Results Those neovessels closer to the carotid lumen undergo larger stress and stretch. With the same distance to the carotid lumen, the longer the perimeter of neovessels is, the larger stress and the deformation of the neovessels will be. Under the same conditions, the neovessels with larger curvature suffer greater stress and stretch. Neovessels surrounded by red blood cells undergo a much larger stretch. Conclusions Local mechanical conditions may result in the hemorrhage of neovessels and accelerate the rupture of plaque. The mechanical environments of the neovessel are related to its shape, curvature, distance to the carotid lumen and the material properties of plaque. PMID:25603398

  14. Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in a Captive Facility Housing White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus Virginianus), Bison (Bison Bison), Elk (Cervus Elaphus), Cattle (Bos Taurus) and Goats (Capra Hircus) in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissues...

  15. EBOLA IN THE NEWS (UPDATED 8-15-14 AND 9-3-14) The likelihood of the arrival of someone at the University of Rochester with hemorrhagic fever

    E-print Network

    Portman, Douglas

    EBOLA IN THE NEWS (UPDATED 8-15-14 AND 9-3-14) The likelihood of the arrival of someone at the University of Rochester with hemorrhagic fever due to Ebola virus disease is very low. The potential for transmission in the United States is even lower. However, the continued spread of Ebola virus infection

  16. Apolipoprotein E, Statins and Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Daniel; Deka, Ranjan; Falcone, Guido J.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Haverbusch, Mary; Martini, Sharyl R.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Ayres, Alison M.; Sauerbeck, Laura; Kissela, Brett M.; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Moomaw, Charles J.; Anderson, Christopher D.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Rosand, Jonathan; Langefeld, Carl D.; Woo, Jessica G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotypes have been associated with lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have been associated with an increased risk of ICH, meta-analyses have not consistently shown a statin-induced risk of ICH. Here, we test whether hypercholesterolemia and ApoE polymorphisms affect the risk with ICH by statin use. Methods The Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Stroke study is a prospective, demographically-matched case-control study of ICH. A similar study of ICH, Genetic Risks for Medication-Related Hemorrhagic Stroke study, was used as a replication cohort. Subjects were classified as normocholesterolemia (NC), hypercholesterolemia without statin (HC-NS), and hypercholesterolemia with statin use (HC-S). Statistical comparisons were performed using Fisher’s Exact Test, chi-square tests, and the Breslow-Day test. Results The discovery cohort consisted of 558 ICH cases and 1,444 controls, and the replication cohort consisted of 1,020 ICH cases and 382 controls. The association of lower risk for hypercholesterolemia was not attenuated by statin use. Statin use was observed to confer a higher risk for lobar ICH in those carrying ApoE4/E4 and ApoE2/E4 genotypes in both discovery and replication cohorts and combined, showed a trend towards significance (p=0.11 for Statin vs. ApoE4/E4). Conclusions Statin use does not appear to attenuate the association of hypercholesterolemia with decreased risk for non-lobar ICH. Our data support a gene-by-drug effect for lobar ICH, but larger sample sizes are needed to confirm the association before any clinical change is warranted. PMID:24008570

  17. Fetal intracerebral hemorrhage and cataract: think COL4A1.

    PubMed

    Colin, E; Sentilhes, L; Sarfati, A; Mine, M; Guichet, A; Ploton, C; Boussion, F; Delorme, B; Tournier-Lasserve, E; Bonneau, D

    2014-01-01

    The COL4A1 gene encodes the alpha1 chain of type IV collagen, a crucial component of nearly all basement membranes. Mutations in COL4A1 were first associated with cerebral microangiopathy and familial porencephaly. Recently, several authors have reported mutations in COL4A1 as a Mendelian cause of prenatal onset intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We report two cases of prenatal ICH associated with cataract and suggest that COL4A1 mutation should be envisaged in fetuses with prenatal ICH, especially in the presence of lens abnormalities at ultrasound examination. PMID:24374867

  18. Trigger events: enviroclimatic coupling of Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.; Wilson, James M.; Tucker, Compton J.; Arthur, Ray; Jahrling, Peter B.; Formenty, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    We use spatially continuous satellite data as a correlate of precipitation within tropical Africa and show that the majority of documented Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks were closely associated with sharply drier conditions at the end of the rainy season. We propose that these trigger events may enhance transmission of Ebola virus from its cryptic reservoir to humans. These findings suggest specific directions to help understand the sylvatic cycle of the virus and may provide early warning tools to detect possible future outbreaks of this enigmatic disease.

  19. A Case of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zadjali, Matllooba; Al-Hashim, Hakeem; Al-Ghailani, Mohammad; Balkhair, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of June 2011, the first case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was observed in Oman since the last fifteen years. The first blood sample using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test were sent looking for CCHF, tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunya and West Nile. All resulted as negative. The repeated serology for CCHF came strongly positive after five days from the initial negative test, and accordingly patient started on ribavirin and he responded to it. His condition improved dramatically. PMID:23772290

  20. Intraventricular and Subarachnoid Hemorrhages With a Subfalcine Hernia tion in a Full-Term InfantSonographic Findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Twylla Miller; Reva A. Curry

    1995-01-01

    This case stud presents ultasound findings of a full-term neonate wMth severe perinatal asphyxia. Serial examinations revealed multiple brain abnormalities including grade ill and grade IV intraventricular hemorrhags subarachnoid hemorrhages, and a subfalcie herniation.

  1. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Upper Gastrointestinal Nonvariceal Hemorrhage: Is Empiric Embolization Warranted?

    SciTech Connect

    Arrayeh, Elnasif; Fidelman, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas.fidelman@ucsf.edu; Gordon, Roy L.; LaBerge, Jeanne M.; Kerlan, Robert K. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology (United States); Klimov, Alexander; Bloom, Allan I. [Hadassah Hospital, Department of Radiology (Israel)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine whether transcatheter arterial embolization performed in the setting of active gastric or duodenal nonvariceal hemorrhage is efficacious when the bleeding source cannot be identified angiographically. Methods: Records of 115 adult patients who underwent visceral angiography for endoscopically documented gastric (50 patients) or duodenal (65 patients) nonvariceal hemorrhage were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to whether angiographic evidence of arterial hemorrhage was present and whether embolization was performed (group 1 = no abnormality, no embolization; group 2 = no abnormality, embolization performed [empiric embolization]; and group 3 = abnormality present, embolization performed). Thirty-day rates and duration of primary hemostasis and survival were compared.ResultsFor patients with gastric sources of hemorrhage, the rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after embolization was greater when embolization was performed in the setting of a documented angiographic abnormality than when empiric embolization was performed (67% vs. 42%). The rate of primary hemostasis at 30 days after angiography was greater for patients with duodenal bleeding who either underwent empiric embolization (60%) or embolization in the setting of angiographically documented arterial hemorrhage (58%) compared with patients who only underwent diagnostic angiogram (33%). Patients with duodenal hemorrhage who underwent embolization were less likely to require additional invasive procedures to control rebleeding (p = 0.006). Conclusion: Empiric arterial embolization may be advantageous in patients with a duodenal source of hemorrhage but not in patients with gastric hemorrhage.

  2. Rapid ventricular pacing assisted hypotension in the management of sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during cerebral aneurysm clipping.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shariq Ali; Berger, Miles; Agrawal, Abhishek; Huang, Mary; Karikari, Isaac; Nimjee, Shahid M; Zomorodi, Ali R; McDonagh, David L

    2014-01-01

    Sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery from vascular injury or aneurysmal rupture has been known to dramatically increase the associated morbidity and mortality. We describe the first reported use of rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) assisted hypotension to control sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery where temporary arterial occlusion was not achievable. PMID:24891888

  3. Rapid ventricular pacing assisted hypotension in the management of sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during cerebral aneurysm clipping

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shariq Ali; Berger, Miles; Agrawal, Abhishek; Huang, Mary; Karikari, Isaac; Nimjee, Shahid M.; Zomorodi, Ali R.; McDonagh, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery from vascular injury or aneurysmal rupture has been known to dramatically increase the associated morbidity and mortality. We describe the first reported use of rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) assisted hypotension to control sudden intraoperative hemorrhage during intracranial aneurysm surgery where temporary arterial occlusion was not achievable. PMID:24891888

  4. Polyoma virus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in renal transplantation patient with polyoma virus nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Singh; B. Kiberd; R. Gupta; W. Alkhudair; J. Lawen

    2006-01-01

    We report a biopsy proven case of hemorrhagic cystitis in a cadaveric renal transplant patient with hematuria. Because more and more polyoma virus infection is being diagnosed in kidney transplant recipients, clinicians should be aware that gross hematuria in a recent transplant recipient may represent polyoma virus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

  5. Polyoma virus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis in renal transplantation patient with polyoma virus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Kiberd, B; Gupta, R; Alkhudair, W; Lawen, J

    2006-02-01

    We report a biopsy proven case of hemorrhagic cystitis in a cadaveric renal transplant patient with hematuria. Because more and more polyoma virus infection is being diagnosed in kidney transplant recipients, clinicians should be aware that gross hematuria in a recent transplant recipient may represent polyoma virus-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:16461105

  6. The Cause of Infant and Toddler Subdural Hemorrhage: A Prospective Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth W. Feldman; Ross Bethel; Richard P. Shugerman; David C. Grossman; M. Sean Grady; Richard G. Ellenbogen

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To determine the frequency of child abuse and unintentional injury as a cause of infant and toddler subdural hemorrhage (SDH). Methods. A prospective case series of a level I re- gional trauma center, regional children's hospital, and county medical examiner's office assessed consecutive children who were <36 months old and had SDH. Chil- dren who had previously known hemorrhagic

  7. Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage is not caused by inertial cavitation

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage is not caused by inertial cavitation William D. O'Brien, Jr to an inertial cavitation mechanism. The purpose of this article is to report the results of two experiments that directly contradict the hypothesis that ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage is caused by inertial cavitation

  8. Comment on ``Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage is not caused by inertial cavitation''

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Comment on ``Ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage is not caused by inertial cavitation'' [J. Acoust­1297 2000 that ultrasound-induced lung hemorrhage is not caused by inertial cavitation. An argument is provided that illustrates how cavitation inception conditions in the lungs of animals are not altered

  9. A new identified complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst.

    PubMed

    Mehrzad, Raman; Mishra, Suprav; Feinstein, Alexander; Ho, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    Pineal gland cysts are typically asymptomatic, benign cysts most commonly found incidentally in adults. In rare cases, a large pineal gland cyst can be complicated by intracystic hemorrhage, which could then manifest with neurological symptoms. We report a new complication of intracystic hemorrhage in a large pineal gland cyst in a 40-year-old man with new onset seizures. PMID:24746445

  10. Neurosyphilis initially presenting as hemorrhagic exudative optic neuropathy in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Bi; Jin, Kiwon; Choi, Dong Gyu; Bae, So Hyun

    2015-06-01

    We describe an unusual case of hemorrhagic exudative optic neuropathy as an initial presentation of neurosyphilis in an immunocompetent patient. The clinicians have to be alert to consider a diagnosis of syphilitic optic neuropathy in cases with hemorrhagic exudative optic neuropathy. PMID:25970315

  11. Histological Observation of Islet Hemorrhage Induced by Diagnostic Ultrasound with Contrast Agent in Rat Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Douglas L.; Dou, Chunyan; Sorenson, Dorothy; Liu, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Contrast enhanced diagnostic ultrasound CEDUS has been shown to induce capillary hemorrhage in heart and kidney. This study characterized the capillary hemorrhage induced in rat pancreas. The pancreata of anesthetized hairless rats were accessed by laparotomy. A 1.5 MHz diagnostic ultrasound probe with 2.3 MPa peak rarefactional pressure amplitude and 1 s intermittent trigger was used to scan the pancreas, located at the focus (3.8 cm), through saline coupling. The probe was swept to expose the entire organ in 5 min during infusion of Definity® contrast agent at 10 µL/kg/min, and this was repeated in a reverse sweep. The entire pancreas was removed, spread flat for fixation and histological slides were prepared from the mid-plane. Slides were scored blind for islet hemorrhage over the entire area of the organ. Intra-islet microlesions were evident and hemorrhage surrounded many islets. The hemorrhage often impacted nearby acini, and expanded into inter-lobular septa. In CEDUS pancreata removed soon after scanning, 76.2±11.8% (n?=?6) of islets had evidence of hemorrhage and/or islet microlesions compared to 1.1±2.5% (n?=?5) for sham CEDUS (P<0.001). In pancreata removed after 4 hr, fibrin formation was detected by immunohistology in the hemorrhage and intra-islet microlesions. Diagnostic ultrasound with contrast agent induced substantial capillary hemorrhage in rat pancreas, concentrated particularly in the islets. PMID:21738734

  12. Early hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves outcome for radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kian Tai Chong; Neil B. Hampson; John M. Corman

    2005-01-01

    ObjectivesTo assess the clinical factors that affect the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy in treating radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. HBO2 therapy is an effective treatment for radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis, with reported response rates ranging from 76% to 100%.

  13. Encephalic hemodynamic phases in subarachnoid hemorrhage: how to improve the protective effect in patient prognoses

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Daniel Silva; de Azevedo, Milena Krajnyk; de Carvalho Nogueira, Ricardo; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is frequently associated with poor prognoses. Three different hemodynamic phases were identified during subarachnoid hemorrhage: oligemia, hyperemia, and vasospasm. Each phase is associated with brain metabolic changes. In this review, we correlated the hemodynamic phases with brain metabolism and potential treatment options in the hopes of improving patient prognoses. PMID:26109948

  14. Intravenous tPA Therapy Does Not Worsen Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Chris B.

    assessed the effects of tPA in two models of ICH. In a mouse model of collagenase-induced ICH, hemorrhagePA also did not worsen hemorrhage volumes, while heparin did. tPA is known to worsen neurovascular injury

  15. Early hemorrhage triggers metabolic responses that build up during prolonged shock.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Moore, Hunter B; Moore, Ernest E; Wither, Matthew; Nemkov, Travis; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Slaughter, Anne; Fragoso, Miguel; Hansen, Kirk C; Silliman, Christopher C; Banerjee, Anirban

    2015-06-15

    Metabolic staging after trauma/hemorrhagic shock is a key driver of acidosis and directly relates to hypothermia and coagulopathy. Metabolic responses to trauma/hemorrhagic shock have been assayed through classic biochemical approaches or NMR, thereby lacking a comprehensive overview of the dynamic metabolic changes occurring after shock. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent progressive hemorrhage and shock. Baseline and postshock blood was collected, and late hyperfibrinolysis was assessed (LY30 >3%) in all of the tested rats. Extreme and intermediate time points were collected to assay the dynamic changes of the plasma metabolome via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sham controls were used to determine whether metabolic changes could be primarily attributable to anesthesia and supine positioning. Early hemorrhage-triggered metabolic changes that built up progressively and became significant during sustained hemorrhagic shock. Metabolic phenotypes either resulted in immediate hypercatabolism, or late hypercatabolism, preceded by metabolic deregulation during early hemorrhage in a subset of rats. Hemorrhagic shock consistently promoted hyperglycemia, glycolysis, Krebs cycle, fatty acid, amino acid, and nitrogen metabolism (urate and polyamines), and impaired redox homeostasis. Early dynamic changes of the plasma metabolome are triggered by hemorrhage in rats. Future studies will determine whether metabolic subphenotypes observed in rats might be consistently observed in humans and pave the way for tailored resuscitative strategies. PMID:25876652

  16. Stroke in Children Within a Major Metropolitan Area: The Surprising Importance of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Broderick; G. Theodore Talbot; Erin Prenger; Alan Leach; Thomas Brott

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the incidence rate of stroke and stroke subtypes in children. We reviewed the medical records, autopsy records, and brain imaging studies of all children with a possible stroke within the Greater Cincinnati metropolitan area population of nearly 1.3 million during 1988 and 1989. Traumatic brain hemorrhages and germinal matrix hemorrhages were excluded. Of the 295,577

  17. Stent-graft treatment for extrahepatic portal vein hemorrhage after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Igami, Tsuyoshi; Komada, Tomohiro; Mori, Yoshine; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Naganawa, Shinji; Nagino, Masato

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of intraperitoneal hemorrhage from the extrahepatic portal vein after pancreaticoduodenectomy for distal bile duct carcinoma. A stent-graft was deployed from the superior mesenteric vein to the main portal vein using a transhepatic approach. After the procedure, the patient remained free of intraperitoneal hemorrhage and was discharged 2 months later. PMID:26137314

  18. AN EPIZOOTIC OF ADENOVIRUS-INDUCED HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE IN CAPTIVE BLACK-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter M. Boyce; Leslie W. Woods; M. Kevin Keel; N. James MacLachlan; Charles O. Porter; Howard D. Lehmkuhl

    Ten fawns and four adult black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in a captive herd died as a result of adenovirus-induced hemorrhagic disease. Acute, systemic infections were characterized by hemorrhagic enteropathy, pulmonary edema, and occasional ulceration of the upper alimentary tract. Localized infections were limited to the upper alimentary tract and included stomatitis, pharyngitis, mandibular osteomyelitis, and rumenitis. In deer with acute,

  19. Pelvic arterial embolization for control of obstetric hemorrhage: A five-year experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst Hansch; Usha Chitkara; Jessica McAlpine; Yasser El-Sayed; Michael D. Dake; Mahmood K. Razavi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: Obstetric hemorrhage is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and death. Postpartum hemorrhage that cannot be controlled by local measures has traditionally been managed by bilateral uterine artery or hypogastric artery ligation. These techniques have a high failure rate, often resulting in hysterectomy. In contrast, endovascular embolization techniques have a success rate of >90%. An additional benefit of the

  20. Assessment of Topical Hemostats in a Renal Hemorrhage Model in Heparinized Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. Tuthill; Vladislav Bayer; Anne M. Gallagher; William N. Drohan; Martin J. MacPhee

    2001-01-01

    Various topical hemostatic agents or devices have been employed to address the challenges associated with hemorrhage from parenchymal organs during surgery or trauma. Their relative efficacy, however, has not been assessed in a single animal model. The objective of this study was to develop a small animal renal hemorrhage model for comparing hemostatic efficacy of various topical agents, and then

  1. Regular Article Hemorrhagic shock and nitric oxide release from erythrocytic nitric oxide synthase

    E-print Network

    Popel, Aleksander S.

    Regular Article Hemorrhagic shock and nitric oxide release from erythrocytic nitric oxide synthase: Computational model Nitric oxide Hemorrhage Endothelial nitric oxide synthase Erythrocyte A large loss of blood from multiple sources in the vasculature. Recent studies have shown that erythrocytes express

  2. Evaluation of the microcirculation in a rabbit hemorrhagic shock model using laser Doppler imaging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhenchun; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, An; Zuo, Guoqing; Zheng, Yuanyi; Huang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of Laser Doppler imaging (LDI) for noninvasive and dynamic assessment of hemorrhagic shock in a rabbit model. A rabbit model of hemorrhagic shock was generated and LDI of the microcirculation in the rabbit ears was performed before and at 0, 30, 60, and 90 min after hemorrhage. The CCD (Charge Coupled Device) image of the ears, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and the heart rate (HR) were monitored. The mean LDI flux was calculated. The HR of rabbits was significantly (p < 0.05) elevated and the MAP was decreased after hemorrhage, compared to the pre-hemorrhage level. Within the initial 30 min after hemorrhage, the perfusion flux lineally dropped down. In contrast, the MAP values did not differ significantly between the time points of 0 and 30 after hemorrhage (p > 0.05). Both the flux numbers and the red-to-blue color changes on LDI imaging showed the reduction of the microcirculation. LDI imaging is a noninvasive and non-contact approach to evaluate the microcirculation and may offer benefits in the diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhage shock. Further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness in clinical practice. PMID:25714398

  3. [Usefulness of fecal transferrin measurement in gastrointestinal hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kaori; Kasashima, Satomi; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Sobue, Fuyuki

    2014-07-01

    In the immunological fecal occult blood test, an antibody to hemoglobin (Hb) is primarily used. For such a test, the usefulness of an antibody to transferrin (Tf) has not been well examined. To compare Tf and Hb as markers of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, we conducted a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for both proteins in 53 cases, with subsequent analysis based on lesion groups (malignant tumor, benign tumor, or inflammation). Hb testing showed no differences among the lesion groups, whereas the positive rate of Tf was significantly higher in the malignant group than in the inflammatory group. Moreover, the case positive for only Tf corresponded to one malignant case among the 53 cases. On the basis of this result, using a qualitative test, we further tested 878 cases that were positive for only Tf. We found that 81 cases positive for only Tf corresponded to various lesions, particularly 4 cases that corresponded to a malignant tumor. In conclusion, our results suggest that concurrent measurement of Hb and Tf should be a more effective test for gastrointestinal hemorrhage. PMID:25669034

  4. Holmes Tremor After Brainstem Hemorrhage, Treated With Levodopa

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jae Hyun; Hong, Bo Young; Kim, Joon Sung; Moon, Seok Ho; Kim, Soo Yeon; Han, Hye Young; Park, Dong Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Holmes tremor is a rare movement phenomenon, with atypical low-frequency tremor at rest and when changing postures, often related to brainstem pathology. We report a 70-year-old female patient who was presented with dystonic head and upper limb tremor after brainstem hemorrhage. The patient had experienced a sudden onset of left hemiparesis and right facial paralysis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute hemorrhage from the brachium pontis through the dorsal midbrain on the right side. Several months later, the patient developed resting tremor of the head and left arm, which was exacerbated by a sitting posture and intentional movement. The tremor showed a regular low-frequency (1-2 Hz) for the bilateral sternocleidomastoid and cervical paraspinal muscles at rest. The patient's symptoms did not respond to propranolol or clonazepam, but gradually improved with levodopa administration. Although various remedies were attempted, overall, the results were poor. We suggest that levodopa might be a useful remedy for Holmes tremor. The curative or relieving effect of the dopaminergic agent in Holmes tremor needs more research. PMID:24020044

  5. Infrequent Hemorrhagic Complications Following Surgical Drainage of Chronic Subdural Hematomas

    PubMed Central

    Sangiorgi, Simone; Bifone, Lidia; Balbi, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas mainly occur amongst elderly people and usually develop after minor head injuries. In younger patients, subdural collections may be related to hypertension, coagulopathies, vascular abnormalities, and substance abuse. Different techniques can be used for the surgical treatment of symptomatic chronic subdural hematomas : single or double burr-hole evacuation, with or without subdural drainage, twist-drill craniostomies and classical craniotomies. Failure of the brain to re-expand, pneumocephalus, incomplete evacuation, and recurrence of the fluid collection are common complications following these procedures. Acute subdural hematomas may also occur. Rarely reported hemorrhagic complications include subarachnoid, intracerebral, intraventricular, and remote cerebellar hemorrhages. The causes of such uncommon complications are difficult to explain and remain poorly understood. Overdrainage and intracranial hypotension, rapid brain decompression and shift of the intracranial contents, cerebrospinal fluid loss, vascular dysregulation and impairment of venous outflow are the main mechanisms discussed in the literature. In this article we report three cases of different post-operative intracranial bleeding and review the related literature.

  6. Palliative embolization of hemorrhages in extensive head and neck tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Kordecki, Kazimierz; ?ukasiewicz, Adam; Janica, Jacek; Pu?awska-Stalmach, Magdalena; Kordecki, Justyn Ksawery; ?ebkowska, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: A lot has changed in terms of intervention technique, indications and embolic agents since Duggan introduced embolization to management of postraumatic epistaxis in 1970. Embolization is used in treatment of spontaneous and traumatic epistaxis, palliative tumors and vascular defects, as well as vascularized tumors and juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas. The possibility of simultaneous visualization of pathology and implementation of therapy is one of its greatest advantages. Material/Methods: Authors analyzed the efficacy of selective embolization treatment of haemorrhage in advanced head and neck tumors. Seventy-six patients with such tumors treated at the Department of Otolaryngology in Bialystok between1999 and 2011 were examined. Results: Embolization of bleeding vessel within the tumor was effective (hemorrhage was stopped) in 65 patients (86%). Although the method is highly efficient, it is still associated with complications. Fourteen patients suffered from headaches that lasted for several days and six from face edema. Rebleeding was rare. Unfortunately, there was one case of hemiparesis. Conclusions: We conclude that superselective endovascular treatment deserves to be considered alongside standard options for the palliative or preoperative management of acute hemorrhage from advanced head and neck cancers. PMID:23269932

  7. Passive immunization of Pacific herring against viral hemorrhagic septicemia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Gregg, J.L.; Grady, C.A.; LaPatra, S.E.; Winton, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    The plasma of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii that survived laboratory-induced viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) epizootics contained humoral substances that, when injected into naive animals, conferred passive immunity against the disease. Among groups exposed to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), injection of donor plasma from VHS survivors resulted in significantly greater survival (50%) and significantly lower tissue titers (1.5 x 10(5) plaque-forming units [PFU]/g) than the injection of plasma from VHSV-naive donors (6% survival; 3.7 x 10(6) PFU/g). Additionally, the magnitude of the protective immune response increased during the postexposure period; plasma that was collected from survivors at 123 d postexposure (931 degree-days) provided greater protection than plasma collected from survivors at 60 d postexposure (409 degree-days). These results provide proof of concept that the VHSV exposure history of Pacific herring populations can be determined post hoc; furthermore, the results can be used as the foundation for developing additional high-throughput diagnostic techniques that may be effective at quantifying herd immunity and forecasting the potential for future VHS epizootics in populations of wild Pacific herring.

  8. Hemodialysis for the treatment of pulmonary hemorrhage from dabigatran overdose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Betty C; Sheth, Nijal R; Dadzie, Kobena A; Smith, Silas W; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S; Winchester, James F

    2013-09-01

    Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor indicated for thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Since its approval in the United States in 2010, dabigatran-associated hemorrhages have garnered much attention because bleeding rates were higher than initially expected. Additionally, reversing anticoagulation remains challenging. Traditional modes of reversing warfarin-associated coagulopathies are ineffective in reversing anticoagulation from dabigatran. Although hemodialysis is proposed as a method to accelerate dabigatran elimination, evidence supporting its clinical utility remains unproved. We report the case of an 80-year-old man who presented with worsening hemoptysis in the setting of unintentional ingestion of excess dabigatran. Despite transfusion of 2 units of fresh frozen plasma, he continued to bleed, although his international normalized ratio improved from 8.8 to 7.2. He underwent hemodialysis, and serum dabigatran concentration decreased from 1,100 to 18 ng/mL over 4 hours, with an initial extraction ratio of 0.97 and blood clearance of 291 mL/min. Although his serum dabigatran concentration rebounded to 100 ng/mL 20 minutes after the cessation of dialysis, his bleeding stopped and he improved clinically. Hemorrhage in the setting of dabigatran anticoagulation remains a therapeutic predicament. Hemodialysis may play an adjunct role in accelerating the elimination of dabigatran in bleeding patients. PMID:23597859

  9. Comparison of Different Preclinical Models of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Manaenko, Anatol; Chen, Hank; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating type of stroke. It is characterized by spontaneous bleeding in brain parenchyma and is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Presently, there is neither an effective therapy to increase survival after intracerebral hemorrhage nor a treatment to improve the quality of life for survivors. A reproducible animal model of spontaneous ICH mimicking the development of acute and delayed brain injury after ICH is an invaluable tool for improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ICH-induced brain injury and evaluating potential therapeutic interventions. A number of models have been developed. While different species have been studied, rodents have become the most popular and widely utilized animals used in ICH research. The most often used methods for experimental induction of ICH are injection of bacterial collagenase and direct injection of blood into the brain parenchyma. The “balloon” method has also been used to mimic ICH for study. In this summary, we intend to provide a comparative overview of the technical methods, aspects, and pathologic findings of these types of ICH models. We will also focus on the similarities and differences among these rodent models, achievements in technical aspects of the ICH model, and discuss important aspects in selecting relevant models for study. PMID:21725724

  10. Comparison of different preclinical models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Manaenko, Anatol; Chen, Hank; Zhang, John H; Tang, Jiping

    2011-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most devastating type of stroke. It is characterized by spontaneous bleeding in brain parenchyma and is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Presently, there is neither an effective therapy to increase survival after intracerebral hemorrhage nor a treatment to improve the quality of life for survivors. A reproducible animal model of spontaneous ICH mimicking the development of acute and delayed brain injury after ICH is an invaluable tool for improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of ICH-induced brain injury and evaluating potential therapeutic interventions. A number of models have been developed. While different species have been studied, rodents have become the most popular and widely utilized animals used in ICH research. The most often used methods for experimental induction of ICH are injection of bacterial collagenase and direct injection of blood into the brain parenchyma. The "balloon" method has also been used to mimic ICH for study. In this summary, we intend to provide a comparative overview of the technical methods, aspects, and pathologic findings of these types of ICH models. We will also focus on the similarities and differences among these rodent models, achievements in technical aspects of the ICH model, and discuss important aspects in selecting relevant models for study. PMID:21725724

  11. Continuous blood densitometry - Fluid shifts after graded hemorrhage in animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluid shifts in four pigs and two dogs subjected to graded hemorrhage are investigated. Arterial blood density (BD), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), arterial plasma density (PD), hematocrit (Hct) and erythrocyte density were measured. The apparatus and mechancial oscillator technique for measuring density are described. Fluid shifts between red blood cells and blood plasma and alterations in the whole-body-to-large vessel Hct, F(cell) are studied using two models. The bases of the model calculations are discussed. A decrease in MAP, CVP, and BP is detected at the beginning of hemorrhaging; continued bleeding results in further BD decrease correlating with volume displacement. The data reveal that at 15 ml/kg blood loss the mean PD and BD dropped by 0.99 + or - 0.15 and 2.42 + or 0.26 g/liter, respectively, and the Hct dropped by 2.40 + or 0.47 units. The data reveal that inward-shifted fluid has a higher density than normal ultrafiltrate and/or there is a rise in the F(cell) ratio. It is noted that rapid fluid replacement ranged from 5.8 + or - 0.8 to 10.6 + or - 2.0 percent of the initial plasma volume.

  12. Low-grade intraventricular hemorrhage: is ultrasound good enough?

    PubMed

    Parodi, Alessandro; Morana, Giovanni; Severino, Maria S; Malova, Mariya; Natalizia, Anna R; Sannia, Andrea; Rossi, Andrea; Ramenghi, Luca A

    2013-08-23

    Abstract Objective: To assess diagnostic accuracy of cranial ultrasonography (CUS) in detecting low-grade (i.e. grade I and grade II) germinal matrix hemorrhage-intraventricular hemorrhage (GMH-IVH) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Methods: Among VLBW infants who were admitted to Gaslini Children's Hospital neonatal intensive care unit between January and November 2012, patients who underwent both serial CUS since birth and magnetic resonance susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) at term-equivalent age were included in this retrospective study. Diagnostic accuracy of CUS in detecting low-grade GMH-IVH was assessed in terms of sensitivity and specificity by comparing it to SWI, which was used as the gold-standard technique. Results: Sixty VLBW infants were included in the study. Sensitivity of CUS in detecting low-grade GMH-IVH was low (60%), whilst specificity was 100%. Conclusions: In the present study, CUS sensitivity in detecting grade I-II GMH-IVH proved to be surprisingly low, in contrast with specificity. In other words, we suggest that low-grade GMH-IVH may be underdiagnosed in VLBW infants when assessed exclusively with CUS. PMID:23968243

  13. Hemorrhagic activity of the vascular apoptosis-inducing proteins VAP1 and VAP2 from Crotalus atrox

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiichi Kikushima; Shiho Nakamura; Yasunori Oshima; Tomoko Shibuya; Jun Ying Miao; Hiroshi Hayashi; Toshiaki Nikai; Satohiko Araki

    2008-01-01

    Vascular apoptosis-inducing proteins (VAPs) from hemorrhagic snake venom are apoptosis-inducing toxins that target vascular endothelial cells. We now show that VAP1 and VAP2 from Crotalus atrox have hemorrhagic activity in mouse skin following intradermal injection. Following intravenous injection, VAP2 induced hemorrhage in the lung, intestine and kidney. Although the hemorrhagic activity was relatively weak, these apoptosis toxins may play a

  14. Gowers’ intrasyringeal hemorrhage associated with Chiari type I malformation in Noonan syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Takeda, Masaaki; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic hemorrhage in a syrinx is a rare entity known as Gowers’ intrasyringeal hemorrhage. Bleeding confined to the syrinx cavity causes severe, sometimes acute, neurological deficits. We report a case of intrasyringeal hemorrhage into a preexisting lumbosacral syrinx associated with Chiari type I malformation. Case Description: A 39-year-old female with Noonan syndrome underwent foramen magnum decompression and a cervical syrinx-subarachnoid shunt for Chiari type I malformation-associated syringomyelia 7 years ago. She presented progressive gait deterioration and acute urinary dysfunction, indicating conus medullaris syndrome. Initial magnetic resonance imaging revealed massive hemorrhage in the intrasyringeal cavity of the conus medullaris. The patient underwent surgical removal of the intrasyringeal hematoma and her neurological symptoms improved postoperatively. Conclusion: Although Gowers’ intrasyringeal hemorrhage is rare, this entity should be taken into consideration in patients with syringomyelia showing acute neurological deterioration. PMID:24575321

  15. Simultaneous intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhage in antiphospholipid syndrome following anticoagulation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Chul; Baek, Yang-Hyun; Han, Sang-Young; Lee, Sung-Wook; Chung, Won-Tae; Lee, Sung-Won; Kang, Sang-Hyeon; Cho, Duk-Song

    2013-01-01

    Warfarin is a widely used anticoagulant. Interindividual differences in drug response, a narrow therapeutic range and the risk of bleeding render warfarin difficult to use clinically. An 18-year-old woman with antiphospholipid syndrome received long-term warfarin therapy for a recurrent deep vein thrombosis. Six years later, she developed right flank pain. We diagnosed intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhages secondary to anticoagulation therapy. After stopping oral anticoagulation, a follow-up computed tomography showed improvement in the hemorrhage. After restarting warfarin because of a recurrent thrombosis, the intrahepatic hemorrhage recurred. We decided to start clopidogrel and hydroxychloroquine instead of warfarin. The patient has not developed further recurrent thrombotic or bleeding episodes. Intrahepatic hemorrhage is a very rare complication of warfarin, and our patient experienced intrahepatic and subgaleal hemorrhage although she did not have any risk factors for bleeding or instability of the international normalized ratio control. PMID:24151371

  16. Surgicel™ application in intracranial hemorrhage surgery contributed to giant-cell granuloma in a patient with hypertension: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgicel™ is an oxidized cellulose preparation that is widely applied in neurosurgery due to its hemostatic effect and good tissue compatibility. Tumor-like lesions induced by Surgicel® application in cerebral surgery have been rarely reported, especially for intracranial hemorrhage debridement surgery in patients with hypertension. Case presentation This case report describes a rare case in which Surgicel™ application led to a foreign body reaction, contributing to the development of an intracranial giant-cell granuloma. A 49-year-old female hypertensive patient was diagnosed with intracranial hemorrhage. She was treated with debridement surgery that employed Surgicel™ application. Although a satisfactory hemostatic effect was achieved, the patient was diagnosed with epilepsy 6 months later. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intracranial space-occupying lesion. After undergoing en bloc resection of the lesion, the patient was diagnosed with a Surgicel™-related intracranial giant-cell granuloma by histopathology. Conclusions Application of Surgicel™ during intracranial hemorrhage debridement surgery may be associated with a risk of granuloma development due to formation of a tumor-like space-occupying lesion in the surgery bed. Even a low risk of tumor development implies a need for caution when applying Surgicel™, especially when solely used to achieve a hemostatic effect. PMID:24745805

  17. Corticosterone, but not Glucose, Treatment Enables Fasted Adrenalectomized Rats to Survive Moderate Hemorrhage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlington, Daniel N.; Chew, Gordon; Ha, Taryn; Keil, Lanny C.; Dallman, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Fed adrenalectomized rats survive the stress of hemorrhage and hypovolemia, whereas fasted adrenalectomized rats become hypotensive and hypoglycemic after the first 90 min and die within 4 hours (h). We have studied the effects of glucose and corticosterone (B) infusions after hemorrhage as well as treatment with B at the time of adrenalectomy on the capacity of chronically prepared, conscious, fasted, adrenalectomized rats to survive hemorrhage. We have also measured the magnitudes of vasoactive hormone responses to hemorrhage. Maintenance of plasma glucose concentrations did not sustain life; however, treatment of rats at the time of adrenalectomy with B allowed 100 percent survival, and acute treatment of adrenalectomized rats at the time of hemorrhage allowed about 50 percent survival during the 5-h posthemorrhage observation period. Rats in the acute B infusion group that died exhibited significantly increased plasma B and significantly decreased plasma glucose concentrations by 2 h compared to the rats that lived. Plasma vasopressin, renin, and norepinephrine responses to hemorrhage were markedly augmented in the adrenalectomized rats not treated with B, and plasma vasopressin concentrations were significantly elevated at 1 and 2 h in all of the rats that subsequently died compared to values in those that lived. We conclude that: 1) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats is not a result of lack of glucose; 2) chronic and, to an extent, acute treatment of fasted adrenalectomized rats with B enables survival; 3) fasted adrenalectomized rats exhibit strong evidence of hepatic insufficiency which is not apparent in either fed adrenalectomized rats or B-treated fasted adrenalectomized rats; 4) death after hemorrhage in fasted adrenalectomized rats may result from hepatic failure as a consequence of marked splanchnic vasoconstriction mediated bv the actions of extraordinarily high levels of vasoactive hormones after hemorrhage; and 5) B appears to act to decrease the magnitude of response of vasoactive hormones after hemorrhage in fasted adrenatectomized rats.

  18. Hypertonic Saline Resuscitation Restores Hemorrhage-Induced Immunosuppression by Decreasing Prostaglandin E 2and Interleukin4 Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul Coimbra; Wolfgang G. Junger; David B. Hoyt; Forrest C. Liu; William H. Loomis; Michael F. Evers

    1996-01-01

    It was previously shown that hypertonic saline (HTS) enhancesin vivoandin vitrocellular immune function of normal mice and reversesin vitroprostaglandin E2(PGE2)-induced immunosuppression of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Hemorrhage induces immunosuppression despite adequate isotonic fluid resuscitation. The effects of HTS resuscitation on immunosuppression following hemorrhage were studied. A mouse model of hemorrhagic shock was used. Bleeding was performed through a catheter

  19. The polyphenol 3, 4, 5 - tri-hydroxy benzoic acid inhibits indian daboia russelli venom and its hemorrhagic complex induced local toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mahadeswaraswamy, Y H; Kumar, M S; Gowtham, Yashonandana J; Nagaraju, S; Girish, K S; Kemparaju, K

    2011-01-01

    Despite a long history on treatment and management of snakebite, as of now, no satisfactory cure exists to treat local toxicity, including anti-venom therapy. Several natural compounds from plants and their synthetic analogs have shown to be protective. In this study 3, 4, 5-tri-hydroxy benzoic acid, the gallic acid (GA) was tested against the local toxicity of Daboia russelli (DR) venom and its purified hemorrhagic complex (HC). GA inhibited in vitro proteolytic activity of both DR venom and HC but, it did not inhibit phospholipase activity of DR venom. GA inhibited hemorrhage, edema forming, dermo- and myonecrotic activities of both HC and DR venom in in vivo experiments. GA was particularly effective against hemorrhagic activity but, GA inhibition had a greater effect on HC when compared to DR venom. The inhibition was likely due to GA induced structural changes in HC as revealed by alterations in fluorescence emission and CD spectral properties. However, the inhibition was not due to chelating property of GA as suggested by UV-visible spectral studies. Inhibition of collagen type IV, laminin and fibronectin degradation essentially provided the biochemical basis for GA which inhibited local effects of HC as well as DR venom. Thus, the study appears highly promising to explore GA and its generics against ruthless local effects and perhaps systemic hemorrhage of DR and other snake bites as well. Further, these agents will possibly find an immense value in the regulation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in processes such as wound healing, inflammation and in the treatment of cancer. PMID:21682684

  20. Inspiratory resistance as a potential treatment for orthostatic intolerance and hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Convertino, Victor A; Cooke, William H; Lurie, Keith G

    2005-04-01

    Loss of consciousness due to central hypovolemia can occur due to sudden cardiovascular decompensation in normal individuals or hypovolemic shock in wounded patients. A variety of devices have been developed to sustain perfusion to the brain including anti-G suits worn by pilots and returning astronauts and applied to patients as "shock trousers." However, all countermeasures developed to date suffer from problems that limit their utility in the field. An "impedance threshold device" (ITD) has recently been developed that acutely increases central blood volume by forcing the thoracic muscles to develop increased negative pressure, thus drawing venous blood from extrathoracic cavities into the heart and lungs. We review here a series of experiments that demonstrate the application of the ITD to a variety of experimental conditions, including its use to: 1) increase heart rate, stroke volume, and arterial BP in normovolemia and hypovolemia; 2) increase cerebral blood flow velocity; 3) reset cardiac baroreflex function to a higher operating range for BP; 4) lower intracranial pressure; and 5) reduce orthostatic symptoms. In this brief review, we present evidence which supports further consideration of using inspiratory resistance as a countermeasure against circulatory collapse associated with orthostatic instability and hemorrhagic shock. PMID:15828629