Sample records for hemorrhage sah due

  1. [The mechanism of cardiorespiratory arrest due to subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Y; Kamada, K; Sasaoka, Y; Nishimura, A; Sakitani, H

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the clinical course of patients with sudden cardiorespiratory arrest (CRA) due to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We have seen fifteen patients of SAH that presented initially as CRA. All of them were diagnosed as SAH by CT scan. The patients were divided into two groups; one group (early DOA group) included 11 patients, who had been recognized as CRA within 60 minutes from the onset of SAH, the other group (late DOA group) consisted of 4 patients, who developed CRA more than 60 minutes after the initial onset. The major mechanism leading to delayed CRA in the late DOA group appeared to have been from brain stem herniation, but another mechanism appeared to be involved in sudden CRA in the early DOA group. Sixty percent of our patients with CRA due to SAH had a low serum potassium concentration, though hypokalemia was observed in only 4 out of 100 patients with CRA due to diseases other than SAH. These facts suggest that sympathetic hyperstimulation might result not only from stress but also from a disorder of the central autonomic nervous system. We speculate that the mechanism leading to early CRA after SAH appears to result from a disorder of the central autonomic nerve system. PMID:7637838

  2. Monotherapy with stenting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after middle cerebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Puri, Ajit S; Gounis, Matthew J; Massari, Francesco; Howk, Mary; Weaver, John; Wakhloo, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    Isolated middle cerebral artery dissection is a rare clinical entity, with descriptions limited to a few case reports and case series. Symptomatic dissection in the anterior circulation can present as an ischemic stroke in a young population; however, it is rarely associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We describe a young patient who presented with acute headache from a subarachnoid hemorrhage that was ultimately determined to be due to a vascular dissection in the middle cerebral artery. The initial angiogram showed vascular irregularities in this area with stenosis. Repeat imaging 4?days after presentation identified a pseudoaneurysm proximal to the stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with a self-expanding nitinol stent and followed up with serial angiography during postoperative recovery in the hospital; additional angiograms were performed approximately 1 and 6?months after treatment. Serial angiograms demonstrated incremental healing of the dissection. The patient was discharged and remains neurologically intact at the 6-month follow-up. PMID:25833904

  3. Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy for Obstructive Hydrocephalus due to Intraventricular Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Obaid, Sami; Weil, Alexander G; Rahme, Ralph; Bojanowski, Michel W

    2015-03-01

    Background?Although endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is the first-line treatment for obstructive hydrocephalus due to various pathologies, its role in hemorrhage-related obstructive hydrocephalus is poorly defined. We report our experience with ETV for hemorrhage-related obstructive hydrocephalus, demonstrate it feasibility, and discuss potential advantages over more conventional treatment modalities. Methods?We performed a retrospective analysis of 78 consecutive patients who underwent ETV in our institution between January 2003 and January 2011. We identified 17 consecutive patients who underwent ETV for obstructive hydrocephalus related to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Results?ETV was performed in 9 men and 8 women (mean age: 58 years; range: 42-79). All patients had IVH (n?=?17), either alone (n?=?3) or with intracranial hemorrhage (n?=?4) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (n?=?10). Endoscopic clot evacuation was performed in seven cases (41%). External ventricular drain (EVD) was avoided in two patients. 15 patients had external EVD, and EVD wean was performed on average 5 days post-ETV. Two patients died in the early postoperative period (< 1 month) from the initial cerebral insult. For the 15 surviving patients, the average modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at last follow-up (15 months; range: 1-48) was 2.4. Thus most surviving patients were independent (mRS?SAH (100%). Conclusion?ETV with or without endoscopic clot evacuation is feasible for patients with hemorrhage-related obstructive hydrocephalus. Potential advantages include avoiding or reducing duration of EVD placement and preventing ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Further large prospective randomized trials are needed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ETV with or without clot evacuation for IVH-related obstructive hydrocephalus. PMID:25045859

  4. CT evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage: a practical review for the radiologist interpreting emergency room studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Provenzale; Lotfi Hacein-Bey

    2009-01-01

    Radiologists working in an emergency radiology setting frequently interpret computed tomography (CT) studies of patients with\\u000a suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This article reviews the sensitivity of CT for detection of SAH, some major patterns\\u000a of SAH related to a ruptured aneurysm, and the differential diagnosis of SAH not due to aneurysmal rupture.

  5. Two Cases of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from Spontaneous Anterior Cerebral Artery Dissection : A Case of Simultaneous Hemorrhage and Ischemia Without Aneurysmal Formation and Another Case of Hemorrhage with Aneurysmal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Im, Tae-Seop; Suh, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Ryu, Kee-Young; Kang, Dong-Gee

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous anterior cerebral artery (ACA) dissection, although extremely rare, is often associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It could lead to cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, or, rarely, combination of hemorrhage and ischemia due to hemodynamic changes. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential for determining the appropriate management. However, the optimal treatment for ACA dissection remains controversial. Herein, we report on two rare cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by ACA dissection; a case presenting with simultaneous SAH and infarction without aneurysmal formation and another case presenting with SAH with fusiform aneurysmal formation. A review of the related literature is provided, and optimal treatments for each type of dissection are suggested. PMID:25045652

  6. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to ketorolac tromethamine.

    PubMed

    Marak, Creticus P; Alappan, Narendrakumar; Shim, Chang; Guddati, Achuta K

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced lung disease (DILD) is a common but frequently missed diagnosis. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion and familiarity with the clinical syndromes associated with DILD are important in making the diagnosis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostly commonly used classes of medications. NSAIDs are safe when used at prescribed doses. Side effects from use of NSAIDs are not uncommon and can affect almost every organ system in the body. NSAIDs are notorious for causing pulmonary toxicity, the common ones being bronchospasm and hypersensitivity reactions. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) secondary to NSAIDs is uncommon. Here, we report a case of DAH secondary to the use of ketorolac tromethamine. PMID:23867384

  7. Risk Factors for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in an Indian Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Koshy; H. V. Easwer; S. Premkumar; Jacob P. Alapatt; A. Marthanda Pillai; Suresh Nair; R. N. Bhattacharya; Moinak Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has a mortality rate as high as 50%. The prevalence of intracranial aneurysms from various parts of India varies from 0.75 to 10.3%, with higher numbers of cases being diagnosed due to the increasing age of the population and improvements in imaging techniques. However, little is known about the attributable risk factors of aSAH in

  8. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Due to Duodenal Erosion by a Biliary Wallstent

    SciTech Connect

    Roebuck, Derek J.; Stanley, Philip [Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Katz, Michael D. [Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, 1500 San Pablo Street, Los Angeles, CA 90033 (United States); Parry, Robert L. [Department of Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Haight, Michael A. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, 4650 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States)

    1998-01-15

    A self-expanding metallic stent (Wallstent) was used to relieve obstruction of the common bile duct in a young male with a desmoplastic small cell tumor of the abdomen. Two months after insertion and following a course of chemotherapy the lower end of the stent eroded the mucosa of the second part of the duodenum causing severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage which necessitated laparotomy and trimming of the stent. This complication may have been due to shrinking of the tumor as well as thrombocytopenia following chemotherapy.

  9. Hyperbaric Oxygen for Cerebral Vasospasm and Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Ostrowski; John H. Zhang

    The impact of acute brain injury and delayed neurological deficits due to cerebral vasospasm (CVS) are major determinants\\u000a of outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) had been used to treat patients with SAH,\\u000a the supporting evidence and underlying mechanisms have not been systematically reviewed. In the present paper, the overview\\u000a of studies of HBO for cerebral vasospasm

  10. A murine model of subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced cerebral vasospasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Lung Lin; Tarkan Calisaneller; Naoya Ukita; Aaron S Dumont; Neal F Kassell; Kevin S Lee

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The availability of a mouse model of SAH that is simple, replicable and has low mortality would provide a powerful approach for understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to post-SAH pathologies. The present study characterizes a mouse model of experimental SAH, which produces consistent constriction of

  11. Brainstem Opioidergic System Is Involved in Early Response to Experimental SAH.

    PubMed

    Cetas, Justin S; McFarlane, Robin; Kronfeld, Kassi; Smitasin, Phoebe; Liu, Jesse J; Raskin, Jeffrey S

    2015-04-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a form of stroke with high rates of mortality and permanent disability for patients who survive the initial event. Previous research has focused on delayed cerebral vasospasm of large conduit arteries as the cause of poor long-term outcomes after SAH. New evidence suggests that acute failure to restore cerebral blood flow (CBF) after SAH may be setting the stage for delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Our lab previously demonstrated that the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), an autonomic and sensorimotor integration center, is important for maintaining CBF after experimental SAH. In this study, we have demonstrated that ablation of ?-opioid receptor containing cells with dermorphin conjugates in the RVM results in a high mortality rate after experimental SAH and, in survivors, causes a dramatic decrease in CBF. Further, locally blocking the ?-opioid receptor with the antagonist naltrexone attenuated the reduction in CBF secondary to experimental SAH. Saturating ?-opioid receptors with the agonist [D-Ala(2),NMe-Phe(4),Gly-ol(5)]-encephalin (DAMGO) had no effect. Taken together, these results suggest that SAH activates opioidergic signaling in the RVM with a resultant reduction in CBF. Further, cells in the RVM that contain ?-opioid receptors are important for survival after acute SAH. We propose that failure of the RVM ?-opioid receptor cells to initiate the compensatory CBF response sets the stage for acute and delayed ischemic injury following SAH. PMID:25417789

  12. Acute Hemorrhagic Pancreatitis and Pseudocyst Due to Mumps

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Frank R.; Kallick, Charles A.; Doolas, Alexander

    1974-01-01

    This is the first reported case of mumps hemorrhagic pancreatitis in a child, documented at operation, and by rising mumps titers and complicated by a pseudocyst. In severe cases when surgery is indicated, drainage of the lesser sac usually prevents pseudocyst formation. If a pseudocyst occurs, drainage is required to eliminate disabling pain and chronic pancreatitis. Live attenuated mumps vaccine may eliminate this source of pancreatitis from American children in the future. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4835960

  13. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation

    PubMed Central

    Marak, Creticus P.; Joy, Parijat S.; Gupta, Pragya; Guddati, Achuta K.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR) has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH. PMID:24383034

  14. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Marak, Creticus P; Joy, Parijat S; Gupta, Pragya; Bukovskaya, Yana; Guddati, Achuta K

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR) has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH. PMID:24383034

  15. Role of trauma and infection in childhood hemorrhagic stroke due to vascular lesions

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Nilika Shah; Hills, Nancy K.; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Trauma and infection have been postulated as “triggers” for hemorrhage from underlying brain vascular lesions (arteriovenous malformations, cavernous malformations, and aneurysms) in pediatric hemorrhagic stroke. We decided to perform an association study examining these environmental risk factors. Methods: In this case-control study nested within the cohort of 2.3 million children enrolled in a Northern California integrated health plan (1993–2004), we identified childhood hemorrhagic stroke cases through electronic searches of diagnostic and radiology databases, confirmed through chart review. Three age- and facility-matched controls per case were randomly selected from the study population. Exposure variables were measured using medical records documented before stroke diagnosis. Main outcome measure was hemorrhagic stroke. Results: Of 132 childhood, non-neonatal hemorrhagic stroke cases, 65 had underlying vascular lesions: 34 arteriovenous malformations, 16 cavernous malformations, and 15 aneurysms. A documented exposure to head and neck trauma in the prior 12 weeks was present in 3 cases (4.6%) with underlying vascular lesions, compared with no controls (p < 0.015). However, all 3 vascular lesions were aneurysms, and traumatic pseudoaneurysms were possible. Recent minor infection (prior 4 weeks) was present in 5 cases (7.7%) and 9 controls (4.6%) (p = 0.34). Conclusions: Our observed association between trauma and hemorrhagic stroke with a vascular lesion may be explained by traumatic pseudoaneurysms. Neither recent head or neck trauma nor infection appeared to be a “trigger” for pediatric hemorrhagic stroke due to underlying vascular malformations. PMID:23825175

  16. P2X7R/cryopyrin inflammasome axis inhibition reduces neuroinflammation after SAH

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Ma, Qingyi; Krafft, Paul R.; Hu, Qin; Rolland, William; Sherchan, Prativa; Zhang, Jianmin; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroinflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cytotoxic events following SAH, such as extracellular accumulation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), may activate the P2X purinoceptor 7 (P2X7R)/cryopyrin inflammasome axis, thus inducing the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1?/IL-18 secretion. We therefore hypothesized that inhibition of P2X7R/cryopyrin inflammasome axis would ameliorate neuroinflammation after SAH. In the present study, SAH was induced by the endovascular perforation in rats. Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) of P2X7R or cryopyrin were administered intracerebroventricularly 24 hours before SAH. Brilliant Blue G (BBG), a non-competitive antagonist of P2X7R, was administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes following SAH. Post-assessments including SAH severity score, neurobehavioral test, brain water content, Western blot and immunofluorescence, were performed. Administration of P2X7R and cryopyrin siRNA as well as pharmacologic blockade of P2X7R by BBG ameliorated neurological deficits and brain edema at 24 hours following SAH. Inhibition of P2X7R/cryopyrin inflammasome axis suppressed caspase-1 activation, which subsequently decreased maturation of IL-1?/IL-18. To investigate the link between P2X7R and cryopyrin inflammasome in vivo, Benzoylbenzoyl-ATP (BzATP), a P2X7R agonist, was given to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) primed naive rats with scramble or cryopyrin siRNAs. In LPS-primed naïve rats, BzATP induced caspase-1 activation and mature IL-1? release was neutralized by cryopyrin siRNA. Thus, the P2X7R/cryopyrin inflammasome axis may contribute to neuroinflammation via activation of caspase-1 and thereafter mature IL-1?/IL-18 production following SAH. Therapeutic interventions targeting P2X7R/cryopyrin pathway may be a novel approach to ameliorate EBI following SAH. PMID:23816751

  17. CT and clinical features of hemorrhage extending along the pulmonary artery due to ruptured aortic dissection.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Eijun; Matsuoka, Yohjiro; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Uetani, Masataka

    2009-05-01

    The purpose was to evaluate CT findings of hemorrhage extending along the pulmonary artery (PA) due to ruptured aortic dissection (AD) and its prognostic factors. In 232 patients with Stanford type A AD, 21 patients (9.1%; 11 women; mean 70.3 years) were diagnosed. Twelve patients had double-barreled (classic) AD, and nine patients had intramural hematoma (IMH; closed false lumen) of the aorta. Based on CT findings, hemorrhage was classified into three categories as follows: category 1 (IMH of the PA or blood localized around the PA), category 2 (extending into the interlobular septa), and category 3 (extending into the alveoli). The factors influencing prognosis, including CT features and patient characteristics, were evaluated. Fourteen (66.7%) of the 21 patients underwent emergency surgery, and 8 (38.1%) patients died within 72 h of onset. Twelve cases (57.1%) were classified into category 1, 2 cases (9.5%) into category 2, and 7 cases (33.3%) into category 3. Double-barreled AD and category 3 hemorrhage were significant risk factors for death in univariate analyses. In multivariate analyses, the presence of category 3 hemorrhage was the only significant risk factor for death. CT findings indicative of a poor prognosis include double-barreled type AD and category 3 hemorrhage. PMID:19156424

  18. Signaling Pathways for Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gen Kusaka; Mami Ishikawa; Anil Nanda; D. Neil Granger; John H. Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Few studies have examined the signaling pathways that contribute to early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using a rat SAH model, the authors explored the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mitogen-activation protein kinase (MAPK) in early brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 172) weighing 300 to 350 g were used for the experimental SAH model,

  19. Multimodality Monitoring, Inflammation, and Neuroregeneration in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Ariel B.; Esteves Veiga, José C.; Teixeira, Manoel J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The mortality rate of poor-grade SAH ranges from 34% to 52%. In an attempt to improve SAH outcomes, clinical research on multimodality monitoring has been performed, as has basic science research on inflammation and neuroregeneration (which can occur due to injury-induced neurogenesis). Nevertheless, the current literature does not focus on the integrated study of these fields. Multimodality monitoring corresponds to physiological data obtained during clinical management by both noninvasive and invasive methods. Regarding inflammation and neuroregeneration, evidence suggests that, in all types of stroke, a proinflammatory phase and an anti-inflammatory phase occur consecutively; these phases affect neurogenesis, which is also influenced by other pathophysiological features of stroke, such as ischemia, seizures, and spreading depression. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether injury-induced neurogenesis is a prognostic factor in poor-grade SAH that can be monitored and modulated. METHODS: We propose a protocol for multimodality monitoring-guided hypothermia in poor-grade SAH in which cellular and molecular markers of inflammation and neuroregeneration can be monitored in parallel with clinical and multimodal data. EXPECTED OUTCOMES: This study may reveal correlations between markers of inflammation and neurogenesis in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, based on clinical and multimodality monitoring parameters. DISCUSSION: This protocol has the potential to lead to new therapies for acute, diffuse, and severe brain diseases. ABBREVIATIONS: BBB, blood-brain barrier CPP, cerebral perfusion pressure EEG, electroencephalography ICP, intracranial pressure IL, interleukin MCA, middle cerebral artery SAH, subarachnoid hemorrhage SD, spreading depression SGZ, subgranular zone SVZ, subventricular zone TCD, transcranial Doppler PMID:25050583

  20. Comparison of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Autosomal-Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Yang Chang; Chi-Man Kuok; Yung-Cheng Chen; Shan-Jin Ryu; Ya-Chung Tian; Yah-Huei Wu-Chou; Fang-Ji Tseng; Chih-Wei Yang

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are two subtypes of hemorrhagic stroke that may cause severe complications in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The differences in clinical features between SAH and ICH associated with ADPKD are not known. Methods: Among 647 ADPKD patients hospitalized between 1997 and 2007 in our hospital, 11 with ICH (1.7%) and

  1. Early Brain Injury, an Evolving Frontier in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Research

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Yan, Junhao; Rolland, William B.; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Caner, Basak; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), predominantly caused by a ruptured aneurysm, is a devastating neurological disease that has a morbidity and mortality rate higher than 50%. Most of the traditional in vivo research has focused on the pathophysiological or morphological changes of large-arteries after intracisternal blood injection. This was due to a widely held assumption that delayed vasospasm following SAH was the major cause of delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome. However, the results of the CONSCIOUS-1 trial implicated some other pathophysiological factors, independent of angiographic vasospasm, in contributing to the poor clinical outcome. The term early brain injury (EBI) has been coined and describes the immediate injury to the brain after SAH, before onset of delayed vasospasm. During the EBI period, a ruptured aneurysm brings on many physiological derangements such as increasing intracranial pressure (ICP), decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF), and global cerebral ischemia. These events initiate secondary injuries such as blood-brain barrier disruption, inflammation, and oxidative cascades that all ultimately lead to cell death. Given the fact that the reversal of vasospasm does not appear to improve patient outcome, it could be argued that the treatment of EBI may successfully attenuate some of the devastating secondary injuries and improve the outcome of patients with SAH. In this review, we provide an overview of the major advances in EBI after SAH research. PMID:23894255

  2. Endocrine Function Following Acute SAH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Vespa; Daryl Gress; J. Claude Hemphill; Brian Hoh; Giuseppe Lanzino; David Menon; Alejandro Rabinstein; Lori Shutter; Nino Stocchetti; Jose Suarez; Mervyn Vergouwen; Gregory J. Zipfel; David Geffen; Ronald Reagan

    Disruption of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axes may occur after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, resulting in hypopituitarism.\\u000a An electronic literature search was conducted to identify articles with English-language abstracts published between 1980\\u000a and March 2011, which addressed hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis insufficiency and hormone replacement. A total of 18 observational\\u000a and prospective, randomized studies were selected for this review. Limited data are available, evaluating pituitary

  3. Unfractionated Heparin: Multitargeted Therapy for Delayed Neurological Deficits Induced by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Schreibman, David; Aldrich, E. Francois; Stallmeyer, Bernadette; Le, Brian; James, Robert F.; Beaty, Narlin

    2010-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with numerous “delayed neurological deficits” (DNDs) that have been attributed to multiple pathophysiological mechanisms, including ischemia, microthrombosis, free radical damage, inflammation, and vascular remodeling. To date, effective prophylactic therapy for SAH-induced DNDs has been elusive, due perhaps to the multiplicity of mechanisms involved that render typical, single-agent therapy seemingly futile. We hypothesized that heparin, which has multiple underappreciated salutary effects, might be useful as a multitargeted prophylactic agent against SAH-induced DNDs. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to evaluate the potential utility of heparin in targeting the multiple pathophysiological mechanisms that have been identified as contributing to SAH-induced DNDs. Our literature review revealed that unfractionated heparin can potentially antagonize essentially all of the pathophysiological mechanisms known to be activated following SAH. Heparin binds >100 proteins, including plasma proteins, proteins released from platelets, cytokines, and chemokines. Also, heparin complexes with oxyhemoglobin, blocks the activity of free radicals including reactive oxygen species, antagonizes endothelin-mediated vasoconstriction, smooth muscle depolarization, and inflammatory, growth and fibrogenic responses. Our review suggests that the use of prophylactic heparin following SAH may warrant formal study. PMID:20809188

  4. Surgical Outcome following Decompressive Craniectomy for Poor-Grade Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Associated Massive Intracerebral or Sylvian Hematomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Otani; Yoshio Takasato; Hiroyuki Masaoka; Takanori Hayakawa; Yoshikazu Yoshino; Hiroshi Yatsushige; Hiroki Miyawaki; Kyoko Sumiyoshi; Aoyagi Chikashi; Satoru Takeuchi; Goh Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    Background: Patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) presenting with large intracerebral (ICH) or sylvian hematomas (SylH) have poor outcomes due to the mass effect of significant brain stem compression following mass effect. On the other hand, decompressive craniectomy (DC) can reduce morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients with massive ischemic infarction and severe head injury. However, the role

  5. Hydrocephalus after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Germanwala, Anand V; Huang, Judy; Tamargo, Rafael J

    2010-04-01

    Hydrocephalus is a common and potentially devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Its incidence is approximately 20% to 30%, and its onset can be acute, within 48 hours after SAH, or rarely chronic, occurring in a delayed fashion weeks and even months after the hemorrhage. Early recognition of its signs and symptoms and accurate interpretation of computed tomography (CT) studies are important for the management of patients with SAH. Clinically, a poor neurologic grade has the highest correlation with an increased incidence of hydrocephalus. Radiographically, the bicaudate index on CT studies has emerged as the best marker of this condition. Although further studies are needed to understand the complex pathophysiology of this condition, hydrocephalus after SAH can be treated effectively using current technology. PMID:20380968

  6. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Due to Splenic Artery Aneurysm Pancreatic Duct Fistula in Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Blumgart, Leslie H.

    1993-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to splenic artery aneurysm pancreatic duct fistula in chronic pancreatitis is rare. It is, however, important to diagnose this condition particularly in patients having chronic pancreatitis, since it may result in a life-threatening situation. The diagnosis is usually difficult to establish and it may take repeated admissions for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding until the real source is recognized. Clinical attacks of epigastric pain followed by GI-bleeding 30–40 minutes later are characteristic. Occasionally these attacks are followed by transient jaundice. The present case report describes this rare complication and reviews the current literature. PMID:8268107

  7. Medical complications after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wartenberg, Katja E; Mayer, Stephan A

    2010-04-01

    The prevention and management of medical complications are important for improving outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Fever, anemia requiring transfusion, hyperglycemia, hyponatremia, pneumonia, hypertension, and neurogenic cardiopulmonary dysfunction occur frequently after SAH. There is increasing evidence that acute hypoxia and extremes of blood pressure can exacerbate brain injury during the acute phase of bleeding. There are promising strategies to minimize these complications. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the risks and benefits of these and other medical management strategies after SAH. PMID:20380973

  8. The Role of Arterioles and the Microcirculation in the Development of Vasospasm after Aneurysmal SAH

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Kenichiro; Ohkuma, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm of the major cerebral arteries, which is characterized by angiographic narrowing of those vessels, had been recognized as a main contributor to delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. However, the CONSCIOUS-1 trial revealed that clazosentan could not improve mortality or clinical outcome in spite of successful reduction of relative risk in angiographic vasospasm. This result indicates that the pathophysiology underlying DCI is multifactorial and that other pathophysiological factors, which are independent of angiographic vasospasm, can contribute to the outcome. Recent studies have focused on microcirculatory disturbance, such as microthrombosis and arteriolar constriction, as a factor affecting cerebral ischemia after SAH. Reports detecting microthrombosis and arteriolar constriction will be reviewed, and the role of the microcirculation on cerebral ischemia during vasospasm after SAH will be discussed. PMID:24900959

  9. Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Cerebral Vasospasm in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Clinical and TCD Correlations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gil E. Sviri; Moshe Feinsod; Jean F. Soustiel

    Background and Purpose—Hyponatremia has been shown in association with cerebral vasospasm (CVS) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the past few years there has been increasing evidence that brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is responsible for natriuresis after SAH. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between BNP plasma concentrations and CVS after aneurysmal SAH. Methods—BNP plasma

  10. Monoclonal antibody against E selectin attenuates subarachnoid hemorrhage–induced cerebral vasospasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Lung Lin; Aaron S. Dumont; Tarkan Calisaneller; Aij-Lie Kwan; Shen-Long Hwong; Kevin S. Lee

    2005-01-01

    BackgroundIncreasing evidence indicates that inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, the role of adhesion molecules in SAH-induced vasospasm is less clear. This study was designed to examine the effect of a highly specific antibody, monoclonal anti–E-selectin antibody, on cerebral vasospasm in a new murine SAH model.

  11. Pneumatic displacement with intravitreal bevacizumab for massive submacular hemorrhage due to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kitahashi, Masayasu; Baba, Takayuki; Sakurai, Madoka; Yokouchi, Hirotaka; Kubota-Taniai, Mariko; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of pneumatic displacement combined with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) with that of pneumatic displacement (PD) alone to treat massive submacular hemorrhage (SMH) secondary to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Methods Thirty-two eyes of 32 patients with massive SMH secondary to PCV were studied. Twenty-two eyes were treated with a combination of PD and 1.25 mg of intravitreal bevacizumab (PD + IVB group), and ten eyes with pneumatic displacement alone (PD group). Results Pretreatment, the differences in best-corrected visual acuity and size of the SMH between the two groups were not significant (P=0.59 and P=0.72, respectively). Complete displacement of the hemorrhage from under the fovea was achieved in 19 of 22 eyes (86.4%) in the PD + IVB group and in five of ten eyes (50%) in the PD group. The best-corrected visual acuity in the PD + IVB group was significantly better than that in the PD group at one, 3, and 6 months after treatment (P<0.001, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). Improvement in best-corrected visual acuity by >0.3 logMAR units was obtained in 18 eyes (81.8%) in the PD + IVB group and two eyes (20%) in the PD group (P<0.001). The number of eyes that required additional treatments was significantly fewer in the PD + IVB group than in the PD group (P=0.0001). Conclusion The combination of PD and IVB may be a better therapeutic procedure for eyes with massive SMH due to PCV in the short term because of the better visual outcome and less need for additional treatments. PMID:24623972

  12. Dietary Intake of Key Nutrients and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Population-Based Case-Control Study in Australasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivy Shiue; Hisatomi Arima; Graeme J. Hankey; Craig S. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Background: A healthy, balanced diet can prevent stroke, but little is known about dietary risk factors for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We aimed to determine the relationship between common dietary habits and risk of SAH. Methods: In a population-based, case-control study of SAH undertaken across 4 Australasian cities, a standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on the frequency of consumption

  13. Prevalence and Determinants of Cognitive Complaints after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. E. C. A. Passier; J. M. A. Visser-Meily; M. J. E. van Zandvoort; M. W. M. Post; G. J. E. Rinkel; C. van Heugten

    2010-01-01

    Background: To investigate the prevalence of cognitive complaints after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and the relationships between cognitive complaints and cognitive impairments, disability and emotional problems. Methods: Cognitive complaints were assessed with the Checklist for Cognitive and Emotional Consequences following stroke (CLCE-24) in 111 persons who visited our outpatient clinic 3 months after SAH. Associations between cognitive complaints and cognitive functioning,

  14. Multiple non-branching dissecting aneurysms of the mid-basilar trunk presenting with sequential subarachnoid hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Defillo, Archie; Nussbaum, Eric S.; Zelensky, Andrea; Nussbaum, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We describe a rare case of a patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) due to a ventral dissecting mid-basilar aneurysm that was treated surgically. One week after surgery, the patient experienced sudden deterioration due to a new SAH caused by the development of a new aneurysm of the basilar trunk distinct from the previously clipped aneurysm. Case Description: A 54-year-old woman with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage was found to have a small, broad-based aneurysm arising from the ventral aspect of the mid-basilar artery. This complicated lesion was treated with a microsurgical clipping via a translabyrinthine pre-sigmoidal sub-temporal approach. One week postoperatively, the patient suffered a new SAH and was found to have developed a distinct basilar artery aneurysm. The patient was returned to the Operating Room for microsurgical clipping via the previous craniotomy. After surgery, the patient made a slow, but steady, recovery. She underwent repeated angiographic imaging, demonstrating a stable appearance. Two years post surgery, the patient had returned to work and had no obvious neurological deficit, with the exception of unilateral iatrogenic hearing loss. Conclusion: We describe a rare case of multiple aneurysms originating in relation to a mid-basilar dissection, resulting in multiple episodes of SAH. These are difficult and dangerous lesions that can be treated with open microsurgical reconstruction or possibly via an endovascular approach. The intricate location of the lesions poses a particular challenge to neurosurgeons attempting to directly treat mid-basilar lesions. PMID:22059122

  15. Fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to ruptured vertebrobasilar aneurysm associated with giant cell arteritis in a child.

    PubMed

    Corliss, Robert F; Zydowicz, Sara; Salamat, M Shahriar

    2011-09-01

    A 3 ½-year-old previously healthy female experienced an episode of sudden unresponsiveness witnessed by her mother. Upon arrival to the local hospital, imaging studies of the still unresponsive child revealed severe bilateral "flash" pulmonary edema and diffuse anoxic brain injury. Aggressive resuscitative efforts were unsuccessful, and she was pronounced dead. External examination at autopsy was essentially unremarkable. Internal examination of the head revealed diffuse basilar subarachnoid blood originating from a collapsed, 2 cm irregular aneurysm arising from the junction of the vertebral and basilar arteries. Additionally, multiple calcified subpleural, parenchymal, and hilar nodal pulmonary granulomas were identified. The remaining internal examination, including that of the aorta and its major branches, was unremarkable. Histologic examination of the aneurysm revealed alternating mural attenuation and thickening, the latter resulting from prominent intimal proliferation with active fibroplasia. Most notably, numerous isolated and clustered multinucleated giant cells were seen, most prominently in areas of more intense inflammation. Specific immunolabeling and silver staining of the pulmonary granulomas revealed evidence of histoplasmosis, but both were negative for fungal elements in the aneurysm, as was ultrastructural examination. The cause of death is fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a vertebrobasilar artery aneurysm caused by isolated intracranial giant cell arteritis. PMID:20177371

  16. Two forensic autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A comparison of postmortem computed tomography and autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hideto; Hasegawa, Iwao; Hoshino, Norio; Fukunaga, Tatsushige

    2015-05-01

    In this report, we describe two autopsy cases of death due to upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (Case 1: gastric ulcer, Case 2: aortoduodenal fistula). Postmortem computed tomography (CT) images from both cases revealed pooling of gastric fluid, which contained high attenuation areas, although these images also mirrored the different sources of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Fluid collection was observed in the small intestine for both cases, although the high attenuation areas were only remarkable in Case 2. The autopsy in Case 1 revealed a peptic ulcer, with small vessels exposed on the surface of the ulcer. Melena was also observed throughout the intestine, although clotting was only observed inside the stomach. The autopsy in Case 2 revealed diffuse massive clotting from the stomach to the upper portion of the ileum, which was due to a primary aortoduodenal fistula. Given our autopsy findings, the extent of the high attenuation areas in the digestive tract during postmortem CT scanning may be correlated with the speed of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage before death. Carefully evaluating the radiodensity of the gastrointestinal contents during postmortem CT scanning may indicate the primary site of the hemorrhage before the autopsy, thereby facilitating the accurate identification of the cause of death during forensic autopsy. PMID:25600888

  17. Biomarkers as outcome predictors in subarachnoid hemorrhage – a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Caron M.; Tosun, Cigdem; Kurland, David B.; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Schreibman, David; Simard, J. Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has a high fatality rate and many suffer from delayed neurological deficits. Biomarkers may aid in the identification of high-risk patients, guide treatment/management and improve outcome. Objective The aim of this review was to summarize biomarkers of SAH associated with outcome. Methods An electronic database query was completed, including an additional review of reference lists to include all potential human studies. Results A total of 298 articles were identified; 112 were reviewed; 55 studies were included. Conclusion This review details biomarkers of SAH that correlate with outcome. It provides the basis for research investigating their possible translation into the management of SAH patients. PMID:24499240

  18. Fatal postpartum air embolism due to uterine inversion and atonic hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Banaschak, Sibylle; Janßen, Katharina; Becker, Katrin; Friedrich, Krischan; Rothschild, Markus A

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 19-year-old woman who developed a persistent uterine hemorrhage after spontaneous delivery of a healthy child. Emergency laparotomy was indicated and then begun under stable circulatory conditions. Cardiac arrest occurred during the course of massive manual compression and packing of the uterus. After successful resuscitation, a supracervical hysterectomy was performed. During the suturing of the remaining cervix, a second cardiac arrest followed. The procedure was completed under constant external heart massage. Resuscitation was terminated due to the persistence of widened pupils. An autopsy was ordered by the public prosecutor as the manner of death was declared to be unascertained. An X-ray and a CT scan prior to the autopsy showed extensive gas embolism in both arterial and venous vessels extending from the pelvic region to the head. During the autopsy, gas was collected by aspirometer from the right ventricle of the heart. The autopsy showed no additional relevant findings, and gas analysis confirmed the suspicion of air embolism. The histological examination of the excised uterus especially in the corpus/fundus revealed an edema of the local smooth muscle cells and dilated vessels showing no sign of thrombogenesis. Upon evaluation of the clinical records, it became evident that, in addition to uterine atony, there had been a complete uterine inversion. This inversion was manually repositioned. After this maneuver, manual compression was performed. The air embolism, thus, was a complication of the manual repositioning of the uterine inversion. There is no evidence for other possible entries of the detected gas. In order to perform an effective exploration, the availability of all clinical records should be mandatory for medico-legal investigations of unexpected postpartum deaths. PMID:23370575

  19. Obsessive compulsive disorder due to a cavernous malformation hemorrhage in the dominant caudate head.

    PubMed

    Katz, Brian S; Flemming, Kelly D

    2015-02-01

    Structural lesions of the basal ganglia may lead to obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We report a 31-year-old woman who developed OCD after a previously asymptomatic left caudate intracerebral cavernous malformation (ICM) hemorrhaged. Her neurologic examination was normal. Her OCD required hospitalization and improved with medication and therapy. The pathophysiology of this psychiatric disorder probably reflects a frontal cortex deafferentation mechanism. In patients with known ICM, any abrupt change in neurologic or psychiatric symptoms should prompt repeat imaging to assess for hemorrhage. PMID:25124646

  20. The Harmful Effects of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Extracerebral Organs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Qian; Wu, Haijian; Krafft, Paul R.; Wang, Zhen; Zhang, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH. PMID:25110700

  1. Angle-closure glaucoma due to suprachoroidal hemorrhage secondary to disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lik Thai; Agarwal, Pankaj Kumar; Rotchford, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Secondary AACG can be associated with intumescent lens, choroidal melanoma, and aqueous misdirection. Here, we would like to report a unique case of acute angle-closure glaucoma secondary to suprachoroidal hemorrhage, resulting from disseminated intravascular coagulation, not previously reported. PMID:21469966

  2. Static perfect fluids with Pant-Sah equations of state

    E-print Network

    Walter Simon

    2008-03-31

    We analyze the 3-parameter family of exact, regular, static, spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions of Einstein's equations (corresponding to a 2-parameter family of equations of state) due to Pant and Sah and "rediscovered" by Rosquist and the present author. Except for the Buchdahl solutions which are contained as a limiting case, the fluids have finite radius and are physically realistic for suitable parameter ranges. The equations of state can be characterized geometrically by the property that the 3-metric on the static slices, rescaled conformally with the fourth power of any linear function of the norm of the static Killing vector, has constant scalar curvature. This local property does not require spherical symmetry; in fact it simplifies the the proof of spherical symmetry of asymptotically flat solutions which we recall here for the Pant-Sah equations of state. We also consider a model in Newtonian theory with analogous geometric and physical properties, together with a proof of spherical symmetry of the asymptotically flat solutions.

  3. Inflammation, Vasospasm, and Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes, and there are few pharmacologic treatments available for treating this condition. Both animal and human studies provide evidence of inflammation being a driving force behind the pathology of SAH, leading to both direct brain injury and vasospasm, which in turn leads to ischemic brain injury. Several inflammatory mediators that are elevated after SAH have been studied in detail. While there is promising data indicating that blocking these factors might benefit patients after SAH, there has been little success in clinical trials. One of the key factors that complicates clinical trials of SAH is the variability of the initial injury and subsequent inflammatory response. It is likely that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the variability of patients' post-SAH inflammatory response and that this confounds trials of anti-inflammatory therapies. Additionally, systemic inflammation from other conditions that affect patients with SAH could contribute to brain injury and vasospasm after SAH. Continuing work on biomarkers of inflammation after SAH may lead to development of patient-specific anti-inflammatory therapies to improve outcome after SAH. PMID:25105123

  4. Controversies and Evolving New Mechanisms in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sheng; Feng, Hua; Sherchan, Prativa; Klebe, Damon; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Xiaochuan; Zhang, Jianmin; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes of delayed cerebral vasospasm after SAH. Unfortunately, the results of clinical trials based on this premise have mostly been disappointing, implicating some other pathophysiological factors, independent of vasospasm, as contributors to poor clinical outcomes. Delayed cerebral vasospasm is no longer the only culprit. In this review, we summarize recent data from both experimental and clinical studies of SAH and discuss the vast array of physiological dysfunctions following SAH that ultimately lead to cell death. Based on the progress in neurobiological understanding of SAH, the terms “early brain injury” and “delayed brain injury” are used according to the temporal progression of SAH-induced brain injury. Additionally, a new concept of the vasculo-neuronal-glia triad model for SAH study is highlighted and presents the challenges and opportunities of this model for future SAH applications. PMID:24076160

  5. Failure of Recombinant Activated Factor VII in Treatment of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Khoulani, Dania; Rao, Bharat; Khanshour, Ammar; Kuriakose, Philip; Yessayan, Lenar

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a serious complication of the small vessel vasculitis syndromes and carries a high mortality. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is used to treat bleeding in patients with hemophilia and antibodies to factor VIII or IX. It is increasingly being used in life-threatening hemorrhage in a variety of other settings in which conventional therapy is unsuccessful. Randomized controlled trials of rFVIIa in DAH are lacking. However, several case reports have described a complete or sustained control of DAH using rFVIIa after patients failed to respond to medical treatment. There are no case reports in the literature describing the use or the failure of rFVIIa in DAH associated with cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. We here report the failure of rFVIIa to control DAH in a patient with CD5+ B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. PMID:25114814

  6. Failure of Recombinant Activated Factor VII in Treatment of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Khoulani, Dania; Khanshour, Ammar; Kuriakose, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a serious complication of the small vessel vasculitis syndromes and carries a high mortality. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is used to treat bleeding in patients with hemophilia and antibodies to factor VIII or IX. It is increasingly being used in life-threatening hemorrhage in a variety of other settings in which conventional therapy is unsuccessful. Randomized controlled trials of rFVIIa in DAH are lacking. However, several case reports have described a complete or sustained control of DAH using rFVIIa after patients failed to respond to medical treatment. There are no case reports in the literature describing the use or the failure of rFVIIa in DAH associated with cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. We here report the failure of rFVIIa to control DAH in a patient with CD5+ B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis. PMID:25114814

  7. Evaluation of a Murine Single-Blood-Injection SAH Model

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Clemens; Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Schneider, Toni; Hänggi, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The molecular pathways underlying the pathogenesis after subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) are poorly understood and continue to be a matter of debate. A valid murine SAH injection model is not yet available but would be the prerequisite for further transgenic studies assessing the mechanisms following SAH. Using the murine single injection model, we examined the effects of SAH on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the somatosensory (S1) and cerebellar cortex, neuro-behavioural and morphological integrity and changes in quantitative electrocorticographic and electrocardiographic parameters. Micro CT imaging verified successful blood delivery into the cisterna magna. An acute impairment of rCBF was observed immediately after injection in the SAH and after 6, 12 and 24 hours in the S1 and 6 and 12 hours after SAH in the cerebellum. Injection of blood into the foramen magnum reduced telemetric recorded total ECoG power by an average of 65%. Spectral analysis of ECoGs revealed significantly increased absolute delta power, i.e., slowing, cortical depolarisations and changes in ripples and fast ripple oscillations 12 hours and 24 hours after SAH. Therefore, murine single-blood-injection SAH model is suitable for pathophysiological and further molecular analysis following SAH. PMID:25545775

  8. Recurrent secondary postpartum hemorrhages due to placental site vessel subinvolution and local uterine tissue coagulopathy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) represents a serious problem for women and obstetricians. Because of its association with hemorrhagic shock and predisposition to disseminated coagulopathy, it is a leading cause of maternal deaths worldwide. Furthermore, the jeopardy of PPH is rising with the secondary form of PPH occurring between 24 hours and 6 weeks postpartum, when women are already discharged home. The causes of this pathology are severe inflammation (endometritis), inherited coagulation disorders, consumptive coagulopathy, and retained products of conceptions. Others are of rare occurrence, such as vessel subinvolution (VSI) of the placental implantation site, uterine artery pseudoaneurysm, or trauma. Case presentation We present a rare form of recurrent secondary postpartum hemorrhage in a woman after uncomplicated cesarean delivery, with review of the literature linked to the management of this situation originating in the rare local VSI in the placental implantation site, defective decidual homeostasis, and coagulopathy confined to the uterus. Conclusion The placental site VSI is one of the rare causes of secondary PPH, and this situation is frequently underdiagnosed by clinicians. The histological confirmation of dilated “clustered”-shaped myometrial arteries partially occluded by thrombi of variable “age” together with the presence of endovascular extravillous trophoblasts confirms the diagnosis. PMID:24558972

  9. Neuroprotection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Kolls, Brad J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in aneurysm ablation and the initial management of patients presenting with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), delayed cerebral ischemia remains a significant source of morbidity. Traditionally, delayed cerebral ischemia was felt to be a result of vasospasm of the proximal intracranial vessels, and clinical trials have relied largely on radiographic evidence of vasospasm as a surrogate for functional outcome. However, a number of trials have demonstrated a dissociation between angiographic vasospasm and outcome, and more recent data suggests that other mechanisms of injury, such as microvascular dysfunction and complex neuronal-glial interactions may influence the development of delayed ischemic deficit following aSAH. Our evolving understanding of the pathophysiology of delayed cerebral ischemia may offer the opportunity to test new therapeutic strategies in this area and improve clinical trial design. PMID:20876512

  10. The rodent endovascular puncture model of subarachnoid hemorrhage: mechanisms of brain damage and therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) represents a considerable health problem. To date, limited therapeutic options are available. In order to develop effective therapeutic strategies for SAH, the mechanisms involved in SAH brain damage should be fully explored. Here we review the mechanisms of SAH brain damage induced by the experimental endovascular puncture model. We have included a description of similarities and distinctions between experimental SAH in animals and human SAH pathology. Moreover, several novel treatment options to diminish SAH brain damage are discussed. SAH is accompanied by cerebral inflammation as demonstrated by an influx of inflammatory cells into the cerebral parenchyma, upregulation of inflammatory transcriptional pathways and increased expression of cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, various cell death pathways including cerebral apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis and autophagy are involved in neuronal damage caused by SAH. Treatment strategies aiming at inhibition of inflammatory or cell death pathways demonstrate the importance of these mechanisms for survival after experimental SAH. Moreover, neuroregenerative therapies using stem cells are discussed as a possible strategy to repair the brain after SAH since this therapy may extend the window of treatment considerably. We propose the endovascular puncture model as a suitable animal model which resembles the human pathology of SAH and which could be applied to investigate novel therapeutic therapies to combat this debilitating insult. PMID:24386932

  11. Hyperbaric Oxygen Suppresses NADPH Oxidase in a Rat Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Ostrowski; Jiping Tang; John H. Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose—One of the major contributors to brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is oxidative stress, and 1 of the major enzymatic sources of superoxide anion production in the brain is NADPH oxidase. Therefore, we studied whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) suppresses neuronal NADPH oxidase in a rat model of SAH. Methods—Eighty-three Sprague-Dawley male rats were assigned to sham, SAH,

  12. Alpha Lipoic Acid Alleviates Oxidative Stress and Preserves Blood Brain Permeability in Rats with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet ErsahinHale; Hale Z. Toklu; ?ule Çetinel; Meral Yüksel; Can Erzik; M. Zafer Berkman; Berrak Ç. Ye?en; Göksel ?ener

    2010-01-01

    The neuroprotective effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA; 100 mg\\/kg, po), a dithiol antioxidant, on experimentally induced subarachnoid\\u000a hemorrhage (SAH) was assessed in Wistar albino rats. Neurological examination scores recorded at the 48th h of SAH induction\\u000a were increased in SAH groups, which were accompanied with significant increases in the formation of reactive oxygen species,\\u000a DNA fragmentation ratios, malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase

  13. Mechanisms underlying increased vascular smooth muscle contractility in the rabbit basilar artery following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Kameda, Katsuharu; Matsuo, Satoshi; Kurogi, Ryota; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2015-01-01

    Increased vascular contractility plays an important role in the development of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Here, we summarize our current knowledge regarding molecular mechanisms that contribute to increased smooth muscle contractility of rabbit basilar artery following SAH. Our studies demonstrated that upregulation of receptor expression, impairment of feedback regulation of receptor activity, and enhancement of myofilament Ca²? sensitization might lead to increased smooth muscle contractility following SAH. PMID:25366606

  14. Possible Role for Vascular Cell Proliferation in Cerebral Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cecil O. Borel; Andy McKee; Augusto Parra; Michael M. Haglund; Amy Solan; Vikas Prabhakar; Huaxin Sheng; David S. Warner; Laura Niklason

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—During vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), cerebral blood vessels show structural changes consistent with the actions of vascular mitogens. We measured platelet-derived vascular growth factors (PDGFs) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients after SAH and tested the effect of these factors on cerebral arteries in vivo and in vitro. Methods—CSF was sampled from 14 patients after SAH,

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of unilateral olivary hypertrophy due to pontine tegmental hemorrhage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chen, S S; Teng, M M; Shao, K N; Chiang, J H; Chang, C Y; Lao, C B; Lirng, J F

    1999-09-01

    Olivary hypertrophy (OH) is not a primary lesion but, rather, develops as a lesion of the Guillain-Morraret triangle, which is composed of the contralateral dentate nucleus, the ipsilateral red nucleus and the ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus. OH is usually accompanied by palatal myoclonus or other involuntary movements such as extremity myorhythmia. One case of unilateral OH following ipsilateral pontine tegmental hemorrhage is presented. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed high signal intensity in the inferior olivary nuclei on T2- and proton-density-weighted images. Enlargement of the inferior olivary nuclei was also noted. MRI may currently be the only procedure capable of confirming the diagnosis. PMID:10502858

  16. Transcranial doppler monitoring and clinical decision-making after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J. McGirt; Robert P. Blessing; Larry B. Goldstein

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the impact of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) vasospasm monitoring on clinical decision-making following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The records of 50 randomly selected patients undergoing serial TCD monitoring following SAH were reviewed. Dates and results of TCDs and cerebral angiograms, the use of hypertensive hemodilution (HH) therapy, and the development of new neurological deficits were recorded.

  17. Update in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Maria I.; Brott, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is defined as bleeding within the brain parenchyma. Intracranial hemorrhage includes bleeding within the cranial vault and encompasses ICH, subdural hematoma, epidural bleeds, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This review will focus only on ICH. This stroke subtype accounts for about 10% of all strokes. The hematoma locations are deep or ganglionic, lobar, cerebellar, and brain stem in descending order of frequency. Intracerebral hemorrhage occurs twice as common as SAH and is equally as deadly. Risk factors for ICH include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, advanced age, antithrombotic therapy and history of cerebrovascular disease. The clinical presentation is “stroke like” with sudden onset of focal neurological deficits. Noncontrast head computerized tomography (CT) scan is the standard diagnostic tool. However, newer neuroimaging techniques have improved the diagnostic yield in terms of underlying pathophysiology and may aid in prognosis. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a neurological emergency. Medical care begins with stabilization of airway, breathing function, and circulation (ABCs), followed by specific measures aimed to decrease secondary neurological damage and to prevent both medical and neurological complications. Reversal of coagulopathy when present is of the essence. Blood pressure management can be key and continues as an area of debate and ongoing research. Surgical evacuation of ICH is of unproven benefit though a subset of well-selected patients may have improved outcomes. Ventriculostomy and intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring are interventions also used in this patient population. To date, hemostatic medications and neuroprotectants have failed to result in clinical improvement. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended, with participation of vascular neurology, vascular neurosurgery, critical care, and rehabilitation medicine as the main players. PMID:23983850

  18. Hepatic hemorrhage, hemocoelom, and sudden death due to Haemoproteus infection in passerine birds: eleven cases.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Taryn A; Schrenzel, Mark; Tucker, Tammy A; Pessier, Allan P; Stalis, Ilse H

    2008-05-01

    Haemoproteus spp. are ancient apicomplexan hemoparasites that have undergone extensive coevolution with their natural hosts and are typically species specific, with inapparent or minimal pathogenicity. A promiscuous genotype of Haemoproteus capable of undergoing host switching on a familial level was identified. This protozoan caused severe disease with high mortality in 6 species of exotic passerine birds housed in California at the San Diego Zoo's Wild Animal Park: Surinam crested oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus decumanus), Guianan turquoise tanager (Tangara mexicana mexicana), blue-necked tanager (Tangara cyanicollis caeruleocephala, Guianan red-capped cardinal (Paroaria gularis gularis), magnificent bird of paradise (Diphyllodes magnificus hunsteini), and superb bird of paradise (Lophorina superba). The birds had few or no clinical signs. Necropsy findings consisted of hemocoelom and irregularly scattered areas of hemorrhage and hepatocellular necrosis. Affected areas of liver contained solitary protozoal megaloschizonts in varied states of degeneration and peripheral nonsuppurative inflammation. No other parasite life stages were found in parenchymal organs or blood smears. Polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers for an avian malarial mitochondrial cytochrome B gene segment was positive in all cases. Sequencing and BLAST analysis identified the protozoan as a Haemoproteus sp. related to Haemoproteus spp. found in asymptomatic passerine birds native to North America. In situ hybridization was performed in 3 animals with a mitochondrial cytochrome B probe and was positive only in megaloschizonts. These findings suggest the recognition of a genotype of Haemoproteus that exhibits high levels of host infidelity and causes severe disease in captive birds exotic to North America. PMID:18460616

  19. Monitoring in Neurointensive Care – The Challenge to Detect Delayed Cerebral Ischemia in High-Grade Aneurysmal SAH

    PubMed Central

    Sarrafzadeh, Asita S.; Vajkoczy, Peter; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a feared and significant medical complication following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). It occurs in about 30% of patients surviving the initial hemorrhage, mostly between days 4 and 10 after aSAH. Clinical deterioration attributable to DCI is a diagnosis of exclusion and especially difficult to diagnose in patients who are comatose or sedated. The latter are typically patients with a high grade on the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies scale (WFNS grade 4–5), who represent approximately 40–70% of the patient population with ruptured aneurysms. In this group of patients, the incidence of DCI is often underestimated and higher when compared to low WFNS grade patients. To overcome difficulties in diagnosing DCI, which is especially relevant in sedated and comatose patients, the article reports the most recent recommendation for definition of DCI and discusses their advantages and problematic issues in neurocritical care practice. Finally, appropriate neuromonitoring techniques and their clinical impact in high-grade SAH patients are summarized. PMID:25101052

  20. Can S100B Predict Cerebral Vasospasms in Patients Suffering from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage?

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Moshgan; Astrand, Ramona; Romner, Bertil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Protein S100B has proven to be a useful biomarker for cerebral damages. Increased levels of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) S100B have been shown in patients suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), severe head injury and stroke. In patients with SAH, the course of S100B levels has been correlated with neurological deficits and outcome. Cerebral vasospasm is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the potential of S100B protein as a predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients with severe SAH. Materials and Methods: Patients with SAH, Fisher grade 3 and 4, were included in the study. Five samples of CSF and serum S100B were collected from each patient. The first sample (baseline sample) was drawn within the first 3?days following ictus and the following four samples, once a day on days 5–8, with day of ictus defined as day 1. Clinical suspicion of cerebral vasospasm confirmed by computed tomography angiography was used to diagnose cerebral vasospasm. Results: A total of 18 patients were included. Five patients (28%) developed cerebral vasospasm, two (11%) developed ventriculitis. There were no significant differences between S100B for those with and without vasospasm. Serum S100B levels in patients with vasospasm were slightly lower within the first 5?days following ictus, compared to patients without vasospasm. Two out of five patients had elevated and increasing serum S100B prior to vasospasm. Only one showed a peak level of S100B 1?day before vasospasm could be diagnosed. Due to the low number of patients in the study, statistical significance could not be reached. Conclusion: Neither serum nor CSF S100B can be used as predictor of cerebral vasospasm in patients suffering from SAH. PMID:23761779

  1. Low-dose intravenous heparin infusion in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a preliminary assessment

    PubMed Central

    Simard, J. Marc; Aldrich, E. Francois; Schreibman, David; James, Robert F.; Polifka, Adam; Beaty, Narlin

    2015-01-01

    Object Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) predisposes to delayed neurological deficits, including stroke and cognitive and neuropsychological abnormalities. Heparin is a pleiotropic drug that antagonizes many of the pathophysiological mechanisms implicated in secondary brain injury after aSAH. Methods The authors performed a retrospective analysis in 86 consecutive patients with Fisher Grade 3 aSAH due to rupture of a supratentorial aneurysm who presented within 36 hours and were treated by surgical clipping within 48 hours of their ictus. Forty-three patients were managed postoperatively with a low-dose intravenous heparin infusion (Maryland low-dose intravenous heparin infusion protocol: 8 U/kg/hr progressing over 36 hours to 10 U/kg/hr) beginning 12 hours after surgery and continuing until Day 14 after the ictus. Forty-three control patients received conventional subcutaneous heparin twice daily as deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. Results Patients in the 2 groups were balanced in terms of baseline characteristics. In the heparin group, activated partial thromboplastin times were normal to mildly elevated; no clinically significant hemorrhages or instances of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or deep vein thrombosis were encountered. In the control group, the incidence of clinical vasospasm requiring rescue therapy (induced hypertension, selective intraarterial verapamil, and angioplasty) was 20 (47%) of 43 patients, and 9 (21%) of 43 patients experienced a delayed infarct on CT scanning. In the heparin group, the incidence of clinical vasospasm requiring rescue therapy was 9% (4 of 43, p = 0.0002), and no patient suffered a delayed infarct (p = 0.003). Conclusions In patients with Fisher Grade 3 aSAH whose aneurysm is secured, postprocedure use of a low-dose intravenous heparin infusion may be safe and beneficial. PMID:24032706

  2. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Causes Pulmonary Endothelial Cell Apoptosis and Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenori Suzuki; Takumi Sozen; Yu Hasegawa; Wanqiu Chen; Kenji Kanamaru; Waro Taki; John H. Zhang

    \\u000a \\u000a Objects: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a well-known complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), which potentially causes\\u000a a poor outcome. The aim of this study was to examine if NPE occurs in the endovascular perforation model of SAH in mice and if apoptosis contributes to NPE development after SAH in mice.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: Sham-operated or SAH mice were treated with an intraperitoneal

  3. Prospective, Randomized Trial of Higher Goal Hemoglobin after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew M. Naidech; Ali Shaibani; Rajeev K. Garg; Isis M. Duran; Storm M. Liebling; Sarice L. Bassin; Bernard R. Bendok; Richard A. Bernstein; H. Hunt Batjer; Mark J. Alberts

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose  In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), higher hemoglobin (HGB) has been associated with better outcomes, but packed\\u000a red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions with worse outcomes. We performed a prospective pilot trial of goal HGB after SAH.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-four patients with SAH and high risk for vasospasm were randomized to goal HGB concentration of at least 10 or 11.5 g\\/dl.\\u000a We

  4. Association of APOE Polymorphism with the Change of Brain Function in the Early Stage of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Lin; Wei Dan; Li Jiang; Xiao-hong Yin; Hai-tao Wu; Xiao-chuan Sun

    \\u000a Recent studies have indicated that early brain injury may be responsible for the detrimental effects seen in patients after\\u000a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In this study, we investigated the relationship between apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) polymorphism\\u000a and the change of brain function in the early stage of aneurysmal SAH. A total of 79 patients admitted within 5 days after\\u000a aneurysmal SAH

  5. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Models: Do They Need a Fix?

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.; Pluta, Ryszard M.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of tissue plasminogen activator to treat acute stroke is a success story of research on preventing brain injury following transient cerebral ischemia (TGI). That this discovery depended upon development of embolic animal model reiterates that proper stroke modeling is the key to develop new treatments. In contrast to TGI, despite extensive research, prevention or treatment of brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has not been achieved. A lack of adequate aSAH disease model may have contributed to this failure. TGI is an important component of aSAH and shares mechanism of injury with it. We hypothesized that modifying aSAH model using experience acquired from TGI modeling may facilitate development of treatment for aSAH and its complications. This review focuses on similarities and dissimilarities between TGI and aSAH, discusses the existing TGI and aSAH animal models, and presents a modified aSAH model which effectively mimics the disease and has a potential of becoming a better resource for studying the brain injury mechanisms and developing a treatment. PMID:23878760

  6. Melatonin mitigate cerebral vasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: a study of synchrotron radiation angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, J.; He, C.; Chen, L.; Han, T.; Huang, S.; Huang, Y.; Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.; Zhang, H.; Ling, F.

    2013-06-01

    Cerebral vasospasm (CV) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a devastating and unsolved clinical issue. In this study, the rat models, which had been induced SAH by prechiasmatic cistern injection, were treated with melatonin. Synchrotron radiation angiography (SRA) was employed to detect and evaluate CV of animal models. Neurological scoring and histological examinations were used to assess the neurological deficits and CV as well. Using SRA techniques and histological analyses, the anterior cerebral artery diameters of SAH rats with melatonin administration were larger than those without melatonin treatment (p < 0.05). The neurological deficits of SAH rats treated with melatonin were less than those without melatonin treatment (p < 0.05). We concluded that SRA was a precise and in vivo tool to observe and evaluate CV of SAH rats; intraperitoneally administration of melatonin could mitigate CV after experimental SAH.

  7. Use of 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Study the Effect of Cortical Magnesium and Energy Metabolism after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heping Yang; Xiangqi Tang; Lihua Tan; Liuwang Zeng; Zhiping Hu

    2008-01-01

    Background: Flow metabolism coupling ensures adequate cerebral oxygenation. When subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) occurs, the flow metabolism coupling lost its balance and results in cerebral ischemia and infarction second to cortical magnesium and energy metabolism alternation. During chronic vasospasm, change in cortical energy metabolism is coupled with change in cerebral blood flow after SAH. Methods: What kind of noninvasive technique can

  8. Effects of oxyhemoglobin in vitro in cerebral arteries from normal animals and animals subject to subarachnoid hemorrhage or indomethacin treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yves-Roger Tran Dinh; Sabine Roche; Merieme Debdi; Jacques Seylaz; Richard Sercombe

    1998-01-01

    Experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes functionally relevant perturbations of cyclooxygenase activity in cerebral arteries. Four groups of rabbits were formed: (I) controls; (II) sham injected animals (2 ml physiological solution in the cisterna magna); (III) SAH group (2 ml blood in cisterna magna); (IV) indomethacin group (4 mg\\/kg i.v. 30 min before sacrifice).

  9. The Role of Microclot Formation in an Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model in the Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Andereggen, Lukas; Neuschmelting, Volker; Widmer, Hans Rudolf; Fandino, Javier; Marbacher, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Background. Microvascular dysfunction and microthrombi formation are believed to contribute to development of early brain injury (EBI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Objective. This study aimed to determine (i) extent of microthrombus formation and neuronal apoptosis in the brain parenchyma using a blood shunt SAH model in rabbits; (ii) correlation of structural changes in microvessels with EBI characteristics. Methods. Acute SAH was induced using a rabbit shunt cisterna magna model. Extent of microthrombosis was detected 24?h post-SAH (n = 8) by fibrinogen immunostaining, compared to controls (n = 4). We assessed apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling (TUNEL) in cortex and hippocampus. Results. Our results showed significantly more TUNEL-positive cells (SAH: 115 ± 13; controls: 58 ± 10; P = 0.016) and fibrinogen-positive microthromboemboli (SAH: 9 ± 2; controls: 2 ± 1; P = 0.03) in the hippocampus after aneurysmal SAH. Conclusions. We found clear evidence of early microclot formation in a rabbit model of acute SAH. The extent of microthrombosis did not correlate with early apoptosis or CPP depletion after SAH; however, the total number of TUNEL positive cells in the cortex and the hippocampus significantly correlated with mean CPP reduction during the phase of maximum depletion after SAH induction. Both microthrombosis and neuronal apoptosis may contribute to EBI and subsequent DCI. PMID:25110658

  10. Astragaloside IV Alleviates Early Brain Injury Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Anwen; Guo, Songxue; Tu, Sheng; Ammar, Al-baadani; Tang, Junjia; Hong, Yuan; Wu, Haijian; Zhang, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    Astragaloside IV, one of the main effective components isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, has multiple neuroprotective properties, while the effects of astragaloside IV on the attenuation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) and its possible mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether astragaloside IV could inhibit oxidative stress, reduce neuronal apoptosis, and improve neurological deficits after experimental SAH in rats. Rats (n=68) were randomly divided into the following groups: Sham group, SAH group, SAH+vehicle group, and SAH+astragaloside IV group. Astragaloside IV or an equal volume of vehicle was administered at 1 h and 6 h after SAH, all the rats were subsequently sacrificed at 24 h after SAH. Mortality, neurological scores, and brain edema were assessed, biochemical tests and histological studies were also performed at that point. SAH induced an increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level, neuronal apoptosis, cleaved caspase 3, brain edema and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Astragaloside IV treatment reversed these changes and improved neurobehavioral outcomes of SAH rats. Our findings suggested that astragaloside IV may alleviate EBI after SAH through antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects. PMID:25136262

  11. Higher mortality due to intracerebral hemorrhage in dialysis patients: a comparison with the general population in Japan.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Minako; Matsuo, Koji; Kazama, Junichiro James; Narita, Ichiei

    2015-02-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases, including intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, remain prevalent causes of morbidity and mortality among dialysis patients. Their mortality rate for cerebrovascular diseases is roughly three times higher than that in the general population. However, whether mortality rates for all subtypes of cerebrovascular diseases are equally higher has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the mortality rate for each stroke subtype, comparing dialysis patients and the general population in Japan. We used mortality data reported by the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy and national Vital Statistics data between 2008 and 2009. We calculated standardized mortality ratios and compared the mortality rates for stroke subtypes including intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. During the 2-year study period, 51?994 and 933 deaths from intracerebral hemorrhage, 79?124 and 511 deaths from cerebral infarction, and 24?957 and 147 deaths from subarachnoid hemorrhage were recorded per 252 million person-years and per 546?474 dialysis patient-years, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios among dialysis patients relative to the general population were 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 3.6-4.1), 1.3 (1.2-1.4), and 1.3 (1.1-1.6) for intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, respectively. Intracerebral hemorrhage was the highest cause of mortality in the dialysis population, although cerebral infarction was the highest in the general population. Relative to the general population in Japan, Japanese dialysis patients had higher mortality rates, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:25196294

  12. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage due to valproic acid: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Inzirillo, Francesco; Giorgetta, Casimiro; Ravalli, Eugenio; Pona, Claudio Della

    2015-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is one of the most frequently used antiepileptic drugs for the treatment of focal and generalized epilepsies, absence seizures, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS). VPA has been demonstrated to have a negative effect on both the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation systems and controversy exists about the clinical relevance of such hematological abnormalities. We describe a case of reversible lung hemorrage due to VPA. In English-language literature only two other similar cases (one of which fatal) have been described so far. PMID:25814807

  13. The Biochemical Basis of Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors as Neuroprotective Agents in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wong, George Kwok Chu; Poon, Wai Sang

    2010-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has the highest morbidity and mortality rates of all types of stroke. Many aneurysmal SAH patients continue to suffer from significant neurological morbidity and mortality directly related to delayed cerebral ischemia. Pilot clinical studies of the use of Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (statins) in aneurysmal SAH patients have reported a reduction in delayed cerebral ischemia and better clinical outcomes. We review the biochemical effects of statins on endothelium vascular function, glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, inflammatory changes, and oxidative injuries, with reference to their possible neuroprotective effects in aneurysmal SAH.

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy fails to reduce hydrocephalus formation following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background & purpose Approximately 40% of hemorrhagic stroke survivors develop hydrocephalus. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been shown to be anti-inflammation following experimental stroke; however, its effect upon post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus formation is not known. The objective of this study is to investigate whether HBO therapy can effectively reduce hydrocephalus formation and improve neurobehavioral functions in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Method Thirty-eight male Sprague–Dawley rats (300-320 g) rats survived for 21 days from SAH by endovascular perforation or sham surgery were used. At 24 hours after SAH, HBO (3 atmospheres absolute) or normobaric oxygen (NBO) administrated for 1 hour once daily for a total of 7 days. Wire hanging and rotarod testing were conducted at 14 days after SAH, and cognitive functions were evaluated via the Morris water maze, between day 17 to day 21 after surgery. At day 21, rats were sacrificed and cerebroventricular volumes were measured histologically. Results Hydrocephalus exacerbated neurological deficits after SAH, and HBO multiple treatment tendentially improved the neurobehavioral functions. Spatial learning and memory deficits were noticed after SAH, and rats with hydrocephalus showed worse learning and memory abilities and HBO treatment showed a minor improvement. In the SAH group (room air) 4 rats showed an increased ventricular volume at day 21 after SAH-induction (n?=?10). HBO or NBO therapy did not alter the occurrence of hydrocephalus after SAH, as 4 rats in each of these groups showed an increased ventricular volume (n?=?10 per group). Conclusion Multiple HBO therapy does not ameliorate hydrocephalus formation in a rat model of SAH; however, HBO tendentially improved the neurological functions and spatial learning and memory abilities in rats with hydrocephalus. PMID:25132956

  15. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... left with physical limitations or problems with their thinking. In those cases, long periods of rehabilitation are ... one dedicated to the care of patients with critical brain disease. Patients with SAH may need a ...

  16. Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Associated with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage after Rupture of Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoto Hara; Kazuo Mukuno; Hironori Ohtaka; Kimiya Shimizu

    2003-01-01

    Two clinical cases in which ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) occurred after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are reported. Hemorrhage in the proximity of the optic chiasm was confirmed in 2 cases following rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Optic disk atrophy with excavation and permanent visual field defect (altitudinal superior hemianopia) occurred in both cases. ION seems to occur in association

  17. Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Frangiskakis, J. Michael; Hravnak, Marilyn; Crago, Elizabeth A.; Tanabe, Masaki; Kip, Kevin E.; Gorcsan, John; Horowitz, Michael B.; Kassam, Amin B.; London, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiac morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are attributable to myocardial injury, decreased ventricular function, and ventricular arrhythmia (VA). Our objective was to test the relationships between QTc prolongation, VA, and survival after SAH. Methods In 200 subjects with acute aneurysmal SAH, electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, and telemetry were evaluated. Serum electrolytes and troponin were also evaluated. Results Initial QTc (mean 460 ± 45 ms) was prolonged (?470 ms) in 38% of subjects and decreased on follow-up (469 ± 49 initial vs. 435 ± 31 ms follow-up; N = 89; P < 0.0001). VA was present in 14% of subjects, 52% of subjects with VA had QTc ? 470 ms, and initial QTc trended toward longer duration in subjects with VA (474 ± 61 vs. 457 ± 42 ms; P = 0.084). Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant predictors of VA after SAH were increasing age (OR 1.3/5 years; P = 0.025), increasing stroke severity (OR 1.8; P = 0.009), decreasing heart rate (OR 0.5/10 beats/min; P= 0.006), and the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor antagonist use at SAH onset (OR 0.10; P = 0.027). All-cause mortality was 19% (25/135) at 3 months and subjects with VA had significantly higher mortality than those without VA (37% vs. 16%; P = 0.027). Conclusions These data demonstrate that QTc prolongation and arrhythmias are frequently noted after SAH, but arrhythmias are often not associated with QTc prolongation. In addition, the presence of VA identified subjects at greater risk of mortality following their SAH. PMID:19184553

  18. Cat Friendly www.glasgow.ac.uk/sah

    E-print Network

    Maizels, Rick

    Cat Friendly Practice www.glasgow.ac.uk/sah #12;Our recognised cat advocates have the responsibility to ensure we stick to the principles of the International Society of Feline Medicine (ISFM) cat friendly practice Meet our cat friendly team: Contact us: Tel: +44 (0) 141 330 5848 | Fax: +44 (0) 141 330

  19. Cysteamine alleviates early brain injury via reducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Yong; Yang, Ming-Feng; Wang, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Liu, Yun-Lin; Zhang, Jin-Hui; Sun, Bao-Liang

    2015-05-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to assess whether cysteamine prevents post-SAH oxidative stress injury via its antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects. It was observed that intraperitoneal administration of cysteamine (20 mg/kg/day) could significantly alleviate EBI (including neurobehavioral deficits, brain edema, blood-brain barrier permeability, and cortical neuron apoptosis) after SAH in rats. Meanwhile, cysteamine treatment reduced post-SAH elevated the reactive oxygen species level, the concentration of malondialdehyde, 3-nitrotyrosine, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and increased the glutathione peroxidase enzymatic activity, the concentration of glutathione and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in brain cortex at 48 h after SAH. These results indicated that administration of cysteamine may ameliorate EBI and provide neuroprotection after SAH in rat models. PMID:25527033

  20. IL-33 Expression in the Cerebral Cortex Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Tian; Li, Hua; Sun, Qing; Liu, Ming; Li, Wei-De; Li, Song; Yu, Zhuang; Wei, Wu-Ting; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a pervasive and devastating condition in which inflammatory and apoptotic pathways contribute to poor outcome. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) plays a crucial role in the inflammatory and apoptotic pathways through binding of the transmembrane ST2 receptor. This study investigated the expression and cellular localization of IL-33 in the cerebral cortex after SAH in order to clarify the role of IL-33 after SAH. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham and SAH groups and evaluated 2, 6, and 12 h and 1, 2, 3, and 5 days after the surgery, with SAH animals subjected to prechiasmatic cistern SAH. IL-33 expression was measured by western blot analysis, real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and IL-1? were also assessed. The expression of IL-33, IL-1?, and TNF-? was markedly elevated in the SAH as compared to the sham group; IL-33 was mainly localized in neurons and astrocytes and not microglia after SAH. Moreover, a significant positive association was observed between IL-33 and IL-1? expression. These findings indicate that IL-33 might play an important role in the inflammatory response following SAH. PMID:25417195

  1. Blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter prevents iron accumulation in a model of experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiying; Hao, Shuangying; Sun, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Dingding; Gao, Xin; Yu, Zhuang; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-01-24

    Previous studies have shown that iron accumulation is involved in the pathogenesis of brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and chelation of iron reduced mortality and oxidative DNA damage. We previously reported that blockage of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) provided benefit in the early brain injury after experimental SAH. This study was undertaken to identify whether blockage of MCU could ameliorate iron accumulation-associated brain injury following SAH. Therefore, we used two reagents ruthenium red (RR) and spermine (Sper) to inhibit MCU. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups including sham, SAH, SAH+RR, and SAH+Sper. Biochemical analysis and histological assays were performed. The results confirmed the iron accumulation in temporal lobe after SAH. Interestingly, blockage of MCU dramatically reduced the iron accumulation in this area. The mechanism was revealed that inhibition of MCU reversed the down-regulation of iron regulatory protein (IRP) 1/2 and increase of ferritin. Iron-sulfur cluster dependent-aconitase activity was partially conserved when MCU was blocked. In consistence with this and previous report, ROS levels were notably reduced and ATP supply was rescued; levels of cleaved caspase-3 dropped; and integrity of neurons in temporal lobe was protected. Taken together, our results indicated that blockage of MCU could alleviate iron accumulation and the associated injury following SAH. These findings suggest that the alteration of calcium and iron homeostasis be coupled and MCU be considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH. PMID:25529443

  2. Role of Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter in Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huiying; Zhang, Dingding; Hao, Shuangying; Li, Kuanyu; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that mitochondrial Ca(2+) is undertaken by mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), and its accumulation is associated with the development of many diseases. However, little was known about the role of MCU in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MCU can be opened by spermine under a physiological condition and inhibited by ruthenium red (RR). Herein, we investigated the effects of RR and spermine to reveal the role of MCU in SAH animal model. The data obtained with biochemical and histological assays showed that mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration was significantly increased in the temporal cortex of rats 1, 2, and 3 days after SAH, consistent with constant high levels of cellular Ca(2+) concentration. In agreement with the observation in the acute phase, SAH rats showed an obvious increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and decrease of ATP production. Blockage of MCU prevented Ca(2+) accumulation, abated the level of oxidative stress, and improved the energy supply. Translocation of cytochrome c, increased cleaved caspase-3, and a large amount of apoptotic cells after SAH were reversed by RR administration. Surprisingly, exogenous spermine did not increase cellular Ca(2+) concentration, but lessened the Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH to benefit the rats. Taken together, our results demonstrated that blockage of MCU or prevention of Ca(2+) accumulation after SAH is essential in EBI after SAH. These findings suggest that MCU is considered to be a therapeutic target for patients suffering from SAH. PMID:25370932

  3. Expression signatures of long non-coding RNAs in early brain injury following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Bingjie; Liu, Huailei; Wang, Ruke; Xu, Shancai; Liu, Yaohua; Wang, Kaikai; Hou, Xu; Shen, Chen; Wu, Jianing; Chen, Xin; Wu, Pei; Zhang, Guang; Ji, Zhiyong; Wang, Hongyu; Xiao, Yao; Han, Jianyi; Shi, Huaizhang; Zhao, Shiguang

    2015-07-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is an important cause of mortality in stroke patients. Long non?coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have important functions in brain disease, however their expression profiles in SAH remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the expression signatures of LncRNAs and mRNAs in early brain injury (EBI) following SAH in a rat model. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into an SAH group and a sham operation group. The expression signatures of the LncRNAs and mRNAs in the temporal lobe cortex were investigated using a rat LncRNAs array following experimental SAH. The results revealed that there were 144 downregulated and 64 upregulated LncRNAs and 181 downregulated and 221 upregulated mRNAs following SAH. Additionally, two upregulated (BC092207, MRuc008hvl) and three downregulated (XR_006756, MRAK038897, MRAK017168) LncRNAs were confirmed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The differentially expressed mRNAs were further analyzed using the Gene Ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. The pathway analysis results provided by the KEGG database indicated that eight pathways associated with inflammation were involved in EBI following SAH. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that the expression profiles of the LncRNAs and mRNAs were significantly different between the SAH?induced EBI group and the sham operation group. These differently expressed LncRNAs may be important in EBI following SAH. PMID:25777551

  4. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relationship to solar activity in the United States, 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Weil, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common condition treated by neurosurgeons. The inherent variability in the incidence and presentation of ruptured cerebral aneurysms has been investigated in association with seasonality, circadian rhythm, lunar cycle, and climate factors. We aimed to identify an association between solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) and the incidence of aneurysmal SAH, all of which appear to behave in periodic fashions over long time periods. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) provided longitudinal, retrospective data on patients hospitalized with SAH in the United States, from 1988 to 2010, who underwent aneurysmal clipping or coiling. Solar activity and SAH incidence data were modeled with the cosinor methodology and a 10-year periodic cycle length. The NIS database contained 32,281 matching hospitalizations from 1988 to 2010. The acrophase (time point in the cycle of highest amplitude) for solar flux and for sunspots were coincident. The acrophase for aneurysmal SAH incidence was out of phase with solar activity determined by non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Aneurysmal SAH incidence peaks appear to be delayed behind solar activity peaks by 64 months (95% CI; 56-73 months) when using a modeled 10-year periodic cycle. Solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) appears to be associated with the incidence of aneurysmal SAH. As solar activity reaches a relative maximum, the incidence of aneurysmal SAH reaches a relative minimum. These observations may help identify future trends in aneurysmal SAH on a population basis. PMID:24979701

  5. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a Stroke? Ischemic Stroke Intracerebral Hemorrhage Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Pediatric Stroke Warning Signs Stroke Statistics When a cerebral aneurysm ruptures, blood will fill the space surrounding the ...

  6. Brain stem hemorrhage due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy: the autopsy of a patient with Alzheimer's disease at a young age.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Seiji; Shimizu, Keiko; Asari, Masaru; Maseda, Chikatoshi; Oka, Kumiko; Yamada, Hiromi; Hoshina, Chisato; Doi, Hiroki; Yajima, Daisuke; Shiono, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Katsuhiro

    2014-03-01

    We report findings from an autopsy of a male in his 40s who died of a brain stem hemorrhage associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), senile plaques (SPs) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are histopathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our immunohistochemical study demonstrated amyloid ? (A?) deposition in the small cerebral arteries and SPs. Although hypertension (178/132 mmHg) was detected, the subject was not treated accordingly. CAA coupled with hypertension might have caused the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PMID:24491518

  7. Acute abdomen and massive hemorrhage due to placenta percreta leading to spontaneous uterine rupture in the second trimester

    PubMed Central

    Ulkumen, Burcu A.; Pala, Halil G.; Baytur, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    Placental invasion anomalies are rare obstetrical complications. They cause severe third trimester hemorrhage, severe postpartum bleeding, and maternal morbidity and mortality unless they are diagnosed antenatally. We present a rare case with placenta percreta leading to spontaneous uterine rupture during the second trimester with an acute abdomen and hypovolemia. PMID:25228189

  8. [Tactics and results of treatment of acute hemorrhage in gastroduodenal erosive ulcers due to application of gastro-aggressive preparations].

    PubMed

    Shapryns'ky?, V O; Romanchuk, V D; Koval', V M

    2014-09-01

    Results of treatment of 238 patients, suffering an acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage, occurring on background of application of medicinal preparations, were adduced. The incidence rate for an acute medicinal ulcers of foregut was analyzed, as well as possibilities for their treatment. PMID:25509425

  9. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Secondary to Forceful Sneeze

    PubMed Central

    Nomani, Ali Zohair; Rajput, Haris Majid; Iqbal, Mansoor; Jan, Zakir; Irshad, Muhammad; Badshah, Mazhar; Khan, Rao Sohail Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a relatively less common but important neurological condition comprising 5% of all the cerebrovascular accidents. In most populations the reported incidence is 6-7 per 100,000 person-years and one-third of survivors become dependent. It is a serious but potentially treatable cause of neurological morbidity. Multiple authors have identified the most unusual novel associations and triggers of subarachnoid bleeds over the past decade. We herein report a rare case of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to focal neurological deficit in a middle aged man secondary to forceful sneeze. PMID:25685569

  10. Mechanisms of hyperbaric oxygen-induced neuroprotection in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P Ostrowski; Austin R T Colohan; John H Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Acute cerebral ischemia occurs after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) because of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) and decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on physiological and clinical outcomes after SAH, as well as the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and its target genes, such as BNIP3 and VEGF was evaluated. Eighty-five male SD rats (300 to 350

  11. Anticoagulation for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed Osama Hegazi; Sherif Ahmed; Mohamed Gaber Sakr; Omar Ahmed Hassanien

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To report the success of anticoagulation (AC) treatment in a case of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in view of the limited evidence seen in the literature supporting such a treatment option. Clinical Presentation and Intervention: A 38-year-old lady with CVT and SAH presented 12 h after the onset of symptoms. AC with low-molecular-weight heparin was

  12. [Delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: prevention, diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Wartenberg, K E

    2012-12-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is the second most important impacting factor for functional outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) following the initial severity of the bleeding. In contrast to the initial SAH severity the presence and consequences of DCI can be managed with prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. The previous notion of treatment of angiographically observed vasospasm has not been shown to be successful.This article covers prevention, monitoring and therapeutic concepts for patients with SAH with emphasis on the efficacy for DCI and current and ongoing research projects. PMID:23180054

  13. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of an Intracavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm Coexisting with a Prolactinoma under Cabergoline Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Akutsu, Nobuyuki; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Ohta, Kohei; Tanaka, Hirotomo; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Kohmura, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual case of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intraoperative rupture of an intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm coexisting with a prolactinoma. A 58-year-old man presenting with diplopia was found to have a left intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm encased by a suprasellar tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. His serum prolactin level was 5036 ng/mL. Proximal ligation of the left internal carotid artery with a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis was scheduled. Because the patient's diplopia had deteriorated, we started him on cabergoline at a dose of 0.25?mg once a week. One month after administration of cabergoline, the diplopia was improved to some extent and serum prolactin was decreased to 290 ng/ml. Six weeks after starting the cabergoline, the patient underwent a left frontotemporal craniotomy to treat the aneurysm. When the dura mater was opened, abnormal brain swelling and obvious subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. Postoperative computed tomography demonstrated a thick subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case suggests that medical therapy for a pituitary adenoma should be started after treatment for a coexisting intracavernous aneurysm is completed. PMID:25083394

  14. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Due to Rupture of an Intracavernous Carotid Artery Aneurysm Coexisting with a Prolactinoma under Cabergoline Treatment.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Nobuyuki; Hosoda, Kohkichi; Ohta, Kohei; Tanaka, Hirotomo; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Kohmura, Eiji

    2014-08-01

    We report an unusual case of subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by intraoperative rupture of an intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm coexisting with a prolactinoma. A 58-year-old man presenting with diplopia was found to have a left intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm encased by a suprasellar tumor on magnetic resonance imaging. His serum prolactin level was 5036 ng/mL. Proximal ligation of the left internal carotid artery with a superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis was scheduled. Because the patient's diplopia had deteriorated, we started him on cabergoline at a dose of 0.25?mg once a week. One month after administration of cabergoline, the diplopia was improved to some extent and serum prolactin was decreased to 290 ng/ml. Six weeks after starting the cabergoline, the patient underwent a left frontotemporal craniotomy to treat the aneurysm. When the dura mater was opened, abnormal brain swelling and obvious subarachnoid hemorrhage were observed. Postoperative computed tomography demonstrated a thick subarachnoid hemorrhage. This case suggests that medical therapy for a pituitary adenoma should be started after treatment for a coexisting intracavernous aneurysm is completed. PMID:25083394

  15. Cause-specific mortality of 1-year survivors of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Silventoinen, Karri; Laatikainen, Tiina; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess long-term, cause-specific mortality rates and rate ratios of the patients alive at 1 year after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods: The population-based, prospective, cohort study with a nested case-control design consisted of 64,349 persons (aged 25–74 years at enrollment) who participated in the National FINRISK Study between 1972 and 2007. Four hundred thirty-seven SAH cases, 233 one-year SAH survivors, and their matched intrinsic controls were identified and followed up until the end of 2009 through the nationwide Finnish Causes of Death Register. All-cause mortality rates and rate ratios of the 1-year SAH survivors and controls were the main outcome measures. Results: Eighty-eight (37.8%) of 233 one-year SAH survivors died during the total follow-up time of 2,487 person-years (median 8.6 years, range 0.1–35.8 years). The 1-year SAH survivors had a hazard ratio of 1.96 (95% confidence interval 1.57–2.47) for death compared with the matched general population with 10 controls for each SAH survivor. One-year SAH survivors had up to 31 additional deaths per 1,000 person-years compared with controls with minimal cerebrovascular risk factors. The higher long-term risk of death among SAH survivors was attributed solely to cerebrovascular diseases, and most important modifiable risk factors for death were smoking, high systolic blood pressure (?159 mm Hg), and high cholesterol levels (?7.07 mmol/L). Conclusion: One-year SAH survivors have excess mortality, which is attributed to an exceptional risk of deadly cerebrovascular events. Aggressive post-SAH cerebrovascular risk factor intervention strategies are highly warranted. PMID:23303843

  16. The neuroprotective effects of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in a mouse model of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ayer, R; Jadhav, V; Sugawara, T; Zhang, John H

    2011-01-01

    The CNS inflammatory reaction occurring after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) involves the upregulation of numerous cytokines and prostaglandins. Cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition is a well-established pharmacological anti-inflammatory agent. Previous studies have shown marked increases in COX-2 expression in neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells following brain injury. COX-2 inhibition has been shown to be beneficial following various types of brain injury. This experiment investigates the role of COX-2 activity in early brain injury following SAH. CD-1 mice were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH or SHAM surgery. Following experimental SAH animals were treated with the specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS398, in dosages of either 10 or 30 mg/kg. Neurological performance and brain edema were evaluated 24 and 72 h after SAH. NS398 at 30 mg/kg significantly reduced SAH-induced neurological deterioration. NS 398 at 30 mg/kg resulted in a trend toward the reduction of SAH-induced cerebral edema. Treatment had no effect on mortality. This experiment provides preliminary evidence that COX-2 inhibition is an effective pharmacological intervention for the prevention of brain edema and the preservation of neurological function following SAH. PMID:21725746

  17. Role of Gap Junctions in Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, Robert; Chen, Wanqiu; Sugawara, Takashi; Suzuki, Hidenori; Zhang, John H.

    2010-01-01

    Gap junction inhibition has been demonstrated to reverse the vascular contraction that follows experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study hypothesizes that the use of established gap junction inhibitors: octonal and carbenoxolone, to interrupt cell to cell communication will provide neuroprotection against early brain injury after SAH. The filament perforation model of SAH was performed in male Sprague–Dawley rats weighing between 300 and 380g. Octanol (260.46mg or 781.38 mg/kg), carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg), or vehicles were given via intraperitoneal injection 1 hour after SAH. Neurologic deficits and cerebral apoptosis were assessed 24 and 72 hours after SAH. In addition, Western blot analysis was performed to confirm the in vivo inhibition of CNS gap junctions. The administration of octanol and carbenoxolone both failed to attenuate the neurological deficits induced by SAH, and they did not reduce neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, carbenoloxone increased post SAH mortality and exacerbated SAH induced apoptosis. Despites previous studies that show gap junction inhibitors reverse vasospasm following experimental SAH, they failed to improve clinical outcomes or provide neuroprotection in this study. PMID:20018179

  18. Iatrogenic dural arteriovenous fistula and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Sudhakar; Xin, Xin; Loven, Tina; Restrepo, Guillermo; Chalif, David J; Setton, Avi

    2012-05-01

    The authors present the case of a patient who presented acutely with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and a contralateral iatrogenic dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). Diagnostic angiography was performed, revealing a right-sided middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm and a left-sided DAVF immediately adjacent to the entry of the ventriculostomy and bur hole site. A craniotomy was performed for clipping of the ruptured MCA aneurysm, and the patient subsequently underwent endovascular obliteration of the DAVF 3 days later. The authors present their treatment of an iatrogenic DAVF in a patient with an aneurysmal SAH, considerations in management options, and a literature review on the development of iatrogenic DAVFs. PMID:22537118

  19. Fatal Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Acute Rebleeding of a Pseudoaneurysm Arising from the Distal Basilar Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Chul; Lee, Jae Il; Cho, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Isolated traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the basilar artery are extremely rare but often fatal resulting in a mortality rate as high as 50%. A 51-year-old man presented with craniofacial injury after blunt trauma. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed thick basal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with multiple craniofacial fractures, while CT angiography revealed contrast extravasation at the distal basilar artery with pseudoaneurysm formation. After this primary survey, the condition of the patient suddenly deteriorated. Conventional angiography confirmed the contrast extravasation resulted from pseudoaneurysm formation, which was successfully treated with endovascular coil embolization. Decompressive craniectomy and coma therapy with propofol were also performed. However, the patient died on the 7th hospital day because of the poor initial clinical condition. The current case is the first report of acute pseudoaneurysm rupture arising from the basilar artery within the first day after trauma. Our findings suggest the possibility that pseudoaneurysm rupture should be considered if brain CT shows thick traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the basal cistern with a basal skull fracture. PMID:25535522

  20. Changes in the metabolism of sphingolipids after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Testai, Fernando D; Xu, Hao-Liang; Kilkus, John; Suryadevara, Vidyani; Gorshkova, Irina; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Pelligrino, Dale A; Dawson, Glyn

    2015-05-01

    We previously described how ceramide (Cer), a mediator of cell death, increases in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. This study investigates the alterations of biochemical pathways involved in Cer homeostasis in SAH. Cer, dihydroceramide (DHC), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and the activities of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase), neutral sphingomyelinase (NSMase), sphingomyelinase synthase (SMS), S1P-lyase, and glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) were determined in the CSF of SAH subjects and in brain homogenate of SAH rats. Compared with controls (n?=?8), SAH patients (n?=?26) had higher ASMase activity (10.0?±?3.5 IF/µl· min vs. 15.0?±?4.6 IF/µl • min; P?=?0.009) and elevated levels of Cer (11.4?±?8.8 pmol/ml vs. 33.3?±?48.3 pmol/ml; P?=?0.001) and DHC (1.3?±?1.1 pmol/ml vs. 3.8?±?3.4 pmol/ml; P?=?0.001) in the CSF. The activities of GCS, NSMase, and SMS in the CSF were undetectable. Brain homogenates from SAH animals had increased ASMase activity (control: 9.7?±?1.2 IF/µg • min; SAH: 16.8?±?1.6 IF/µg • min; P?SAH: 7,073?±?2,467 fmol/nmol of total lipid P; P?SAH was associated with a reduction of 60% in S1P levels, a 40% increase in S1P-lyase activity, and a twofold increase in the activity of GCS. In comparison, NSMase and SMS activities were similar to controls and SMS activities similar to controls. In conclusion, our results show an activation of ASMase, S1P-lyase, and GCS resulting in a shift in the production of protective (S1P) in favor of deleterious (Cer) sphingolipids after SAH. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of modulators of the pathways described here in SAH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25597763

  1. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    MedlinePLUS

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... dengue viruses are known to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs when a person is ...

  2. John Montgomery's Legacy: Carbocyclic Adenosine Analogues as Sah Hydrolase Inhibitors with Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. De Clercq

    2005-01-01

    Ever since the S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy, SAH) hydrolase was recognized as a pharmacological target for antiviral agents (J. A. Montgomery et al., J. Med. Chem. 25:626–629, 1982), an increasing number of adenosine, acyclic adenosine, and carbocyclic adenosine analogues have been described as potent SAH hydrolase inhibitors endowed with broad-spectrum antiviral activity. The antiviral activity spectrum of the SAH hydrolase inhibitors include

  3. Prevention of symptomatic vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage by intraoperative cisternal fibrinolysis using tissue-type plasminogen activator combined with continuous cisternal drainage.

    PubMed

    Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Mizoi, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    2004-11-01

    The efficacy of intraoperative cisternal irrigation using tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) combined with continuous cisternal drainage was assessed for the prevention of symptomatic vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Seventy consecutive patients underwent direct surgery for aneurysm clipping within 48 hours of SAH and had computed tomography (CT) findings classified as Fisher group III or IV with densities of more than 65 Hounsfield units (HU). Fibrinolysis of the cisternal clots was performed during surgery using 1.6 mg tPA in 55 cases or 3.2 mg tPA in 15 cases. If postoperative CT within 24 hours of surgery showed areas with density more than 65 HU, additional tPA (0.8 mg/day) was administered into the cisternal catheter until the high density areas disappeared. The cisternal drainage catheters were left in place until day 14. Additional tPA injection was necessary in four of the 55 patients receiving 1.6 mg tPA. Symptomatic vasospasm occurred in three patients (4.3%) and two patients had low density areas on CT. Permanent deficit (hemiparesis) due to cerebral vasospasm remained in only one patient. Intraoperative cisternal irrigation with tPA combined with cisternal drainage is safe and effective for the prevention of symptomatic vasospasm following SAH. PMID:15686175

  4. Transcranial Doppler sonography within 12 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Romner, B; Ljunggren, B; Brandt, L; Säveland, H

    1989-05-01

    Twenty-one patients were subjected to repeated assessment of cerebral blood flow velocities by means of transcranial Doppler sonography (TCDS) during the first 12 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In 19 patients the study was performed following the first SAH, and in two after early rebleeds. Flow velocities did not indicate an early phase of arterial narrowing in any case. Following the first TCDS assessment, flows were evaluated repeatedly in the 19 survivors. Increased flow velocities suggesting arterial narrowing or vasospasm occurred only after a delay of at least 4 days. The results of this study favor the restoration of normal velocity patterns in surviving patients and do not indicate that an acute phase of vasospasm exists either immediately after or in the first 12 hours after SAH. PMID:2651585

  5. [Timing of helicopter transportation for patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage on isolated islands].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Ichiro; Matsunaga, Yuki; Tsutsumi, Keisuke; Takahata, Hideaki; Ono, Tomonori; Toda, Keisuke; Baba, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Cerebral aneurysm re-rupture following subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH)is a serious problem that is related with poor outcome. It is generally said that re-rupture occurs within 6 hours of the initial SAH;in the acute stage, strict management is needed even in the period before hospitalization. The aim of this study was to confirm whether patients on isolated islands should be transferred by helicopter > 6 hours after the initial SAH. Here we reviewed 125 cases of SAH in the isolated islands of Nagasaki prefecture between January 2007 and December 2012 who were transferred to Nagasaki Medical Center by helicopter as a result of consultation via TeleStroke(41 men, 84 women;mean age, 65.76 years). Re-rupture was observed in seven patients(5.6%), five of whom were diagnosed with re-rupture in a prior hospital on the isolated island. No patients demonstrated clinical deterioration during transport. Early helicopter transportation under adequate sedation and control of blood pressure within 6 hours is safe, and patients should be transferred as quickly as possible during the day. On the other hand, at night, flight safety must first be considered. Patients in stable clinical condition may be transferred the next day. We should pay special attention to patients with SAH and intracerebral hemorrhage, severe SAH, or vertebral artery dissecting aneurysm because their condition may gradually become more serious even if initially stable. PMID:24920741

  6. Purpurogallin, a Natural Phenol, Attenuates High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Induced Vasospasm in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Zen; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2014-01-01

    High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was shown to be an important extracellular mediator involved in vascular inflammation of animals following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is of interest to examine the efficacy of purpurogallin, a natural phenol, on the alternation of cytokines and HMGB1 in a SAH model. A rodent double hemorrhage SAH model was employed. Basilar arteries (BAs) were harvested to examine HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression (Western blot). CSF samples were to examine IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-? (rt-PCR). Deformed endothelial wall, tortuous elastic lamina, and necrotic smooth muscle were observed in the vessels of SAH groups but were absent in the purpurogallin group. IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression. Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-? and HMGB1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-? mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression. This study supports purpurogallin could attenuate both proinflammatory cytokines and late-onset inflammasome in SAH induced vasospasm. PMID:25485154

  7. MR Angiography Follow-Up 10 Years after Cryptogenic Nonperimesencephalic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Wenz, Holger; Wenz, Ralf; al Mahdi, Mohamad-Motaz; Scharf, Johann; Groden, Christoph; Schmiedek, Peter; Seiz-Rosenhagen, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Long-term magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) follow-up studies regarding cryptogenic nonperimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (nSAH) are scarce. This single-centre study identified all patients with angiographically verified cryptogenic nSAH from 1998 to 2007: The two main objectives were to prospectively assess the incidence of de novo aneurysm with 3.0-MRI years after cryptogenic nSAH in patients without evidence for further hemorrhage, and retrospectively assess patient demographics and outcome. Methods From prospectively maintained report databases all patients with angiographically verified cryptogenic nSAH were identified. 21 of 29 patients received high-resolution 3T-MRI including time-of-flight and contrast-enhanced angiography, 10.2 ± 2.8 years after cryptogenic nSAH. MRA follow-up imaging was compared with initial digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT/MRA. Post-hemorrhage images were related to current MRI with reference to persistent lesions resulting from delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and post-hemorrhagic siderosis. Patient-based objectives were retrospectively abstracted from clinical databases. Results 29 patients were identified with cryptogenic nSAH, 17 (59%) were male. Mean age at time of hemorrhage was 52.9 ± 14.4 years (range 4 – 74 years). 21 persons were available for long-term follow-up. In these, there were 213.5 person years of MRI-follow-up. No de novo aneurysm was detected. Mean modified Rankin Scale (mRS) during discharge was 1.28. Post-hemorrhage radiographic vasospasm was found in three patients (10.3%); DCI-related lesions occurred in one patient (3.4%). Five patients (17.2%) needed temporary external ventricular drainage; long-term CSF shunt dependency was necessary only in one patient (3.4%). Initial DSA retrospectively showed a 2 x 2 mm aneurysm of the right distal ICA in one patient, which remained stable. Post-hemorrhage siderosis was detected 8.1 years after the initial bleeding in one patient (4.8%). Conclusion Patients with cryptogenic nSAH have favourable outcomes and do not exhibit higher risks for de novo aneurysms. Therefore the need for long-term follow up after cryptogenic nSAH is questionable. PMID:25688554

  8. Cerebral vasospasm following traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aminmansour, Bahram; Ghorbani, Abbas; Sharifi, Davood; Shemshaki, Hamidreza; Ahmadi, Amin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cerebral vasospasm is a preventable cause of death and disability in patients who experience aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence of cerebral vasospasm following traumatic SAH and its relationship with different brain injuries and severity of trauma. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2006 to March 2007 in department of Neurosurgery in Al-Zahra Hospital. Consecutive head-injured patients who had SAH on the basis of an admission CT scan were prospectively evaluated. The severity of the trauma was evaluated by determining Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography evaluations were performed at least 48 hours after admission and one week thereafter. Vasospasm in the MCA and ACA was defined by mean flow velocity (FV) of more than 120 cm/sec with a Lindegaard index (MVA/ICA FV ratio) higher than 3. Basilar artery vasospasm was defined by FV higher than 85 cm/sec. Results: Seventy seven patients with tSAH were enrolled from whom 13 were excluded. The remaining were 52 (81.2%) men and 12 (18.7%) women, with a mean age of 37.89 years. Trauma was severe in 11 (17.2%), moderate in 13 (20.3%), and mild in 40 (62.5%) patients. From all, 27 patients (42.1%) experienced at least one vasospasm during the study period and MCA vasospasm was the most common in the first and second weeks (55.5%). Conclusions: Traumatic SAH is associated with a high incidence of cerebral vasospasm with a higher probability in patients with severe TBI. PMID:21772907

  9. Intracerebral hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Seestedt; Michael R. Frankel

    1999-01-01

    Opinion statement  Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage should be admitted to an intensive care unit for experienced neurologic nursing care\\u000a and close attention to vital signs. We recommend gentle reduction in blood pressure in individuals who present with elevated\\u000a readings and in whom hemorrhage is felt to be secondary to hypertension. For the vast majority of nontraumatic intracerebral\\u000a hemorrhages, the indications for

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improved the Ultrastructural Morphology of Cerebral Tissues after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Fesahat, Farzaneh; Mir-Esmaeili, Seyed Mohsen; Anvari, Morteza; Hekmati-moghadam, Seyed Hossain

    2014-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) causes widespread disruption in the cerebral architecture.The process of SAH is complicated and many people lose their lives or become disabled after injury. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as good candidate for repair of cerebral damage. The aim was to assess the ultrastructural changes in the rat cerebral tissue after intravenous transplantation of MSCs. Female Wistar rats (8 per group) weighing 275~300 g were assigned to control (SAH+PBS) and experimental groups (SAH+MSCs).The samples from middle cerebral arterial wall and parietal cerebral tissue were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) according to standard protocol. Fine architectures of the vessel wall, including the contraction of the inner layer, smooth muscle layer,as well as neural cells were observed after SAH. Cerebral arterial wall and cortex, including neuronal and glial cells were injured post SAH. But, administration of MSCs improved the structural integrity of cerebral tissues. Changes were much more balanced with their relative improvement in some areas. The role of MSCs for repairing the injured cerebral tissues post experimental SAH was approved by electron microscopy. PMID:24737942

  11. Meteorological Influences on the Incidence of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage – A Single Center Study of 511 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Neidert, Marian Christoph; Sprenger, Michael; Wernli, Heini; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Krayenbühl, Niklaus; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca; Woernle, Christoph Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the potential meteorological influence on the incidence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previous studies used inhomogeneous patient groups, insufficient study periods or inappropriate statistics. Patients and Methods We analyzed 511 SAH admissions between 2004 and 2012 for which aneurysmal rupture occurred within the Zurich region. The hourly meteorological parameters considered are: surface pressure, 2-m temperature, relative humidity and wind gusts, sunshine, and precipitation. For all parameters we investigate three complementary statistical measures: i) the time evolution from 5 days before to 5 days after the SAH occurrence; ii) the deviation from the 10-year monthly mean; and iii) the change relative to the parameter's value two days before SAH occurrence. The statistical significance of the results is determined using a Monte Carlo simulation combined with a re-sampling technique (1000×). Results Regarding the meteorological parameters considered, no statistically significant signal could be found. The distributions of deviations relative to the climatology and of the changes during the two days prior to SAH events agree with the distributions for the randomly chosen days. The analysis was repeated separately for winter and summer to exclude compensating effects between the seasons. Conclusion By using high-quality meteorological data analyzed with a sophisticated and robust statistical method no clearly identifiable meteorological influence for the SAH events considered can be found. Further studies on the influence of the investigated parameters on SAH incidence seem redundant. PMID:24312565

  12. Early brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage: Where are we at present?

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Dash, Hari Hara; Cappellani, Ronald B.; Daya, Jayesh

    2013-01-01

    The current era has adopted many new innovations in nearly every aspect of management of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH); however, the neurological outcome has still not changed significantly. These major therapeutic advances mainly addressed the two most important sequels of the SAH-vasospasm and re-bleed. Thus, there is a possibility of some different pathophysiological mechanism that would be responsible for causing poor outcome in these patients. In this article, we have tried to compile the current role of this different yet potentially treatable pathophysiological mechanism in post-SAH patients. The main pathophysiological mechanism for the development of early brain injury (EBI) is the apoptotic pathways. The macro-mechanism includes increased intracranial pressure, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, and finally global ischemia. Most of the treatment strategies are still in the experimental phase. Although the role of EBI following SAH is now well established, the treatment modalities for human patients are yet to be testified. PMID:23956721

  13. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema by reducing cerebral leukocyte infiltration following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Krafft, Paul R; Rolland, William B; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Zhang, John H

    2014-07-15

    Early brain injury (EBI), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), comprises blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent edema formation. Peripheral leukocytes can infiltrate the injured brain, thereby aggravating BBB leakage and neuroinflammation. Thus, anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapies may ameliorate EBI and provide neuroprotection after SAH. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonism has been shown to reduce neuroinflammation; however, the precise protective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133 can ameliorate EBI by reducing brain-infiltrated leukocytes after SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham-operated, SAH with vehicle, SAH with JWH133 (1.0mg/kg), or SAH with a co-administration of JWH133 and selective CB2R antagonist SR144528 (3.0mg/kg). SAH was induced by endovascular perforation, and JWH133 was administered 1h after surgery. Neurological deficits, brain water content, Evans blue dye extravasation, and Western blot assays were evaluated at 24h after surgery. JWH133 improved neurological scores and reduced brain water content; however, SR144528 reversed these treatment effects. JWH133 reduced Evans blue dye extravasation after SAH. Furthermore, JWH133 treatment significantly increased TGF-?1 expression and prevented an SAH-induced increase in E-selectin and myeloperoxidase. Lastly, SAH resulted in a decreased expression of the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); however, JWH133 treatment increased the ZO-1 expression. We suggest that CB2R stimulation attenuates neurological outcome and brain edema, by suppressing leukocyte infiltration into the brain through TGF-?1 up-regulation and E-selectin reduction, resulting in protection of the BBB after SAH. PMID:24819918

  14. Protective Effect of Quercetin against Oxidative Stress and Brain Edema in an Experimental Rat Model of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yu-shu; Wang, Ju-lei; Feng, Da-yun; Qin, Huai-zhou; Wen, Hua; Yin, Zhong-min; Gao, Guo-dong; Li, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin has been demonstrated to play an important role in altering the progression of ischemic brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases by protecting against oxidative stress. The effects of quercetin on brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), however, have not been investigated. This study was designed to explore the effects of quercetin on oxidative stress and brain edema after experimental SAH using four equal groups (n = 16) of adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, including a sham group, an SAH + vehicle group, an SAH + quercetin10 group, and an SAH + quercetin50 group. The rat SAH model was induced by injection of 0.3 ml of non-heparinised arterial blood into the prechiasmatic cistern. In the SAH + quercetin10 and SAH + quercetin50 groups, doses of 10 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg quercetin, respectively, were directly administered by intraperitoneal injection at 30 min, 12 h, and 24 h after SAH induction. Cerebral tissue samples were extracted for enzymatic antioxidant determination, lipid peroxidation assay, caspase-3 activity and water content testing 48 h after SAH. Treatment with a high dose (50 mg/kg) of quercetin markedly enhanced the activities of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and treatment with this dose significantly reduced the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). Caspase-3 and brain edema was ameliorated and neurobehavioral deficits improved in rats that received the high dose of quercetin. The findings suggest that the early administration of optimal dose of quercetin may ameliorate brain damage and provide neuroprotection in the SAH model, potentially by enhancing the activity of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and inhibiting free radical generation. PMID:24516353

  15. Clinical Trials in Cardiac Arrest and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Lessons from the Past and Ideas for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Frontera, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Elevated intracranial pressure that occurs at the time of cerebral aneurysm rupture can lead to inadequate cerebral blood flow, which may mimic the brain injury cascade that occurs after cardiac arrest. Insights from clinical trials in cardiac arrest may provide direction for future early brain injury research after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods. A search of PubMed from 1980 to 2012 and clinicaltrials.gov was conducted to identify published and ongoing randomized clinical trials in aneurysmal SAH and cardiac arrest patients. Only English, adult, human studies with primary or secondary mortality or neurological outcomes were included. Results. A total of 142 trials (82 SAH, 60 cardiac arrest) met the review criteria (103 published, 39 ongoing). The majority of both published and ongoing SAH trials focus on delayed secondary insults after SAH (70%), while 100% of cardiac arrest trials tested interventions within the first few hours of ictus. No SAH trials addressing treatment of early brain injury were identified. Twenty-nine percent of SAH and 13% of cardiac arrest trials showed outcome benefit, though there is no overlap mechanistically. Conclusions. Clinical trials in SAH assessing acute brain injury are warranted and successful interventions identified by the cardiac arrest literature may be reasonable targets of the study. PMID:23533956

  16. Everyday Memory in Microsurgically Treated Patients After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Koso, Maida; Dizdarevic, Kemal; Sose-Selimotic, Jasmina

    2015-01-01

    Background Memory declines measured by traditional tests in patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are well documented. Classic examinations of memory problems sometimes do not significantly correlate with memory functions in everyday life. The objective of the study was to assess the specific type of everyday memory loss in patients after microsurgical treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysm causing SAH. Methods The prospective controlled, randomized study was conducted using the specific tests for everyday memory measure with high ecological validity. All patients were operated on by the same neurosurgeon (KD). Preoperatively, patients were in a good grade (Hunt-Hess I or II), with no neurological deficit and no hydrocephalus postoperatively. Patients were tested at two phases: 15 and 45 days after microsurgery with the Rivermead behavioral memory test (RBMT) and the cognitive failure questionnaire (CFQ). Results We compared the results of the tests administered in subjects that underwent microdiscectomy surgery for SAH to a control group that underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation (DH). Conclusion Neuropsychological assessment of operated patients who sustained SAH showed a decline, compared to the DH group, in everyday memory function. Also, we found failures in perception and motor function in operated SAH patients with a trend of cognitive recovery as time progresses. PMID:25699118

  17. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Spreading Depolarizations and Impaired Neurovascular Coupling

    PubMed Central

    Koide, Masayo; Sukhotinsky, Inna; Ayata, Cenk; Wellman, George C.

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has devastating consequences on brain function including profound effects on communication between neurons and the vasculature leading to cerebral ischemia. Physiologically, neurovascular coupling represents a focal increase in cerebral blood flow to meet increased metabolic demand of neurons within active regions of the brain. Neurovascular coupling is an ongoing process involving coordinated activity of the neurovascular unit—neurons, astrocytes, and parenchymal arterioles. Neuronal activity can also influence cerebral blood flow on a larger scale. Spreading depolarizations (SD) are self-propagating waves of neuronal depolarization and are observed during migraine, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Typically, SD is associated with increased cerebral blood flow. Emerging evidence indicates that SAH causes inversion of neurovascular communication on both the local and global level. In contrast to other events causing SD, SAH-induced SD decreases rather than increases cerebral blood flow. Further, at the level of the neurovascular unit, SAH causes an inversion of neurovascular coupling from vasodilation to vasoconstriction. Global ischemia can also adversely affect the neurovascular response. Here, we summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of SAH and global ischemia on neurovascular communication. A mechanistic understanding of these events should provide novel strategies to treat these neurovascular disorders. PMID:23577279

  18. [Changes in the course after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage from the neurological point of view].

    PubMed

    Bewermeyer, H; Szelies, B; Lumenta, C; Heiss, W D

    1982-08-01

    In order to recognize changes in the course after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH) cases hospitalized between 1974 and 1981 were divided in two groups: group 1 contained 53 patients from 1974 to 1976, group 2 84 patients from 1977 to 1981. With respect to age and clinical condition at admission to the hospital (grading according to Hunt and Hess, 20) the two groups were not different and were comparable to the patient population of epidemiologic studies. Due to the high percentage of cases of older age and with poor prognosis mortality in our patients was high when compared to the selected material of neurosurgical and randomized studies, but letality decreased markedly from 47,2% between 1974 and 1976 to 35,7% between 1977 and 1981. Good clinical outcome increased from 41,5% in group 1 to 54,7% in group 2; favourable outcome after surgical treatment (69,5%) had a high impact on this result. This change in the clinical course after sSAH was attributed to more intensive conservative treatment and to improved surgical technique with better defined selection of operable cases and with a tendency to operate early after the bleed. By reducing the number and postponing the occurrence of rebleeding antifibrinolytic therapy with tranexamic acid was of supportive value. PMID:7129326

  19. [Complete Remission of Consciousness Disturbances and Spasticity due to a Severe Subarachnoid Hemorrhage after Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy:A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Asahi, Takashi; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Koh, Masaki; Matsumura, Nobuhisa; Kuroda, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    Typically, intrathecal baclofen therapy(ITB)for spasticity is continuously required because the spasticity can recur if the ITB is stopped. Thus, an infusion pump for the ITB is permanently implanted. Some sporadic cases exhibiting remarkable improvements in their spasticity and consciousness disturbances have been reported after implanting the ITB pump. We experienced a rare case involving removal of the ITB pump after the spasticity resolved and the consciousness disturbances markedly improved. A 15-year-old girl developed a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an aneurysm in the right anterior cerebral artery. Her initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 4(E1V1M2). Trapping of the aneurysm and decompression craniotomy were performed. Subsequently, she underwent a tracheotomy, and a percutaneous gastrostomy(PEG)tube was implanted because of persistent consciousness disturbances. Cranioplasty and lumbar-peritoneal shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus were performed after 1 month. An ITB pump was implanted to improve the spasticity observed mainly in the lower extremities 61 days after hemorrhage onset. Right hemiparesis remained due to Kernohan's notch. After transfer to the rehabilitation hospital, her consciousness disturbances and spasticity remarkably improved(1.9 to 1.0 and 3.5 to 1.0 on the Ashworth scale for the upper and lower extremities, respectively). The tracheostomy and PEG tubes were removed, and the baclofen dose was gradually reduced. She was completely off baclofen after 7 months, and she was discharged with a short leg brace and a cane for walking. The baclofen pump was then removed. In this case, temporary ITB improved the spasticity and consciousness disturbances. PMID:25748812

  20. Elevated Troponin Levels are Predictive of Mortality in Surgical Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew C. Garrett; Ricardo J. Komotar; Robert M. Starke; Darshan Doshi; Marc L. Otten; E. Sander Connolly

    2010-01-01

    Objective  Elevated troponin levels are a common occurrence after ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and have been described\\u000a as a neurogenic form of myocardial injury. The prognostic significance of this event is controversial with numerous studies\\u000a citing conflicting results. The importance of cardiac stress is of particular relevance in the operative management of intracerebral\\u000a hemorrhage (ICH). To this end, we

  1. Tamoxifen as an effective neuroprotectant against early brain injury and learning deficits induced by subarachnoid hemorrhage: possible involvement of inflammatory signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, has successfully been used to treat several animal models of brain injury, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of tamoxifen on the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B)-related inflammatory signaling pathway and secondary brain injury in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (1) control group (n?=?28); (2) SAH group (n?=?28); (3) SAH?+?vehicle group (n?=?28); and (4) SAH?+?tamoxifen group (n?=?28). All SAH animals were subjected to injection of autologous blood into the prechiasmatic cistern once on day 0. In SAH?+?tamoxifen group, tamoxifen was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 5 mg/kg at 2 h, 12 h, and 36 h after SAH. In the first set of experiments, brain samples were extracted and evaluated at 48 h after SAH. In the second set of experiments, the Morris water maze was used to investigate cognitive and memory changes. Results We found that treatment with tamoxifen markedly inhibited the protein expressions of TLR4, NF-?B and the downstream inflammatory agents, such as interleukin-1? (IL-1?), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Administration of tamoxifen following SAH significantly ameliorated the early brain injury (EBI), such as brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, and clinical behavior scale. Learning deficits induced by SAH were markedly alleviated after tamoxifen treatment. Conclusions Post-SAH tamoxifen administration may attenuate TLR4/NF-kappaB-mediated inflammatory response in the rat brain and result in abatement of the development of EBI and cognitive dysfunction after SAH. PMID:24373431

  2. Correlation between plasma total nitric oxide levels and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Shruthi Shimoga; Prasanthi, Aripirala; Bhat, Dhananjaya Ishwar; Devi, Bhagavatula Indira; Cristopher, Rita; Philip, Mariamma

    2014-01-01

    Context: Cerebral vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide has been associated with the development of cerebral vasospasm after aSAH. Such data is not available in Indian population. Aims: The objective of the study was to measure the plasma total nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate-NOx) level in aSAH patients and healthy controls treated at a tertiary hospital in India and to investigate a possible association between plasma total nitric oxide level and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome following treatment in patients with aSAH. Settings and Design: A case-control study of aSAH patients was conducted. Plasma total NOx levels were estimated in aSAH patients with and without vasospasm and compared the results with NOx levels in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: aSAH in patients was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and neuro-imaging findings. Plasma total NOx levels in different subject groups were determined by Griess assay. Results: Plasma total NOx level was found to be significantly decreased in patients with aSAH when compared to controls. Plasma total NOx level in the poor-grade SAH group was lower than that in the good-grade SAH group. Plasma total NOx level further reduced in patients with angiographic (P < 0.05) and clinical vasospasm. Conclusions: Reduced plasma NOx level is seen in aSAH patients as compared to normal individuals. In aSAH patients reduced levels are associated with increased incidence of cerebral vasospasm and poor outcome. Plasma total NOx level could be used as a candidate biomarker for predicting vasospasm and outcome for this pathology. PMID:25540533

  3. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Following Catastrophic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Pathophysiologic Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aradhana M. Venkatesan; Dimitri Karmpaliotis; Eric S. Silverman

    2001-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is an increase in interstitial and alveolar lung fluid that occurs as a direct consequence of acute or subacute central nervous system (CNS) injury. In this review we describe a patient who developed hypoxemic respiratory failure as a result of NPE following catastrophic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The patient displayed many of the characteristic symptoms, signs, and

  4. Blood-brain barrier permeability change and regulation mechanism after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqing; Liang, Guobiao; Ma, Teng; Li, Jingchen; Wang, Ping; Liu, Libo; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yunhui; Xue, Yixue

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the blood brain barrier (BBB) change caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to explore the molecular mechanisms of acute brain injury after SAH. The SD rat model of SAH was firstly established by endovascular filament perforation technique. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), BBB permeability and ultrastructure of brain tissue at different time points after SAH were respectively observed by Doppler flowmetry, evans blue extravasation and transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, the expression changes of Claudin-5, Occludin, Zo-1 and Caveolin-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Furthermore, the expressions of Akt, P-Akt and Foxo1A were also measured by Western blot. The change of BBB permeability showed two peaks at 3 and 72 h after SAH, corresponding to the change of rCBF. The BBB tight junction opening can be observed after SAH, and the largest opening was occurred at 3 h and 72 h. There was no significant change in Caveolin-1, Claudin-5 and Akt expressions after SAH (P?>?0.05), while Zo-1 and Occludin were significantly down-regulated (P?SAH (P?SAH. PMID:25270004

  5. Increased cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine correlate with adverse clinical outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Wu, Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Qing-Rong; Ni, Li; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, have been found in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In addition, CSF levels of ADMA are associated with the severity of vasospasm. However, the relation between CSF ADMA levels and the clinical outcome of SAH patients is still unclear. We hypothesized that elevated ADMA levels in CSF might be related to the clinical outcome of SAH patients. CSF ADMA levels were measured in 20 SAH patients at days 3-5, days 7-9 and days 12-14 after SAH onset using high-performance liquid chromatography. Cerebral vasospasm was assessed by transcranial Doppler ultra sonography. Clinical outcome at 2year follow-up was evaluated using the Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). CSF ADMA concentrations in all SAH patients were significantly increased at days 3-5 (p=0.002) after SAH, peaked on days 7-9 (p<0.001) and remained elevated until days 12-14 (p<0.001). In subgroup analysis, significant increases of CSF ADMA levels were found in patients both with and without vasospasm. The KPS scores significantly correlated with CSF levels of ADMA at days 7-9 (correlation coefficient=-0.55, p=0.012; 95% confidence interval -0.80 to -0.14). Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that higher ADMA level at days 7-9 predicted a poor clinical outcome at 2year follow-up after SAH (odds ratio=1.722, p=0.039, 95% confidence interval 1.029 to 2.882). ADMA may be directly involved in the pathological process and future adverse prognosis of SAH. PMID:24814854

  6. Rescue Therapy for Refractory Vasospasm after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Julia C.; Hinson, Holly E.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia remain to be the common causes of increased morbidity and mortality after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The majority of clinical vasospasm responds to hemodynamic augmentation and direct vascular intervention; however, a percentage of patients continue to have symptoms and neurological decline. Despite suboptimal evidence, clinicians have several options in treating refractory vasospasm in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), including cerebral blood flow enhancement, intra-arterial manipulations, and intra-arterial and intrathecal infusions. This review addresses standard treatments as well as emerging novel therapies aimed at improving cerebral perfusion and ameliorating the neurologic deterioration associated with vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25501582

  7. Unpredicted Sudden Death due to Recurrent Infratentorial Hemangiopericytoma Presenting as Massive Intratumoral Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yuzuru; Murayama, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Unpredicted sudden death arising from hemangiopericytoma with massive intracranial hemorrhage is quite rare. We encountered a patient with recurrent infratentorial hemangiopericytoma presenting as life-threatening massive intracerebral hemorrhage. A 43-year-old man who had undergone craniotomy for total resection of an infratentorial hemangiopericytoma 17 months earlier presented with morning headache and generalized convulsions. Computed tomography revealed a massive hematoma in the right infratentorial region causing tonsillar herniation and emergency surgery was performed to evacuate the hematoma. Histological findings revealed hemangiopericytoma with hemorrhage. Neurological status remained unimproved and brain death was confirmed postoperatively. Hemangiopericytoma presenting as massive hemorrhage is quite rare. Since the risk of life-threatening massive hemorrhage should be considered, careful postoperative long-term follow-up is very important to identify tumor recurrences, particularly in the posterior cranial fossa, even if the tumor is completely removed. PMID:25478258

  8. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History Early Detection and Screening Unruptured Brain Aneurysms Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Treatment Options Aneurysm Complications Post ...

  9. Extradural hemorrhage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... intracranial pressure). This pressure may result in additional brain injury. An extradural hemorrhage is an emergency because it ... order to relieve the pressure and prevent further brain injury. A head CT scan will confirm the diagnosis ...

  10. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cerebral vasospasm: a vascular morphometric study in an experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ozgür; Bay, Hüsniye Hacio?lu; Arslanhan, Ayça; Oro?lu, Bengüsu; Bozkurt, Süheyla Uyar; Sehirli, Umit Süleyman; Ziyal, Mustafa ?brahim

    2014-08-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the preventive or therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) on cerebral vasospasm following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Twenty rabbits were assigned randomly to one of four groups. Animals in Group I were not subjected to SAH or sham operation (control group, n = 5). Animals in Group II were subjected to sham operation and received no treatment after the procedure (sham group, n = 5). Animals in Group III were subjected to SAH and received no treatment after SAH induction (SAH group, n = 5). Animals in Group IV were subjected to SAH and received five sessions of HBOT at 2.4 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 2 h (treatment group, n = 5). Animals were euthanized by perfusion and fixation 72 h after procedures. Basilar artery vasospasm indices, arterial wall thicknesses, and cross-sectional luminal areas were evaluated. Statistical comparisons were performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Mean basilar artery vasospasm index in the treatment group was significantly smaller than in the SAH group. Mean basilar artery wall thickness in the treatment group was significantly smaller than in the SAH group. Mean basilar artery cross-sectional luminal area in the treatment group showed an increase relative to the SAH group, but this difference remained statistically insignificant. Our results demonstrated that repeated application of HBOT at 2.4 ATA for 2 h attenuated vasospastic changes such as increased vasospasm index and arterial wall thickness. HBOT is thus a promising candidate for SAH-induced vasospasm. Further studies are needed to evaluate maximal effect and optimal application regimen. PMID:24228831

  11. VAP-1 blockade prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage-associated cerebrovascular dilating dysfunction via repression of a neutrophil recruitment-related mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haoliang; Testai, Fernando D; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; N Pavuluri, Mani; Zhai, Fengguo; Nanegrungsunk, Danop; Paisansathan, Chanannait; Pelligrino, Dale A

    2015-04-01

    Our previous findings indicated that in rats subjected to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), suppression of post-SAH neuroinflammation via vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) blockade provides significant neuroprotection. We and others have reported that neuroinflammation contributes to cerebral microvascular impairment. Thus, in the present study, we tested the hypotheses that: (1) treatment with LJP-1586, a selective VAP-1 blocker, prevents SAH-associated pial arteriolar dilating dysfunction; and (2) the vasculoprotective effect of LJP-1586 arises from inhibiting SAH-elicited neutrophil recruitment. We utilized an endovascular perforation model of SAH. Rats subjected to SAH were either treated with LJP-1586 or rendered neutropenic via anti-neutrophil-antibody treatment. Findings from these groups were compared to their respective control groups. At 48h post-SAH, rats were evaluated for neurobehavioral function, pial venular leukocyte trafficking, and pial arteriolar reactivity to topically-applied acetylcholine (ACh) and S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine (SNAP). Pial arteriolar responses decreased at 48h post-SAH. However, in the presence of LJP-1586, those responses were significantly preserved. Neutrophil-depletion yielded a substantial suppression of SAH-associated leukocyte adhesion and infiltration. This was accompanied by a significant preservation of pial arteriolar dilating function, suggesting a direct link between neutrophil recruitment and the loss of cerebral microvascular reactivity. Moreover, neutrophil depletion also was associated with significant protection of neurobehavioral function. The present findings suggest that attenuating SAH-linked elevation in neutrophil trafficking will protect against the development of microvascular dysfunction and subsequent neurological impairment. PMID:25662771

  12. [Hemorrhagic shock].

    PubMed

    Megevand, Bérangère; Celi, Julien; Niquille, Marc

    2014-08-13

    Shock is a life threatening condition. The management of an hemorrhagic shock, whether traumatic or not, requires early identification of the bleeding source and adequate hemodynamic support. The diagnosis accuracy is based on clinical, hemodynamic, radiologic and biochemical findings which also allow appraisal of the treatment efficiency. Treatment should be goal-oriented with rapid hemorrhage control by surgery, interventional radiology or drug support. Circulatory resuscitation is aimed to restore adequate tissue perfusion and oxygenation and should be closely monitored. PMID:25199225

  13. Impact of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome on Vasospasm, Cerebral Infarction, and Outcome After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Exploratory Analysis of CONSCIOUS1 Database

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan K. H. Tam; Don Ilodigwe; Jay Mocco; Stephan Mayer; Neal Kassell; Daniel Ruefenacht; Peter Schmiedek; Stephan Weidauer; Alberto Pasqualin; R. Loch Macdonald

    2010-01-01

    Background  Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) may develop after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We investigated\\u000a factors associated with SIRS after SAH, whether SIRS was associated with complications of SAH such as vasospasm, cerebral\\u000a infarction, and clinical outcome, and whether SIRS could contribute to a difference in outcome between patients treated by\\u000a endovascular coiling or neurosurgical clipping of the ruptured aneurysm.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This

  14. A modified double injection model of cisterna magna for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Delayed cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious medical complication, characterized by constriction of cerebral arteries leading to varying degrees of cerebral ischemia. Numerous clinical and experimental studies have been performed in the last decades; however, the pathophysiologic mechanism of cerebral vasospasm after SAH still remains unclear. Among a variety of experimental SAH models, the double hemorrhage rat model involving direct injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna has been used most frequently for the study of delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH in last years. Despite the simplicity of the technique, the second blood injection into the cisterna magna may result in brainstem injury leading to high mortality. Therefore, a modified double hemorrhage model of cisterna magna has been developed in rat recently. We describe here step by step the surgical technique to induce double SAH and compare the degree of vasospasm with other cisterna magna rat models using histological assessment of the diameter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery. PMID:23194464

  15. Embolic Signals during Routine Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Paschoal, Fernando Mendes; de Almeida Lins Ronconi, Karla; de Lima Oliveira, Marcelo; Nogueira, Ricardo de Carvalho; Paschoal, Eric Homero Albuquerque; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Figueiredo, Eberval Gadelha; Bor-Seng-Shu, Edson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral emboli may occur in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and intracranial aneurysm surgery. Although embolic signs (ES) have been reported in SAH, their origin remains unclear. The aim of this study was to report the detection of ES during routine TCD monitoring in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Methods. A total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were submitted to TCD evaluation. Patients were monitored almost daily (5 times per week). In each monitoring session, one experienced operator performed TCD to detect or assess vasospasm and ES in arteries of the Willis polygon. Results. Four patients out of a total of 105 patients with aneurysmal SAH were found to present spontaneous cerebral embolization during routine TCD monitoring. The average age of the 4 patients (mean ± standard deviation) was 59.5 ± 8.34 years (range 49–68?ys); female patients predominated representing 75% (3/4) of subjects. Conclusion. Although detection of ES was relatively rare in this study, rates of emboli occurrence may be higher under systematic monitoring. The detection of ES after SAH surgery reinforces the need to study the role of embolus in this condition and may be an indicator for prophylactic antithrombotic treatment.

  16. CO2 has no therapeutic effect on early microvasospasm after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Benjamin; Michalik, Radoslaw; Oniszczuk, Anna; Abubaker, Khalid; Kozniewska, Ewa; Plesnila, Nikolaus

    2014-08-01

    In addition to delayed vasospasm also early brain injury, which occurs during the first few days after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) when large cerebral arteries are still fully functional, plays an important role for the outcome after SAH. In the current study, we investigated the hypothesis that carbon dioxide (CO2), a strong cerebral vasodilator, has a therapeutic potential against early posthemorrhagic microvasospasm. C57BL/6 mice (n=36) and Sprague-Dawley rats (n=23) were subjected to sham surgery or SAH by filament perforation. The pial microcirculation in the mice was visualized 3 and 24 hours after SAH using intravital fluorescence microscopy. Partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) was modulated by hyper- or hypoventilation or by inhalation of 10% CO2. In rats, CO2-mediated changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured at the same time points using laser Doppler fluxmetry. Increased PaCO2 caused vasodilatation in sham-operated animals. Following SAH, however, cerebral arterioles were nonreactive to CO2. This lack of microvascular CO2 reactivity was accompanied by a complete loss of CO2-induced hyperemia. Our data show that CO2 is not able to dilate spastic microvessels and to increase CBF early after SAH. Future therapeutic approaches will therefore need to address mechanisms beyond CO2. PMID:24865999

  17. Diagnostic value of a ghrelin test for the diagnosis of GH deficiency after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Blijdorp, K; Khajeh, L; Ribbers, G M; Sneekes, E M; Heijenbrok-Kal, M H; van den Berg-Emons, H J G; van der Lely, A J; van Kooten, F; Neggers, S J C M M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the diagnostic value of a ghrelin test in the diagnosis of GH deficiency (GHD) shortly after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Design Prospective single-center observational cohort study. Methods A ghrelin test was assessed after the acute phase of SAH and a GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)–arginine test 6 months post SAH. Primary outcome was the diagnostic value of a ghrelin test compared with the GHRH–arginine test in the diagnosis of GHD. The secondary outcome was to assess the safety of the ghrelin test, including patients' comfort, adverse events, and idiosyncratic reactions. Results Forty-three survivors of SAH were included (15 males, 35%, mean age 56.6±11.7). Six out of 43 (14%) SAH survivors were diagnosed with GHD by GHRH–arginine test. In GHD subjects, median GH peak during ghrelin test was significantly lower than that of non-GHD subjects (5.4 vs 16.6, P=0.002). Receiver operating characteristics analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.869. A cutoff limit of a GH peak of 15??g/l corresponded with a sensitivity of 100% and a false-positive rate of 40%. No adverse events or idiosyncratic reactions were observed in subjects undergoing a ghrelin test, except for one subject who reported flushing shortly after ghrelin infusion. Conclusion Owing to its convenience, validity, and safety, the ghrelin test might be a valuable GH provocative test, especially in the early phase of SAH. PMID:24037787

  18. Insurance Status Is Associated with Treatment Allocation and Outcomes after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hobson, Charles; Dortch, John; Ozrazgat Baslanti, Tezcan; Layon, Daniel R.; Roche, Alina; Rioux, Alison; Harman, Jeffrey S.; Fahy, Brenda; Bihorac, Azra

    2014-01-01

    Objective Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a particularly devastating type of stroke which is responsible for one third of all stroke-related years of potential life lost before age 65. Surgical treatment has been shown to decrease both morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage. We hypothesized that payer status other than private insurance is associated with lower allocation to surgical treatment for patients with SAH and worse outcomes. Design We examined the association between insurance type and surgical treatment allocation and outcomes for patients with SAH while adjusting for a wide range of patient and hospital factors. We analyzed the Nationwide Inpatient Sample hospital discharge database using survey procedures to produce weighted estimates representative of the United States population. Patients We studied 21047 discharges, representing a weighted estimate of 102595 patients age 18 and above with a discharge diagnosis of SAH between 2003 and 2008. Measurements Multivariable logistic and generalized linear regression analyses were used to assess for any associations between insurance status and surgery allocation and outcomes. Main Results Despite the benefits of surgery 66% of SAH patients did not undergo surgical treatment to prevent rebleeding. Mortality was more than twice as likely for patients with no surgical treatment compared to those who received surgery. Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment. Conclusions Nearly two thirds of patients with SAH don't receive operative care, and Medicare patients were significantly less likely to receive surgical treatment than other patients. Bias against the elderly and those with chronic illness and disability may play a part in these findings. A system of regionalized care for patients presenting with SAH may reduce disparities and improve appropriate allocation to surgical care and deserves prospective study. PMID:25141303

  19. Hydrogen-rich saline alleviates early brain injury via reducing oxidative stress and brain edema following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing experimental and clinical data indicate that early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) largely contributes to unfavorable outcomes, and it has been proved that EBI following SAH is closely associated with oxidative stress and brain edema. The present study aimed to examine the effect of hydrogen, a mild and selective cytotoxic oxygen radical scavenger, on oxidative stress injury, brain edema and neurology outcome following experimental SAH in rabbits. Results The level of MDA, caspase-12/3 and brain water content increased significantly at 72 hours after experimental SAH. Correspondingly, obvious brain injury was found in the SAH group by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5’-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) and Nissl staining. Similar results were found in the SAH?+?saline group. In contrast, the upregulated level of MDA, caspase-12/3 and brain edema was attenuated and the brain injury was substantially alleviated in the hydrogen treated rabbits, but the improvement of neurology outcome was not obvious. Conclusion The results suggest that treatment with hydrogen in experimental SAH rabbits could alleviate brain injury via decreasing the oxidative stress injury and brain edema. Hence, we conclude that hydrogen possesses the potential to be a novel therapeutic agent for EBI after SAH. PMID:22587664

  20. Cannabinoid receptor type 2 agonist attenuates apoptosis by activation of phosphorylated CREB-Bcl-2 pathway after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Hasegawa, Yu; Flores, Jerry; Doycheva, Desislava; Zhang, John H

    2014-11-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) which comprises of vasogenic edema and apoptotic cell death is an important component of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) pathophysiology. This study evaluated whether cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R) agonist, JWH133, attenuates EBI after SAH and whether CB2R stimulation reduces pro-apoptotic caspase-3 via up-regulation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=123) were subjected to SAH by endovascular perforation. Rats received vehicle or JWH133 at 1h after SAH. Neurological deficits and brain water content were evaluated at 24h after SAH. Western blot was performed to quantify phosphorylated CREB (pCREB), Bcl-2, and cleaved caspase-3 levels. Neuronal cell death was evaluated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'-triphosphate-biotin nick end-labeling staining. Additionally, CREB siRNA was administered to manipulate the proposed pathway. JWH133 (1.0mg/kg) improved neurological deficits and reduced brain water content in left hemisphere 24h after SAH. JWH133 significantly increased activated CREB (pCREB) and Bcl-2 levels and significantly decreased cleaved caspase-3 levels in left hemisphere 24h after SAH. CREB siRNA reversed the effects of treatment. TUNEL positive neurons in the cortex were reduced with JWH133 treatment. Thus, CB2R stimulation attenuated EBI after SAH possibly through activation of pCREB-Bcl-2 pathway. PMID:25058046

  1. Mechanisms of hemorrhagic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Subhash; Dru, Christopher; Bhowmick, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of cases of infectious cystitis are easily treated, and most patients have no long-term complications. However, hemorrhagic cystitis is a potentially deadly complication associated with pelvic radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and stem-cell transplant therapy. The focus of current understanding, and hence therapy, is directed toward urothelial cell death. However, the primary functional ramification of inflammatory bladder disease is the loss of compliance due to muscular expansion. Recent studies on smooth muscle response in models of bladder inflammation demonstrate a process of pyroptotic cell death that potentiates further muscle hyperplasia. These findings may support alternative interventions for subjects with hemorrhagic cystitis refractive to current therapy. PMID:25374922

  2. The Contribution of Chemoreceptor-Network Injury to the Development of Respiratory Arrest Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Mehmet Dumlu; Eroglu, Atilla; Turkyilmaz, Atila; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Al?c?, Hac? Ahmet; Aydin, Nazan; Altas, Sare; Unal, Bunyami

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Respiratory arrest following brainstem herniation has been attributed to injuries resulting from compression of the respiratory centers. While it is widely perceived that the chemoreceptor network, consisting of the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body (GPN-CB), is essential for the modulation of respiration, its contribution to the development of respiratory arrest has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether injury to the GPN-CB occurs in animals with respiratory arrest caused by experimentally-induced subarachnoid hemorrhage. Materials and Methods: Eighteen hybrid rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (n=4) were used to determine the normal structure of the GPN-CB. The remaining rabbits (n=14) received an autologous blood injection into the cisterna magna to produce a subarachnoid hemorrhage, after which they were observed for 20 days. The number of axons and the neuron density in the glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body, respectively, were counted by stereological methods. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the results. Results: Six of 14 rabbits died within the first week, likely due to brain swelling and crushing injuries that were observed in the brain stem and related structures. In control rabbits, the average neuronal density of the carotid body was 4250 ±1250/mm3, while the axonal density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 18000±5100 mm2. Conversely, in the dead rabbits, the degenerated neuron density of the carotid body was 2100±500/mm3, while the degenerated axon density in the glossopharyngeal nerve was 8500±2550 mm2. In addition, histopathological lesions were more severe in the dead rabbits in terms of their glossopharyngeal nerve and carotid body. Conclusion: There is an important relationship between neurodegeneration in the GPN-CB and mortality rates following experimentally-induced hemorrhage. This relationship suggests that injury to the GPN-CB network disrupts the breathing reflex and results in respiratory arrest following a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). PMID:25610122

  3. Statin-Induced T-Lymphocyte Modulation and Neuroprotection Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ayer, Robert E.; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Sugawara, Takashi; Ma, Qingy; Jafarian, Nazanin; Tang, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Statins influence immune system activities through mechanisms independent of their lipid-lowering properties. T cells can be subdivided based on cytokine secretion patterns into two subsets: T-helper cells type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2). Independent laboratory studies have shown statins to be potent inducers of a Th2 switch in immune cell response and be neuroprotective in several models of central nervous system (CNS) disease. This study was the first to evaluate the immune modulating effects of statins in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods Simvastatin was administered to rats intraperitoneally in two dosages (1 and 20 mg/kg) 30 min after the induction of SAH using endovascular perforation. Neurological scores were assessed 24 h later. Animals were then sacrificed, and samples of cortex and brain stem were tested for expression of the T-regulatory cell cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF) ?1, as well as interleukin (IL) 1?, a proinflammatory cytokine associated with Th1 immune responses. The presence of TGF-?1 secreting T cells was evaluated with the use of brain slices. Results SAH significantly impaired neurological function in all SAH groups (treated and untreated) versus sham. Animals treated with high-dose simvastatin had less neurological impairment than both untreated and low-dose groups. Cortical and brain-stem levels of TGF-?1 were significantly elevated following SAH in the high-dose group. IL-1?was significantly elevated following the induction of SAH but was inhibited by high-dose simvastatin. Double-labeled fluorescent immunohistochemical data demonstrated the presence of lymphocytes in the subarachnoid and perivascular spaces following SAH. Expression of TGF-?1 by lymphocytes was markedly increased following treatment with high-dose simvastatin. Conclusion The present study elucidated the potential role of a Th2 immune switch in statin provided neuroprotection following SAH. PMID:22890678

  4. Predictors of 1-year outcome after coiling for poor-grade subarachnoid aneurysmal hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ana R. Pereira; Paola Sanchez-Peña; Alessandra Biondi; Nader Sourour; Anne L. Boch; Chantal Colonne; Lise Lejean; Lamine Abdennour; Louis Puybasset

    2007-01-01

    Objective  To describe features in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage\\u000a (SAH) and to identify predictors of 12-month outcome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We conducted a controlled observational study of 51 consecutive patients treated with endovascular coiling within 96 h of\\u000a rupture for poor-grade aneurysmal SAH (20 men and 31 women, age 54 ± 12 years). We recorded co-morbidities; initial severity;\\u000a aneurysm

  5. Predictors of excellent functional outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Pegoli, Marianna; Mandrekar, Jay; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    OBJECT Case fatality rates after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) have decreased over time, and many patients treated with modern paradigms return to a normal life. However, there is little information on predictors of excellent functional outcome after aSAH. In this study, the authors investigated predictors of excellent outcome in a modern consecutive series of patients with aSAH. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted of patients with aSAH admitted between 2001 and 2013. The primary outcome measure was excellent functional outcome, defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0 or 1 at last follow-up within 1 year of aSAH. RESULTS Three hundred seventy-three patients were identified with posthospital follow-up. Excellent outcome was noted in 236 patients (63.3%), including an mRS score of 0 in 122 (32.7%) and an mRS score of 1 in 114 (30.6%). On univariate analysis, the following factors were associated with an excellent outcome: indicators of less severe bleeding, such as better World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade at any of the times of assessment, better modified Fisher grade, and absence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and symptomatic hydrocephalus; aneurysm treatment with coil embolization; absence of symptomatic vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and radiological infarction; absence of in-hospital seizures; lack of need for CSF diversion; fewer hours with fever; less severe anemia; and absence of transfusion. On multivariable analysis, the 4 variables that were most strongly associated with excellent outcome were presence of good clinical grade after neurological resuscitation, absence of ICH on initial CT scan, blood transfusion during the hospitalization, and radiological infarctions on final brain imaging. CONCLUSIONS Excellent outcomes (mRS score 0-1) can be achieved in the majority of patients with aSAH. The likelihood of excellent outcome is predicted by good clinical condition after resuscitation, absence of ICH on presentation, no evidence of infarction on brain imaging, and absence of blood transfusion during hospitalization. PMID:25495745

  6. Molecular alterations in the hippocampus after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Myung; Wan, Hoyee; Kudo, Gen; Foltz, Warren D; Vines, Douglass C; Green, David E; Zoerle, Tommaso; Tariq, Asma; Brathwaite, Shakira; D'Abbondanza, Josephine; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch

    2014-01-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) frequently have deficits in learning and memory that may or may not be associated with detectable brain lesions. We examined mediators of long-term potentiation after SAH in rats to determine what processes might be involved. There was a reduction in synapses in the dendritic layer of the CA1 region on transmission electron microscopy as well as reduced colocalization of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and synaptophysin. Immunohistochemistry showed reduced staining for GluR1 and calmodulin kinase 2 and increased staining for GluR2. Myelin basic protein staining was decreased as well. There was no detectable neuronal injury by Fluoro-Jade B, TUNEL, or activated caspase-3 staining. Vasospasm of the large arteries of the circle of Willis was mild to moderate in severity. Nitric oxide was increased and superoxide anion radical was decreased in hippocampal tissue. Cerebral blood flow, measured by magnetic resonance imaging, and cerebral glucose metabolism, measured by positron emission tomography, were no different in SAH compared with control groups. The results suggest that the etiology of loss of LTP after SAH is not cerebral ischemia but may be mediated by effects of subarachnoid blood such as oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:24064494

  7. CSF 20-HETE is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Elizabeth A.; Thampatty, Bhavani P.; Sherwood, Paula R.; Kuo, Chie-Wen J.; Bender, Catherine; Balzer, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Michael; Poloyac, Samuel M.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) that is manifested by changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) accompanied by neurological decline and results in long-term functional and neuropsychological (NP) impairment. Preclinical evidence has demonstrated that the arachidonic acid metabolite, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), affects cerebral microvascular tone and CBF after aSAH. The purpose of this study was to determine if CSF 20-HETE levels were associated with DCI and long term NP outcomes in aSAH patients. Methods CSF samples collected twice daily through 14 days after hemorrhage on 108 acute, adult aSAH patients. Samples were analyzed for 20-HETE via HPLC MSQ single quadrupole mass spectrometry. DCI was defined as the presence of impaired CBF (angiographic vasospasm, elevated transcranial Dopplers, abnormal CT or MR perfusion scans) accompanied by neurological deterioration. Outcomes including death and neuropsychological testing were completed at 3 months after hemorrhage. Results and Conclusions Detectible 20-HETE levels were observed in 31% of patient samples and were associated with severity of hemorrhage (Hunt&Hess p=0.04; Fisher p=0.05). Detection of 20-HETE was not associated with angiographic vasospasm (p=0.34), however, detectible 20-HETE was significantly associated with DCI (p=0.016). Our data also suggests that detectable 20-HETE was associated with decreased performance in 5 NP domains. These results provide the first clinical evidence that CSF 20-HETE concentrations are associated with DCI and poor outcomes and provide impetus for future studies to elucidate the clinical utility of inhibiting 20-HETE formation as a novel therapeutic intervention in patients with aSAH. PMID:21617146

  8. Occurrence of Vasospasm and Infarction in Relation to a Focal Monitoring Sensor in Patients after SAH: Placing a Bet when Placing a Probe?

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Christian T.; Fung, Christian; Vatter, Hartmut; Setzer, Matthias; Gueresir, Erdem; Seifert, Volker; Beck, Juergen; Raabe, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Vasospastic brain infarction is a devastating complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using a probe for invasive monitoring of brain tissue oxygenation or blood flow is highly focal and may miss the site of cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Probe placement is based on the assumption that the spasm will occur either at the dependent vessel territory of the parent artery of the ruptured aneurysm or at the artery exposed to the focal thick blood clot. We investigated the likelihood of a focal monitoring sensor being placed in vasospasm or infarction territory on a hypothetical basis. Methods From our database we retrospectively selected consecutive SAH patients with angiographically proven (day 7–14) severe CVS (narrowing of vessel lumen >50%). Depending on the aneurysm location we applied a standard protocol of probe placement to detect the most probable site of severe CVS or infarction. We analyzed whether the placement was congruent with existing CVS/infarction. Results We analyzed 100 patients after SAH caused by aneurysms located in the following locations: MCA (n?=?14), ICA (n?=?30), A1CA (n?=?4), AcoA or A2CA (n?=?33), and VBA (n?=?19). Sensor location corresponded with CVS territory in 93% of MCA, 87% of ICA, 76% of AcoA or A2CA, but only 50% of A1CA and 42% of VBA aneurysms. The focal probe was located inside the infarction territory in 95% of ICA, 89% of MCA, 78% of ACoA or A2CA, 50% of A1CA and 23% of VBA aneurysms. Conclusion The probability that a single focal probe will be situated in the territory of severe CVS and infarction varies. It seems to be reasonably accurate for MCA and ICA aneurysms, but not for ACA or VBA aneurysms. PMID:23658768

  9. Perioperative critical care management for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, H. Alex; Edwards, Nancy; Chang, Tiffany; Sladen, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant regional and risk factor-related variations, the overall mortality rate in patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains high. Compared to ischemic stroke, which is typically irreversible, hemorrhagic stroke tends to carry a higher mortality, but patients who do survive have less disability. Technologies to monitor and treat complications of SAH have advanced considerably in recent years, but good long-term functional outcome still depends on prompt diagnosis, early aggressive management, and avoidance of premature withdrawal of support. Endovascular procedures and open craniotomy to secure a ruptured aneurysm represent some of the numerous critical steps required to achieve the best possible result. In this review, we have attempted to provide a contemporary, evidence-based outline of the perioperative critical care management of patients with SAH. This is a challenging and potentially fatal disease with a wide spectrum of severity and complications and an often protracted course. The dynamic nature of this illness, especially in its most severe forms, requires considerable flexibility in clinician management, especially given the panoply of available treatment modalities. Judicious hemodynamic monitoring and adaptive therapy are essential to respond to the fluctuating nature of cerebral vasospasm and the varying oxygen demands of the injured brain that may readily induce acute or delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:25237442

  10. Association between elevated plasma norepinephrine levels and cardiac wall motion abnormality in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Keiko; Inamasu, Joji; Kato, Yoko; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Ganaha, Tsukasa; Oheda, Motoki; Hattori, Natsuki; Watanabe, Eiichi; Ozaki, Yukio; Hirose, Yuichi

    2013-04-01

    Patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are frequently complicated by acute cardiac dysfunctions, including cardiac wall motion abnormality (WMA). Massive release of catecholamine into the systemic circulation after aneurysmal rupture is believed to result in WMA, and poor-grade SAH seems to be the most important risk factor. However, plasma catecholamine levels have rarely been measured in SAH patients with WMA, and previous studies indicated that the elevated levels might not necessarily predict WMA. The objective of this study is (1) to evaluate relationship between WMA and plasma catecholamine levels in poor-grade SAH patients in the acute phase and (2) to clarify clinical characteristics of SAH patients with WMA. Among 142 poor-grade (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grades IV and V) SAH patients, 48 underwent both transthoracic ultrasound and measurement of plasma catecholamine levels within 24 h of SAH onset. They were divided into WMA+ (n?=?23) and WMA- (n?=?25) groups, and intergroup comparison was made on demographics, plasma catecholamine levels, and outcomes. Plasma norepinephrine levels were significantly higher in WMA+ group than in WMA- group (2,098.4?±?1,773.4 vs. 962.9?±?838.9 pg/mL, p?=?0.02), and the former showed significantly worse outcomes 90 days after admission. There were no intergroup differences in the plasma levels of epinephrine. Plasma norepinephrine levels were inversely correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that increased plasma norepinephrine levels were predictive of WMA, although age, female sex, and grade V SAH were not. This retrospective study highlights the role of norepinephrine in pathogenesis of SAH-induced WMA. PMID:22936520

  11. Hyperglycemia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a potentially modifiable risk factor for poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kruyt, Nyika D; Biessels, Geert Jan; DeVries, J Hans; Luitse, Merel J A; Vermeulen, Marinus; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vandertop, W Peter; Roos, Yvo B

    2010-01-01

    Hyperglycemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) occurs frequently and is associated with delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and poor clinical outcome. In this review, we highlight the mechanisms that cause hyperglycemia after aSAH, and we discuss how hyperglycemia may contribute to poor clinical outcome in these patients. As hyperglycemia is potentially modifiable with intensive insulin therapy (IIT), we systematically reviewed the literature on IIT in aSAH patients. In these patients, IIT seems to be difficult to achieve in terms of lowering blood glucose levels substantially without an increased risk of (serious) hypoglycemia. Therefore, before initiating a large-scale randomized trial to investigate the clinical benefit of IIT, phase II studies, possibly with the help of cerebral blood glucose monitoring by microdialysis, will first have to improve this therapy in terms of both safety and adequacy. PMID:20628402

  12. Non-aneurysmal non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors based on a single-center experience in 125 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is mainly caused by ruptured cerebral aneurysms but in up to 15% of patients with SAH no bleeding source could be identified. Our objective was to analyze patient characteristics, clinical outcome and prognostic factors in patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH. Methods From 1999 to 2009, data of 125 patients with non-aneurysmal SAH were prospectively entered into a database. All patients underwent repetitive cerebral angiography. Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (mRS 0–2 favorable vs. 3–6 unfavorable). Also, patients were divided in two groups according to the distribution of blood in the CT scan (perimesencephalic and non-perimesencephalic SAH). Results 106 of the 125 patients were in good WFNS grade (I-III) at admission (85%). Overall, favorable outcome was achieved in 104 of 125 patients (83%). Favorable outcome was associated with younger age (P?SAH, most patients (90%) were in good grade at admission, and 64 achieved favorable outcome. 52 of the 125 patients suffered from non-perimesencephalic SAH and 40 were in good grade at admission. Also 40 patients achieved favorable outcome. Conclusions Patients suffering from non-aneurysmal SAH have better prognosis compared to aneurysm related SAH and poor admission status was the only independent predictor of unfavorable outcome in the multivariate analysis. Patients with a non-perimesencephalic SAH have an increased risk of a worse neurological outcome. These patients should be monitored attentively. PMID:24986457

  13. Demonstration of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage from the Anterior Choroidal Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Ki-Bum; Choi, H. Alex; Kim, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of angiographically confirmed transection of the cisternal segment of the anterior choroidal artery (AChA) associated with a severe head trauma in a 15-year old boy. The initial brain computed tomography scan revealed a diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and pneumocephalus with multiple skull fractures. Subsequent cerebral angiography clearly demonstrated a complete transection of the AChA at its origin with a massive extravasation of contrast medium as a jet trajectory creating a plume. We speculate that severe blunt traumatic force stretched and tore the left AChA between the internal carotid artery and the optic tract. In a simulation of the patient's brain using a fresh-frozen male cadaver, the AChA is shown to be vulnerable to stretching injury as the ipsilateral optic tract is retracted. We conclude that the arterial injury like an AChA rupture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of severe traumatic SAH. PMID:25628818

  14. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Barboza, Miguel A; Maud, Alberto; Rodriguez, Gustavo J

    2014-01-01

    Background Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome was first described by Call, Fleming, and colleagues. Clinically this entity presents acutely, with severe waxing and waning headaches (“thunderclap”), and occasional fluctuating neurological signs. Case presentation We present four subsequent cases of patients with severe thunderclap headache and brain tomography with evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The brain angiogram showed no aneurysm but intracranial vasculopathy consistent with multiple areas of stenosis and dilatation (angiographic beading) in different territories. Conclusion Neurologists should be aware of Call Fleming syndrome presenting with severe headache and associated convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage. After other diagnoses are excluded, patients can be reassured about favorable prognosis with symptomatic management. Abbreviations RCVS Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome CT Computed tomography SAH Subarachnoid hemorrhage MR Magnetic resonance CTA Computed tomography angiography MRA Magnetic resonance angiography PMID:25132905

  15. [Intravitreous injection of bevacizumab and C3F8 gas for the treatment of submacular hemorrhage due to age-related macular degeneration: case reports].

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Daniel Araújo; Bressanim, Gláucio Luciano; Morita, Celso; Takahashi, Walter Yukihiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case series is to describe if the intravitreal use of bevacizumab and perfluoropropane gas (C3F8) would be beneficial to the displacement of subretinal hemorrhage in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A retrospective study of 5 eyes that received concurrent intravitreal injection of bevacizumab and C3F8 was performed. The results were graded according to blood displacement under the fovea, best final visual acuity and intraoperative complications. At the initial presentation, mean age of patients was 72.6 +/- 8.9 years-old and duration of symptoms was 13 +/- 9.7 days. From the 5 patients, 3 (60%) were male and 2 (40%) female. The success of submacular hemorrhage full displacement was achieved in 4 patients. The mean preoperative visual acuity (VA) was 1.12 +/- 0.34 logMAR and the mean postoperative VA was 0.92 +/- 0.4 logMAR. No cases of retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, vitreous hemorrhage, uveitis, cataracts and increased intraocular pressure were noted during the follow-up period. Intravitreal bevacizumab and C3F8 injection, associated to prone position can be a valuable therapeutic option for eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration and subretinal hemorrhage to the blood displacement out of the foveal area. PMID:20464119

  16. Hyponatremia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Implications and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Saramma, PP; Menon, R Girish; Srivastava, Adesh; Sarma, P Sankara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality seen in patients with aneurysmal SAH. Clinically significant hyponatremia (Serum Sodium <131 mEq/L) which needs treatment, has been redefined recently and there is a paucity of outcome studies based on this. This study aims to identify the mean Serum Sodium (S.Na+) level and its duration among inpatients with SAH and to identify the relationship between hyponatremia and the outcome status of patients undergoing surgery for SAH. Materials and Methods: This outcome study is undertaken in the department of neurosurgery, The Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum, Kerala. Medical records of all patients with SAH from 1st January to 31st July 2010 were reviewed. Preoperative status was assessed using World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grading system. Discharge status was calculated using the Glasgow outcome score scale. Results: Fifty nine patients were included in the study and 53 (89.8%) of them have undergone surgical treatment. Hyponatremia was observed in 22 of 59 patients (37%). The mean Sodium level of hyponatremic patients was 126.97 mEq/L for a median duration of two days. Glasgow outcome score was good in 89.8% of patients. We lost two patients, one of whom had hyponatremia and vasospasm. Conclusion: Hyponatremia is significantly associated with poor outcome in patients with SAH. Anticipate hyponatremia in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, timely detect and appropriately treat it to improve outcome. It is more common in patients who are more than 50 years old and whose aneurysm is in the anterior communicating artery. Our comprehensive monitoring ensured early detection and efficient surgical and nursing management reduced morbidity and mortality. PMID:23546343

  17. Local Delivery of Nimodipine by Prolonged-Release Microparticles—Feasibility, Effectiveness and Dose-Finding in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Hänggi, Daniel; Perrin, Jason; Eicker, Sven; Beseoglu, Kerim; Etminan, Nima; Kamp, Marcel Alexander; Heiroth, Hi-Jae; Bege, Nadia; Macht, Stephan; Frauenknecht, Katrin; Sommer, Clemens; Kissel, Thomas; Steiger, Hans-Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose To investigate the effect of locally applied nimodipine prolonged-release microparticles on angiographic vasospasm and secondary brain injury after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods 70 male Wistar rats were categorized into three groups: 1) sham operated animals (control), 2) animals with SAH only (control) and the 3) treatment group. SAH was induced using the double hemorrhage model. The treatment group received different concentrations (20%, 30% or 40%) of nimodipine microparticles. Angiographic vasospasm was assessed 5 days later using digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Histological analysis of frozen sections was performed using H&E-staining as well as Iba1 and MAP2 immunohistochemistry. Results DSA images were sufficient for assessment in 42 animals. Severe angiographic vasospasm was present in group 2 (SAH only), as compared to the sham operated group (p<0.001). Only animals within group 3 and the highest nimodipine microparticles concentration (40%) as well as group 1 (sham) demonstrated the largest intracranial artery diameters. Variation in vessel calibers, however, did not result in differences in Iba-1 or MAP2 expression, i.e. in histological findings for secondary brain injury. Conclusions Local delivery of high-dose nimodipine prolonged-release microparticles at high concentration resulted in significant reduction in angiographic vasospasm after experimental SAH and with no histological signs for matrix toxicity. PMID:23049732

  18. Astaxanthin Alleviates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possible Involvement of Akt/Bad Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Qing-Rong; Wang, Chun-Xi; Zhou, Xiao-Ming; Li, Hua; Shi, Ji-Xin; Zhou, Meng-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis has been proven to play a crucial role in early brain injury pathogenesis and to represent a target for the treatment of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Previously, we demonstrated that astaxanthin (ATX) administration markedly reduced neuronal apoptosis in the early period after SAH. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. In the present study, we tried to investigate whether ATX administration is associated with the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway, which can play an important role in the signaling of apoptosis. Our results showed that post-SAH treatment with ATX could cause a significant increase of phosphorylated Akt and Bad levels, along with a significant decrease of cleaved caspase-3 levels in the cortex after SAH. In addition to the reduced neuronal apoptosis, treatment with ATX could also significantly reduce secondary brain injury characterized by neurological dysfunction, cerebral edema and blood-brain barrier disruption. In contrast, the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY294002, could partially reverse the neuroprotection of ATX in the early period after SAH by downregulating ATX-induced activation of Akt/Bad and upregulating cleaved caspase-3 levels. These results provided the evidence that ATX could attenuate apoptosis in a rat SAH model, potentially, in part, through modulating the Akt/Bad pathway. PMID:25072152

  19. Contrast Extravasation on Computed Tomography Angiography Imitating a Basilar Artery Trunk Aneurysm in Subsequent Conventional Angiogram-Negative Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Report of Two Cases with Different Clinical Courses

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won Ho; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Nam, Kyoung Hyup

    2015-01-01

    Contrast extravasation on computed tomography angiography (CTA) is rare but becoming more common, with increasing use of CTA for various cerebral vascular diseases. We report on two cases of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in which the CTA showed a saccular lesion of the upper basilar trunk suggesting a ruptured aneurysm. However, no vascular lesion was observed on immediate subsequent digital subtraction angiography (DSA). In one case, repeated follow up DSA was also negative. The patient was treated conservatively and discharged with no neurologic deficit. In the other case, the patient showed sudden mental deterioration on the third hospital day and her brain CT showed rebleeding. The immediate follow up DSA showed contrast stagnation in the vicinity of the upper basilar artery, suggestive of pseudoaneurysm. Double stent deployment at the disease segment was performed. Due to the frequent use of CTA, contrast extravasation is an increasingly common observation. Physicians should be aware that basilar artery extravasation can mimic the appearance of an aneurysm.

  20. HIF-1? Mediates Isoflurane-Induced Vascular Protection in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Eric; Johnson, Andrew W; Nelson, James W; Harries, Michael D; Gidday, Jeffrey M; Han, Byung Hee; Zipfel, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) depends critically on delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) – a process driven primarily by vascular events including cerebral vasospasm, microvessel thrombosis, and microvascular dysfunction. This study sought to determine the impact of postconditioning – the phenomenon whereby endogenous protection against severe injury is enhanced by subsequent exposure to a mild stressor – on SAH-induced DCI. Methods Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to sham, SAH, or SAH plus isoflurane postconditioning. Neurological outcome was assessed daily via sensorimotor scoring. Contributors to DCI including cerebral vasospasm, microvessel thrombosis, and microvascular dysfunction were measured 3 days later. Isoflurane-induced changes in hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1?)-dependent genes were assessed via quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HIF-1? was inhibited pharmacologically via 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) or genetically via endothelial cell HIF-1?-null mice (EC-HIF-1?-null). All experiments were performed in a randomized and blinded fashion. Results Isoflurane postconditioning initiated at clinically relevant time points after SAH significantly reduced cerebral vasospasm, microvessel thrombosis, microvascular dysfunction, and neurological deficits in wild-type (WT) mice. Isoflurane modulated HIF-1?-dependent genes – changes that were abolished in 2ME2-treated WT mice and EC-HIF-1?-null mice. Isoflurane-induced DCI protection was attenuated in 2ME2-treated WT mice and EC-HIF-1?-null mice. Interpretation Isoflurane postconditioning provides strong HIF-1?-mediated macro- and microvascular protection in SAH, leading to improved neurological outcome. These results implicate cerebral vessels as a key target for the brain protection afforded by isoflurane postconditioning, and HIF-1? as a critical mediator of this vascular protection. They also identify isoflurane postconditioning as a promising novel therapeutic for SAH.

  1. Dysfunction of nitric oxide induces protein kinase C activation resulting in vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, S; Yamamoto, S; Yokoyama, T; Uemura, K

    1997-10-01

    We hypothesize that the interaction between protein kinase C (PKC) and nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the modulation of cerebral vascular tone, and the disturbance of this interaction following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) results in vasospasm. To prove this hypothesis with direct evidence, PKC activities of smooth muscle cells of canine basilar arteries in the control and in the SAH groups were measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. N omega-nitro-L arginine (L-NA), an inhibitor of NO production, enhanced PKC activity. This enhancement was inhibited neither by 8-bromo-guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-bromo-cGMP) nor SIN-1, a NO releasing agent. PKC activity in the SAH was significantly higher than in the control; however, no further enhancement was produced with L-NA. In the SAH, PKC activity was not inhibited either by 8-bromo-cGMP or SIN-1. We conclude that NO maintains an appropriate vascular tone through inactivation of PKC, and that this effect is disturbed following SAH, resulting in PKC-dependent vascular contraction, such as vasospasm. On the other hand, once PKC has been activated, NO precursors do not inhibit PKC. These facts indicate NO inactivates PKC through the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol breakdown. PMID:9329037

  2. Changes in responsiveness of the canine basilar artery to endothelin-1 after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Kamata, Katsuo; Nishiyama, Hiroshi; Kasuya, Yutaka (Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)); Miyata, Noriyuki (Hoshi Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the basilar arteries from control and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) dogs were examined. The maximal contraction of the basilar artery in response to ET-1 was markedly decreased in the SAH group. Treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) reduced the contractile responses to ET-1 in the basilar arteries from control dogs. ET-1-induced contractions of the basilar arteries from control dogs were similar to those in strips from SAH dogs by the treatment with 10{sup {minus}8}M PMA. Ca{sup 2+}-induced contraction of the basilar arteries which were depolarized with isotonic K{sup +} were significantly attenuated in SAH dogs. Treatment with PMA also reduced the contractile responses to Ca{sup 2+} in the basilar arteries from control dogs. These results indicate that decreased contractile responses of the basilar arteries to ET-1 and Ca{sup 2+} in the SAH group may be related to changes in the activity of the protein kinase C in vascular smooth muscle.

  3. Elevated Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein-I in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Hemorrhagic Cerebrovascular Diseases : Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Cho, Won-Sang; Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Seung-Ki; Oh, Chang Wan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Elevated cellular retinoic acid binding protein-I (CRABP-I) is thought to be related to the abnormal proliferation and migration of smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Accordingly, a higher CRABP-I level could cause disorganized vessel walls by causing immature SMC phenotypes and altering extracellular matrix proteins which could result in vulnerable arterial walls with inadequate responses to hemodynamic stress. We hypothesized that elevated CRABP-I level in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could be related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Moreover, we also extended this hypothesis in patients with vascular malformation according to the presence of hemorrhage. Methods We investigated the CSF of 26 patients : SAH, n=7; unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), n=7; arteriovenous malformation (AVM), n=4; cavernous malformation (CM), n=3; control group, n=5. The optical density of CRABP-I was confirmed by Western blotting and presented as mean±standard error of the measurement. Results CRABP-I in SAH (0.33±0.09) was significantly higher than that in the UIA (0.12±0.01, p=0.033) or control group (0.10±0.01, p=0.012). Hemorrhage presenting AVM (mean 0.45, ranged 0.30-0.59) had a higher CRABP-I level than that in AVM without hemorrhage presentation (mean 0.16, ranged 0.14-0.17). The CRABP-I intensity in CM with hemorrhage was 0.21 and 0.31, and for CM without hemorrhage 0.14. Overall, the hemorrhage presenting group (n=11, 0.34±0.06) showed a significantly higher CRABP-I intensity than that of the non-hemorrhage presenting group (n=10, 0.13±0.01, p=0.001). Conclusion The results suggest that elevated CRABP-I in the CSF could be related with aneurysm rupture. Additionally, a higher CRABP-I level seems to be associated with hemorrhage development in vascular malformation. PMID:25733988

  4. Intracerebral hemorrhage in carotid-cavernous fistula

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hiramatsu; S. Utsumi; K. Kyoi; T. Sakaki; T. Tada; S. Iwasaki; K. Kichikawa

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a case of traumatic carotid-carvernous fistula which presented as an intracerebral hemorrhage. The usual ocular signs were absent due to an atypical drainage pattern from the cavernous sinus. Engorgement of the deep venous system of the brain due to the carotid-cavernous fistula was thought to have caused the intracerebral hemorrhage.

  5. Description of the Vasospasm Phenomena following Perimesencephalic Nonaneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Goren, Oded; Bruk, Bela; Bakon, Mati; Hadani, Moshe; Harnof, Sagi

    2013-01-01

    Background. Perimesencephalic nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (PM-NASAH) is characterized by a benign course compared with aneurysmal SAH. While vasospasm (VS) after aneurysmal SAH is considered responsible for serious complications, VS post-PM-NASAH is not well documented. Our purpose was to characterize the incidence and course of VS among 63 patients—one of the largest databases of PM-NASAH patients with documented blood flow velocities in the literature. Methods. Data from 63 patients that were admitted with PM-NASAH from 2000 to 2012 and underwent transcranial Doppler tests to assess cranial vessel flow velocity was analyzed. Results. On average, the maximal flow velocity was measured on the 7th day after hemorrhage. Higher risk for VS was associated with younger age, female sex, and higher Hunt and Hess scores, a lower risk for patients treated with statins (P < 0.05). Using velocity thresholds for diagnosis of VS, 49.2% showed evidence of VS. This is the first description of blood flow velocities in PM-NASAH. VS average onset was on the 4th day, average cessation on day 15 after hemorrhage. No patients showed clinical manifestation of VS. Conclusions. VS post-PM-NASAH is not as rare as previously believed. However, its lack of clinical significance raises questions regarding the need for diagnosis and may suggest a less intensive treatment protocol. PMID:24455690

  6. Expression and Cell Distribution of SENP3 in the Cerebral Cortex After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Qing; Li, Hua; Zhang, Xiangsheng; Wang, Chun-Xi; Sun, Qing; Li, Song; Li, Weide; Li, Wei; Ding, Ke; Liu, Ming; Yu, Zhuang; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2015-04-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the life-threatening diseases with high morbidity and mortality rates. Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific proteases 3 (SENP3), a member of the SUMO-specific protease family, was identified as an isopeptidase that deconjugates SUMOylation (The covalent modification by SUMO) of modified protein substrates. It is reported that SUMO-2/3 conjugation, a member of SUMOylation, presented neuroprotection. The study aimed to evaluate the expression of SENP3 and to explore its role potential role in SAH. A total of 95 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group and SAH groups at 6, 12, 24, 48 h, day 3, day 5, and day 7. SAH groups suffered experimental SAH by injection with 0.3 ml nonheparinized autoblood into the prechiasmatic cistern. SENP3 expression is surveyed by western blot analysis, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. The levels of cleavage caspase-3 were determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry. SENP3 protein expression was significantly up-regulated after SAH which peaked at 24 h; however, the mRNA expression of SENP3 remained unchanged. Meanwhile, the level of cleaved caspase-3 was also increased after SAH. There is a highly positive correlation between cleavage caspase-3 and SENP3 in protein level. Immunofluorescent results showed that the expression of SENP3 was increased in neurons, rather than astrocytes nor microglia. Our findings indicated a possible role of SENP3 in the pathogenesis of early brain injury mediated by apoptosis following SAH. PMID:25423917

  7. Should we use stents in subarachnoid hemorrhage?

    PubMed

    Lopes, D; Mangubat, E; Keigher, K; Cogan, C

    2011-03-01

    Based on findings from the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), coiling of ruptured cerebral aneurysms is associated with the lowest immediate morbidity and mortality rates compared to other treatment options.1, 2 Whenever anatomy permits, coiling is the preferred method for repair. Unfortunately, not all cerebral aneurysms are suitable for coiling, and the best treatment for aneurysms that cannot be coiled remains unclear. Adjunctive techniques such as surgical clipping, balloon remodeling,3 use of two microcatheters,4 and intracranial stents 5 can increase the likelihood of aneurysm thrombosis and parent vessel patency. The goal of this article is to describe our current practice using intracranial stents in appropriately selected patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) as a result of aneurysm rupture. PMID:21464808

  8. Serum magnesium levels as related to symptomatic vasospasm and outcome following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frederic P. Collignon; Jonathan A. Friedman; David G. Piepgras; Mark A. Pichelmann; Jon I. McIver; L. Gerard Toussaint III; Robyn L. McClelland

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that magnesium may be neuroprotective in the setting of cerebral ischemia, and therapeutic magnesium\\u000a infusion has been proposed for prophylaxis and treatment of delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) resulting from vasospasm\\u000a in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We studied the association between serum magnesium levels, the\\u000a development of DIND, and the outcomes of patients with

  9. Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Comparison of Two Endovascular Perforation Techniques with Respect to Success Rate, Confounding Pathologies and Early Hippocampal Tissue Lesion Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Höllig, Anke; Weinandy, Agnieszka; Nolte, Kay; Clusmann, Hans; Rossaint, Rolf; Coburn, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Recently aside from the “classic” endovascular monofilament perforation technique to induce experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) a modification using a tungsten wire advanced through a guide tube has been described. We aim to assess both techniques for their success rate (induction of SAH without confounding pathologies) as primary endpoint. Further, the early tissue lesion pattern as evidence for early brain injury will be analyzed as secondary endpoint. Sprague Dawley rats (n=39) were randomly assigned to receive either Sham surgery (n=4), SAH using the “classic” technique (n=18) or using a modified technique (n=17). Course of intracranial pressure (ICP) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was analyzed; subsequent pathologies were documented either 6 or 24 h after SAH. Hippocampal tissue samples were analyzed via immunohistochemistry and western blotting. SAH-induction, regardless of confounding pathologies, was independent from type of technique (p=0.679). There was no significant difference concerning case fatality rate (classic: 40%; modified: 20%; p=0.213). Successful induction of SAH without collateral ICH or SDH was possible in 40% with the classic and in 86.7% with the modified technique (p=0.008). Peak ICP levels differed significantly between the two groups (classic: 94 +/- 23 mmHg; modified: 68 +/- 19 mmHg; p=0.003). Evidence of early cellular stress response and activation of apoptotic pathways 6 h after SAH was demonstrated. The extent of stress response is not dependent on type of technique. Both tested techniques successfully produce SAH including activation of an early stress response and apoptotic pathways in the hippocampal tissue. However, the induction of SAH with less confounding pathologies was more frequently achieved with the modified tungsten wire technique. PMID:25867893

  10. Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Kikkawa, Yuichiro; Matsuo, Satoshi; Kurogi, Ryota; Nakamizo, Akira; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sasaki, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Background. Although relaxin causes vasodilatation in systemic arteries, little is known about its role in cerebral arteries. We investigated the expression and role of relaxin in basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rabbits. Methods. Microarray analysis with rabbit basilar artery RNA was performed. Messenger RNA expression of relaxin-1 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) was investigated with quantitative RT-PCR. RXFP1 expression in the basilar artery was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Relaxin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum were investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC) preincubated with relaxin, myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC) was investigated with immunoblotting after endothelin-1 stimulation. Results. After SAH, RXFP1 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated on day 3, whereas relaxin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated on day 7. The relaxin concentration in CSF was significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. Pretreatment with relaxin reduced sustained MLC phosphorylation induced by endothelin-1 in HBVSMC. Conclusion. Upregulation of relaxin and downregulation of RXFP1 after SAH may participate in development of cerebral vasospasm. Downregulation of RXFP1 may induce a functional decrease in relaxin activity during vasospasm. Understanding the role of relaxin may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm. PMID:25133183

  11. Differential Regulation of Matrix-Metalloproteinases and Their Tissue Inhibitors in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Marlene; Dietmann, Anelia; Beer, Ronny; Broessner, Gregor; Helbok, Raimund; Pfausler, Bettina; Schmutzhard, Erich; Lackner, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in vascular remodeling, (neuro)inflammation, blood-brain barrier breakdown and neuronal apoptosis. Proinflammatory mechanisms are suggested to play an important role during early brain injury and cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study aimed to analyze MMP-3, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 in patients with SAH and their respective association with cerebral vasospasm (CVS). Methods Blood samples were collected in 20 SAH patients on days 1 to 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 and 20 healthy age and gender matched volunteers. Serum MMPs and TIMPs were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Doppler sonographic CVS was defined as a mean blood flow velocity above 120 cm/sec in the middle cerebral artery. When discharged from hospital and at 6 month follow-up neurological outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Score and the modified Rankin Scale. Results MMP-9 was higher in SAH patients compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). Patients with CVS (n?=?11) had elevated MMP-9 serum levels compared to patients without CVS (n?=?9, p<0.05). Higher MMP-9 was observed in the presence of cerebral ischemia associated with cerebral vasospasm (p<0.05). TIMP-1 was increased in patients with SAH on day 4 (p<0.05). There was an imbalance of the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio in favor of MMP-9 in SAH patients, in particular those with CVS (p<0.001). MMP-3 and TIMP-3 were significantly lower in SAH patients throughout day 4 and day 7, respectively (p<0.05). We did not find an association between MMP-, TIMP levels and neurological outcome after 6 months. Conclusions MMP-3 and -9 are differentially regulated in SAH patients with both enzymes showing peak levels correlating with the development of CVS. The inhibitors TIMP-1 and -3 were low during the acute phase after SAH and increased later on which might suggest a preponderance of pro-inflammatory mechanisms. PMID:23555845

  12. Cerebral convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage: various causes and role of diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Mangla, Rajiv; Drumsta, Douglas; Alamst, Jeevak; Mangla, Manisha; Potchen, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have made it relatively easy to diagnose cortical convexity subarachnoid hemorrhages (cSAH); however, the evaluation of these hemorrhages should not be limited to size and location. It is imperative that possible underlying etiologies be identified so that clinicians may properly treat and prevent this potentially catastrophic event. The goal of this article is to review etiologies of cortical convexity subarachnoid hemorrhages, from common causes such as cerebral amyloid angiopathy to less common causes such as reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and moyamoya. The specific imaging findings of each etiology that may be responsible for these hemorrhages are described in this article so that the radiologist may properly aid in the diagnosis of the underlying cause. PMID:25001597

  13. [Specific features of pathogenesis and diagnosis of hemorrhagic stroke in young patients].

    PubMed

    Chukhlovina, M L; Guzeva, V I; Matsukatova, E M

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with hemorrhagic stroke (HS) pathogenesis and diagnosis in young people. Among cerebrovascular diseases in the young acute hemorrhagic strokes take noticeable place. Arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, alcoholism are among risk factors of subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH). Massive hemorrhages occur in the rupture of arterial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. HS in the young may be caused by blood diseases, i.e. leukemias, hemophilias, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, coagulopathies; vasculitis in diffuse diseases of the connective tissue; non-inflammatory arteriopathies; drug addiction. Genetic predisposition to HS development is discussed with focus to such diseases as a family form of moya-moya disease, glucocorticoid-depressed hyperaldosteronism, elastic pseudoxanthoma, Marfan's syndrome, renal olycystosis, Sturge-Veber syndrome. It is recommended to use wider updated methods of neurovisualization (CT, MRT, angiography) in diagnosis of HS. The conclusion is made that HS diagnosis, especially in the young, needs a multidisciplinary approach with active participation of neurologist, neurosurgeon, therapist, endocrinologist, hematologist. PMID:15114767

  14. Early events triggering delayed vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation and cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries, including endothelin B (ETB) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B (5-HT1B) receptors, has been suggested to contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia, a feared complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This receptor upregulation has been shown to be mediated by intracellular signalling via the mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) - extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. However, it is not known what event(s) that trigger MEK-ERK1/2 activation and vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation after SAH. We hypothesise that the drop in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and wall tension experienced by cerebral arteries in acute SAH is a key triggering event. We here investigate the importance of the duration of this acute CBF drop in a rat SAH model in which a fixed amount of blood is injected into the prechiasmatic cistern either at a high rate resulting in a short acute CBF drop or at a slower rate resulting in a prolonged acute CBF drop. Results We demonstrate that the duration of the acute CBF drop is determining for a) degree of early ERK1/2 activation in cerebral arteries, b) delayed upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries and c) delayed CBF reduction, neurological deficits and mortality. Moreover, treatment with an inhibitor of MEK-ERK1/2 signalling during an early time window from 6 to 24 h after SAH was sufficient to completely prevent delayed vasoconstrictor receptor upregulation and improve neurological outcome several days after the SAH. Conclusions Our findings suggest a series of events where 1) the acute CBF drop triggers early MEK-ERK1/2 activation, which 2) triggers the transcriptional upregulation of vasoconstrictor receptors in cerebral arteries during the following days, where 3) the resulting enhanced cerebrovascular contractility contribute to delayed cerebral ischemia. PMID:23496889

  15. Astaxanthin Activates Nuclear Factor Erythroid-Related Factor 2 and the Antioxidant Responsive Element (Nrf2-ARE) Pathway in the Brain after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats and Attenuates Early Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Wang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Qing; Li, Wei; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) has been proven to ameliorate early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by modulating cerebral oxidative stress. This study was performed to assess the effect of ATX on the Nrf2-ARE pathway and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of antioxidant properties of ATX in EBI after SAH. A total of 96 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. Autologous blood was injected into the prechiasmatic cistern of the rat to induce an experimental SAH model. Rats in each group were sacrificed at 24 h after SAH. Expressions of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. The mRNA levels of HO-1, NAD (P) H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and glutathione S-transferase-?1 (GST-?1) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was observed that administration of ATX post-SAH could up-regulate the cortical expression of these agents, mediated in the Nrf2-ARE pathway at both pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Meanwhile, oxidative damage was reduced. Furthermore, ATX treatment significantly attenuated brain edema, blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption, cellular apoptosis, and neurological dysfunction in SAH models. This study demonstrated that ATX treatment alleviated EBI in SAH model, possibly through activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway by inducing antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. PMID:25528957

  16. Clinical review: Prevention and therapy of vasospasm in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Keyrouz, Salah G; Diringer, Michael N

    2007-01-01

    Vasospasm is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Radiographic vasospasm usually develops between 5 and 15 days after the initial hemorrhage, and is associated with clinically apparent delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DID) in one-third of patients. The pathophysiology of this reversible vasculopathy is not fully understood but appears to involve structural changes and biochemical alterations at the levels of the vascular endothelium and smooth muscle cells. Blood in the subarachnoid space is believed to trigger these changes. In addition, cerebral perfusion may be concurrently impaired by hypovolemia and impaired cerebral autoregulatory function. The combined effects of these processes can lead to reduction in cerebral blood flow so severe as to cause ischemia leading to infarction. Diagnosis is made by some combination of clinical, cerebral angiographic, and transcranial doppler ultrasonographic factors. Nimodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, is so far the only available therapy with proven benefit for reducing the impact of DID. Aggressive therapy combining hemodynamic augmentation, transluminal balloon angioplasty, and intra-arterial infusion of vasodilator drugs is, to varying degrees, usually implemented. A panoply of drugs, with different mechanisms of action, has been studied in SAH related vasospasm. Currently, the most promising are magnesium sulfate, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors, nitric oxide donors and endothelin-1 antagonists. This paper reviews established and emerging therapies for vasospasm. PMID:17705883

  17. Detection of CT occult aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage using a novel spectrophotometric analysis of cerebral spinal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgaonkar, Vasant A.; Bhadri, Prashant R.; Huang, Jian; Kumar, Alla S.; Pyne, Gail J.; Caffery, James, Jr.; Clark, Joseph F.; Shukla, Rakesh; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.

    2005-04-01

    In North America, approximately 30,000 people annually suffer an aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Using computerized tomography (CT), the blood is generally not visible after 12 hours. Currently lumbar puncture (LP) results are equivocal for diagnosing SAH largely because of technical limitations in performing a quick and objective evaluation. Having ruptured once, an aneurysm is statistically more likely to rupture again. Therefore, for those individuals with a sentinel (or warning) hemorrhage, detection within the first 12 hours is paramount. We present a diagnostic technology based on visible spectroscopy to quickly and objectively assess low-blood volume SAH from a diagnostic spinal tap. This technology provides clinicians, with the resources necessary for assessing patients with suspected aneurismal SAH beyond the current 12-hour limitation imposed by CT scans. This aids in the improvement of patient care and results in rapid and appropriate treatment of the patient. To perform this diagnosis, we quantify bilirubin and hemoglobin in human CSF over a range of concentrations. Because the bilirubin and hemoglobin spectra overlap quantification is problematic. To solve this problem, two algorithmic approaches are presented: a statistical or a random stochastic component known as Partial Least Square (PLS) and a control theory based mathematical model. These algorithms account for the noise and distortion from blood in CSF leading to the quantification of bilirubin and methemoglobin spectroscopically. The configurations for a hardware platform is introduced, that is portable and user-friendly composed of specific components designed to have the sensitivity and specificity required. This aids in measuring bilirubin in CSF, hemorrhagic-CSF and CSF-like solutions. The prototype uses purpose built algorithms contained within the platform, such that physicians can use it in the hospital and lab as a point of care diagnostic test.

  18. Carnosine Attenuates Early Brain Injury Through Its Antioxidative and Anti-apoptotic Effects in a Rat Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Yong; Sun, Bao-Liang; Yang, Ming-Feng; Li, Da-Wei; Fang, Jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-03-01

    Carnosine (?-alanyl-L-histidine) has been demonstrated to provide antioxidative and anti-apoptotic roles in the animal of ischemic brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether carnosine prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) in rats. We found that intraperitoneal administration of carnosine improved neurobehavioral deficits, attenuated brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, and decreased reactive oxygen species level at 48 h following SAH in rat models. Carnosine treatment increased tissue copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymatic activities, and reduced post-SAH elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in rats. Furthermore, carnosine treatment attenuated SAH-induced microglia activation and cortical neuron apoptosis. These results indicated that administration of carnosine may provide neuroprotection in EBI following SAH in rat models. PMID:25179154

  19. Higher brain extracellular potassium is associated with brain metabolic distress and poor outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Elevated brain potassium levels ([K+]) are associated with neuronal damage in experimental models. The role of brain extracellular [K+] in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and its association with hemorrhage load, metabolic dysfunction and outcome has not been studied so far. Methods Cerebral microdialysis (CMD) samples from 28 poor grade aSAH patients were analyzed for CMD [K+] for 12 consecutive days after ictus, and time-matched to brain metabolic and hemodynamic parameters as well as corresponding plasma [K+]. Statistical analysis was performed using a generalized estimating equation with an autoregressive function to handle repeated observations of an individual patient. Results CMD [K+] did not correlate with plasma [K+] (Spearman’s ??=?0.114, P?=?0.109). Higher CMD [K+] was associated with the presence of intracerebral hematoma on admission head computed tomography, CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio >40 and CMD lactate >4 mmol/L (P?SAH patients. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relevance of brain interstitial K+ levels in the pathophysiology of secondary brain injury after aSAH. PMID:24920041

  20. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) promote mitophagy to protect neuron from death in an early brain injury following a subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Lu, Jianfei; Mi, Yongjie; Shi, Zhao; Chen, Chunhua; Riley, John; Zhou, Changman

    2014-07-21

    The term mitophagy is coined to describe the selective removal of mitochondria by autophagy but the process itself is still contentious, especially in the early period following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the present study, we investigated the role of mitophagy following 48h after SAH injury in rats. Specifically evaluating whether mitophagy, through voltage dependant anion channels (VDACs) interacting with microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, could orchestrate the induction of apoptotic and necrotic cell death in neurons, a VDAC1siRNA and an activitor Rapamycian (RAPA), were engaged. One hundred and twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Sham, SAH, SAH+VDAC1siRNA, and SAH+RAPA. Outcomes measured included mortality rate, brain edema, BBB disruption, and neurobehavioral testing. We also used western blotting techniques to analyze the expressions of key mitophagic/autophagic proteins and pro-apoptotic protein such as ROS, VDAC1, LC-3II and Caspase-3. Rapamycin treatment significantly improved the mortality rate, cerebral edema, and neurobehavioral deficits; apoptotic and necrotic cell death in neurons were reduced by Rapamycin following SAH injury. However, VDAC1siRNA worsened the brain injury following SAH. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot analysis demonstrated a decreased expression of VDAC1, LC3II, and an increase of ROS and Caspase-3 followed by VDAC1siRNA administration. In conclusion, mitophagy induced by VDAC1 following SAH injury may in fact play a significant role in neuroprotection, the mechanism which may be through the attenuation of the apoptosic and necrosic molecular pathways. This translates a preservation of functional integrity and an improvement in mortality. PMID:24880016

  1. The predictive value of serum myeloperoxidase for vasospasm in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lim, Michael; Bower, Regina S; Wang, Ying; Sims, Leroy; Bower, Mark R; Camara-Quintana, Joaquin; Li, Gordon; Cheshier, Samuel; Harsh, Griffith R; Steinberg, Gary K; Guccione, Samira

    2012-07-01

    Vasospasm is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), with inflammation playing a key role in its pathophysiology. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an inflammatory marker, was examined as a potential marker of vasospasm in patients with SAH. Daily serum samples from patients with aneurysmal SAH were assayed for MPO, and transcranial Doppler (TCDs) and neurological exams were assessed to determine vasospasm. Suspected vasospasm was confirmed by angiography. Peak MPO levels were then compared with timing of onset of vasospasm, based on clinical exams, TCDs and cerebral angiography. Patients with vasospasm had a mean MPO level of 115.5 ng/ml, compared to 59.4 ng/ml in those without vasospasm, 42.0 ng/ml in those with unruptured aneurysms, and 4.3 ng/ml in normal controls. In patients who experienced vasospasm, MPO was elevated above the threshold on the day of, or at any point prior to, vasospasm in 10 of 15 events (66.7%), and on the day of, or within 2 days prior to, vasospasm in 8 of 15 events (53.3%). Elevated serum MPO correlates with clinically evident vasospasm following aneurysmal SAH. The potential utility of MPO as a marker of vasospasm is discussed. PMID:22370810

  2. Aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage in a Chilean population, with emphasis on risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) is caused principally by the rupture of intracranial aneurisms. Important risk factors have been described such as age, sex, hypertension (HT) and season of the year, among others. The objective is to investigate the demographic characteristics and possible risk factors in a population of Chilean patients. Methods This retrospective study was based on the analysis of 244 clinical records of patients diagnosed with aneurismal SAH who were discharged from the Instituto de Neurocirugía ASENJO in Santiago, Chile. Results The mean age of patients was 49.85 years and the male:female ratio was 1:2.7. The signs and symptoms were not different between sexes; cephalea (85.7%) was predominant, followed by loss of consciousness, vomiting/nausea and meningeal signs. Risk factors included sex, age and HT. Concordant with other reports, the incidence of SAH was greatest in spring. Conclusions The demographic characteristics and risk factors observed in patients with aneurismal SAH treated in ASENJO were comparable to those of other populations. We were not able to conclude that tobacco and alcohol consumption were risk factors for this population. PMID:22035203

  3. Relationship between angiographic vasospasm, cerebral blood flow, and cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael N

    2015-01-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and cerebral infarction are major contributors to poor functional recovery after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Cerebral vasospasm, the narrowing of proximal intracranial arteries after SAH, has long been assumed to be the primary cause of DCI, and has therefore been the primary therapeutic target in attempts to diminish disability after SAH. However, emerging evidence has questioned the strength and causality of the relationship between vasospasm and DCI. To address this fundamental question, we performed two parallel studies assessing the relationship between the presence of vasospasm in a vascular territory and both regional reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and development of cerebral infarction.In a cohort of SAH patients at high-risk for DCI, we identified regions of hypoperfusion using positron emission tomography (PET) and compared their distribution with territories exhibiting vasospasm on concurrent angiography. We found that regional hypoperfusion was common in the absence of proximal vasospasm and that some patients without any significant vasospasm still could have hypoperfused brain regions. Similarly, our parallel study demonstrated that both patients and brain territories without vasospasm could develop delayed cerebral infarction, and that such vasospasm-independent infarcts account for more than a quarter of the infarct burden from DCI. These findings suggest that other processes, perhaps at a microvascular level, contribute at least part of the burden of DCI and future interventions should also address these other pathophysiologic processes. PMID:25366617

  4. fMRI of Working Memory Impairment after Recovery from Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Ellmore, Timothy M.; Rohlffs, Fiona; Khursheed, Faraz

    2013-01-01

    Recovery from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often incomplete and accompanied by subtle but persistent cognitive deficits. Previous neuropsychological reports indicate these deficits include most prominently memory impairment, with working memory particularly affected. The neural basis of these memory deficits remains unknown and unexplored by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In the present study, patients who experienced (SAH) underwent fMRI during the performance of a verbal working memory paradigm. Behavioral results indicated a subtle but statistically significant impairment relative to healthy subjects in working memory performance accuracy, which was accompanied by relatively increased blood-oxygen level dependent signal in widespread left and right hemisphere cortical areas during periods of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Activity increases remained after factoring out inter-individual differences in age and task performance, and included most notably left hemisphere regions associated with phonological loop processing, bilateral sensorimotor regions, and right hemisphere dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We conclude that deficits in verbal working memory following recovery from (SAH) are accompanied by widespread differences in hemodynamic correlates of neural activity. These differences are discussed with respect to the immediate and delayed focal and global brain damage that can occur following (SAH), and the possibility that this damage induces subcortical disconnection and subsequent decreased efficiency in neural processing. PMID:24223572

  5. Methemoglobin is an endogenous toll-like receptor 4 ligand-relevance to subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min Seong; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Kurland, David B; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Palmer, Andre F; Banerjee, Uddyalok; Iqbal, Sana; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a well-recognized consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and may be responsible for important complications of SAH. Signaling by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) in microglia plays a critical role in neuronal damage after SAH. Three molecules derived from erythrocyte breakdown have been postulated to be endogenous TLR4 ligands: methemoglobin (metHgb), heme and hemin. However, poor water solubility of heme and hemin, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contamination have confounded our understanding of these molecules as endogenous TLR4 ligands. We used a 5-step process to obtain highly purified LPS-free metHgb, as confirmed by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry and by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Using this preparation, we show that metHgb is a TLR4 ligand at physiologically relevant concentrations. metHgb caused time- and dose-dependent secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), from microglial and macrophage cell lines, with secretion inhibited by siRNA directed against TLR4, by the TLR4-specific inhibitors, Rs-LPS and TAK-242, and by anti-CD14 antibodies. Injection of purified LPS-free metHgb into the rat subarachnoid space induced microglial activation and TNF? upregulation. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that, following SAH, metHgb in the subarachnoid space can promote widespread TLR4-mediated neuroinflammation. PMID:25751721

  6. Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown origin: hospital course and long-term clinical and angiographic follow-up.

    PubMed

    Elhadi, Ali M; Zabramski, Joseph M; Almefty, Kaith K; Mendes, George A C; Nakaji, Peter; McDougall, Cameron G; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Preul, Mark C; Spetzler, Robert F

    2015-03-01

    OBJECT Hemorrhagic origin is unidentifiable in 10%-20% of patients presenting with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). While the patients in such cases do well clinically, there is a lack of long-term angiographic followup. The authors of the present study evaluated the long-term clinical and angiographic follow-up of a patient cohort with SAH of unknown origin that had been enrolled in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT). METHODS The BRAT database was searched for patients with SAH of unknown origin despite having undergone two or more angiographic studies as well as MRI of the brain and cervical spine. Follow-up was available at 6 months and 1 and 3 years after treatment. Analysis included demographic details, clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale, modified Rankin Scale [mRS]), and repeat vascular imaging. RESULTS Subarachnoid hemorrhage of unknown etiology was identified in 57 (11.9%) of the 472 patients enrolled in the BRAT study between March 2003 and January 2007. The mean age for this group was 51 years, and 40 members (70%) of the group were female. Sixteen of 56 patients (28.6%) required placement of an external ventricular drain for hydrocephalus, and 4 of these subsequently required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Delayed cerebral ischemia occurred in 4 patients (7%), leading to stroke in one of them. There were no rebleeding events. Eleven patients were lost to followup, and one patient died of unrelated causes. At the 3-year follow-up, 4 (9.1%) of 44 patients had a poor outcome (mRS > 2), and neurovascular imaging, which was available in 33 patients, was negative. CONCLUSIONS Hydrocephalus and delayed cerebral ischemia, while infrequent, do occur in SAH of unknown origin. Long-term neurological outcomes are generally good. A thorough evaluation to rule out an etiology of hemorrhage is necessary; however, imaging beyond 6 weeks from ictus has little utility, and rebleeding is unexpected. PMID:25526276

  7. Preventing Vasospasm Improves Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Rationale and Design of CONSCIOUS2 and CONSCIOUS3 Trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Loch Macdonald; Randall T. Higashida; Emanuela Keller; Stephan A. Mayer; Andy Molyneux; Andreas Raabe; Peter Vajkoczy; Isabel Wanke; Aline Frey; Angelina Marr; Sébastien Roux; Neal F. Kassell

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a frequent but unpredictable complication associated\\u000a with poor outcome. Current vasospasm therapies are suboptimal; new therapies are needed. Clazosentan, an endothelin receptor\\u000a antagonist, has shown promise in phase 2 studies, and two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trials (CONSCIOUS-2\\u000a and CONSCIOUS-3) are underway to further investigate its impact on vasospasm-related outcome after

  8. Impact of early-onset seizures on grading and outcome in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Fung, Christian; Balmer, Mathias; Murek, Michael; Z'Graggen, Werner J; Abu-Isa, Janine; Ozdoba, Christoph; Haenggi, Matthias; Jakob, Stephan M; Raabe, Andreas; Beck, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    OBJECT After subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), seizure occurs in up to 26% of patients. The impact of seizure on outcome has been studied, yet its impact on grading is unknown. The authors evaluated the impact of early-onset seizures (EOS) on grading of spontaneous SAH and on outcome. METHODS This retrospective analysis included consecutive patients with SAH who were treated at the NeuroCenter, Inselspital, University Hospital Bern, Switzerland, between January 2005 and December 2010. Demographic data, clinical data, and reports of EOS were recorded. The EOS were defined as seizures occurring within 24 hours after ictus. Patients were graded according to the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) scale pre- and postresuscitation and dichotomized into good (WFNS I-III) and poor (WFNS IV-V) grades. Outcome was assessed at 6 months by using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS); an mRS score of 0-3 was considered a good outcome and an mRS score of 4-6 was considered a poor outcome. RESULTS Forty-one of 425 patients with SAH had EOS. Twenty-seven of those 41 patients (65.9%) had a poor WFNS grade. Twenty-eight (68.3%) achieved a good outcome, 11 (26.8%) had a poor outcome, and 2 (4.9%) were lost to followup. Early-onset seizures were proven in 9 of 16 electroencephalograms. The EOS were associated with poor WFNS grade (OR 2.81, 97.5% CI 1.14-7.46; p = 0.03) and good outcome (OR 4.01, 97.5% CI 1.63-10.53; p = 0.03). Increasing age, hydrocephalus, intracerebral hemorrhage, and intraventricular hemorrhage were associated with poor WFNS grade, whereas only age, intracerebral hemorrhage (p < 0.001), and poor WFNS grade (p < 0.001) were associated with poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS Patients with EOS were classified significantly more often in a poor grade initially, but then they significantly more often achieved a good outcome. The authors conclude that EOS can negatively influence grading. This might influence decision making for the care of patients with SAH, so grading of patients with EOS should be interpreted with caution. PMID:25479126

  9. Upper thoracic intradural-extramedullary cavernous malformation presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage without spinal dysfunction: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chuan-Yuan; He, Min; Zhang, Yue-Kang; You, Chao

    2014-12-01

    A 45-year-old man had subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) which was confirmed by lumbar puncture, since it was negative on head computed tomography. The result of neurological examination was normal. Following pan-cerebral angiography and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to find out the cause of bleeding. The whole spinal MRI revealed an intradural-extramedullary mass lesion at the upper thoracic level which was consistent with cavernous malformation after surgery. When patients presented with SAH of no spinal symptoms, the diagnosis of an intradural-extramedullary cavernous malformation is challenging. A whole spinal workup should be considered in a patient with spontaneous SAH when bleeding from intracranial origin is carefully excluded. PMID:24878074

  10. Association of Fisher scale and changes of language in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Souza, Moysés Loiola Ponte de

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive deficits caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after rupture of cerebral aneurysms are common, as approximately half of patients have severe, or at least striking, declines in one or more functions of the cognitive domain. The Fisher Scale is associated with the development of vasospasm and thus with the final performance of the patient after SAH. The association of this scale with language disorders in the period preceding the treatment has not been reported yet in the literature. Associate the presence of language deficits with varying degrees of the Fisher Scale in patients with SAH in the period preceding the treatment of aneurysm, as well as compare the various degrees of this scale, identifying the Fisher Scale degrees more associated with the decline of language. The database of 185 preoperative evaluations of language was studied, through the Montreal Toulouse Protocol Alpha version and verbal fluency through CERAD battery, of patients of Hospital da Restauração with aneurysmal SAH. The data relating to the Fisher Scale, the location of the aneurysm, the age and the gender of patients were obtained through review of medical records. Patients were divided according to the Fisher Scale (Fisher I, II, III or IV) and compared with a control group of individuals considered normal. Disorders in language and verbal fluency in patients with SAH in the preoperative period were evidenced. The classification of the patients according to the Fisher Scale allowed to identify differences between the sub-groups and to conclude that patients with bulkier bleeding (Fisher III and IV) have larger declines in the analyzed functions. PMID:25410466

  11. Cardiac Arrhythmias after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Risk Factors and Impact on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Frontera, Jennifer A.; Parra, Augusto; Shimbo, Daichi; Fernandez, Andres; Schmidt, J. Michael; Peter, Patricia; Claassen, Jan; Wartenberg, Katja E.; Rincon, Fred; Badjatia, Neeraj; Naidech, Andrew; Connolly, E. Sander; Mayer, Stephan A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Serious cardiac arrhythmias have been described in approximately 5% of patients after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to identify the frequency, risk factors and clinical impact of cardiac arrhythmia after SAH. Methods We prospectively studied 580 spontaneous SAH patients and identified risk factors and complications associated with the development of clinically significant arrhythmia. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios for the effect of arrhythmia on hospital complications and 3-month outcome, as measured by the modified Rankin Scale, after controlling for age, neurological grade, APACHE-2 physiologic subscore, brain herniation and aneurysm size. Results Arrhythmia occurred in 4.3% (n = 25) of patients. Atrial fibrillation and flutter were the most common arrhythmias, occurring in 76% (n = 19) of these patients. Admission predictors of cardiac arrhythmia included older age, history of arrhythmia and abnormal admission electrocardiogram (all p < 0.05). After adjusting for length of stay, hospital complications associated with arrhythmia included myocardial ischemia, hyperglycemia, and herniation (all p < 0.05). Arrhythmia was associated with an excess ICU stay of 5 days (p = 0.002). After adjusting for other predictors of outcome, arrhythmia was associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted OR 8.0, 95% confidence interval 1.9–34.0, p = 0.005), and death or severe disability (adjusted OR 6.9, 95% confidence interval 1.5–32.0, p = 0.014). Conclusions Clinically important arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation or flutter, occurred in 4% of SAH patients. Arrhythmias are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular comorbidity, prolonged hospital stay and poor outcome or death after SAH, after adjusting for other predictors of poor outcome. PMID:18525201

  12. An overview of new pharmacological treatments for cerebrovascular dysfunction after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm and the resulting cerebral ischemia occurring after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are still responsible for the considerable morbidity and mortality in patients affected by cerebral aneurysms. Mechanisms contributing to the development of vasospasm, abnormal reactivity of cerebral arteries and cerebral ischemia after SAH have been intensively investigated in recent years. It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of vasospasm is related to a number of pathological processes, including endothelial damage, smooth muscle cell contraction resulting from spasmogenic substances generated during lyses of subarachnoid blood clots, changes in vascular responsiveness and inflammatory or immunological reactions of the vascular wall. A great deal of experimental and clinical research has been conducted in an effort to find ways to prevent these complications. However, to date, the main therapeutic interventions remain elusive and are limited to the manipulation of systemic blood pressure, alteration of blood volume or viscosity, and control of arterial dioxide tension. Even though no single pharmacological agent or treatment protocol has been identified which could prevent or reverse these deadly complications, a number of promising drugs have been investigated. Among these is the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), the main regulator of erythropoiesis. It has recently been found that EPO produces a neuroprotective action during experimental SAH when its recombinant form (rHuEPO) is systemically administered. This topic review collects the relevant literature on the main investigative therapies for cerebrovascular dysfunction after aneurysmal SAH. In addition, it points out rHuEPO, which may hold promise in future clinical trials to prevent the occurrence of vasospasm and cerebral ischemia after SAH. PMID:14739002

  13. A case report for fatal Churg-Strauss syndrome complications: first reported death due to rapid progression of prominently huge hepatic capsular hematoma and multi-system organ hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jiejing; Tong, Hongyan; Chen, Feifei; Mai, Wenyuan; Lou, Yinjun; Jin, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a rare disease that has an extremely low incidence rate. CSS prognosis is good, in general; and there are no reports of multiple-organ hemorrhage in CSS. We report a unique case of CSS, wherein, an elderly man experienced multiple organ hemorrhage -- a particularly huge hematoma under the capsule of the liver and poor prognosis. PMID:25419420

  14. Alterations of Voltage-Dependent Calcium Channel Currents in Basilar Artery Smooth Muscle Cells at Early Stage of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xianqing; Fu, Yongjian; Liao, Daqing; Chen, Yanfang; Liu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in the currents of voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) in smooth muscle cells of basilar artery in a rabbit model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: sham (C), normal (N), 24 hours (S1), 48 hours (S2) and 72 hours (S3) after SAH. Non-heparinized autologous arterial blood (1ml/kg) was injected into the cisterna magna to create SAH after intravenous anesthesia, and 1 ml/kg of saline was injected into cisterna magna in the sham group. Rabbits in group N received no injections. Basilar artery in S1, S2, S3 group were isolated at 24, 48, 72 hours after SAH. Basilar artery in group C was isolated at 72 hours after physiological saline injection. Basilar artery smooth muscle cells were isolated for all groups. Whole-cell patch-clamp technique was utilized to record cell membrane capacitance and VDCCs currents. The VDCCs antagonist nifedipine was added to the bath solution to block the Ca++ channels currents. Results There were no significant differences in the number of cells isolated, the cell size and membrane capacitance among all the five groups. VDCC currents in the S1–S3 groups had higher amplitudes than those in control and sham groups. The significant change of current amplitude was observed at 72 hours after SAH, which was higher than those of 24 and 48 hours. The VDCCs were shown to expression in human artery smooth muscle cells. Conclusions The changes of activation characteristics and voltage-current relationship at 72 hours after SAH might be an important event which leads to a series of molecular events in the microenvironment of the basilar artery smooth muscle cells. This may be the key time point for potential therapeutic intervention against subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:24392110

  15. The burden of the systemic inflammatory response predicts vasospasm and outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Rajat; Diringer, Michael N.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) can trigger immune activation sufficient to induce the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). This may promote both extra-cerebral organ dysfunction and delayed cerebral ischemia, contributing to worse outcome. We ascertained the frequency and predictors of SIRS after spontaneous SAH, and determined whether degree of early systemic inflammation predicted the occurrence of vasospasm and clinical outcome. Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data on 276 consecutive patients admitted to a neurosciences intensive care unit with acute, non-traumatic SAH between 2002 and 2005. A daily SIRS score was derived by summing the number of variables meeting standard criteria (HR >90, RR >20, Temperature >38°C or <36°C, WBC count <4,000 or >12,000). SIRS was considered present if two or more criteria were met, while SIRS burden over the first four days was calculated by averaging daily scores. Regression modeling was used to determine the relationship between SIRS burden (after controlling for confounders including infection, surgery, and corticosteroid use), symptomatic vasospasm, and outcome, determined by hospital disposition. Results: SIRS was present in over half the patients on admission and developed in 85% within the first four days. Factors associated with SIRS included poor clinical grade, thick cisternal blood, larger aneurysm size, higher admission blood pressure, and surgery for aneurysm clipping. Higher SIRS burden was independently associated with death or discharge to nursing home (OR 2.20/point, 95% CI 1.27-3.81). All of those developing clinical vasospasm had evidence of SIRS, with greater SIRS burden predicting increased risk for delayed ischemic neurological deficits (OR 1.77/point, 95% CI 1.12-2.80). Conclusions: Systemic inflammatory activation is common after SAH even in the absence of infection; it is more frequent in those with more severe hemorrhage and in those who undergo surgical clipping. Higher burden of SIRS in the initial four days independently predicts symptomatic vasospasm and is associated with worse outcome. PMID:18196475

  16. Pharmacologically Augmented S-Nitrosylated Hemoglobin Improves Recovery From Murine Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Huaxin; Reynolds, James D.; Auten, Richard L.; Demchenko, Ivan T.; Piantadosi, Claude A.; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Warner, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose S-nitrosylated hemoglobin (S-nitrosohemoglobin) has been implicated in the delivery of O2 to tissues through the regulation of microvascular blood flow. This study tested the hypothesis that enhancement of S-nitrosylated hemoglobin by ethyl nitrite inhalation improves outcome after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods A preliminary dosing study identified 20 ppm ethyl nitrite as a concentration that produced a 4-fold increase in S-nitrosylated hemoglobin concentration with no increase in methemoglobin. Mice were subjected to endovascular perforation of the right anterior cerebral artery and were treated with 20 ppm ethyl nitrite in air, or air alone for 72 hours, after which neurologic function, cerebral vessel diameter, brain water content, cortical tissue PO2, and parenchymal red blood cell flow velocity were measured. Results At 72 hours after hemorrhage, air- and ethyl nitrite– exposed mice had similarly sized blood clots. Ethyl nitrite improved neurologic score and rotarod performance; abated SAH-induced constrictions in the ipsilateral anterior, middle cerebral, and internal carotid arteries; and prevented an increase in ipsilateral brain water content. Ethyl nitrite inhalation increased red blood cell flow velocity and cortical tissue PO2 in the ipsilateral cortex with no effect on systemic blood pressure. Conclusions Targeted S-nitrosylation of hemoglobin improved outcome parameters, including vessel diameter, tissue blood flow, cortical tissue PO2, and neurologic function in a murine SAH model. Augmenting endogenous PO2-dependent delivery of NO bioactivity to selectively dilate the compromised cerebral vasculature has significant clinical potential in the treatment of SAH. PMID:21193749

  17. Protective effect of stellate ganglion block on delayed cerebral vasospasm in an experimental rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Na; Wu, Yun; Chen, Bai-Zhao; Han, Jin-Feng; Zhou, Mai-Tao

    2014-10-17

    Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is a blockade of sympathetic ganglia innervating the head and neck, and is known to function through vasodilation of the target region. However, the effectiveness of SGB in relieving cerebral vasospasm (CVS) through dilation of intracerebral vessels has not been evaluated. The aim of the present study is to investigate the therapeutic effects of SGB in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) complicated by delayed CVS, and explore the underlying mechanisms. The SAH model was established by double injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magna. We simulated SGB by transection of the cervical sympathetic trunk (TCST), and measured changes in the diameter, perimeter and cross-sectional area of the basilar artery (BA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) to evaluate its vasodilatory effect. To investigate the underlying mechanisms, we determined the expression level of vasoactive molecules endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the plasma, and apoptotic modulators Bcl-2 and Bax in the hippocampus. We found a significant increase in the diameter, perimeter and cross-sectional area of the BA and right MCA in SAH rats subjected to TCST. Application of SGB significantly reduced the expression of ET-1 while increasing that of CGRP in SAH rats. We also found a significant increase in the expression of Bcl-2 and decrease in the expression of Bax in the hippocampus of SAH rats subjected to TCST, when compared to untreated SAH rats. The mechanism of action of SGB is likely mediated through alterations in the ratio of ET-1 and CGRP, and Bax and Bcl-2. These results suggest that SGB can alleviate the severity of delayed CVS by inducing dilation of intracerebral blood vessels, and promoting anti-apoptotic signaling. Our findings provide evidence supporting the use of SGB as an effective and well-tolerated approach to the treatment of CVS in various clinical settings. PMID:25128600

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Hydrogen-Rich Saline against Neurologic Damage and Apoptosis in Early Brain Injury following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Possible Role of the Akt/GSK3? Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianfeng; Chen, Sheng; Wu, HaiJian; McBride, Devin W.; Wu, Qun; Sun, XueJun; Zhang, JianMin

    2014-01-01

    Backgrounds Early brain injury (EBI) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Neuronal apoptosis is involved in the pathological process of EBI. Hydrogen can inhibit neuronal apoptosis and attenuate EBI following SAH. However, the molecular mechanism underlying hydrogen-mediated anti-apoptotic effects in SAH has not been elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether hydrogen alleviates EBI after SAH, specifically neuronal apoptosis, partially via the Akt/GSK3? signaling pathway. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n?=?85) were randomly divided into the following groups: sham group (n?=?17), SAH group (n?=?17), SAH + saline group (n?=?17), SAH + hydrogen-rich saline (HS) group (n?=?17) and SAH + HS + Ly294002 (n?=?17) group. HS or an equal volume of physiological saline was administered immediately after surgery and repeated 8 hours later. The PI3K inhibitor, Ly294002, was applied to manipulate the proposed pathway. Neurological score and SAH grade were assessed at 24 hours after SAH. Western blot was used for the quantification of Akt, pAkt, GSK3?, pGSK3?, Bcl-2, Bax and cleaved caspase-3 proteins. Neuronal apoptosis was identified by double staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining and NeuN, and quantified by apoptosis index. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescent double-labeling staining was performed to clarify the relationships between neuronal apoptosis and pAkt or pGSK3?. Results HS significantly reduced neuronal apoptosis and improved neurological function at 24 hours after SAH. The levels of pAkt and pGSK3?, mainly expressed in neurons, were markedly up-regulated. Additionally, Bcl-2 was significantly increased while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 was decreased by HS treatment. Double staining of pAkt and TUNEL showed few colocalization of pAkt-positive cells and TUNEL-positive cells. The inhibitor of PI3K, Ly294002, suppressed the beneficial effects of HS. Conclusions HS could attenuate neuronal apoptosis in EBI and improve the neurofunctional outcome after SAH, partially via the Akt/GSK3? pathway. PMID:24763696

  19. Ginsenoside Rbeta1 reduces neurologic damage, is anti-apoptotic, and down-regulates p53 and BAX in subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingbo; Tang, Jiping; Khatibi, Nikan H; Zhu, Mei; Chen, Di; Zheng, Weiping; Wang, Shali

    2010-05-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide and the number one cause of adult disability in the United States and Europe. A subtype of stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), accounts for 7% of all strokes each year and claims one of the highest mortalities and morbidities. Many therapeutic interventions have been used to treat brain injury following SAH but none have reached the level of effectiveness needed to clinically reduce mortality. Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1), a major component of the Chinese traditional medicine Panax Ginseng, has been shown to reduce ischemic brain injury and myocardial injury via anti-apoptotic pathways. In the present study, we investigated the use of GRb1 on SAH induced brain injury in rats. Four groups were used: sham, vehicle (SAH), low dose treatment (SAH+ 5mg/kg GRb1), and high dose treatment (SAH+ 20mg/kg GRb1). Post assessment included wall thickness and mean cross-section area of basilar artery were measured for evaluating cerebral vasospasm, Evans blue extravasations to assess blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot analysis looking for specific pro-apoptotic markers, and tunnel staining for cell death assessment. In addition, mortality, neurological function and brain edema were investigated. The results showed that high dose GRb1 treatment significantly enlarged mean cross-sectional area and decreased wall thickness of basilar artery, reduced neurological deficits, brain edema, BBB disruption, and TUNEL positive cell expression. Same time, we found that the proteins expression of P53, Bax and Caspase-3 were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of bcl-2 was up-regulated in Rb1 treatment. The results of this study suggest that GRb1 could relieve cerebral vasospasm and potentially provide neuroprotection in SAH victims. The underlying mechanisms may be partly related to inhibition of P53 and Bax dependent proapoptosis pathway. More studies will be needed to confirm these results and determine its potential as a long term agent. PMID:20353383

  20. Metabolic Pattern of the Acute Phase of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in a Novel Porcine Model: Studies with Cerebral Microdialysis with High Temporal Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Christoffer; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Hillered, Lars; Engström, Elisabeth Ronne

    2014-01-01

    Background Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may produce cerebral ischemia and systemic responses including stress. To study immediate cerebral and systemic changes in response to aneurysm rupture, animal models are needed. Objective To study early cerebral energy changes in an animal model. Methods Experimental SAH was induced in 11 pigs by autologous blood injection to the anterior skull base, with simultaneous control of intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures. Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor concentrations of glucose, pyruvate and lactate. Results In nine of the pigs, a pattern of transient ischemia was produced, with a dramatic reduction of cerebral perfusion pressure soon after blood injection, associated with a quick glucose and pyruvate decrease. This was followed by a lactate increase and a delayed pyruvate increase, producing a marked but short elevation of the lactate/pyruvate ratio. Glucose, pyruvate, lactate and lactate/pyruvate ratio thereafter returned toward baseline. The two remaining pigs had a more severe metabolic reaction with glucose and pyruvate rapidly decreasing to undetectable levels while lactate increased and remained elevated, suggesting persisting ischemia. Conclusion The animal model simulates the conditions of SAH not only by deposition of blood in the basal cisterns, but also creating the transient global ischemic impact of aneurysmal SAH. The metabolic cerebral changes suggest immediate transient substrate failure followed by hypermetabolism of glucose upon reperfusion. The model has features that resemble spontaneous bleeding, and is suitable for future research of the early cerebral and systemic responses to SAH that are difficult to study in humans. PMID:24940881

  1. Safety assessment of anticoagulation therapy in patients with hemorrhagic cerebral venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Riasi, Hamid Reza; Noureddine, Ali; Masoudinezhad, Shahram; Yazdani, Siamak; Mirzae, Mohammad Mousavi; Razavi, Atena Sharifi; Ghandehari, Kosar

    2013-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation therapy is a routine treatment in patients with hemorrhagic cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). However, fear of hemorrhagic complications and deterioration course following anticoagulation often disturbs the responsible physician. Methods This was a Prospective observational study on consecutive CVT patients with hemorrhagic venous infarction or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) admitted in Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, during 2006-2012. The diagnosis of CVT in suspected cases was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance venography (MRI/MRV), and computerized tomography (CT) angiography following established diagnostic criteria. Demographic data, clinical manifestations from onset to end of the observation period, location of thrombus, location and size of infarction and hemorrhage, and clinical course during treatment were recorded. Choice of the treatment was left to the opinion of the treating physician. Clinical course during 1 week of treatment was assessed based on the baseline modified National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Three or more points decrease or increase of modified NIHSS after 1 week of treatment was considered as improvement or deterioration courses, respectively. Other clinical courses were categorized as stabilization course. Results 102 hemorrhagic CVT patients (80 females, 22 males) with mean age of 38.6 ± 8 years were prospectively investigated. Of the 102 hemorrhagic CVT patients in the acute phase, 52 patients (50.9%) were anticoagulated with adjusted dose intravenous heparin infusion and 50 cases (49.1%) received subcutaneous enoxaparin 1mg/Kg twice daily. Decreased consciousness had a significant effect on the clinical course of the patients (X2 = 9.493, df = 2, P = 0.009). Presence of SAH had no significant effect on the clinical course of our anticoagulated hemorrhagic CVT cases (X2 = 0.304, df = 2, P = 0.914). Extension of Infarction in more than two thirds of a hemisphere had a significant influence on the distribution of clinical courses (X2 = 5.867, df = 2, P = 0.044). Difference in distribution of clinical course among the two groups of our hemorrhagic CVT patients was not significant (X2 = 8.14, df = 1, P = 0.87). Conclusion Patients with hemorrhagic CVT without other contraindication for anticoagulation should be treated either with dose-adjusted intravenous heparin or body-weight-adjusted subcutaneous low molecular-weight heparin. PMID:24250911

  2. Migrating lumbar intrathecal catheter fragment associated with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Hnenny, Luke; Sabry, Hatem A; Raskin, Jeffrey S; Liu, Jesse J; Roundy, Neil E; Dogan, Aclan

    2015-01-01

    Intrathecal catheter placement into the lumbar cistern has varied indications, including drug delivery and CSF diversion. These Silastic catheters are elastic and durable; however, catheter-associated malfunctions are well reported in the literature. Fractured catheters are managed with some variability, but entirely intradural retained fragments are often managed conservatively with observation. The authors describe a case of a 70-year-old man with an implanted intrathecal morphine pump for failed back surgery syndrome who presented to an outside hospital with a history of headache, neck pain, nausea, and photophobia of 3 days' duration. He also described mild weakness and intermittent numbness of both legs. Unenhanced head CT demonstrated subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A right C-5 hemilaminectomy was performed. This case is unique in that there was no indication that the lumbar intrathecal catheter had fractured prior to the patient's presentation with SAH. This case demonstrates that intrathecal catheter fragments are mobile and can precipitate intracranial morbidity. Extrication of known fragments is safe and should be attempted to prevent further neurosurgical morbidity. PMID:25360531

  3. Geographical Analysis of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Japan Utilizing Publically-Accessible DPC Database

    PubMed Central

    Fukuhara, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Since the launch of the novel medical reimbursement system Diagnosis Procedure Combination (DPC) in 2003 in Japan, inpatient data has been accumulated over time as part of a Japanese governmental nationwide database. This is partially accessible by the public, and this study examined the adequacy of this database as epidemiological research material by extracting the data relating to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) with special attention given to the limitations that this involves. Datasets after 2010 are considered suitable for analysis because of the numbers of participating hospitals and the analysis term. Extracting the data by prefecture, those with a continuously high aSAH incidence were Aomori, Iwate, Akita, Yamagata, Kochi and Kumamoto Prefectures, and those with low aSAH incidence were Kanagawa, Shiga, Kyoto, Shimane and Ehime Prefectures. Although these obtained results are informative, a publically-accessible DPC database has several limitations. Some limitations have been resolved: the analyzed term each year is now 12-months and the number of participating hospitals seems to have stabilized around 1700. However, other limitations such as masking the numbers in each hospital reporting less than 10 patients still exist, so careful and critical interpretation is necessary in utilizing a publically-accessible DPC database. Considering the potential of this database as material for epidemiological research, future analysis of the entire DPC database by qualified researchers is desirable. PMID:25811480

  4. Timing of operation for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a common and dangerous disease with an unfavorable prognosis. Patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (Hunt & Hess Grades 4–5) are unconscious on admission. Because of the high mortality and disability rate associated with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is often treated conservatively. Timing of surgery for poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is still controversial, therefore this study aims to identify the optimal time to operate on patients admitted in poor clinical condition. Methods/design Ninety-nine patients meeting the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned into three treatment groups. The early surgery group received operation within 3 days after onset of subarachnoid hemorrhage (day of SAH?=?day 1); the intermediate surgery group received operation from days 4 to 7, and surgery was performed on the late surgery group after day 7. Follow-up was performed 1, 3, and 6 months after aneurysm clipping. Primary indicators of outcome included the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale and the Modified Rankin Scale, while secondary indicators of outcome were assessed using the Barthel Index and mortality. Discussion This is the first prospective, single-center, observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial to elucidate optimal timing for surgery in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. The results of this study will be used to direct decisions of surgical intervention in poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage, thus improving clinical outcomes for patients. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-12002917 PMID:23957458

  5. Progressive Manifestations of Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Presenting with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Intracerebral Hemorrhage, and Cerebral Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyu-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome. PMID:25535520

  6. Progressive manifestations of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyu-Sun; Yi, Hyeong-Joong

    2014-11-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is characterized by sudden-onset headache with focal neurologic deficit and prolonged but reversible multifocal narrowing of the distal cerebral arteries. Stroke, either hemorrhagic or ischemic, is a relatively frequent presentation in RCVS, but progressive manifestations of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction in a patient is seldom described. We report a rare case of a 56-year-old woman with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome consecutively presenting as cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and cerebral infarction. When she complained of severe headache with subtle cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage, her angiography was non-specific. But, computed tomographic angiography showed typical angiographic features of this syndrome after four days. Day 12, she suffered mental deterioration and hemiplegia due to contralateral intracerebral hematoma, and she was surgically treated. For recurrent attacks of headache, medical management with calcium channel blockers has been instituted. Normalized angiographic features were documented after 8 weeks. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome should be considered as differential diagnosis of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and repeated angiography is recommended for the diagnosis of this under-recognized syndrome. PMID:25535520

  7. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stroke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  8. Microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector

    DOEpatents

    Haddad, Waleed S. (Dublin, CA); Trebes, James E. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-06-05

    The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector includes a low power pulsed microwave transmitter with a broad-band antenna for producing a directional beam of microwaves, an index of refraction matching cap placed over the patients head, and an array of broad-band microwave receivers with collection antennae. The system of microwave transmitter and receivers are scanned around, and can also be positioned up and down the axis of the patients head. The microwave hemorrhagic stroke detector is a completely non-invasive device designed to detect and localize blood pooling and clots or to measure blood flow within the head or body. The device is based on low power pulsed microwave technology combined with specialized antennas and tomographic methods. The system can be used for rapid, non-invasive detection of blood pooling such as occurs with hemorrhagic stoke in human or animal patients as well as for the detection of hemorrhage within a patient's body.

  9. Pulmonary hemorrhage in cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Gordon; Winstone, Tiffany; Wilcox, Pearce; Van Eeden, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary manifestations of cryoglobulinemia are uncommon and their clinical behaviour is unpredictable, ranging from mild dyspnea to life-threatening presentations. A patient with cryoglobulinemia who presented with hypoxic respiratory failure attributed to pulmonary hemorrhage is reported. PMID:25493699

  10. [A case of acoustic neurinoma presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Tsuda, T; Hondo, H; Matsumoto, K

    1985-09-01

    A case of acoustic neurinoma presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage is reported. The patient, a 33-year-old female, had suffered from left hearing disturbance and tinnitus for several years prior to admission. She had sudden onset of severe headache in the left posterior auricular region, nausea and vomiting while watching a play-going. Immediately she was brought to a neighboring hospital by ambulance. Lumbar puncture demonstrated xanthochromic cerebrospinal fluid with high opening pressure of 380 mmH2O or more and she was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). As her level of consciousness was progressively lowered, she was transferred and admitted to our hospital. Findings of plain CT scan on admission suggested that she had a brainstem hemorrhage with acute obstructive hydrocephalus. After the immediate operation of ventricle drainage, she became alert. Two weeks after admission, contrast-enhanced CT scan, internal meatus tomography and vertebral angiography were performed because she complained of tinnitus and hearing loss of her left ear. A huge lt. C-P angle tumor was revealed and its total removal was carried out successfully after V-P shunt operation for her hydrocephalic condition. Histological examination showed a typical acoustic neurinoma. The postoperative course was uneventful only with a moderate facial paresis on her left side. Acute and severe subarachnoid hemorrhage of the posterior fossa in cases of acoustic neurinoma has been reported very sporadically. However, CT examination revealed such a rare case of acoustic neurinoma and lead us to a successful surgical treatment for the patient. PMID:4069313

  11. Optimal hemoglobin concentration in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage after surgical treatment to prevent symptomatic cerebral vasospasm.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiujun; Tan, Guanping; Xing, Wenli; He, Zhaohui

    2015-03-25

    Medical complications occur frequently after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), such as cerebral vasospasm (CVS), anemia, etc. The relationship between hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration and the occurrence of CVS after aSAH remains largely elusive. A total of 218 patients with postoperative aSAH were recruited. Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCVS) was initially diagnosed on the basis of their clinical signs and symptoms, and confirmed by imaging tests. The patients were then divided into four groups on the basis of the postoperative mean Hgb concentration (<11, 11-12, 12-13, and >13?g/dl). The possible influential factors that were statistically significant in the initial univariate analysis were subjected to a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Univariate analysis showed that Hunt and Hess neurological grade on admission, intraoperative aneurysm rupture, CT Fisher grade, and postoperative mean Hgb were associated significantly with SCVS in aSAH patients after surgical treatment (P<0.05). Subsequent multivariable analysis showed that postoperative mean Hgb remained significant after adjustment for Hunt and Hess neurological grade on admission and CT fisher grade. The incidence of SCVS in the group with an Hgb concentration 11-12?g/dl was found to be the lowest among all groups [odds ratio (OR), 3.29, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.43-7.58, P=0.005; OR, 3.63, 95% CI, 1.41-9.34, P=0.007; OR, 5.34, 95% CI, 1.85-15.43, P=0.002]. Postoperative Hgb concentration is an independent risk factor for SCVS in aSAH patients following surgery, and maintaining the concentration at 11-12?g/dl may reduce the incidence of SCVS. PMID:25714422

  12. Etanercept Alleviates Early Brain Injury Following Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage and the Possible Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin-Fei; Song, Jin-Ning; Ma, Xu-Dong; Zhao, Yong-Lin; Liu, Zun-Wei; Li, Yu; Sun, Peng; Li, Dan-Dong; Pang, Hong-Gang; Huang, Ting-Qin

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral inflammation plays a crucial role in early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study investigated the effects of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125, acetylcholine (Ach), etanercept, and anti-TNF-? on cellular apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus, in order to establish the role of JNK and TNF-? in EBI. The SAH model was established using an endovascular puncture protocol. The reliability of the EBI model was determined by phosphorylated-Bad (pBad) immunohistochemistry. Neurological scores were recorded and western blot was used to detect the expression of JNK and TNF-?, and TUNEL assay was used to mark apoptotic cells. The results showed that pBad positive cells were evenly distributed in the cerebral cortex at different time points. The highest expression of pBad was reached 1 day after SAH, and pJNK and TNF-? reached their peak expression at 2 days after SAH. SP600125, Ach, and etanercept significantly decreased the level of pJNK and TNF-? in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, SP600125 and etanercept reduced cellular apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus and significantly improved neurological scores at 2 days after SAH potentially via inhibition of the JNK-TNF-? pathway. Ach reduced cellular apoptosis only in the cerebral cortex. It is possible that JNK induces TNF-? expression, which in turn enhances JNK expression in EBI after SAH, leading to increased apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. Thus, our results indicate that that etanercept may be a potential therapeutic agent to alleviate EBI. PMID:25542238

  13. Cortisol dynamics are associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities following the aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    July, Julius; As’ad, Suryani; Suhadi, F. X. Budhianto; Islam, Andi A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities are common following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It probably represents cardiovascular stress after SAH. Aims: The purpose of this study was to assess cortisol dynamics in relation to the ECG abnormality and disease course of SAH. Settings and Design: The study follows a consecutive cohort of aneurysmal SAH patients, who underwent surgery within 72 hours of onset, and they were followed up for 10 days. Materials and Methods: Serum cortisols, cortisol-binding globulin (CGB), adenocorticotropic hormone were measured (between 08.00-09.00 hours) preoperatively and then on postoperative days (PODs) 2, 4, 7, and 10. Electrocardiographs (ECG) were recorded on initial assessment and after surgery on daily basis in ICU. ECG abnormalities will be followed up by measurement of cardiac troponin T to quantify the myocyte necrosis. Statistical Analysis Used: Logistic regression analysis using commercial available software STATA 9. Results: A total of 44 patients (20 M and 24 F) were eligible for the cohort analysis. Average patient age is 52.02 years (52.02 ± 11.23), and 86% (6/44) arrived with World Federation of Neurosurgical Society Scale grade 3 or better. The ECG abnormality was found in 10 cases (22.7%), but the abnormal TnT (>1 ?g/l) were found in eight cases, and two cases contribute to the mortality. The ECG abnormalities are significantly associated with total cortisol on day 4 (P < 0.05) and free cortisol on day 2 (P = 0.0065). Conclusions: Elevated levels of morning cortisol within the first four days after surgery are associated with the ECG abnormality. PMID:23233777

  14. Bilateral adrenal swelling as a cause of chest, back, and upper abdominal pain in essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera is due to microvascular ischemic thrombosis rather than to hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Michiels; Z. Berneman; W. Schroyens; G. P. Krestin

    2002-01-01

    Bilateral massive adrenal swelling (BAS) on computed tomography (CT) scan with no enhancement after injection of intravenous contrast media has been observed in two completely different clinical settings. On the one hand, BAS is the result of ischemic necrosis and subsequent hemorrhagic infarction in patients with sepsis and hypotension in critically ill situations. On the other hand, BAS is the

  15. External validation of the Ottawa subarachnoid hemorrhage clinical decision rule in patients with acute headache.

    PubMed

    Bellolio, M Fernanda; Hess, Erik P; Gilani, Waqas I; VanDyck, Tyler J; Ostby, Stuart A; Schwarz, Jessica A; Lohse, Christine M; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2015-02-01

    We aim to externally validate the Ottawa subarachnoid hemorrhage (OSAH) clinical decision rule. This rule identifies patients with acute nontraumatic headache who require further investigation. We conducted a medical record review of all patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with headache from January 2011 to November 2013. Per the OSAH rule, patients with any of the following predictors require further investigation: age 40 years or older, neck pain, stiffness or limited flexion, loss of consciousness, onset during exertion, or thunderclap. The rule was applied following the OSAH rule criteria. Patients were followed up for repeat visits within 7 days of initial presentation. Data were electronically harvested from the electronic medical record and manually abstracted from individual patient charts using a standardized data abstraction form. Calibration between trained reviewers was performed periodically. A total of 5034 ED visits with acute headache were reviewed for eligibility. There were 1521 visits that met exclusion criteria, and 3059 had headache of gradual onset or time to maximal intensity greater than or equal to 1 hour. The rule was applied to 454 patients (9.0%). There were 9 cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), yielding an incidence of 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0%-3.9%) in the eligible cohort. The sensitivity for SAH was 100% (95% CI, 62.9%-100%); specificity, 7.6% (95% CI, 5.4%-10.6%); positive predictive value, 2.1% (95% CI 1.0%-4.2%); and negative predictive value, 100% (95% CI, 87.4%-100%). The OSAH rule was 100% sensitive for SAH in the eligible cohort. However, its low specificity and applicability to only a minority of ED patients with headache (9%) reduce its potential impact on practice. PMID:25511365

  16. Superficial Siderosis of the Central Nervous System Induced by a Single-Episode of Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Study Using MRI-Enhanced Gradient Echo T2 Star-Weighted Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Jin; Lu, Zhonglie; Wu, Qingjie; Lv, Haijuan; Liu, Hu; Gong, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a single episode of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) could cause superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SS-CNS).This study was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirty-two patients with a history of a single episode of tSAH were enrolled in the study. An episode of tSAH was confirmed in patients based on a CT scan or a lumbar puncture, and a follow-up examination was conducted at least six weeks after the brain trauma. A follow-up MRI examination was performed, using enhanced gradient echo T2 star-weighted angiography (ESWAN) to detect hemosiderin deposition on the cortical surface. The extent to which hemosiderin deposition was associated with several clinical factors was investigated. Various degrees of hemosiderin deposition were detected in 31 of 32 (96.9%) single-episode tSAH patients. Analysis of contingency tables revealed an association between the regions of subarachnoid bleeding based on CT images and the regions of hemosiderin deposition based on ESWAN images (?2 = 17.73, P<0.05). SS-CNS was determined to be a common consequence after a single episode of tSAH. The extent of hemosiderin deposition is closely correlated with the initial bleeding sites and bleeding volume. PMID:25647424

  17. Hemorrhagic stroke after naphazoline exposition: case report.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Jorge A A; Pereira, Eduardo R; Zétola, Viviane H F; Teive, Hélio A G; Nóvak, Edison M; Werneck, Lineu C

    2004-09-01

    Ten percent of all strokes are due to spontaneous cerebral hemorrhages. They are associated to drugs (licit and illicit) in 9.5% of all cases in young adults. This is a case report of a 44-year-old man, without previous morbidities, who presented a sudden onset headache and arterial hypertension 24 hours after use of naphazoline as nasal decongestant. Cranial tomography showed right thalamus hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography showed no aneurisms, vascular malformations or vasculitis. No other risk factors were found during investigation in this patient and the stroke was attributed to naphazoline exposition. PMID:15476091

  18. Microcatheter embolization of hemorrhages

    SciTech Connect

    Seppaenen, Seppo K.; Leppaenen, Martti J.; Pimenoff, Georg; Seppaenen, Janne M. [Tampere University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Finland)

    1997-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of embolotherapy using microcatheters in patients with hemorrhage from various locations. Methods. Among 29 patients there were 13 with severe epistaxis, 7 with gastrointestinal bleeding, 4 with hemorrhage in the kidney, 4 with bleeding in pelvic organs and 1 with bleeding in the shoulder region. In all cases, a Tracker-18 or Tracker-10 microcatheter was advanced coaxially through a 4.1 Fr guiding catheter in order to reach the bleeding site as distally as possible. Polyvinyl alcohol microparticles and/or platinum microcoils were used as embolic material. Results. The bleeding was stopped in 90% (26 of 29) of cases. In 66% of cases the treatment was curative, in 7% preoperative, and in 17% palliative. There were 3 clinical failures. Conclusion. Microcatheter embolization is an effective and safe means of managing different kinds of hemorrhage of various causes from a variety of sites.

  19. Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn

    MedlinePLUS

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of the newborn is bleeding into the fluid-filled areas (ventricles) inside the brain. The ... in very preterm infants reduces the incidence of intraventricular hemorrhage and late-onset sepsis: a randomized, controlled trial. ...

  20. Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn

    MedlinePLUS

    Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a bleeding disorder in babies. It most often develops shortly after a baby is born. ... of vitamin K causes hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Vitamin K plays an important role in blood ...

  1. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Krings; Augustin Ozanne; Soke M. Chng; Hortensia Alvarez; Georges Rodesch; Pierre L. Lasjaunias

    2006-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with varying penetrance and expressivity. Some of the most devastating consequences of this disease result from cerebral vascular malformations that manifest themselves in either arteriovenous fistulae (AVF), small nidus-type arteriovenous malformations (AVM) or micro- AVMs with a nidus less than 1 cm in size. HHT displays an age-related penetrance

  2. Bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by the rupture of spinal artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Morio; Kondo, Rei; Mouri, Wataru; Sato, Atsushi; Ito, Miiko; Sato, Shinji; Itagaki, Hiroshi; Yamaki, Tetsu; Nagahata, Satoko; Saito, Shinjiro; Kayama, Takamasa

    2013-01-01

    Rete mirabile (or carotid rete) is a normal structure that plays physiological roles in the lower mammals. However, the rete does not exist in the normal carotid circulation of humans. Carotid rete mirabile (CRM) is a rare condition compensating for congenital dysplastic internal carotid artery. Arterial plexus at the cavernous region, which supplies intradural internal carotid artery instead of the aplastic cavernous portion of internal carotid artery, looks like the "rete mirabile" seen in the lower mammals, and is a characteristic angiographical finding of CRM. In addition to the CRM, existence of segmental occlusion and tortuous collaterals of vertebral artery, so-called carotid and vertebral rete mirabile (CVRM), is a very rare condition. We report a 70-year-old female patient with bilateral CVRM presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by the rupture of a cervical spinal artery aneurysm. Our patient is the oldest, compared with the previously reported four patients with CVRM. Moreover, this is the first report of ruptured spinal artery aneurysm as a cause of SAH associated with CRM/CVRM. To avoid rebleeding in the patient, we successfully treated the patients by performing coil embolization of the remaining spinal aneurysms. In patients with CVRM, aneurysm formation of the cervical spinal artery may be a reasonable consequence because of the hemodynamic stress on the spinal artery as a collateral pathway. Detailed evaluation of the cervical spinal arteries should be performed to detect or to rule out ruptured aneurysm in patients with SAH associated with CVRM. PMID:23903351

  3. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kamath, Nagesh; Bhatia, Sumit; Singh, Harneet; Shetty, Anurag; Shetty, Shiran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder, which affects various internal organs and has a tendency for bleeding. It has a classic triad of mucocutaneous telangiectasias, recurrent hemorrhages and positive familial history of first-degree relative. Epistaxis or gastrointestinal telangiectasia can be fatal in a small number of cases. Case Report: A 44-year-old woman came with complaints of recurrent episodes of hematemesis and epistaxis. Patient had a family history of similar complaints. Patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), which revealed telangiectasia in the stomach. Imaging of the abdomen showed features suggestive of arteriovenous shunting. Conclusion: HHT can remain undiagnosed for a long time, and is rarely being reported in the literature with management needing a multidisciplinary approach with early inputs from a gastroenterologist.

  4. [Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia].

    PubMed

    Duffau, P; Lazarro, E; Viallard, J-F

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) is a development disorder of the vasculature characterized by telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations in specific locations. Among monogenic disorders, it is one of the most common, though affected individuals are widely underdiagnosed. The most common features of this disorder, nosebleeds, and telangiectases on the lips, hands, and oral mucosa are often quite subtle. Mutations in at least five genes may result in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, but mutations in two genes (ENG and ACVRL1/ALK1) account for approximately 85% of cases. Optimal management requires understanding the specific clinical patterns of these vascular malformations, especially their locations and timing during life. Therapeutic modulation of angiogenesis may be an effective therapy. PMID:23517771

  5. Age limit for surgical treatment of poor-grade patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: A project of the Chugoku-Shikoku division of the Japan neurosurgical society

    PubMed Central

    Shirao, Satoshi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Kunitsugu, Ichiro; Suehiro, Eiichi; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Management of elderly patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains controversial. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is an age-dependent difference in the outcome of poor-grade SAH after surgical obliteration of the aneurysm. Methods: Data were reviewed retrospectively for 156 patients with poor-grade aneurysmal SAH at multiple centers in Chugoku and Shikoku, Japan. Patients were divided into age groups of 65-74 and ?75 years old. Factors influencing a favorable outcome at discharge (Glasgow Outcome Scale, good recovery or moderately disabled) were determined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: A favorable outcome at discharge was achieved in 37 of the 156 patients (23.7%). Advanced age (?75 years old, P < 0.01), improvement of World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) Grade after admission (P = 0.02), Fisher grade (P < 0.001), and a low density area (LDA) associated with vasospasm on computed tomography (CT) (P < 0.01) were significantly associated with outcome. Multivariate analysis identified advanced age (?75 years old, P = 0.01), Fisher group 4 (P = 0.002), and a new LDA associated with vasospasm on CT (P = 0.007) as predictors of a poor outcome in elderly patients with poor-grade SAH after surgical obliteration of the aneurysm. WFNS Grade V at admission (P = 0.052) was weakly associated with a poor outcome. Conclusions: Advanced age (?75 years old), Fisher group 4, and LDA associated with vasospasm on CT were independent predictors of clinical outcome in elderly patients with poor-grade SAH. A favorable outcome in these patients occurred more frequently after Guglielmi detachable coil embolization than after surgical clipping, but without a significant difference. PMID:23230524

  6. Decompressive Surgery in Patients with Poor-grade Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Clipping with Simultaneous Decompression Versus Coil Embolization Followed by Decompression

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ui Seung; Lee, Seung Hwan; Koh, Jun Seok

    2014-01-01

    Objective In addition to obliterating the aneurysm using clipping or coiling, decompressive surgery for control of rising intracranial pressure (ICP) is thought to be crucial to prevention of adverse outcomes in patients with poor grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We evaluated the clinical characteristics of patients with poor-grade aSAH, and compared outcomes of aneurysmal clipping with simultaneous decompressive surgery to those of coil embolization followed by decompression. Materials and Methods In 591 patients with aSAH, 70 patients with H-H grade IV and V underwent decompressive surgery including craniectomy, lobectomy, and hematoma removal. We divided the patients into two groups according to clipping vs. coil embolization (clip group vs. coil group), and analyzed outcomes and mortality. Results Aneurysmal clipping was performed in 40 patients and coil embolization was performed in 30 patients. No significant differences in demographics were observed between the two groups. Middle cerebral artery and posterior circulation aneurysms were more frequent in the clip group. Among 70 patients, mortality occurred in 29 patients (41.4%) and 61 patients (87.1%) had a poor score on the Glasgow outcome scale (scores I-III). No significant difference in mortality was observed between the two groups, but a favorable outcome was more frequent in the coil group (p < 0.05). Conclusion In this study, despite aggressive surgical and endovascular management for elevated ICP, there were high rates of adverse outcomes and mortality in poor-grade aSAH. Despite poor outcomes overall, early coil embolization followed by decompression surgery could lead to more favorable outcomes in patients with poor-grade aSAH. PMID:25340028

  7. [Hemorrhagic cystitis due to adenovirus in a renal transplant recipient: The first reported case in black Africa in a setting of a very beginning of a kidney transplantation program and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Ackoundou-N'Guessan, Clément; Coulibaly, Noël; Guei, Cyr Monley; Aye, Denis; N'guessan, Francis Yapi; N'Dah, Justin Kouame; Lagou, Delphine Amélie; Tia, Mélanie Weu; Coulibaly, Pessa Albert; Nzoue, Sita; Konan, Serges; Gnionsahe, Daze Apollinaire

    2015-04-01

    Viral infections are an important complication of transplantation. Polyomavirus are the commonest viruses that infect the renal allograft. Herpes virus nephropathy has also been described. In the past 15years, adenovirus nephritis has emerged as a potentially life-threatening disease in renal transplant patients in developed countries. Most of the papers devoted to adenovirus nephritis are reported cases. The fate of such patients in resources-limited countries is not known. Herein, we describe the clinical, biological and prognostic findings of a black African transplanted patient with adenoviral hemorrhagic cystitis. This case is the very first of its kind reported in black Africa in a setting of a start of a renal transplantation pilot project. The patient is a 54-year-old man admitted at the nephrology service for gross haematuria and fever occurred 1month after kidney transplantation. The diagnosis of adenoviral hemorrhagic cystitis has been suspected because the patient has displayed recurrent conjunctivitis and gastroenteritis well before transplantation, which was then confirmed by the real-time polymerase chain reaction performed on the blood. Conservatory measures associated with immunosuppression reduction have permitted the discontinuation of haematuria. This case has been discussed in regard of the epidemiology, the diagnosis, the treatment, the evolution and the prognosis of the adenoviral infection in the renal transplant patient. A review of the literature has been performed subsequently. PMID:25684056

  8. Effects of ischemic phrenic nerve root ganglion injury on respiratory disturbances in subarachnoid hemorrhage: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Recep; Aygül, Recep; Kotan, Dilcan; Çalik, Muhammet

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Phrenic nerves have important roles on the management of respiration rhythm. Diaphragm paralysis is possible in phrenic nerve roots ischemia in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We examined whether there is a relationship between phrenic nerve root ischemia and respiratory disturbances in SAH. Material and methods This study was conducted on 5 healthy control and 14 rabbits with experimentally induced SAH by injecting autologous blood into their cisterna magna. Animals were followed up via monitors for detecting the heart and respiration rhythms for 20 days and then decapitaed by humanely. Normal and degenerated neuron densities of phrenic nerve root at the level of C4 dorsal root ganglia (C4DRG) were estimated by Stereological methods. Between the mean numerical density of degenerated neurons of C4DRG and respiratory rate/minute of groups were compared statistically. Results Phrenic nerve roots, artery and diaphragm muscles degeneration was detected in respiratory arrest developed animals. The mean neuronal density of C4DRG was 13272 ±1201/mm3 with a mean respiration rate of 23 ±4/min in the control group. The mean degenerated neuron density was 2.240 ±450/mm3 and respiration rhythm was 31 ±6/min in survivors. But, the mean degenerated neuron density was 5850 ±650/mm3 and mean respiration rhythm was 34 ±7/min in respiratory arrest developed animals (n = 7). A linear relationship was noticed between the degenerated neuron density of C4DRG and respiraton rate (r = –0.758; p < 0.001). Conclusions Phrenic nerve root ischemia may be an important factor in respiration rhythms deteriorations in SAH which has not been mentioned in the literature. PMID:24482661

  9. Mean hemoglobin concentration after acute subarachnoid hemorrhage and the relation to outcome, mortality, vasospasm, and brain infarction.

    PubMed

    Stein, Marco; Brokmeier, Lisa; Herrmann, Johannes; Scharbrodt, Wolfram; Schreiber, Vanessa; Bender, Michael; Oertel, Matthias F

    2015-03-01

    Lower mean hemoglobin (HGB) levels are associated with unfavorable outcome after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Currently, there is no cutoff level for mean HGB levels associated with unfavorable outcome. This study was conducted to evaluate a threshold for mean HGB concentrations after SAH, and to observe the relation to outcome. The medical records of 702 patients with spontaneous SAH were reviewed. Predictors of outcome were proved by univariate analysis. Predictors with p<0.1 were included in a multivariate binary logistic regression model. Cutoff points for mean HGB levels were calculated by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Mean HGB was 11.9g/dl (±standard deviation [SD] 1.7g/dl) in patients with favorable outcome compared to 10.8g/dl (±SD 1.1g/dl) in patients with unfavorable outcome (p<0.001). The highest Youden's index value was found for a HGB cutoff at 11.1g/dl. In a binary logistic regression model, predictors of unfavorable outcome were identified as an initially high Hunt-Hess grade (odds ratio [OR]: 7.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-13.4; p<0.001), cerebral infarction on a CT scan during hospital stay (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.0-7.3; p<0.001), rebleeding during the hospital stay (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.6-8.0; p=0.002), mean HGB concentration <11.1g/dl (OR: 3.3; 95% CI: 2.0-5.3; p<0.001), and hydrocephalus (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.4-3.7; p=0.001). In conclusion, a mean HGB concentration <11.1g/dl during the hospital stay was associated with unfavorable outcome after acute SAH. PMID:25533213

  10. The changes of von willebrand factor/a disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type I repeats-13 balance in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qi-Feng; Lu, Shi-Qi; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Qian, Jin-Xian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Von Willebrand Factor/thrombospondin type I repeats-13 (VWF/ADAMTS13) balance in aSAH. Fifty eight patients with aSAH at the First Affiliated hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China, between January 2012 and January 2014 were eligible for the study. They were divided into delayed cerebral ischemia group (DCI group) and non-delayed cerebral ischemia group (no DCI group), or cerebral vasospasm group (CVS group) and no spasm group (no CVS group), or good outcome group and poor outcome group. The control group consisted of twenty healthy people. All patients underwent CT, DSA, or (and) CTA diagnosed with intracranial subarachnoid hemorrhage which is caused by aneurysm rupture. Venous blood was drawn in tubes at 3 time points: 1 day after SAH (T1), (4±1) days after SAH (T2), and (9±1) days after SAH (T3) to determine plasma concentrations of ADAMTS13, VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transcranial doppler sonography (TCD) was used to measure mean blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (VMCA). Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) was measured before discharge. Among 58 patients, 12 (20.7%) had DCI, 40 (68.9%) had TCD evidence of CVS, and 20 (34.5%) had poor outcome. The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 on T1, T2 and T3 after SAH were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the control group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of VWF, P-selectin and IL-6 were significantly higher in DCI, CVS and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI, no CVS and good outcome groups. The activity of ADAMTS13 was lower in DCI and poor outcome groups compared with those of the no DCI and good outcome groups (P < 0.05). The activity of ADAMTS13 showed no difference in CVS group and no CVS group (P > 0.05). The results of our study suggest that the increased VWF and decreased ADAMTS13 activity were associated with DCI and poor outcome. The balance of VWF/ADAMTS13 could be used to predict the clinical outcome. The deficiency of ADAMTS13 can not only induce DCI but also accelerate inflammatory reaction. Our results reported in this paper may provide new insights into the possible use of ADAMTS13 as a therapeutic agent in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:25785135

  11. Negative-pressure acute tracheobronchial hemorrhage and pulmonary edema

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasilios Papaioannou; Irene Terzi; Christos Dragoumanis; Ioannis Pneumatikos

    2009-01-01

    Negative-pressure pulmonary edema is a well-known complication of an acute upper airway obstruction, which may rarely present\\u000a as acute alveolar hemorrhage in cases of severe capillary stress failure. Hemorrhage from the central airways has also been\\u000a reported as a rare manifestation of acute tracheobronchial injury, associated with severe disruption of the bronchial vasculature\\u000a due to highly negative inspiratory pressure. In

  12. Retroperitoneal hemorrhagic shock in a patient on warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sankar; Gounder, Subramanian Marappa; Thirunarayanan, Arunkumar; Kannan, Anand; Venu, Nandigam

    2009-05-01

    Oral anticoagulants are an established treatment modality in the prophylaxis of thromboembolic events in various clinical scenarios. Needless to say that, bleeding is a natural adverse effect of this drug. Most of the times bleeding is inconsequential. But nevertheless massive and fatal bleeding can occur occasionally. The case reported here is rare, as the patient presented with massive hemoperitoneum due to mesenteric hemorrhage and hemorrhagic infarction of small bowel necessitating Laparotomy resection. PMID:19561977

  13. Retroperitoneal hemorrhagic shock in a patient on warfarin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sankar; Gounder, Subramanian Marappa; Thirunarayanan, Arunkumar; Kannan, Anand; Venu, Nandigam

    2009-01-01

    Oral anticoagulants are an established treatment modality in the prophylaxis of thromboembolic events in various clinical scenarios. Needless to say that, bleeding is a natural adverse effect of this drug. Most of the times bleeding is inconsequential. But nevertheless massive and fatal bleeding can occur occasionally. The case reported here is rare, as the patient presented with massive hemoperitoneum due to mesenteric hemorrhage and hemorrhagic infarction of small bowel necessitating Laparotomy resection. PMID:19561977

  14. Acute subdural hematoma without subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by ruptured A1-A2 junction aneurysm. Case report.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Eiichi; Zaboronok, Alexander; Kujiraoka, Yuji; Akutsu, Hiroyoshi; Ihara, Satoshi; Nakai, Kei; Matsumura, Akira

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with complaint of sudden headache. The patient had suffered two episodes of transient headache before admission. Computed tomography (CT) revealed acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) on the right side of the cerebral convexity with bilateral extension along the tentorium cerebelli without signs of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) or intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Three-dimensional CT angiography and conventional cerebral angiography revealed a left A1-A2 junction aneurysm. Neck clipping of the aneurysm was performed. The aneurysm extended inferiorly, with the dome embedded in the chiasmatic cistern and tightly adhered to the arachnoid membrane. There was no evidence of hematoma in the subarachnoid space. The patient was discharged without neurological deficit. Ruptured aneurysms resulting in ASDH without SAH or ICH are very rare. Radiological investigation such as three-dimensional CT angiography should be performed to find the causative aneurysm in a patient with ASDH with a history of repeated headaches and without traumatic signs or episodes, and the appropriate treatment should be planned with expediency. PMID:22729076

  15. Transcranial Doppler monitoring and clinical decision-making after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    McGirt, Matthew J; Blessing, Robert P; Goldstein, Larry B

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the impact of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) vasospasm monitoring on clinical decision-making following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The records of 50 randomly selected patients undergoing serial TCD monitoring following SAH were reviewed. Dates and results of TCDs and cerebral angiograms, the use of hypertensive hemodilution (HH) therapy, and the development of new neurological deficits were recorded. The independent effects of TCD-defined vasospasm and new neurological deficits on patient management were determined with multiple logistical regression. Results were validated in a second randomly selected, 50 patient cohort. Mild or moderate TCD-defined vasospasm developed in 76% of patients 5.8 +/- 0.5 days after SAH; 38% developed severe TCD-defined vasospasm after 7.9 +/- 0.7 days. Focal neurological deficits occurred in 50% after 5.7 +/- 0.6 days with TCD abnormalities preceding the deficit by 2.5 +/- 0.7 days in 64%. TCD-defined vasospasm or a new neurological deficit explained 60% of the variance in the use of HH therapy (P = .005). New neurological deficits increased the odds of HH therapy 33-fold (P = .004) whereas there was no independent effect of TCD-defined vasospasm. These variables explained 64% of the variance in the performance of angiography (P = .0002). An abnormal TCD did not increase the odds of angiography whereas its use increased 28-fold (P = .01) after a neurological deficit developed. These results were confirmed in an independent cohort. We concluded that TCD-defined vasospasm did not independently influence the use of HH therapy or angiography with both decisions associated with the development of new neurological deficits. As TCD-defined vasospasm preceded the neurological deficit in 64%, earlier intervention might reduce the incidence of vasospasm-related stroke in institutions with similar practice patterns. PMID:17903910

  16. Recurrent spreading depolarizations after subarachnoid hemorrhage decreases oxygen availability in human cerebral cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bosche, Bert; Graf, Rudolf; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Dohmen, Christian; Reithmeier, Thomas; Brinker, Gerrit; Strong, Anthony J; Dreier, Jens P; Woitzik, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Objective Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) contributes to poor outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients. Because there is continuing uncertainty as to whether proximal cerebral artery vasospasm is the only cause of DIND, other processes should be considered. A potential candidate is cortical spreading depolarization (CSD)-induced hypoxia. We hypothesized that recurrent CSDs influence cortical oxygen availability. Methods Centers in the Cooperative Study of Brain Injury Depolarizations (COSBID) recruited 9 patients with severe SAH, who underwent open neurosurgery. We used simultaneous, colocalized recordings of electrocorticography and tissue oxygen pressure (ptiO2) in human cerebral cortex. We screened for delayed cortical infarcts by using sequential brain imaging and investigated cerebral vasospasm by angiography or time-of-flight magnetic resonance imaging. Results In a total recording time of 850 hours, 120 CSDs were found in 8 of 9 patients. Fifty-five CSDs (?46%) were found in only 2 of 9 patients, who later developed DIND. Eighty-nine (?75%) of all CSDs occurred between the 5th and 7th day after SAH, and 96 (80%) arose within temporal clusters of recurrent CSD. Clusters of CSD occurred simultaneously, with mainly biphasic CSD-associated ptiO2 responses comprising a primary hypoxic and a secondary hyperoxic phase. The frequency of CSD correlated positively with the duration of the hypoxic phase and negatively with that of the hyperoxic phase. Hypoxic phases significantly increased stepwise within CSD clusters; particularly in DIND patients, biphasic ptiO2 responses changed to monophasic ptiO2 decreases within these clusters. Monophasic hypoxic ptiO2 responses to CSD were found predominantly in DIND patients. Interpretation We attribute these clinical ptiO2 findings mainly to changes in local blood flow in the cortical microcirculation but also to augmented metabolism. Besides classical contributors like proximal cerebral vasospasm, CSD clusters may reduce O2 supply and increase O2 consumption, and thereby promote DIND. ANN NEUROL 2010;67:607–617 PMID:20437558

  17. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

  18. Lethal Hemorrhage Caused by Aortoenteric Fistula Following Endovascular Stent Implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Kahlke, Volker [Department of General Surgery, University of Kiel, D-24105 Kiel (Germany); Brossmann, Joachim [Department for Diagnostic Radiology, University of Kiel, D-24105 Kiel (Germany); Klomp, Hans-Juergen [Department of General Surgery, University of Kiel, D-24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2002-06-15

    A 55-year-old women developed an aortointestinal fistula between the bifurcation of the aorta and the distal ileum following implantation of multiple endovascular stents into both common iliac arteries for treatment of aortoiliac occlusive disease. Ten months before the acute onset of the gastrointestinal hemorrhage two balloon-expandable steel stents had been implanted into both common iliac arteries. Due to restenosis and recurrent intermittent claudication, three balloon-expandable covered stents were implanted 4 months later on reintervention. The patient presented with abdominal pain and melena, and fell into hemorrhagic shock with signs of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. After transfer to our hospital, she again developed hemorrhagic shock with massive upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding and died during emergency laparotomy. The development of aortoenteric fistulas following endovascular surgery/stent implantation is very rare and has to be considered in cases of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

  19. Intravenous Flat-Detector Computed Tomography Angiography for Symptomatic Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jin Pyeong; Sheen, Seung Hun; Cho, Yong-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of intravenous flat-detector computed tomography (IV FDCT) angiography in assessing hemodynamically significant cerebral vasospasm in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the reference. DSA and IV FDCT were conducted concurrently in patients suspected of having symptomatic cerebral vasospasm postoperatively. The presence and severity of vasospasm were estimated according to location (proximal versus distal). Vasospasm >50% was defined as having hemodynamic significance. Vasospasms <30% were excluded from this analysis to avoid spectrum bias. Twenty-nine patients (311 vessel segments) were measured. The intra- and interobserver agreements were excellent for depicting vasospasm (k = 0.84 and 0.74, resp.). IV FDCT showed a sensitivity of 95.7%, specificity of 92.3%, positive predictive value of 93.6%, and negative predictive value of 94.7% for detecting vasospasm (>50%) with DSA as the reference. Bland-Altman plots revealed good agreement of assessing vasospasm between the two tests. The discrepancy of vasospasm severity was more noted in the distal location with high-severity. However, it was not statistically significant (Spearman's rank test; r = 0.15, P = 0.35). Therefore, IV FDCT could be a feasible noninvasive test to evaluate suspected significant vasospasm in SAH. PMID:25383367

  20. Hydrocephalus Onset after Microsurgical or Endovascular Treatment for Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Retrospective Italian Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Gangemi, Michelangelo; Cavallo, Luigi Maria; Di Somma, Alberto; Mazzucco, Grazia Marina; Bono, Paolo Sebastiano; Ghetti, Giovanni; Zambon, Giampaolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic shunt-dependent hydrocephalus is a complication of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Its incidence and risk factors have been described while the hydrocephalus onset in terms of days after treatment (microsurgical or endovascular) has not been yet analyzed. Materials and Methods 45 patients, treated for aSAH in 4 Italian Neurosurgical Departments, were retrospectively analyzed. It was calculated the time that elapses between treatment and hydrocephalus onset in 36 patients. Results Of the 45 shunted patients, 15 (33.3%) were included in the microsurgical group (group A) and 30 (66.6%) were in the endovascular one (group B). There was no difference of the hydrocephalus onset between the two groups (24,1 days, group A vs. 27,7 days, group B). The presence of intracerebral hematoma (ICH) caused a delay in the hydrocephalus onset after endovascular treatment in terms of 11,5 days compared to microsurgical group as well the absence of vasospasm determined a delay of 13,7 days (not statistically significant). Conclusion No difference in terms of hydrocephalus onset after microsurgical or endovascular treatment has been demonstrated. Only the presence of ICH or the absence of vasospasm can cause a slight delay in the time of hydrocephalus onset in the endovascular series (not statistically significant). Long-term follow-up studies involving higher numbers of subjects are needed to better demonstrate this issue. PMID:24809036

  1. Impact of Clipping versus Coiling on Postoperative Hemodynamics and Pulmonary Edema after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Nobutaka; Iwaasa, Mitsutoshi; Ishizaka, Shunsuke; Inoue, Tooru; Nagata, Izumi

    2014-01-01

    Volume management is critical for assessment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This multicenter prospective cohort study compared the impact of surgical clipping versus endovascular coiling on postoperative hemodynamics and pulmonary edema in patients with SAH. Hemodynamic parameters were measured for 14 days using a transpulmonary thermodilution system. The study included 202 patients, including 160 who underwent clipping and 42 who underwent coiling. There were no differences in global ejection fraction (GEF), cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, or global end-diastolic volume index between the clipping and coiling groups in the early period. However, extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) were significantly higher in the clipping group in the vasospasm period. Postoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) level was higher in the clipping group and was significantly correlated with postoperative brain natriuretic peptide level. Multivariate analysis found that PVPI and GEF were independently associated with high EVLWI in the early period, suggesting cardiogenic edema, and that CRP and PVPI, but not GEF, were independently associated with high EVLWI in the vasospasm period, suggesting noncardiogenic edema. In conclusion, clipping affects postoperative CRP level and may thereby increase noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in the vasospasm period. His trial is registered with University Hospital Medical Information Network UMIN000003794. PMID:24818154

  2. Subarachnoid hemorrhage following intranasal procedures.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, V P; Drapkin, A J; Hollin, S A; Malis, L I

    1977-08-01

    Two cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage complicating intranasal ethmoidectomy are presented. In both, the bleeding was initally considered coincidental to the rupture of a congenital aneurysm or an arteriovenous malformation. A direct relationship between the surgical procedure and the subarachnoid hemorrhage only became evident after extensive studies or after delayed development of CSF rhinorrhea, pneumocephalus and meningitis. PMID:888086

  3. Cerebrovascular amyloidosis with cerebral hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Jellinger

    1977-01-01

    More than 1400 necropsies performed on patients with either a non-traumatic cerebral hemorrhage (400 cases) or with dementia over the age of 55 (1010 cases), or both, have been reviewed. There were 15 cases in which a cerebral hemorrhage had occurred together with cerebral amyloid angiopathy all of whom had been demented. Eight of the 15 patients were hypertensive. The

  4. Argentine hemorrhagic fever vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Ana; Saavedra, Maria; Mariani, Mauricio; Gamboa, Graciela; Maiza, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), an acute disease caused by Junin virus (JUNV, Arenaviridae), has been an important issue to public health in Argentina since the early 1950s. The field rodent Calomys musculinus is JUNV natural reservoir and human disease is a consequence of contact with infected rodents. A steady extention of AHF endemic area is being observed since the first reports of the disease. Important achievements have been made in: (a) improvement of methods for the etiological diagnosis; (b) implementation and validation of therapeutical measures; (c) development of vaccines to protect against AHF. Reference is made to different research strategies used to obtain anti-AHF vaccines in the past and anti-arenaviral diseases in the present. Information is updated on features and field performance of Candid #1 vaccine, a live attenuted vaccine currently used to prevent AHF. This vaccine was developed through a joint international effort that envisioned it as an orphan drug. With transferred technology, Argentine government was committed to be Candid #1 manufacturer and to register this vaccine as a novel medical product under the Argentine regulatory authority. Candid #1 vaccine is the first one used to control an arenaviral hemorrhagic fever, the first live viral vaccine to be manufactured and registered in Argentina, reaching its target population through governmental effort. PMID:21451263

  5. [Fluid resuscitation in hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Roessler, M; Bode, K; Bauer, M

    2014-10-01

    How fluid resuscitation has to be performed for acute hemorrhage situations is still controversially discussed. Although the forced administration of crystalloids and colloids has been and still is practiced, nowadays there are good arguments that a cautious infusion of crystalloids may be initially sufficient. Saline should no longer be used for fluid resuscitation. The main argument for cautious fluid resuscitation is that no large prospective randomized clinical trials exist which have provided evidence of improved survival when fluid resuscitation is applied in an aggressive manner. The explanation that no positive effect has so far been observed is that fluid resuscitation is thought to boost bleeding by increasing blood pressure and dilutional coagulopathy. Nevertheless, national and international guidelines recommend that fluid resuscitation should be applied at the latest when hemorrhage causes hemodynamic instability. Consideration should be given to the fact that damage control resuscitation per se will neither improve already reduced tissue perfusion nor hemostasis. In acute and possibly rapidly progressing hypovolemic shock, colloids can be used. The third and fourth generations of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) are safe and effective if used correctly and within prescribed limits. If fluid resuscitation is applied with ongoing re-evaluation of the parameters which determine oxygen supply, it should be possible to keep fluid resuscitation restricted without causing undesirable side effects and also to administer a sufficient quantity so that survival of patients is ensured. PMID:25205551

  6. Glioma mimicking a hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Go; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Chung, Yong-Gu

    2013-08-01

    Here, we report a rare case of an anaplastic astrocytoma masquerading as a hypertensive basal ganglia hemorrhage. A 69-year-old woman who had been under medical management for hypertension during the past 3 years suddenly developed right hemiparesis with dysarthria. Brain computed tomography (CT) scans with contrast and CT angiograms revealed an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left basal ganglia, without an underlying lesion. She was treated conservatively, but underwent a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation 3 months after the initial attack due to deteriorated mental status and chronic hydrocephalus. Three months later, her mental status deteriorated further. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium demonstrated an irregular enhanced mass in which the previous hemorrhage occurred. The final histological diagnosis which made by stereotactic biopsy was an anaplastic astrocytoma. In the present case, the diagnosis of a high grade glioma was delayed due to tumor bleeding mimicking hypertensive ICH. Thus, a careful review of neuroradiological images including MRI with a suspicion of tumor bleeding is needed even in the patients with past medical history of hypertension. PMID:24175027

  7. [Hemorrhagic infarction following cerebral vasospasm].

    PubMed

    Andoh, T; Imao, Y; Nishimura, Y; Sakai, N; Yamada, H

    1989-10-01

    Among 528 cases with ruptured aneurysm, 10 cases (1.9%) developed hemorrhagic infarction following vasospasm. There was no obvious relationship between the occurrence and location of aneurysm and the neurological grade on admission. Hemorrhagic infarction occurred from day 9 to 25 (mean day 16) after aneurysmal rupture, and the major neurological symptoms were aggravation of consciousness level, which appeared in 6 cases. On the CT scans of the hemorrhagic infarction following vasospasm, nine cases revealed heterogeneous hemorrhage as assembled of spotty or linear hemorrhages within the ischemic infarction, and 5 cases had massive hemorrhagic infarction in size with mass effect. Although surgical therapy for 2 cases and conservative therapy for 8 cases were performed, the results were unfavorable; ie, 2 cases were good, 5 fair or poor, and 3 died. Especially, 5 cases with massive hemorrhagic infarction obviously resulted in poor prognosis. In our series, induced hypertension therapy for vasospasm was considered as a risk factor. In conclusion, it is necessary to avoid induced hypertension therapy in the remission stage of vasospasm and serial SPECT study might be recommended as a useful prospective method estimating the vasospasm. PMID:2605044

  8. Hereditary hemorrhagic macular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wu, G; Pruett, R C; Baldinger, J; Hirose, T

    1991-03-15

    We treated two brothers who had a hemorrhagic macular lesion in one eye; a similar problem affected the fellow eye of both patients within eight months. Generalized fine granularity of the retinal pigment epithelium and peripheral iris transillumination defects were observed in both siblings. A study of the family suggested that the disorder was dominantly inherited and probably was Sorsby's pseudoinflammatory macular dystrophy. The macular lesions in one brother were treated by argon green laser photocoagulation and in the other brother by krypton red laser photocoagulation. Although the brother treated by krypton red laser photocoagulation attained better final visual function, additional differences in treatment methods also may have contributed to the final outcome. PMID:2000899

  9. Spontaneous Absorption of Extensive Subinternal Limiting Membrane Hemorrhage in Shaken Baby Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, Tatiana Tarules; Zacharias, Leandro Cabral; Pimentel, Sérgio Luis Gianotti

    2014-01-01

    The Shaken Baby Syndrome (SBS) is characterized by subdural hematomas (SH), retinal hemorrhages (RH), and multiple fractures of long bones without external evidence of head trauma. Subinternal limiting membrane (ILM) hemorrhage, also known as macular schisis, is a characteristic finding of this entity. There is no guideline on the right time to indicate surgical treatment. This report describes an abused child with massive sub-ILM hemorrhage, which showed spontaneous absorption after less than two months of follow-up. Due to the possible spontaneous resolution, we suggest an initial conservative treatment in cases of sub-ILM hemorrhage related to SBS. PMID:25548698

  10. Unilateral adrenal hemorrhage after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chronopoulos, Efstathios; Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Masgala, Aikaterini; Kaspiris, Angelos; Babis, Georgios C

    2014-05-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a rare but serious condition that is often diagnosed at autopsy. Unilateral adrenal hemorrhage (UAH) in adults is extremely rare and is often due to trauma or anticoagulation or is associated with systemic illness. The case of a 73-year-old man who was diagnosed with UAH several days after an elective total knee replacement is presented. The patient had an uncomplicated procedure and he was treated postoperatively with a prophylactic dose of subcutaneous low-molecular- weight heparin and compression sleeves. On postoperative day 8, he reported sustained epigastric and midback pain at the lower thoracic level. He had a temperature of 38.5°C. On clinical examination, the patient expressed only mild tenderness at the lumbar area. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scan were inconclusive. On postoperative day 13, the patient experienced no pain but remained febrile. An abdominal CT scan revealed a high-density mass on the left adrenal gland suggestive of hemorrhage. The subcutaneous heparin as well as the antimicrobial therapy was discontinued and a serum cortisol examination was done. Serum levels were within normal values in the evening and the morning. On postoperative day 16, all laboratory values returned to normal and the patient was discharged in excellent condition. Patients who have abdominal pain, hypotension, or both soon after initiation of anticoagulation or patients who experience abdominal pain, fever, nausea, or confusion postoperatively should be screened for AH. PMID:24810831

  11. Endovascular management of two episodes of late intraperitoneal hemorrhage following laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, QIANG; GAO, KUN; ZHAI, REN-YOU

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular treatment for hemorrhagic complications following surgery has recently gained wide acceptance due to its minimal invasiveness compared to surgery. A 56-year-old male patient underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. There were two episodes of late intraperitoneal hemorrhage and endovascular treatment was performed. Transcatheter coil embolization of the gastroduodenal artery stump was successful in controlling the bleeding initially; however, hemorrhage recurred 7 days later. Repeated angiography revealed an obvious hemorrhage from the right gastric artery stump and embolization of the hepatic artery proper was performed to achieve immediate hemostasis. The endovascular treatment process was analyzed and the literature on similar situations was reviewed. In the present case, endovascular procedures were performed successfully to control bleeding in two episodes of late intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Angiography is recommended as the first-line modality for late intraperitoneal hemorrhage following laparoscopic gastrectomy and transcatheter coil embolization of the hepatic artery proper is safe and effective in selected cases. PMID:24940493

  12. Perioperative measures to improve outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage-revisiting the concept of secondary brain injury.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Hans-Jakob; Beez, Thomas; Beseoglu, Kerim; Hänggi, Daniel; Kamp, Marcel A

    2015-01-01

    Progress in the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is reflected most clearly in a continuously decreasing case fatality rate over the last decades. The purpose of the present review is to identify the relevant factors responsible for this progress and to outline future possibilities of improvement. Although data on intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke are less homogeneous, the respective data suggest that reduction of case fatalities could also be achieved with these types of stroke. Therefore, advances of general neurocritical care may be the common denominator responsible for the decreasing case fatality rates. Additionally, a change in practice with regard to treatment of elderly patients that is more active may also be a factor. Regarding SAH, the majority of unfavorable outcomes is still related to early or delayed cerebral injury. Therefore, efforts to pharmacologically prevent secondary neuronal damage are likely to play a certain role in achieving improvement in overall outcome. However, the data from previous randomized clinical trials conducted during the last three decades does not strongly support this. A clear benefit has only been proven for oral nimodipine, whereas other calcium antagonists and the rho-kinase inhibitors were not conclusively shown to have a significant effect on functional outcome, and all other tested substances disappointed in clinical trials. Regarding ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury, intensive clinical research has also been conducted during the last 30 years to improve outcome and to minimize secondary neuronal injury. For ischemic stroke, treatment focusing on reversal of the primary pathomechanism, such as thrombolysis, proved effective, but none of the pharmacological neuroprotective concepts resulted in any benefit. To date, decompressive hemicraniectomy has been the only effective effort focused at reducing secondary damage that resulted in a clear reduction of mortality. In the case of traumatic brain injury, none of the pharmacological or other efforts to limit secondary damage met our hopes. In summary, although limited, pharmacotherapy to limit delayed neuronal injury is more effective for SAH than for ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury. The disappointing results of most trials addressing secondary damage force one to question the general concept of mechanisms of secondary damage that do not also have a positive side in the natural course of the disease. For example, in the case of SAH, the data from the Cooperative Study from the 1960s showed that vasospasm to some degree protects against rerupture of unsecured aneurysms. Thus, one could argue from an evolutionary standpoint that the purpose of vasospasm was not exclusively a detrimental or suicide pathomechanism, but an attempt to protect against life-threating aneurysm rerupture. Because of the above-discussed arguments, SAH may indeed differ from ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury with regard to the usefulness of blocking secondary mechanisms pharmacologically. Further efforts to limit vasospasm should therefore be made, and the most promising drugs, calcium antagonists, deserve further development. Because, with various drugs, systemic side effects counteracted the local beneficial effect, future efforts should focus on topical administration of drugs instead of systemic administration. Furthermore, efforts for a better understanding of the variations of the calcium channels and the interplay between the different types of calcium channels should be made. PMID:25366626

  13. Hemorrhagic Aspects of Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an inherited lysosomal disorder, originating from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Normally, GCase hydrolyzes glucocerebroside (GC) to glucose and ceramide; however, impaired activity of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of GC in macrophages, termed “Gaucher cells.” Gaucher disease is associated with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, skeletal complications and in some forms involves the central nervous system. Coagulation abnormalities are common among GD patients due to impaired production and chronic consumption of coagulation factors. Bleeding phenomena are variable (as are other symptoms of GD) and include mucosal and surgical hemorrhages. Four main etiological factors account for the hemostatic defect in GD: thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, reduced production of coagulation factors, and activation of fibrinolysis. Thrombocytopenia relates not only to hypersplenism and decreased megakaryopoiesis by the infiltrated bone marrow but also to immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmunity, especially the induction of platelet antibody production, might cause persistent thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses only part of the impaired coagulation system in Gaucher disease. Other therapeutic and supportive measures should be considered to prevent and/or treat bleeding in GD. Gaucher patients should be evaluated routinely for coagulation abnormalities especially prior to surgery and dental and obstetric procedures. PMID:25386355

  14. Hemorrhagic aspects of Gaucher disease.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Hanna

    2014-10-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an inherited lysosomal disorder, originating from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Normally, GCase hydrolyzes glucocerebroside (GC) to glucose and ceramide; however, impaired activity of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of GC in macrophages, termed "Gaucher cells." Gaucher disease is associated with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, skeletal complications and in some forms involves the central nervous system. Coagulation abnormalities are common among GD patients due to impaired production and chronic consumption of coagulation factors. Bleeding phenomena are variable (as are other symptoms of GD) and include mucosal and surgical hemorrhages. FOUR MAIN ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS ACCOUNT FOR THE HEMOSTATIC DEFECT IN GD: thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, reduced production of coagulation factors, and activation of fibrinolysis. Thrombocytopenia relates not only to hypersplenism and decreased megakaryopoiesis by the infiltrated bone marrow but also to immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmunity, especially the induction of platelet antibody production, might cause persistent thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses only part of the impaired coagulation system in Gaucher disease. Other therapeutic and supportive measures should be considered to prevent and/or treat bleeding in GD. Gaucher patients should be evaluated routinely for coagulation abnormalities especially prior to surgery and dental and obstetric procedures. PMID:25386355

  15. Travelers' Health: Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VHFs) are caused by several families of enveloped RNA viruses: filoviruses (Ebola and Marburg viruses), arenaviruses (Lassa ... in hemorrhagic fever with high death rates. Old World (Eastern Hemisphere) and New World (Western Hemisphere) viruses ...

  16. Hemodynamic and autonomic response to acute hemorrhage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aiji Boku; Mitsutaka Sugimura; Yoshinari Morimoto; Hiroshi Hanamoto; Hitoshi Niwa

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The various autonomic control systems lead to characteristic changes in heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) during acute hemorrhage. However, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy due to diabetes mellitus may interfere with the normal compensation for hemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A controlled graded bleeding (6 - 36% loss of estimated total blood volume: ETBV) was performed in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

  17. Causes of metabolic acidosis in canine hemorrhagic shock: role of unmeasured ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Bruegger; Gregor I Kemming; Matthias Jacob; Franz G Meisner; Christoph J Wojtczyk; Kristian B Packert; Peter E Keipert; N Simon Faithfull; Oliver P Habler; Bernhard F Becker; Markus Rehm

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metabolic acidosis during hemorrhagic shock is common and conventionally considered to be due to hyperlactatemia. There is increasing awareness, however, that other nonlactate, unmeasured anions contribute to this type of acidosis. METHODS: Eleven anesthetized dogs were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 45 mm Hg and were kept at this level until a metabolic oxygen debt of 120

  18. Hemorrhagic complications in dermatologic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bunick, Christopher G.; Aasi, Sumaira Z.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize, manage, and, most importantly, prevent hemorrhagic complications is critical to performing dermatologic procedures that have safe and high quality outcomes. This article reviews the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors and patient dynamics that are central to preventing such an adverse outcome. Specifically, the role that anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, hypertension, and other medical conditions play in the development of postoperative hemorrhage are discussed. In addition, this article provides practical guidelines on managing bleeding during and after surgery. PMID:22515669

  19. Bilateral large traumatic hemorrhage of the basal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Nityanand; Mahapatra, Ashok; Singh, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed is extremely rare. It is defined as a hemorrhagic lesion located in the basal ganglia or neighboring structures such as the internal capsule and the thalamus. This report describes a 37-year-old man who had large bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage (BGH) with subdural hematoma and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. With regards to an etiology of bilateral hemorrhage of the basal ganglia, we could not disclose any possible cause except head injury in spite of full diagnostic work-up. Our final diagnosis was bilateral traumatic BGH (TBGH). The pathomechanism of such injuries is still not clear and it is proposed to be due to shear injury to the lenticulostriate and choroidal arteries. Rather than any features of the TBGH itself, duration of coma and/or associated temporal herniation predicted slower recovery and worse outcome. Bilateral TBGH is an extremely rare entity, compatible with a favorable recovery, if not associated with damage to other cortical and subcortical structures and occurring in isolation. TBGH can be considered as a marker of poor outcome rather than its cause. The BGHs seem to be hemorrhagic contusions resulting from a shearing injury, due to high velocity impact. PMID:25685230

  20. Understanding jejunal hemorrhage syndrome.

    PubMed

    Elhanafy, Mohamed M; French, Dennis D; Braun, Ueli

    2013-08-01

    Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS) is an acute, highly fatal enterotoxemic disorder in dairy cattle that has been reported during the last few decades. No specific cause of this syndrome has been identified; however, several studies have revealed a strong association between JHS and infection with Clostridium perfringens type A. A common mold, Aspergillus fumigatus, has also been implicated as a potential causative agent in this disease syndrome. Clinical signs of JHS (including sudden decreases in feed intake and milk production, rapid loss of condition, a right-sided ping audible during simultaneous auscultation and percussion of the abdomen, abdominal distension, and melena or bloody feces) usually develop early during lactation when cattle receive rations that are high in energy and low in fiber. Appropriate preventive strategies have not yet been determined, and intensive medical management with or without surgical intervention is rarely successful. The use of commercially available vaccines that are directed against C perfringens types C and D is of questionable efficacy and not likely to be helpful as a preventative measure. This article highlights the potential etiologic and risk factors, describes common clinical signs, outlines relevant diagnostic testing, and summarizes treatment options and their outcomes. PMID:23865877

  1. Effects of a single dose of dantrolene in patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage –a prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Muehlschlegel, Susanne; Rordorf, Guy; Sims, John

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose New therapies for cerebral vasospasm (CVSP) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are needed because of its high morbidity and mortality. We investigated the feasibility and safety of a single dose of intravenous (IV) dantrolene and its effect on transcranial Doppler (TCD) in CVSP after SAH. Methods In a prospective open label single dose ascending safety trial, five patients received IV-dantrolene 1.25mg/kg and the next five patients 2.5mg/kg over 60 minutes. All other infusions were kept steady and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. TCDs were performed at t0, t45min, t90min and t135min relative to infusion start. Basic chemistries, serum osmolality, arterial blood gas and liver enzymes were measured before and after. Results Laboratory values and hemodynamic parameters remained unchanged except for a decrease in the systolic blood pressure in the low dose group (-8 mmHg; 95% CI [-26 to 10 mmHg]; p=0.027). After correcting for this decrease in blood pressure, peak systolic TCD velocities (PSV) decreased significantly (-26 cm/s; 95% CI [-47 to -5 cm/s]; p=0.02), with a borderline change in mean velocities in the low dose (-16 cm/s; 95% CI [-36 to 4 cm/s]; p=0.07), and PSV in the high dose group (-26 cm/s; 95% CI [-56 to 5 cm/s]; p=0.05). Conclusions In this pilot study, a single dose of IV-dantrolene in CVSP after SAH appears feasible while inhibiting vasoconstriction in the low dose group, but it may lower blood pressure. Our study provides useful data for the design of larger future studies. PMID:21454813

  2. Monitoring of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Bedside in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage – A Xenon-CT and Microdialysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Elham; Engquist, Henrik; Johnson, Ulf; Howells, Timothy; Ronne-Engström, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Pelle; Hillered, Lars; Lewén, Anders; Enblad, Per

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral ischemia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although 70% of the patients show angiographic vasospasm only 30% develop symptomatic vasospasm defined as delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). Early detection and management of reversible ischemia is of critical importance in patients with SAH. Using a bedside Xenon enhanced computerized tomography (Xenon-CT) scanner makes it possible to measure quantitative regional Cerebral blood flow (CBF) bedside in the neurointensive care setting and intracerebral microdialysis (MD) is a method that offers the possibility to monitor the metabolic state of the brain continuously. Here, we present results from nine SAH patients with both MD monitoring and bedside Xenon-CT measurements. CBF measurements were performed within the first 72?h following bleeding. Six out of nine patients developed DCI at a later stage. Five out of six patients who developed DCI had initial global CBF below 26?ml/100?g/min whereas one had 53?ml/100?g/min. The three patients who did not develop clinical vasospasm all had initial global CBF above 27?ml/100?g/min. High lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio was associated with lower CBF values in the area surrounding the catheter. Five out of nine patients had L/P ratio ?25 and four of these patients had CBF???22?ml/100?g/min. These preliminary results suggest that patients with initially low global CBF on Xenon-CT may be more likely to develop DCI. Initially low global CBF was accompanied with metabolic disturbances determined by the MD. Most importantly, pathological findings on the Xenon-CT and MD could be observed before any clinical signs of DCI. Combining bedside Xenon-CT and MD was found to be useful and feasible. Further studies are needed to evaluate if DCI can be detected before any other signs of DCI to prevent progress to infarction. PMID:24917850

  3. Infantile systemic lupus erythematosus presenting with pulmonary hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Kreindler; Demetrius Ellis; Abhay Vats; Geoffrey Kurland; Sarangarajan Ranganathan; Michael L. Moritz

    2005-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus in infants born to healthy mothers is a rare entity. We describe a male infant who presented at 1 month of age with pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis due to systemic lupus erythematosus, confirmed serologically and histologically. He was managed with a combination of prednisone and intermittent cyclophosphamide, but also received mycophenolate mofetil, with a complete serological and clinical

  4. [Suspected azodicarbonamide poisoning in a patient with acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Marcin; Maksymowicz, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    The report describes the case of death of a 22-year old man due to acute hemorrhaging pancreatitis. Azodicarbonamide poisoning was suspected in this patient. Autopsy results, data from the literature and the knowledge about mechanisms of azodicarbonamide toxicity allowed for excluding poisoning with this substance as the cause of death. PMID:18432145

  5. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Middle East, and the Indian subcontinent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Topics Transmission How do people get Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever? Signs and Symptoms What are the signs and ...

  6. Medical Management of Cerebral Vasospasm following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Review of Current and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Adamczyk, Peter; Amar, Arun Paul; Mack, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral vasospasm is a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Evidence suggests a multifactorial etiology and this concept remains supported by the assortment of therapeutic modalities under investigation. The authors provide an updated review of the literature for previous and recent clinical trials evaluating medical treatments in patients with cerebral vasospasm secondary to aSAH. Currently, the strongest evidence supports use of prophylactic oral nimodipine and initiation of triple-H therapy for patients in cerebral vasospasm. Other agents presented in this report include magnesium, statins, endothelin receptor antagonists, nitric oxide promoters, free radical scavengers, thromboxane inhibitors, thrombolysis, anti-inflammatory agents and neuroprotectants. Although promising data is beginning to emerge for several treatments, few prospective randomized clinical trials are presently available. Additionally, future investigational efforts will need to resolve discrepant definitions and outcome measures for cerebral vasospasm in order to permit adequate study comparisons. Until then, definitive recommendations cannot be made regarding the safety and efficacy for each of these therapeutic strategies and medical management practices will continue to be implemented in a wide-ranging manner. PMID:23691312

  7. The Effectiveness of Lumbar Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage to Reduce the Cerebral Vasospasm after Surgical Clipping for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soojeong; Yang, Narae

    2015-01-01

    Objective Removal of blood from subarachnoid space with a lumbar drainage (LD) may decrease development of cerebral vasospasm. We evaluated the effectiveness of a LD for a clinical vasospasm and outcomes after clipping of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods Between July 2008 and July 2013, 234 patients were included in this study. The LD group consisted of 126 patients, 108 patients in the non LD group. We investigated outcomes as follow : 1) clinical vasospasm, 2) angioplasty, 3) cerebral infarction, 4) Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score at discharge, 5) GOS score at 6-month follow-up, and 6) mortality. Results Clinical vasospasm occurred in 19% of the LD group and 42% of the non LD group (p<0.001). Angioplasty was performed in 17% of the LD group and 38% of the non LD group (p=0.001). Cerebral infarctions were detected in 29% and 54% of each group respectively (p<0.001). The proportion of GOS score 5 at 6 month follow-up in the LD group was 69%, and it was 58% in the non LD group (p=0.001). Mortality rate showed 5% and 10% in each group respectively. But, there was no difference in shunt between the two groups. Conclusion LD after aneurysmal SAH shows marked reduction of clinical vasospasm and need for angioplasty. With this technique we have shown favorable GOS score at 6 month follow-up. PMID:25810855

  8. [Sheehan's syndrome after obstetric hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Ramos-López, L; Pons-Canosa, V; Juncal-Díaz, J L; Núñez-Centeno, M B

    2014-12-01

    Sheehan's syndrome is described as panhypopituitarism secondary to a pituitary hypoperfusion during or just after obstetric hemorrhage. Advances in obstetric care make this syndrome quite unusual, but some cases are reported in underdeveloped countries. Clinical presentation may change depending on the severity of the hormone deficiencies. The diagnosis is clinical, but abnormalities are observed in the magnetic resonance in up to 70% of patients. We present a case of a woman with hypotension, hypothermia and edemas in relation to a previous massive postpartum hemorrhage. Failure in lactation was the clue to the diagnosis. A review of its main features, its diagnosis and treatment in the current literature is also presented. PMID:24636598

  9. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Woo Keun; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  10. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:22053232

  11. Type II Cryoglobulinemia and Brain Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Hsi Chen; Hung Sheng Lin; Yi-Fen Kao

    2008-01-01

    By virtue of an understanding of hemostasis and coagulopathy using modern techniques, the exact role of individual serum protein in vascular thrombosis or hemorrhage becomes more apparent. Cryoglobulin causes vasculitude and thrombosis in various vascular beds, but its role in brain hemorrhage is unknown. We encountered a cryoglobulinemic patient to have cryoglobulinemia, hypocomplementia, and cerebellar hemorrhage during a reactivation of

  12. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  13. [Forensic medical assessment of hemorrhages].

    PubMed

    Isakov, V D; Lavrentiuk, G P; Sysoev, V E; Ismailov, M T

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the possibility and conditions of postmortem hemorrhage with special reference to the victims of blunt trauma. Comparative morphological characteristics of resulting injuries are exemplified. Cases of postmortem bleeding following gunshot wounds are described. Case reports are presented illustrating the possibility of bruise migration. PMID:19569530

  14. Treatment targets in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Navdeep; Gonzales, Nicole R

    2011-07-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) imparts a higher mortality and morbidity than ischemic stroke. The therapeutic interventions that are currently available focus mainly on supportive care and secondary prevention. There is a paucity of evidence to support any one acute intervention that improves functional outcome. This chapter highlights current treatment targets for ICH based on the pathophysiology of the disease. PMID:21732225

  15. A Giant Hemorrhagic Adrenal Pseudocyst

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Goran Stimac; Josip Katusic; Mario Sucic; Mario Ledinsky; Bozo Kruslin; Davor Trnski

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To report a rare case of a giant hemorrhagic adrenal pseudocyst and highlight the importance of this entity to clinicians. Case Presentation: A 57-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of abdominal pain and distension. Ultrasonography and multislice computed tomography revealed a giant cystic (partially solid) mass over the left suprarenal region measuring 20 × 17 × 15 cm.

  16. Intracerebral hemorrhage in cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Albright, Karen C.; Hallevi, Hen; Barreto, Andrew D.; Philip, Maria; Misra, Vivek; Grotta, James C.; Savitz, Sean I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cocaine is a cause of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), but there are no large studies that have characterized the location, pathology, and outcome of patients with cocaine-associated ICH. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients admitted to our stroke service from 2004 to 2007 who had non-traumatic ICH and urine drug screens positive for cocaine and compared them with similar patients who had a negative drug screen for cocaine. Results We identified 45 patients with cocaine-associated ICH and 105 patients with cocaine-negative ICH. There were no significant differences in age or gender but there was a significantly higher incidence of African-American patients in the cocaine positive group. Cocaine-associated ICH patients had higher admission blood pressures, significantly more subcortical hemorrhages, and higher rates of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) compared to patients with cocaine-negative ICH. Cocaine-positive patients had worse functional outcome, defined as an mRS>3 at the time of discharge (OR 4.90, 95% CI 2.19–10.97), and were less likely to be discharged home or to inpatient rehab. Patients with cocaine-associated ICH were nearly 3 times more likely to die during their acute hospitalization when compared to cocaine-negative patients. Conclusion Recent cocaine ingestion is associated with hemorrhages that occur more frequently in subcortical locations, have a higher risk of IVH, and carry a poor prognosis compared to patients with cocaine-negative, spontaneous ICH. PMID:20185779

  17. Subdural Hemorrhage Mimicking Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Ihn; Oh, Yeo Jin; Cho, Yu Na

    2014-01-01

    Subdural hemorrhage (SDH) can manifest various neurologic symptoms. However, SDH presenting with only hand weakness has rarely been reported. We report two SDH cases with only hand weakness mimicking peripheral neuropathy. Since SDH can present with hand weakness only, we suggest the clinicians to do a careful history taking and recommend a CT scan in the elderly patients. PMID:25328658

  18. Hemorrhagic onset of spinal angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Marcos Devanir Silva; Paz, Daniel de Araujo; Rodrigues, Thiago Pereira; Gandolfi, Ana Camila de Castro; Lamis, Fabricio Correa; Stavale, João Norberto; Suriano, Italo Capraro; Cetl, Luiz Daniel Marques Neves; Cavalheiro, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are rare benign tumors that generally induce slow progressive cord compression. Here, the authors describe a case of sudden-onset palsy of the lower extremities caused by hemorrhagic spinal angiolipoma. An emergent laminectomy was performed to achieve total lesion removal. Follow-up examinations indicated neurological improvement and the absence of recurrence. PMID:25303620

  19. Putative Role of Prostaglandin Receptor in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Shekher; Ahmad, Abdullah S.; Glushakov, Alexander V.; Chambers, Chase; Doré, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Each year, approximately 795,000 people experience a new or recurrent stroke. Of all strokes, 84% are ischemic, 13% are intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) strokes, and 3% are subarachnoid hemorrhage strokes. Despite the decreased incidence of ischemic stroke, there has been no change in the incidence of hemorrhagic stroke in the last decade. ICH is a devastating disease 37–38% of patients between the ages of 45 and 64 die within 30?days. In an effort to prevent ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes we and others have been studying the role of prostaglandins and their receptors. Prostaglandins are bioactive lipids derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid. They sustain homeostatic functions and mediate pathogenic mechanisms, including the inflammatory response. Most prostaglandins are produced from specific enzymes and act upon cells via distinct G-protein coupled receptors. The presence of multiple prostaglandin receptors cross-reactivity and coupling to different signal transduction pathways allow differentiated cells to respond to prostaglandins in a unique manner. Due to the number of prostaglandin receptors, prostaglandin-dependent signaling can function either to promote neuronal survival or injury following acute excitotoxicity, hypoxia, and stress induced by ICH. To better understand the mechanisms of neuronal survival and neurotoxicity mediated by prostaglandin receptors, it is essential to understand downstream signaling. Several groups including ours have discovered unique roles for prostaglandin receptors in rodent models of ischemic stroke, excitotoxicity, and Alzheimer disease, highlighting the emerging role of prostaglandin receptor signaling in hemorrhagic stroke with a focus on cyclic-adenosine monophosphate and calcium (Ca2+) signaling. We review current ICH data and discuss future directions notably on prostaglandin receptors, which may lead to the development of unique therapeutic targets against hemorrhagic stroke and brain injuries alike. PMID:23097645

  20. [Enteroviruses responsible for acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis].

    PubMed

    Lévêque, N; Huguet, P; Norder, H; Chomel, J-J

    2010-04-01

    Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) is an epidemic form of highly contagious conjunctivitis, characterized by conjunctival hemorrhages. The first AHC outbreak was described in 1969 in Ghana, West Africa, and was called Apollo disease, from the Apollo landing on the moon. This outbreak was caused by Enterovirus 70 (EV70) together with a Coxsackievirus A24 (CVA24v) variant, which are the major etiological agents involved in AHC outbreaks worldwide. AHC is known to be directly transmitted by close person-to-person contact or indirectly through soiled ophthalmological materials or unsafe recreational water. Recently, a possible airborne virus spread was suggested which could explain the high transmission rate of the disease. In the absence of a specific antiviral therapy, a rapid diagnosis of the causative agent is required to distinguish AHC due to enteroviruses from other ocular infectious diseases, for there are active drugs, or to quickly implement proper public health measures to limit the extension of the outbreak. However, virus identification remains difficult and time-consuming. Moreover, virological diagnosis is difficult to implement in developing countries where AHC has recently become a major problem for public health. PMID:19836177

  1. Parenteral diclofenac infusion significantly decreases brain-tissue oxygen tension in patients with poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Diclofenac, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, is commonly used as antipyretic therapy in intensive care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of parenteral diclofenac infusion on brain homeostasis, including brain-tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) and brain metabolism after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study with retrospective analysis of 21 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), intracranial pressure (ICP), body temperature, and PbtO2 were analyzed after parenteral diclofenac infusion administered over a 34-minute period (20 to 45 IQR). Data are given as mean ± standard error of mean and median with interquartile range (IQR), as appropriate. Time-series data were analyzed by using a general linear model extended by generalized estimation equations (GEEs). Results One-hundred twenty-three interventions were analyzed. Body temperature decreased from 38.3°C ± 0.05°C by 0.8°C ± 0.06°C (P < 0.001). A 10% decrease in MAP and CPP (P < 0.001) necessitated an increase of vasopressors in 26% (n = 32), colloids in 33% (n = 41), and crystalloids in 5% (n = 7) of interventions. PbtO2 decreased by 13% from a baseline value of 28.1 ± 2.2 mm Hg, resulting in brain-tissue hypoxia (PbtO2 <20 mm Hg) in 38% (n = 8) of patients and 35% (n = 43) of interventions. PbtO2 <30 mm Hg before intervention was associated with brain-tissue hypoxia after parenteral diclofenac infusion (likelihood ratio, 40; AUC, 93%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 87% to 99%; P < 0.001). Cerebral metabolism showed no significant changes after parenteral diclofenac infusion. Conclusions Parenteral diclofenac infusion after aSAH effectively reduces body temperature, but may lead to CPP decrease and brain-tissue hypoxia, which were both associated with poor outcome after aSAH. PMID:23663770

  2. Risk factors for intracerebral hemorrhage differ according to hemorrhage location

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Sharyl R.; Flaherty, Matthew L.; Brown, W. Mark; Haverbusch, Mary; Comeau, Mary E.; Sauerbeck, Laura R.; Kissela, Brett M.; Deka, Ranjan; Kleindorfer, Dawn O.; Moomaw, Charles J.; Broderick, Joseph P.; Langefeld, Carl D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Risk factors have been described for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH); their relative contribution to lobar vs nonlobar hemorrhage location is less clear. Our purpose here was to investigate risk factors by hemorrhage location. Methods: This case-control study prospectively enrolled subjects with first-ever spontaneous ICH and matched each with up to 3 controls by age, race, and gender. Conditional stepwise logistic regression modeling was used to determine significant independent risk factors for lobar and nonlobar ICH. Results: From December 1997 through December 2006, 597 cases and 1,548 controls qualified for the analysis. Hypertension, warfarin use, first-degree relative with ICH, personal history of ischemic stroke, less than a high school education, and APOE ?2 or ?4 genotype were more common in ICH cases. Hypercholesterolemia and moderate alcohol consumption (?2 drinks per day) were less common in ICH cases. The associations of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were specific for nonlobar ICH. Conversely, the association of APOE ?2 or ?4 genotype was specific for lobar ICH. Conclusions: APOE ?2 or ?4 genotype was associated specifically with lobar ICH. Hypertension was associated specifically with nonlobar ICH. A protective association was seen between hypercholesterolemia and nonlobar ICH; no such association was identified for lobar ICH. PMID:23175721

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for control of intractable cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Shameem, I A; Shimabukuro, T; Shirataki, S; Yamamoto, N; Maekawa, T; Naito, K

    1992-01-01

    We report a case of intractable hemorrhagic cystitis due to cyclophosphamide therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis. Conservative treatment, including bladder irrigation with physiological saline and instillation of prostaglandin F2 alpha, failed to totally control hemorrhage. We then used hyperbaric oxygen at an absolute pressure of 2 atm, 5 days a week for 8 consecutive weeks. The bleeding ceased completely by the end of treatment and the patient remained free of hematuria thereafter. No side effect was noted during the course of therapy. In future, this form of therapy can offer a safe alternative in the treatment of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:1468485

  4. Treatment Targets in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navdeep Sangha; Nicole R. Gonzales

    2011-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) imparts a higher mortality and morbidity than ischemic stroke. The therapeutic interventions\\u000a that are currently available focus mainly on supportive care and secondary prevention. There is a paucity of evidence to support\\u000a any one acute intervention that improves functional outcome. This chapter highlights current treatment targets for ICH based\\u000a on the pathophysiology of the disease.

  5. Brainstem hemorrhage following decompressive craniectomy.

    PubMed

    Lonjaret, Laurent; Ros, Maxime; Boetto, Sergio; Fourcade, Olivier; Geeraerts, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is used for the management of refractory raised intracranial pressure, but the impact of DC on surgical outcome is still controversial. We report a 21-year-old man admitted to our hospital after a road traffic accident. The brain CT scan revealed a left hemispheric acute subdural hematoma. After DC, he developed a brainstem hemorrhage. Recovery was, however, good. PMID:22721886

  6. Treatment of Rectal Hemorrhage by Coil Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Craig Charles; Nicholson, Anthony A. [Department of Radiology, Hull Royal Infirmary, Anlaby Road, Hull, East Yorkshire HU3 2JZ (United Kingdom)

    1998-03-15

    Four patients, aged 54-84 years, presenting with life-threatening rectal bleeding from the superior hemorrhoidal artery, underwent percutaneous fibered platinum coil embolization via coaxial catheters. Pre-procedure sigmoidoscopy had failed to identify the source of hemorrhage, because the rectum was filled with fresh blood. Embolization was technically and clinically successful in all four patients. Subsequent sigmoidoscopy confirmed the diagnoses in three patients as a solitary rectal ulcer, iatrogenic traumatic ulceration following manual evacuation, and a rectal Dieulafoy's lesion. The other case was angiographically seen to be due to a rectal angiodysplasia. Embolization is an effective procedure in life-threatening superior hemorrhoidal arterial bleeding when endoscopic treatment fails, and should be preferred to rectosigmoid resection.

  7. Treatment of rectal hemorrhage by coil embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Craig Charles; Nicholson, Anthony A. [Hull Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)

    1999-03-15

    Four patients, aged 54-84 years, presenting with life-threatening rectal bleeding from the superior hemorrhoidal artery, underwent percutaneous fibered platinum coil embolization via coaxial catheters. Preprocedure sigmoidoscopy had failed to identify the source of hemorrhage, because the rectum was filled with fresh blood. Embolization was technically and clinically successful in all four patients. Subsequent sigmoidoscopy confirmed the diagnoses in three patients as a solitary rectal ulcer, iatrogenic traumatic ulceration following manual evacuation, and a rectal Dieulafoy's lesion. The other case was angiographically seen to be due to a rectal angiodysplasia. Embolization is an effective procedure in life-threatening superior hemorrhoidal arterial bleeding when endoscopic treatment fails, and should be preferred to rectosigmoid resection.

  8. Clinical Features and Patient Management of Lujo Hemorrhagic Fever

    PubMed Central

    Sewlall, Nivesh H.; Richards, Guy; Duse, Adriano; Swanepoel, Robert; Paweska, Janusz; Blumberg, Lucille; Dinh, Thu Ha; Bausch, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008 a nosocomial outbreak of five cases of viral hemorrhagic fever due to a novel arenavirus, Lujo virus, occurred in Johannesburg, South Africa. Lujo virus is only the second pathogenic arenavirus, after Lassa virus, to be recognized in Africa and the first in over 40 years. Because of the remote, resource-poor, and often politically unstable regions where Lassa fever and other viral hemorrhagic fevers typically occur, there have been few opportunities to undertake in-depth study of their clinical manifestations, transmission dynamics, pathogenesis, or response to treatment options typically available in industrialized countries. Methods and Findings We describe the clinical features of five cases of Lujo hemorrhagic fever and summarize their clinical management, as well as providing additional epidemiologic detail regarding the 2008 outbreak. Illness typically began with the abrupt onset of fever, malaise, headache, and myalgias followed successively by sore throat, chest pain, gastrointestinal symptoms, rash, minor hemorrhage, subconjunctival injection, and neck and facial swelling over the first week of illness. No major hemorrhage was noted. Neurological signs were sometimes seen in the late stages. Shock and multi-organ system failure, often with evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, ensued in the second week, with death in four of the five cases. Distinctive treatment components of the one surviving patient included rapid commencement of the antiviral drug ribavirin and administration of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), N-acetylcysteine, and recombinant factor VIIa. Conclusions Lujo virus causes a clinical syndrome remarkably similar to Lassa fever. Considering the high case-fatality and significant logistical impediments to controlled treatment efficacy trials for viral hemorrhagic fever, it is both logical and ethical to explore the use of the various compounds used in the treatment of the surviving case reported here in future outbreaks. Clinical observations should be systematically recorded to facilitate objective evaluation of treatment efficacy. Due to the risk of secondary transmission, viral hemorrhagic fever precautions should be implemented for all cases of Lujo virus infection, with specialized precautions to protect against aerosols when performing enhanced-risk procedures such as endotracheal intubation. PMID:25393244

  9. ?2?adrenergic regulation of stress hyperglycemia following hemorrhage in the obese Zucker rat

    PubMed Central

    Clemmer, John S.; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Mittwede, Peter N.; Hester, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Stress hyperglycemia following trauma has been shown to potentiate morbidity and mortality. Glucose control in obese patients can be challenging due to insulin resistance. Thus, understanding the mechanisms for glucose generation following hemorrhage may provide important insights into alternative options for glycemic control in obesity. Obesity is characterized by elevated glycogen and increased hepatic ?2?adrenergic activity, which play major roles in glucose production after hemorrhage. We hypothesized that, in obesity, hepatic glycogenolysis is enhanced during stress hyperglycemia due to increased hepatic ?2?adrenoceptor activation. Hemorrhage was performed in conscious lean Zucker (LZ) and obese Zucker rats (OZ) by withdrawing 35% total blood volume over 10 min. Liver glycogen content and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured before and 1 h after hemorrhage. The hyperglycemic response was greater in OZ as compared to LZ, but glycogen content was similarly reduced in both groups. Subsequently, OZ had a greater fall in insulin compared to LZ. Glucagon levels were significantly increased 1 h after hemorrhage in LZ but not in OZ. To test the direct adrenergic effects on the liver after hemorrhage, we treated animals before hemorrhage with a selective ?2?adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI?118,551 (ICI; 2 mg/kg/h, i.v.). After hemorrhage, ICI significantly reduced hyperglycemia in both LZ and OZ, independent of hormonal changes, but there was a significantly decreased hepatic glycogenolysis in OZ. These results suggest that the hemorrhage?induced hepatic glycogenolysis is likely glucagon?dependent in LZ, whereas the ?2?adrenoceptor plays a greater role in OZ. PMID:25472607

  10. ?2-adrenergic regulation of stress hyperglycemia following hemorrhage in the obese Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Clemmer, John S; Xiang, Lusha; Lu, Silu; Mittwede, Peter N; Hester, Robert L

    2014-12-01

    Stress hyperglycemia following trauma has been shown to potentiate morbidity and mortality. Glucose control in obese patients can be challenging due to insulin resistance. Thus, understanding the mechanisms for glucose generation following hemorrhage may provide important insights into alternative options for glycemic control in obesity. Obesity is characterized by elevated glycogen and increased hepatic ?2-adrenergic activity, which play major roles in glucose production after hemorrhage. We hypothesized that, in obesity, hepatic glycogenolysis is enhanced during stress hyperglycemia due to increased hepatic ?2-adrenoceptor activation. Hemorrhage was performed in conscious lean Zucker (LZ) and obese Zucker rats (OZ) by withdrawing 35% total blood volume over 10 min. Liver glycogen content and plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured before and 1 h after hemorrhage. The hyperglycemic response was greater in OZ as compared to LZ, but glycogen content was similarly reduced in both groups. Subsequently, OZ had a greater fall in insulin compared to LZ. Glucagon levels were significantly increased 1 h after hemorrhage in LZ but not in OZ. To test the direct adrenergic effects on the liver after hemorrhage, we treated animals before hemorrhage with a selective ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist, ICI-118,551 (ICI; 2 mg/kg/h, i.v.). After hemorrhage, ICI significantly reduced hyperglycemia in both LZ and OZ, independent of hormonal changes, but there was a significantly decreased hepatic glycogenolysis in OZ. These results suggest that the hemorrhage-induced hepatic glycogenolysis is likely glucagon-dependent in LZ, whereas the ?2-adrenoceptor plays a greater role in OZ. PMID:25472607

  11. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to ileal metastasis from primary lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Qi, Wei-Lin; Ma, Ya-Dan; Xu, Yun-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with small intestinal metastasis from lung squamous cell carcinoma. A 66-year-old man who underwent radical lung cancer surgery was admitted to our hospital. Before starting his fifth cycle of chemotherapy, he was found to have a positive fecal occult blood test. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an ileal tumor with mesenteric lymph node enlargement. He underwent laparoscopic resection of the involved small intestine and mesentery. Histopathological analysis confirmed metastasis from lung cancer. We conducted a review of the literature and 64 documented cases of small intestinal metastasis from lung cancer were found. The pathologic diagnosis, clinical presentation, site of metastasis, and survival time in these cases were reviewed. PMID:25805957

  12. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to ileal metastasis from primary lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Qi, Wei-Lin; Ma, Ya-Dan; Xu, Yun-Yun

    2015-03-21

    We report a patient with small intestinal metastasis from lung squamous cell carcinoma. A 66-year-old man who underwent radical lung cancer surgery was admitted to our hospital. Before starting his fifth cycle of chemotherapy, he was found to have a positive fecal occult blood test. Abdominal computed tomography scan revealed an ileal tumor with mesenteric lymph node enlargement. He underwent laparoscopic resection of the involved small intestine and mesentery. Histopathological analysis confirmed metastasis from lung cancer. We conducted a review of the literature and 64 documented cases of small intestinal metastasis from lung cancer were found. The pathologic diagnosis, clinical presentation, site of metastasis, and survival time in these cases were reviewed. PMID:25805957

  13. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Due to Rhus Ingestion Presenting with Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonsuk; Choi, Chan; Cho, Kyuman; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2015-01-01

    Rhus-related illnesses in Korea are mostly caused by ingestion of parts of the Rhus tree. Contact dermatitis occurrence after ingestion of Rhus-related food is very common in Korea. However, Rhus-related gastrointestinal disease is very rare. Herein, we present a case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis caused by Rhus ingestion. A 75-year-old woman was admitted with hematemesis and hematochezia after Rhus extract ingestion. Routine laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis without eosinophilia. Endoscopy showed friable and granular mucosal changes with touch bleeding in the second portion of the duodenum. Abdominal computed tomography revealed edematous wall thickening of the duodenum and proximal jejunal loops. Patch testing with Rhus extracts showed a strong positive reaction, suggesting Rhus as the allergen. Her symptoms improved after avoidance of the allergen.

  14. Endometriosis presenting with hemorrhagic ascites, severe anemia, and shock.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Trent L; Tomich, Eric B; Heiner, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic ascites due to endometriosis is an exceedingly uncommon diagnosis rarely reported in the medical literature. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department for flank and neck pain and was found to be hypotensive with massive hemorrhagic ascites and severe anemia. After emergency department resuscitation and hospitalization, her condition was found to be due to complications of endometriosis. A paracentesis of more than 4000 mL of bloody ascitic fluid revealed no evidence of cancer, and she was discharged on hospital day 3 with hormone therapy and no recurrence of symptoms upon outpatient follow-up. This case illustrates the clinical management, diagnostic approach, and underlying etiology of an infrequent but life-threatening complication of endometriosis. PMID:22809773

  15. Transillumination enhances photographs of retinal hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Nolte, K B

    1997-09-01

    Light stand photography with direct illumination of the retina is a common method of demonstrating retinal hemorrhages. The lack of contrast between dark hemorrhages and surrounding dark retina, and the difficulty of photographing into the concavity of an eye limit this technique. Transillumination of a bivalved globe with a bright external light source such as a colonoscope or microscope light yields high contrast superior photographs. This technique is useful to document retinal hemorrhages, and provides quality photographs for courtroom demonstrations. PMID:9304847

  16. Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Aronow, Wilbert S

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac manifestations are recognized complications of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurogenic stress cardiomyopathy is one complication that is seen in acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. It can present as transient diffuse left ventricular dysfunction or as transient regional wall motion abnormalities. It occurs more frequently with neurologically severe-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage and is associated with increased morbidity and poor clinical outcomes. Managing this subset of patients is challenging. Early identification followed by a multidisciplinary team approach can potentially improve outcomes. PMID:25606704

  17. Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Renal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Silberstein, Jonathan; Lakin, Charles M; Kellogg Parsons, J

    2008-01-01

    Although shock wave lithotripsy is a safe and efficacious treatment for nephrolithiasis, the most common acute complication is renal hemorrhage. Shock wave-induced renal hemorrhage is a potentially devastating injury if not promptly recognized and treated appropriately. The authors report a large perirenal hematoma occurring after shock wave lithotripsy and review the causes, prevention, and treatment of shock wave-induced renal hemorrhage. PMID:18836562

  18. (-)-Deprenyl inhibits vascular hyperpermeability after hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Tharakan, Binu; Whaley, J Greg; Hunter, Felicia A; Smythe, W Roy; Childs, Ed W

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrated the involvement of endothelial cell reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and activation of apoptotic signaling in vascular hyperpermeability after hemorrhagic shock (HS). The objective of this study was to determine if (-)-deprenyl, an antioxidant with antiapoptotic properties, would attenuate HS-induced vascular hyperpermeability. In rats, HS was induced by withdrawing blood to reduce the MAP to 40 mmHg for 60 min followed by resuscitation for 60 min. To study hyperpermeability, we injected the rats with fluorescein isothiocyanate--albumin (50 mg/kg), and the changes in integrated optical intensity of the mesenteric postcapillary venules were obtained intravascularly and extravascularly using intravital microscopy. Mitochondrial ROS formation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (DeltaPsim) were studied using dihydrorhodamine 123 and JC-1, respectively. Mitochondrial release of cytochrome c was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and caspase-3 activity by a fluorometric assay. Parallel studies were performed in rat lung microvascular endothelial cells using proapoptotic BAK as inducer of hyperpermeability. Hemorrhagic shock induced vascular hyperpermeability, mitochondrial ROS formation, DeltaPsim decrease, cytochrome c release, and caspase-3 activation (P G 0.05). (-)-Deprenyl (0.15 mg/kg) attenuated all these effects (P < 0.05). Similarly in rat lung microvascular endothelial cells, (-)-deprenyl attenuated BAK peptide-induced monolayer hyperpermeability (P < 0.05), ROS formation, DeltaPsim decrease, cytochrome c release (P<0.05), and caspase-3 activation (P < 0.05). The protective effects of (-)-deprenyl on vascular barrier functions may be due to its protective effects on DeltaPsim, thereby preventing mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and caspase-3--mediated disruption of endothelial adherens junctions. PMID:19373132

  19. Mineralocorticoid deficiency in hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Tolstoy, Nikolai S.; Aized, Majid; McMonagle, Morgan P.; Holena, Daniel N.; Pascual, Jose L.; Sonnad, Seema S.; Sims, Carrie A.

    2013-01-01

    Background In the critically ill, mineralocorticoid deficiency (MD) is associated with greater disease severity, the development of acute renal insufficiency, and increased mortality. We hypothesized that severely injured trauma patients presenting with hemorrhagic shock would demonstrate a high degree of MD. We also hypothesized that MD in these patients would be associated with increased length of stay, hypotension, fluid requirements, and acute kidney injury (AKI). Materials and methods Thirty-two trauma patients in hemorrhagic shock on admission to the trauma bay (SBP <90 mm Hg × 2) were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained on ICU admission and 8, 16, 24, and 48 hours later. Plasma aldosterone (PA) and renin (PR) were assayed by radioimmunoassay. MD was defined as a ratio of PA/PR ?2. Demographic data, injury severity score, ICU and hospital length of stay, fluid requirements, mean arterial pressure, serum sodium, hypotension, and risk for AKI were compared for patients with and without MD. Results At ICU admission, 48% of patients met criteria for MD. Patients with MD were significantly more likely to experience hypotension (MAP ?60 mm Hg) during the study period. MD patients required significantly more units of blood in 48 h than non-MD patients (13 [7–22] versus 5 [2–7], P = 0.015) and had increased crystalloid requirements (18L [14–23] versus 9L [6–10], P < 0.001). MD patients were at higher risk for AKI according to RIFLE and AKIN criteria. Conclusions MD is a common entity in trauma patients presenting in hemorrhagic shock. Patients with MD required a more aggressive resuscitative effort, were more likely to experience hypotension, and had a higher risk of AKI than non-MD patients. Future studies are needed to fully understand the impact of MD following trauma and the potential role for hormonal replacement therapy. PMID:22683082

  20. Optimal management of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Neetika; Khunger, Monica; Gupta, Arjun; Kumar, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), also known by the eponym Osler–Weber–Rendu syndrome, is a group of related disorders inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and characterized by the development of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the skin, mucous membranes, and/or internal organs such as brain, lungs, and liver. Its prevalence is currently estimated at one in 5,000 to 8,000. Most cases are due to mutations in the endoglin (HHT1) or ACVRLK1 (HHT2) genes. Telangiectasias in nasal and gastrointestinal mucosa generally present with recurrent/chronic bleeding and iron deficiency anemia. Larger AVMs occur in lungs (~40%–60% of affected individuals), liver (~40%–70%), brain (~10%), and spine (~1%). Due to the devastating and potentially fatal complications of some of these lesions (for example, strokes and brain abscesses with pulmonary AVMs), presymptomatic screening and treatment are of utmost importance. However, due to the rarity of this condition, many providers lack an appreciation for the whole gamut of its manifestations and complications, age-dependent penetrance, and marked intrafamilial variation. As a result, HHT remains frequently underdiagnosed and many families do not receive the appropriate screening and treatments. This article provides an overview of the clinical features of HHT, discusses the clinical and genetic diagnostic strategies, and presents an up-to-date review of literature and detailed considerations regarding screening for visceral AVMs, preventive modalities, and treatment options. PMID:25342923

  1. [Whole-blood transfusion for hemorrhagic shock resuscitation: two cases in Djibouti].

    PubMed

    Cordier, P Y; Eve, O; Dehan, C; Topin, F; Menguy, P; Bertani, A; Massoure, P L; Kaiser, E

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock requires early aggressive treatment, including transfusion of packed red blood cells and hemostatic resuscitation. In austere environments, when component therapy is not available, warm fresh whole-blood transfusion is a convenient treatment. It provides red blood cells, clotting factors, and functional platelets. Therefore it is commonly used in military practice to treat hemorrhagic shock in combat casualties. At Bouffard Hospital Center in Djibouti, the supply of packed red blood cells is limited, and apheresis platelets are unavailable. We used whole blood transfusion in two civilian patients with life-threatening non-traumatic hemorrhages. One had massive bleeding caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation due to septic shock; the second was a 39 year-old pregnant woman with uterine rupture. In both cases, whole blood transfusion (twelve and ten 500 mL bags respectively), combined with etiological treatment, enabled coagulopathy correction, hemorrhage control, and satisfactory recovery. PMID:22894893

  2. Effect of pharmaceutical treatment on vasospasm, delayed cerebral ischemia, and clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Nima; Vergouwen, Mervyn DI; Ilodigwe, Don; Macdonald, R Loch

    2011-01-01

    As it is often assumed that delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is caused by vasospasm, clinical trials often focus on prevention of vasospasm with the aim to improve clinical outcome. However, the role of vasospasm in the pathogenesis of DCI and clinical outcome is possibly smaller than previously assumed. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on all randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials that studied the effect of pharmaceutical preventive strategies on vasospasm, DCI, and clinical outcome in SAH patients to further investigate the relationship between vasospasm and clinical outcome. Effect sizes were expressed in pooled risk ratio (RR) estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 14 studies randomizing 4,235 patients were included. Despite a reduction of vasospasm (RR 0.80 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.92)), no statistically significant effect on poor outcome was observed (RR 0.93 (95% CI 0.85 to 1.03)). The variety of DCI definitions did not justify pooling the DCI data. We conclude that pharmaceutical treatments have significantly decreased the incidence of vasospasm, but not of poor clinical outcome. This dissociation between vasospasm and clinical outcome could result from methodological problems, sample size, insensitivity of clinical outcome measures, or from mechanisms other than vasospasm that also contribute to poor outcome. PMID:21285966

  3. Hypoperfusion Without Ischemia Surrounding Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allyson R. Zazulia; Michael N. Diringer; Tom O. Videen; Robert E. Adams; Kent Yundt; Venkatesh Aiyagari; Robert L. Grubb; William J. Powers

    2001-01-01

    A zone of hypoperfusion surrounding acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been interpreted as regional ischemia. To determine if ischemia is present in the periclot area, the authors measured cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) with positron emission tomography (PET) in 19 patients 5 to 22 hours after hemorrhage onset. Periclot CBF,

  4. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in a yak

    PubMed Central

    Raabis, Sarah M.; Byers, Stacey R.; Han, Sushan; Callan, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection was diagnosed in a 3-year-old yak. The yak had signs of intermittent tremors, dysphagia, oral ulcerative lesions, hemorrhagic enteritis, tachypnea, and thrombocytopenia. Postmortem diagnostics confirmed EHDV (serotype 2) using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Gross and histopathological results were consistent with EHDV reported in other species. PMID:24688138

  5. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M., E-mail: migova@terra.es; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Department of Surgery (Spain); Gomez Ramos, M.J. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Intensive Care Unit (Spain); Vazquez Rojas, J.L. [Hospital General Vega Baja, Department of Surgery (Spain)

    2007-04-15

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture.

  6. Thrombo-hemorrhagic deaths in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Lo Coco, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has become the most curable form of acute myeloid leukemia after the advent of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). However, early deaths (ED) mostly due to the disease-associated coagulopathy remain the major cause of treatment failure. In particular, hemorrhagic events account for 40-65% of ED and several prognostic factors have been identified for such hemorrhagic deaths, including poor performance status, high white blood cell (WBC) count and coagulopathy. Occurrence of thrombosis during treatment with ATRA may be associated with differentiation syndrome (DS) or represent an isolated event. Some prognostic factors have been reported to be associated with thrombosis, including increased WBC or aberrant immunophenotype of leukemic promyelocytes. Aim of this review is to report the incidence, severity, possible pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of thrombo-haemorrhagic deaths in APL. PMID:24862130

  7. Recent advances in research on Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Mirazimi, Ali; Köksal, Iftihar; Estrada-Pena, Augustin; Feldmann, Heinz

    2015-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an expanding tick-borne hemorrhagic disease with increasing human and animal health impact. Immense knowledge was gained over the past 10 years mainly due to advances in molecular biology, but also driven by an increased global interest in CCHFV as an emerging/re-emerging zoonotic pathogen. In the present article, we discuss the advances in research with focus on CCHF ecology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment. Despite tremendous achievements, future activities have to concentrate on the development of vaccines and antivirals/therapeutics to combat CCHF. Vector studies need to continue for better public and animal health preparedness and response. We conclude with a roadmap for future research priorities. PMID:25453328

  8. Delayed cerebral ischemia and spreading depolarization in absence of angiographic vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Woitzik, Johannes; Dreier, Jens P; Hecht, Nils; Fiss, Ingo; Sandow, Nora; Major, Sebastian; Winkler, Maren; Dahlem, Yuliya A; Manville, Jerome; Diepers, Michael; Muench, Elke; Kasuya, Hidetoshi; Schmiedek, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that vasospasm is the prime mechanism of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Recently, it was found that clusters of spreading depolarizations (SDs) are associated with DCI. Surgical placement of nicardipine prolonged-release implants (NPRIs) was shown to strongly attenuate vasospasm. In the present study, we tested whether SDs and DCI are abolished when vasospasm is reduced or abolished by NPRIs. After aneurysm clipping, 10 NPRIs were placed next to the proximal intracranial vessels. The SDs were recorded using a subdural electrode strip. Proximal vasospasm was assessed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA). 534 SDs were recorded in 10 of 13 patients (77%). Digital subtraction angiography revealed no vasospasm in 8 of 13 patients (62%) and only mild or moderate vasospasm in the remaining. Five patients developed DCI associated with clusters of SD despite the absence of angiographic vasospasm in three of those patients. The number of SDs correlated significantly with the development of DCI. This may explain why reduction of angiographic vasospasm alone has not been sufficient to improve outcome in some clinical studies. PMID:22146193

  9. Genetic markers in the EET metabolic pathway are associated with outcomes in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Mark K; Conley, Yvette P; Crago, Elizabeth A; Ren, Dianxu; Sherwood, Paula R; Balzer, Jeffery R; Poloyac, Samuel M

    2015-02-01

    Preclinical studies show that epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) regulate cerebrovascular tone and protect against cerebral ischemia. We investigated the relationship between polymorphic genes involved in EET biosynthesis/metabolism, cytochrome P450 (CYP) eicosanoid levels, and outcomes in 363 patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (DHET) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels, as well as acute outcomes defined by delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) or clinical neurologic deterioration (CND), were assessed over 14 days. Long-term outcomes were defined by Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) at 3 and 12 months. CYP2C8*4 allele carriers had 44% and 36% lower mean EET and DHET CSF levels (P=0.003 and P=0.007) and were 2.2- and 2.5-fold more likely to develop DCI and CND (P=0.039 and P=0.041), respectively. EPHX2 55Arg, CYP2J2*7, CYP2C8*1B, and CYP2C8 g.36785A allele carriers had lower EET and DHET CSF levels. CYP2C8 g.25369T and CYP2C8 g.36755A allele carriers had higher EET levels. Patients with CYP2C8*2C and EPHX2 404del variants had worse long-term outcomes while those with EPHX2 287Gln, CYP2J2*7, and CYP2C9 g.816G variants had favorable outcomes. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid levels were associated with Fisher grade and unfavorable 3-month outcomes. Dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids were not associated with outcomes. No associations passed Bonferroni multiple testing correction. These are the first clinical data demonstrating the association between the EET biosynthesis/metabolic pathway and the pathophysiology of aSAH. PMID:25388680

  10. Imaging of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    SciTech Connect

    Carette, Marie-France, E-mail: marie-france.carette@tnn.aphp.fr; Nedelcu, Cosmina; Tassart, Marc [AP-HP Tenon Hospital, Radiology Department (France); Grange, Jean-Didier; Wislez, Marie [Centre d'Accueil de la Maladie de Rendu Osler de Tenon (CAMROT) (France); Khalil, Antoine, E-mail: antoine_khalil@yahoo.f [AP-HP Tenon Hospital, Radiology Department (France)

    2009-07-15

    This pictorial review is based on our experience of the follow-up of 120 patients at our multidisciplinary center for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Rendu-Osler-Weber disease or HHT is a multiorgan autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance, characterized by epistaxis, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The research on gene mutations is fundamental and family screening by clinical examination, chest X-ray, research of pulmonary shunting, and abdominal color Doppler sonography is absolutely necessary. The angioarchitecture of pulmonary AVMs can be studied by unenhanced multidetector computed tomography; however, all other explorations of liver, digestive bowels, or brain require administration of contrast media. Magnetic resonance angiography is helpful for central nervous system screening, in particular for the spinal cord, but also for pulmonary, hepatic, and pelvic AVMs. Knowledge of the multiorgan involvement of HHT, mechanism of complications, and radiologic findings is fundamental for the correct management of these patients.

  11. Data Hemorrhages in the HealthCare Sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Eric Johnson

    2009-01-01

    Confidential data hemorrhaging from health-care providers pose financial risks to firms and medical risks to patients. We examine the consequences of data hemorrhages including privacy violations, medical fraud, financial identity theft, and medical identity theft. We also examine the types and sources of data hemorrhages, focusing on inadvertent disclosures. Through an analysis of leaked files, we examine data hemorrhages stemming

  12. Massive hemoptysis due to welding fumes

    PubMed Central

    Uzun, O?uz; ?nce, Ozgur; Bakalov, Veli; Tuna, Tibel

    2012-01-01

    Many pulmonary problems such as lung cancer, occupational asthma, and pneumoconiosis have been described due to welding in the literature until now. This is the first case report of alveolar hemorrhage due to welding fumes presented with massive hemoptysis. We report a rare case of massive hemopthisis associated with welder’s lung, with a discussion based on a review of the literature. Established facts Many pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, occupational asthma, and pneumoconiosis have been attributed welding fumes in the literature. Alveolar hemorrhage due to welding fumes has never defined before. Novel insights We herein report a case of alveolar hemorrhage presented with massive hemoptysis due to welding fumes. Clinicians should be aware of such rare but serious clinical picture which can occur in welding workers. Palliative measures and bronchoscopic Ankaferd Blood Stopper® application may help to stop bleeding.

  13. Circulatory contributors to the phenotype in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Shovlin, Claire L.

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is mechanistically and therapeutically challenging, not only because of the molecular and cellular perturbations that generate vascular abnormalities, but also the modifications to circulatory physiology that result, and are likely to exacerbate vascular injury. First, most HHT patients have visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Significant visceral AVMs reduce the systemic vascular resistance: supra-normal cardiac outputs are required to maintain arterial blood pressure, and may result in significant pulmonary venous hypertension. Secondly, bleeding from nasal and gastrointestinal telangiectasia leads to iron losses of such magnitude that in most cases, diet is insufficient to meet the ‘hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement.’ Resultant iron deficiency restricts erythropoiesis, leading to anemia and further increases in cardiac output. Low iron levels are also associated with venous and arterial thromboses, elevated Factor VIII, and increased platelet aggregation to circulating 5HT (serotonin). Third, recent data highlight that reduced oxygenation of blood due to pulmonary AVMs results in a graded erythrocytotic response to maintain arterial oxygen content, and higher stroke volumes and/or heart rates to maintain oxygen delivery. Finally, HHT-independent factors such as diet, pregnancy, sepsis, and other intercurrent illnesses also influence vascular structures, hemorrhage, and iron handling in HHT patients. These considerations emphasize the complexity of mechanisms that impact on vascular structures in HHT, and also offer opportunities for targeted therapeutic approaches.

  14. Submacular hemorrhage secondary to congenital toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Luiza Fontes de Azevedo; Martins, Thiago Gonçalves Dos Santos; Moncada, Francisco Javier Solano; Motta, Mário Martins dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a patient with congenital toxoplasmosis and submacular hemorrhage caused by a neovascular membrane who underwent an intravitreal injection of C3F8 and bevacizumab, and had a good visual recovery. PMID:24728255

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at high pressure into the thinner walled, less elastic veins. The extra pressure tends to strain and ... autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; capillaries ; cell ; chromosome ; compression ; deficiency ; elastic ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; hemorrhage ; hereditary ; incidence ; inherited ; juvenile ; oxygen ; ...

  16. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage in aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Hugar, Basappa S; Praveen, Shivaramareddy; Hosahally, Jayanth S; Kainoor, Sunilkumar; Shetty, Akshith Raj S

    2015-01-01

    Poisoning, both accidental and intentional, is a significant contributor to the mortality and morbidity throughout the world. The commonest pesticide poisoning is organophosphates followed by phosphides. Ingestion of phosphides can induce severe gastrointestinal irritation leading to hemorrhage and ulcerations. Gastrointestinal hemorrhages and ulcerations beyond the duodenum have not been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of severe hemorrhages and ulcerations in stomach, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum observed in a 45-year-old male who had consumed five tablets of Celphos(®) (each 3 g with 56% aluminum phosphide and 44% Ammonium carbonate) to commit suicide. He started vomiting after consumption, and the vomitus was blood-tinged. Once the treatment was instituted, he was stable for a day and thereafter his condition gradually deteriorated. He died on the 4th day of hospitalization, and autopsy revealed features of multiorgan failure and extensive gastrointestinal hemorrhages. PMID:25098904

  17. Reperfusion Hemorrhage Following Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Michael; McSweeney, Sean [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland); Fulton, Gregory [Cork University Hospital, Department of Vascular Surgery (Ireland); Buckley, John; Maher, Michael, E-mail: m.maher@ucc.ie; Guiney, Michael [Cork University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2008-07-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  18. Lethal recurrent hemorrhages of a brainstem cavernoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandru Vlad Ciurea; Cristian Nastase; Alexandru Tascu; Felix Mircea Brehar

    2007-01-01

    Hemorrhages of brainstem cavernomas may cause severe neurological deficits. Surgical strategies are frequently described,\\u000a and advanced neuromonitoring with intraoperative imaging can help neurosurgeons to achieve good results. However, patients\\u000a are often confronted with significant therapeutic risks by the primary doctor before talking to an experienced brainstem neurosurgeon.\\u000a On the other hand, lethal progression with repeated hemorrhages is rarely described, although

  19. Pediatric brainstem hemorrhages after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Beier, Alexandra D; Dirks, Peter B

    2014-10-01

    Traumatic brain injuries afflict a large number of pediatric patients. The most severe injuries lead to increased intracranial pressure and herniation, with resultant changes in the brainstem. Traumatic brainstem hemorrhages have previously been associated with poor neurological outcome and fatality. However, this report discusses 2 pediatric patients who sustained severe head trauma with subsequent brainstem hemorrhages, and yet experienced good neurological outcome; the possible mechanism is described. PMID:25105513

  20. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from roller coaster.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming; Tian, Qing; Shen, Hong

    2011-03-01

    Roller coasters are probably one of the more popular rides at amusement parks around the world, and there are few reported injuries. We report a case of symmetric diffuse upper lobe hemorrhage resulting from roller coaster in a previously healthy woman. The clinical course, management, and etiology of her case are discussed; and the literature is reviewed. To our knowledge, pulmonary hemorrhage in this setting has not yet been described. PMID:20825914

  1. Delayed expulsive choroidal hemorrhage after penetrating keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Joag, Madhura G; Galor, Anat; Karp, Carol L

    2015-02-01

    The authors report a case of a late-onset spontaneous choroidal hemorrhage in a patient with a corneal transplant that resulted in rupture of the keratoplasty wound and expulsion of ocular contents. This case is important because it highlights the predisposing factors of a delayed-onset choroidal hemorrhage including anticoagulant therapy, advanced age, glaucoma, and hypertension. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015;46:289-292.]. PMID:25707062

  2. IMPAIRED BLOOD PRESSURE COMPENSATION FOLLOWING HEMORRHAGE IN CONSCIOUS OBESE ZUCKER RATS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Silu; Mittwede, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Hemorrhagic shock leads to a higher risk of mortality and morbidity in obese patients, however the mechanisms for these outcomes are unclear. We hypothesized that following severe hemorrhage, blood pressure control in conscious obese Zucker rats (OZ) is impaired. Main Methods Experiments were performed in conscious lean Zucker rats (LZ) and OZ. Blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and blood gases were measured before and after severe hemorrhage (35% of the total blood volume). Key Findings Basal blood pressure, cardiac output, TPR, PRA, and ADH levels were not different between LZ and OZ. Compared to LZ, OZ exhibited impaired baroreflex control of heart rate and showed higher levels of vascular adrenergic tone. One hour after the hemorrhage, LZ and OZ exhibited similar decreases in cardiac output. However, blood pressure, heart rate, TPR, PRA, and ADH levels were lower in OZ than in LZ. Significance These results indicate that conscious OZ has impaired blood pressure compensation after hemorrhage due to a blunted increase in TPR. This is due at least in part to an impaired regulation of vasoconstrictor hormones. To our knowledge, the current study is the first to demonstrate that hemodynamic responses and associated hormone secretion are impaired in a conscious obese model. PMID:23782999

  3. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in CADASIL

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a rare hereditary small vascular disease and its mainly clinical manifestations are ischemic events. Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) involvement in patients with CADASIL is extremely uncommon. Case report A 46-year-old normotensive Chinese man developed a large hematoma in the left basal ganglia after he was diagnosed with CADASIL 2 months ago, the patient did not take any antithrombotics. Susceptibility weighted imaging at pre-ICH showed multiple cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in the bilateral basal ganglia. He experienced migraine at about 10 months post-ICH. To our knowledge, this is the first report of ICH in CADASIL patients with Arg90Cys mutation in exon 3. Discussion and conclusions ICH should be considered when evaluating new attacks in CADASIL patients. Thus, MRI screening for CMBs might be helpful in predicting the risk of ICH and guiding antithrombotic therapy. In addition, strict control of hypertension and cautious use of antithrombotics may be important in this context. PMID:24344756

  4. Intraventricular hemorrhage is associated with early hydrocephalus, symptomatic vasospasm, and poor outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Thomas J; Stetler, William R; Davis, Matthew C; Giles, David A; Khan, Adam; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Gemmete, Joseph J; Xi, Guohua; Thompson, B Gregory; Pandey, Aditya S

    2015-03-01

    Objective?We hypothesized that the subset of patients with early hydrocephalus following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may represent a subset of patients with a more vehement inflammatory reaction to blood products in the subarachnoid space. We thus examined risk factors for early hydrocephalus and examined the relationship between early hydrocephalus and symptomatic vasospasm as well as clinical outcome. Methods?We retrospectively analyzed all patients presenting to our institution with subarachnoid hemorrhage over a 7-year period. We examined for risk factors, including early hydrocephalus, for poor clinical outcome and symptomatic vasospasm. Results?We found intraventricular hemorrhage to be strongly associated with the development of early hydrocephalus. In univariate analysis, early hydrocephalus was strongly associated with both poor functional outcome and symptomatic vasospasm. In multivariate analysis, intraventricular hemorrhage and tobacco use were associated with symptomatic vasospasm; intraventricular hemorrhage, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, and symptomatic vasospasm were associated with poor functional outcome. Conclusions?We found that intraventricular hemorrhage was strongly associated with early hydrocephalus. Further exploration of the mechanistic explanation is needed, but we suggest this may be from a combination of obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid pathways by blood products and inflammation in the choroid plexus resulting in increased cerebrospinal fluid production. Further, we suggest that both early hydrocephalus and cerebral vasospasm may be parts of the overall inflammatory cascade that occurs with intraventricular hemorrhage and ultimately results in a poorer clinical outcome. PMID:25545809

  5. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following ? knife radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Matthew D; Hetts, Steven W; Young, William L; Halbach, Van V; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; English, Joey D

    2012-09-01

    Hemorrhage represents the most feared complication of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in both untreated patients and those treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Radiosurgery does not immediately lead to obliteration of the malformation, which often does not occur until years following treatment. Post-obliteration hemorrhage is rare, occurring months to years after radiosurgery, and has been associated with residual or recurrent AVM despite prior apparent nidus elimination. Three cases are reported of delayed intracranial hemorrhage in patients with cerebral AVMs treated with radiosurgery in which no residual AVM was found on catheter angiography at the time of delayed post-treatment hemorrhage. That the pathophysiology of these hemorrhages involves progressive venous outflow occlusion is speculated and the possible mechanistic link to subsequent vascular rupture is discussed. PMID:21990534

  6. Gastric angiodysplasia in a hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 2 patient

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Minsu; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kwon, Kwang An; Hahm, Ki Baik; Kim, Mi-Jung; Kim, Dong Kyu; Lee, Young Jae; Oh, S Paul

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal-dominantly inherited disease that occurs in approximately one in 5000 to 8000 people. Clinical diagnosis of HHT is made when a person presents three of the following four criteria: family history, recurrent nosebleeds, mucocutaneous telangiectasis, and arteriovenous malformations (AVM) in the brain, lung, liver and gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Although epistaxis is the most common presenting symptom, AVMs affecting the lungs, brain and GI tract provoke a more serious outcome. Heterozygous mutations in endoglin, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1; ALK1), and SMAD4, the genes involved in the transforming growth factor-? family signaling cascade, cause HHT. We report here the case of a 63 year-old male patient who presented melena and GI bleeding episodes, proven to be caused by bleeding from multiple gastric angiodysplasia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed multiple angiodysplasia throughout the stomach. Endoscopic argon plasma coagulation was performed to control bleeding from a gastric angiodysplasia. The patient has been admitted several times with episodes of hemoptysis and hematochezia. One year ago, the patient was hospitalized due to right-sided weakness, which was caused by left basal ganglia hemorrhage as the part of HHT presentation. In family history, the patient’s mother and elder sister had died, due to intracranial hemorrhage, and his eldest son has been suffered from recurrent epistaxis for 20 years. A genetic study revealed a mutation in exon 3 of ALK1 (c.199C > T; p.Arg67Trp) in the proband and his eldest son presenting epistaxis. PMID:22553411

  7. Treatment of hemorrhagic gastritis by antacid.

    PubMed Central

    Simonian, S J; Curtis, L E

    1976-01-01

    A simple and safe method of nonsurgical treatment for the control of massive acute gastric mucosal hemorrhage is described. The procedure was developed from experimental and clinical observations that the presence of gastric hydrocloric acid played an important part in the development and perpetuation of the entity. The treatment consists of complete neutralization of gastric acid with antacid to a pH of 7. The antacid is intermittently added and aspirate at 7. In a retrospective analysis, the hemorrhage was controlled in 44 of 49 patients (89%). Five patients who continued to bleed underwent surgery (10%). Three patients had vagotomy and pyloroplasty and their bleeding ceased without recurrence. Two patients underwent partial gastrectomy, but they developed recurrent bleeding and died. One patient whose bleeding has been controlled by vagotomy and pyloroplasty died without hemorrhage 10 days after operation. Of the 44 patients whose bleeding had been controlled by antacid, 11 patients died without hemorrhage one or more weeks later. These results of 89% control of hemorrhage compare favorably with those in the literature. PMID:13746

  8. Intrathecal Urokinase as a Treatment for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Preterm Infant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger J. Hudgins; William R. Boydston; Patricia A. Hudgins; Robin Morris; Saul M. Adler; Carita Lynn Gilreath

    1997-01-01

    Despite improvements in the care of preterm infants, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) continue to be frequent occurrences in this patient population. Shunt procedures in these children are frequently complicated by obstruction and\\/or infection. As the hydrocephalus is usually caused by an obliterative arachnoiditis due to contact of the blood with the basilar meninges, it was postulated that

  9. Diffuse intrapulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis unrelated to anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody.

    PubMed

    Leatherman, J W; Sibley, R K; Davies, S F

    1982-03-01

    Nine patients with diffuse intrapulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis not due to anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody are described and similar previously reported cases are reviewed. Eight patients were seen during a four-year interval and represented 47 percent of the cases of pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis seen during this period. Diagnoses included systemic vasculitis of unspecified type in two patients with seropositive rhematoid arthritis, idiopathic crescentic glomerulonephritis with negative immunofluorescence in two, Wegener's granulomatosis in two, and polyarteritis nodosa, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and mixed connective tissue disease in one each. Differentiation from anti-GBM antibody-mediated pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis by clinical evaluation alone was frequently difficult, emphasizing the importance of both immunopathologic studies and evaluation of serum for anti-GBM antibody in all patients with pulmonary hemorrhage and glomerulonephritis. In eight of nine patients, significant episodes of pulmonary hemorrhage improved markedly within 24 to 72 hours following initiation of high-dose corticosteroid therapy. In contrast, renal function did not improve in the majority of patients. PMID:7058837

  10. Acute Abdominal Pain after Intercourse: Adrenal Hemorrhage as the First Sign of Metastatic Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Clifford D.

    2014-01-01

    Although the adrenal glands are a common site of cancer metastases, they are often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on CT scan or autopsy. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage associated with metastatic lung cancer is an exceedingly rare phenomenon, and diagnosis can be difficult due to its nonspecific symptoms and ability to mimic other intra-abdominal pathologies. We report a case of a 65-year-old man with a history of right upper lobectomy seven months earlier for stage IB non-small cell lung cancer who presented with acute abdominal pain after intercourse. CT scan revealed a new right adrenal mass with surrounding hemorrhage, and subsequent FDG-PET scan confirmed new metabolic adrenal metastases. The patient's presentation of abdominal pain and adrenal hemorrhage immediately after sexual intercourse suggests that exertion, straining, or increased intra-abdominal pressure might be risk factors for precipitation of hemorrhage in patients with adrenal metastases. Management includes pain control and supportive treatment in mild cases, with arterial embolization or adrenalectomy being reserved for cases of severe hemorrhage. PMID:25126096

  11. Syncope in a patient with spontaneous hemorrhage into a thyroid nodule

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, SB; Belice, T; Ogullar, S; Ayaz, T; Cure, E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous hemorrhage into a thyroid nodule occurs exceedingly rare and rarely a neck hematoma can develop. We report a case of syncope due to spontaneous hemorrhage into a thyroid nodule during anticoagulant and antithrombotic therapy. Case presentation: A 64-year-old man was transferred to the emergency department of our hospital because of syncope. His physical examination revealed a 7 x 5 cm hard and painless mass at the left neck region. The neck MRI confirmed a heterogeneous, hyperintense mass in the left lobe of thyroid compressing the trachea and left common carotid artery, internal jugular vein, and vagus nerve bundle. He did not require a surgery in the follow-up. As the hematoma underwent subtotal shrinkage, he remained well without syncope. Conclusion: Hemorrhage into a thyroid nodule should always be considered in patients presenting with neurally mediated syncope. PMID:25336885

  12. Radiation-Induced Spinal Cord Hemorrhage (Hematomyelia)

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam; Thamburaj, Krishnamurthy; Vijay, Kanupriya

    2014-01-01

    Intraspinal hemorrhage is very rare and intramedullary hemorrhage, also called hematomyelia, is the rarest form of intraspinal hemorrhage, usually related to trauma. Spinal vascular malformations such intradural arteriovenous malformations are the most common cause of atraumatic hematomyelia. Other considerations include warfarin or heparin anticoagulation, bleeding disorders, spinal cord tumors. Radiation-induced hematomyelia of the cord is exceedingly rare with only one case in literature to date. We report the case of an 8 year old girl with Ewing’s sarcoma of the thoracic vertebra, under radiation therapy, presenting with hematomyelia. We describe the clinical course, the findings on imaging studies and the available information in the literature. Recognition of the clinical pattern of spinal cord injury should lead clinicians to perform imaging studies to evaluate for compressive etiologies. PMID:25568739

  13. Butyrfentanyl overdose resulting in diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jon B; Dunbar, John F; McIntire, Sarah A; Regelmann, Warren E; Slusher, Tina M

    2015-03-01

    Butyrfentanyl is a potent short-acting opioid and a fentanyl analog with uncertain clinical effects. A review of the literature reveals no human case reports of butyrfentanyl overdose. As the use of analog and synthetic drugs continues to increase, clinicians are often faced with tremendous uncertainty when they encounter patients exposed to these synthetic drugs. We describe, to our knowledge, the first case of a butyrfentanyl overdose that resulted in clinically significant hemoptysis, acute lung injury, hypoxic respiratory failure, and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Complicating this case was a false-positive urine drug screen for fentanyl. Clinicians who encounter fentanyl exposures should be aware they may in fact be dealing with butyrfentanyl. As little is known of butyrfentanyl and our patient suffered a significant pulmonary hemorrhage, those who encounter butyrfentanyl exposures should monitor for hemorrhagic complications. PMID:25713275

  14. Duret hemorrhage: demonstration of ruptured paramedian pontine branches of the basilar artery on minimally invasive, whole body postmortem CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ka Lip; Baber, Yeliena; Iles, Linda; O'Donnell, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    A 25 year old male died suddenly and unexpectedly. Postmortem CT scanning revealed marked raised intracranial pressure with brainstem compression due to subarachnoid, subdural and parenchymal hemorrhage. A hyperdense mass at the termination of the right internal carotid artery was thought to represent an aneurysm. Postmortem, whole body CT angiography failed to fill the aneurysm but did demonstrate multiple central pontine linear enhancing structures in continuity with the mid basilar artery and small foci of contrast leak into the adjacent mid pontine parenchyma. Autopsy confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage, a thrombosed and ruptured proximal right middle cerebral artery aneurysm and Duret hemorrhages in the mid pons. This finding supports the theory that Duret hemorrhages occur as a result of perforating pontine branch of the basilar arterial rupture but does not exclude the contribution of venous congestion. PMID:22484970

  15. Hemorrhage-Adjusted Iron Requirements, Hematinics and Hepcidin Define Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia as a Model of Hemorrhagic Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Finnamore, Helen; Le Couteur, James; Hickson, Mary; Busbridge, Mark; Whelan, Kevin; Shovlin, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia remains a major global health problem. Higher iron demands provide the potential for a targeted preventative approach before anemia develops. The primary study objective was to develop and validate a metric that stratifies recommended dietary iron intake to compensate for patient-specific non-menstrual hemorrhagic losses. The secondary objective was to examine whether iron deficiency can be attributed to under-replacement of epistaxis (nosebleed) hemorrhagic iron losses in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Methodology/Principal Findings The hemorrhage adjusted iron requirement (HAIR) sums the recommended dietary allowance, and iron required to replace additional quantified hemorrhagic losses, based on the pre-menopausal increment to compensate for menstrual losses (formula provided). In a study population of 50 HHT patients completing concurrent dietary and nosebleed questionnaires, 43/50 (86%) met their recommended dietary allowance, but only 10/50 (20%) met their HAIR. Higher HAIR was a powerful predictor of lower hemoglobin (p?=?0.009), lower mean corpuscular hemoglobin content (p<0.001), lower log-transformed serum iron (p?=?0.009), and higher log-transformed red cell distribution width (p<0.001). There was no evidence of generalised abnormalities in iron handling Ferritin and ferritin2 explained 60% of the hepcidin variance (p<0.001), and the mean hepcidinferritin ratio was similar to reported controls. Iron supplement use increased the proportion of individuals meeting their HAIR, and blunted associations between HAIR and hematinic indices. Once adjusted for supplement use however, reciprocal relationships between HAIR and hemoglobin/serum iron persisted. Of 568 individuals using iron tablets, most reported problems completing the course. For patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, persistent anemia was reported three-times more frequently if iron tablets caused diarrhea or needed to be stopped. Conclusions/significance HAIR values, providing an indication of individuals’ iron requirements, may be a useful tool in prevention, assessment and management of iron deficiency. Iron deficiency in HHT can be explained by under-replacement of nosebleed hemorrhagic iron losses. PMID:24146883

  16. Hemorrhagic Diathesis as the Presenting Symptom of Neonatal Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Faverey, Liesbeth Claire

    2014-01-01

    A 4-week-old infant presented with a coagulation disorder resulting from a vitamin K deficiency. The vitamin K deficiency was caused by neonatal cholestasis due to biliary atresia. Jaundice, hepatomegaly and pale stools are the predominant presenting symptoms of biliary atresia, none of which were recognized in our patient before admission. However, the patient presented with bleeding caused by vitamin K deficiency. She was fully breastfed and had received adequate doses of vitamin K at birth and from the age of 1 week. In case of a hemorrhagic diathesis due to neonatal cholestasis, timely identification of treatable underlying disorders, in particular biliary atresia, is important because an early surgical intervention results in a better prognosis. Meticulous history taking and a thorough physical exam can be decisive for an early diagnosis and subsequent intervention. PMID:25349836

  17. Complications of Hemorrhagic Stroke in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin P. Humphreys

    1992-01-01

    The complications of hemorrhagic stroke in children begin first with one’s failure to establish the correct diagnosis or from the lack of knowledge of attendant phenomena and second, from those events which occur before, during or because of the treatment provided for specific lesions. The fundamental principles of history gathering, clinical evaluation and appropriate neuroimaging will direct safe, uncomplicated patient

  18. Vitreous Hemorrhage in Pediatric Age Group

    PubMed Central

    AlHarkan, Dora H.; Kahtani, Eman S.; Gikandi, Priscilla W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and study causes of vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in pediatric age group and to investigate factors predicting visual and anatomical outcomes. Procedure. A retrospective review of patients aged 16 years or less with the diagnosis of vitreous hemorrhage from January 2005 until December 2010. Results. A total number of 230 patients (240 eyes) were identified. Traumatic vitreous hemorrhage accounted for 82.5%. In cases of accidental trauma, final visual acuity of 20/200 was significantly associated with visual acuity of ?20/200 at presentation and the absence of retinal detachment at last follow-up. Patients with nontraumatic vitreous hemorrhage were significantly younger with higher rates of enucleation/evisceration/exenteration and retinal detachment at last follow-up compared to traumatic cases. Conclusion. Trauma is the most common cause of VH in pediatric age group. In this group, initial visual acuity was the most important predictor for visual outcome, and the presence of retinal detachment is a negative predictor for final good visual outcome. The outcome is significantly worse in nontraumatic cases compared to traumatic cases. PMID:25505975

  19. Intraplaque hemorrhage in cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    PubMed

    Castellani, C; Angelini, A; de Boer, O J; van der Loos, C M; Fedrigo, M; Frigo, A C; Meijer-Jorna, L B; Li, X; Ploegmakers, H J P; Tona, F; Feltrin, G; Gerosa, G; Valente, M; Thiene, G; van der Wal, A C

    2014-01-01

    Plaque hemorrhage, inflammation and microvessel density are key determinants of plaque vulnerability in native coronary atherosclerosis (ATS). This study investigates the role of intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and its relation with inflammation and microvessels in cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in posttransplanted patients. Seventy coronary plaques were obtained from 12 patients who died because of CAV. For each patient we collected both native heart and the allograft, at the time of transplantation and autopsy, respectively. Intralesion inflammation, microvessels and IPH were assessed semi-quantitatively. IPH was observed in 21/35 (60%) CAV lesions and in 8/35 (22.9%) native ATS plaques, with a strong association between fibrocellular lesions and IPH (p = 0.0142). Microvessels were detected in 26/35 (74.3%) of CAV lesions with perivascular leakage as sign of endothelial damage in 18/26 (69.2%). IPH was strongly associated with microvessels (p < 0.0001). Inflammation was present in 31/35 (88.6%) of CAV lesions. CAV IPH+ lesions were characterized by presence of both fresh and old hemorrhage in 12/21 (57.1%). IPH, associated with microvessel damage and inflammation, is an important feature of CAV. Fresh and old intralesion hemorrhage suggests ongoing remodeling processes promoting the lesion progression and vulnerability. PMID:24354875

  20. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pybus, Margo J; Ravi, Madhu; Pollock, Colleen

    2014-07-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) virus serotype 2 was identified by reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR in a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) found dead in southern Alberta in September 2013. Field observations indicate at least 50 deer, primarily white-tailed deer, and three pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) died during a suspected localized EHD outbreak. PMID:24807363

  1. The pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayato Takada; Yoshihiro Kawaoka

    2001-01-01

    Ebola virus causes lethal hemorrhagic disease in humans, yet there are still no satisfactory biological explanations to account for its extreme virulence. This review focuses on recent findings relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of Ebola virus infection and developing vaccines and effective therapy. The available data suggest that the envelope glycoprotein and the interaction of some viral proteins with the

  2. Cytomegalovirus-related hemorrhagic cystitis in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Taktak, Aysel; Acar, Banu; Gür, Gökçe; Tiryaki, Tu?rul; Karaku?, Esra; Çayc?, F ?emsa; Uncu, Nermin; Çakar, Nilgün

    2014-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are mostly seen in immunocompromised patients. However, unusual manifestations or complications of acquired CMV infections in immunocompetent patients are rarely reported. CMV-related hemorrhagic cystitis is extremely rare but should be considered even in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of a 3-year-old immunocompetent boy with intermittent, terminal gross hematuria lasting for 1 month. There was no history of genitourinary trauma or stone disease. Urine analysis revealed hematuria with eumorphic red blood cells and no proteinuria. Urine culture was negative. Ultrasonography showed increased bladder wall thickness and irregularity at inferior of bladder. Cystoscopy revealed hyperemia and edema. Histopathological examination was consistent with CMV infection, viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction in peripheral blood and urine were positive. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features pointed towards hemorrhagic cystitis due to CMV. He was followed-up with no treatment. After 1 month, repeated investigations showed complete resolution of finding. This is a rare description of an immunocompetent child with CMV-induced cystitis. PMID:24932852

  3. A Case of Childhood Vitrectomy Performed for Dense Vitreous Hemorrhage Secondary to Leukemia Therapy and Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Takashi; Suzuki, Yukihiko; Metoki, Tomomi; Nakazawa, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of vitrectomy performed in a child with dense massive vitreous hemorrhage due to secondary acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and tumor lysis syndrome. Case A 4-year-old boy with clear-cell renal cell carcinoma was successfully treated with chemotherapy in 2011. However, in May 2012, he developed secondary AML. Although he was treated with combined chemotherapy and radiation, tumor lysis syndrome occurred with renal and heart failure complications. After an ultrasound examination by pediatricians found bilateral subretinal protrusions, he was referred to our clinic. Fundus examinations confirmed that the protrusions were bilateral subretinal or choroidal hemorrhages. A few weeks later, dense vitreous hemorrhages occurred bilaterally, and he completely lost vision in both eyes. Electroretinograms were extinguished in both eyes. After improvement of his general condition, we performed a 25-gauge vitrectomy combined with lens extraction in his left eye in December 2012. After removal of the vitreous hemorrhage, we found the subretinal hemorrhage had already been absorbed, leaving a mottled fundus color. However, the optic disc was not pale. Nine months after the surgery, his best-corrected visual acuity finally improved to 0.1. Conclusion We successfully treated a case of severe vitreous hemorrhage secondary to leukemia therapy and tumor lysis syndrome using 25-gauge vitrectomy. This procedure may be safe and effective to perform, even in children with complications.

  4. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Patients and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Results: Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. Conclusions: BSCTA is easily accessible, less time consuming, and most importantly, a non-invasive technique for detecting intracranial aneurysms. It is also suitable for patients who have been referred to emergency services. Therefore, it can be used in emergency conditions and as a first-line diagnostic method in patients with non-traumatic SAH. PMID:25035697

  5. Tranexamic acid for trauma-related hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Abby M; Baker, Stephanie N; Weant, Kyle A

    2014-01-01

    Trauma-related deaths represent a leading cause of mortality among persons younger than 45 years. A significant percentage of these are secondary to hemorrhage. In trauma, massive and rapid loss of blood creates an imbalance in hemostasis. Mainstays of resuscitation include surgical interventions, restoring intravascular volume, and pharmacologic interventions. Providers continue to search for improved pharmacologic options for achieving hemostasis. Tranexamic acid is an antifibrinolytic and inhibits fibrinolysis by blocking the lysine-binding sites on plasminogen. Tranexamic acid works to stabilize and inhibit the degradation of existing clots. Tranexamic acid has been prospectively proven to reduce mortality in trauma-related hemorrhage. Its use will likely expand into such areas as resuscitation and massive transfusion protocols and the prehospital setting. Therefore, it is critical for emergency medicine providers to be familiar with appropriate use of tranexamic acid in order to maximize efficacy and decrease the potential adverse events. PMID:24785665

  6. Infection Control During Filoviral Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Vanessa, N Raabe; Matthias, Borchert

    2012-01-01

    Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website. PMID:22529631

  7. Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage: clues to the diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Lichtenberger, John P; Digumarthy, Subba R; Abbott, Gerald F; Shepard, Jo-Anne O; Sharma, Amita

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage (DPH) refers to an uncommon but significant condition of bleeding into the alveolar space. Anemia and hemoptysis are important clinical features, but they may be absent. Although the radiographic and computed tomography findings are often varied and nonspecific, the imaging manifestations of pulmonary hemorrhage and the associated findings in the thorax often provide important diagnostic information that may lead to a specific diagnosis. DPH significantly influences patient management and has important prognostic implications. This review article explores the imaging findings in DPH and its differential diagnosis, highlighting important clues to this diagnosis and to its underlying etiology. DPH is an uncommon condition characterized by bleeding into the alveolar space that, when recognized on imaging, provides important diagnostic and prognostic information. PMID:24791616

  8. Diagnostics and Discovery in Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    PubMed Central

    Lipkin, W. Ian; Palacios, Gustavo; Briese, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The rate of discovery of new microbes and of new associations of microbes with health and disease is accelerating. Many factors contribute to this phenomenon including those that favor the true emergence of new pathogens as well as new technologies and paradigms that enable their detection and characterization. This chapter reviews recent progress in the field of pathogen surveillance and discovery with a focus on viral hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:19751404

  9. Prophylaxis for stress-related gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamir Ben-Menachem; Robert S. Bresalier

    1999-01-01

    Opinion statement  The incidence of clinically important stress-related gastrointestinal hemorrhage (SRGIH) has decreased without the use of\\u000a prophylaxis. This decline is probably attributable to improved care in the modern intensive care unit: aggressive correction\\u000a of hypovolemia, adequate respiratory support, maintenance of tissue perfusion, and improved nutritional support. The majority\\u000a of patients admitted to intensive care units are not at risk of

  10. Advances in fluid resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Lorraine N.; Rizoli, Sandro B.; Brenneman, Frederick D.

    2001-01-01

    The optimal fluid for resuscitation in hemorrhagic shock would combine the volume expansion and oxygen-carrying capacity of blood without the need for cross-matching or the risk of disease transmission. Although the ideal fluid has yet to be discovered, current options are discussed in this review, including crystalloids, colloids, blood and blood substitutes. The future role of blood substitutes is not yet defined, but the potential advantages in trauma or elective surgery may prove to be enormous. PMID:11407826

  11. Subperiosteal Orbital Hemorrhage Complicating Cardiac Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, Marc C.; Bhatti, M. Tariq [University of Florida College of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology (United States)], E-mail: tbhatti@eyel.eye.ufl.edu

    2004-09-15

    Subperiosteal orbital hemorrhage (SPOH) following cardiac surgery has not been previously reported. We present a patient who developed diplopia and right eye proptosis immediately after cardiac surgery for a mitral valve repair and coronary artery bypass graft. A computed tomography (CT) study demonstrated a right superior SPOH. The diplopia and proptosis resolved spontaneously within 4 weeks. Follow-up CT showed complete resolution of the SPOH.

  12. Vaccines for viral hemorrhagic fevers--progress and shortcomings.

    PubMed

    Falzarano, Darryl; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-06-01

    With a few exceptions, vaccines for viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever remain unavailable or lack well-documented efficacy. In the past decade this has not been due to a lack of the ability to develop vaccine platforms against highly pathogenic viruses, but rather the lack of will/interest to invest in platforms that have the potential to become successful vaccines. The two exceptions to this are vaccines against Dengue virus (DENV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which recently have seen significant progress in putting forward new and improved vaccines, respectively. Experimental vaccines for filoviruses and Lassa virus (LASV) do exist but are hindered by a lack of financial interest and only partially or ill-defined correlates/mechanisms of protection that could be assessed in clinical trials. PMID:23773330

  13. Vaccines for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers – Progress and Shortcomings

    PubMed Central

    Falzarano, Darryl; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    With a few exceptions, vaccines for viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever remain unavailable or lack well-documented efficacy. In the past decade this has not been due to a lack of the ability to develop vaccine platforms against highly pathogenic viruses, but rather the lack of will/interest to invest in platforms that have the potential to become successful vaccines. The two exceptions to this are vaccines against Dengue virus and Rift Valley Fever virus, which recently have seen significant progress in putting forward new and improved vaccines, respectively. Experimental vaccines for filoviruses and Lassa virus do exist but are hindered by a lack of financial interest and only partially or ill-defined correlates/mechanisms of protection that could be assessed in clinical trials. PMID:23773330

  14. Animal Models of Tick-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zivcec, Marko; Safronetz, David; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses (TBHFV) are detected throughout the African and Eurasian continents and are an emerging or re-emerging threat to many nations. Due to the largely sporadic incidences of these severe diseases, information on human cases and research activities in general have been limited. In the past decade, however, novel TBHFVs have emerged and areas of endemicity have expanded. Therefore, the development of countermeasures is of utmost importance in combating TBHFV as elimination of vectors and interrupting enzootic cycles is all but impossible and ecologically questionable. As in vivo models are the only way to test efficacy and safety of countermeasures, understanding of the available animal models and the development and refinement of animal models is critical in negating the detrimental impact of TBHFVs on public and animal health. PMID:25437041

  15. Uterine Balloon Tamponade in Combination with Topical Administration of Tranexamic Acid for Management of Postpartum Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kinugasa, Masato; Tamai, Hanako; Miyake, Mayu; Shimizu, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    While uterine balloon tamponade is an effective modality for control of postpartum hemorrhage, the reported success rates have ranged from the level of 60% to the level of 80%. In unsuccessful cases, more invasive interventions are needed, including hysterectomy as a last resort. We developed a modified tamponade method and applied it to two cases of refractory postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery. The first case was accompanied by uterine myoma and low-lying placenta. After an induced delivery, the patient had excessive hemorrhage due to uterine atony. Despite oxytocin infusion and bimanual uterine compression, the total blood loss was estimated at 2,800?mL or more. The second case was diagnosed as placental abruption complicated by fetal death and severe disseminated intravascular coagulation, subsequently. A profuse hemorrhage continued despite administration of uterotonics, fluid, and blood transfusion. The total blood loss was more than 5,000?mL. In each case, an intrauterine balloon catheter was wrapped in gauze impregnated with tranexamic acid, inserted into the uterus, and inflated sufficiently with sterile water. In this way, mechanical compression by a balloon and a topical antifibrinolytic agent were combined together. This method brought complete hemostasis and no further treatments were needed. Both the women left hospital in stable condition.

  16. Excessive vascular sprouting underlies cerebral hemorrhage in mice lacking ?V?8-TGF? signaling in the brain.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Thomas D; Niaudet, Colin; Pang, Mei-Fong; Siegenthaler, Julie; Gaengel, Konstantin; Jung, Bongnam; Ferrero, Gina M; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke; Fuxe, Jonas; Akhurst, Rosemary; Betsholtz, Christer; Sheppard, Dean; Reichardt, Louis F

    2014-12-01

    Vascular development of the central nervous system and blood-brain barrier (BBB) induction are closely linked processes. The role of factors that promote endothelial sprouting and vascular leak, such as vascular endothelial growth factor A, are well described, but the factors that suppress angiogenic sprouting and their impact on the BBB are poorly understood. Here, we show that integrin ?V?8 activates angiosuppressive TGF? gradients in the brain, which inhibit endothelial cell sprouting. Loss of ?V?8 in the brain or downstream TGF?1-TGFBR2-ALK5-Smad3 signaling in endothelial cells increases vascular sprouting, branching and proliferation, leading to vascular dysplasia and hemorrhage. Importantly, BBB function in Itgb8 mutants is intact during early stages of vascular dysgenesis before hemorrhage. By contrast, Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice, which exhibit severe BBB disruption and vascular leak due to pericyte deficiency, have comparatively normal vascular morphogenesis and do not exhibit brain hemorrhage. Our data therefore suggest that abnormal vascular sprouting and patterning, not BBB dysfunction, underlie developmental cerebral hemorrhage. PMID:25406396

  17. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in the African-American population: a cooperative study.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, G. C.; Welch, B.; Cole, A. N.; Mendoza, R.; Morgan, J.; Epps, J.; Bernard, E.; St Louis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical outcome of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage is complicated by delayed cerebral ischemia and contributing factors such as hypertension. To observe the impact of hypertension and delayed cerebral ischemia on the outcome of a predominantly African-American cohort following subarachnoid hemorrhage, both retrospective (n = 42) and prospective (n = 21) studies were conducted. In the total pool (n = 63), the mean age was 49.7 years (range: 17 to 80) with a preponderance of female patients (70%). Aneurysm formation was significant in the region of the posterior communicating artery. Of the patients reviewed, 73.8% had preexisting hypertension and 45.9% developed delayed cerebral ischemia. Approximately 89% of the patients who suffered from delayed cerebral ischemia had hypertension. Results failed to display any significant beneficial association between the use of the calcium channel blocker nimodipine and delayed cerebral ischemia. Use of the antifibrinolytic drug aminocaproic acid demonstrated a worse patient outcome. It is not recommended that aminocaproic acid be used in this population. Subsequently, due to the proportional occurrence of delayed cerebral ischemia in hypertensive patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage, it is suggested that prophylactic surgical management of unruptured intracranial aneurysms be considered in hypertensive patients. Further study is needed to discern the association between hypertension, delayed cerebral ischemia, and stroke in patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage. PMID:9046763

  18. Management of Macular Pre-Retinal Subhyaloid hemorrhage by Nd:Yag laser hyaloidotomy

    PubMed Central

    Murtaza, Faisal; Rizvi, Syed Fawad; Bokhari, Syeda Aisha; Kamil, Zeeshan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy, visual outcome and complication following Nd:Yag laser hyaloidtomy for subhyaloid hemorrhage. Methods: This interventional case series was managed at LRBT, Free Base Eye Hospital Karachi from January 2010 to December 2010. It included 30 eyes of 30 patients with subhyaloid hemorrhage due to different causes which underwent Nd: Yag laser sublyaloidotomy Results: Out of thirty patients, eighteen (60%) were male and twelve (40%) were females. Mean age was 32.57 years. Males pre-dominated the study. Pre laser visual acuity was between counting finger at one meter in 22 patients (73.33%) and between counting finger one meter to hand movement in 8 patients (26.66%). Vision improved to 6/6 in 10 patients (33%), 6/9 – 6/12 in 17 patients (56.66%) and between 6/24 – 6/60 in 3 patients (9.99%) at the end of follow up. Complications were persistent vitreous hemorrhage in one (3.33%) patient, failed drainage in one (3.33%) patient and metamorphopsia in one (3.33%) patient. Conclusion: Nd: Yag laser hyloidotomy is an excellent technique for management of Subhyaloid hemorrhage with early visual recovery provided there is no macular pathology. PMID:24772139

  19. [Hemorrhage from the ORL area].

    PubMed

    Baerthold, W

    1995-12-01

    Bleeding in the ENT area necessitates fast action to recognize and to stop the bleeding as well as to avert upcoming dangers. Prerequisite for a diagnostic is a good source of light via the reflector or the endoscope. During bleeding from wounds in the ears, nose, and throat, additional sources of bleeding from the mentioned cavities have to be excluded. Beside a traumatic caused bleeding, this finding may also be due to tumors and infections. An admixture of liquor can be seen during bleeding from head injury. Bleeding from the nose is located in 80% of the cases in the frontal part of the nose (locus Kiesselbache). A submucosal hematoma on the pharyngeal fornix and back wall, respectively, points to a fracture of the sphenoid or ethmoid bone. A blue-red colored tonsil with a fresh bleeding from mucosal chaps is seen as a warning indication of a tonsillogenic arrosion bleeding. Bleeding from the hypopharynx and the larynx necessitate the endotracheal intubation. Bleeding from the ear do not have to lead to rushed actions. PMID:8571625

  20. Hemorrhagic choroidal detachment after use of anti-glaucomatous eye drops: case report.

    PubMed

    Coban, Deniz Turgut; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Yucel, Ozgur

    2013-10-01

    Eighty-two-year-old patient with a pacemaker using warfarin due to arrhythmia and having an intraocular lens in the right eye, developed spontaneous hemorrhagic choroidal detachment one day after the use of combined preparation of 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.004% travoprost, due to primary open-angle glaucoma. Hemorrhagic detachment was detected by anterior and posterior segment examination, as well as B-scan ultrasonography. After the detachment, excessive increased intraocular pressure was controlled with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, cycloplegic and steroid therapy. After four months, visual acuity was 20/20 and the intraocular pressure was under control with 0.5% timolol maleate and 1% brinzolamide. Controlled reduction of the intraocular pressure should be considered, particularly in older patients under anticoagulant therapy and that had undergone prior ocular surgery. PMID:24232947

  1. Laboratory Diagnosis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hervé Zeller

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) can induce in humans a severe multisystem syndrome associated with fever, shock,\\u000a and hemorrhages. In absence of specific clinical symptoms, physicians need a rapid and reliable diagnosis to reinforce the\\u000a measures of safety (barrier nursing), and possibly to initiate quickly a suitable antiviral treatment. Equally, a differential\\u000a diagnosis with other agents responsible of hemorrhagic fevers

  2. Recurrent hemorrhage from corpus luteum during anticoagulant therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K. P.; Gillett, P. G.

    1977-01-01

    A 43-year old woman had recurrent massive intraperitoneal hemorrhage from rupture of a hemorrhagic corpus luteum in two successive menstrual cycles while receiving anticoagulant therapy. Left oophorectomy was performed on the first occasion and right salpingo-oophorectomy with left salpingectomy on the second. While the precise incidence cannot be determined, rupture from a hemorrhagic corpus luteum appears to be a rare but potentially catastrophic complication of anticoagulant therapy. Hence possible ovarian hemorrhage should be considered in women of reproductive age receiving heparin or sodium warfarin therapy. PMID:844024

  3. Effects of statin and deferoxamine administration on neurological outcomes in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyoung-Joon Chun; Dong Won Kim; Hyeong-Joong Yi; Young Soo Kim; Eun Hyun Kim; Se Jin Hwang; Cheol-Su Jwa; Yoon Kyoung Lee; Hyunchul Ryou

    Deferoxamine (DFX), a potent iron-chelating agent, reduces brain edema and neuronal cell injury that develop due to the hemolysis\\u000a cascade. Statins have neuroprotective effects via anti-inflammatory action and increment of cerebral blood flow after intracerebral\\u000a hemorrhage (ICH). The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of combined DFX and statins treatment in an experimental\\u000a ICH rat model. The

  4. DD genotype of ACE gene is a risk factor for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Slowik, A; Turaj, W; Dziedzic, T; Haefele, A; Pera, J; Malecki, M T; Glodzik-Sobanska, L; Szermer, P; Figlewicz, D A; Szczudlik, A

    2004-07-27

    Genetic factors may play a role in susceptibility to stroke. The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene is a candidate gene for two phenotypically different types of stroke affecting small perforating arteries: spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SIH) and ischemic stroke due to small vessel disease (SVD). The authors report evidence that ACE gene DD homozygosity of the I/D polymorphism in intron 16 is an independent risk factor for SIH, and not for SVD stroke, in a Polish population. PMID:15277638

  5. Holmes' Tremor Associated with Bilateral Hypertrophic Olivary Degeneration Following Brain Stem Hemorrhage: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyu; Park, Se-Hyuck; Yoon, Dae Young

    2014-01-01

    Holmes' tremor is a condition characterized by a mixture of postural, rest, and action tremors due to midbrain lesions in the vicinity of the red nucleus. Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare type of neuronal degeneration involving the dento-rubro-olivary pathway and may present clinically as Holmes tremor. We report on a 59-year-old female patient who developed Holmes tremor in association with bilateral HOD, following brain stem hemorrhage. PMID:25340035

  6. Centrally injected histamine increases posterior hypothalamic acetylcholine release in hemorrhage-hypotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Altinbas, Burcin; Yilmaz, Mustafa S; Savci, Vahide; Jochem, Jerzy; Yalcin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Histamine, acting centrally as a neurotransmitter, evokes a reversal of hemorrhagic hypotension in rats due to the activation of the sympathetic and the renin-angiotensin systems as well as the release of arginine vasopressin and proopiomelanocortin-derived peptides. We demonstrated previously that central nicotinic cholinergic receptors are involved in the pressor effect of histamine. The aim of the present study was to examine influences of centrally administrated histamine on acetylcholine (ACh) release at the posterior hypothalamus-a region characterized by location of histaminergic and cholinergic neurons involved in the regulation of the sympathetic activity in the cardiovascular system-in hemorrhage-hypotensive anesthetized rats. Hemodynamic and microdialysis studies were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats. Hemorrhagic hypotension was induced by withdrawal of a volume of 1.5 ml blood/100 g body weight over a period of 10 min. Acute hemorrhage led to a severe and long-lasting decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and an increase in extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and choline (Ch) levels by 56% and 59%, respectively. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered histamine (50, 100, and 200 nmol) dose- and time-dependently increased MAP and HR and caused an additional rise in extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and Ch levels at the most by 102%, as compared to the control saline-treated group. Histamine H1 receptor antagonist chlorpheniramine (50 nmol; i.c.v.) completely blocked histamine-evoked hemodynamic and extracellular posterior hypothalamic ACh and Ch changes, whereas H2 and H3/H4 receptor blockers ranitidine (50 nmol; i.c.v.) and thioperamide (50 nmol; i.c.v.) had no effect. In conclusion, centrally administered histamine, acting via H1 receptors, increases ACh release at the posterior hypothalamus and causes a pressor and tachycardic response in hemorrhage-hypotensive anesthetized rats. PMID:25468497

  7. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 1 (2002) 191199 Natural nidality in Bolivian hemorrhagic fever and the systematics

    E-print Network

    Infection, Genetics and Evolution 1 (2002) 191­199 Natural nidality in Bolivian hemorrhagic fever hemorrhagic fever (BHF), a disease endemic to northeastern Bolivia. The etiological agent is Machupo virus; Bolivian hemorrhagic fever; Systematics; Infection; Bolivia; Beni; Arenaviridae 1. Introduction

  8. Distribution of an Invasive Aquatic Pathogen (Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus) in the Great Lakes and Its Relationship to Shipping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark B. Bain; Emily R. Cornwell; Kristine M. Hope; Geofrey E. Eckerlin; Rufina N. Casey; Geoffrey H. Groocock; Rodman G. Getchell; Paul R. Bowser; James R. Winton; William N. Batts; Allegra Cangelosi; James W. Casey; Justin Brown

    2010-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus found in fish from oceans of the northern hemisphere and freshwaters of Europe. It has caused extensive losses of cultured and wild fish and has become established in the North American Great Lakes. Large die-offs of wild fish in the Great Lakes due to VHSV have alarmed the public and provoked government

  9. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus in captive bison, elk, white-tailed deer, cattle, and goats from Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A captive wildlife research facility in Fort Collins, Colorado experienced mortality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) due to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) infection in late summer and early fall of 2007. RNA from EHDV was amplified by RT-PCR from the spleen and lung tissue...

  10. Clinical syndromes and management of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sang-Bae; Choi, H Alex; Lee, Kiwon

    2012-08-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating disease with high morbidity and mortality. Acutely, ICH is associated with a sudden surge in intracranial pressure (ICP), as the volume of hematoma increases the pressure in the closed head, leading to non-specific symptoms of ICP: headache, nausea, vomiting, and alterations in consciousness. In the early phase, damage to the brain tissues surrounding the hematoma causes progression of neurologic symptoms. Expansion of supratentorial ICHs may result in transtentorial herniation, causing mental status deterioration and loss of pupillary light reflex. Compared to ischemic stroke, seizure is more common in ICH. PMID:22538430

  11. Brain monitoring after subarachnoid hemorrhage: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Spiotta, Alejandro M; Provencio, J Javier; Rasmussen, Peter A; Manno, Edward

    2011-10-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious condition with a high morbidity and mortality rate despite advances in neurocritical care. Intraparenchymal monitors providing continuous bedside physiological data have been introduced into the care of the neurocritically ill and are the focus of clinical research. We review the available technology for bedside brain monitoring and the knowledge that has been gathered and its clinical utility by organizing it into 3 main areas: detecting vasospasm early, establishing end points to resuscitation in the management of cerebral vasospasm, and developing insights into the pathophysiology of the disease. Finally, we discuss its implications for the field and future directions. PMID:21508881

  12. Toward a vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Barrera Oro, J G; McKee, K T

    1991-01-01

    A vaccine against Argentine hemorrhagic fever, the "mal de los rastrojos" of the pampas, has been a dream of physicians and scientists involved with the disease since its recognition in the 1950s. Several killed and live immunogens have been produced and tested in pursuit of this goal, none of which has proved suitable for widespread human use. Recently, a new live-attenuated Junin virus vaccine, Candid #1, was developed through a cooperative international effort. Testing conducted to date indicates that this vaccine holds considerable promise. PMID:1654168

  13. Hemorrhage Near Fetal Rat Bone: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, Timothy A.; Miller, Rita J.; Blue, James P.; O'Brien, William D.

    2006-05-01

    High-intensity ultrasound has shown potential in treating many ailments requiring noninvasive tissue necrosis. However, little work has been done on using ultrasound to ablate pathologies on or near the developing fetus. For example, Congenital Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation (cyst on lungs), Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (benign tumor on tail bone), and Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (one twin pumps blood to other twin) are selected problems that will potentially benefit from noninvasive ultrasound treatments. Before these applications can be explored, potential ultrasound-induced bioeffects should be understood. Specifically, ultrasound-induced hemorrhage near the fetal rat skull was investigated. An f/1 spherically focused transducer (5.1-cm focal length) was used to expose the skull of 18- to 19-day-gestation exteriorized rat fetuses. The ultrasound pulse had a center frequency of 0.92 MHz and pulse duration of 9.6 ?s. The fetuses were exposed to 1 of 4 exposure conditions (denoted A, B, C, and D) in addition to a sham exposure. Three of the exposures consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 10 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 6.7 MPa, and pulse repetition frequencies of 100 Hz (A), 250 Hz (B), and 500 Hz (C), corresponding to time-average intensities of 1.9 W/cm2, 4.7 W/cm2, and 9.4 W/cm2, respectively. Exposure D consisted of a peak compressional pressure of 6.7 MPa, a peak rarefactional pressure of 5.0 MPa, and a PRF of 500 Hz corresponding to a time-average intensity of 4.6 W/cm2. Hemorrhage occurrence increased slightly with increasing time-average intensity (i.e., 11% for A, 28% for B, 31% for C, and 19% for D with a 9% occurrence when the fetuses were not exposed). The low overall occurrence of hemorrhaging may be attributed to fetal motion (observed in over half of the fetuses from the backscattered echo during the exposure). The mean hemorrhage sizes were 3.1 mm2 for A, 2.5 mm2 for B, 2.7 mm2 for C, and 5.1 mm2 for D. The larger lesions at D may be related to these fetuses moving less as only 40% of the fetuses were observed moving for this exposure condition.

  14. CT of extracranial hemorrhage and hematomas

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, S.J.; McLeod, R.A.; Stephens, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    Computed tomography was used to examine 100 patients with extracranial hemorrhage. Of these patients, 29 had serial scans that allowed for the study of evolutionary changes. Operation, anticoagulation, and trauma were the prime etiological factors. The most frequent sites included the retroperitoneum (27%), body wall or extremities (24%), peritoneal cavity (19%), and subcapsular (16%) and intraparenchymal (7%) locations. The computed tomographic features were carefully studied and documented. Age-related features included contrast-material extravasation, inhomogeneity, hematocrit effect, attenuation changes, lucent halo, pseudocapsule development, decreased size with time, peripheral calcification, and fascial plane thickening. This report discussed all these findings and their usefulness in diagnosis and patient care.

  15. Recombinant Activated Factor VII for Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan A. Mayer; Nikolai C. Brun; Kamilla Begtrup; Joseph Broderick; Stephen Davis; Michael N. Diringer; Brett E. Skolnick; Thorsten Steiner

    2005-01-01

    background Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke and is associated with high mortality. Among patients who undergo computed tomography (CT) within three hours after the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage, one third have an increase in the vol- ume of the hematoma related to subsequent bleeding. We sought to determine wheth- er recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) can

  16. Endovascular Therapies for Primary Postpartum Hemorrhage: Techniques and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Matthew G.; Smith, Mitchell T.

    2013-01-01

    Interventional radiologists are often consulted for acute management of hemorrhagic complications in obstetric and gynecologic patients. The aim of this article is to review the common indications for vascular embolization in obstetric and gynecologic emergencies, specifically in the setting of primary postpartum hemorrhage, and to discuss the technique and outcomes of endovascular treatment. PMID:24436559

  17. Will HITECH Heal Patient Data Hemorrhages? M. Eric Johnson

    E-print Network

    Will HITECH Heal Patient Data Hemorrhages? M. Eric Johnson Center for Digital Strategies Tuck Strategies Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth Abstract Hemorrhages of confidential patient health data create privacy and security concerns. While the US HIPAA legislation on privacy and security went

  18. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting as subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey P. Kanne; Lee B. Talner

    2004-01-01

    Intracranial aneurysms occur in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) approximately five times more often than in the general population, and in the same patient group, subarachnoid hemorrhage from rupture of aneurysms occurs about a decade earlier than in the general population. We present a case of unsuspected ADPKD presenting as spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured intracranial

  19. Ebola and Marburg Hemorrhagic Fevers: Neglected Tropical Diseases?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam MacNeil; Pierre E. Rollin

    2012-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) and Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) are rare viral diseases, endemic to central Africa. The overall burden of EHF and MHF is small in comparison to the more common protozoan, helminth, and bacterial diseases typically referred to as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). However, EHF and MHF outbreaks typically occur in resource-limited settings, and many aspects of these

  20. Heme and Iron Metabolism: Role in Cerebral Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth R. Wagner; Frank R. Sharp; Timothy D. Ardizzone; Aigang Lu; Joseph F. Clark

    2003-01-01

    Heme and iron metabolism are of considerable interest and importance in normal brain function as well as in neurodegeneration and neuropathologically following traumatic injury and hemorrhagic stroke. After a cerebral hemorrhage, large numbers of hemoglobin-containing red blood cells are released into the brain's parenchyma and\\/or subarachnoid space. After hemolysis and the subsequent release of heme from hemoglobin, several pathways are

  1. Hemorrhagic enteritis in captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Franson, J.C.; Graham, D.L.; Domermuth, C.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Pattee, O.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemorrhagic enteritis and hepatitis of suspected adenovirus etiology were the apparent cause of death of nine captive American kestrels. Cloacal hemorrhage was the only prominent gross lesion: disseminated hepatocellular necrosis, and intranuclear inclusion bodies were evident microscopically. Electron microscopy revealed numerous adenovirus-like particles associated with the hepatic lesions. Attempts to serologically identify the agent were unsuccessful.

  2. Variant Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus in Young Rabbits, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Kevin P.; Nicieza, Inés; Balseiro, Ana; Muguerza, María A.; Rosell, Joan M.; Casais, Rosa; Álvarez, Ángel L.

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of rabbit hemorrhagic disease have occurred recently in young rabbits on farms on the Iberian Peninsula where rabbits were previously vaccinated. Investigation identified a rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus variant genetically related to apathogenic rabbit caliciviruses. Improved antivirus strategies are needed to slow the spread of this pathogen. PMID:23171812

  3. Possibilistic Hopfield Neural Network on CT Brain Hemorrhage Image Segmentation

    E-print Network

    Possibilistic Hopfield Neural Network on CT Brain Hemorrhage Image Segmentation Da­chuan Cheng hemorrhage image segmentation based on a series of CT images. The neural network structure has been, a possibilistic Hopfield neural network (PHNN) has been proposed for clustering and subsequently applied to brain

  4. [Hemostatic therapy of dysfunctional uterine hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Lekomtsev, S P

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of hemostatic therapy in connection with the functional condition of the hypophysis is studied. The study included 92 women in their pubertal, reproductive, and climacteric years. Dysfunctional uterine hemorrhage in these patients was treated by various methods of hemostatic therapy. Radioimmunological determinations of gonadotrophic hormones in peripheral blood were performed to monitor the functional condition of the hypophysis during the hemorrhage phase and hemostatic therapy. The statistically processed data prove that hemostasis with symptomatic preparations is significantly less effective than synthetic progestins and hormonal methods, especially with the combined use of sex hormones. Hemostatic therapy with estrogenic hormones causes pronounced changes in the functional condition of the hypophysis, i.e., inhibition of folliculostimulatory activity. Hemostasis with booster doses of Non-ovlon had the strongest impact on the gonadotrophic function of the hypophysis. Combined use of sex hormones inhibits not only the folliculostimulatory function of the hypophysis, but also its luteinizing function. Comparative analysis of clinical effectiveness data for various treatment methods suggests that higher hemostatic effects are accompanied by significant inhibition of the gonadotrophic activity of the hypophysis. PMID:2418511

  5. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after cervical spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Wu, Jau-Ching; Cheng, Henrich; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Cheng

    2013-10-01

    Remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) is an unpredictable and rare complication of spinal surgery. We report five cases of RCH following cervical spinal surgery, and summarize another seven similar cases from the literature. Dural opening with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypovolemia seems to be an important factor contributing to RCH following cervical spinal surgery. As other authors have proposed, surgical positioning may be another factor contributing to RCH. RCH is thought to be hemorrhagic venous infarction, resulting from the stretching occlusion of the superior cerebellar vein by the cerebellar sag effect. Either intraoperative CSF loss or a postoperative CSF leak from drainage may cause cerebellar sag, further resulting in RCH. RCH is usually self-limiting, and most patients with RCH have an optimal outcome after conservative treatment. Severe cases that involved surgical intervention because of evidence of brainstem compression or hydrocephalus also had acceptable outcomes, compared to spontaneous CH. It has been suggested that one way to prevent RCH is to avoid extensive perioperative loss of CSF, by paying attention to surgical positioning during spinal surgery. We also underline the importance of early diagnosis and CSF expansion in the early treatment of RCH. PMID:23746536

  6. Treatment of Intracranial Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Andrew M.; Rasmussen, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Vasospasm has been a long known source of delayed morbidity and mortality in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Delayed ischemic neurologic deficits associated with vasospasm may account for as high as 50% of the deaths in patients who survive the initial period after aneurysm rupture and its treatment. The diagnosis and treatment of vasospasm has still been met with some controversy. It is clear that subarachnoid hemorrhage is best cared for in tertiary care centers with modern resources and access to cerebral angiography. Ultimately, a high degree of suspicion for vasospasm must be kept during ICU care, and any signs or symptoms must be investigated and treated immediately to avoid permanent stroke and neurologic deficit. Treatment for vasospasm can occur through both ICU intervention and endovascular administration of intra-arterial vasodilators and balloon angioplasty. The best outcomes are often attained when these methods are used in conjunction. The following article reviews the literature on cerebral vasospasm and its treatment and provides the authors’ approach to treatment of these patients. PMID:24904517

  7. Current management of massive hemorrhage in trauma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution, and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved prioritizing early control of the cause of bleeding by non-definitive means, while hemostatic control resuscitation seeks early control of coagulopathy. Hemostatic resuscitation provides transfusions with plasma and platelets in addition to red blood cells in an immediate and sustained manner as part of the transfusion protocol for massively bleeding patients. Although early and effective reversal of coagulopathy is documented, the most effective means of preventing coagulopathy of massive transfusion remains debated and randomized controlled studies are lacking. Viscoelastical whole blood assays, like TEG and ROTEM however appear advantageous for identifying coagulopathy in patients with severe hemorrhage as opposed the conventional coagulation assays. In our view, patients with uncontrolled bleeding, regardless of it´s cause, should be treated with hemostatic control resuscitation involving early administration of plasma and platelets and earliest possible goal-directed, based on the results of TEG/ROTEM analysis. The aim of the goal-directed therapy should be to maintain a normal hemostatic competence until surgical hemostasis is achieved, as this appears to be associated with reduced mortality. PMID:22776724

  8. A case of solitary fibrous tumor in the pelvis presenting massive hemorrhage during surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi Young; Choi, Seung Do; Nam, Kye Hyun; Sunwoo, Jae Gun; Lee, Ji-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are unique soft-tissue tumors of submesothelial origin. These tumors are mainly located in the pleural space but they can be originated within a variety of sites, including the abdomen, the pelvis, the soft tissues and the retroperitoneum. SFTs from all sites are usually benign, and the surgical resection is curative in almost all cases. According to the review of literatures, during the surgical resection, massive hemorrhage could occur due to the hypervascular nature of SFTs. This is a case report on SFT in the pelvis presenting great vessel injury, which resulted in life threatening hemorrhage during the resection of tumor. We wish this paper alerts gynecologists about the risk of massive bleeding during the resection of tumor located at adjacent to great vessels in the pelvis. PMID:25629023

  9. A case of solitary fibrous tumor in the pelvis presenting massive hemorrhage during surgery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Young; Jeon, Seob; Choi, Seung Do; Nam, Kye Hyun; Sunwoo, Jae Gun; Lee, Ji-Hye

    2015-01-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) are unique soft-tissue tumors of submesothelial origin. These tumors are mainly located in the pleural space but they can be originated within a variety of sites, including the abdomen, the pelvis, the soft tissues and the retroperitoneum. SFTs from all sites are usually benign, and the surgical resection is curative in almost all cases. According to the review of literatures, during the surgical resection, massive hemorrhage could occur due to the hypervascular nature of SFTs. This is a case report on SFT in the pelvis presenting great vessel injury, which resulted in life threatening hemorrhage during the resection of tumor. We wish this paper alerts gynecologists about the risk of massive bleeding during the resection of tumor located at adjacent to great vessels in the pelvis. PMID:25629023

  10. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma and intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with thrombotic microangiopathy during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Wayhs, Sâmia Yasin; Wottrich, Joise; Uggeri, Douglas Prestes; Dias, Fernando Suparregui

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low-platelet count), and acute fatty liver of pregnancy are the main causes of thrombotic microangiopathy and severe liver dysfunction during pregnancy and represent different manifestations of the same pathological continuum. The case of a 35-week pregnant woman who was admitted to an intensive care unit immediately after a Cesarean section due to fetal death and the presence of nausea, vomiting, and jaundice is reported. Postpartum preeclampsia and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were diagnosed. The patient developed an acute subdural hematoma and an intracerebral hemorrhage, which were subjected to neurosurgical treatment. The patient died from refractory hemolytic anemia and spontaneous bleeding of multiple organs. Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy might overlap and be associated with potentially fatal complications, including intracranial hemorrhage, as in the present case. Early detection and diagnosis are crucial to ensure appropriate management and treatment success. PMID:23917984

  11. Shortened Cervix in the Subsequent Pregnancy after Embolization for Postpartum Cervical Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Sverre; Kløw, Nils-Einar; Hald, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rupture of a branch of uterine artery during delivery often leads to a massive postpartum hemorrhage that can be successfully treated using uterine artery embolization. Case Report. A 33-year-old woman had a cesarean section at term followed by a secondary postpartum hemorrhage due to a ruptured cervicovaginal branch terminating in a large, partially thrombosed hematoma of the cervix. She was given selective uterine artery embolization, and she was discharged to home in stable condition on the third day after embolization. In the forthcoming pregnancy a shortened cervix was a risk of threatened premature delivery from 26 weeks of gestation onwards. Conclusion. Superselective unilateral embolization of a thrombosed hematoma in the cervix might prevent extensive iatrogenic trauma of the cervix, which allows preservation of reproductive function. PMID:24800090

  12. Influence of Lamina Terminalis Fenestration on the Occurrence of the Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus in Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ji Young; Kim, Jae Hoon; Cheong, Jin Hwan; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Choong Hyun; Yi, Hyeong Joong; Kim, Kwang Myung

    2006-01-01

    Recently, it was reported that fenestration of the lamina terminalis (LT) may reduce the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The authors investigated the efficacy of the LT opening on the incidence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus in the ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. The data of 71-ruptured ACoA aneurysm patients who underwent aneurysmal clipping in acute stage were reviewed retrospectively. Group I (n=36) included the patients with microsurgical fenestration of LT during surgery, Group II (n=35) consisted of patients in whom fenestration of LT was not feasible. The rate of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus was compared between two groups by logistic regression to control for confounding factors. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunts were performed after aneurysmal obliteration in 18 patients (25.4%). The conversion rates from acute hydrocephalus on admission to chronic hydrocephalus in each group were 29.6% (Group I) and 58.8% (Group II), respectively. However, there was no significant correlation between the microsurgical fenestration and the rate of occurrence of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (p>0.05). Surgeons should carefully decide the concomitant use of LT fenestration during surgery for the ruptured ACoA aneurysms because of the microsurgical fenestration of LT can play a negative role in reducing the incidence of chronic hydrocephalus. PMID:16479076

  13. Central Methysergide Prevents Renal Sympathoinhibition and Bradycardia during Hypotensive Hemorrhage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veelken, Roland; Johnson, Kim; Scrogin, Karie E.

    1998-01-01

    Central methysergide prevents renal sympathoinhibition and bradycardia during hypotensive hemorrhage. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were measured in conscious rats during either hemorrhage or cardiopulmonary receptor stimulation with phenylbiguanide (PBG) after intracerebroventricular injection of the 5-HT1/5-HT2-receptor antagonist, methysergide (40 microg). Progressive hemorrhage caused an initial rise (109 +/- 33%) followed by a fall in RSNA (-60 +/- 7%) and a fall in HR (-126 +/- 7 beats/min). Methysergide delayed the hypotension and prevented both the sympathoinhibitory and bradycardic responses to hemorrhage. Systemic 5-HT3-receptor blockade did not influence responses to hemorrhage. The PBG infusion caused transient depressor(-25 +/- 6 mmHg), bradycardic (-176 +/- 40 beats/min), and renal sympathostimulatory (182 +/-47% baseline) responses that were not affected by central methysergide (-20 +/- 6 mmHg, -162 +/- 18 beats/min, 227 +/- 46% baseline). These data indicate that a central serotonergic receptor-mediated component contributes to the sympathoinhibitory and bradycardic responses to hypotensive hemorrhage in conscious rats. Furthermore, the same central 5-HT-receptor populations involved in reflex responses to hypotensive hemorrhage probably do not mediate the sympathoinhibitory response to cardiopulmonary chemosensitive 5-HT3 receptors.

  14. Acute Hemorrhage Following Gamma Knife Radiosurgery to a Clival Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Hawasli, Ammar H.; Murphy, Rory K.J.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Simpson, Joseph R.; Drzymala, Robert E.; Rich, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) is a primary treatment modality for small, surgically-challenging meningiomas of the skull base in carefully selected patients. Despite the overall low incidence of complications from this procedure, rare instances of hemorrhagic events following GKS have been reported. In fact, only a single, probable case of acute hemorrhage after GKS for a meningioma exists in the literature. Case description The authors present the case of a 59-year-old female treated with GKS to a clival meningioma who suffered an acute intra- and peritumoral hemorrhage within three hours after the procedure. The patient also had an ST-elevation myocardial infarction associated with the hemorrhage. At the time of her GKS she was taking aspirin and clopidogrel for treatment of coronary artery disease with multiple cardiac stents. Cerebral catheter angiography failed to reveal a source for the hemorrhage. Conclusion Acute hemorrhage following GKS to a meningioma is a rare, but potentially serious, complication and consideration should be given to counseling patients of this risk prior to treatment. We hypothesize that acute change to the structural integrity of the vascular endothelium after GKS may have precipitated cerebrovascular dysfunction resulting in hemorrhage. While the administration of anti-platelet therapy may have been a contributing factor to his event, it appears that the low incidence of acute tumoral bleeding after GKS does not justify routinely discontinuing anti-platelet and/or anti-coagulation in patients with severe associated medical co-morbidities. PMID:24772451

  15. Targeting heme oxygenase after intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Roetling, Jing; Lu, Xiangping; Regan, Raymond F.

    2015-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the primary event in approximately 10% of strokes, and has higher rates of morbidity and mortality than ischemic stroke. Experimental evidence suggests that the toxicity of hemoglobin and its degradation products contributes to secondary injury that may be amenable to therapeutic intervention. Hemin, the oxidized form of heme, accumulates in intracranial hematomas to cytotoxic levels. The rate limiting step of its breakdown is catalyzed by the heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes, which consist of inducible HO-1 and constitutively-expressed HO-2. The effect of these enzymes on perihematomal injury and neurological outcome has been investigated in ICH models using both genetic and pharmacological approaches to alter their expression, with variable results reported. These findings are summarized and reconciled in this review; therapeutic strategies that may optimize HO expression and activity after ICH are described. PMID:25642455

  16. [Cryosurgery of acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Lin, Q; Yao, Z

    1995-03-01

    Acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis (AHNP) was induced by introduct retrograde injection of the autologous bile in canine. The cryoprobe was under the influence of temperature ranging from -160C to -190C for fifteen to eighteen seconds, and the frozen areas were about 80% surface of pancreas. Cryotherapy of AHNP strongly inhibited the development of the inflammation in pancreatic parenchyma. Postcryotherapy 24hr for remarkably decreased the activities of pancreatic enzymes. The activities of phospholipase A, lipase and amylase in serum decreased by 502.1%, 355.8%, 502.5% respectively in 7 days. The level of blood glucose decreased. At the second week, the fibroblasts were growing around the residual pancreatic aciner cells and insular cells rich in intact zymogen granules. The mortality (6.89%) of the treatment group within 48 hours was significantly lower than that of the control group (100%). PMID:7780815

  17. Diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Tezer, Hasan; Polat, Meltem

    2015-05-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is the most extensive tick-borne virus, it causes a severe infection, which occurs widely in Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia. In recent years, the dramatic increase in the global distribution of CCHF, with the high mortality rates, highlights the importance of improving diagnostic capacity. Clinical and epidemiological data play a crucial role for early recognition of CCHF. However, CCHF is clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish, a rapid and reliable laboratory confirmation is necessary. Confirmation of infection in the acute phase of the disease can be made by detection of viral nucleic acid using reverse transcription-PCR, by demonstration of viral antigen or by virus isolation. In the convalescent phase of the disease, the diagnosis is confirmed by demonstration of an antibody response. The consideration of viral replication kinetics and antiviral humoral immune responses facilitates the selection of appropriate laboratory tests and accurate interpretation of laboratory findings. PMID:25746112

  18. Intracerebral hemorrhage: effective therapy at last?

    PubMed

    Grotta, James C

    2006-02-01

    After decades of relative neglect, the past few years have been particularly eventful for clinical research into spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Most importantly, we have seen completion of the first large randomized trial of surgical clot evacuation for supratentorial ICH, and also the first trial to demonstrate the efficacy of systemic recombinant factor 7 to stop parenchymal bleeding and prevent clinical worsening. Other important advances include new insights into risk factors, diagnostic imaging, pathophysiology of cellular injury, brain edema and blood flow, blood pressure management, aspiration of parenchymal and intraventricular clots; stem cell therapy, and outcome. Taken together, the impressive scope and progress of ongoing clinical and basic research demonstrate that there is no longer a place for nihilism in the approach to ICH. PMID:18706066

  19. Principles of neuroanesthesia in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kundra, Sandeep; Mahendru, Vidhi; Gupta, Vishnu; Choudhary, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is associated with high mortality. Understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is important as early intervention can improve outcome. Increasing age, altered sensorium and poor Hunt and Hess grade are independent predictors of adverse outcome. Early operative interventions imposes an onus on anesthesiologists to provide brain relaxation. Coiling and clipping are the two treatment options with increasing trends toward coiling. Intraoperatively, tight control of blood pressure and adequate brain relaxation is desirable, so that accidental aneurysm rupture can be averted. Patients with poor grades tolerate higher blood pressures, but are prone to ischemia whereas patients with lower grades tolerate lower blood pressure, but are prone to aneurysm rupture if blood pressure increases. Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade I or II with uneventful intraoperative course are extubated in operation theater, whereas, higher grades are kept electively ventilated. Postoperative management includes attention toward fluid status and early management of vasospasm. PMID:25190938

  20. Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1981-05-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patient with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

  1. Radionuclide localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Winzelberg, G.G.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Waltman, A.C.; Greenfield, A.J.; Athanasoulis, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1981-05-01

    The authors prospectively evaluated the usefulness of abdominal radionuclide scintigraphy using 99mTc-labeled red cells as a means of monitoring for intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding over a 24-hour period in both control and actively bleeding populations. Of 32 patients with documented hemorrhage, 29 had positive scintiscans (sensitivity, 91%; 9% false negatives). Of 18 nonbleeding patients, 17 had negative scintiscans (specificity, 95%; 5% false positives). 12 of 29 patients bled from 6 to 24 hours after the study was begun. Scintiscans were positive in patients with transfusion requirements of greater than or equal to 500 ml/24 hr. The authors conclude that abdominal scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red cells is an effective method of detecting gastrointestinal bleeding.

  2. How a Cerebral Hemorrhage Altered My Art

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    “How a Cerebral Hemorrhage Altered My Art” examines how a massive stroke affected my art practice. The paralysis that ensued forced me to switch hands and become a left-handed painter. It was postulated by several neuroscientists that the “interpreter” in my brain was severely damaged during my CVA. This has had a profoundly liberating effect on my work. Whereas my pre-stroke period had the tendency to be over-intellectualized and forced, my post-stroke art is less self-conscious, more urgent and expressive. The primary subject matter of both periods is the brain. In my practice as an artist, my stroke is a challenge and an opportunity rather than a loss. PMID:22493572

  3. Pericytes as targets in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Thalgott, Jérémy; Dos-Santos-Luis, Damien; Lebrin, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Defective paracrine Transforming Growth Factor-? (TGF-?) signaling between endothelial cells and the neighboring mural cells have been thought to lead to the development of vascular lesions that are characteristic of Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT). This review highlights recent progress in our understanding of TGF-? signaling in mural cell recruitment and vessel stabilization and how perturbed TGF-? signaling might contribute to defective endothelial-mural cell interaction affecting vessel functionalities. Our recent findings have provided exciting insights into the role of thalidomide, a drug that reduces both the frequency and the duration of epistaxis in individuals with HHT by targeting mural cells. These advances provide opportunities for the development of new therapies for vascular malformations.

  4. Non-traumatic causes of perianal hemorrhage and excoriation in the young.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Donald, Terence G; Rutty, Guy N

    2008-01-01

    The discovery at autopsy or at a death scene of fresh perianal hemorrhage and/or cutaneous excoriation in a young child is always of concern as this raises the possibility of inflicted injury. Three cases are reported where perianal bleeding and excoriation that were initially considered due to possible sexual assault were subsequently found to be of a non-suspicious nature. Case 1: A previously well 18-month-old boy was accidentally hanged. Fresh perianal hemorrhage that had raised the possibility of sexual assault was subsequently shown to be due to perineal streptococcal dermatitis. Case 2: A 2-year-old girl vomited and then stopped breathing. Fresh blood at the anus, that was also thought to be patulous, raised suspicions of sexual assault. At autopsy, however, bleeding around the normally configured anus was due to a midgut volvulus associated with intestinal malrotation. Case 3: A 21-month-old girl was found dead in her cot. Sexual abuse was suspected when lacerations were allegedly found around her anus. These were, however, due to skin lesions from her previously diagnosed ectodermal dysplasia clefting syndrome. Death was due to upper airway obstruction from acute and chronic inflammation. There was no evidence of anogenital trauma or sexual assault in any of the cases. Although inflicted traumatic causes of perianal hemorrhage and excoriation must be judiciously sought in the young, the current cases demonstrate that organic etiologies must also be considered. Perianal infections, congenital malformations of the mesentery and intestines, and inherited disorders of the skin may all produce findings that may initially suggest that sexual assault has occurred. Careful examination with appropriate photography and/or microbiological testing are required. PMID:19291454

  5. Spontaneous Intraocular Hemorrhage in Rats during Postnatal Ocular Development

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Katsuhiro; Koga, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2014-01-01

    To study spontaneous intraocular hemorrhage in rats during postnatal ocular development and to elucidate the underlying mechanism, postnatal ocular development in the albino Wistar Hannover (WH) and Sprague–Dawley (SpD) and pigmented Long–Evans (LE) strains was analyzed. Pups (n = 2 to 5) from each strain were euthanized daily on postnatal days (PND) 0 through 21 and their eyes examined macroscopically and histologically; similar analyses were performed in 26 to 39 additional WH pups daily from PND 7 to 14. At necropsy, ring-shaped red regions and red spots were present in the eyes of WH and SpD rats. These lesions were attributed histologically to hemorrhage of the tunica vasculosa lentis or of the retina, choroid, and hyaloid artery, respectively. Similar intraocular hemorrhages occurred in LE rats, although the macroscopic alterations found in WH and SpD rats were not present in this strain. Among the 3 strains evaluated, the incidence of the intraocular hemorrhage was highest in WH rats. We here showed that intraocular hemorrhage occurs spontaneously during normal ocular development in rats regardless of the strain; however, the region, degree, and incidence of intraocular hemorrhage differ among strains. Hemorrhage in the tunica vasculosa lentis and hyaloid artery may result from the leakage of erythrocytes from the temporary vasculature of these tissues during regression. The mechanisms underlying hemorrhage in the retina and choroid remain unclear. To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe the spontaneous intraocular hemorrhage that occurs during postnatal ocular development in rats. PMID:24512959

  6. Evaluation of Dabigatran- and Warfarin-Associated Hemorrhagic Events Using the FDA-Adverse Event Reporting System Database Stratified by Age

    PubMed Central

    ABE, Junko; UMETSU, Ryogo; KATO, Yamato; UEDA, Natsumi; NAKAYAMA, Yoko; SUZUKI, Yukiya; SUZUKI, Toshiyuki; NAGASAWA, Hideko; KINOSADA, Yasutomi; NAKAMURA, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Dabigatran and warfarin are oral anticoagulant drugs widely used for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between aging and dabigatran- and warfarin-induced gastrointestinal (GI) and nervous system hemorrhage using data available in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. We analyzed reports of hemorrhagic events in the GI and nervous system recorded in the FAERS database between 2004 and 2014 using an adjusted reporting odds ratio (ROR). We demonstrated that dabigatran-associated GI hemorrhage was significantly increased in patients over the age of 80 years. The RORs of dabigatran increased with increasing age, although aging had little effect on warfarin-associated GI hemorrhage. The ROR for anticoagulant-associated nervous system hemorrhage was not significantly affected by aging, as compared to GI hemorrhage. Our results indicate that the excretion of dabigatran may be affected by aging, as compared to warfarin, likely due to renal function decline. Our results emphasize the need for physicians to closely monitor GI bleeding in aging patients, because it is closely related to renal function deterioration.

  7. Other viral bioweapons: Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Salvaggio, Michelle R; Baddley, John W

    2004-07-01

    The term viral hemorrhagic fever refers to a clinical syndrome characterized by acute onset of fever accompanied by nonspecific findings of malaise, prostration, diarrhea,and headache. Patients frequently show signs of increased vascular permeability, and many develop bleeding diatheses. The hemorrhagic fever viruses represent potential agents for biologic warfare because of capability of aerosol transmission, high morbidity,and mortality associated with infection, and ability to replicate in cell culture in high concentrations. Herein we discuss the Filoviridae, the agents of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:15207310

  8. Hemorrhage into cystic vestibular schwannoma following stereotactic radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Ganslandt, O; Fahrig, A; Strauss, C

    2008-11-01

    The occurrence of a hemorrhage into a vestibular schwannoma is a rare phenomenon. Several reports, however, indicate a risk profile for a subgroup of patients with vestibular schwannoma which show hypervascularity in the histopathological examination. Cystic formation, large size, mixed Antoni type and anticoagulation therapy seem to enhance the risk of tumor hemorrhage. We report on a patient with a large cystic vestibular schwannoma who died from fatal bleeding into the tumor 15 months following stereotactic radiation therapy. Since hemorrhage seems to be a relevant risk in large cystic vestibular schwannomas, a surgical treatment should be preferred whenever possible. PMID:18666062

  9. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    PubMed Central

    Schaffran, Tanja; Jiang, Nan; Bergmann, Markus; Küstermann, Ekkehard; Süss, Regine; Schubert, Rolf; Wagner, Franz M; Awad, Doaa; Gabel, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma). With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14), the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids precludes their use in boron neutron capture therapy. PMID:25114527

  10. Causes of metabolic acidosis in canine hemorrhagic shock: role of unmeasured ions

    PubMed Central

    Bruegger, Dirk; Kemming, Gregor I; Jacob, Matthias; Meisner, Franz G; Wojtczyk, Christoph J; Packert, Kristian B; Keipert, Peter E; Faithfull, N Simon; Habler, Oliver P; Becker, Bernhard F; Rehm, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic acidosis during hemorrhagic shock is common and conventionally considered to be due to hyperlactatemia. There is increasing awareness, however, that other nonlactate, unmeasured anions contribute to this type of acidosis. Methods Eleven anesthetized dogs were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 45 mm Hg and were kept at this level until a metabolic oxygen debt of 120 mLO2/kg body weight had evolved. Blood pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and concentrations of sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, chloride, lactate, albumin, and phosphate were measured at baseline, in shock, and during 3 hours post-therapy. Strong ion difference and the amount of weak plasma acid were calculated. To detect the presence of unmeasured anions, anion gap and strong ion gap were determined. Capillary electrophoresis was used to identify potential contributors to unmeasured anions. Results During induction of shock, pH decreased significantly from 7.41 to 7.19. The transient increase in lactate concentration from 1.5 to 5.5 mEq/L during shock was not sufficient to explain the transient increases in anion gap (+11.0 mEq/L) and strong ion gap (+7.1 mEq/L), suggesting that substantial amounts of unmeasured anions must have been generated. Capillary electrophoresis revealed increases in serum concentration of acetate (2.2 mEq/L), citrate (2.2 mEq/L), ?-ketoglutarate (35.3 ?Eq/L), fumarate (6.2 ?Eq/L), sulfate (0.1 mEq/L), and urate (55.9 ?Eq/L) after shock induction. Conclusion Large amounts of unmeasured anions were generated after hemorrhage in this highly standardized model of hemorrhagic shock. Capillary electrophoresis suggested that the hitherto unmeasured anions citrate and acetate, but not sulfate, contributed significantly to the changes in strong ion gap associated with induction of shock. PMID:18081930

  11. Abrupt spontaneous suprachoroidal hemorrhage post-23-gauge vitrectomy during peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moosang; Lee, Seung-Chan; Lee, Seung-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of abrupt suprachoroidal hemorrhage (SCH) that developed during peritoneal dialysis in a patient with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. A 53-year-old female patient visited our clinic with blurred vision due to vitreous hemorrhage and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Her medical history included diabetes, hypertension, chronic renal failure, and she had received scheduled peritoneal dialysis. No anticoagulant agents were used. We performed combined phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation and vitrectomy without any complications. Two hours later, the retina was stable and the intraocular pressure (IOP) was 11 mmHg. Four hours later, while receiving peritoneal dialysis, she abruptly developed ocular pain. Examination of her eye revealed an IOP of 38 mmHg and a SCH in the entire peripheral retina and posterior pole. At 12 hours after surgery (on the same day), the SCH was found to be further aggravated, and because a “kissing retina” was imminent, silicone oil was injected. An attempted fluid–air exchange failed because there was not enough space to fill with silicone oil due to aggravation of the SCH. Sclerotomies were performed to remove the SCH, and to create space for the silicone oil injection. Two months after surgery, the silicone oil was removed and her visual acuity was found to have improved to 20/40, but the patient died of pontine hemorrhage 1 month later. SCH can occur in vitrectomized eyes due to an increase in abdominal pressure during peritoneal dialysis, because chronic renal failure patients with diabetes and hypertension have structural vulnerabilities and vascular weaknesses due to arterial sclerosis in response to the increased blood pressure. PMID:23807834

  12. Intracerebral hemorrhage in patients receiving oral anticoagulation therapy.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ivan Rocha Ferreira; Provencio, J Javier

    2015-02-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in patients with oral anticoagulation therapy is an increasingly prevalent problem in large part due to the aging population and the increased use of anticoagulants for patients at high risk of thrombosis. Warfarin has been virtually the only outpatient anticoagulant choice until fairly recently. The development of subcutaneously injected heparinoids, and more recently, of direct thrombin inhibitors, has made the treatment and prognostication of ICH in anticoagulated patients more difficult. In this review, we will review the current state of diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment for patients with this often-devastating type of bleeding. We will focus on warfarin therapy, because the preponderance of evidence comes from studies of warfarin treatment. Where there is evidence, we will contrast warfarin with some of the newer treatment modalities. We review the evidence of the 4 major reversal agents for warfarin, vitamin K, prothrombin complex concentrates, activated factor VII, and fresh frozen plasma as well as rational treatment choices. We offer possible treatments for the newer anticoagulants based on the limited evidence available. Finally, we review recommendations from the major societies and studies that support early and aggressive therapies in intensive care units with dedicated neurological specialists. PMID:23753250

  13. Laser-assisted treatment of patients with hemorrhagic diathesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neckel, Claus P.

    2000-03-01

    Today more and more patients with bleeding disorder come to our office for treatment. The number of patients with therapeutic anticoagulation is growing steadily. Discontinuation of this therapy can often be crucial. On the other hand are oralsurgical procedures extremely sensitive to bleeding due to the constant presents of saliva with its high fibrinolytic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a surgical diode (wavelength 810 nm) laser as accessory tool in the treatment of patients with hemorrhagic diathesis. Enclosed in the study were 123 patients with: (1) Coumarintherapy, a Quick test ratio of 15 - 25%; (2) More than 300 mg of ASS/die; (3) Hemophilia, a factor activity under 35%; (4) Morbus Werlhof with less than 30000 thrombocytes. 179 Surgical procedures: (1) Tooth extraction 86%; (2) Apexectomy 3%; (3) Tumorexcision 9%; (4) Curettage and flapsurgery 1%; (5) Gingivectomy 1%. All procedures were laser-assisted with a diode laser emitting 810 nm. The glass fibers used were depending on the procedures either 200, 400, or 600 micron. No coagulating agents or tissue adhesives were used in addition. The postoperative outcome and complication rates were compared to substitution therapy and tissue adhesives. Laser-assisted treatment of these patients shows a high predictability and success rate leaving out side effects of drugs and human cryoprecipitates. Postoperative impairment is diminished.

  14. The societal costs of intracerebral hemorrhage in Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarrete-Navarro, P; Hart, W M; Lopez-Bastida, J; Christensen, M C

    2007-05-01

    This study estimates the lifetime societal costs associated with incident intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in Spain. An epidemiological model of ICH incidence, survival and morbidity was developed using retrospective data from 28 hospitals in Andalusia and published data identified in a systematic literature review. Data on resource utilization and costs were obtained from five hospitals in the Canary Islands, whereas cost of outpatient care, informal care and lost productivity were obtained from standardized questionnaires completed by survivors of ICH. The lifetime societal costs of incident ICH in Spain is estimated at 46,193 euros per patient. Direct medical costs accounted for 32.7% of lifetime costs, whilst 67.3% were related to indirect costs. One-third of direct medical costs over the first year were attributable to follow-up care, including rehabilitation. Indirect costs were dominated by costs of informal care (71.2%). The aggregated lifetime societal costs for the estimated 12,534 Spanish patients with a first-ever ICH in 2004 was 579 million euros. ICH implies substantial costs to society primarily due to formal and informal follow-up care and support needed after hospital discharge. Interventions that offer survival benefits without improving patients' functional status are likely to further increase the societal costs of ICH. PMID:17437616

  15. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the management of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Darryl; Agerstrand, Cara L; Biscotti, Mauer; Burkart, Kristin M; Bacchetta, Matthew; Brodie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be used to support patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure refractory to conventional mechanical ventilation. However, because systemic anticoagulation is generally required to maintain circuit patency, severe bleeding is often seen as a contraindication to ECMO. We describe our center's experience with four patients who received ECMO for refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure due to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), a condition for which anticoagulation is typically contraindicated, and provide a review of the literature. The mean age was 35.8 ± 16.4 years. The mean pre-ECMO PaO2 to FIO2 ratio was 52.3 ± 9.4 mm Hg. All patients were treated with continuous infusions of heparin with a goal-activated partial thromboplastin time between 40 and 60 seconds (mean, 47.4 ± 11.6 seconds). All four subjects (100%) survived to decannulation, and three subjects (75%) survived to discharge. The results from this case series, along with previously published data, suggest that ECMO is a reasonable management option for patients with DAH-associated severe, refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure. This is especially true in the era of modern ECMO technology where lower levels of anticoagulation are able to maintain circuit patency while minimizing bleeding risk. PMID:25485559

  16. SECONDARY POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE DUE TO RUPTURE OF UTERUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amna Memon; Raheel Sikandar; Fatima Memon; Farhana Saeed

    We report a very unusual case of secondary postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine rupture. Our case was a 23 years old lady who presented with heavy bleeding per vagina and gave his- tory of home delivery. Rupture was most probably caused by injudicious use of oxytocic injec- tion by a Traditional Birth Attendant at home. Surprisingly, after recovering completely from

  17. Laparoscopic diverticulectomy for massive hemorrhage in a duodenal diverticulum.

    PubMed

    Dan, Dilip; Bascombe, Nigel; Maharaj, Ravi; Hariharan, Seetharaman; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhagic duodenal diverticula are rare and are treated by endoscopy or open diverticulectomy, especially when there is a massive hemorrhage. We report what we believe to be the first instance of urgent laparoscopic diverticulectomy of a large, inflamed duodenal diverticulum with massive hemorrhage. An elderly patient had a screening colonoscopy and additional upper gastrointestinal endoscopy because of vague upper gastrointestinal symptoms; however, both were reported to be normal. She subsequently developed massive hematemesis. Clinical examination revealed a tender right upper quadrant mass and imaging confirmed a large duodenal diverticulum with surrounding inflammatory changes. Urgent laparoscopic diverticulectomy was performed with an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Laparoscopic diverticulectomy should be considered in managing hemorrhagic duodenal diverticula. PMID:22318077

  18. Observations in five cases of spontaneous cerebellar hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Abud-Ortega, A. F.; Rajput, A.; Rozdilsky, B.

    1972-01-01

    Five cases of spontaneous intracerebellar hemorrhage are reported. Three had a vascular malformation and two had mild hypertension. The presenting symptom was sudden headache followed by nausea and vomiting. Signs of brain stem dysfunction without prominent cerebellar deficit were the commonest feature. Meningeal involvement was present in the majority of cases. Unsuspected sudden death can occur. It is suggested that patients below the age of 30 who present with sudden headache followed by brain stem dysfunction with or without a subarachnoid hemorrhage, and patients over the age of 45 who present this picture along with subarachnoid hemorrhage should be investigated urgently with contrast studies for possible cerebellar hemorrhage. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4 PMID:5009036

  19. Gut as source of sepsis after hemorrhagic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Sori, A.J.; Rush, B.F. Jr.; Lysz, T.W.; Smith, S.; Machiedo, G.W.

    1988-02-01

    In a model of severe hemorrhagic shock in rats, blood culture findings became positive within 2 to 4 hours of shock. The organisms cultured were primarily gram-negative. To test the hypothesis that the gut was the source of the bacteria, E. coli labeled with carbon-14 oleic acid were fed to rats undergoing hemorrhagic shock. Their plasma was then assayed for carbon-14 activity. Seven of the 14 shocked animals demonstrated increased plasma carbon-14 activity during or after shock. The mortality rate was 100 percent 80 hours postshock, and all animals had E. coli on subsequent blood culture. The seven rats without increased plasma carbon-14 activity had a survival rate of 83 percent postshock. Sham-shocked animals did not exhibit plasma carbon-14 levels greater than the background levels. These data suggest that bacterial translocation occurs during hemorrhagic shock and that the gut is the source of the bacteremia seen during hemorrhagic shock.

  20. Data Hemorrhages in the Health-Care Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. Eric

    Confidential data hemorrhaging from health-care providers pose financial risks to firms and medical risks to patients. We examine the consequences of data hemorrhages including privacy violations, medical fraud, financial identity theft, and medical identity theft. We also examine the types and sources of data hemorrhages, focusing on inadvertent disclosures. Through an analysis of leaked files, we examine data hemorrhages stemming from inadvertent disclosures on internet-based file sharing networks. We characterize the security risk for a group of health-care organizations using a direct analysis of leaked files. These files contained highly sensitive medical and personal information that could be maliciously exploited by criminals seeking to commit medical and financial identity theft. We also present evidence of the threat by examining user-issued searches. Our analysis demonstrates both the substantial threat and vulnerability for the health-care sector and the unique complexity exhibited by the US health-care system.

  1. The Role of Interventional Radiology in Obstetric Hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, M., E-mail: michael.gonsalves@stgeorges.nhs.uk; Belli, A., E-mail: Anna.Belli@stgeorges.nhs.u [St. Georges Hospital, Radiology Department (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Obstetric hemorrhage remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally, in cases of obstetric hemorrhage refractory to conservative treatment, obstetricians have resorted to major surgery with the associated risks of general anesthesia, laparotomy, and, in the case of hysterectomy, loss of fertility. Over the past two decades, the role of pelvic arterial embolization has evolved from a novel treatment option to playing a key role in the management of obstetric hemorrhage. To date, interventional radiology offers a minimally invasive, fertility-preserving alternative to conventional surgical treatment. We review current literature regarding the role of interventional radiology in postpartum hemorrhage, abnormal placentation, abortion, and cervical ectopic pregnancy. We discuss techniques, success rates, and complications.

  2. [Afobazole effect on cerebral circulation under hemorrhagic stroke model conditions].

    PubMed

    Gan'shina, T S; Kurdiumov, I N; Turilova, A I; Mirzoian, R S; Seredenin, S B

    2009-01-01

    Narcotized rats under hemorrhagic stroke model conditions exhibit a significant decrease in the cerebral flow in the region of contralateral cerebral hemisphere symmetric to the zone of lesion. Under these conditions, afobazole produced a significant increase in the local circulation in cerebral cortex, which was violated by hemorrhagic stroke. The cerebrovascular effect of afobazole was not manifested in cases of hemorrhagic stroke on the background of GABA receptor blocking by bicuculline. The obtained results demonstrate that afobazole increases the cerebral blood flow not only under conditions of global transient cerebral ischemia, but on the hemorrhagic stroke model as well, which is probably related to a mediated drug effect on the GABA receptor complex. PMID:20095394

  3. Geographic potential for outbreaks of Marburg hemorrhagic fever

    E-print Network

    Peterson, A. Townsend; Lash, R. Ryan; Carroll, Darin S.; Johnson, Karl M.

    2006-01-01

    Marburg virus represents one of the least well-known of the hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses worldwide; in particular, its geographic potential in Africa remains quite mysterious. Ecologic niche modeling was used to explore the geographic...

  4. Vasculitis and stroke due to Lyme neuroborreliosis - a review.

    PubMed

    Zajkowska, Joanna; Garkowski, Adam; Moniuszko, Anna; Czupryna, Piotr; Ptaszy?ska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Ustymowicz, Andrzej; ?ebkowski, Wojciech; Pancewicz, S?awomir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is a rare cause of vasculitis and stroke. It may manifest as subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and most often ischemic stroke due to cerebral vasculitis. The vast majority of reported cases have been described by European authors. A high index of suspicion is required in patients who live or have traveled to areas with high prevalence of tick-borne diseases, and in the case of stroke-like symptoms of unknown cause in patients without cardiovascular risk factors. In this review, we also present four illustrative cases of vasculitis and stroke-like manifestations of LNB. PMID:25342573

  5. [Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm: an unusual cause of postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Delesalle, C; Dolley, P; Beucher, G; Dreyfus, M; Benoist, G

    2015-01-01

    Uterine artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare complication of cesarean section. It can lead to severe postpartum hemorrhage. We report three cases of pseudoaneurysm diagnosed late after cesarean delivery, one followed by hemorrhagic shock. Ultrasound may point to the diagnosis, but arteriography of uterine arteries is decisive for the diagnosis. Selective artery embolization is recommended for treatment. Main advantages are complete occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm and fertility preservation. PMID:24656739

  6. Ocozocoautla de Espinosa Virus and Hemorrhagic Fever, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Bradley, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Arenavirus RNA was isolated from Mexican deer mice (Peromyscus mexicanus) captured near the site of a 1967 epidemic of hemorrhagic fever in southern Mexico. Analyses of nucleotide and amino acid sequence data indicated that the deer mice were infected with a novel Tacaribe serocomplex virus (proposed name Ocozocoautla de Espinosa virus), which is phylogenetically closely related to Tacaribe serocomplex viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans in South America. PMID:22377271

  7. The Role of Interventional Radiology in Obstetric Hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. GonsalvesA; A. Belli

    2010-01-01

    Obstetric hemorrhage remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Traditionally, in cases of obstetric\\u000a hemorrhage refractory to conservative treatment, obstetricians have resorted to major surgery with the associated risks of\\u000a general anesthesia, laparotomy, and, in the case of hysterectomy, loss of fertility. Over the past two decades, the role of\\u000a pelvic arterial embolization has evolved from a

  8. Scleral buckle hemorrhagic cyst masquerading as an orbital tumor

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David RP; Chin, Eric K; Boldt, H Culver; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 41-year-old man who was referred for evaluation of a choroidal tumor with a remote history of scleral buckle placement for traumatic retinal detachment. Ocular imaging, echography, and magnetic resonance imaging could not rule out a neoplastic process so the patient was taken for surgical exploration where a hemorrhagic cyst was discovered. This is the first case in the literature of a silicone scleral buckle–associated hemorrhagic cyst presenting as orbital mass. PMID:25709397

  9. Spontaneous subacute intratumoral hemorrhage of hepatic cavernous hemangioma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Shimoji; R. Shiraishi; A. Kuwatsuru; T. Maehara; T. Matsumoto; Y. Kurosaki

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of giant hepatic cavernous hemangioma associated with spontaneous subacute intratumoral hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an oval, homogeneous, high-intensity lesion with a low-intensity rim in the original high-intensity tumor on T2-weighted images. On T1-weighted images, this oval lesion showed heterogeneous high intensity with peripheral higher intensity. The histologic specimen confirmed hepatic hemangioma with intratumoral hemorrhage.

  10. Update on diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and pulmonary vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Krause, Megan L; Cartin-Ceba, Rodrigo; Specks, Ulrich; Peikert, Tobias

    2012-11-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a clinical syndrome that can be a manifestation of multiple different causes. Identification of the underlying etiology is of utmost importance and dictates treatment. Pulmonary vasculitis including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a common cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. For AAV, treatment includes induction followed by maintenance therapy. Rituximab has an increasing role in the treatment of AAV. PMID:23102067

  11. Depressed Mood after Intracerebral Hemorrhage: The FAST Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Christensen; Stephan A. Mayer; Jean-Marc Ferran; Brett Kissela

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Depression is a frequent and important complication of stroke. Few data exist on the prevalence of depression\\/depressed mood after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and the relationship between depression\\/depressed mood and the quality of life (QoL) more generally experienced by survivors of ICH. Methods: Factor Seven for Acute Hemorrhagic Stroke (FAST) was a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted

  12. [Prognostication of gastroduodenal ulcer course complicated by hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Trofimov, M V

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of the blood serum level of serotonin in the patients, suffering gastroduodenal ulcer, Complicated by hemorrhage, was analyzed. The highest level of serotonin was observed in gastric ulcer, complicated by hemorrhage. These changes correlate with the blood loss severity enhancement, the achievement of a nonstable state of endoscopic hemostasis, high activity of inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) of periulcerative mucosa. The obtained data analysis permits to prognosticate the pathological process course and to improve the program of treatment. PMID:24923139

  13. Bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow by transcranial thermo-dye-dilution technique in patients suffering from severe traumatic brain injury or subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Schütt, S; Horn, P; Roth, H; Quintel, M; Schilling, L; Schmiedek, P; Schüre, L

    2001-06-01

    Bedside measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) represents an important feature in monitoring of neurointensive care patients which is hard to establish. Therefore, we adopted a recently described thermo-dye-dilution-based approach for monitoring CBF in patients suffering from severe cerebral insults, that is, traumatic brain injury (TBI) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Combined fiberoptic-thermistor catheters were placed in one jugular venous bulb and in the abdominal aorta of 16 patients. Following central venous injection of a 50-mL bolus of precooled indocyanine green (ICG) solution, CBF was determined as a function of the mean transit times of coldness and dye. In addition, measurements of CBF using stable xenon-enhanced computerized tomography (sXe-CT) were simultaneously performed in 10 patients. A total of 272 thermo-dye-dilution measurements yielded 196 valid results, with CBF ranging from 26.2 to 144.8 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1). Reproducibility was fairly good, with the standard deviation within sets of repeated measurements being 6.3 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1) and 9.4 as the mean coefficient of variation. Simultaneously obtained values with sXe-CT displayed a good correlation (r = 0.843, p < 0.01); however, the thermo-dye-dilution method consistently overestimated CBF. Data analysis using the Bland and Altman methodology revealed a large bias of 45.7 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1) with a +/- 2 SD range of 37 mL 100 g(-1) min(-1), indicating a rather poor agreement. The thermo-dye-dilution method proved a reasonably reproducible technique, enabling repeated long-term bedside measurements of CBF in neurointensive care patients with a minimum of time effort. However, a high failure rate was also noted, and consistent overestimation of perfusion was observed in comparison to sXe-CT measurements. Although the thermo-dye-dilution technique has been successfully validated in patients with normal neurovascular function, its applicability for bedside monitoring of CBF appears uncertain in patients suffering from severe TBI or SAH. PMID:11437082

  14. Prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: pooled analyses of individual patient data in the SAHIT repository.

    PubMed

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Lingsma, Hester; Schweizer, Tom A; Thorpe, Kevin E; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Macdonald, R Loch

    2015-03-01

    OBJECT The literature has conflicting reports about the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of premorbid hypertension and neurological status in the SAH International Trialists repository. METHODS Patient-level meta-analyses were conducted to investigate univariate associations between premorbid hypertension (6 studies; n = 7249), admission neurological status measured on the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) scale (10 studies; n = 10,869), and 3-month Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score. Multivariable analyses were performed to sequentially adjust for the effects of age, CT clot burden, aneurysm location, aneurysm size, and modality of aneurysm repair. Prognostic associations were estimated across the ordered categories of the GOS using proportional odds models. Nagelkerke's R(2) statistic was used to quantify the added prognostic value of hypertension and neurological status beyond those of the adjustment factors. RESULTS Premorbid hypertension was independently associated with poor outcome, with an unadjusted pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50-2.00) and an adjusted OR of 1.38 (95% CI 1.25-1.53). Patients with a premorbid history of hypertension had higher rates of cardiovascular and renal comorbidities, poorer neurological status (p ? 0.001), and higher odds of neurological complications including cerebral infarctions, hydrocephalus, rebleeding, and delayed ischemic neurological deficits. Worsening neurological status was strongly independently associated with poor outcome, including WFNS Grades II (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.68-2.03), III (OR 3.85, 95% CI 3.32-4.47), IV (OR 5.58, 95% CI 4.91-6.35), and V (OR 14.18, 95% CI 12.20-16.49). Neurological status had substantial added predictive value greater than the combined value of other prognostic factors (R(2) increase > 10%), while the added predictive value of hypertension was marginal (R(2) increase < 0.5%). CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed the strong prognostic effect of neurological status as measured on the WFNS scale and the independent but weak prognostic effect of premorbid hypertension. The effect of premorbid hypertension could involve multifactorial mechanisms, including an increase in the severity of initial bleeding, the rate of comorbid events, and neurological complications. PMID:25554825

  15. Formalin irrigation for hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng-Hui; Yuan, Zi-Xu; Zhong, Qing-Hua; Wang, Huai-Ming; Qin, Qi-Yuan; Chen, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Jian-Ping; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of a modified topical formalin irrigation method in refractory hemorrhagic chronic radiation proctitis (CRP). METHODS: Patients with CRP who did not respond to previous medical treatments and presented with grade II-III rectal bleeding according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events were enrolled. Patients with anorectal strictures, deep ulcerations, and fistulas were excluded. All patients underwent flexible endoscopic evaluation before treatment. Patient demographics and clinical data, including primary tumor, radiotherapy and previous treatment options, were collected. Patients received topical 4% formalin irrigation in a clasp-knife position under spinal epidural anesthesia in the operating room. Remission of rectal bleeding and related complications were recorded. Defecation, remission of bleeding, and other symptoms were investigated at follow-up. Endoscopic findings in patients with rectovaginal fistulas were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (19 female, 5 male) with a mean age of 61.5 ± 9.5 years were enrolled. The mean time from the end of radiotherapy to the onset of bleeding was 11.1 ± 9.0 mo (range: 2-24 mo). Six patients (25.0%) were blood transfusion dependent. The median preoperative Vienna Rectoscopy Score (VRS) was 3 points. Nineteen patients (79.2%) received only one course of topical formalin irrigation, and five (20.8%) required a second course. No side effects were observed. One month after treatment, bleeding cessation was complete in five patients and obvious in 14; the effectiveness rate was 79.1% (19/24). For long-term efficacy, 5/16, 1/9 and 0/6 patients complained of persistent bleeding at 1, 2 and 5 years after treatment, respectively. Three rectovaginal fistulas were found at 1 mo, 3 mo and 2 years after treatment. Univariate analysis showed associations of higher endoscopic VRS and ulceration score with risk of developing rectovaginal fistula. CONCLUSION: Modified formalin irrigation is an effective and safe method for hemorrhagic CRP, but should be performed cautiously in patients with a high endoscopic VRS.

  16. Bench-to-bedside review: Latest results in hemorrhagic shock

    PubMed Central

    Angele, Martin K; Schneider, Christian P; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2008-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock is a leading cause of death in trauma patients worldwide. Bleeding control, maintenance of tissue oxygenation with fluid resuscitation, coagulation support, and maintenance of normothermia remain mainstays of therapy for patients with hemorrhagic shock. Although now widely practised as standard in the USA and Europe, shock resuscitation strategies involving blood replacement and fluid volume loading to regain tissue perfusion and oxygenation vary between trauma centers; the primary cause of this is the scarcity of published evidence and lack of randomized controlled clinical trials. Despite enormous efforts to improve outcomes after severe hemorrhage, novel strategies based on experimental data have not resulted in profound changes in treatment philosophy. Recent clinical and experimental studies indicated the important influences of sex and genetics on pathophysiological mechanisms after hemorrhage. Those findings might provide one explanation why several promising experimental approaches have failed in the clinical arena. In this respect, more clinically relevant animal models should be used to investigate pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches. This review points out new therapeutic strategies, namely immunomodulation, cardiovascular maintenance, small volume resuscitation, and so on, that have been introduced in clinics or are in the process of being transferred from bench to bedside. Control of hemorrhage in the earliest phases of care, recognition and monitoring of individual risk factors, and therapeutic modulation of the inflammatory immune response will probably constitute the next generation of therapy in hemorrhagic shock. Further randomized controlled multicenter clinical trials are needed that utilize standardized criteria for enrolling patients, but existing ethical requirements must be maintained. PMID:18638356

  17. Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis: An unusual presentation of dengue viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajah, Jeyaseelan; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Vikram, Naval Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is a common viral infection worldwide with presentation varying from clinically silent infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and severe fulminant dengue shock syndrome. Neurological manifestation usually results from multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leak. Presentation as hemorrhagic encephalitis is very rare. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old female admitted with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Plain computed tomography (CT) scan of head revealed hypodensities in bilateral deep gray matter nuclei and right posterior parietal lobe without any hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serology were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue viral antigen. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities in bilateral cerebral parenchyma including basal ganglia. No hemorrhage was seen. She was managed with steroids. As her clinical condition deteriorated, after being stable for 2 days, repeat MRI was done which revealed development of hemorrhage within the lesions, and diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis of dengue viral etiology was made. PMID:25709166

  18. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James; Kurath, Gael; Batts, William

    2007-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is considered to be one of the most important viral pathogens of finfish and is listed as reportable by many nations and international organizations (Office International des Epizooties 2006). Prior to 1988, VHSV was thought to be limited to Europe (Wolf 1988; Smail 1999). Subsequently, it was shown that the virus is endemic among many marine and anadromous fish species in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005). Genetic analysis reveals that isolates of VHSV can be divided into four genotypes that generally correlate with geographic location with the North American isolates generally falling into VHSV Genotype IV (Snow et al. 2004). In 2005-2006, reports from the Great Lakes region indicated that wild fish had experienced disease or, in some cases, very large die-offs from VHSV (Elsayed et al. 2006, Lumsden et al. 2007). The new strain from the Great Lakes, now identified as VHSV Genotype IVb, appears most closely related to isolates of VHSV from mortalities that occurred during 2000-2004 in rivers and near-shore areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada (Gagne et al. 2007). The type IVb isolate found in the Great Lakes region is the only strain outside of Europe that has been associated with significant mortality in freshwater species.

  19. Early Endovascular Treatment of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Matias-Guiu, Jordi A.; Serna-Candel, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Rebleeding is one of its major complications, which occurs mainly within the first 24 h and worsens the clinical outcome in a very dramatic way. It may be prevented by aneurysm treatment: surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. We review the evidence of and recent advances in endovascular treatment and timing of the intervention. Data supporting the benefit of early (<72 h) and ultra-early (<24 h) treatment is based on observational studies. An earlier approach may be relevant for the prevention of rebleeding and improvement of clinical outcome, but several disadvantages should be considered, such as an increased rate of periprocedural complications. Hence, a well-designed randomized controlled trial deems necessary to be able to define the optimal time of treatment. The possibility of treatment concomitant with the initial angiography should also be taken into account in this trial. This fact might represent a benefit favoring coiling over clipping in the prevention of rebleeding, and thus avoiding the inevitable delay necessary for the preparation for surgery. PMID:25187768

  20. Bleeding and clotting in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Dittus, Christopher; Streiff, Michael; Ansell, Jack

    2015-04-16

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a relatively common inherited vascular disorder that was first described in 1864, and is notable for epistaxis, telangiectasia, and arterial venous malformations. While genetic tests are available, the diagnosis remains clinical, and is based on the Curacao criteria. Patients with HHT are at increased risk for both bleeding and clotting events. Because of these competing complications, hematologists are often faced with difficult clinical decisions. While the majority of management decisions revolve around bleeding complications, it is not infrequent for these patients to require anticoagulation for thrombosis. Any anticoagulation recommendations must take into account the bleeding risks associated with HHT. Recent reviews have found that HHT patients can be safely anticoagulated, with the most frequent complication being worsened epistaxis. Large clinical trials have shown that factor IIa and Xa inhibitors have less intracranial bleeding than warfarin, and basic coagulation research has provided a possible mechanism. This article describes the anticoagulation dilemma posed when a 62-year-old female patient with a history of bleeding events associated with HHT was diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism. The subsequent discussion focuses on the approach to anticoagulation in the HHT patient, and addresses the role of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:25879004

  1. Bleeding and clotting in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    PubMed Central

    Dittus, Christopher; Streiff, Michael; Ansell, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a relatively common inherited vascular disorder that was first described in 1864, and is notable for epistaxis, telangiectasia, and arterial venous malformations. While genetic tests are available, the diagnosis remains clinical, and is based on the Curacao criteria. Patients with HHT are at increased risk for both bleeding and clotting events. Because of these competing complications, hematologists are often faced with difficult clinical decisions. While the majority of management decisions revolve around bleeding complications, it is not infrequent for these patients to require anticoagulation for thrombosis. Any anticoagulation recommendations must take into account the bleeding risks associated with HHT. Recent reviews have found that HHT patients can be safely anticoagulated, with the most frequent complication being worsened epistaxis. Large clinical trials have shown that factor IIa and Xa inhibitors have less intracranial bleeding than warfarin, and basic coagulation research has provided a possible mechanism. This article describes the anticoagulation dilemma posed when a 62-year-old female patient with a history of bleeding events associated with HHT was diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism. The subsequent discussion focuses on the approach to anticoagulation in the HHT patient, and addresses the role of the new oral anticoagulants. PMID:25879004

  2. Pathological Findings in Feto-maternal Hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Carles, Dominique; André, Gwenaëlle; Pelluard, Fanny; Martin, Olivia; Sauvestre, Fanny

    2014-01-01

    Feto-maternal hemorrhage (FMH) is the cause of late fetal death in 1.6%-11% of cases. In spite of this high frequency, its pathological features have received little attention. The definitive diagnosis of lethal FMH requires confirmation of sufficient fetal blood volume loss. This is determined by tests such as the Kleihauer-Betke test, which may not have been obtained or not have been available before the autopsy. The pathologist may offer a tentative diagnosis of FMH from the autopsy findings. The objective of this study was to better characterize the placental and fetal autopsy findings in lethal FMH. This was a retrospective study of 17 cases of FMH proven by a positive Kleihauer-Betke test. The cases were selected from the autopsy files of the Department of Pathology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bordeaux. The pathological reports as well as the placental and fetal photographs and the microscopic slides of each case were systematically reviewed. The fetal autopsy findings in FMH are characterized by a eutrophic pale macerated fetus, low liver weight, absent intrathoracic petechiae, increased extramedullary hematopoiesis in the liver and kidney, and increased circulating nucleated red blood cells. The placenta shows an increased frequency of intervillous thrombi. Although nonpathognomonic, some of the pathological features are strongly suggestive of FMH. When the latter is present, a Kleihauer-Betke test should be performed, even some days after the delivery. PMID:24575782

  3. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  4. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Following Posterior Spinal Artery Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Geibprasert, S.; Krings, T.; Apitzsch, J.; Reinges, M.H.T.; Nolte, K.W.; Hans, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Isolated posterior spinal artery aneurysms are rare vascular lesions. We describe the case of a 43-year-old man presenting with spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage after a minor trauma who was found to have a dissecting aneurysm of a posterior spinal artery originating from the right T4 level. Endovascular treatment was not contemplated because of the small size of the feeding artery, whereas surgical resection was deemed more appropriate because of the posterolateral perimedullary location that was well appreciated on CT angiography. After surgical resection of the aneurysm the patient had a complete neurological recovery. In comparison to anterior spinal artery aneurysms whose pathogenesis is diverse, posterior spinal aneurysms are most often secondary to a dissection and represent false or spurious aneurysms. Although the definite diagnosis still requires spinal angiography, MRI and CT may better delineate the relationship of the aneurysm to the spinal cord in order to determine the best treatment method. Prompt treatment is recommended as they have high rebleeding and mortality rates. PMID:20642894

  5. Intramyocardial Hemorrhage: An Enigma for Cardiac MRI?

    PubMed Central

    Masselli, Gabriele; Monti, Riccardo; Spreca, Matteo; Gualdi, Gian Franco

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is a useful noninvasive technique for determining the presence of microvascular obstruction (MVO) and intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH), frequently occurring in patients after reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). MVO, or the so-called no-reflow phenomenon, is associated with adverse ventricular remodeling and a poor prognosis during follow-up. Similarly, IMH is considered a severe damage after revascularization by percutaneous primary coronary intervention (PPCI) or fibrinolysis, which represents a worse prognosis. However, the pathophysiology of IMH is not fully understood and imaging modalities might help to better understand that phenomenon. While, during the past decade, several studies examined the distribution patterns of late gadolinium enhancement with different CMR sequences, the standardized CMR protocol for assessment of IMH is not yet well established. The aim of this review is to evaluate the available literature on this issue, with particular regard to CMR sequences. New techniques, such as positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), could be useful tools to explore molecular mechanisms of the myocardial infarction healing process. PMID:25759823

  6. Animal models of viral hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darci R; Holbrook, Michael R; Gowen, Brian B

    2014-12-01

    The term "viral hemorrhagic fever" (VHF) designates a syndrome of acute febrile illness, increased vascular permeability and coagulation defects which often progresses to bleeding and shock and may be fatal in a significant percentage of cases. The causative agents are some 20 different RNA viruses in the families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae and Flaviviridae, which are maintained in a variety of animal species and are transferred to humans through direct or indirect contact or by an arthropod vector. Except for dengue, which is transmitted among humans by mosquitoes, the geographic distribution of each type of VHF is determined by the range of its animal reservoir. Treatments are available for Argentine HF and Lassa fever, but no approved countermeasures have been developed against other types of VHF. The development of effective interventions is hindered by the sporadic nature of most infections and their occurrence in geographic regions with limited medical resources. Laboratory animal models that faithfully reproduce human disease are therefore essential for the evaluation of potential vaccines and therapeutics. The goal of this review is to highlight the current status of animal models that can be used to study the pathogenesis of VHF and test new countermeasures. PMID:25448088

  7. BEAM PIPE HOM ABSORBER FOR 750 MHZ SRF CAVITIES * M. Neubauer, R. Sah, A. Dudas, Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL, U.S.A.

    E-print Network

    Hoffstaetter, Georg

    of this work; however, all elements of this study apply to the eventual final design. Attachment techniques to remove the heat due to the absorbed RF, and 3. to withstand the temperature stresses, 4. have low, but their performance under the load stress has more often than not ended in failure. These failures usually involve

  8. A Novel Polyomavirus (Goose Hemorrhagic Polyomavirus) Is the Agent of Hemorrhagic Nephritis Enteritis of Geese

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Jean-Luc; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Dubois, Luc; Vuillaume, Aimé; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Pingret, Jean-Luc

    2000-01-01

    We have identified the etiological agent of hemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of geese (HNEG), a fatal disease of European geese. HNEG has been recognized in almost all goose breeding areas, with an epizootic pattern, and up to now, the infectious agent has remained unknown. In order to identify the causative agent, infected tissues from HNEG-affected geese were inoculated to 1-day-old goslings, which then developed clinical signs typical of HNEG. Tissue homogenates from these birds were subjected to Freon extraction followed by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. The resulting main band was examined by electron microscopy and consisted of spherical, naked, papovavirus-like particles approximately 45 nm in diameter. The virus was isolated and propagated in goose kidney cell primary culture. Tissue- or culture-purified virus allowed the experimental reproduction of the disease in goslings. Random PCR amplification of viral nucleic acid produced a 1,175-bp fragment which was shown to be associated with field samples collected from geese affected by HNEG on commercial farms in France. Sequence analysis of the PCR product revealed a unique open reading frame, showing 63 to 72% amino acid similarity with the major capsid protein (VP1) of several polyomaviruses. Finally, based on phylogenetic analysis, we conclude that the causative agent of HNEG is closely related to but clearly distinct from other polyomaviruses; we thus have named this newly identified virus Goose hemorrhagic polyomavirus. PMID:10775588

  9. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Intramuscular Active Hemorrhage with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Dong Hyun; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jhj@radiol.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, and Institute of Radiation Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for intramuscular active hemorrhage of varied etiologies and anatomic sites. Methods: Eighteen patients who demonstrated hematoma with pseudoaneurysm and/or active extravasation of contrast media underwent TAE with NBCA. Etiologies of hematoma included trauma, postoperative complication, and coagulopathy (due to underlying disease or anticoagulation therapy). Sites of embolization included chest wall, abdomen wall, retroperitoneum, and extremity. TAE was performed by using 1:3 to 1:5 mixtures of NBCA and iodized oil, either solely (n = 15) or in combination with microcoil (n = 3). The technical and clinical success rate, procedure-related complications, and clinical outcomes were evaluated. Results: The technical and clinical success rates were 100% and 83% (15/18), respectively. Two patients expired while admitted due to other comorbidities. One patient expired due to recurrent bleeding at another site. There were no serious complications relating to the embolization procedure. Conclusions: TAE with NBCA is effective and safe treatment modality for intramuscular active hemorrhage.

  10. Retinal Hemorrhage in Abusive Head Trauma: Finding a Common Language

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Alex V.; Cordovez, Jose A.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Pequignot, Edward; Tandon, Anamika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the performance of a refined Web-based tool for documenting retinal hemorrhage characteristics in suspected abusive head trauma. Methods: Using a comprehensive tabular secure platform, with access to digital images in color, black and white, and 4-zone system schematic overlay, four pediatric ophthalmologists performed pilot testing with 80 images for tool refinement. In a second phase, retinal hemorrhages were documented by number, zone, and type. Interobserver agreement was calculated using the Fleiss kappa coefficient. Intraobserver agreement was calculated using Cohen’s kappa statistic. We used surface area mapping software for further analysis. Results: Interobserver agreement was good (kappa 0.4–0.6) and very good (kappa 0.6–0.8) for all questions in Zone A (peripapillary). For zones C (midperiphery) and D (peripheral retina), agreement was very good for all questions except number of hemorrhages, for which agreement was good. Zone B (macula) showed good and fair agreement except for superficial hemorrhage, for which agreement was poor. There was very good intraobserver agreement for number (kappa 0.68, 0.65, 0.67) and type of hemorrhages in zones A, B, and C. Surface area mapping results revealed no significant differences between zones A and B. Zones C and D had significantly less hemorrhage than A and B. Conclusions: Our tool performed with good or very good interobserver and intraobserver agreement in almost all domains. We attribute zone B underperformance to the significant increased area covered by hemorrhages compared to zones C and D and the lack of contrast with normal anatomical structures in zone A. PMID:25075150

  11. [Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers--pathogens, epidemiology and therapy].

    PubMed

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-09-01

    Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are severe, systemic viral diseases affecting humans and non-human primates. They are characterized by multiple symptoms such as hemorrhages, fever, headache, muscle and abdominal pain, chills, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Elevated liver-associated enzyme levels and coagulopathy are also associated with these diseases. Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers are caused by (Lake victoria) Marburg virus and different species of Ebola viruses, respectively. They are enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses and belong to the family of filoviridae. Case fatality rates of filovirus disease outbreaks are among the highest reported for any human pathogen, ranging from 25 to 90% or more. Outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fever occur in certain regions of equatorial Africa at irregular intervals. Since 2000, the number of outbreaks has increased. In 2014, the biggest outbreak of a filovirus-induced hemorrhagic fever that has been documented so far occurred from March to July 2014 in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Nigeria. The outbreak was caused by a new variant of Zaire Ebola-Virus, affected more than 2600 people (stated 20 August) and was associated with case-fatality rates of up to 67% (Guinea). Treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers is symptomatic and supportive, licensed antiviral agents are currently not available. Recently, BCX4430, a promising synthetic adenosine analogue with high in vitro and in vivo activity against filoviruses and other RNA viruses, has been described. BCX4430 inhibits viral RNA polymerase activity and protects cynomolgus macaques from Marburg virus infection when administered as late as 48 hours after infection. Nucleic acid-based products, recombinant vaccines and antibodies appear to be less suitable for the treatment of Marburg and Ebola hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:25282746

  12. Effect of water temperature shifting on mortality of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus experimentally infected with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Motohiko Sano; Takafumi Ito; Tomomasa Matsuyama; Chihaya Nakayasu; Jun Kurita

    2009-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infection has been one of the major obstacles for Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus culture both in inland tank systems and open sea net-pens in Japan. The mortality due to the disease in cultured Japanese flounder occurs in the cold-water season at temperatures mostly below 15 °C. We examined the effect on the disease by shifting the

  13. Disruption of the Cbfa2 Gene Causes Necrosis and Hemorrhaging in the Central Nervous System and Blocks Definitive Hematopoiesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing Wang; Terryl Stacy; Michael Binder; Miguel Marin-Padilla; Arlene H. Sharpe; Nancy A. Speck

    1996-01-01

    The CBFA2 (AML1) gene encodes a DNA-binding subunit of the heterodimeric core-binding factor. The CBFA2 gene is disrupted by the (8;21), (3;21), and (12;21) chromosomal translocations associated with leukemias and myelodysplasias in humans. Mice lacking a CBFalpha 2 protein capable of binding DNA die between embryonic days 11.5 and 12.5 due to hemorrhaging in the central nervous system (CNS), at

  14. [Neuro-critical management of glycemia in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Navas-Marrugo, Sandy Zuleica; Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage represents between 10 and 15% of all cerebrovascular events. Intracerebral hemorrhage is far less frequent than ischemic stroke, but leads to increased morbidity and mortality, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Several changes have been identified in the field of intracerebral hemorrhage, including endocrine. These stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries that are directly involved in the alterations of glucose in the context of an intracerebral hemorrhage, offers a vision of how the cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic disturbances alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:24791369

  15. The intractable intra-abdominal hemorrhage with unknown etiology in a patient with severe hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Morichika, Kazuho; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Nishi, Yukiko; Nakachi, Sawako; Fukushima, Takuya; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Severe hemophilia patients are more likely to be complicated by intra-articular hemorrhage, subcutaneous hemorrhage, and intra-mascular hemorrhage. Spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage is a rare fatal disease, which is an arterial bleeding of uncertain causes from vessel feeding arteries. In case the spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhage is complicated to severe hemophilia patients, the mortality rate increases considerably. We experienced a patient with severe hemophilia A, who made a full recovery from spontaneous intra-abdominal hemorrhagic shock by replacement therapy of coagulation factor VII, a noninvasive procedure. PMID:25088441

  16. Abdominal packing for surgically uncontrollable hemorrhage.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, K W; Locicero, R J

    1992-01-01

    Planned intra-abdominal packing for surgically uncontrollable hemorrhage from liver and retroperitoneal injuries exacerbated by hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy regained popularity over the past decade. The authors reviewed 39 patients injured between August 1985 and September 1990; 31 packed for liver injuries, eight for nonliver injuries. The overall mortality rate was 44% (17/39); 9 (23%) exsanguinated, 3 (8%) died of head injuries, 3 (8%) of multisystem organ failure, 2 (5%) of late complications. The mean age was 33.9 +/- 16.2 (range, 16 to 79); there were 26 men and 13 women. Relaparotomy for pack removal was performed 2.0 +/- 1.1 days (range, 1 to 7) after initial operation. The authors identified intraoperative risk factors of pH less than or equal to 7.18, temperature less than or equal to 33 C, prothrombin time greater than or equal to 16, partial thromboplastin time greater than or equal to 50, and transfusion of 10 units or more of blood as highly predictive of outcome. Patients with four to five risk factors (n = 3) had a 100% mortality rate (p less than 0.04); two to three risk factors (n = 12), 83% mortality rate (p less than 0.003), compared with zero to one risk factors (n = 24), 18% mortality rate. Complications developed in six of 22 survivors (27%): 5 abdominal abscesses (23%), 2 wound dehiscences (9%), and 2 enterocutaneous fistulae (9%). Intra-abdominal packing will not stop all bleeding; 23% of the patients exsanguinated. In 77%, packing helped achieve hemostasis we believed was not otherwise possible. Packing may be done to prevent the development of acidosis, hypothermia, and coagulopathy or may be done early in the treatment of cold, acidotic patients rather than massive transfusion in the face of surgically uncorrectable bleeding. PMID:1616383

  17. [Acquired pendular nystagmus after pontine hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Yokota, J; Kosaka, K; Yoshimoto, Y; Amakusa, T

    1999-12-01

    A 60-year-old hypertensive woman had a pontine hemorrhage that caused slight right hemiplegia, deep sensory disturbance on her right side and dysarthria. Three months after the stroke, she was transferred to our hospital for rehabilitation. Approximately 6 months later, she gradually began to complain of the visual oscillation. Continual, unceasing conjugate vertical/rotatory eye movements were observed. Fixation was momentary at best because of an inability to dampen the spontaneous eye movements. Electrooculography (EOG) showed bilateral vertical/rotatory sinusoidal eye movements of 2.5 Hz frequency and 10- to 35-degree amplitude. Both vertical and horizontal optokinetic nystagmus were absent. Caloric stimulation did not evoke any responses bilaterally. There were no rhythmical movements at similar frequencies in other parts of the body such as palatal myoclonus. MRI revealed not only hematoma mainly at the dorsal pontine tegmentum but also hypertrophy of the inferior olive nucleus, suggesting disruption of the central tegmental tract. Lesions of this tract may be one cause of pendular nystagmus. Several drug therapies were investigated for the nystagmus. There was no response to baclofen 15 mg. Trihexyphenidyl 4 mg was discontinued because of drug-induced hallucinations. Tiapride 600 mg and phenobarbital 90 mg were each slightly effective in reducing both frequency and amplitude of nystagmus. Treatment with clonazepam 1 mg resulted in the striking disappearance of nystagmus. She was aware of this and no longer experienced oscillopsia. Despite the visual benefit, however, the patient did not wish to continue this drug because of drowsiness and muscle relaxation. The potential long-term therapeutic application of clonazepam should be further investigated. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of successful treatment in acquired pendular nystagmus with clonazepam. Therefore, based on this favorable experience, it is suggested that clonazepam should be added to the list of potential therapies for pendular nystagmus. PMID:10654302

  18. Sensorineural hearing loss in hemorrhagic dengue?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Bruna Natália Freire; Guimarães, Alexandre Caixeta; Yazawa, Felipe; Takara, Tammy Fumiko Messias; de Carvalho, Guilherme Machado; Zappelini, Carlos Eduardo Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dengue is an acute febrile infectious disease, with high fever followed by symptoms flu-like. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a vascular leak syndrome and could present spontaneous bleeding and worsening of symptoms after some days. Dengue could have some ENT manifestations, however hearing loss is not one of them. Sudden hearing loss is considered as sensorineural or perceptual hearing loss with a sudden onset in a person without other prior otological history. The relation between infectious diseases and sudden hearing are been investigated, some viruses were already linked, but the relation between dengue virus and sudden hearing still remains unknown. This article has the goal of presenting a case of DHF that evolved with SSHL in his hospitalization process. Presentation of case We report a 60 years-male patient of with DHF who developed bilateral secretory otitis media and sensorineural hearing loss after the fifth day of onset of symptoms. His hearing loss remained even after 7 months and the patient was referred for hearing aid fitting. Discussion and conclusion This is the first case report that brings together DHF and sudden hearing loss. In the development of this case no other cause to sudden hearing loss was found and the correlation between dengue and hearing loss was questioned. In the literature review was found that some viruses, as mumps virus, varicella-zoster virus and HSV-1 and HSV-2 are related to sudden hearing loss, all of them fit in the viral theory. Besides the viral theory of sudden hearing loss, there is the vascular theory that is the occlusion of the end artery that supplies the cochlea. DHF has a vascular commitment, and the hypothesis of a vascular cause could be elicited in this case. Many studies in this area are needed and this article has the objective of elicit the discussion about the subject. Could dengue be associated with sensorineural hearing loss? PMID:25625489

  19. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia in Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Masaki; Ishiguro, Tomoya; Yamada, Osamu; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    To describe clinical presentations of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients in Japan. There were 80 patients (40 men and 40 women, age 2-78, mean 39.4 years old), who were either genetically verified or genetically not identifiable but clinically definite HHT patients. Clinical presentations of these HHT patients were analyzed retrospectively. Radiological examinations, which included at least brain magnetic resonance imaging and lung computed tomography, were performed when indicated. Seventy-eight patients had either endoglin (ENG) or activin A receptor type II-like 1 (ACVRL1) mutation. They were 53 HHT1 patients with ENG mutation in 27 families and 25 HHT2 patients with ACVRL1 mutation in 17 families. Two other female patients were clinically definite HHT, but genetic mutation could not be identified. Nosebleeds were noted in 53/53 (100%) HHT1 and 24/25 (96%) HHT2 patients. Telangiectases were observed in 34/53 (64%) HHT1 and 18/25 (72%) HHT2 patients. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were noted in 33/52 HHT1 (63%) and 5/25 HHT2 patients (20%). Brain AVMs were detected in 12/51 HHT1 (24%) and 1/25 HHT2 (4%) patients. Hepatic AVMs were noted in 7/29 (24%) HHT1 and 16/20 (80%) HHT2 patients. The number of HHT1 patients was roughly twice as many as that of HHT2 patients in Japan. Pulmonary and brain AVMs were predominantly observed in HHT1 while hepatic AVMs were detected in HHT2. It seemed that ethnicity and regionality had minimal roles in the clinical presentation of HHT. PMID:24196379

  20. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system caused by hemorrhagic intraventricular craniopharyngioma: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tosaka, Masahiko; Sato, Koji; Amanuma, Makoto; Higuchi, Tetsuya; Arai, Motohiro; Aishima, Kaoru; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Horiguchi, Keishi; Sugawara, Kenichi; Yoshimoto, Yuhei

    2015-01-15

    Superficial siderosis is a rare condition caused by hemosiderin deposits in the central nervous system (CNS) due to prolonged or recurrent low-grade bleeding into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CNS tumor could be one of the sources of bleeding, both pre- and postoperatively. We report an extremely rare case of superficial siderosis associated with purely third ventricle craniopharyngioma, and review previously reported cases of superficial siderosis associated with CNS tumor. A 69-year-old man presented with headache, unsteady gait, blurred vision, and progressive hearing loss. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with gadolinium revealed a well enhanced, intraventricular mass in the anterior part of the third ventricle. T2*-weighted gradient echo (GE) MR imaging revealed a hypointense rim around the brain particularly marked within the depth of the sulci. Superficial siderosis was diagnosed based on these findings. The tumor was diffusely hypointense on T2*-weighted GE imaging, indicating intratumoral hemorrhage. The lateral ventricles were dilated, suggesting hydrocephalus. [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed increased uptake in the tumor. The whole brain surface appeared dark ocher at surgery. Histological examination showed the hemorrhagic tumor was papillary craniopharyngioma. His hearing loss progressed after removal of the tumor. T2*-weighted GE MR imaging demonstrated not only superficial siderosis but also diffuse intratumoral hemorrhage in the tumor. Superficial siderosis and its related symptoms, including hearing loss, should be considered in patients with hemorrhagic tumor related to the CSF space. Purely third ventricle craniopharyngioma rarely has hemorrhagic character, which could cause superficial siderosis and progressive hearing loss. PMID:24670310

  1. Hematoma Expansion is Common after Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Children

    PubMed Central

    Beslow, Lauren A.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Gindville, Melissa C.; Kleinman, Jonathan T.; Bastian, Rachel A.; Smith, Sabrina E.; Licht, Daniel J.; Hillis, Argye E.; Jordan, Lori C.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Hematoma expansion is the only modifiable predictor of outcome in adult intracerebral hemorrhage; however, the frequency and clinical significance of hematoma expansion after childhood intracerebral hemorrhage are unknown. Objective To assess the frequency and extent of hematoma expansion in children with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Three tertiary care pediatric hospitals. Participants Children (?37 weeks gestation-18 years) with non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage were enrolled in a three-center prospective observational study from 2007–2012 focused on predictors of outcome. For this planned sub-study of hematoma expansion, neonates ?28 days and participants with isolated intraventricular hemorrhage were excluded. Children with two head CTs within 48 hours were evaluated for hematoma expansion and were compared to children with only one head CT. Consent for the primary cohort was obtained from 73 of 87 eligible subjects (84%); 41 of 73 children enrolled in the primary cohort met all inclusion/exclusion criteria for this sub-study in whom 22 had two head CTs obtained within 48 hours that could be evaluated for hematoma expansion. Within our sub-study cohort, 21/41 (51%) were male, 25/41 (61%) were white, 16/25 (39%) were black, and median age was 7.7 years (interquartile range 2.0–13.4 years). Main Outcome Measure Primary outcome was prevalence of hematoma expansion. Results Of 73 children, 41 (56%) met inclusion criteria, and 22 (30%) had 2 head CTs to evaluate expansion. Among these 22 children, median time from symptom onset to first CT was two hours (interquartile range 1.3–6.5 hours). Median baseline hemorrhage volume was 19.5mL, 1.6% of brain volume. Hematoma expansion occurred in (7/22) 32%. Median expansion was 4mL (interquartile range 1–11mL). Three children had significant (>33%) expansion; two required urgent hematoma evacuation. Expansion was not associated with poorer outcome. Compared to children with only one head CT within 48 hours, children with two head CTs had larger baseline hemorrhage volumes (p=.05) and were more likely to receive treatment for elevated intracranial pressure (p<.001). Conclusions and Relevance Hematoma expansion occurs in children with intracerebral hemorrhage and may require urgent treatment. Repeat CT should be considered in children with either large hemorrhage or increased intracranial pressure. PMID:24296993

  2. Hemorrhagic Complications of Paracentesis: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vishal; Naveed, Ammara; Schreibman, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Large volume paracentesis is considered a safe procedure carrying minimal risk of complications and rarely causing morbidity or mortality. The most common complications of the procedure are ascitic fluid leakage, hemorrhage, infection, and perforation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate all hemorrhagic complications and their outcomes and to identify any common variables. Methods. A literature search for all reported hemorrhagic complications following paracentesis was conducted. A total of 61 patients were identified. Data of interest were extracted and analyzed. The primary outcome of the study was 30-day mortality, with secondary endpoints being achievement of hemostasis after intervention and mortality based on type of intervention. Results. 90% of the patients undergoing paracentesis had underlying cirrhosis. Three types of hemorrhagic complications were identified: abdominal wall hematomas (52%), hemoperitoneum (41%), and pseudoaneurysm (7%). Forty percent of the patients underwent either a surgical (35%) or an IR guided intervention (65%). Patients undergoing a surgical intervention had a significantly higher rate of mortality at day 30 compared to those undergoing IR intervention. Conclusion. Abdominal wall hematomas and hemoperitoneum are the most common hemorrhagic complications of paracentesis. Transcatheter coiling and embolization appear to be superior to both open and laparoscopic surgery in treatment of these complications. PMID:25580114

  3. Spontaneous adrenal pheochromocytoma rupture complicated by intraperitoneal hemorrhage and shock

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    MEN2A is a hereditary syndrome characterized by medullary thyroid carcinoma, hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma. Classically patients with a pheochromocytoma initially present with the triad of paroxysmal headaches, palpitations, and diaphoresis accompanied by marked hypertension. However, although reported as a rare presentation, spontaneous hemorrhage within a pheochromocytoma can present as an abdominal catastrophe. Unrecognized, this transformation can rapidly result in death. We report the only documented case of a thirty eight year old gentleman with MEN2A who presented to a community hospital with hemorrhagic shock and peritonitis secondary to an unrecognized hemorrhagic pheochromocytoma. The clinical course is notable for an inability to localize the source of hemorrhage during an initial damage control laparotomy that stabilized the patient sufficiently to allow emergent transfer to our facility, re-exploration for continued hemorrhage and abdominal compartment syndrome, and ultimately angiographic embolization of the left adrenal artery for control of the bleeding. Following recovery from his critical illness and appropriate medical management for pheochromocytoma, he returned for interval bilateral adrenal gland resection, from which his recovery was unremarkable. Our review of the literature highlights the high mortality associated with the undertaking of an operative intervention in the face of an unrecognized functional pheochromocytoma. This reinforces the need for maintaining a high index of suspicion for pheochromocytoma in similar cases. Our case also demonstrates the need for a mutimodal treatment approach that will often be required in these cases. PMID:21843357

  4. Hemorrhagic retinopathy in an infant with hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geraissate, João Caetano Ávila; Yamamoto, Rafael Eidi; Isaac, David Leonardo Cruvinel; Ávila, Marcos Pereira de

    2014-12-01

    We describe the case of a 23-month-old female infant with a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and hemorrhagic retinopathy. The patient had a past history of abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and acute renal failure. On ophthalmologic examination, indirect ophthalmoscopy revealed extensive areas of flame-shaped hemorrhage, cotton wool spots, macular edema and optic nerve head neovascularization in both eyes. Fluorescein angiography showed severe bilateral retinal ischemia and neovascularization leakage in disk. The patient, who had the visual acuity of 20/1000 in the right eye (OD) and 20/540 in the left eye (OS) at the first examination, was treated with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and presented at the end of the 6th month of follow-up improvement to 20/540 in OD and 20/270 in OS. There was also a regression of disc neovascularization, hemorrhages and macular edema. Despite intense retinal ischemia, there were no complications related to angiogenesis such as vitreous hemorrhage and/or neovascular glaucoma. We describe, in this report, the association between hemorrhagic retinopathy with features of Purtscher-like disease and HUS. PMID:25627190

  5. Treatment of Nonvariceal Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage by Transcatheter Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Muhammad; Ul Haq, Tanveer; Salam, Basit; Beg, Madiha; Azeemuddin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the sensitivity of mesenteric angiography, technical success of hemostasis, clinical success rate, and complications of transcatheter embolization for the treatment of acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Material and Methods. A retrospective review of 200 consecutive patients who underwent mesenteric arteriography for acute nonvariceal gastrointestinal hemorrhage between February 2004 and February 2011 was done. Results. Of 200 angiographic studies, 114 correctly revealed the bleeding site with mesenteric angiography. 47 (41%) patients had upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and 67 (59%) patients had lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Out of these 114, in 112 patients (98%) technical success was achieved with immediate cessation of bleeding. 81 patients could be followed for one month. Clinical success was achieved in 72 out of these 81 patients (89%). Seven patients rebled. 2 patients developed bowel ischemia. Four patients underwent surgery for bowel ischemia or rebleeding. Conclusion. The use of therapeutic transcatheter embolization for treatment of acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage is highly successful and relatively safe with 98% technical success and 2.4% postembolization ischemia in our series. In 89% of cases it was definitive without any further intervention. PMID:23844289

  6. EBOLA IN THE NEWS (UPDATED 10-17-14) The likelihood of the arrival of someone at the University of Rochester with hemorrhagic fever

    E-print Network

    EBOLA IN THE NEWS (UPDATED 10-17-14) The likelihood of the arrival of someone at the University of Rochester with hemorrhagic fever due to Ebola virus disease is very low. The potential for transmission in the United States outside healthcare settings is also very low. However, the continued spread of Ebola virus

  7. Gallic Acid exhibits risks of inducing muscular hemorrhagic liposis and cerebral hemorrhage-its action mechanism and preventive strategy.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Lin, Chien-Hong; Wang, Hui-Er; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Peng, Robert Y

    2015-02-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) (GA) occurs in many plants. The adverse effects of GA are seldom cited. GA (6-14??M) provoked the hemorrhagic liposis of the cervical muscles and intracranial hemorrhage. The cause of these pathological events and the method for prevention are still lacking. Using the chicken embryo model and some selected nutraceutics such as folate, glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine, and vitamin E (Vit E), we carried out this study. Results revealed that the action mechanism of GA involved (i) inducing hypoxia with upregulated gene hif-1? and downregulated ratio vegf-r2/vegf-a, leading to dys-vascularization and myopathy; (ii) impairing cytochrome c oxidase; (iii) stimulating creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase release; (iv) eliciting carnitine accumulation and liposis via downregulating gene CPT1; (v) suppressing superoxide dismutase and stimulating NO, H2 O2 , and malondialdehyde; and (vi) depleting erythrocytic and tissue GSH, resulting in hemorrhage. When both Vit E and GSH were applied to the day?1 chicks, a better alleviation effect was revealed. Conclusively, GA potentially exhibits adverse effect by eliciting hemorrhagic liposis of cervical muscles and cerebral hemorrhage. Supplementation with GSH, Vit E, and N-acetylcysteine is able to ameliorate these adverse effects, warranting the importance of restricting the clinical phytotherapeutic doses of GA and related compounds. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25403162

  8. Precordial vibrations provide noninvasive detection of early-stage hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Dumont, Guy A; Houlton, Geoffrey; Blaber, Andrew P

    2014-02-01

    Graded lower-body negative pressure was used to create a hemodynamic response similar to hemorrhage. Echocardiogram measurements showed a maximal reduction of 32.4% in stroke volume. Analysis of systolic time intervals, such as pre-ejection period and left ventricular ejection time (LVET), derived from a seismocardiogram (SCG), were demonstrated to be more sensitive in detection of early-stage hemorrhage compared with pulse pressure, heart rate, and the amplitude features extracted from SCG. In particular, the LVET and pre-ejection period/LVET features, extracted from SCG, were significantly different between, and correlated with, the different stages of lower-body negative pressure (r = 0.9 and 0.88, P < 0.05), for 32 subjects. These results suggest a portable, cost-effective solution for identification of mild or moderate hemorrhage using accelerometers. PMID:24434413

  9. Neuroprotective effects of edaravone after intraventricular hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Jianbo; Chen, Qianwei; Guo, Jing; Zhu, Gang; Feng, Hua

    2014-06-18

    Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a severity factor and treatment target in intracerebral hemorrhage. This study aimed to investigate whether systemic edaravone, a free-radical scavenger, could attenuate the brain injury after IVH in a rat model. Our findings showed that an intraventricular injection of autologous whole blood resulted in acute brain edema, increased malondialdehyde level, and decreased superoxide dismutase enzyme activity. Immediate edaravone treatment after IVH can reduce IVH-induced brain edema and elevated lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, repeated edaravone treatment (immediately, 24 h, and 48 h after IVH) improved the IVH-induced learning and memory damage. These effects suggest that edaravone may be a potential therapeutic agent for IVH, especially those intracerebral hemorrhage patients with ventricular extension. PMID:24169603

  10. Transcatheter Embolization for Delayed Hemorrhage Caused by Blunt Splenic Trauma

    SciTech Connect

    Krohmer, Steven J., E-mail: Steven.J.Krohmer@hitchcock.org; Hoffer, Eric K., E-mail: eric.k.hoffer@hitchcock.or [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United States); Burchard, Kenneth W., E-mail: Kenneth.W.Burchard@hitchcock.or [Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Department of Surgery (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Although the exact benefit of adjunctive splenic artery embolization (SAE) in the nonoperative management (NOM) of patients with blunt splenic trauma has been debated, the role of transcatheter embolization in delayed splenic hemorrhage is rarely addressed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of SAE in the management of patients who presented at least 3 days after initial splenic trauma with delayed hemorrhage. During a 24-month period 4 patients (all male; ages 19-49 years) presented with acute onset of pain 5-70 days after blunt trauma to the left upper quadrant. Two had known splenic injuries that had been managed nonoperatively. All had computed axial tomography evidence of active splenic hemorrhage or false aneurysm on representation. All underwent successful SAE. Follow-up ranged from 28 to 370 days. These cases and a review of the literature indicate that SAE is safe and effective for NOM failure caused by delayed manifestations of splenic arterial injury.

  11. Current Management Strategies for Acute Esophageal Variceal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Brett; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    Acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage is one of the clinical events that define decompensated cirrhosis and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Although recent treatment strategies have led to improved outcomes, variceal hemorrhage still carries a 6-week mortality rate of 15-20%. Current standards in its treatment include antibiotic prophylaxis, infusion of a vasoactive drug and endoscopic variceal ligation. The placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is considered for patients that have treatment failure or recurrent bleeding. Recurrent hemorrhage is prevented with the combination of a non-selective beta-blocker and endoscopic variceal ligation. These recommendations however assume that all patients with cirrhosis are equal. Based on a review of recent evidence, a strategy in which patients are stratified by Child class, the main predictor of outcomes, is proposed. PMID:24955303

  12. Supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma presenting with repeated intratumoral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Han, Min-Hee; Park, Ki-Su; Park, Seong-Hyun; Hwang, Jeong-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymomas are extremely rare. We report the case of a 23-year-old male with a supratentorial extraventricular anaplastic ependymoma that presented with repeated intratumoral hemorrhage. The patient was diagnosed with an intracerebral hematoma in the left occipital lobe and underwent operation. The hematoma did not reveal tumor cells, but a new tumor grew in the same location 5 years later. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a tumor with intratumoral hemorrhage. The patient underwent the tumor resection. Intraoperative findings showed that the tumor had no continuity with the ventricle. Histopathological examinations confirmed an anaplastic ependymoma. The spinal evaluation was unremarkable, and radiotherapy was administered to the left occipital lobe. Four years later, the tumor recurred at the cervicomedullary junction and T8-T9 levels. This case demonstrates that anaplastic ependymomas should be included in the differential diagnoses of supratentorial extraventricular tumors presenting with repeated intratumoral hemorrhage. PMID:25408930

  13. Management of hemorrhage with the target-specific oral anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Pluym, Mark; Howell, Gregory

    2014-08-01

    The target-specific oral anticoagulants have recently been introduced as alternatives to warfarin for both prophylactic and therapeutic indications. Although their efficacy and side-effect profiles have been favorable, there is significant concern about management of hemorrhage with these agents as there is no direct reversal agent available. It is important for clinicians to be aware of these agents and the issues that surround them. Most of the management of hemorrhage is based on expert opinion and case reviews. Given the potentially catastrophic consequences of acute hemorrhage while patients are on anticoagulation, specific treatments are needed. Some methods that have been described include activated charcoal, hemodialysis, prohemostatic agents, and transfusions. Target-specific therapies have been shown to be effective in early studies in animal models; however, the effects in humans are still under investigation. More investigation is needed on the management of bleeding complications from target-specific oral anticoagulants. PMID:25255409

  14. Host genetic diversity enables Ebola hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis and resistance.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Angela L; Okumura, Atsushi; Ferris, Martin T; Green, Richard; Feldmann, Friederike; Kelly, Sara M; Scott, Dana P; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; LaCasse, Rachel; Thomas, Matthew J; Sova, Pavel; Carter, Victoria S; Weiss, Jeffrey M; Miller, Darla R; Shaw, Ginger D; Korth, Marcus J; Heise, Mark T; Baric, Ralph S; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G

    2014-11-21

    Existing mouse models of lethal Ebola virus infection do not reproduce hallmark symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, neither delayed blood coagulation and disseminated intravascular coagulation nor death from shock, thus restricting pathogenesis studies to nonhuman primates. Here we show that mice from the Collaborative Cross panel of recombinant inbred mice exhibit distinct disease phenotypes after mouse-adapted Ebola virus infection. Phenotypes range from complete resistance to lethal disease to severe hemorrhagic fever characterized by prolonged coagulation times and 100% mortality. Inflammatory signaling was associated with vascular permeability and endothelial activation, and resistance to lethal infection arose by induction of lymphocyte differentiation and cellular adhesion, probably mediated by the susceptibility allele Tek. These data indicate that genetic background determines susceptibility to Ebola hemorrhagic fever. PMID:25359852

  15. Host genetic diversity enables Ebola hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis and resistance

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Angela L.; Okumura, Atsushi; Ferris, Martin T.; Green, Richard; Feldmann, Friederike; Kelly, Sara M.; Scott, Dana P.; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; LaCasse, Rachel; Thomas, Matthew J.; Sova, Pavel; Carter, Victoria S.; Weiss, Jeffrey M.; Miller, Darla R.; Shaw, Ginger D.; Korth, Marcus J.; Heise, Mark T.; Baric, Ralph S.; de Villena, Fernando Pardo-Manuel; Feldmann, Heinz; Katze, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Existing mouse models of lethal Ebola virus infection do not reproduce hallmark symptoms of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, neither delayed blood coagulation and disseminated intravascular coagulation, nor death from shock, thus restricting pathogenesis studies to non-human primates. Here we show that mice from the Collaborative Cross exhibit distinct disease phenotypes following mouse-adapted Ebola virus infection. Phenotypes range from complete resistance to lethal disease to severe hemorrhagic fever characterized by prolonged coagulation times and 100% mortality. Inflammatory signaling was associated with vascular permeability and endothelial activation, and resistance to lethal infection arose by induction of lymphocyte differentiation and cellular adhesion, likely mediated by the susceptibility allele Tek. These data indicate that genetic background determines susceptibility to Ebola hemorrhagic fever. PMID:25359852

  16. Massive Delayed Vaginal Hemorrhage after Laparoscopic Supracervical Hysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Holloran-Schwartz, M. Brigid; Potter, Shannon J.; Kao, Ming-Shian

    2012-01-01

    Background. A known complication of supracervical hysterectomy is cyclical bleeding from the retained cervix when functioning endometrial tissue is not totally removed. We present a rare case of delayed postoperative vaginal hemorrhage after supracervical hysterectomy. Case. A 44-year-old woman presented on postoperative day 15 after laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy with massive vaginal hemorrhage requiring emergent re-operation. Her bleeding was controlled with vaginally placed sutures. Ultrasound confirmed no intraperitoneal free fluid. The etiology was thought to be induced by postoperative tissue necrosis from cautery applied to the endocervical canal during the original surgery. Conclusion. Delayed vaginal hemorrhage from a retained cervix is a rare complication of laparoscopic supracervical hysterectomy. Caution should be exercised when cauterizing the endocervical canal as induced tissue necrosis may increase the risk of postoperative bleeding. PMID:22919525

  17. Wetland cover dynamics drive hemorrhagic disease patterns in white-tailed deer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Berry, Brett S; Magori, Krisztian; Perofsky, Amanda C; Stallknecht, David E; Park, Andrew W

    2013-07-01

    While vector-borne diseases are known to be particularly influenced by environmental factors, the impact of land-cover change on vector-borne wildlife disease patterns is poorly understood, largely due to the paucity of data on disease occurrence at extensive spatial and temporal scales. Widespread and rapid anthropogenic land-cover change, especially urbanization, has transformed the US landscape during the last century. Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus and blue tongue virus, vectored by Culicoides biting midges, are two RNA viruses in the Orbivirus genus that cause severe hemorrhagic disease (HD) in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We examine the spatial dynamics of HD affecting white-tailed deer in the contiguous United States in two periods covering 1980 to 2007 in connection with land-cover change over the same time. Using spatial statistical modeling, wetland cover emerges as a critical driver of HD morbidity, whereas the drivers of mortality patterns are more complex. Increasing wetland cover is positively associated with HD morbidity, which is consistent with the ecologic requirements of the Culicoides vector. Wetland cover is inherently dynamic due to its importance to biodiversity and water quality as well as its utility for other purposes when drained. Accordingly this analysis helps in understanding the consequences of changing wetlands on vector-borne disease patterns, to identify disease hotspots in a large landscape, and to forecast the spatial spread of HD and related diseases. PMID:23778598

  18. Docking and in silico ADMET studies of noraristeromycin, curcumin and its derivatives with Plasmodium falciparum SAH hydrolase: a molecular drug target against malaria.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dev Bukhsh; Gupta, Manish Kumar; Singh, Durg Vijay; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Misra, Krishna

    2013-03-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (pfSAHH) enzyme has been considered as a potential chemotherapeutic target against malaria due to the amino acid differences found on binding sites of pfSAHH related to human SAHH. It has been reported that noraristeromycin and some curcumin derivatives have potential binding with the largest cavity of pfSAHH, which is also related to the binding with Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide (NAD) and Adenosine (ADN). Our present work focuses on docking and ADMET studies to select potential inhibitors of pfSAHH. The binding of the selected inhibitor of the PfSAHH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker. In this study, curcumin and its derivatives have been found to have higher binding affinity with pfSAHH than noraristeromycin. Seven amino acid residues Leu53, His54, Thr56, Lys230, Gly397, His398 and Phe407 of pfSAHH involved in binding with curcumin, are the same as those for noraristeromycin, which reveals that curcumin and noraristeromycin bind in the same region of pfSAHH. Curcumin has shown a strong interaction with hydrophobic amino acid residues of pfSAHH. Molecular Docking and ADMET predictions suggest that curcumin can be a potent inhibitor of pfSAHH with ability to modulate the target in comparatively smaller dose. Therefore, curcumin is likely to become a good lead molecule for the development of effective drug against malaria. PMID:23605635

  19. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor presenting with intracranial hemorrhage in adult.

    PubMed

    Abuzayed, Bashar; Khreisat, Wiam; Maaiah, William; Agailat, Saoud

    2014-04-01

    A 24-year-old female patient presented with complaints of nausea, vomiting and of loss of consciousness lasted for 15 minutes with left sided weakness. Neuroradiological evaluation revealed a hemorrhagic mass lesion in the right frontal lobe. The patient was operated and intraoperative findings showed a cortical-subcortical hematoma including hemorrhagic and disrupted tissue with a pathologic purple tissue on the periphery of the hematoma. Postoperative course was uneventful and postoperative histopathological examination revealed primitive neuroectodermal tumor. The patient was then referred to medical and radiation oncology clinics for further evaluation and treatment. PMID:24966562

  20. [Unexpected hemorrhage complications in association with celecoxib. Spontaneously reported case series after perioperative pain treatment in gynecological operations].

    PubMed

    Stammschulte, T; Brune, K; Brack, A; Augenstein, H; Arends, G; Gundert-Remy, U

    2014-12-01

    A series of cases of postoperative bleeding were reported to the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association (Arzneimittelkommission der deutschen Ärzteschaft, AkdÄ) within the spontaneous reporting system after the regimen for postoperative pain treatment was changed from diclofenac (150 mg per day) to celecoxib (400 mg per day). All patients underwent elective gynecological surgery and 7 out of 11 patients with postoperative bleeding required revision surgery. Although alternative causes for the hemorrhage incidents could not be excluded, the documented circumstances could have been indicative of a possible causal association. Studies on perioperative pain treatment with celecoxib had previously shown no increased risk of hemorrhage. The tendency to hemorrhage observed in the registered cases could not be pharmacologically explained; however, due to the high dosages of celecoxib and the extensive co-medications used, a relative overdosing due to drug interactions or differences in the metabolism of the affected patients was conceivable. Celecoxib is not approved for the treatment of acute postoperative pain although a number of studies were carried out on the effectiveness and safety in patients undergoing surgery. PMID:25277285

  1. Disruption of the Cbfa2 gene causes necrosis and hemorrhaging in the central nervous system and blocks definitive hematopoiesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q; Stacy, T; Binder, M; Marin-Padilla, M; Sharpe, A H; Speck, N A

    1996-01-01

    The CBFA2 (AML1) gene encodes a DNA-binding subunit of the heterodimeric core-binding factor. The CBFA2 gene is disrupted by the (8;21), (3;21), and (12;21) chromosomal translocations associated with leukemias and myelodysplasias in humans. Mice lacking a CBF alpha 2 protein capable of binding DNA die between embryonic days 11.5 and 12.5 due to hemorrhaging in the central nervous system (CNS), at the nerve/CNS interfaces of cranial and spinal nerves, and in somitic/intersomitic regions along the presumptive spinal cord. Hemorrhaging is preceded by symmetric, bilateral necrosis in these regions. Definitive erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis do not occur in Cbfa2-deficient embryos, and disruption of one copy of the Cbfa2 gene significantly reduces the number of progenitors for erythroid and myeloid cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8622955

  2. Hyperbaric Oxygen-Induced Attenuation of Hemorrhagic Transformation After Experimental Focal Transient Cerebral Ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhiyong Qin; Murat Karabiyikoglu; Ya Hua; Robert Silbergleit; Yangdong He; Richard F. Keep; Guohua Xi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose—An increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation is a major factor limiting the use of tissue plasminogen activator for stroke. Increased hemorrhagic transformation is also found in animals undergoing transient focal cerebral ischemia with hyperglycemia; this study examined whether hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) could reduce such hemorrhagic transformation in a rat model. Methods—Rats received an injection of 50% glucose (6

  3. Endovascular approach to acute hemorrhage in locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ugras, Stacy; Gemignani, Mary L; Connolly, Peter H; Finley, David J

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of a woman with recurrent axillary fungating breast cancer who developed catastrophic hemorrhage from tumor erosion of her axillary artery. This was treated successfully with endovascular placement of a covered arterial stent. We discuss the suitability of endovascular therapy for patients with advanced malignancy given its lower morbidity in this population with decreased life expectancy. PMID:25603695

  4. ASSAY PROCEDURE FOR VITAMIN K (ANTI HEMORRHAGIC VITAMIN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. ALMQUIST; E. L. B. STOKSTAD

    That the absence of vitamin K in the diet of the chick leads to deficient blood clotting power, hemorrhages and anemia, has been shown in a number of papers (Dam, '35 a, '35 b; Almquist and Stokstad, '35 a, '35 b). Schonheyder ('36) has described the method of assay used by Dam and Schonheyder ('36). In brief, this method consists

  5. Ankaferd hemostat in the management of gastrointestinal hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Beyazit, Yavuz; Kekilli, Murat; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C; Kayacetin, Ertugrul; Basaranoglu, Metin

    2011-09-21

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding refers to any hemorrhage ascribed to the pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, extending from the mouth to the anal canal. Despite the recent improvements in the endoscopic, hemostatic and adjuvant pharmacologic techniques, the reported mortality is still around 5%-10% for peptic ulcer bleeding and about 15%-20% for variceal hemorrhages. Although endoscopic management reduces the rates of re-bleeding, surgery, and mortality in active bleeding; early recurrence ratios still occur in around 20% of the cases even with effective initial hemostatic measures. In this quest for an alternative pro-hemostatic agent for the management of GI bleedings, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) offers a successful candidate, specifically for "difficult-to-manage" situations as evidenced by data presented in several studies. ABS is a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. It is effective in both bleeding individuals with normal hemostatic parameters and in patients with deficient primary and/or secondary hemostasis. ABS also modulates the cellular apoptotic responses to hemorrhagic stress, as well as hemostatic hemodynamic activity. Through its effects on the endothelium, blood cells, angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, vascular dynamics, and wound healing, ABS is now becoming an effective alternative hemostatic medicine for gastrointestinal bleedings that are resistant to conventional anti-hemorrhagic measurements. The aim of this review is to outline current literature experience suggesting the place of ABS in the management of GI bleeding, and potential future controlled trials in this complicated field. PMID:22046083

  6. Scintigraphic detection of occult hemorrhage in a patient receiving anticoagulants

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, R.C.; Johnston, G.S.; Whitley, N.O.

    1986-02-01

    The exact location of hemorrhage complicating anticoagulant therapy is sometimes difficult to establish. We present a case in which imaging with 99mTc-labeled red cells had a significant role in the diagnosis of soft-tissue bleeding in a paraplegic patient receiving long-term anticoagulation.

  7. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  8. Hemorrhagic Complications of Intracranial Pressure Monitors in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Blaha; Daniel Lazar; Richard H. Winn; Saadi Ghatan

    2003-01-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring plays a valuable role in the management of head injuries and other causes of raised ICP in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence of hemorrhage after ICP monitor insertion, and to classify these complications in a clinically relevant manner. Hospital charts of 431 children (ages 0–16 years) admitted to

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access T cell mediated cerebral hemorrhages and

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access T cell mediated cerebral hemorrhages and microhemorrhages during of senile plaques and in the cerebrovasculature in Alzheimer's disease (AD), causes a dramatic immune immune response involving activated T cells probably underlying the negative effects of the immunization

  10. Preclinical and clinical research on inflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Wang

    2010-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the most lethal stroke subtypes. Despite the high morbidity and mortality associated with ICH, its pathophysiology has not been investigated as well as that of ischemic stroke. Available evidence from preclinical and clinical studies suggests that inflammatory mechanisms are involved in the progression of ICH-induced secondary brain injury. For example, in preclinical ICH models,

  11. [Therapeutic management of massive hemorrhage caused by gastroduodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Dancewicz, R; Barcikowski, S; Majchrzak, K; Kowalewski, K; Galikowski, M

    1989-01-01

    Based on 103 patients the authors discussed policy of therapeutic management in gastric and duodenal ulcer disease complicated by massive hemorrhage. In the surgical treatment of such patients the authors prefer resection procedures aimed at simultaneous control of bleeding, prevention of its relapse and radical treatment of peptic ulcer disease. PMID:2808568

  12. Treatment of Intraventricular Hemorrhage in the Premature Infant with Urokinase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger J. Hudgins; William R. Boydston; Patricia A. Hudgins; Saul R Adler

    1994-01-01

    Hydrocephalus secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage in the premature infant is common and is secondary to the presence of blood in the subarach-noid space. Rapid clearance of the blood may reduce the incidence of permanent hydrocephalus and mitigate the need for shunt placement. We have treated 4 premature infants with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus with urokinase, a thrombolytic agent, instilled into the ventricles

  13. Ankaferd hemostat in the management of gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    PubMed Central

    Beyazit, Yavuz; Kekilli, Murat; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C; Kayacetin, Ertugrul; Basaranoglu, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding refers to any hemorrhage ascribed to the pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, extending from the mouth to the anal canal. Despite the recent improvements in the endoscopic, hemostatic and adjuvant pharmacologic techniques, the reported mortality is still around 5%-10% for peptic ulcer bleeding and about 15%-20% for variceal hemorrhages. Although endoscopic management reduces the rates of re-bleeding, surgery, and mortality in active bleeding; early recurrence ratios still occur in around 20% of the cases even with effective initial hemostatic measures. In this quest for an alternative pro-hemostatic agent for the management of GI bleedings, Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) offers a successful candidate, specifically for “difficult-to-manage” situations as evidenced by data presented in several studies. ABS is a standardized mixture of the plants Thymus vulgaris, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Vitis vinifera, Alpinia officinarum, and Urtica dioica. It is effective in both bleeding individuals with normal hemostatic parameters and in patients with deficient primary and/or secondary hemostasis. ABS also modulates the cellular apoptotic responses to hemorrhagic stress, as well as hemostatic hemodynamic activity. Through its effects on the endothelium, blood cells, angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, vascular dynamics, and wound healing, ABS is now becoming an effective alternative hemostatic medicine for gastrointestinal bleedings that are resistant to conventional anti-hemorrhagic measurements. The aim of this review is to outline current literature experience suggesting the place of ABS in the management of GI bleeding, and potential future controlled trials in this complicated field. PMID:22046083

  14. Formalin treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic proctitis

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, E.; Ibsen, T.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Reimer, E.; Sorensen, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 71-year-old man developed severe hemorrhagic proctitis 1 year after pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Conservative treatment as well as performance of a colostomy failed to control the rectal bleeding. After irrigation of the rectum with a formalin solution the bleeding stopped, and no recurrence has been observed for the next 14 months.

  15. Clinical review: Critical care management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred Rincon; Stephan A Mayer

    2008-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage is by far the most destructive form of stroke. The clinical presentation is characterized by a rapidly deteriorating neurological exam coupled with signs and symptoms of elevated intracranial pressure. The diagnosis is easily established by the use of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Ventilatory support, blood pressure control, reversal of any preexisting coagulopathy, intracranial pressure monitoring, osmotherapy,

  16. Life-threatening hemorrhage and exsanguination from Crohn's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Cirocco; John C. Reilly; Lawrence C. Rusin

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE AND METHODS: From 1979 through 1991, four patients of 631 admissions (0.6 percent) for Crohn's disease in Erie, Pennsylvania, presented with life-threatening gastrointestinal hemorrhage. These and 34 similar cases from the medical literature were reviewed to provide a composite of those at risk and elucidate appropriate diagnostic and therapeutic maneuvers. RESULTS: The study revealed a preponderance of young men

  17. Phonemic Characteristics of Apraxia of Speech Resulting from Subcortical Hemorrhage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Richard K.; Tonkovich, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Reports describing subcortical apraxia of speech (AOS) have received little consideration in the development of recent speech processing models because the speech characteristics of patients with this diagnosis have not been described precisely. We describe a case of AOS with aphasia secondary to basal ganglia hemorrhage. Speech-language symptoms…

  18. Possibilistic Hopfield Neural Network on CT Brain Hemorrhage Image Segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da-chuan Cheng; Qin Pu; Kuo-sheng Cheng; Hans Burkhardt

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a possibilistic Hopfield neural netw ork (PHNN) has been proposed for clustering and subsequently applied to brain hemorrhage image segmentation based on a series of CT images. The neural network structure has been implemented by imbedding the weighting possibilistic c-means algorithm into a Hopfield neural network. T he network solved the coincidental cluster problem by using a

  19. Subclinical Infections with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akinci, Esragül; Ascioglu, Sibel; Öngürü, Pinar; Uyar, Yavuz

    2012-01-01

    To investigate Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Turkey, we conducted a seroepidemiologic survey during January–April 2009. Seroprevalence of infection was 10% in a sample from an outbreak region and increased with patient age, indicating that the virus had been previously present in Turkey. We also estimated that 88% of infections were subclinical. PMID:22469474

  20. Adenosine receptors located in the NTS contribute to renal sympathoinhibition during hypotensive phase of severe hemorrhage in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Scislo, Tadeusz J; O'Leary, Donal S

    2006-11-01

    Stimulation of nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) A(2a)-adenosine receptors elicits cardiovascular responses quite similar to those observed with rapid, severe hemorrhage, including bradycardia, hypotension, and inhibition of renal but activation of preganglionic adrenal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and pre-ASNA, respectively). Because adenosine levels in the central nervous system increase during severe hemorrhage, we investigated to what extent these responses to hemorrhage may be due to activation of NTS adenosine receptors. In urethane- and alpha-chloralose-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, rapid hemorrhage was performed before and after bilateral nonselective or selective blockade of NTS adenosine-receptor subtypes [A(1)- and A(2a)-adenosine-receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) and A(2a)-receptor antagonist ZM-241385 (40 pmol/100 nl)]. The nonselective blockade reversed the response in RSNA (-21.0 +/- 9.6 Delta% vs. +7.3 +/- 5.7 Delta%) (where Delta% is averaged percent change from baseline) and attenuated the average heart rate response (change of -14.8 +/- 4.8 vs. -4.4 +/- 3.4 beats/min). The selective blockade attenuated the RSNA response (-30.4 +/- 5.2 Delta% vs. -11.1 +/- 7.7 Delta%) and tended to attenuate heart rate response (change of -27.5 +/- 5.3 vs. -15.8 +/- 8.2 beats/min). Microinjection of vehicle (100 nl) had no significant effect on the responses. The hemorrhage-induced increases in pre-ASNA remained unchanged with either adenosine-receptor antagonist. We conclude that adenosine operating in the NTS via A(2a) and possibly A(1) receptors may contribute to posthemorrhagic sympathoinhibition of RSNA but not to the sympathoactivation of pre-ASNA. The differential effects of NTS adenosine receptors on RSNA vs. pre-ASNA responses to hemorrhage supports the hypothesis that these receptors are differentially located/expressed on NTS neurons/synaptic terminals controlling different sympathetic outputs. PMID:16751294