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Sample records for hemostatic marker levels

  1. [Interpretation of hemostatic and fibrinolytic markers].

    PubMed

    Asakura, Hidesaku

    2011-10-01

    Blood dose not normally coagulate in the blood vessels covered with endothelial cells, because these cells contain some substances responsible for antithrombotic action such as thrombomodulin, heparin-like substance, prostacyclin, nitric oxide and tissue plasminogen activator. Most important role of blood coagulation is hemostasis. Blood can coagulate in two ways: intrinsic coagulation pathway and extrinsic coagulation pathway that is activated by negatively charged substances and FVIIa-tissue-factor (TF) complex, respectively. Prothrombin time(PT) can represent extrinsic pathway, while activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) can represent intrinsic pathway. PT is prolonged in such diseases as vitamin K deficiency, hepatic failure and warfarin intake, while APTT is prolonged such diseases as hemophilia A & B, von Willebrand disease and lupus anticoagulant. Cross mixing test is very useful to assess prolonged clotting time. FDP means fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products and D-dimer is the smallest products of fibrin degradation. These markers are often used to diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and plasmin-alpha2 plasmin inhibitor (PIC) can be used to evaluate the extent of coagulation and fibrinolysis activation, respectively. These two markers is essential for classify the pathophysiology of DIC: DIC with suppressed fibrinolysis, enhanced fibrinolysis or balanced fibrinolysis. In conclusion, exact interpretation of hemostatic and fibrinolytic markers is one of the most important abilities in clinical situation. PMID:22184880

  2. Association of Hemostatic Markers with Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ying; Wu, Long; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Yao; Ma, Xiangyu; Li, Yafei; Song, Zhiyuan; Zhong, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence that indicates the presence of a prothrombotic state in atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the role of hemostatic markers in AF remains inconclusive. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the association between hemostatic markers and AF. A meta-regression was performed to explore potential sources of heterogeneity. Results A total of 59 studies met our inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. For platelet activation, increased circulating platelet factor-4, β-thromboglobulin (BTG) and P-selectin were significantly higher in AF cases compared with controls (standardized mean difference [SMD][95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.72[0.96–2.49], 1.61[1.03–2.19] and 0.50[0.23–0.77], respectively). For coagulation activation, increased levels of plasma D-dimer, fibrinogen, thrombin-antithrombin, prothrombin fragment 1+2, and antithrombin-III were significantly associated with AF (SMD[95% CI]: 1.82[1.38–2.26], 0.72[0.55–0.89], 0.42[0.13–0.72], 1.00 [0.00–1.99] and 1.38[0.16–2.60], respectively). For fibrinolytic function, tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were significantly increased in AF cases compared with controls (SMD[95% CI]: 0.86[0.04–1.67] and 0.87[0.28–1.47], respectively) but the associations became nonsignificant after performing subgroup analysis by anticoagulants treatment status. For endothelial function, increased von Willebrand factor was significantly associated with AF (SMD, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.60–0.99); however, no association was observed for soluble thrombomodulin (SMD, 0.60; 95% CI, -0.13–1.33). Conclusions Increased circulating hemostatic factors (PF-4, BTG, P-selectin, D-dimer, fibrinogen, TAT, F1+2, AT- III, and vWf) are significantly associated with AF. Future research is necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism of the prothrombotic state and how hemostatic markers promote thromboembolism in AF. PMID:25884835

  3. [Selected endothelial hemostatic markers in patients with peripheral arterial disease after endovascular revascularization and restenosis formation].

    PubMed

    Kotschy, Daniel; Kotschy, Maria; Socha, Paweł; Masłowski, Leszek; Kwapisz, Justyna; Żuk, Natalia; Dubis, Joanna; Karczewski, Maciej; Witkiewicz, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Surgical and endovascular revascularization of ischemic legs in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can damage the arterial wall (endothelial and smooth muscle cells). Hemostatic factors released during endothelial dysfunction can lead to restenosis. 1. Determination of selected endothelial hemostatic factors in PAD patients and a reference group. 2. Prospective observation of new restenosis appearance in PAD patients after endovascular revascularization. 3. Comparison of selected endothelial hemostatic factors between non-restenotic and restenotic PAD patients. 150 PAD patients after endovascular revascularization - 90 men and 60 women, aged 44-88 (mean 65.5) years - were examined. During one-year observation after the revascularization procedures in 38 PAD patients restenosis occurred, when blood samples were also collected. The reference group consisted of 53 healthy persons - 44 men and 9 women, aged 20-56 years. Blood was drawn in the morning into 3.2% sodium citrate at a ratio of 9:1. Tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand factor (vWF) and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) were measured in plasma with commercial tests using the enzyme immunoassay. In the plasma of PAD patients after revascularization, the concentrations of TF and vWF were significantly higher, TM lower, TFPI and t-PA similar compared to the reference group. Six months after revascularization the level of TF had increased and vWF had significantly decreased. The endothelial hemostatic factors before and after restenosis did not significantly differ except TF, which after restenosis was higher. Increased TF and vWF levels in PAD patients indicate arterial endothelial cell damage, by atherosclerotic and revascularization processes. In PAD patients with restenosis compared to these patients before restenosis the determined endothelial hemostatic factors, except TF level, did not significantly differ. Perhaps TF participates in

  4. Ovariectomy differential influence on some hemostatic markers of mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    Lemini, Cristina; Jaimez, Ruth; Figueroa, Alejandra; Martinez-Mota, Lucía; Avila, María Estela; Medina, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Rodent ovariectomy is an experimental method to eliminate the main source of sexual steroids. This work explored for the first time the ovariectomy temporal changes induced in the hemostatic coagulation markers: prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin time (TT), and fibrinogen concentration (FIB) along with uterine weight on adult female CD1 mice and Wistar rats. Uterine weight (Uw) was assessed before ovariectomy (control), and 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 16, and 21 days after surgery. PT, aPTT, TT and FIB were estimated the same days, using reported standard techniques. Ovariectomy decreased Uw, since day 1; and from day 10 to 21 reached the lowest values for both species. After day 1, mice hemostatic parameters changed (PT +10%, P<0.05; aPTT +53%, P<0.05; TT −24%, P<0.05; FIB +67%, P<0.05). Rats showed significant changes only in TT and FIB (TT −13%, P<0.001; FIB +65%, P<0.001). Neither mice PT, aPTT and TT, recovered control values after 21 days. In the rats from day 5 to 16 aPTT diminished (18–23%, P<0.05) recovering to control values on day 21, TT after 9 days and PT on day 16. In both species, FIB returned to its control values after 9 days. Ovariectomy differentially altered the PT hemostatic parameter of mice and rats indicating a non-equivalence among both species behaviour for experimental studies of blood coagulation. PMID:25312504

  5. Prospective associations between inflammatory and hemostatic markers and physical functioning limitations in mid-life women: Longitudinal Results of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Candace K.; El Khoudary, Samar R.; Karvonen-Gutierrez, Carrie A.; Ylitalo, Kelly R.; Tomey, Kristin; VoPham, Trang; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cauley, Jane A.; Harlow, Siobán

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the public health burden of age-related declines in physical functioning, it is important to identify targets for intervention for the prevention of functional decline. We prospectively examined whether higher levels of inflammatory and hemostatic markers (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPA-ag), fibrinogen, and Factor VIIc (FVIIc)) were prospectively associated with reporting greater limitations in perceived physical functioning, and explored potential racial differences in the associations, in a multi-ethnic sample of mid-life women. Methods Women (45 – 56 years) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation who completed the physical functioning scale of the Medical Outcome Short Form (SF-36) at follow-up visits 4, 6, or 8 and had inflammatory/hemostatic measures in the preceeding year were included (n=2296). The continuous SF-36 physical function score was categorized as: no limitation (86–100 points), some limitation (51–85 points), and substantial limitation (0–50 points). Physical function category at time t was modeled a function of each biomarker, separately, at time t-1 using ordinal generalized estimating equations. Results After adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, body size, sociodemographic, medical and lifestyle factors, higher levels of tPA-ag and hs-CRP were associated with subsequently reporting greater limitations in physical functioning, although the latter was only marginally significant (p=0.13). For each standard deviation (SD) increase in logtPA-ag, the odds of some or substantial limitations was 1.18 (95%CI 1.09,1.27); for each SD increase in loghs-CRP, the odds of some or substantial limitation was (1.08, 95%CI 0.98,1.19). In African American women only, higher fibrinogen levels were associated with subsequently reporting greater limitations (OR=1.30, 95%CI 1.13,1.50, for each one SD increase in fibrinogen). Conclusions

  6. [The current opinion on inflammatory, biochemistry and hemostatic markers and factors in atherosclerosis. Part I].

    PubMed

    Rajtar, Renata; Kloch, Małgorzata; Bober, Maria; Kolasińska-Kloch, Władysława

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Recent studies have established an immuno-inflammatory theory of atherosclerosis where the process of atherosclerosis has a chronic, fibroproliferative character as an immuno-inflammatory response to factors that damage vessel endothelium. The development of coronary artery disease in subjects without traditional risk factors has prompted a search for new markers of the disease, which may improve primary prevention strategies. The relationship between markers of chronic inflammation and infection and development and progression of atherosclerotic may provide a basis for establishing new methods for causative treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The markers of endothelial damage and activation of inflammatory response have a prognostic value independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:17479866

  7. [The current opinion on inflammatory, biochemistry and hemostatic markers and factors in atherosclerosis. Part II].

    PubMed

    Rajtar, Renata; Kloch, Małgorzata; Bober, Maria; Kolasińska-Kloch, Władysława

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Recent studies have established an immuno-inflammatory theory of atherosclerosis where the process of atherosclerosis has a chronic, fibroproliferative character as an immuno-inflammatory response to factors that damage vessel endothelium. The development of coronary artery disease in subjects without traditional risk factors has prompted a search for new markers of the disease, which may improve primary prevention strategies. The relationship between markers of chronic inflammation and infection and development and progression of atherosclerotic may provide a basis for establishing new methods for causative treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The markers of endothelial damage and activation of inflammatory response have a prognostic value independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:17479867

  8. Investigating the association of vitamin D seasonality on inflammatory and hemostatic markers.

    PubMed

    Berry, Diane J; Hyppönen, Elina; Cortina-Borja, Mario

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal variations in health outcomes are commonly used to hypothesize a link with nutritional vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D) status. The majority of vitamin D intake is from skin exposure to sunlight and varies seasonally in countries at a distance away from the Equator. However, despite the strong seasonality of vitamin D intake, no statistical method using cyclical patterns has been proposed to deduce an association between 25(OH)D and health indicators. Our motivation was to overcome the influence of related confounders, such as obesity, between 25(OH)D and health indicators: obesity would be expected to have little or no effect on the seasonal variations in 25(OH)D and in five inflammatory/hemostatic health outcomes (fibrinogen, tissue plasminogen activator [tPA], von Willebrand factor [vWF], C-reactive protein [CRP], and D-dimer). The data analyzed was from the 1958 British birth cohort biomedical survey (n = 6195) and the biomarkers were ascertained from blood drawn over an 18-mo period. We used mediation analysis to determine whether the seasonal variations of the outcomes were mediated by 25(OH)D to infer an association. The assumptions of mediation analysis fit naturally into the study's cross-sectional setting, where day of year of blood collection is the independent variable transformed by the harmonic function, and 25(OH)D is the mediator of the seasonal variation of the outcomes. The harmonic terms were tested to establish the presence of seasonal variation in the outcomes and 25(OH)D in order to determine whether the statistical mediation test could be applied. The data were collected over an 18-mo period and assayed in multiple batches to measure the serum biomarkers. When the assay batches were modeled as fixed effects, significant correlation was found with date of when blood was drawn. Thus, variation in assay batches was accounted for as random effects terms on the intercept in linear mixed-effects models. Inferences were based on

  9. [Thyroid dysfunction and the hemostatic system].

    PubMed

    Platonova, N M; Sviridonova, M A; Troshina, E A

    2014-01-01

    Whether there is a link between thyroid dysfunction and different impairments in the hemostatic system is discussed. The level of thyroid hormones is an essential factor that influences the coagulation system. Thyroid dysfunction affects the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis, by increasing the risk of thrombosis and hemorrhage in hyperthyroidism. However, there is no consensus of opinion regarding the mechanisms of the described hemostatic changes in the literature. PMID:25509900

  10. Significant associations between hemostatic/fibrinolytic systems and accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese elementary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lisheng; Horigome, Hitoshi; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kikuchi, Toshihiro; Nakahara, Satoko; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the reference values of hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers and investigate their relationship with physical constitution and cardiovascular risk factors in a normal schoolchildren population. This study comprised 148 healthy Japanese children aged 9-10 years (males 73; females 75). We performed laboratory tests including blood levels of leptin, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hemostatic and fibrinolytic markers [plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), coagulation factor VII (FVII), coagulation factor X (FX), fibrinogen (Fbg), protein C, protein S], as well as common biochemical markers in the morning after an overnight fast. We investigated the mean, 10th, 50th and 90th percentile values of these markers. All parameters were compared between two groups, that is those with body mass index (BMI) 90th percentile or higher and BMI less than 90th percentile, and between subgroups based on the number of cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple-linear regression was used to assess associations between these hematological parameters and the components related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), uric acid, leptin, hs-CRP, and all hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers (PAI-1, FVII, FX, Fbg, protein C, protein S) tested were significantly higher in the group with BMI 90th percentile or higher, and increased with accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors. Multiple-linear regression analysis showed that these values were associated with one or more components related to MetS. Reference values of hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers in Japanese schoolchildren were obtained. Many hemostatic/fibrinolytic markers showed significant association with BMI and accumulation of cardiovascular risk factors in normal Japanese schoolchildren. PMID:25185676

  11. Hemostatic disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Kadir, R A; Davies, J

    2013-06-01

    The past few decades have seen major advances in multidisciplinary obstetric care and management of gynecological conditions in women with bleeding disorders. Awareness of the impact of bleeding disorders has improved among the obstetric and gynecological community. Undiagnosed bleeding disorders can be the underlying cause for a significant proportion of women with heavy menstrual bleeding. They may also be the cause or a contributory factor for other gynecological problems, such as dysmenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding, and endometriosis. Hemostatic assessment should be considered in women referred for menstrual abnormalities if they have a positive bleeding history as quantified by bleeding assessment tools. The reproductive choices and options for prenatal diagnosis are also expanding for families with hemophilia with a drive toward achieving a non-invasive approach. Current non-invasive prenatal diagnostic techniques are limited to identification of fetal gender. Research is ongoing to overcome the specific diagnostic challenges of identifying hemophilia mutations, utilizing free fetal DNA circulating in maternal plasma. The management of obstetric hemorrhage has recently evolved to include a greater focus on the identification of and early treatment for coagulation disorders. Deficiencies in certain hemostatic variables are associated with progression to more severe bleeding; therefore, specific interventions have been proposed to target this. Evidence is still lacking to support such strategy, and future research is required to assess the efficacy and the safety of these hemostatic interventions in women with persistent PPH. PMID:23809121

  12. Persisting High Levels of Synovial Fluid Markers after Cartilage Repair

    PubMed Central

    Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Peterson, Lars; Lindahl, Anders; Kiviranta, Ilkka

    2008-01-01

    Local attempts to repair a cartilage lesion could cause increased levels of anabolic and catabolic factors in the synovial fluid. After repair with regenerated cartilage, the homeostasis of the cartilage ideally would return to normal. In this pilot study, we first hypothesized levels of synovial fluid markers would be higher in patients with cartilage lesions than in patients with no cartilage lesions, and then we hypothesized the levels of synovial fluid markers would decrease after cartilage repair. We collected synovial fluid samples from 10 patients before autologous chondrocyte transplantation of the knee. One year later, a second set of samples was collected and arthroscopic evaluation of the repair site was performed. Fifteen patients undergoing knee arthroscopy for various symptoms but with no apparent cartilage lesions served as control subjects. We measured synovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and insulinlike growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations with specific activity and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, respectively. The levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I were higher in patients having cartilage lesions than in control subjects with no cartilage lesions. One year after cartilage repair, the lesions were filled with repair tissue, but the levels of MMP-3 and IGF-I remained elevated, indicating either graft remodeling or early degeneration. Level of Evidence: Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18709427

  13. Modulation of Hemostatic and Inflammatory Responses by Leptospira Spp.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Mônica L; Naudin, Clément; Mörgelin, Matthias; Romero, Eliete C; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T O; Herwald, Heiko

    2016-05-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonotic and neglected infectious disease of human and veterinary concern that is caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. In severe infections, hemostatic impairments such as coagulation/fibrinolysis dysfunction are frequently observed. These complications often occur when the host response is controlled and/or modulated by the bacterial pathogen. In the present investigation, we aimed to analyze the modulation of the hemostatic and inflammatory host responses by the bacterial pathogen Leptospira. The effects of leptospires and their secreted products on stimulation of human intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation were investigated by means of altered clotting times, assembly and activation of contact system and induction of tissue factor. We show that both extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation cascades are modulated in response to Leptospira or leptospiral secreted proteins. We further find that the pro-inflammatory mediator bradykinin is released following contact activation at the bacterial surface and that pro-coagulant microvesicles are shed from monocytes in response to infection. Also, we show that human leptospirosis patients present higher levels of circulating pro-coagulant microvesicles than healthy individuals. Here we show that both pathways of the coagulation system are modulated by leptospires, possibly leading to altered hemostatic and inflammatory responses during the disease. Our results contribute to the understanding of the leptospirosis pathophysiological mechanisms and may open new routes for the discovery of novel treatments for the severe manifestations of the disease. PMID:27167223

  14. Modulation of Hemostatic and Inflammatory Responses by Leptospira Spp.

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Mônica L.; Naudin, Clément; Mörgelin, Matthias; Romero, Eliete C.; Nascimento, Ana Lucia T. O.; Herwald, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide spread zoonotic and neglected infectious disease of human and veterinary concern that is caused by pathogenic Leptospira species. In severe infections, hemostatic impairments such as coagulation/fibrinolysis dysfunction are frequently observed. These complications often occur when the host response is controlled and/or modulated by the bacterial pathogen. In the present investigation, we aimed to analyze the modulation of the hemostatic and inflammatory host responses by the bacterial pathogen Leptospira. The effects of leptospires and their secreted products on stimulation of human intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of coagulation were investigated by means of altered clotting times, assembly and activation of contact system and induction of tissue factor. We show that both extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation cascades are modulated in response to Leptospira or leptospiral secreted proteins. We further find that the pro-inflammatory mediator bradykinin is released following contact activation at the bacterial surface and that pro-coagulant microvesicles are shed from monocytes in response to infection. Also, we show that human leptospirosis patients present higher levels of circulating pro-coagulant microvesicles than healthy individuals. Here we show that both pathways of the coagulation system are modulated by leptospires, possibly leading to altered hemostatic and inflammatory responses during the disease. Our results contribute to the understanding of the leptospirosis pathophysiological mechanisms and may open new routes for the discovery of novel treatments for the severe manifestations of the disease. PMID:27167223

  15. Immediate effect of balloon valvuloplasty on hemostatic changes in mitral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Zaki, A; Salama, M; El Masry, M; Abou-Freikha, M; Abou-Ammo, D; Sweelum, M; Mashhour, E; Elhendy, A

    2000-02-01

    This study was conducted to assess right and left atrial hemostatic function in patients with mitral stenosis (MS) and to investigate the immediate effect of balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV) on hemostatic function. BMV was performed in 28 patients with MS (age 29 +/- 8 years) who had sinus rhythm and no left atrial (LA) thrombus. Right and left atrial biochemical markers of platelet activity (platelet factor 4 [PF4] and B thromboglobulin [BTG]), coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex [TAT]), and fibrinolytic activity (D-dimer) were measured before and 30 minutes after BMV. Right atrial levels of these markers were also measured in 20 control subjects. Compared with control subjects, patients with MS had higher right atrial levels of PF4 (30 +/- 15 vs 5 +/- 2 IU/ml), BTG (231 +/- 53 vs 30 +/- 8 IU/ml), TAT (7 +/- 4 vs 2 +/- 0.3 microg/L), and D-dimer (380 +/- 145 vs 160 +/- 35 ng/ml, p < 0.0001 in all). TAT levels were higher in the left atrium than in the right atrium of patients before BMV (8 +/- 4 vs 7 +/- 4 microg/L, p < 0.0001). BMV was successful (final mitral valve area > or = 1.5 cm2 and > or = 50% increase of the initial valve area) in all patients. There was a significant reduction of LA levels of PF4 (35 +/- 8 to 26 +/- 9 IU/ml, p < 0.0001), BTG (225 +/- 41 to 196 +/- 28 IU/ml, p < 0.001), and TAT (10 +/- 5 to 7 +/- 1 microg/L, p < 0.05) in the 16 patients with LA pressure < 10 mm Hg after BMV, whereas these markers were not reduced in the 12 patients with left atrial pressure > or = 10 mm Hg after BMV. These data indicate that platelet function, coagulation status, and fibrinolytic activity are increased regionally in the left atrium and in the systemic circulation in patients with MS and sinus rhythm in the absence of LA thrombus. Successful BMV induces a significant reduction of prethrombotic status in patients with low LA pressure after the procedure. Patients with high LA pressure after BMV maintain a high prethrombotic state and may be

  16. Composite resin bond strength to caries-affected dentin contaminated with 3 different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Hosseini-Shirazi, Moeen; Farahbod, Foroozan; Keshani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of composite resins to sound and caries-affected dentin in cervical areas may necessitate the use of hemostatic agents to control sulcular fluid and hemorrhage. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive system to sound and caries-affected dentin after the use of 3 different hemostatic agents. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to 48 caries-affected and 48 sound dentin surfaces in 8 groups. Groups 1-4 utilized caries-affected dentin: group 1, uncontaminated control; 2, ViscoStat; 3, ViscoStat Clear; and 4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Groups 5-8 utilized sound dentin: group 5, uncontaminated control; 6, ViscoStat; 7, ViscoStat Clear; and 8, TCA. The hemostatic agents were applied for 2 minutes and rinsed. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, shear bond strength tests were carried out. Data were analyzed with 1- and 2-way analyses of variance, t test, and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Bond strength was significantly influenced by dentin type (F = 38.23; P = 0.0001) and hemostatic agent (F = 6.32; P = 0.001). Furthermore, groups 2 and 6 (ViscoStat) showed significantly lower bond strength values than the control groups (groups 1 and 5) in both affected and sound dentin (P = 0.043 and P = 0.009, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, the bond strength of composite resin to caries-affected dentin was significantly reduced compared to that with sound dentin. Among the studied hemostatic agents, ViscoStat resulted in a greater decrease in dentin bond strength. Contamination of both sound and caries-affected dentin with hemostatic agents decreased composite resin bond strength. Of the 3 hemostatic agents used, ViscoStat Clear appeared to have the least detrimental effect on bond strength. PMID:27367640

  17. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... hemostatic agent and dressing. (a) Identification. An absorbable hemostatic agent or dressing is a...

  18. Malnutrition Markers and Serum Ghrelin Levels in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Karajibani, Mansour; Gorgij, Farnia; Akbari, Ommolbanin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of study was to investigate the changes levels of serum ghrelin in HD patients and its relationship to some malnutrition markers compared with healthy controls. Methods. Forty-five patients on hemodialysis and forty healthy controls were studied. Biochemical parameters and serum ghrelin levels were measured. Both daily dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) assessments were performed for evaluation of nutritional status. Results. Ghrelin concentrations were significantly reduced in patients undergoing hemodialysis when compared to healthy controls (5 ± 0.68 (1.1–18.5) pg/mL versus 7.8 ± 0.84 (2.4–18.3) pg/mL; P = 0.004). BMI and serum albumin in HD patients were markedly reduced compared to controls. The patients with an insufficient intake of energy and protein demonstrated slightly lower levels of serum ghrelin. A negative correlation between serum ghrelin concentration with age (r = −0.34, P = 0.02), BUN (r = −0.26, P < 0.01), and serum creatinine (r = −0.27, P < 0.01) was observed in HD patients. Conclusions. The findings suggest that decreased ghrelin levels in HD patients might be associated with anorexia. Further studies are needed to determine changes in serum ghrelin levels during dialysis and to clarify whether the decrease in ghrelin levels contributes to the malnutrition that is common in these patients.

  19. Nesfatin-1 levels and metabolic markers in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alp, Esra; Görmüş, Uzay; Güdücü, Nilgün; Bozkurt, Selen

    2015-07-01

    Nesfatin-1 is a novel hormone synthesized in hypothalamus and several other specific organs to regulate eating habits, appetite and is thought to be related to ovarian functions. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the nesfatin-1 levels with other metabolic parameters in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition that is known to be related to both ovarian functions and obesity. Study subjects were chosen from the women attended to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Istanbul Bilim University, Avrupa Florence Nightingale Hospital. Thirty-five healthy control subjects and 55 PCOS patients were included. Blood samples were obtained on the 3rd day of the menstrual cycle. Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), free testosterone (FT), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured; homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) value was calculated. The nesfatin-1 levels were measured by competitive inhibition ELISA method. Due to our results, PCOS patients were having lower nesfatin-1 levels compared to the control group and this was not seemed to be related to body mass index (BMI) levels. This is an important result to be investigated in larger study groups and is related to other metabolic markers. PMID:26062107

  20. The efficient hemostatic effect of Antarctic krill chitosan is related to its hydration property.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuai; Huang, Zhuoyao; Yue, Jianhui; Liu, Di; Wang, Ting; Ezanno, Pierre; Ruan, Changshun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Lu, William W; Pan, Haobo

    2015-11-01

    Antarctic krill chitosan (A-Chitosan) was first evaluated in its hemostatic effect in this study. The prepared A-Chitosan powder showed low level of crystallinity and significantly high water binding capacity as 1293% (w/w). By mice tail amputation model and blood coagulation timing experiment, it is showed that this chitosan accelerated the tail hemostasis by 55% and shortened the blood clotting time by 38%. This efficacy was better than two other commercial chitosans investigated and was corresponding to their water binding capacities. Through examining the effect of chitosan on blood components, it could be found that platelets adhesion was mainly affected by the water binding capacity, and red blood cells aggregation was dependent on their deacetylation degree. The physicochemical properties resulted in better hydration property of chitosan would improve its hemostatic effect. These results suggested that Antarctic krill chitosan is a good candidate for hemostatic application. PMID:26256352

  1. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Dodds, Linda; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Ettinger, Adrienne S.; Shapiro, Gabriel D.; Fisher, Mandy; Taback, Shayne; Bouchard, Maryse F.; Monnier, Patricia; Dallaire, Renee; Fraser, William D.

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  2. The hemostatic role of factor XI.

    PubMed

    Puy, Cristina; Rigg, Rachel A; McCarty, Owen J T

    2016-05-01

    Coagulation factor (F)XI has been described as a component of the early phase of the contact pathway of blood coagulation, acting downstream of factor XII. However, patients deficient in upstream members of the contact pathway, including FXII and prekallikrein, do not exhibit bleeding complications, while FXI-deficient patients sometimes experience mild bleeding, suggesting FXI plays a role in hemostasis independent of the contact pathway. Further complicating the picture, bleeding risk in FXI-deficient patients is difficult to predict because bleeding symptoms have not been found to correlate with FXI antigen levels or activity. However, recent studies have emerged to expand our understanding of FXI, demonstrating that activated FXI is able to activate coagulation factors FX, FV, and FVIII, and inhibit the anti-coagulant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). Understanding these activities of FXI may help to better diagnose which FXI-deficient patients are at risk for bleeding. In contrast to its mild hemostatic activities, FXI is known to play a significant role in thrombosis, as it is a demonstrated independent risk factor for deep vein thrombosis, ischemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. Recent translational approaches have begun testing FXI as an antithrombotic, with one promising clinical study showing that an anti-sense oligonucleotide against FXI prevented venous thrombosis in elective knee surgery. A better understanding of the varied and complex role of FXI in both thrombosis and hemostasis will help to allow better prediction of bleeding risk in FXI-deficient patients and also informing the development of targeted agents to inhibit the thrombotic activities of FXI while preserving hemostasis. PMID:27207433

  3. Markers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  4. Hemostatic and Wound Healing Properties of Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Pandith, Hataichanok; Liggett, Jason; Min, Kyung-Won; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Baek, Seung Joon

    2013-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Siam weed) extract has been used to stop bleeding and in wound healing in many tropical countries. However, its detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which Siam weed extract (SWE) affected hemostatic and wound healing activities. SWE promoted Balb/c 3T3 fibroblast cell migration and proliferation. Subsequently, we found that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the accelerating wound healing enzyme, was increased at the transcriptional and translational levels by SWE treatments. The HO-1 promoter analyzed with luciferase assay was also increased by treatment of SWE in a dose-dependent manner. This induction may be mediated by several kinase pathways including MEK, p38MAPK, AKT, and JNK. Quantitative real-time PCR using undifferentiated promonocytic cell lines revealed that thromboxane synthase (TXS), a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator, was increased and MMP-9, an anti platelet aggregator, was decreased in the presence of SWE. Our studies presented that SWE accelerated hemostatic and wound healing activities by altering the expression of genes, including HO-1, TXS, and MMP-9. PMID:23984087

  5. Hemostatic and Wound Healing Properties of Chromolaena odorata Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Pandith, Hataichanok; Zhang, Xiaobo; Liggett, Jason; Min, Kyung-Won; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Baek, Seung Joon

    2013-01-01

    Chromolaena odorata (L.) King and Robinson (Siam weed) extract has been used to stop bleeding and in wound healing in many tropical countries. However, its detailed mechanisms have not been elucidated. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which Siam weed extract (SWE) affected hemostatic and wound healing activities. SWE promoted Balb/c 3T3 fibroblast cell migration and proliferation. Subsequently, we found that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the accelerating wound healing enzyme, was increased at the transcriptional and translational levels by SWE treatments. The HO-1 promoter analyzed with luciferase assay was also increased by treatment of SWE in a dose-dependent manner. This induction may be mediated by several kinase pathways including MEK, p38MAPK, AKT, and JNK. Quantitative real-time PCR using undifferentiated promonocytic cell lines revealed that thromboxane synthase (TXS), a potent vasoconstrictor and platelet aggregator, was increased and MMP-9, an anti platelet aggregator, was decreased in the presence of SWE. Our studies presented that SWE accelerated hemostatic and wound healing activities by altering the expression of genes, including HO-1, TXS, and MMP-9. PMID:23984087

  6. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490 Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing....

  7. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490 Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing....

  8. Longitudinal association of hemostatic factors with risk for cancers of the breast, colorectum, and lung among postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Salazar, Christian R; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Lane, Dorothy S; Rohan, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether hemostatic factors associated with coagulation and inflammation pathways are associated with cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative study to examine the association of plasma fibrinogen levels, factor VII antigen activity, and factor VII concentration measured at baseline and during follow-up with the risk for cancers of the breast, colorectum, and lung. Among 5287 women who were followed up for a median of 11.4 years, 275 cases of breast cancer, 102 cases of colorectal cancer, and 90 cases of lung cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of hemostatic factors with each cancer. Hemostatic factors were not associated with breast cancer in either baseline or longitudinal analyses. Baseline hemostatic factors showed weak associations with colorectal cancer; however, no association was seen in longitudinal analyses. Fibrinogen was positively associated with lung cancer in both baseline and longitudinal analyses; the association was seen only in never and former smokers, not in current smokers. We found no evidence of an association between hemostatic factors and breast or colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. The positive association of fibrinogen levels with lung cancer requires confirmation in larger studies. PMID:26317383

  9. Hemostatic Disorders in Hormonally Active Pituitary Tumors.

    PubMed

    Świątkowska-Stodulska, R; Babińska, A; Mital, A; Stodulski, D; Sworczak, K

    2015-10-01

    Endocrinopathies encompass heterogeneous diseases that can lead to hemostasis disorders at various stages over their clinical course. Normal hemostasis requires an equilibrium between the processes of coagulation and fibrinolysis, which depend on multiple activators and inhibitors. To date, the influence of various hormonal disorders on the hemostatic system has been assessed many times. The aim of this review was to analyze hemostasis abnormalities that occur in patients with hormonally active pituitary tumors: corticotropinoma, somatotropinoma, prolactinoma, gonadotropinoma and thyrotropinoma. Authors discuss studies that examined coagulation and hemostasis parameters among patients with these tumors, as well as analyze antithrombotic prophylaxis approach for endogenous hypercortisolemia subjects in particular. PMID:26285071

  10. Using absorbable chitosan hemostatic sponges as a promising surgical dressing.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaofei; Sun, Yongfu; Nie, Jingyi; Lu, Wentao; Yang, Ling; Zhang, Zhiliang; Yin, Hongping; Wang, Zhengke; Hu, Qiaoling

    2015-04-01

    As absorbable hemostatic dressings, chitosan with a deacetylation degree of 40% (CS-40) and 73% (CS-73) have been fabricated into sponges via a modified method. The hemostatic, biocompatible and biodegradable properties were evaluated through in vivo assays. In a hepatic hemorrhage model, the chitosan sponges, with excellent blood compatibility, achieved less blood loss than the gelation sponge (GS). In addition, CS-40 showed better hemostatic capability and biodegradability than CS-73. After implantation, a histological analysis indicated that CS-40 exhibited the best biodegradability, tissue regeneration and least tissue adhesion. By contrasting CS-40 and CS-73, the deacetylation degree is confirmed to be a key factor for the hemostatic effect, biodegradability, biocompatibility and tissue regeneration. Our overall results demonstrated the potential application of CS-40 for use in absorbable hemostatic dressings. PMID:25661881

  11. [Comparative characterization of hemostatic parameters in patients with cerebral stroke].

    PubMed

    Chinybaeva, L A

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty-nine patients with cerebral stroke (CS), including 184 patients with ischemic stroke and 85 with hemorrhagic stroke (HS), were examined. A control group consisted of 56 healthy individuals matched by sex and age. The status of different links of the hemostatic system was assessed in patients with CS, by using "Tekhnologiya-Standart" (Technology Standard) kits (Barnaul). The findings suggest the higher platelet aggregability with the universal aggregation inductor (ADP) and ristomycin, as well as suppressed fibrinolytic activity, elevated levels of soluble fibrin-monomeric complexes, and decreased concentrations of angiotensin III. The lupus anticoagulant causing a poor outcome of the disease was much more frequently detected in patients with HS. PMID:15449775

  12. Hemostatic efficacy evaluation of radiation crosslinked carboxymethyl kappa-carrageenan and chitosan with varying degrees of substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Vista, Jeanina Richelle M.; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-07-01

    Carboxymethyl derivatives of kappa-carrageenan and chitosan, with varying degrees of substitution, were synthesized by multi-step reaction technique and evaluated for hemostatic efficacy through in vitro assays. FTIR analysis confirmed the presence of carboxymethyl group while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated degrees of substitution ranging from 1.15-1.58 and 0.45-0.51 for carboxymethyl-κ-carrageenan and carboxymethylchitosan, respectively. Derivatives formed into paste consistency (30% w/v) were successfully crosslinked by gamma irradiation at 30 kGy. The data obtained from whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays showed a significant increase in hemostatic capability of κ-carrageenan and chitosan as a consequence of carboxymethylation and crosslinking modifications. In addition, the level of efficacy was comparable to that of a chitosan-based commercial product. These results suggest the potential of κ-carrageenan and chitosan derivatives for development into hemostatic agents.

  13. MiRNA-Based Regulation of Hemostatic Factors through Hepatic Nuclear Factor-4 Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Salloum-Asfar, Salam; Arroyo, Ana B.; Teruel-Montoya, Raúl; García-Barberá, Nuria; Roldán, Vanessa; Vicente, Vicente; Martínez, Constantino; González-Conejero, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    MiRNAs have been reported as CIS-acting elements of several hemostatic factors, however, their mechanism as TRANS-acting elements mediated by a transcription factor is little known and could have important effects. HNF4α has a direct and important role in the regulation of multiple hepatic coagulation genes. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that miR-24-3p and miR-34a-5p regulate HNF4A expression. Here we aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of miR-24 and miR-34a on coagulation through HNF4A. Transfections with miR-24 and miR-34a in HepG2 cells decreased not only HNF4A but also F10, F12, SERPINC1, PROS1, PROC, and PROZ transcripts levels. Positive and significant correlations were observed between levels of HNF4A and several hemostatic factors (F5, F8, F9, F11, F12, SERPINC1, PROC, and PROS1) in human liver samples (N = 104). However, miR-24 and miR-34a levels of the low (10th) and high (90th) percentiles of those liver samples were inversely correlated with HNF4A and almost all hemostatic factors expression levels. These outcomes suggest that miR-24 and miR-34a might be two indirect elements of regulation of several hemostatic factors. Additionally, variations in miRNA expression profiles could justify, at least in part, changes in HNF4A expression levels and its downstream targets of coagulation. PMID:27135744

  14. Platelet cytoskeleton and its hemostatic role.

    PubMed

    Cerecedo, Doris

    2013-12-01

    Upon vascular injury, platelets adhere to the exposed extracellular matrix, which triggers the platelet activation and aggregation to form a hemostatic plug to seal the wound. All of these events involve dramatic changes in shape because of the cytoskeleton reorganization. The versatility of the cytoskeleton's main elements depends on the biochemical nature of the elements, as well as on the associated proteins that confer multiple functions within the cell. The list of these associated proteins grows actively, increasing our knowledge concerning the complexity of platelet cytoskeleton machinery. The present review evidences the recently described platelet proteins that promote characteristic modifications in their cytoskeleton organization, with special focus on the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex. PMID:24030121

  15. Mechanistic investigation of a hemostatic keratin biomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmany, Maria Bahawdory

    Traumatic injury leads to more productive years lost than heart disease, cancer and stroke combined. Trauma is often accompanied and complicated by uncontrolled bleeding. Human hair keratin biomaterials have demonstrated efficacy in controlling hemorrhage in both small and large animal models; however little is known about the mechanism by which these proteins aid in blood clotting. Inspection of the amino acid sequence of known keratins shows the presence of several cellular binding motifs, suggesting a possible mechanism and potentially eliminating the need to functionalize the material's surface for cellular interaction. In addition to small animal studies, the hemostatic activity of keratin hydrogels was explored through porcine hemorrhage models representing both a high flow and low flow bleed. In both studies, keratin hydrogels appeared to lead to a significant reduction in blood loss. The promising results from these in vivo studies provided the motivation for this project. The objective of this dissertation work was to assess the mechanism of action of a hemostatic keratin biomaterial, and more broadly assess the biomaterial-cellular interaction(s). It is our hypothesis that keratin biomaterials have the capacity to specifically interact with cells and lead to propagation of intracellular signaling pathway, specifically contributing to hemostasis. Through application of biochemical and molecular tools, we demonstrate here that keratin biomaterials contribute to hemostasis through two probable mechanisms; integrin mediated platelet adhesion and increased fibrin polymerization. Platelets are the major cell type involved in coagulation both by acting as a catalytic surface for the clotting cascade and adhering to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins providing a soft platelet plug. Because keratin biomaterials have structural and biochemical characteristics similar to ECM proteins, we utilized several adhesion assays to investigate platelet adhesion to keratin

  16. Method of manufacturing fibrous hemostatic bandages

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Gustavo; Spretz, Ruben; Velarde-Ortiz, Raffet

    2012-09-04

    A method of manufacturing a sturdy and pliable fibrous hemostatic dressing by making fibers that maximally expose surface area per unit weight of active ingredients as a means for aiding in the clot forming process and as a means of minimizing waste of active ingredients. The method uses a rotating object to spin off a liquid biocompatible fiber precursor, which is added at its center. Fibers formed then deposit on a collector located at a distance from the rotating object creating a fiber layer on the collector. An electrical potential difference is maintained between the rotating disk and the collector. Then, a liquid procoagulation species is introduced at the center of the rotating disk such that it spins off the rotating disk and coats the fibers.

  17. Significant associations among hemostatic parameters, adipokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Horigome, Hitoshi; Katayama, Yasutomi; Yoshinaga, Masao; Kato, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Hideto; Sumazaki, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Development of cardiovascular diseases could originate in early childhood. However, reference values of hemostatic parameters and adipokines in preschool children remain to be explored. We measured blood levels of adipokines and parameters of the hemostatic/fibrinolytic systems in 167 healthy children aged 4 to 6 years at 9:00 to 10:30 am after a strictly enforced overnight fast. Participants with body mass index (BMI) values ≥90th percentile had significantly higher values of systolic blood pressure and heart rate, as well as blood levels of insulin, coagulation factor (F) VII, FX, protein S, leptin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lower values of desacyl-ghrelin than children with BMI < 90th percentile. Circulating levels of fibrinogen and leptin increased with increased number of cardiovascular risk factors. Stepwise regression analysis identified many hematological variables to be associated with features of the metabolic syndrome. The results implicated the hemostatic/fibrinolytic system or adipokines in the insidious progression of cardiovascular diseases from an early age. PMID:21949035

  18. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Jaimie B.; Kaur, Ravneet R.; Siegel, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined. PMID:23984226

  19. Targeted Thromboelastographic (TEG) Blood Component and Pharmacologic Hemostatic Therapy in Traumatic and Acquired Coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Mark; Fritz, Stephanie; Hake, Daniel; Son, Michael; Greve, Sarah; Jbara, Manar; Chitta, Swetha; Fritz, Braxton; Miller, Adam; Bader, Mary K; McCollester, Jonathon; Binz, Sophia; Liew-Spilger, Alyson; Thomas, Scott; Crepinsek, Anton; Shariff, Faisal; Ploplis, Victoria; Castellino, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    Trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) is a recently described condition which traditionally has been diagnosed by the common coagulation tests (CCTs) such as prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), platelet count, and fibrinogen levels. The varying sensitivity and specificity of these CCTs have led trauma coagulation researchers and clinicians to use Viscoelastic Tests (VET) such as Thromboelastography (TEG) to provide Targeted Thromboelastographic Hemostatic and Adjunctive Therapy (TTHAT) in a goal directed fashion to those trauma patients in need of hemostatic resuscitation. This review describes the utility of VETs, in particular, TEG, to provide TTHAT in trauma and acquired non-trauma-induced coagulopathy. PMID:26960340

  20. Prospective evaluation of hemostatic system activation and thrombin potential in healthy pregnant women with and without factor V Leiden.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, S; Weltermann, A; Philipp, K; Hafner, E; Kaider, A; Kittl, E M; Brenner, B; Mannhalter, C; Lechner, K; Kyrle, P A

    1999-10-01

    Normal pregnancy is associated with alterations of the hemostatic system towards a hypercoagulable state and an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. The risk of venous thrombosis is higher in pregnant women with factor V Leiden (FVL) than in those with wildtype factor V. Routine laboratory assays are not useful to detect hypercoagulable conditions. A prospective and systematic evaluation of hemostatic system activation in women with and without FVL during an uncomplicated pregnancy employing more sensitive markers of hypercoagulability, such as prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), D-Dimer, or the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), an indicator of the plasma's potential to generate thrombin, has not been performed. We prospectively followed 113 pregnant women with (n = 11) and without (n = 102) FVL and measured F1+2. TAT, D-Dimer and the ETP at the 12th, 22nd and 34th gestational week as well as 3 months after delivery (baseline) in each subject. None of the women developed clinical signs of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy or postpartum. Pregnant women with and without FVL exhibited substantial activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic system as indicated by a gradual increase of F1+2, TAT and D-Dimer throughout uncomplicated pregnancy up to levels similar to those found in acute thromboembolic events (p < 0.0001 by analysis of variance for each parameters). Levels of F1+2 and TAT were comparable between women with and without FVL, but levels of D-Dimer were significantly higher in women with FVL than in those without the mutation (p = 0.0005). The ETP remained unchanged in both women with and without FVL at all timepoints. Our data demonstrate a substantial coagulation and fibrinolytic system activation in healthy women with and without FVL during uncomplicated pregnancy. An elevated F1+2, TAT or D-Dimer level during pregnancy is not necessarily indicative for an acute thromboembolic event. The normal ETP in both

  1. Biological marker of furfural, chemicals without administrative control level.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Hori, Hajime; Higashi, Toshiaki; Nagatomo, Hiroko; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Ohsato, Atsushi; Uchino, Bungo

    2007-06-01

    Furfural, a colorless liquid used in solvent-extraction processes, petroleum refining and as a rubber additive, has been assigned an occupational exposure limit of 2.5 ppm by the Japan Society for Occupational Health, but an administrative control level for furfural has not been established. In order to conduct effective occupational health management in workplaces where furfural is used, we measured furfural concentrations in working environments and collected urine samples to measure furoic acid levels (one of the principal metabolites), which act as a biomarker of exposure to furfural. The measurements of airborne concentrations in a working environment where furfural or a solution containing furfural was handled were made in 2004. Workers answered a questionnaire on working conditions, urine samples were collected at the end of the workshift, and furoic acid in the urine was measured by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The ambient concentrations of furfural during the period were 2.1 ppm in a mixer room and 1.6 ppm in a filling room. The mean concentrations of furoic acid in the workers' urine were 7.7 +/- 7.8 mg/g-creatinine in summer and winter, respectively (normal range: 3 - 60 mg/g-creatinine). The average exposure to furfural per month calculated by multiplying the concentration in the working environment by working hours for a month was 86.4 +/- 108.6 ppm hours/months (mean +/- standard deviation) (range; 0 - 336 ppm hours/month). The relationship between average exposure to furfural and furoic acid in the urine was analyzed by simple linear regression analysis and a positive correlation was found. These findings suggest that furoic acid in urine is useful for biological monitoring of exposure to furfural, and that the measurement of both furfural in the environment and furoic acid in the urine are beneficial in occupational health management of furfural. PMID:17582986

  2. Hemostatic function of apheresis platelets stored at 4 °C and 22 °C

    PubMed Central

    Reddoch, Kristin M.; Pidcoke, Heather F.; Montgomery, Robbie K.; Fedyk, Criselda G.; Aden, James K.; Ramasubramanian, Anand K.; Cap, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Platelet refrigeration decreases the risk of bacterial contamination and may preserve function better than standard-of-care room temperature storage. Benefits could include lower transfusion-related complications, decreased costs, improved hemostasis in acutely bleeding patients, and extended shelf-life. In this study, we compared the effects of 22°C and 4°C storage on the functional and activation status of apheresis platelets (APs). Methods APs (n = 5 per group) were stored for 5 days at 22°C with agitation (RT) versus at 4°C with agitation (4C+AG) and without (4C). Measurements included platelet counts, mean platelet volume, blood gas analytes, aggregation response, thromboelastography, TxB2 and sCD40L release, activation markers and microparticle formation. Results Sample pH levels were within acceptable limits for storage products (pH 6.2-7.4). Platelet glucose metabolism (P < 0.05), aggregation response (ADP: RT 0; 4C+AG 5.0 ± 0.8; 4C 5.6 ± 0.9; P < 0.05), and clot strength (MA: RT 58 ± 2; 4C+AG 63 ± 2; 4C 67 ± 2; P < 0.05) were better preserved at 4°C compared to RT storage. Refrigerated samples were more activated compared to RT (P < 0.05), although TxB2 (P < 0.05) and sCD40L release (P < 0.05) were higher at RT. Agitation did not improve the quality of 4°C-stored samples. Conclusion AP stored at 4°C maintain more viable metabolic characteristics, are hemostatically more effective, and release fewer pro-inflammatory mediators than AP stored at RT over 5 days. Given the superior bacteriologic safety of refrigerated products, these data suggest that cold-stored platelets may improve outcomes for acutely bleeding patients. PMID:24169210

  3. Levels of the inflammation marker YKL-40 in young adults exposed to intrauterine hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Kelstrup, Louise; Dejgaard, Thomas F; Clausen, Tine D; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hansen, Torben; Vestergaard, Henrik; Damm, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Plasma levels of the inflammatory marker YKL-40 were investigated in 597 adult offspring born to women with and without diabetes during pregnancy. No association between fetal exposure to maternal hyperglycemia and levels of YKL-40 was found. However, female sex and increasing BMI in the offspring were associated to YKL-40. PMID:27103369

  4. Newly designed hemostatic technology based on photocurable gelatin.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Y; Matsuda, T

    1995-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a novel photochemically driven hemostatic technology using photocurable gelatins partially derivatized with photoreactive xanthene dyes (fluorescein, eosin, and rose bengal) and a hydrophilic difunctional macromer. The developed hemostatic glue consisted of dye derivatized gelatin (20 wt%), poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (10 wt%), and ascorbid acid (0.3 wt%), all of which were dissolved in a saline solution. Irradiation of the hemostatic glue by visible light produced a swollen gel within a few tenths of a second due to dye sensitized photo-crosslinking and photograft polymerization. An increase in irradiation time resulted in an increased gel yield and reduced water swellability. A rat liver injured on laparotomy was coated with the hemostatic glue. Upon visible light irradiation through an optical fiber, the coated viscous solution was immediately converted to a swollen gel and, concomitantly, hemostasis was completed. Histologic examination showed that, at 7 days after surgery, little gelatin remained in the injured region, scarring with little necrosis occurred, and inflammatory cells infiltrated from the surrounding tissue and tissue regeneration proceeded well. During laparoscopic surgery, in situ gelation of the hemostatic glue on the liver surface was demonstrated using a specially designed fiberscope. PMID:8573828

  5. Mid-Pliocene (~3 Ma) relative sea level markers around the world: searching for eustasy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, Alessio; Raymo, Maureen; Hearty, Paul; MItrovica, Jerry; Austermann, Jacqueline; O'Leary, Michael; Sandstrom, Michael

    2014-05-01

    PLIOMAX (PLIOcene MAXimum sea level) is a five-year research project that aims to increase the accuracy of global sea level estimates for the mid-Pliocene warm period. To achieve its goals, PLIOMAX has organized several field expeditions to identify, measure and date relative sea level markers of mid-Pliocene age from around the globe, and built a network of collaborators expert in different geographic areas and disciplines. In this work we present field data obtained from South Africa, Australia, Italy, Argentina and the US East Coast. In these areas we sampled, measured and dated geological facies related to mid-Pliocene sea level. Most areas yield information on 3 Ma sea levels with an accuracy of few decimeters. In presenting our dataset, we will show how we address the following questions, including: how can we obtain accurate measurements in the field? What is the accuracy of the markers we measure in indicating past relative sea levels? To which point can we trust older literature data? We then show how the elevations of relative sea level markers obtained in the field must be corrected to obtain an estimate of eustatic sea level. These corrections use models of glacial isostatic adjustment and dynamic topography. We discuss uncertainties linked to these models as well as the main issues that are still separating us from obtaining a robust estimate of maximum eustatic sea level during the mid-Pliocene warm period.

  6. An empirical review: Characteristics of plant microsatellite markers that confer higher levels of genetic variation1

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Benjamin J.; Culley, Theresa M.; Avanesyan, Alina; Stokes, Richard; Brzyski, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    During microsatellite marker development, researchers must choose from a pool of possible primer pairs to further test in their species of interest. In many cases, the goal is maximizing detectable levels of genetic variation. To guide researchers and determine which markers are associated with higher levels of genetic variation, we conducted a literature review based on 6782 genomic microsatellite markers published from 1997–2012. We examined relationships between heterozygosity (He or Ho) or allele number (A) with the following marker characteristics: repeat type, motif length, motif region, repeat frequency, and microsatellite size. Variation across taxonomic groups was also analyzed. There were significant differences between imperfect and perfect repeat types in A and He. Dinucleotide motifs exhibited significantly higher A, He, and Ho than most other motifs. Repeat frequency and motif region were positively correlated with A, He, and Ho, but correlations with microsatellite size were minimal. Higher taxonomic groups were disproportionately represented in the literature and showed little consistency. In conclusion, researchers should carefully consider marker characteristics so they can be tailored to the desired application. If researchers aim to target high genetic variation, dinucleotide motif lengths with large repeat frequencies may be best. PMID:26312192

  7. Kernel-Based Aggregation of Marker-Level Genetic Association Tests Involving Copy-Number Variation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yinglei; Breheny, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Genetic association tests involving copy-number variants (CNVs) are complicated by the fact that CNVs span multiple markers at which measurements are taken. The power of an association test at a single marker is typically low, and it is desirable to pool information across the markers spanned by the CNV. However, CNV boundaries are not known in advance, and the best way to proceed with this pooling is unclear. In this article, we propose a kernel-based method for aggregation of marker-level tests and explore several aspects of its implementation. In addition, we explore some of the theoretical aspects of marker-level test aggregation, proposing a permutation-based approach that preserves the family-wise error rate of the testing procedure, while demonstrating that several simpler alternatives fail to do so. The empirical power of the approach is studied in a number of simulations constructed from real data involving a pharmacogenomic study of gemcitabine and compares favorably with several competing approaches.

  8. Perioperative Hemostatic Management in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A Report of 2 Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Holly; Lee-Kim, YoungNa J; Srivaths, Lakshmi V

    2016-03-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is associated with easy bruising and bleeding complications in the majority. Although bleeding complications are frequently observed during surgery in these patients, the perioperative hemostatic prophylaxis of patients with EDS is not standardized. We present 2 cases of effective perioperative hemostatic management of patients with EDS and review the literature to raise awareness of hemostatic issues during surgery and discuss medical options to consider for perioperative hemostatic management based on our clinical experience and literature review. PMID:26334432

  9. Efficacy of Intra-Articular Injection of Thrombin-Based Hemostatic Agent in the Control of Bleeding after Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Son, Eun-Seok; Lee, Si-Wook; Lee, Suk-Joong; Lim, Kyung Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the hemostatic effect of intraarticular injection of a thrombin-based hemostatic agent in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Materials and Methods We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial on the use of a thrombin-based hemostatic agent in patients undergoing unilateral TKA. A total of 100 TKA patients were enrolled, with 50 patients randomized into the study group and the other 50 patients into the controlled group. Drain output, hemoglobin level, total red blood cell loss for 24 hours after surgery, transfusion rates, and complications were assessed. Results Postoperative drain output was 525 mL in the study group and 667 mL in the control group (p=0.01). Nine patients in the study group and eighteen in the control group received blood transfusion (p=0.043). But, there was no significant difference between two groups in terms of hemoglobin level change and total red blood cell loss (p>0.05). Conclusions The thrombin-based hemostatic agent demonstrated efficacy in reducing drain output and blood transfusion rates. Thus, we believe the use of a thrombin-based hemostatic agent should be considered as an option in orthopedic surgery that involves massive bleeding. PMID:25505706

  10. Hemostatic powder spray: a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Changela, Kinesh; Papafragkakis, Haris; Ofori, Emmanuel; Ona, Mel A; Krishnaiah, Mahesh; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury

    2015-05-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The management of gastrointestinal bleeding is often challenging, depending on its location and severity. To date, widely accepted hemostatic treatment options include injection of epinephrine and tissue adhesives such as cyanoacrylate, ablative therapy with contact modalities such as thermal coagulation with heater probe and bipolar hemostatic forceps, noncontact modalities such as photodynamic therapy and argon plasma coagulation, and mechanical hemostasis with band ligation, endoscopic hemoclips, and over-the-scope clips. These approaches, albeit effective in achieving hemostasis, are associated with a 5-10% rebleeding risk. New simple, effective, universal, and safe methods are needed to address some of the challenges posed by the current endoscopic hemostatic techniques. The use of a novel hemostatic powder spray appears to be effective and safe in controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Although initial reports of hemostatic powder spray as an innovative approach to manage gastrointestinal bleeding are promising, further studies are needed to support and confirm its efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility, clinical efficacy, and safety of hemostatic powder spray (Hemospray, Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA) as a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding. In this review article, we performed an extensive literature search summarizing case reports and case series of Hemospray for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. Indications, features, technique, deployment, success rate, complications, and limitations are discussed. The combined technical and clinical success rate of Hemospray was 88.5% (207/234) among the human subjects and 81.8% (9/11) among the porcine models studied. Rebleeding occurred within 72 hours post-treatment in 38 patients (38/234; 16.2%) and in three porcine

  11. Hemostatic powder spray: a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Papafragkakis, Haris; Ofori, Emmanuel; Ona, Mel A.; Krishnaiah, Mahesh; Duddempudi, Sushil; Anand, Sury

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. The management of gastrointestinal bleeding is often challenging, depending on its location and severity. To date, widely accepted hemostatic treatment options include injection of epinephrine and tissue adhesives such as cyanoacrylate, ablative therapy with contact modalities such as thermal coagulation with heater probe and bipolar hemostatic forceps, noncontact modalities such as photodynamic therapy and argon plasma coagulation, and mechanical hemostasis with band ligation, endoscopic hemoclips, and over-the-scope clips. These approaches, albeit effective in achieving hemostasis, are associated with a 5–10% rebleeding risk. New simple, effective, universal, and safe methods are needed to address some of the challenges posed by the current endoscopic hemostatic techniques. The use of a novel hemostatic powder spray appears to be effective and safe in controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Although initial reports of hemostatic powder spray as an innovative approach to manage gastrointestinal bleeding are promising, further studies are needed to support and confirm its efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility, clinical efficacy, and safety of hemostatic powder spray (Hemospray, Cook Medical, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA) as a new method for managing gastrointestinal bleeding. In this review article, we performed an extensive literature search summarizing case reports and case series of Hemospray for the management of gastrointestinal bleeding. Indications, features, technique, deployment, success rate, complications, and limitations are discussed. The combined technical and clinical success rate of Hemospray was 88.5% (207/234) among the human subjects and 81.8% (9/11) among the porcine models studied. Rebleeding occurred within 72 hours post-treatment in 38 patients (38/234; 16.2%) and in three porcine

  12. [THE LEVEL OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AS A MARKER OF RENAL DYSFUNCTION IN NEONATES WITH ASPHYXIA].

    PubMed

    Loboda, A M

    2015-01-01

    The article examines the possibility of determining the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LD) in biological fluids as a marker of renal dysfunction and energy supply in neonates with asphyxia. Investigation included 200 full-term newborns with disturbance kidney function: 100 infants who had severe asphyxia, and 100--with moderate asphyxia. LD activity was determined by kinetic spectrophotometric method. Determination of the activity of LD in the urine in the early neonatal period it is advisable to use as a non-invasive marker for the diagnosis of renal dysfunction in neonates with asphyxia. The content of LD in the blood serum can be used as one of the early markers of kidney damage in newborns with asphyxia. PMID:27491157

  13. Hemostatic Powders in Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan N

    2015-07-01

    Topical hemostatic agents and powders are an emerging modality in the endoscopic management of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding. This systematic review demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of these agents with special emphasis on TC-325 and Ankaferd Blood Stopper. The unique noncontact/nontraumatic application, ability to cover large areas of bleed, and ease of use make these hemostatic agents an attractive option in certain clinical situations, such as massive bleeding with poor visualization, salvage therapy, and diffuse bleeding from luminal malignancies. PMID:26142037

  14. Low levels of astroglial markers in Parkinson's disease: relationship to α-synuclein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Williams, Belinda; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Fitzmaurice, Paul; Guttman, Mark; Boileau, Isabelle; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Kish, Stephen J

    2015-10-01

    Although gliosis is a normal response to brain injury, reports on the extent of astrogliosis in the degenerating substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD) are conflicting. It has also been recently suggested that accumulation of nigral α-synuclein in this disorder might suppress astrocyte activation which in turn could exacerbate the degenerative process. This study examined brain protein levels (intact protein, fragments, and aggregates, if any) of astroglial markers and their relationship to α-synuclein in PD and in the positive control parkinson-plus conditions multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Autopsied brain homogenates of patients with PD (n=10), MSA (n=11), PSP (n=11) and matched controls (n=10) were examined for the astroglial markers glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), vimentin, and heat shock protein-27 (Hsp27) by quantitative immunoblotting. As expected, both MSA (putamen>substantia nigra>caudate>frontal cortex) and PSP (substantia nigra>caudate>putamen, frontal cortex) showed widespread but regionally specific pattern of increased immunoreactivity of the markers, in particular for the partially proteolyzed fragments (all three) and aggregates (GFAP). In contrast, immunoreactivity of the three markers was largely normal in PD in brain regions examined with the exception of trends for variably increased levels of cleaved vimentin in substantia nigra and frontal cortex. In patients with PD, GFAP levels in the substantia nigra correlated inversely with α-synuclein accumulation whereas the opposite was true for MSA. Our biochemical findings of generally normal protein levels of astroglial markers in substantia nigra of PD, and negative correlation with α-synuclein concentration, are consistent with some recent neuropathology reports of mild astroglial response and with the speculation that astrogliosis might be suppressed in this disorder by excessive α-synuclein accumulation. Should astrogliosis protect, to

  15. Association between Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Inflammatory Markers among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Ping; Liu, Chien-Liang; Liu, Tsang-Pai; Hsu, Yi-Chiung; Lee, Jie-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims. High levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) appear to be associated with an increased mortality. Previous studies concerning the relationship of inflammatory markers with hyperparathyroidism have yielded inconsistent results. This study investigated whether serum PTH concentrations were independently associated with several inflammatory markers among the US adults. Materials and Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relation between serum PTH and C-reactive protein (CRP), red cell distribution width (RDW), and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) levels with weighted linear regression. Additionally, we examined the relation with increased modified Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS) by using weighted logistic regression. Results. CRP, RDW, and PLR values increased with increasing serum PTH concentration. After extensively adjusting for covariates, CRP and RDW increased linearly and across PTH categories (all P < 0.001), while PLR marginally increased (P = 0.190 and P = 0.095 using PTH as a categorical and continuous variable, resp.). The odds ratio of increased mGPS was 1.11 and 1.31 across PTH categories and with increasing PTH levels continuously. Conclusion. These nationally representative data indicate that serum PTH levels are independently associated with several inflammatory markers in the US population. The casual relationship between PTH levels and inflammation remains to be elucidated. PMID:24782595

  16. Inorganic hemostats: The state-of-the-art and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Pourshahrestani, Sara; Zeimaran, Ehsan; Djordjevic, Ivan; Kadri, Nahrizul Adib; Towler, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhage is the most common cause of death both in hospitals and on the battlefield. The need for an effective hemostatic agent remains, since all injuries are not amenable to tourniquet use. There are many topical hemostatic agents and dressings available to control severe bleeding. This article reviews the most commonly used inorganic hemostats, subcategorized as zeolite and clay-based hemostats. Their hemostatic functions as well as their structural properties that are believed to induce hemostasis are discussed. The most important findings from in vitro and in vivo experiments are also covered. PMID:26478429

  17. Association between levels of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Azizieh, Fawaz; Alyahya, Khulood O; Raghupathy, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Background No one can deny that the biological importance of vitamin D is much beyond its classical role in bone metabolism. Several recent publications have highlighted its potential role in the functioning of the immune system. The overall objective of this study was to look into possible correlations between levels of vitamin D and inflammatory markers in sera of healthy adult women. These markers included proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon [IFN]-γ, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13), as well as C-reactive protein (CRP) as a general indicator of inflammation. Methods Venous blood samples were collected from 118 healthy adult women and serum levels of vitamin D, CRP, proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α), and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) were measured. Results There were no significant direct correlations between serum levels of vitamin D and any of the inflammatory markers measured. However, subjects with deficient levels of vitamin D and high CRP produced significantly higher levels of the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-8) as compared to subjects with low CRP levels with nondeficient and deficient levels of vitamin D. Further, the anti-inflammatory/proinflammatory ratios suggest a role of vitamin D in maintaining an anti-inflammatory environment at low levels of CRP, an association that is weaker at high CRP levels in subjects with subclinical inflammatory situations. Conclusion These data point to a possible role of vitamin D as a contributing factor in balancing cytokines toward an anti-inflammatory role in inflammatory situations. PMID:27175089

  18. [EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF LOCAL HEMOSTATIC MATERIALS BASED ON OXIDIZE CELLULOSE IN THE EXPERIMENT].

    PubMed

    Tarkova, A R; Chernyavskiy, A M; Grigor'ev, I A; Morozov, S V; Rodionov, V I; Kravchenko, N I

    2015-01-01

    The bleeding of intraoperative period is one of the actual problem in surgery. There aren't any universal hemostatic means in spite of large variety of modern hemostatic methods. An experimental research studied the results of hemostatic activity of different forms of materials on the basis of oxidize cellulose (a gauze, a powder) as compared with their foreign analog (a hemostatic gauze "SurgiceI"). Median of hemostasis time consisted of (120 ± 59.9) and (73 ± 46.8) s, in case of application of gauze and powder preparations, respectively. The rate of group using the hemostatic gauze "Surgicel" was (142 ± 77.4) s. The authors made a conclusion on the basis of given research, that the hemostatic material based on oxidize cellulose (the powder form) showed a more expressed hemostatic activity and reliably twice reduced the time of hemostasis as compared with their analog forms of gauze (p < 0.05). PMID:27066660

  19. Hemostatic management of patients undergoing ear-nose-throat surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thiele, Thomas; Kaftan, Holger; Hosemann, Werner; Greinacher, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in the field of otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives practical advice based on the current literature with focus on patients undergoing ENT surgery. PMID:26770281

  20. Topical and effective hemostatic medicines in the battlefield

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yin-Juan; Gao, Bo; Liu, Xi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage has been considered as one of the most important factors for causing death on the battlefront. If given timely and efficient hemostatic medicines in pre-hospital setting, patients will obtain more time and chance to wait for medical treatment so as to save their lives. However, there is not a certain answer about which kind of hemostatic drugs can achieve efficacious effect to hemostasis in the battle. This review aims to summarize effective hemostatic medicines applied in battlefield from 41 articles. After analyzing and comparing the efficacy and complications of those products, we conclude that Fibrin Sealant Dressing, Celox and Woundstat are prior to other materials to stanch life-threatening extremity hemorrhage on the battlefield based on present research in the related area. Therefore, in the prevalence of some inevitable battlefield throughout the world, especially in the Middle Eastern countries, our findings suggest for the first time that the effective hemostatic device is not only a key point to link pre-hospital and hospital care but also an essential way to increase the survival rate of battlefront in the foreseeable future. PMID:25784969

  1. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4490 - Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absorbable hemostatic agent and dressing. 878.4490 Section 878.4490 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4490...

  3. Postmortem serum erythropoietin level as a marker of survival time in injury deaths.

    PubMed

    Quan, L; Zhu, B-L; Ishikawa, T; Michiue, T; Zhao, D; Ogawa, M; Maeda, H

    2010-07-15

    Circulating erythropoietin (EPO) is mainly derived from the kidneys, and the serum concentration is rapidly increased in response to anemia and hypoxia. The present study investigated postmortem serum EPO levels in injury death cases (n=185, postmortem time<48 h, survival time <7 days: sharp instrument injury, n=44 and blunt injury, n=141) with regard to survival time, compared with C-reactive protein (CRP) as a marker of inflammation. Serum levels of both markers were independent of postmortem time. A survival time-dependent increase in serum EPO up to about 100 mU/ml was seen within 6h of sharp instrument injury to the heart or a proximal major vessel (thoracic aorta or subclavian/carotid artery) and blunt injury with massive hemorrhages, showing high correlations (r=0.957 and r=0.822, respectively, P<0.0001), whereas the increase was insignificant (P>0.05) for sharp instrument injury to a peripheral vessel or lungs/abdominal viscera and blunt injury with minor hemorrhages over the same survival period. A further increase (>100 mU/ml) was often detected in cases of death about 24h after blunt injury, irrespective of the type of injury. In contrast, a gradual increase in serum CRP level was seen about 12-24h after blunt injury. These findings suggest that serum EPO can be a marker for investigating survival time within 6h of major injury involving acute massive hemorrhaging. PMID:20430543

  4. Serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor as a potential tumor marker in patients with malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Rainer; Muendlein, Axel; Volbeding, Lennart; Drexel, Heinz; Richtig, Erika; Wehkamp, Ulrike; Painsi, Clemes; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Bernhard; Hauschild, Axel; Egberts, Friederike

    2016-08-01

    Serum markers can be important tools for prognostic classification and treatment monitoring in cancer patients. The MAP-kinase pathway, which is upregulated in the majority of melanoma patients, can be activated by hepatocyte-growth factor (HGF) through the proto-oncogene c-MET. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive and prognostic value of circulating HGF in terms of treatment outcome and survival compared with a widely established serum marker, protein S-100B, in patients with advanced metastatic melanoma. HGF and S-100B were measured in serum samples of 101 patients with metastatic melanoma (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IV) before and after treatment and 50 patients with stage I/II melanoma. HGF and S-100B correlated significantly with the stage of disease (P=0.032 and P<0.001, respectively). In stage IV melanoma patients, baseline serum levels of HGF and S-100B were significantly associated with treatment response (P=0.012 and 0.006, respectively). Furthermore, the Cox regression analysis confirmed that serum levels of HGF and S-100B proved to have a significant prognostic impact on progression-free survival (hazard ratio=1.39 and 1.29, respectively) and overall survival (hazard ratio=1.27 and 1.29, respectively) in advanced metastatic melanoma patients. In melanoma patients, serum levels of HGF and S-100B correlate significantly with the stage of disease. In stage IV melanoma, both markers are prognostic factors and correlate significantly with progression-free survival and overall survival. Measurement of serum HGF levels might be a useful additional tool in the management of melanoma patients. PMID:27206057

  5. Heart Rate Variability Predicts Levels of Inflammatory Markers: Evidence for the Vagal Anti-Inflammatory Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Timothy M.; McKinley, Paula S.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Choo, Tse-Hwei; Lee, Seonjoo; Sloan, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous animal models shows that vagal activity regulates inflammatory responses by decreasing cytokine release. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable index of cardiac vagal regulation and should be inversely related to levels of inflammatory markers. Inflammation is also regulated by sympathetic inputs, but only one previous paper controlled for this. In a larger and more representative sample, we sought to replicate those results and examine potential sex differences in the relationship between HRV and inflammatory markers. Using data from the MIDUS II study, we analyzed the relationship between 6 inflammatory markers and both HF-HRV and LF-HRV. After controlling for sympathetic effects measured by urinary norepinephrine as well as a host of other factors, LF-HRV was found to be inversely associated with fibrinogen, CRP and IL-6, while HF-HRV was inversely associated with fibrinogen and CRP. We did not observe consistent sex differences. These results support the existence of the vagal anti-inflammatory pathway and suggest that it has similar effects in men and women. PMID:25541185

  6. Mating type markers reveal high levels of heterothallism in Leptographium sensu lato.

    PubMed

    Duong, Tuan A; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Species of Leptographium sensu lato are sap-stain fungi vectored by bark beetles and some species cause or are associated with tree diseases. Sexual states have been reported for more than 30 species in this group and these have been treated in the sexual genus Grosmannia. No sexual state is known for at least 59 additional species and these reside in the genus Leptographium. The discovery of sexual states for species of Leptographium relies mainly on the presence of fruiting bodies on host tissue at the time of isolation and/or intensive laboratory mating studies, which commonly have low levels of success. We developed mating-type markers to study sexual compatibility of species in Leptographium sensu lato. Using these markers, it was possible to identify mating types for 42 species and to determine thallism in many species for the first time. Surprisingly, the results showed that heterothallic and putatively heterothallic species are abundant (39 out of 42 species) in Leptographium sensu lato, and only three species were confirmed to be homothallic. The mating type markers developed in this study will be useful for future studies concerning mating type and sexual compatibility of species in this genus. PMID:27020155

  7. Plasma hyaluronic acid level as a prognostic and monitoring marker of metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cike; Wallwiener, Markus; Rudolph, Anja; Ćuk, Katarina; Eilber, Ursula; Celik, Muhabbet; Modugno, Caroline; Trumpp, Andreas; Heil, Jörg; Marmé, Frederik; Madhavan, Dharanija; Nees, Juliane; Riethdorf, Sabine; Schott, Sarah; Sohn, Christof; Pantel, Klaus; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Yang, Rongxi; Burwinkel, Barbara

    2016-05-15

    Conventional tumor markers have limited value for prognostication and treatment monitoring in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients and novel circulating tumor markers therefore need to be explored. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a major macropolysaccharide in the extracellular matrix and is reported to be associated with tumor progression. In our study, we investigated plasma HA level with respect to progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), as well as the treatment monitoring value in MBC patients. The prognostic value of plasma HA level was investigated in a discovery cohort of 212 MBC patients with 2.5-year follow-up and validated in an independent validation cohort of 334 patients with 5-year follow-up. The treatment monitoring value of plasma HA level was investigated in 61 MBC patients from discovery cohort who had been radiographically examined after first complete cycle of chemo therapy. We found a robust association between high plasma HA level and poor prognosis of MBC patients in both discovery (pPFS  = 7.92 × 10(-6) and pOS  = 5.27 × 10(-5) ) and validation studies (pPFS  = 3.66 × 10(-4) and pOS  = 1.43 × 10(-4) ). In the discovery cohort, the plasma HA level displayed independent prognostic value after adjusted for age and clinicopathological factors, with respect to PFS and OS. Further, the decrease of plasma HA level displayed good concordance with treatment response evaluated by radiographic examination (AUC = 0.79). Plasma HA level displays prognostic value, as well as treatment monitoring value for MBC patients. PMID:26686298

  8. Control of bleeding in surgical procedures: critical appraisal of HEMOPATCH (Sealing Hemostat)

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kevin Michael; Kuntze, Carl Erik; Gulle, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    The need for advanced hemostatic agents increases with the complexity of surgical procedures and use of anticoagulation and antiplatelet treatments. HEMOPATCH (Sealing Hemostat) is a novel, advanced hemostatic pad that is composed of a synthetic, protein-reactive monomer and a collagen backing. The active side is covered with a protein-reactive monomer: N-hydroxysuccinimide functionalized polyethylene glycol (NHS-PEG). NHS-PEG rapidly affixes the collagen pad to tissue to promote and maintain hemostasis. The combined action of the NHS-PEG and collagen is demonstrated to have benefit relative to other hemostatic agents in surgery and preclinical surgical models. This paper reviews the published investigations and case reports of the hemostatic efficacy of HEMOPATCH, wherein HEMOPATCH is demonstrated to be an effective, easy-to-use hemostatic agent in open and minimally invasive surgery of patients with thrombin- or platelet-induced coagulopathies. PMID:26730213

  9. The Fibrin Matrix Regulates Angiogenic Responses within the Hemostatic Microenvironment through Biochemical Control

    PubMed Central

    Hadjipanayi, Ektoras; Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik; Kuekrek, Haydar; Mirzoyan, Lilit; Hummel, Anja; Kirchhoff, Katharina; Salgin, Burak; Isenburg, Sarah; Dornseifer, Ulf; Ninkovic, Milomir; Machens, Hans-Günther; Schilling, Arndt F.

    2015-01-01

    Conceptually, premature initiation of post-wound angiogenesis could interfere with hemostasis, as it relies on fibrinolysis. The mechanisms facilitating orchestration of these events remain poorly understood, however, likely due to limitations in discerning the individual contribution of cells and extracellular matrix. Here, we designed an in vitro Hemostatic-Components-Model (HCM) to investigate the role of the fibrin matrix as protein factor-carrier, independent of its cell-scaffold function. After characterizing the proteomic profile of HCM-harvested matrix releasates, we demonstrate that the key pro-/anti-angiogenic factors, VEGF and PF4, are differentially bound by the matrix. Changing matrix fibrin mass consequently alters the balance of releasate factor concentrations, with differential effects on basic endothelial cell (EC) behaviors. While increasing mass, and releasate VEGF levels, promoted EC chemotactic migration, it progressively inhibited tube formation, a response that was dependent on PF4. These results indicate that the clot’s matrix component initially serves as biochemical anti-angiogenic barrier, suggesting that post-hemostatic angiogenesis follows fibrinolysis-mediated angiogenic disinhibition. Beyond their significance towards understanding the spatiotemporal regulation of wound healing, our findings could inform the study of other pathophysiological processes in which coagulation and angiogenesis are prominent features, such as cardiovascular and malignant disease. PMID:26317771

  10. Sedative, hematologic and hemostatic effects of dexmedetomidine-butorphanol alone or in combination with ketamine in cats.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Julieta; Mattoso, Cláudio Roberto Scabelo; Beier, Suzane Lilian; Coelho, Mirelly Medeiros; Tocheto, Ronise; Kirsten, Cristine Elizabeth; Yonezawa, Letícia Andreza; Saito, Mere Erika

    2015-06-01

    Acute stress induced by physical restraint can interfere with the validity of laboratory findings. Sedation could minimize such stress. However, it is not known whether sedation can affect hematologic and hemostatic parameters in cats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hematologic and hemostatic parameters in domestic cats subjected to physical restraint in addition to one of two sedation protocols. In total, 50 cats were subjected to physical restraint and were then randomly divided into two groups of 25 animals, receiving dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg) and butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg; DB group) or dexmedetomidine (5 µg/kg), butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg; DBK group). The cats were assessed for acute stress, sedation level, onset of sedation and duration of sedation. Blood samples were collected after handling and after sedation. The complete blood count (CBC), platelet count, buccal mucosal bleeding time (BMBT), whole-blood clotting time, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) were determined for each sample, before and after chemical restraint. No statistically significant differences were found in the hematologic parameters. Certain hemostatic parameters (PT, aPTT and TT) were higher in the DB group (P <0.05). The onset of sedation was similar in the two groups, and the duration of sedation was longer in the DBK group. Both sedation protocols were effective for short-duration chemical restraint for blood collection from the studied cats, and no clinically relevant effects on hematologic or hemostatic parameters were detected. PMID:25216730

  11. Preparation and hemostatic property of low molecular weight silk fibroin.

    PubMed

    Lei, Caihong; Zhu, Hailin; Li, Jingjing; Feng, Xinxing; Chen, Jianyong

    2016-04-01

    Effective hemorrhage control becomes increasingly significant in today's military and civilian trauma, while the topical hemostats currently available in market still have various disadvantages. In this study, three low molecular weight silk fibroins (LMSF) were prepared through hydrolysis of silk fibroin in a ternary solvent system of CaCl2/H2O/EtOH solution at different hydrolysis temperatures. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that the content of β sheet structure in the LMSF decreased with the increase in hydrolysis temperature. The results of thromboelastographic and activated partial thromboplastin time methods showed that the LMSF hydrolyzed at 50 °C can significantly strengthen the coagulation in blood and activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation cascade. In the murine hepatic injury model, the LMSF hydrolyzed at 50 °C can promote the blood clotting and decrease the blood loss and bleeding time. Based on these results, it can be suggested that the developed LMSF has the excellent hemostatic effect and may be a promising material in clinical hemostatic application. PMID:26732018

  12. Osteogenic differentiation of preosteoblasts on a hemostatic gelatin sponge.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Zong-Keng; Lai, Po-Liang; Toh, Elsie Khai-Woon; Weng, Cheng-Hsi; Tseng, Hsiang-Wen; Chang, Pei-Zen; Chen, Chih-Chen; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering provides many advantages for repairing skeletal defects. Although many different kinds of biomaterials have been used for bone tissue engineering, safety issues must be considered when using them in a clinical setting. In this study, we examined the effects of using a common clinical item, a hemostatic gelatin sponge, as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The use of such a clinically acceptable item may hasten the translational lag from laboratory to clinical studies. We performed both degradation and biocompatibility studies on the hemostatic gelatin sponge, and cultured preosteoblasts within the sponge scaffold to demonstrate its osteogenic differentiation potential. In degradation assays, the gelatin sponge demonstrated good stability after being immersed in PBS for 8 weeks (losing only about 10% of its net weight and about 54% decrease of mechanical strength), but pepsin and collagenases readily biodegraded it. The gelatin sponge demonstrated good biocompatibility to preosteoblasts as demonstrated by MTT assay, confocal microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation and the migration of preosteoblasts, elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, and in vitro mineralization were observed within the scaffold structure. Each of these results indicates that the hemostatic gelatin sponge is a suitable scaffold for bone tissue engineering. PMID:27616161

  13. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine differentially affects hemostatic parameters in diverse conditions in rats: an investigation via thromboelastography.

    PubMed

    Cam, Betul; Sagdilek, Engin; Yildirim, Nalan; Savci, Vahide

    2015-04-01

    Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) has several physiological and pharmacological effects on various bodily functions, including hemostasis. This study determined the impact of CDP-choline on hemostasis in a trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) model in rats or under in vitro conditions or after chronic treatment via thromboelastography. Trauma-hemorrhage resuscitation was induced, and either saline (1 mL/kg) or CDP-choline (50 mg/kg) was injected intravenously just prior to resuscitation in the T-H group and at the same time point in the sham-control group. The effects of CDP-choline on thromboelastogram parameters, coagulation markers, and platelet aggregation were investigated under in vitro conditions (1.5 mM, 30- or 3-min incubation in blood or plasma) and after chronic use (50 mg/kg, i.p., 10 days). Acute CDP-choline treatment was shown to decrease the initial and maximum clot formation time, accelerate clotting rapidity, reduce the lysis percentage, and increase the coagulation index in the T-H resuscitation group, whereas the same treatment in the sham-control rats did not alter any of the thromboelastogram parameters. However, the incubation of whole blood with CDP-choline prolonged the initial and maximum clot formation time, and CDP-choline treatment significantly decreased the slopes of the disaggregation and aggregation curves when platelets were stimulated with ADP and collagen, respectively. Interestingly, the chronic use of this drug did not influence any of these hemostatic parameters. These data implicate that acute but not chronic CDP-choline administration may differentially alter the hemostatic parameters under diverse conditions. The drug may produce a hypercoagulable state in activated situations but cause opposite effects under normal in vitro conditions. PMID:25394251

  14. Serum endostatin levels are elevated in colorectal cancer and correlate with invasion and systemic inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Kantola, T; Väyrynen, J P; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karppinen, S M; Pihlajaniemi, T; Autio-Harmainen, H; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J; Tuomisto, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endostatin, a fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor with anti-tumour functions. However, elevated circulating endostatin concentrations have been found in several human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Serum endostatin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay from a series of 143 patients with CRC and from 84 controls, and correlated with detailed clinicopathological features of CRC, serum leukocyte differential count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Patients with CRC had higher serum endostatin levels than the controls (P=0.005), and high levels associated with age, tumour invasion through the muscularis propria and poor differentiation, but not with metastases. Endostatin levels showed a positive correlation with the markers of systemic inflammatory response and a negative correlation with the densities of tumour-infiltrating mast cells and dendritic cells. Collagen XVIII was expressed in tumour stroma most strikingly in blood vessels and capillaries, and in the muscle layer of the bowel wall. Conclusions: Elevated endostatin levels in CRC correlate with systemic inflammation and invasion through the muscularis propria. Increased endostatin level may be a result of invasion-related cleavage of collagen XVIII expressed in the bowel wall. The negative correlations between serum endostatin and intratumoural mast cells and immature dendritic cells may reflect angiogenesis inhibition by endostatin. PMID:25137019

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid tau levels are a marker for molecular subtype in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    PubMed

    Karch, André; Hermann, Peter; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Arora, Amandeep; Zafar, Saima; Llorens, Franc; Müller-Heine, Annika; Zerr, Inga

    2015-05-01

    The molecular subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is an important prognostic marker for patient survival. However, subtype determination is not possible during lifetime. Because the rate of disease progression is associated with the molecular subtype, this study aimed at investigating if total tau, a marker of neuronal death, allows premortem diagnosis of molecular subtype when codon 129 genotype is known. Two hundred ninety-six sCJD patients were tested for their cerebrospinal fluid total tau level at the time of diagnosis and were investigated for their sCJD subtype postmortem. There was a significant association between tau levels and the prion protein type in patients with codon 129 MM (p < 0.001), MV (p = 0.004), and VV (p = 0.001) genotype. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed values of area under the curve of 0.76-0.80 for the different genotypes indicating a good diagnostic validity of the test. Total tau can be used as a diagnostic test for the assessment of prion protein type when codon 129 genotype is known. It provides valuable information for physicians and next of kin about the further course of disease. PMID:25749129

  16. Serum Dickkopf-1 Level in Postmenopausal Females: Correlation with Bone Mineral Density and Serum Biochemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fouda, Neveen; Abbas, Amal Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess serum level of Dickkopf-1 in postmenopausal females and its correlation with bone mineral density and serum biochemical markers. Methods. Bone densitometry, serum Dickkopf-1, calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were done in sixty postmenopausal females. Patients were divided according to T score into osteoporosis (group I), osteopenia (group II), and normal bone mineral density that served as controls. Results. There was highly significant increase in serum Dickkopf-1 levels in postmenopausal females with abnormal T score versus controls (P < 0.001). Serum DKK-1 levels correlated negatively with both lumbar T score (r = −0.69, P < 0.001) and femur T score (r = −0.64, P < 0.001) and correlated positively with duration of menopause (r = 0.61, P < 0.001), while there was no significant correlation between serum levels of either calcium, phosphorus or alkaline phosphatase, and both serum Dickkopf-1 levels and the level of bone mineral density (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Postmenopausal females may suffer from osteoporosis as evidenced by bone densitometry. Postmenopausal women with significantly increased serum Dickkopf-1 had more significant osteoporosis. Prolonged duration of menopause and increased serum Dickkopf-1 are important risk factors for the development and severity of osteoporosis. PMID:23878759

  17. Clinical significance of serum cytokine levels and thrombopoietic markers in childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Giovanni Carlo; Giordano, Paola; Tesse, Riccardina; Piacente, Laura; Altomare, Maria; De Mattia, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological markers useful for defining children with newly diagnosed immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) who are likely to develop the chronic form of the disease are partially lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical role of both immunological and thrombopoietic markers in children with ITP and correlate their levels with different disease stages. Materials and methods We enrolled 28 children with ITP at the onset of their disease, who were followed-up for a whole year and divided according to whether their disease resolved within the 12 months (n=13) or became chronic (n=15), 11 subjects with chronic ITP off therapy for at least 1 month at the time of enrolment, and 30 healthy matched controls. Serum levels of T helper type 1 and 2 and T regulatory-associated cytokines, such as interferon γ, tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL) 2, IL6, IL10, and thrombopoietin were measured in all children using quantitative immunoenzymatic assays, while reticulated platelets were evaluated by flow cytometric analysis. Results Serum IL10 levels were significantly higher in patients with an acute evolution of ITP than in either healthy controls (p<0.001) or patients with chronic progression of ITP (p<0.05). Reticulated platelet count and thrombopoietin levels were significantly higher in ITP patients at the onset of their disease, whether with acute resolution or chronic progression, than in healthy subjects (p<0.01; p<0.001), but did not differ between the groups of patients. Conclusion IL-10 seems to predict the clinical course of ITP, as it is significantly higher at the onset of disease in patients who obtain disease remission in less than 1 year. PMID:22153687

  18. Serum Levels of Soluble CD26, A Novel Prognostic Marker for Hepatitis E Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Alireza; Ajami, Abolghasem; Mohammad Mirabi, Araz; Saffar, Mohammad Jafar; Amjadi, Omolbanin; Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Abedian, Farshideh; Khaje-Enayati, Pouya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Even without treatment, most acute hepatitis E virus (HEV) infected patients resolve HEV but sometimes the disease leads to acute liver failure, chronic infection, or extrahepatic symptoms. The mechanisms of HEV pathogenesis appear to be substantially immune mediated. However, the immune responses to HEV are not precisely identified. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the Th1/Th2 ratio by investigating serum soluble markers from Th1 and Th2 cells in acute HEV infected patients. Patients and Methods: This case-control study included 35 acute HEV infected patients and 35 age and gender matched anti-HEV negative healthy controls. The serum levels of Interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-4, soluble CD26 (sCD26) and sCD30 were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The results showed a significant difference in IFN-γ and sCD26 (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.001) yet not IL-4 and sCD30 (P = 0.354 and P = 0.159) between acute HEV patients and controls, respectively. There was a positive direct correlation between serum levels of sCD26 and IFN-γ in acute HEV patients (r = 0.64, P = 0.001). In addition, the ratio of sCD26/sCD30 in the acute HEV group was more than two folds higher than in the HEV negative controls. Conclusions: Acute HEV infection shows a pattern of Th1-type immune response, and the direct significant positive correlation between the serum level of sCD26 and IFN-γ in acute HEV infected patients, suggests that the trend of sCD26 levels is a valuable marker for predicting hepatic inflammation in hepatitis E. PMID:27127593

  19. Asymmetric signal amplification for simultaneous SERS detection of multiple cancer markers with significantly different levels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Sujuan; Wu, Yanying; Zhai, Xiaomo; Tang, Bo

    2015-08-18

    Simultaneous detection of cancer biomarkers holds great promise for the early diagnosis of different cancers. However, in the presence of high-concentration biomarkers, the signals of lower-expression biomarkers are overlapped. Existing techniques are not suitable for simultaneously detecting multiple biomarkers at concentrations with significantly different orders of magnitude. Here, we propose an asymmetric signal amplification method for simultaneously detecting multiple biomarkers with significantly different levels. Using the bifunctional probe, a linear amplification mode responds to high-concentration markers, and quadratic amplification mode responds to low-concentration markers. With the combined biobarcode probe and hybridization chain reaction (HCR) amplification method, the detection limits of microRNA (miRNA) and ATP via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection are 0.15 fM and 20 nM, respectively, with a breakthrough of detection concentration difference over 11 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, successful determination of miRNA and ATP in cancer cells supports the practicability of the assay. This methodology promises to open an exciting new avenue for the detection of various types of biomolecules. PMID:26218034

  20. The Relationship between Zinc Status and Inflammatory Marker Levels in Rural Korean Adults Aged 40 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sukyoung; Kim, Mi Kyung; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Background Serum cytokines and C-reactive protein (CRP) are known as one of the major risk factors in atherosclerosis. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of zinc have been suggested, but few data are available on the relationship between zinc status and inflammatory markers in epidemiological studies. Objective The present study aims to investigate the cross-sectional relationships of serum cytokines and CRP with dietary zinc intake and serum zinc levels in healthy men and women aged 40 and older in rural areas of South Korea. Materials and Methods A group of 1,055 subjects (404 men, 651 women) was included in dietary zinc analysis while another group of 695 subjects (263 men, 432 women) was included in serum zinc analysis. Serum IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP were measured as inflammatory markers. Results There was no significant inverse relationship between dietary zinc intake and inflammatory markers. We found a significant inverse relationship between serum zinc levels and all three inflammatory markers in women (P for trend = 0.0236 for IL-6; P for trend = 0.0017 for TNF-α; P for trend = 0.0301 for CRP) and between serum zinc levels and a single inflammatory marker (IL-6) in men (P for trend = 0.0191), although all R2 values by regression were less than 10%. Conclusion In conclusion, serum zinc levels may be inversely related to inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP), particularly in women. PMID:26080030

  1. [Uric acid and purine plasma levels as plausible markers for placental dysfunction in pre-eclampsia].

    PubMed

    Escudero, Carlos; Bertoglia, Patricio; Muñoz, Felipe; Roberts, James M

    2013-07-01

    Uric acid is the final metabolite of purine break down, such as ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine. The metabolite has been used broadly as a renal failure marker, as well as a risk factor for maternal and neonatal morbidity during pre-eclamptic pregnancies. High purine levels are observed in pre-eclamptic pregnancies, but the sources of these purines are unknown. However, there is evidence that pre-eclampsia (mainly severe pre-eclampsia) is associated with an increased release of cellular fragments (or microparticles) from the placenta to the maternal circulation. These in fact could be the substrate for purine metabolism. Considering this background, we propose that purines and uric acid are part of the same physiopathological phenomenon in pre-eclampsia (i.e., placental dysfunction) and could become biomarkers for placental dysfunction and postnatal adverse events. PMID:24356738

  2. High IL-23 level is a marker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Abu Al Fadl, Esam M; Fattouh, Mona; Allam, Ahmed A

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune systemic disorder characterized by inflammatory responses mainly affecting the synovial joints. Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric pro-inflammatory cytokine secreted by activated dendritic cells and activated macrophages. IL-23 is the key cytokine controlling inflammation in peripheral tissues leading to the development of autoimmune diseases. The objective of our study was to determine the relationship between the IL-23 level and disease activity in RA patients. Sixty RA patients were included in the study with mean age of 40 years; they included 44 (73.3 %) females and 16 males (26.7 %). The clinical parameters of disease activity were determined, including the 28-joint disease activity score (DAS28), serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA), rheumatoid factor (RF), and TNF-alpha and the degree of bony erosions based on X-rays. Patients were subdivided into active disease group (n = 30) with DAS28 score higher than 5.1 (Group I); and remission group (n = 30) with DAS28 score less than 2.6 (Group II). Thirty healthy individuals in the same age group of RA patients including 22 (73.3%) females and 8 males (26.7%) were randomly selected as the control group (Group III). The levels of IL-23 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the correlations between the serum levels of IL-23 and disease activity parameters of patients with RA were determined. Serum levels of IL-23 were significantly higher in RA patients during active stage of the disease in comparison to the patients in remission and the control group. There was a significant positive correlation between serum IL-23 levels in RA patients and individual disease activity parameters. It is concluded that elevated serum IL-23 level may be a useful marker to detect active RA and disease progression in patients with RA. PMID:24617049

  3. Hemostatic abnormalities following Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper) envenomation in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Chugh, K S; Mohanthy, D; Pal, Y; Das, K C; Ganguly, N K; Chakravarty, R N

    1981-09-01

    Hemostatic abnormalities following lethal and sublethal doses of Echis carinatus venom were studied in a subhuman primate model. The observations suggest the occurrence of disseminated intravascular coagulation of varying magnitude within a few hours of envenomation. A procoagulant effect of the venom of Echis carinatus is likely to be the major cause of the disturbance in the hemostatic mechanism. PMID:7283009

  4. Current Status of Hemostatic Agents and Sealants in Urologic Surgical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kommu, Sashi S; McArthur, Robert; Emara, Amr M; Reddy, Utsav D; Anderson, Christopher J; Barber, Neil J; Persad, Raj A; Eden, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    There has been a recent and near exponential increase in the use of hemostatic agents and sealants to supplement the rapidly evolving methods in the surgical management of urologic patients. This article reviews the use of hemostatic agents and sealants in current urologic practice. PMID:26543429

  5. Association between Plasma Leptin Level and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Dong; Liu, Yun-Yu; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Li; Zhang, Li; Chen, Zhi-Bin; Meng, Huan-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports an association between periodontitis and systemic diseases. Leptin is involved both in the energy metabolism and inflammatory processes and is suggested to be a link between periodontal infection and systemic health. The present study aimed to evaluate the peripheral leptin concentration in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and to explore the relationship between leptin and systemic inflammation. Methods: Ninety patients with AgP visiting the Clinic of the Periodontology Department, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between July 2001 and May 2006, and 44 healthy controls (staff and student volunteers in the same institute) were recruited. Plasma levels of leptin and inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyze the association between plasma leptin level and other variables. Results: Plasma leptin level of AgP group was significantly higher than that of the control group (19.7 ± 4.4 ng/ml vs. 7.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml, P < 0.01). After controlling for age, gender, and body mass index, positive correlation was observed between plasma leptin concentration and log-transformed levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and CRP), and the partial correlation coefficients ranged from 0.199 to 0.376 (P < 0.05). Log-transformed IL-1β and IL-6 levels entered the final regression model (standardized β were 0.422 and 0.461 respectively, P < 0.01). Conclusions: Elevated plasma leptin concentration may be associated with increased systemic levels of inflammatory markers in AgP patients. PMID:25673458

  6. The plasma levels of soluble ST2 as a marker of gut mucosal damage in early HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Ponte, Rosalie; Lebouché, Bertrand; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Thomas, Réjean; Baril, Jean-Guy; LeBlanc, Roger; Cox, Joseph; Tremblay, Cécile; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Following tissue barrier breaches, interleukin-33 (IL-33) is released as an ‘alarmin’ to induce inflammation. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), as an IL-33 decoy receptor, contributes to limit inflammation. We assessed the relationship between the IL-33/ST2 axis and markers of gut mucosal damage in patients with early (EHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI) and elite controllers. Design: Analyses on patients with EHI and CHI were conducted to determine IL-33/sST2 changes over time. Methods: IL-33 and sST2 levels were measured in plasma. Correlations between sST2 levels and plasma viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, expression of T-cell activation/exhaustion markers, gut mucosal damage, microbial translocation and inflammation markers, as well as kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were assessed. Results: Plasma sST2 levels were elevated in EHI compared with untreated CHI and uninfected controls, whereas IL-33 levels were comparable in all groups. In EHI, sST2 levels were positively correlated with the CD8+ T-cell count and the percentage of T cells expressing activation and exhaustion markers, but not with viral load or CD4+ T-cell count. Plasma sST2 levels also correlated with plasma levels of gut mucosal damage, microbial translocation and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and for some markers of inflammation. Prospective analyses showed that early antiretroviral therapy had no impact on sST2 levels, whereas longer treatment duration initiated during CHI normalized sST2. Conclusion: As sST2 levels were elevated in EHI and were correlated with CD8+ T-cell count, immune activation, and microbial translocation, sST2 may serve as a marker of disease progression, gut damage and may directly contribute to HIV pathogenesis. PMID:27045377

  7. Hemostatic effect of topical hemocoagulase spray in digestive endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Dan-Na; Liu, Wen-Tian; Zheng, Zhong-Qing; Chen, Xin; Fang, Wei-Li; Li, Shu; Liang, Li; Wang, Bang-Mao

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the hemostatic effect of topical hemocoagulase spray in digestive endoscopy. METHODS: Eighty-nine patients who developed oozing bleeding during endoscopic treatment from September 2014 to October 2014 at Center for Digestive Endoscopy, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital were randomly divided into either a study group (n = 39) or a control group (n = 50). The study group was given topical hemocoagulase spray intraoperatively, while the control group was given traditional 8% norepinephrine spray. Hemostatic efficacy was compared between the two groups. Bleeding site, wound cleanliness and perforation were recorded, and the rates of perforation and late bleeding were compared. RESULTS: Successful hemostasis was achieved in 39 (100%) patients of the study group and in 47 (94.0%) patients of the control group, and there was no significant difference in the rate of successful hemostasis between the two groups. Compared with the control group, after topical hemocoagulase spray in the study group, the surgical field was clearer, the bleeding site was more easily identified, and the wound was cleaner. There was no significant difference in the rate of perforation between the study and control groups (16.7% vs 35.0%, P = 0.477), but the rates of late bleeding (0% vs 15.8%, P = 0.048) and overall complications (P = 0.032) were significantly lower in the study group. CONCLUSION: Topical hemocoagulase spray has a definite hemostatic effect for oozing bleeding in digestive endoscopy, and this method is convenient, safe, and reliable. It is expected to become a new method for endoscopic hemostasis. PMID:27433096

  8. Circulating leptin levels in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a marker of nutritional status?

    PubMed Central

    Perfetto, F; Tarquini, R; Simonini, G; Bindi, G; Mancuso, F; Guiducci, S; Matucci-Cerinic, M; Falcini, F

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess if plasma leptin is a mediator of cytokine dependent decreased food intake during inflammatory diseases and if it is increased in JIA. Methods: Leptin levels were determined in 31 patients with polyarticular disease and in 37 with oligoarticular disease; 32 healthy children served as controls. Results: Patients had significantly reduced body mass index (BMI) compared with controls (17.3 (3) v 19.1 (3) kg/m2; p<0.005). Leptin was significantly lower in patients than controls (8.1 (4.8) v 10.7 (7.3) ng/ml; p = 0.036), but leptin/BMI values were similar. Absolute (8.2 (4.8) v 8 (4.9); p>0.05) and normalised (0.45 (0.24) v 0.47 (0.24); p>0.05) leptin levels were not significantly different between patients with active and inactive disease and between patients with oligoarticular and polyarticular arthritis (7.8 (4.4) v 8.6 (5.3); p>0.05 and 0.45 (0.23) v 0.48 (0.26); p>0.05, respectively). Conclusions: Leptin production per unit of fat mass is similar in patients and controls. The hypothesis that high levels of proinflammatory cytokines that characterise JIA might induce an increase of adipocytes leptin production is not supported by the results. Leptin may be a marker of nutritional status of JIA. PMID:15608316

  9. The effects of endothelial lipase gene (LIPG) variants on inflammation marker levels and atherosclerosis development.

    PubMed

    Dalan, Altay Burak; Toptaş, Bahar; Buğra, Zehra; Polat, Nihat; Yılmaz-Aydoğan, Hülya; Çimen, Arif; Isbir, Turgay

    2013-08-01

    Atherosclerosis is a major pathological process related with several important adverse vascular events including coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Endothelial lipase is an enzyme the activity of which affects all of lipoproteins, whereas HDL is the main substrate. The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of endothelial lipase gene polymorphism and inflammation markers (CRP, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) in the atherosclerosis. 104 patients with atherosclerosis and 76 healthy individuals were included in the study. LIPG -584C/T polymorphism gene polymorphisms were assessed with PCR-RFLP method. The serum CRP levels were measured by turbidimetric method using a biochemistry autoanalyzer, whereas serum IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In this study, we found that the frequencies of TC genotype are more prevalent in patients than controls. We found a statistically significant difference of IL-6 levels between patient and control group. Our findings suggest that T allele might play a potential role in the susceptibility to atherogenesis in the Turkish population. PMID:23673478

  10. Antiphospholipid syndrome and perioperative hemostatic management of cardiac valvular surgery.

    PubMed

    Hogan, W J; McBane, R D; Santrach, P J; Plumhoff, E A; Oliver, W C; Schaff, H V; Rodeheffer, R J; Edwards, W D; Duffy, J; Nichols, W L

    2000-09-01

    Hemostatic aspects of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) present unique challenges to clinicians and laboratory personnel alike, particularly in the perioperative period. These challenges are especially evident in patients requiring cardiac valve replacement surgery. However, the literature outlining the optimal approach in such patients is limited. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman with severe aortic regurgitation as a result of APS with particular reference to the precautions necessary during perioperative care. Particularly important are the prevention of thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications, management of associated thrombocytopenia, and laboratory methods of perioperative anticoagulation monitoring in the setting of prolonged clotting times. PMID:10994834

  11. Increased Levels of NF-kB-Dependent Markers in Cancer-Associated Deep Venous Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Malaponte, Grazia; Signorelli, Salvatore S; Bevelacqua, Valentina; Polesel, Jerry; Taborelli, Martina; Guarneri, Claudio; Fenga, Concettina; Umezawa, Kazou; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight the role of inflammatory markers in thrombosis as well as in cancer. However, their combined role in cancer-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the molecular mechanisms, involved in its pathophysiology, needs further investigations. In the present study, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteases-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue factor (TF), fibrinogen and soluble P-selectin, were analyzed in plasma and in monocyte samples from 385 cancer patients, of whom 64 were concomitantly affected by DVT (+). All these markers were higher in cancer patients DVT+ than in those DVT-. Accordingly, significantly higher NF-kB activity was observed in cancer patients DVT+ than DVT-. Significant correlation between data obtained in plasma and monocyte samples was observed. NF-kB inhibition was associated with decreased levels of all molecules in both cancer DVT+ and DVT-. To further demonstrate the involvement of NF-kB activation by the above mentioned molecules, we treated monocyte derived from healthy donors with a pool of sera from cancer patients with and without DVT. These set of experiments further suggest the significant role played by some molecules, regulated by NF-kB, and detected in cancer patients with DVT. Our data support the notion that NF-kB may be considered as a therapeutic target for cancer patients, especially those complicated by DVT. Treatment with NF-kB inhibitors may represent a possible strategy to prevent or reduce the risk of DVT in cancer patients. PMID:26192925

  12. Increased Levels of NF-kB-Dependent Markers in Cancer-Associated Deep Venous Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Bevelacqua, Valentina; Polesel, Jerry; Taborelli, Martina; Guarneri, Claudio; Fenga, Concettina; Umezawa, Kazou; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies highlight the role of inflammatory markers in thrombosis as well as in cancer. However, their combined role in cancer-associated deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the molecular mechanisms, involved in its pathophysiology, needs further investigations. In the present study, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteases-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tissue factor (TF), fibrinogen and soluble P-selectin, were analyzed in plasma and in monocyte samples from 385 cancer patients, of whom 64 were concomitantly affected by DVT (+). All these markers were higher in cancer patients DVT+ than in those DVT-. Accordingly, significantly higher NF-kB activity was observed in cancer patients DVT+ than DVT-. Significant correlation between data obtained in plasma and monocyte samples was observed. NF-kB inhibition was associated with decreased levels of all molecules in both cancer DVT+ and DVT-. To further demonstrate the involvement of NF-kB activation by the above mentioned molecules, we treated monocyte derived from healthy donors with a pool of sera from cancer patients with and without DVT. These set of experiments further suggest the significant role played by some molecules, regulated by NF-kB, and detected in cancer patients with DVT. Our data support the notion that NF-kB may be considered as a therapeutic target for cancer patients, especially those complicated by DVT. Treatment with NF-kB inhibitors may represent a possible strategy to prevent or reduce the risk of DVT in cancer patients. PMID:26192925

  13. Serum levels of 12 renal function and injury markers in patients with glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Serwin, Natalia M; Wiśniewska, Magda; Jesionowska, Anna; Skwirczyńska, Edyta; Marcinowska, Zuzanna; Dołęgowska, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    INTRODUCTION    Glomerulonephritis (GN) is a complex disease that affects the function of the whole nephron. There are few data on the serum levels of the most common biomarkers of kidney function and injury in GN, or the studies provide ambiguous results. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to evaluate the levels of known kidney-specific and nonspecific markers of renal function or injury in the serum of patients with diagnosed primary or secondary GN, with or without the presence of nephrotic syndrome (NS) and arterial hypertension (AH). PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study included 58 patients with diagnosed GN and 6 patients with congenital defects (CD) of the kidney and AH (CD+AH). The serum levels of β2-microglobulin (β2M), neutrophil‑gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), osteopontin, trefoil factor 3 (TFF-3), calbindin, glutathione-S‑transferase- π (GST-π), interleukin 18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) were measured with Kidney Toxicity Panels 1 and 2 using the Bio-Plex method. Renalase levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS    In the whole group and in the subgroups (GN, GN+AH, GN+NS, CD+AH), NGAL, KIM-1, TFF-3, IL-18, β2M, and calbindin levels correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). In patients with NS, this correlation for calbindin was reversed. Renalase, MCP-1, GST-π, and osteopontin levels were independent of eGFR. Increase in IL-18 levels in the group with GN was assiociated with lower odds of the kidney disease. When this group was divided according to eGFR into subgroups G1-G5, TFF-3, NGAL, and β2M levels increased with the stage of the disease. CONCLUSIONS In patients with NS, renalase and MCP-1 might regulate each other's levels. Further studies are needed to investigate associations between renalase, MCP-1, and osteopontin as factors unrelated to eGFR in GN. NS may contribute to the loss of calbindin from

  14. Role of SH Levels and Markers of Immune Response in the Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Maria; Sotgiu, Stefano; Persichilli, Silvia; Arru, Giannina; Angeletti, Silvia; Fois, Maria Laura; Minucci, Angelo; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sulfhydryl groups (SH) are considered a key factor in redox sensitive reaction of plasma, and their modification could be considered an expression of abnormal generation of oxygen free radicals. Methods. Fifty consecutive patients with acute brain stroke were enclosed in this study. The plasma concentrations of SH groups were correlated to cytokines (IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α), plasma chitotriosidase (Chit), metalloprotease (MMP2–9), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Results. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of SH groups within 24 hours from the onset of an acute ischemic stroke, a reduction of plasma IL-1b, IL-6, and IL-8, and an increase of Chit and TNF-α in relation to the stroke severity. Conclusion. The observation of an intense microenvironment activation that follows the stroke and the correlation between SH levels and markers of immune response suggest that, especially in stroke, is necessary to maintain the redox function to prevent the brain damage. The reduced SH levels represent an attempt to neutralize the abnormal generation of free radicals. Since the reperfusion of brain after ischemic event represents a severe oxidative stress, which must be corrected by regeneration of redox sensitive function, pharmacological intervention could be beneficial in this setting. PMID:24167359

  15. Markov model and markers of small cell lung cancer: assessing the influence of reversible serum NSE, CYFRA 21-1 and TPS levels on prognosis.

    PubMed

    Boher, J M; Pujol, J L; Grenier, J; Daurès, J P

    1999-03-01

    High serum NSE and advanced tumour stage are well-known negative prognostic determinants of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) when observed at presentation. However, such variables are reversible disease indicators as they can change during the course of therapy. The relationship between risk of death and marker level and disease state during treatment of SCLC chemotherapy is not known. A total of 52 patients with SCLC were followed during cisplatin-based chemotherapy (the median number of tumour status and marker level assessments was 4). The time-homogeneous Markov model was used in order to analyse separately the prognostic significance of change in the state of the serum marker level (NSE, CYFRA 21-1, TPS) or the change in tumour status. In this model, transition rate intensities were analysed according to three different states: alive with low marker level (state 0), alive with high marker level (state 1) and dead (absorbing state). The model analysing NSE levels showed that the mean time to move out of state 'high marker level' was short (123 days). There was a 44% probability of the opposite reversible state 'low marker level' being reached, which demonstrated the reversible property of the state 'high marker level'. The relative risk of death from this state 'high marker level' was about 2.24 times greater in comparison with that of state 0 'low marker level' (Wald's test; P < 0.01). For patients in state 'high marker level' at time of sampling, the probability of death increased dramatically, a transition explaining the rapid decrease in the probability of remaining stationary at this state. However, a non-nil probability to change from state 1 'high marker level' to the opposite transient level, state 0 'low marker level', was observed suggesting that, however infrequently, patients in state 1 'high marker level' might still return to state 0 'low marker level'. Almost similar conclusions can be drawn regarding the three-state model constructed using the

  16. Review of new topical hemostatic dressings for combat casualty care.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Brad L; Littlejohn, Lanny

    2014-05-01

    This review analyzes the new (2008-2013) hemostatic agents and dressings for enhanced efficacy in preclinical studies, and investigates supportive findings among case reports of effectiveness and safety in hospital and prehospital literature. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, National Library of Medicine using key words and phrases. The search revealed a total of 16 articles that fit the criteria established for third-generation hemostatic dressings. There were a total of 9 preclinical, 5 clinical, and 2 prehospital studies evaluated. Evaluation of these third-generation studies reveals that mucoadhesive (chitosan) dressings, particularly Celox Gauze and ChitoGauze, clearly show equal efficacy to Combat Gauze across many dependent variables. Chitosan-based products are ideal prehospital dressings because they are shown to work independently from the physiological clotting mechanisms. Many first-, second-, and third-generation chitosan-based dressings have been in use for years by the United States and other NATO militaries at the point of injury, and during tactical evacuation, in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom without reported complications or side effects. Based on the reported efficacy and long-term safety of chitosan-based products, increased use of Celox Gauze and ChitoGauze within the Department of Defense and civilian venues merits further consideration and open debate. PMID:24806495

  17. Evaluation of Potential Clinical Surrogate Markers of a Trauma Induced Alteration of Clotting Factor Activities

    PubMed Central

    Payas, Arzu; Schoeneberg, Carsten; Wegner, Alexander; Kauther, Max Daniel; Lendemans, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to identify routinely available clinical surrogate markers for potential clotting factor alterations following multiple trauma. Methods. In 68 patients admitted directly from the scene of the accident, all soluble clotting factors were analyzed and clinical data was collected prospectively. Ten healthy subjects served as control group. Results. Patients showed reduced activities of clotting factors II, V, VII, and X and calcium levels (all P < 0.0001 to 0.01). Levels of hemoglobin and base deficit correlated moderately to highly with the activities of a number of clotting factors. Nonsurvivors and patients who needed preclinical intubation or hemostatic therapy showed significantly reduced factor activities at admission. In contrast, factor VIII activity was markedly elevated after injury in general (P < 0.0001), but reduced in nonsurvivors (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Multiple trauma causes an early reduction of the activities of nearly all soluble clotting factors in general. Initial hemoglobin and, with certain qualifications, base deficit levels demonstrated a potential value in detecting those underlying clotting factor deficiencies. Nevertheless, their role as triggers of a hemostatic therapy as well as the observed response of factor VIII to multiple trauma and also its potential prognostic value needs further evaluation. PMID:27433474

  18. Utility of nuclear DNA intron markers at lower taxonomic levels: phylogenetic resolution among nine Tragelaphus spp.

    PubMed

    Willows-Munro, Sandi; Robinson, Terence J; Matthee, Conrad A

    2005-06-01

    Phylogenetic relationships among the nine spiral-horn antelope species of the African bovid tribe Tragelaphini are controversial. In particular, mitochondrial DNA sequencing studies are not congruent with previous morphological investigations. To test the utility of nuclear DNA intron markers at lower taxonomic levels and to provide additional data pertinent to tragelaphid evolution, we sequenced four nuclear DNA segments (MGF, PRKCI, SPTBN, and THY) and combined these data with mitochondrial DNA sequences from three genes (cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA). Our molecular supermatrix comprised 4682 characters which were analyzed independently and in combination. Parsimony and model based phylogenetic analyses of the combined nuclear DNA data are congruent with those derived from the analysis of mitochondrial gene sequences. The corroboration between nuclear and mtDNA gene trees reject the possibility that genetic processes such as lineage sorting, gene duplication/deletion and hybrid speciation account for the conflict evident in the previously published phylogenies. It suggests rather that the morphological characters used to delimit the Tragelaphid species are subject to convergent evolution. Divergence times among species, calculated using a relaxed Bayesian molecular clock, are consistent with hypotheses proposing that climatic oscillations and their impact on habitats were the major forces driving speciation in the tribe Tragelaphini. PMID:15878131

  19. The hemostatic disturbance in patients with acute aortic dissection: A prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xinliang; Li, Jiachen; Gong, Ming; Lan, Feng; Zhang, Hongjia

    2016-09-01

    Coagulopathy is still a frequent complication in the surgical treatment of acute aortic dissection. However, the physiopathology of surgically induced coagulopathy has never been systematically and comprehensively studied in patients with acute aortic dissection. The aim of the present study was to describe the perioperative hemostatic system in patients with acute aortic dissection.The 87 patients who underwent aortic arch surgery for acute Stanford type A aortic dissection from January 2013 to September 2015 were enrolled in this study. The perioperative biomarkers of hemostatic system were evaluated using standard laboratory tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) at 5 time points: anesthesia induction (T1), lowest nasopharyngeal temperature (T2), protamine reversal (T3), 4 hours after surgery (T4), and 24 hours after surgery (T5).The ELISAs biomarkers revealed activation of coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin III complex [TAT] and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 [F1 + 2] were elevated), suppression of anticoagulation (antithrombin III [AT III] levels were depressed), and activation of fibrinolysis (plasminogen was decreased and plasmin-antiplasmin complex [PAP] was elevated). The standard laboratory tests also demonstrated that surgery resulted in a significant reduction in platelet counts and fibrinogen concentration.Systemic activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and inhibition of anticoagulation were observed during the perioperative period in patients with acute aortic dissection. Indeed, these patients exhibited consumption coagulopathy and procoagulant state perioperatively. Therefore, we believe that this remarkable disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like coagulopathy has a high risk of bleeding and may influence postoperative outcome of patients with acute aortic dissection. PMID:27603366

  20. Short-Term Effects of Ankaferd Hemostat for Renal Artery Embolization: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ozbek, Orhan; Acar, Kadir; Koc, Osman; Saritas, Kadir; Toy, Hatice; Solak, Yalcin; Ozbek, Seda; Kucukapan, Ahmet; Guler, Ibrahim; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Turk, Suleyman; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celaleddin

    2013-04-15

    Renal artery embolization (RAE) is a minimally invasive therapeutic technique that is utilized in a number of disorders. Ankaferd is a novel hemostatic agent with a new mechanism of action independent of clotting factors. We used Ankaferd for RAE in a sheep model. Seven adult female sheep were included in the study. Selective renal arteriogram using 5-F diagnostic catheter was performed to make sure that each kidney was fed by a single renal artery and the animal had normal renal vasculature. Coaxial 2.7-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal main renal artery. Under fluoroscopic guidance, 2 mL of Ankaferd mixed with 2 mL of nonionic iodinated contrast agent was slowly injected. Fluoroscopy was used to observe the deceleration of flow and stagnation. Control renal angiograms were performed just after embolization. After the procedure, the animals were observed for 1 day and then sacrificed with intravenous sodium thiopental. The technical success was observed in seven of the seven animals.. After embolization procedure, none of the animals died or experienced a major systemic adverse event. On macroscopic examination of the embolized kidneys, thrombus at the level of main renal artery formed after Ankaferd embolization was more compact compared with the thrombi that was not Ankaferd-associated, which was observed elsewhere. Microscopically, majority of the renal tubular cells (80-90 %) were necrotic, and there was epithelial cell damage in a small portion of the cells (10-20 %). RAE was safe and effective in the short-term with Ankaferd in studied animals. Further studies should be conducted to better delineate the embolizing potential of this novel hemostatic agent.

  1. Role of hemostatic factors in hepatic injury and disease: animal models de-liver.

    PubMed

    Kopec, A K; Joshi, N; Luyendyk, J P

    2016-07-01

    Chronic liver damage is associated with unique changes in the hemostatic system. Patients with liver disease often show a precariously rebalanced hemostatic system, which is easily tipped towards bleeding or thrombotic complications by otherwise benign stimuli. In addition, some clinical studies have shown that hemostatic system components contribute to the progression of liver disease. There is a strong basic science foundation for clinical studies with this particular focus. Chronic and acute liver disease can be modeled in rodents and large animals with a variety of approaches, which span chronic exposure to toxic xenobiotics, diet-induced obesity, and surgical intervention. These experimental approaches have now provided strong evidence that, in addition to perturbations in hemostasis caused by liver disease, elements of the hemostatic system have powerful effects on the progression of experimental liver toxicity and disease. In this review, we cover the basis of the animal models that are most often utilized to assess the impact of the hemostatic system on liver disease, and highlight the role that coagulation proteases and their targets play in experimental liver toxicity and disease, emphasizing key similarities and differences between models. The need to characterize hemostatic changes in existing animal models and to develop novel animal models recapitulating the coagulopathy of chronic liver disease is highlighted. Finally, we emphasize the continued need to translate knowledge derived from highly applicable animal models to improve our understanding of the reciprocal interaction between liver disease and the hemostatic system in patients. PMID:27060337

  2. Levels of selected oxidative stress markers in the vitreous and serum of diabetic retinopathy patients

    PubMed Central

    Brzović-Šarić, Vlatka; Landeka, Irena; Šarić, Borna; Barberić, Monika; Andrijašević, Lidija; Cerovski, Branimir; Oršolić, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In diabetes, an impaired antioxidant defense system contributes to the development of diabetic retinopathy. The main objective of this paper was to find correlations of oxidative stress parameters within and between the vitreous and serum in patients with type 2 diabetes who had developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Methods The study included and compared two groups of patients who underwent vitrectomy: 37 patients with type 2 diabetes and proliferative retinopathy (PDR), and 50 patients with non-diabetic eye disorders (NDED). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), advanced oxidized protein product (AOPP), and oxidative stress markers (direct lipid hydroperoxidation (LPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione (GSH)) were measured in the vitreous and serum of both groups and correlated with one another, between humoral compartments and with gender, age, and serum glucose levels. Results In the vitreous of PDR patients, VEGF, LPO, and MDA (p<0.05) were increased and SOD values were slightly lowered (p<0.05) than in NDED patients. Vitreous AOPP and GSH showed no differences between the groups. In the serum, AOPP, MDA, and SOD were increased (p<0.05) and VEGF was slightly increased (p<0.05) in the PDR group compared to NDED. With regard to gender, similar changes were recorded for both groups, except for the lower serum MDA in males than females in the NDED group. Advanced age showed no significant effect on changes of measured parameters in the vitreous. In the serum, VEGF was positively correlated (p<0.05) and MDA and SOD negatively correlated (p<0.05) with increasing age. Among measured parameters within and between the vitreous and serum, several correlative links occurred in the PDR group that were not present in the NDED group. The most prominent correlation changes were between serum LPO and vitreal LPO, serum SOD and vitreal LPO, serum LPO and serum SOD, and vitreal VEGF and serum SOD. Conclusions Among

  3. Intranasal Dexmedetomidine on Stress Hormones, Inflammatory Markers, and Postoperative Analgesia after Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chaoliang; Huang, Xiang; Kang, Fang; Chai, Xiaoqing; Wang, Song; Yin, Guobing; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Background. A strong ongoing intraoperative stress response can cause serious adverse reactions and affect the postoperative outcome. This study evaluated the effect of intranasally administered dexmedetomidine (DEX) in combination with local anesthesia (LA) on the relief of stress and the inflammatory response during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Methods. Sixty patients undergoing FESS were randomly allocated to receive either intranasal DEX (DEX group) or intranasal saline (Placebo group) 1 h before surgery. Stress hormones, inflammatory markers, postoperative pain relief, hemodynamic variables, blood loss, surgical field quality, body movements, and satisfaction were assessed. Results. Plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and blood glucose levels were significantly lower in DEX group as were the plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels (P < 0.05). The weighted areas under the curve (AUCw) of the VAS scores were also significantly lower in DEX group at 2–12 h after surgery (P < 0.001). Furthermore, hemodynamic variables, blood loss, body movements, discomfort with hemostatic stuffing, surgical field quality, and satisfaction scores of patients and surgeons were significantly better (P < 0.05) in DEX group. Conclusions. Patients receiving intranasal DEX with LA for FESS exhibited less perioperative stress and inflammatory response as well as better postoperative comfort with hemostatic stuffing and analgesia. PMID:26199465

  4. Hemostatic properties of the free-electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cram, Gary P., Jr.; Copeland, Michael L.

    1998-09-01

    We have investigated the hemostatic properties of the free-electron laser (FEL) and compared these properties to the most commonly used commercial lasers in neurosurgery, CO 2 and Nd:YAG, using an acute canine model. Arterial and venous vessels, of varying diameters from 0.1 to 1.0 mm, were divided with all three lasers. Analysis of five wavelengths of the FEL (3.0, 4.5, 6.1, 6.45, and 7.7 microns) resulted in bleeding without evidence of significant coagulation, regardless of whether the vessel was an artery or vein. Hemorrhage from vessels less than 0.4 mm diameter was subsequently easily controlled with Gelfoam® (topical hemostatic agent) alone, whereas larger vessels required bipolar electrocautery. No significant charring, or contraction of the surrounding parenchyma was noted with any of the wavelengths chosen from FEL source. The CO 2 laser, in continuous mode, easily coagulated vessels with diameters of 4 mm and less, while larger vessels displayed significant bleeding requiring bipolar electrocautery for control. Tissue charring was noted with application of the CO 2 laser. In super pulse mode, the CO 2 laser exhibited similar properties, including significant charring of the surrounding parenchyma. The Nd:YAG coagulated all vessels tested up to 1.4 mm, which was the largest diameter cortical artery found, however this laser displayed significant and extensive contraction and retraction of the surrounding parenchyma. In conclusion, the FEL appears to be a poor hemostatic agent. Our results did not show any benefit of the FEL over current conventional means of achieving hemostasis. However, control of hemorrhage was easily achieved with currently used methods of hemostasis, namely Gelfoam® or bipolar electrocuatery. Although only cortical vessels in dogs were tested, we feel this data can be applied to all animals, including humans, and the peripheral, as well as central, vasculature, as our data on the CO 2 and Nd:YAG appear to closely support previous

  5. Microporous polysaccharide hemosphere absorbable hemostat use in cardiothoracic surgical procedures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Topical hemostatic agents are used to reduce bleeding and transfusion need during cardiothoracic surgery. We report our experience with Arista® AH Absorbable Hemostatic Particles (Arista® AH), a novel plant-based microporous polysaccharide hemostatic powder. Methods Data were retrospectively collected for patients (n = 240) that received cardiothoracic surgery at our institution from January 2009 to January 2013 with (n = 103) or without (n = 137) the use of Arista® AH. Endpoints included protamine to skin closure time (hemostasis time), cardiopulmonary bypass time, quantity of Arista® AH applied, intraoperative blood product usage, intraoperative blood loss, chest tube output 48 hours postoperatively, blood products required 48 hours postoperatively, length of stay in the intensive care unit, 30-day morbidity, and 30-day mortality. Results 240 patients (176 M: 64 F) underwent 240 cardiothoracic procedures including heart transplantation (n = 53), cardiac assist devices (n = 113), coronary artery bypass grafts (n = 20), valve procedures (n = 19), lung transplantation (n = 17), aortic dissection (n = 8), and other (n = 10). Application of Arista® AH led to significant reduction in hemostasis time versus the untreated control group (Arista® AH: 93.4 ± 41 min. vs. Control: 107.6 ± 56 min., p = 0.02). Postoperative chest tube output in the first 48 hours was also significantly reduced (Arista® AH: 1594 ± 949 mL vs. Control: 2112 ± 1437 mL, p < 0.001), as well as transfusion of packed red blood cells (Arista® AH: 2.4 ± 2.5 units vs. Control: 4.0 ± 5.1 units, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in 30-day mortality or postoperative complications. Conclusion Use of Arista® AH in complex cardiothoracic surgery resulted in a significant reduction in hemostasis time, postoperative chest tube output, and need for postoperative blood transfusion. PMID

  6. Hemostatic Factors, APOL1 Risk Variants, and the Risk of ESRD in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Grams, Morgan E.; Maruthur, Nisa M.; Astor, Brad C.; Couper, David; Mosley, Thomas H.; Fornage, Myriam; Parekh, Rulan S.; Coresh, Josef; Kao, Wen Hong Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Hemostatic factors have been associated with kidney function decline, and evidence suggests stronger effects among African Americans. The presence of APOL1 renal risk variants, common in African Americans, might partly underlie this risk difference. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A total of 13,337 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study were followed from 1987–1989 until 2010. Participants were categorized into three groups by ancestry and APOL1 risk status: European Americans (n=10,206), African Americans with zero or one APOL1 risk allele (n=2,733), and African Americans with two APOL1 risk alleles (n=398). ESRD events were ascertained through linkage to the US Renal Data System. Cox regression was used to estimate the risk for ESRD associated with hemostatic factors (factor VIIc, factor VIIIc, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, protein C, and antithrombin III). Results There were 232 cases of ESRD over 21.5 years (European Americans, 119; African Americans with zero or one APOL1 risk allele, 94; African Americans with two APOL1 risk alleles, 19). In unadjusted and adjusted analysis of the overall population, higher levels of all hemostatic factors, except antithrombin III, were significantly associated with ESRD (all P<0.05). Factor VIIc had the strongest association (per one interquartile range; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 1.76). With the exception of fibrinogen, the risk associated with each hemostatic factor was stronger in African Americans with two APOL1 risk alleles compared with the other two groups. Statistically significant interactions were seen for factor VIIIc and protein C (interaction between those with two APOL1 risk allele and the other two groups: P<0.02 for factor VIIIc and <0.04 for protein C). Conclusions Higher levels of factor VIIc, VIIIc, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and protein C were associated with ESRD risk, with a significantly

  7. Tumor Vascular Permeability to a Nanoprobe Correlates to Tumor-Specific Expression Levels of Angiogenic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Karathanasis, Efstathios; Chan, Leslie; Karumbaiah, Lohitash; McNeeley, Kathleen; D'Orsi, Carl J.; Annapragada, Ananth V.; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2 is the major mediator of the mitogenic, angiogenic, and vascular hyperpermeability effects of VEGF on breast tumors. Overexpression of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 is associated with the degree of pathomorphosis of the tumor tissue and unfavorable prognosis. In this study, we demonstrate that non-invasive quantification of the degree of tumor vascular permeability to a nanoprobe correlates with the VEGF and its receptor levels and tumor growth. Methodology/Principal Findings We designed an imaging nanoprobe and a methodology to detect the intratumoral deposition of a 100 nm-scale nanoprobe using mammography allowing measurement of the tumor vascular permeability in a rat MAT B III breast tumor model. The tumor vascular permeability varied widely among the animals. Notably, the VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 gene expression of the tumors as measured by qRT-PCR displayed a strong correlation to the imaging-based measurements of vascular permeability to the 100 nm-scale nanoprobe. This is in good agreement with the fact that tumors with high angiogenic activity are expected to have more permeable blood vessels resulting in high intratumoral deposition of a nanoscale agent. In addition, we show that higher intratumoral deposition of the nanoprobe as imaged with mammography correlated to a faster tumor growth rate. This data suggest that vascular permeability scales to the tumor growth and that tumor vascular permeability can be a measure of underlying VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 expression in individual tumors. Conclusions/Significance This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that quantitative imaging of tumor vascular permeability to a nanoprobe represents a form of a surrogate, functional biomarker of underlying molecular markers of angiogenesis. PMID:19513111

  8. Hemostatic methods for the management of spleen and liver injuries.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Mischinger, H J; Pfeifer, J; Kronberger, L; Rabl, H; Werkgartner, G; Steindorfer, P; Kraft-Kirz, J

    1996-10-01

    The spleen and liver are the most frequently injured organs during blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Emergency laparotomy is crucial for early control of bleeding and to prevent "secondary" injury as a result of physiologic splanchnic vasoconstriction and free oxygen radicals. Altogether 98 patients with spleen and liver injuries were treated over an 8-year period. Primary orthotopic spleen preservation could be achieved in 46 of 63 patients. In 58 patients with hepatic trauma, hemostatic treatment was chosen based on the severity of the injury. Nonoperative management was used for four splenic and seven hepatic trauma patients. The most commonly used techniques were fibrin sealing, suturing, and débridement for hepatic injury and mesh splenorrhaphy, fibrin glue, and partial resection with a TA stapler for splenic injury. The death of patients with complex injuries was mainly due to preclinical massive blood loss and multiple organ failure. PMID:8798373

  9. Newer Hemostatic Agents Used in the Practice of Dermatologic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Jerry D.

    2013-01-01

    Minor postoperative bleeding is the most common complication of cutaneous surgery. Because of the commonality of this complication, hemostasis is an important concept to address when considering dermatologic procedures. Patients that have a bleeding diathesis, an inherited/acquired coagulopathy, or who are on anticoagulant/antiplatelet medications pose a greater risk for bleeding complications during the postoperative period. Knowledge of these conditions preoperatively is of the utmost importance, allowing for proper preparation and prevention. Also, it is important to be aware of the various hemostatic modalities available, including electrocoagulation, which is among the most effective and widely used techniques. Prompt recognition of hematoma formation and knowledge of postoperative wound care can prevent further complications such as wound dehiscence, infection, or skin-graft necrosis, minimizing poor outcomes. PMID:23997764

  10. Effect of HPV on tumor expression levels of the most commonly used markers in HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Polanska, Hana; Heger, Zbynek; Gumulec, Jaromir; Raudenska, Martina; Svobodova, Marketa; Balvan, Jan; Fojtu, Michaela; Binkova, Hana; Horakova, Zuzana; Kostrica, Rom; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Masarik, Michal

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 90 % of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), and the overall 5-year survival rate is not higher than 50 %. There is much evidence that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may influence the expression of commonly studied HNSCC markers. Our study was focused on the possible HPV-specificity of molecular markers that could be key players in important steps of cancerogenesis (MKI67, EGF, EGFR, BCL-2, BAX, FOS, JUN, TP53, MT1A, MT2A, VEGFA, FLT1, MMP2, MMP9, and POU5F). qRT-PCR analysis of these selected genes was performed on 74 biopsy samples of tumors from patients with histologically verified HNSCC (22 HPV-, 52 HPV+). Kaplan-Meier analysis was done to determine the relevance of these selected markers for HNSCC prognosis. In conclusion, our study confirms the impact of HPV infection on commonly studied HNSCC markers MT2A, MMP9, FLT1, VEGFA, and POU5F that were more highly expressed in HPV-negative HNSCC patients and also shows the relevance of studied markers in HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNSCC patients. PMID:26666815

  11. Low fasting serum triglyceride level as a precocious marker of autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Iannello, Silvia; Cavaleri, Antonina; Milazzo, Paolina; Cantarella, Santi; Belfiore, Francesco

    2003-08-01

    The authors recently reported the occurrence of low fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and high free fatty acid (FFA) levels in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. TG estimation in diverse groups of patients with autoimmune disease or hyperactive immune response confirmed the occurrence of a similar decrease of TG. In some patients, serum FFA level was also evaluated. TG value in lean and obese patients was compared with that in lean (n = 108) and obese (n = 208) control subjects without autoimmune disease. In patients affected by autoimmune chronic thyroiditis with enhanced concentration of antithyroglobulin antibodies and without thyroidal failure (n = 24), lean and obese patients had reduced TG (-69/%, P < .01 and -52%, P < .0001, respectively). Both lean and obese patients affected by chronic active B or C hepatitis (n = 26), with autoantibodies and without signs of hepatic insufficiency or cirrhosis, presented reduced TG (-57%, P < .01 and -61%, P < .001, respectively). A marked TG decrease (-73%, P < .001) was observed in the lean patients affected by lupus-like syndrome (n = 7). The lean and obese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or rheumatoid arthritis (n = 11) showed TG decrease (-66%, P < .01 and -55%, P < .05, respectively). In patients affected by anamnestic allergy or atopic dermatitis/asthma (n = 66), both lean and obese, TGs were reduced (-67%, P < .0001 and -62%, P < .001, respectively). In isolated cases of diverse autoimmune diseases (scleroderma, APECED [autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis, and ectodermal dystrophy], urticaria or urticarial vasculitis, Reiter or Sjogren syndromes, ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barré syndrome) (n = 14), decreased TG was also observed both in the lean and obese subjects (-59%, P < .01 and -57%, P < .01, respectively). Concerning FFA (n = 69), value in lean patients (n = 22) vs that in lean controls (n = 18) was increased (520 +/- 31 vs 299 +/- 30 mcEq/L, +74%, P

  12. Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on the Serum Levels of Bone Turnover Markers in Women with Early-Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, YangYang; Xu, GuoBin; Yang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the bone turnover markers of preoperational breast cancer patients. Methods Forty-one breast cancer patients (29 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal) and 60 healthy women (30 premenopausal and 30 postmenopausal) aged 30-64 years, were evaluated for their bone status. Serum levels of the bone formation markers PINP and BAP, as well as the resorption markers ICTP and β-Crosslaps in addition to E2, FSH, 25(OH)D and PTH were measured at the initial diagnosis and at 24 hours after each four chemotherapy cycles. BMD T-scores were determined in 12 patients 6 months after the neoadjuvant chemotherapies. Results The baseline levels of both bone formation and resorption markers in premenopausal patients were higher than in premenopausal healthy women (p<0.05), while no statistic difference was observed between postmenopausal patients and postmenopausal healthy women. Regardless of the menopausal status, chemotherapy increased the ICTP and β-Crosslaps levels (p<0.05), but decreased the BAP and PINP levels (p<0.05), the later one significantly more with Taxane medication (p<0.01, p<0.05). Chemotherapy caused significant decreases of 25(OH)D levels in premenopausal (p<0.01) and postmenopausal (p<0.05) patients, however, did not affect the PTH concentrations. In premenopausal patients the E2 level decreased, while the FSH level increased after chemotherapy (p<0.05). Patients with pronounced ICTP and β-Crosslaps combined with reduced BAP and PINP serum concentrations after neoadjuvant chemotherapies were prone to develop osteoporosis 6 month later. Conclusions Neoadjuvant chemotherapy appeared to promote bone resorption and inhibit bone formation in both postmenopausal and premenopausal early-stage breast patients. PMID:25923354

  13. Is there an association between Vitamin D level and inflammatory markers in hemodialysis patients? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, Syed Atif; Marie, Mohamed; Ashraf, Mohammad; Hussein, Magdi; Almalki, Najlaa

    2016-05-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is very prevalent among the patients with end-stage renal disease. The etiology of this is multifactorial, including nutritional deficiency, insufficient exposure to sunlight, race, obesity and not the least, impaired Vitamin D synthesis and metabolism in chronic kidney disease patients. We hypothesized that lower Vitamin D level will be associated with higher inflammatory burden and low immunological response to hepatitis B vaccination in hemodialysis (HD) population. The study was carried out in March 2013 among 100 HD patients who were identified to be eligible for the study. This was a cross-sectional study analyzing the relationship between Vitamin D level and inflammatory markers in HD patients. A relationship between Vitamin D level and markers of mineral bone disorder was also analyzed. We also analyzed the relationship between Vitamin D level and hemoglobin and erythropoietin dosage. Hemoglobin, transferrin saturation, and erythropoietin dose were used to study the relationship between Vitamin D and markers of anemia. Antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen were measured to study the response between Vitamin D level and immune response to hepatitis B vaccine. Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in females compared to males (P = 0.009) and diabetics compared to non-diabetics (P = 0.02). No significant association was observed between Vitamin D levels with immune response to hepatitis B vaccine (P = 0.89), C-reactive protein (P = 0.19), serum albumin (P = 0.17), hemoglobin level (P = 0.18,) and erythropoietin requirement (P = 0.87), parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels (P = 0.57), calcium levels (P = 0.79) and phosphate level (P = 0.1). PMID:27215235

  14. Campylobacter coli naturally resistant to elevated levels of gentamicin as a marker strain in poultry research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculation studies with Campylobacter are limited without a suitable marker. The purpose of the study was to screen Campylobacter strains (n>2,000) obtained from poultry carcass rinses through the National Antimicrobial Resistant Monitoring System (NARMS) for resistance to gentamicin and evaluate ...

  15. Changes in the plasma levels of several bone markers in newborn calves during the first two days of life

    PubMed Central

    HATATE, Kaoru; SHINYA, Kazuhiko; MATSUO-SATO, Asako; SASAKI, Shuichi; DEVKOTA, Bhuminand; TAKAHASHI, Masahiro; HIRATA, Toichi; YAMAGISHI, Norio

    2015-01-01

    The fluctuations in the plasma levels of several bone markers were investigated in newborn calves. Experiment 1 monitored the postnatal changes in the plasma levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b), total alkaline phosphatase (t-ALP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in four calves. These markers increased significantly from 9−20 hr after the first colostrum-suckling compared with the values immediately after birth. Experiment 2 evaluated changes in the plasma TRAP5b, t-ALP, BAP and type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) levels within 2 days post-birth in five calves with successful passive immunization via colostrum (non-deficient group) and five others with poor colostrum intake (deficient group). The non-deficient group had significantly higher plasma levels of the four parameters around 12 hr of life compared with the deficient group. The results suggest that the increase in plasma bone markers in calves in the first day of life is related to the colostrum intake. PMID:26460313

  16. Changes in the plasma levels of several bone markers in newborn calves during the first two days of life.

    PubMed

    Hatate, Kaoru; Shinya, Kazuhiko; Matsuo-Sato, Asako; Sasaki, Shuichi; Devkota, Bhuminand; Takahashi, Masahiro; Hirata, Toichi; Yamagishi, Norio

    2016-03-01

    The fluctuations in the plasma levels of several bone markers were investigated in newborn calves. Experiment 1 monitored the postnatal changes in the plasma levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRAP5b), total alkaline phosphatase (t-ALP) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) in four calves. These markers increased significantly from 9-20 hr after the first colostrum-suckling compared with the values immediately after birth. Experiment 2 evaluated changes in the plasma TRAP5b, t-ALP, BAP and type I collagen cross-linked N-telopeptide (NTx) levels within 2 days post-birth in five calves with successful passive immunization via colostrum (non-deficient group) and five others with poor colostrum intake (deficient group). The non-deficient group had significantly higher plasma levels of the four parameters around 12 hr of life compared with the deficient group. The results suggest that the increase in plasma bone markers in calves in the first day of life is related to the colostrum intake. PMID:26460313

  17. Genetically Low Vitamin D Levels, Bone Mineral Density, and Bone Metabolism Markers: a Mendelian Randomisation Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan-Shan; Gao, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Ya; He, Jin-We; Fu, Wen-Zhen; Liu, Yu-Juan; Hu, Yun-Qiu; Zhang, Zhen-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is associated with osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture, but it remains uncertain whether these associations are causal. We conducted a Mendelian randomization (MR) study of 1,824 postmenopausal Chinese women to examine whether the detected associations between serum 25OHD and bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism markers were causal. In observational analyses, total serum 25OHD was positively associated with BMD at lumbar spine (P = 0.003), femoral neck (P = 0.006) and total hip (P = 0.005), and was inversely associated with intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) (P = 8.18E-09) and procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) (P = 0.020). By contract, the associations of bioavailable and free 25OHD with all tested outcomes were negligible (all P > 0.05). The use of four single nucleotide polymorphisms, GC-rs2282679, NADSYN1-rs12785878, CYP2R1-rs10741657 and CYP24A1-rs6013897, as candidate instrumental variables in MR analyses showed that none of the two stage least squares models provided evidence for associations between serum 25OHD and either BMD or bone metabolism markers (all P > 0.05). We suggest that after controlling for unidentified confounding factors in MR analyses, the associations between genetically low serum 25OHD and BMD and bone metabolism markers are unlikely to be causal. PMID:27625044

  18. Preoperative embolization versus local hemostatic agents in surgery of hypervascular spinal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ptashnikov, Dmitry; Mikhaylov, Dmitry; Masevnin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, there is no consensus about how to reduce the intraoperative risk of hemorrhage in spinal decompression surgery of hypervascular spinal tumors, such as aggressive hemangioma, multiple myeloma, plasmacytoma, metastasis of renal cell carcinoma. Methods A retrospective study of 110 patients, operated in our institute was held in the period between 2003 and 2013. There were 69 male and 41 female patients with extradural hypervascular spinal tumor. The study included 61 patients with metastasis of renal cell carcinoma, 27 with multiple myeloma, 15 with plasmacytoma and 7 with aggressive hemangioma. The first group included 57 patients who underwent preoperative tumor embolization. The second group consisted of 53 patients, which were treated surgically using intraoperative local hemostatic agents. We performed 2 types of treatment options: palliative decompression and total spondylectomy. The first group was divided into two subgroups: 30 patients with palliative decompression (1PD) and 27 with total spondylectomy (1TS). In the second group there were: 28 patients with palliative decompression (2PD) and 25 with total spondylectomy (2TS). The parameters under evaluation were the blood loss volume, drainage loss, operation time, hemoglobin level, possible complications and time of hospital stay. Results The average intraoperative blood loss for all embolized patients was slightly less than in subgroups with local hemostatic agents. No significant difference in blood loss volume was found between groups 1PD and 2PD (p > 0.05). In groups 1TS and 2TS, we did get significant difference (p < 0.05). Statistically significant difference in the average drainage loss was found between two methods of hemostasis in both subgroups (p < 0.05). The operation time was not significantly different between groups. Postoperative hemoglobin level reduce is almost equal in both groups of patients. Postoperative complications were also nearly equal in the groups. The

  19. Correlation of Serum CA-125 and Progesterone Levels with Ultrasound Markers in The Prediction of Pregnancy Outcome in Threatened Miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Al Mohamady, Maged; Fattah, Ghada Abdel; Elkattan, Eman; Bayoumy, Rasha; Hamed, Dalia Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ultrasonographic findings and serum progesterone and cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) levels in threatened miscarriage and to predict pregnancy outcome. Materials and Methods In a prospective comparative case-control study, serum CA-125 and progesterone levels were measured for 100 pregnant women with threatened miscarriage who attended the outpatient clinic or the causality department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Kasr El-Aini Hospital, Giza, Egypt, during the period from March 2013 to October 2013. Ultrasound was performed for fetal viability, crown-rump length (CRL), gestational sac diameter (GSD) and fetal heart rate (FHR). The patients were followed up and divided into two groups based on the outcome: 20 women who miscarried (group 1), and 80 women who continued pregnancy (group 2). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and overall accuracy were tested for CA-125 and progesterone levels in prediction of the pregnancy outcome. Correlation of these chemical markers with the ultrasound markers was also examined. Results In the group that miscarried, CA-125 level was significantly higher (P<0.001) and serum progesterone level was significantly lower (P<0.001). For prediction of the outcome of pregnancy, the cut-off limit of 31.2 IU/ml for CA-125 level yielded sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy of 96.2, 100 and 99.4% respectively. The cut-off limit of 11.5 ng/ml for progesterone level yielded sensitivity, specificity and an overall accuracy of 97.5, 100 and 99.8% respectively. CA-125 level had a negative correlation with progesterone level and FHR levels (r=-0.716, P<0.001) and (r=-0.414, P<0.001) respectively. Serum progesterone level correlated with GSD (r=0.521, P<0.001) and with CRL (r=0.407, P<0.001) and FHR (r=0.363, P<0.001). CA-125 level was significantly higher in the group that showed hematoma as compared with the

  20. Low antimullerian hormone levels may be associated with cardiovascular risk markers in women with diminished ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Verit, Fatma Ferda; Akyol, Hurkan; Sakar, Mehmet Nafi

    2016-04-01

    There is growing evidence that diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of the study was to investigate whether there was any relationship between antimullerian hormone (AMH) and CVD risk markers in the study. Ninety women with DOR and 90 women with normal ovarian reserve (NOR) attending the infertility unit at XXXX, were enrolled in the study. CVD risk markers such as insulin resistance [defined by the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-IR)], C-reactive protein (CRP), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), total cholesterol (TC), and triglyceride (TG) were assessed. HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, LDL levels were higher and HDL and AMH were lower among patients with DOR compared with controls (p < 0.05, for all). There were positive associations between low AMH and HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, LDL levels and a negative correlation with HDL (p < 0.05, for all). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that HOMA-IR, CRP, TG and HDL were independent variables that were associated with low AMH. There was a close relationship between low AMH and CVD risk markers in the study. Further studies with larger groups are needed to investigate the nature of this link in these patients. PMID:26613901

  1. Histone acetylation at the single-cell level: a marker of memory CD8+ T cell differentiation and functionality.

    PubMed

    Dispirito, Joanna R; Shen, Hao

    2010-05-01

    Following stimulation, memory T (T(M)) cells rapidly express many effector functions, a hallmark feature that allows them to provide protective immunity. Recent studies suggest that genes involved in this rapid recall response may maintain an open chromatin structure in resting T(M) cells via epigenetic modifications. However, these studies have mostly focused on a few loci, and the techniques used required a large number of cells. We have developed a flow cytometric assay measuring histone modifications in individual murine T cells in combination with lineage-specific markers. In this study, we show that the per-cell level of a marker of open chromatin, diacetylated histone H3 (diAcH3), increases as naive CD8(+) T cells develop into T(M) cells, demonstrating a novel correlation between the differentiation state of a CD8(+) T cell and its abundance of a specific histone modification. Furthermore, our results show that T(M) cells defective in rapid recall ability have less diAcH3 than their fully functional counterparts, indicating that the diAcH3 level of individual T(M) cells is a useful marker for assessing their functionality. PMID:20308634

  2. Clinical Significance of Serum IL-12 Level in Patients with Early Breast Carcinoma and Its Correlation with Other Tumor Markers

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Samar Samir; Mohammad, Manal Moussa; Ezz-El-Arab, Lobna R.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the diagnostic significance of Interleukin 12 (IL-12) in breast cancer (BC) and its correlation with other tumor markers including cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and MMP9/TIMP1 ratio. METHODS: Serum levels of IL-12, tumor markers, and hormone receptors were measured in 92 BC and 56 benign lesion patients versus 40 healthy subjects. Clinical stage, tumor size, lymph node metastasis, grade, and histological type were recorded. RESULTS: BC patients have lower IL-12, but higher CA 15.3 and CEA than control group. High levels of serum IL-12 were associated with lymph node positivity and progesterone receptor negativity. IL-12 was significant lower in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared to non IDC histological type. IL-12 was higher in patients with higher stage and grade but the difference was not statistically significant. IL-12 correlates negatively with MMP9/TIMP1 ratio. CONCLUSION: IL-12 is less specific than CEA for screening early BC, but its correlation with tumor aggressiveness and progression markers may have a prognostic value.

  3. Restoring specific lactobacilli levels decreases inflammation and muscle atrophy markers in an acute leukemia mouse model.

    PubMed

    Bindels, Laure B; Beck, Raphaël; Schakman, Olivier; Martin, Jennifer C; De Backer, Fabienne; Sohet, Florence M; Dewulf, Evelyne M; Pachikian, Barbara D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Thissen, Jean-Paul; Verrax, Julien; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Pot, Bruno; Grangette, Corinne; Cani, Patrice D; Scott, Karen P; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2012-01-01

    The gut microbiota has recently been proposed as a novel component in the regulation of host homeostasis and immunity. We have assessed for the first time the role of the gut microbiota in a mouse model of leukemia (transplantation of BaF3 cells containing ectopic expression of Bcr-Abl), characterized at the final stage by a loss of fat mass, muscle atrophy, anorexia and inflammation. The gut microbial 16S rDNA analysis, using PCR-Denaturating Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and quantitative PCR, reveals a dysbiosis and a selective modulation of Lactobacillus spp. (decrease of L. reuteri and L. johnsonii/gasseri in favor of L. murinus/animalis) in the BaF3 mice compared to the controls. The restoration of Lactobacillus species by oral supplementation with L. reuteri 100-23 and L. gasseri 311476 reduced the expression of atrophy markers (Atrogin-1, MuRF1, LC3, Cathepsin L) in the gastrocnemius and in the tibialis, a phenomenon correlated with a decrease of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-4, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, quantified by multiplex immuno-assay). These positive effects are strain- and/or species-specific since L. acidophilus NCFM supplementation does not impact on muscle atrophy markers and systemic inflammation. Altogether, these results suggest that the gut microbiota could constitute a novel therapeutic target in the management of leukemia-associated inflammation and related disorders in the muscle. PMID:22761662

  4. Increased plasma thrombopoietin levels in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome: a reliable marker for a benign subset of bone marrow failure

    PubMed Central

    Seiki, Yu; Sasaki, Yumi; Hosokawa, Kohei; Saito, Chizuru; Sugimori, Naomi; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Takami, Akiyoshi; Nakao, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Although myelodysplastic syndromes are heterogeneous disorders comprising a benign subset of bone marrow failure similar to aplastic anemia, no laboratory test has been established to distinguish it from bone marrow failures that can evolve into acute myeloid leukemia. Plasma thrombopoietin levels were measured in 120 patients who had myelodysplastic syndrome with thrombocytopenia (< 100 × 109/L) to determine any correlation to markers associated with immune pathophysiology and outcome. Thrombopoietin levels were consistently low for patients with refractory anemia with excess of blasts, while patients with other myelodysplatic syndrome subsets had more variable results. Patients with thrombopoietin levels of 320 pg/mL and over had increased glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein-deficient blood cells (49.1% vs. 0%), were more likely to have a low International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score (≤1.0, 100% vs. 65.5%), a higher response rate to immunosuppressive therapy (84.2% vs. 14.3%), and a better 5-year progression-free survival rate (94.1% vs. 63.6% for refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia; 100.0% vs. 44.4% for refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia). In conclusion, increased plasma thrombopoietin levels were associated with a favorable prognosis of bone marrow failure and could, therefore, represent a reliable marker for a benign subset of myelodysplastic syndrome. PMID:23403320

  5. Rhinacanthus nasutus Improves the Levels of Liver Carbohydrate, Protein, Glycogen, and Liver Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Visweswara Rao, Pasupuleti; Madhavi, K.; Dhananjaya Naidu, M.; Gan, Siew Hua

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the total carbohydrate, total protein, and glycogen levels in the liver and to measure functional liver markers such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced diabetic rats after treatment with methanolic extract of Rhinacanthus nasutus (R. nasutus). The methanolic extract of R. nasutus was orally administered at 200 mg/kg/day while glibenclamide was administered at 50 mg/kg/day. All animals were treated for 30 days before being sacrificed. The amounts of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and liver markers (AST and ALT) were measured in the liver tissue of the experimental animals. The levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, and proteins were significantly reduced in the diabetic rats but were augmented considerably after 30 days of R. nasutus treatment. The elevated AST and ALT levels in diabetic rats showed a significant decline after treatment with R. nasutus for 30 days. These results show that the administration of R. nasutus ameliorates the altered levels of carbohydrate, glycogen, proteins, and AST and ALT observed in diabetic rats and indicate that R. nasutus restores overall metabolism and liver function in experimental diabetic rats. In conclusion, the outcomes of the present study support the traditional belief that R. nasutus could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:24204387

  6. Secretory IgA, albumin level, and bone density as markers of biostimulatory effects of laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucerova, Hana; Dostalova, Tatjana; Himmlova, Lucia; Bartova, Jirina; Mazanek, Jiri

    1998-12-01

    The aim of contribution is to evaluate the effects of low- level laser radiation on healing process after human molars extraction in lower jaw using frequency 5 Hz, 292 Hz and 9000 Hz. Changes in bone density and monitoring of secretory IgA and albumin levels in saliva were used as a marker of biostimulatory effect. Bone density after extraction and 6 month after surgical treatment was examined using the dental digital radiography. Bone healing was followed by osseointegration of bone structure in extraction wound. Changes of bone density, secretory IgA and albumin levels were compared in groups of patients with laser therapy and control group without laser therapy. Differences in levels of the saliva markers (sIgA and albumin) were found to be significant comparing irradiated and non-irradiated groups, as well as comparing groups irradiated by various modulatory frequencies. Density of alveolar bone (histogram) was examined on five slices acquired from every RVG image. Histograms were evaluated with computer program for microscopic image analysis. Differences of density were verified in area of the whole slice. There were no significant differences found between the bone density in irradiated and non irradiated groups perhaps due to our used therapeutical diagram.

  7. Chitosan/gelatin composite sponge is an absorbable surgical hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Lan, Guangqian; Lu, Bitao; Wang, Tianyou; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Jinghao; Yu, Kun; Liu, Jiawei; Dai, Fangying; Wu, Dayang

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan is a versatile biological material that is very well known for its hemostatic properties. The purpose of this study was to test the hemostatic properties of a chitosan composite obtained from silkworm pupae and gelatin. This spongy porous material was cross-linked with tannins and then freeze-dried under vacuum to obtain composites containing chitosan and gelatin in different proportions. Results showed that the best blood-clotting index (BCI) was achieved in vitro by a chitosan/gelatin sponge (CG) ratio of 5/5 (W/W). Furthermore, CG had the best hemostatic effect in rabbit artery bleeding and liver model tests compared to the two components separately. The better hemostatic effect of CG may be due to its ability to absorb blood platelets easily and to the higher liquid adsorption ratio. However, no obvious differences were observed in thrombin generation with both aPTT and PT tests. Cell toxicity tests with L929 cells showed that CG caused no obvious cytotoxicity. In addition, subcutaneous transplantation of CG into rabbits resulted in almost complete degradation of CG after 6 weeks, together with rich vascular generation and proliferation in the transplanted region. Thus, CG can be considered an effective absorbable hemostatic material. PMID:26590895

  8. Development of feather keratin nanoparticles and investigation of their hemostatic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju; Hao, Shilei; Luo, Tiantian; Yang, Qian; Wang, Bochu

    2016-11-01

    Chicken feathers are considered as the major waste in poultry industry, which are mostly constituted of keratin proteins. Development of feather keratin for biomedical application is very attractive for chicken feather recycling. Human hair keratins have been demonstrated the significant hemostatic efficacy in the previous studies, but there are few reports of feather keratin for the hemostatic application. Here, the chicken feather keratin nanoparticle was developed for use as a hemostatic agent. Keratin was extracted from chicken feather in the present study, and a modified ultrasonic dispersion method was used to prepare keratin nanoparticles. The characterizations of feather keratin extracts and nanoparticles were investigated, including electrophoretic separation, amino acid composition, particle size, zeta potential, morphology, chemical structure and crystal form. Additionally, the hemostatic efficacy in vitro and in vivo of keratin nanoparticles were also studied. The results of hemostatic tests showed that the bleeding time and blood loss in tail amputation and liver scratch rat models can be significantly decreased after application of feather keratin nanoparticles, which demonstrated the potential application of feather keratin nanoparticles for hemostasis. PMID:27524078

  9. C-reactive Protein as a Prognostic Marker after Lacunar Stroke: The Levels of Inflammatory Markers in the Treatment of Stroke (LIMITS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Elkind, Mitchell S. V.; Luna, Jorge M.; McClure, Leslie A.; Zhang, Yu; Coffey, Christopher S.; Roldan, Ana; Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Pretell, Edwin Javier; Pettigrew, L. Creed; Meyer, Brett C.; Tapia, Jorge; White, Carole; Benavente, Oscar R.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Inflammatory biomarkers predict incident and recurrent cardiac events, but their relationship to stroke prognosis is uncertain. We hypothesized that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) predicts recurrent ischemic stroke after recent lacunar stroke. Methods Levels of Inflammatory Markers in the Treatment of Stroke (LIMITS) was an international, multicenter, prospective ancillary biomarker study nested within Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes (SPS3), a Phase III trial in patients with recent lacunar stroke. Patients were assigned in factorial design to aspirin versus aspirin plus clopidogrel, and higher versus lower blood pressure targets. Patients had blood samples collected at enrollment, and hsCRP measured using nephelometry at a central laboratory. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (HR, 95%CI) for recurrence risks before and after adjusting for demographics, comorbidities, and statin use. Results Among 1244 lacunar stroke patients (mean 63.3 ± 10.8 years), median hsCRP was 2.16 mg/L. There were 83 recurrent ischemic strokes (including 45 lacunes), and 115 major vascular events (stroke, myocardial infarction, vascular death). Compared with the bottom quartile, those in the top quartile (hsCRP >4.86 mg/L) were at increased risk of recurrent ischemic stroke (unadjusted HR 2.54, 95%CI 1.30–4.96), even after adjusting for demographics and risk factors (adjusted HR 2.32, 95%CI 1.15–4.68). HsCRP predicted increased risk of major vascular events (top quartile adjusted HR 2.04, 95%CI 1.14–3.67). There was no interaction with randomized antiplatelet treatment. Conclusions Among recent lacunar stroke patients, hsCRP levels predict risk of recurrent strokes and other vascular events. HsCRP did not predict response to dual antiplatelets. PMID:24523037

  10. Hemostatic studies in racing standardbred horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage. Hemostatic parameters at rest and after moderate exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, I B; Viel, L; Crane, S; Whiting, T

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a defect in hemostasis might be a factor in the etiology of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH). Hemostatic parameters were evaluated in 22 EIPH-positive and ten EIPH-negative racing horses while in a rested state. Nineteen EIPH-positive and ten EIPH-negative horses were further evaluated just before and immediately after a 15 min exercise period on a 260 m oval track. When EIPH-positive and EIPH-negative horses were compared at rest, there was no significant difference in any of the coagulation and fibrinolytic parameters studied. There was however, a significant difference in platelet function as assessed by aggregometry. The platelets from affected horses were significantly less responsive than those from nonaffected horses when exposed in vitro to the platelet agonists adenosine diphosphate, collagen and platelet activating factor. Exercise tended to increase the packed cell volume and factor VIII/von Willebrand factor and to decrease platelet aggregation responses to low concentrations of adenosine diphosphate. These effects of exercise however were quantitatively similar in both EIPH-positive and EIPH-negative horses. Reduced platelet function may therefore be a contributing factor in the bleeding characteristic of horses with EIPH. PMID:1909208

  11. Association of Circulating Follistatin-Like 1 Levels with Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Markers in Healthy Men

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Satoko; Ohashi, Koji; Shibata, Rei; Takahashi, Ryotaro; Otaka, Naoya; Ogawa, Hayato; Ito, Masanori; Kanemura, Noriyoshi; Hiramatsu-Ito, Mizuho; Ikeda, Nobuo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a circulating glycoprotein that plays a crucial role in cardiovascular diseases and inflammation-related disorders. We have shown that Fstl1 acts as an anti-inflammatory factor that protects against ischemic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. Here we examined whether plasma level of Fstl1 associates with markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in apparently healthy Japanese men. Methods and Results Plasma Fstl1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Circulating Fstl1 concentrations positively correlated with levels of fasting immune-reactive insulin (FIRI), high-sensitive CRP (hsCRP) and derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (dROMs), an indicator of oxidative stress. The levels of hsCRP positively associated with Fstl1, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride, FIRI and dROMs levels. dROMs levels positively associated with Fstl1, Hemoglobin A1c and hsCRP levels. Multiple regression analysis with confounding factors revealed that Fstl1 levels, together with BMI and FIRI, correlated with hsCRP and that Fstl1 levels correlated with dROMs. Conclusion Our observations indicate that measurement of plasma Fstl1 levels can be valuable for assessment of pro-inflammatory and oxidative stress conditions. PMID:27145224

  12. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47-78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  13. Relationship of serum GDF11 levels with bone mineral density and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yusi; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Min; Song, Shumin; Quan, Tonggui; Zhao, Tiepeng; Li, Hongliang; Guo, Lijuan; Jiang, Tiejian; Wang, Guangwei

    2016-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) is an important circulating factor that regulates aging. However, the role of GDF11 in bone metabolism remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum GDF11 level, bone mass, and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal Chinese women. Serum GDF11 level, bone turnover biochemical markers, and bone mineral density (BMD) were determined in 169 postmenopausal Chinese women (47–78 years old). GDF11 serum levels increased with aging. There were negative correlations between GDF11 and BMD at the various skeletal sites. After adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI), the correlations remained statistically significant. In the multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, age or years since menopause, BMI, GDF11, and estradiol were independent predictors of BMD. A significant negative correlation between GDF11 and bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) was identified and remained significant after adjusting for age and BMI. No significant correlation was noted between cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX) and GDF11. In conclusion, GDF11 is an independent negative predictor of BMD and correlates with a biomarker of bone formation, BAP, in postmenopausal Chinese women. GDF11 potentially exerts a negative effect on bone mass by regulating bone formation. PMID:27408764

  14. Nanocomplexation of thrombin with cationic amylose derivative for improved stability and hemostatic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Baoxiong; Li, Zhihua; Pang, Jiadong; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Pinbo; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Qing; Zhou, Quanbo; Ye, Xiao; Ye, Huilin; Liu, Yimin; Zhang, Li-Ming; Chen, Rufu

    2015-01-01

    As a topical hemostatic agent, thrombin has wide application for many surgical treatments. However, native thrombin always suffers from its physical and chemical instabilities. In this work, a nanocomplexation strategy was developed for modifying the stability and hemostatic efficacy of thrombin, in which a water-soluble cationic amylose derivative containing poly(l-lysine) dendrons was prepared by a click reaction and then used to complex thrombin in an aqueous system. For resultant thrombin nanocomplexes, their morphology and particle size distribution were investigated. Their stabilities were studied in terms of activity retention percentages under different storage time, pH values, and illumination time. In addition, their ability to achieve in vitro fibrinogen and blood coagulation were evaluated. Via a rat hepatic hemorrhage model and a rat iliac artery hemorrhage model, these thrombin nanocomplexes were confirmed to have good tissue biocompatibility and in vivo hemostatic effectiveness. PMID:25673989

  15. Nanocomplexation of thrombin with cationic amylose derivative for improved stability and hemostatic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Baoxiong; Li, Zhihua; Pang, Jiadong; Li, Wenbin; Huang, Pinbo; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Qing; Zhou, Quanbo; Ye, Xiao; Ye, Huilin; Liu, Yimin; Zhang, Li-Ming; Chen, Rufu

    2015-01-01

    As a topical hemostatic agent, thrombin has wide application for many surgical treatments. However, native thrombin always suffers from its physical and chemical instabilities. In this work, a nanocomplexation strategy was developed for modifying the stability and hemostatic efficacy of thrombin, in which a water-soluble cationic amylose derivative containing poly(l-lysine) dendrons was prepared by a click reaction and then used to complex thrombin in an aqueous system. For resultant thrombin nanocomplexes, their morphology and particle size distribution were investigated. Their stabilities were studied in terms of activity retention percentages under different storage time, pH values, and illumination time. In addition, their ability to achieve in vitro fibrinogen and blood coagulation were evaluated. Via a rat hepatic hemorrhage model and a rat iliac artery hemorrhage model, these thrombin nanocomplexes were confirmed to have good tissue biocompatibility and in vivo hemostatic effectiveness. PMID:25673989

  16. Microspheres of carboxymethyl chitosan, sodium alginate and collagen for a novel hemostatic in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinyi; Fang, Qiang; Ding, Miao; Wu, Jing; Ye, Fei; Lv, Zhengbing; Jin, Jia

    2016-02-01

    To develop biocompatible composite microspheres for novel hemostatic use, we designed and prepared a novel biomaterial, composite microspheres consisting of carboxymethyl chitosan, sodium alginate, and collagen (CSCM). The ultra-structure of CSCM was investigated by scanning electron microscopy assay. In hemostatic function experiment, it was found that CSCM could facilitate platelet adherence, platelet aggregation, and platelet activation in vitro. Besides, the maximum swelling of CSCM submerged in PBS for 50 min was over 300% of that exhibited by commercial hemostatic compound microporous polysaccharide haemostatic powder (CMPHP). In addition, CSCM exhibited good biodegradability and non-cytotoxicity. These results demonstrated that CSCM may be useful in platelet plug formation, and this study would provide important information for further research on hemostasis experiment in vivo. PMID:26611230

  17. Hemostatic dressings in civil prehospital practice: 30 uses of QuikClot Combat Gauze.

    PubMed

    Travers, Stéphane; Lefort, Hugues; Ramdani, Eric; Lemoine, Sabine; Jost, Daniel; Bignand, Michel; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    To report the use and describe the interest of hemostatic dressings in a civilian setting, we provided medical prehospital teams with QuikClot Combat Gauze (QCG) and asked physicians to complete a specific questionnaire after each use. Thirty uses were prospectively reported. The wounds were mostly caused by cold steel (n=15) and were primarily cervicocephalic (n=16), with 19/30 active arterial bleedings. For 26/30 uses, hemostatic dressing was justified by the inefficiency of other hemostasis techniques. Those 30 applications were associated with 22 complete cessations of bleeding, six decreases of bleeding, and ineffectiveness in two cases. The application of QCG permitted the removal of an effective tourniquet that was applied initially for three patients. No side-effects were reported. The provision of hemostatic dressings in civilian resuscitation ambulances was useful by providing an additional tool to limit bleeding while rapidly transporting the injured patient to a surgical facility. PMID:26351975

  18. Use of a Thrombin-gelatin Hemostatic Matrix (Surgiflo) in Spinal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gazzeri, Roberto; De Bonis, Costanzo; Galarza, Marcelo

    2014-11-01

    A variety of techniques have been used to stop venous bleeding from the spinal epidural space. These generally consist of packing with Surgicel®, fibrillar collagen or Gelfoam®. Bipolar coagulation may also be used to control bleeding from spinal venous plexus, but it may bear the risk of healthy nervous tissue injury: dissipation of heat from the tips of the bipolar forceps may induce thermal injury to adjacent neural structures. In the case of intraspinal bleeding, quick and safe hemostasis is mandatory to ensure adequate visualization and safe preparation so as to avoid damaging nerves and spinal medulla. In addition, quick and safe hemostasis reduces the duration of surgery. Efficient control of bleeding can thereby reduce perioperative morbidity. During 6 months, the authors performed more than 170 major spinal surgeries, and in 67 procedures they used injection of thrombin-gelatin hemostatic matrix (Surgiflo, Johnson & Johnson Wound Management, Somerville, NJ) into spinal epidural space to assist in hemostasis. When the venous bleeding continued from the epidural space after packing with hemostatic agents as Surgicel and fibrillar collagen, gelatin matrix was used to stop venous bleeding. In all cases, the results were judged to be excellent, with immediate stoppage of epidural bleeding, or good. No complications related to the thrombin-gelatin hemostatic matrix were encountered. The thrombin-gelatin matrix could represent a valuable tool when other hemostatic strategies are ineffective or suboptimal. It is safe and biocompatible when compared with hemostatic agents currently in use. This is the first study reporting the use of Surgiflo hemostatic matrix in spinal surgery. PMID:25419955

  19. Effect of Intensive Non-Surgical Treatment on the Level of Serum Inflammatory Markers in Advanced Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Radafshar, G.; Shad, B.; Ariamajd, E.; Geranmayeh, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether non-surgical periodontal treatment is associated with changes in serological markers of systemic inflammation. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five systemically healthy subjects with severe generalized periodontitis meeting the inclusion criteria participated in a four-month single blind interventional trial of which thirty-two completed the study. Periodontal parameters and inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma fibrinogen] and also the white blood cell count (WBC) were evaluated prior to and four months after delivery of intensive non-surgical periodontal therapy with simultaneous lavage of chlorhexidine 0.1% from the tip of the ultrasonic instrument into the pockets. Results: Significant differences in serum CRP levels were observed four months after treatment compared to the baseline (1.85, SD=1.93 vs 2.46, SD=2.32, respectively, P<0.0001). Periodontal treatment also resulted in a significant difference in WBC and neutrophil counts compared to the baseline (P<0.0001). The reduction in fibrinogen levels was not significant at the end of the research period. Significant improvement in the pocket probing depth and clinical attachment level for pockets with initially 4–6 mm and then more than 7 mm depth was observed. Changes in plaque and bleeding scores were also statistically significant (82.75 vs. 35.84 and 19.03 vs. 1.81, respectively). Conclusion: Periodontal treatment is effective in reducing CRP levels and white blood cell count, while fibrinogen levels are not influenced by periodontal therapy. Periodontal treatment may therefore decrease the systemic inflammatory burden in patients with advanced periodontitis. PMID:21998772

  20. [Preparation of tranexamic acid-loaded porous starch and evaluation of its hemostatic ability].

    PubMed

    Xi, Chao-Yun; Zhuang, Yuan; Chen, Lin Feng; Liu, Ya-Qian; Wang, Shu-Fang; Wang, De-Qing

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to develop a new generation of ideal hemostatic powder which can be safely, effectively and easily used mainly to first aid anterior to hospital by the synergistic effect of physical and chemical hemostatic mechanisms. The tranexamic acid(TA)-loaded porous starch(PS) (TAPS) was prepared by using PS as carrier and TA as loaded drug component. The absorption property of TAPS was evaluated by water absorption; the hemostatic ability of TAPS was evaluated by test in vitro and in vivo, the blood coagulation time of TAPS was detected by using Lee-white method. The experiment was divided into 3 groups: blank control group, Yunnan Baiyao group and TAPS group, each group with 10 blood samples in vitro test; the 27 SD rats were used to test in vivo, and randomly were divided into 3 groups: PS,Yunnan Baiyao and TAPS, each group consisted of 9 rats for establishing the animal model of liver trauma and detecting the complete hemostasis time. The results showed that the water absorption of PS did not be affected by TA when dose of TA loaded in PS was <0.02 g/g PS. There was no statistic difference in blood coagulation time between TAPS and PS groups(P > 0.05). The complete hemostatic time of TAPS for trauma of left lobe liver was 236.67 ± 55.00 seconds, which was shorter than that of Yunnan Baiyao (340.00 ± 73.48 seconds) and PS (396.67 ± 68.37 seconds) (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). It is concluded that PS can load TA and play the hemostatic effect through releasing TA; the TA loading <0.02 g/g PS did not affect the water absorption and pro-coagulation properties. The TA can enhance the hemostatic efficacy of PS, the hemostatic property of TAPS is derived from synergism of physical and chemical hemostatic mechanisms. PMID:24763031

  1. [An unusual jugal abscess after third molar extraction: a complication of hemostatic wax].

    PubMed

    Brignol, L; Guyot, L; Richard, O; Chossegros, C

    2007-04-01

    Bleeding is a common complication after third molar extraction. Hemostatic agents can be helpful in controlling intraoperative bleeding. Infection is another common complication. Horseley's wax is frequently used for bone surgery and less often for dental surgery. We report an unusual case of abscess formation in the jaw after third molar extraction. Surgical exploration of the abscess disclosed the presence of surgical wax in the center of a foreign body granuloma. We discuss the use of surgical wax and other local hemostatic agents and the subsequent risk of complications. PMID:17350058

  2. Effects of strontium ranelate on markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Atteritano, Marco; Catalano, Antonino; Santoro, Domenico; Lasco, Antonino; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    Recent pooled analyses have shown that strontium ranelate increases the incidence of venous thromboembolism and non-fatal myocardial infarction, but no explanations were given. The aim of our study was to assess the effects a 12-month treatment with strontium ranelate on hemostasis factors and markers of cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Forty osteoporotic postmenopausal women received orally strontium ranelate 2 g daily, plus calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months. Forty postmenopausal osteopenic women matched for age, menopausal age, and body mass index served as controls and received orally calcium and colecalcipherol for 12 months. Biochemical cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic indices were assayed prior to treatment, and after 3, 6, and 12 months of therapy. These indices included fibrinogen, fasting glucose, total serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma levels of D-dimer, homocysteine, partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time. In addition, we evaluated possible changes in blood pressure and occurrence of venous thromboembolic events. At baseline, no statistically significance was observed between the two groups except for bone mineral density at lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur, which was lower in strontium ranelate group. After 12 months of treatment, there was no statistically significant change in cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic parameters. None of the 40 women developed any clinical venous thromboembolic event. A 12-month treatment with strontium ranelate did not alter hemostasis factors or markers of cardiovascular risk, suggesting that reported increased risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction with strontium is mediated by other factors. PMID:26304851

  3. Association of expression levels of pluripotency/stem cell markers with the differentiation outcome of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells into insulin producing cells.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Dina H; Kamal, Mohamed M; El-Kholy, Abd El-Latif G; El-Mesallamy, Hala O

    2016-08-01

    Recently, there has been much attention towards generation of insulin producing cells (IPCs) from stem cells, especially from Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs). However, generation of mature IPCs remains a challenge. Assessment of generation of IPCs was usually done by examining β-cell markers, however, assessment of pluripotency/stem cell markers drew less attention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of pluripotency/stem cell markers during differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs and the association of these levels with differentiation outcomes. WJ-MSCs were isolated, characterized then induced to differentiate into IPCs using three different protocols namely A, B and C. Differentiated IPCs were assessed by the expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers, together with β-cell markers using qRT-PCR, and functionally by measuring glucose stimulated insulin secretion. Differentiated cells from protocol A showed lowest expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers and relatively best GSIS. However, protocol B showed concomitant expression of pluripotency/stem cell and β-cell markers with relatively less insulin secretion as compared to protocol A. Protocol C failed to generate glucose-responsive IPCs. In conclusion, sustained expression of pluripotency/stem cell markers could be associated with the incomplete differentiation of WJ-MSCs into IPCs. A novel finding for which further investigations are warranted. PMID:27265786

  4. Plasma GLP-2 levels and intestinal markers in the juvenile pig during intestinal adaptation: effects of different diet regimens.

    PubMed

    Paris, Monique C; Fuller, Peter J; Carstensen, Bendix; Nagy, Eva; Taylor, Russell G; Sourial, Magdy; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette; Binesm, Julie E

    2004-10-01

    Adaptation of the residual small bowel following resection is dependent on luminal and humoral factors. We aimed to establish if circulating levels of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-2) change under different dietary regimens following resection and to determine if there is a relationship between plasma GLP-2 levels and markers of intestinal adaptation. Four-week-old piglets underwent a 75% proximal small bowel resection (n = 31) or transection (n = 14). Postoperatively they received either pig chow (n = 14), nonpolymeric (elemental) infant formula (n = 7), or polymeric infant formula alone (n = 8) or supplemented either with fiber (n = 6) or with bovine colostrum protein concentrate (CPC; n = 10) for 8 weeks until sacrifice. Plasma GLP-2 levels were measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 8 postoperatively. In addition, end-stage parameters were studied at week 8 including weight gain, ileal villus height, crypt depth, and disaccharidase levels. Plasma GLP-2 levels were higher in resected animals compared to transected animals fed the same diet. Plasma GLP-2 levels were significantly increased in the colostrum protein isolate-supplemented animals following resection compared to all other diet groups. The increase in plasma GLP-2 (pM) was greatest in the first 2 weeks postresection (week 0, 15.5; week 2, 30.9), followed by a plateau at weeks 2 to 4 and a decrease in GLP-2 levels from week 4 to week 8. At week 8, no relationships were found between the plasma GLP-2 levels and the measurements of weight gain, villus height, lactase, sucrase, maltase, crypt depth, or villus/crypt ratio. Plasma GLP-2 levels increase in the first weeks following massive small intestinal resection. The increase in plasma GLP-2 levels was enhanced by supplementation of the diet with CPC. The changes in GLP-2 levels observed in this study may suggest that GLP-2 plays a role in the adaptive response in the intestine following resection in this preclinical model. PMID:15573929

  5. Can selenium levels act as a marker of colorectal cancer risk?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Selenium has attracted attention because of its antioxidant properties. Antioxidants protects cells from damage. Certain breakdown products of selenium are believed to prevent tumor growth by enhancing the immune cell activity and suppressing the development of tumor blood vessels. In this observational study, selenium level was measured in a series of patients from Poland and Estonia to determine a correlation between levels of this microelement and colorectal cancer risk. Methods A total of 169 colorectal cancer patients and 169 healthy controls were enrolled in the study after obtaining their informed consent. Selenium level in the blood serum was measured using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS). The statistical analysis was performed by Fisher’s exact test. Results The threshold point of selenium level was 55 μg/l and 65 μg/l for Poland and Estonia respectively, for an increase in cancer risk. The lower levels of selenium were associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. Conclusions The result reveals a significant strong association between low selenium level and the colorectal cancer risk in both Estonian and Polish populations. PMID:23627542

  6. Serum B-type natriuretic peptide levels as a marker for anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YA-DI; CHEN, SU-XIAN; REN, LI-QUN

    2016-01-01

    Observational and experimental studies have produced inconsistent evidence about the association of serum levels of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) with anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC). Therefore, the current meta-analysis examined the association between serum BNP levels and AIC by using data from high quality studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Relevant studies were identified through literature searches of China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scolar and China BioMedicine (CBM). STATA software was used in this meta-analysis for statistical analysis. In addition, the crude standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest vs. the lowest category of serum BNP levels was calculated. A total of 8 independent case-control studies, containing 126 AIC patients and 569 healthy controls, were included for the current meta-analysis. The results indicated a significant difference in serum BNP levels between the cardiotoxic group and normal group, with respect to post-treatment and pretreatment with anthracyclines. Specifically, the serum levels of BNP increased remarkably after treatment with anthracyclines in the cardiotoxic group, compared with the normal group. No publication bias was detected in this meta-analysis. The findings of the present study provide strong evidence that serum BNP levels may be associated with AIC. PMID:27123140

  7. Plasma Hsp90 Level as a Marker of Early Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Engraftment and Progression in Mice.

    PubMed

    Milani, Mateus; Laranjeira, Angelo Brunelli Albertoni; de Vasconcellos, Jaíra Ferreira; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; Nowill, Alexandre Eduardo; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Current monitoring of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in living mice is based on FACS analysis of blood hCD45+ cells. In this work, we evaluated the use of human IGFBP2, B2M or Hsp90 as soluble markers of leukemia. ELISA for B2M and IGFBP2 resulted in high background levels in healthy animals, precluding its use. Conversely, plasma levels of Hsp90 showed low background and linear correlation to FACS results. In another experiment, we compared Hsp90 levels with percentage of hCD45+ cells in blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen of animals weekly sacrificed. Hsp90 levels proved to be a superior method for the earlier detection of ALL engraftment and correlated linearly to ALL burden and progression in all compartments, even at minimal residual disease levels. Importantly, the Hsp90/hCD45+ ratio was not altered when animals were treated with dexamethasone or a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that chemotherapy does not directly interfere with leukemia production of Hsp90. In conclusion, plasma Hsp90 was validated as a soluble biomarker of ALL, useful for earlier detection of leukemia engraftment, monitoring leukemia kinetics at residual disease levels, and pre-clinical or mouse avatar evaluations of anti-leukemic drugs. PMID:26068922

  8. Plasma Hsp90 Level as a Marker of Early Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Engraftment and Progression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos, Jaíra Ferreira; Brandalise, Silvia Regina; Nowill, Alexandre Eduardo; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Current monitoring of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in living mice is based on FACS analysis of blood hCD45+ cells. In this work, we evaluated the use of human IGFBP2, B2M or Hsp90 as soluble markers of leukemia. ELISA for B2M and IGFBP2 resulted in high background levels in healthy animals, precluding its use. Conversely, plasma levels of Hsp90 showed low background and linear correlation to FACS results. In another experiment, we compared Hsp90 levels with percentage of hCD45+ cells in blood, bone marrow, liver and spleen of animals weekly sacrificed. Hsp90 levels proved to be a superior method for the earlier detection of ALL engraftment and correlated linearly to ALL burden and progression in all compartments, even at minimal residual disease levels. Importantly, the Hsp90/hCD45+ ratio was not altered when animals were treated with dexamethasone or a PI3K inhibitor, indicating that chemotherapy does not directly interfere with leukemia production of Hsp90. In conclusion, plasma Hsp90 was validated as a soluble biomarker of ALL, useful for earlier detection of leukemia engraftment, monitoring leukemia kinetics at residual disease levels, and pre-clinical or mouse avatar evaluations of anti-leukemic drugs. PMID:26068922

  9. Levels of biological markers of nitric oxide in serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Ratajczak-Wrona, Wioletta; Jablonska, Ewa; Antonowicz, Bozena; Dziemianczyk, Dorota; Grabowska, Stanislawa Zyta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was a determination of the levels of nitric oxide (NO) and its biological markers such as malonyldialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity and identification of the relationships between NO and those markers. These studies were performed on patients with SCC of the oral cavity before and after treatment. Griess reaction was used for the estimation of the total concentration of NO in serum. The nitrotyrosine level in serum was assessed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit, and MDA level using a spectrophotometric assay. Higher concentrations of NO in blood serum were determined in patients with stage IV of the disease before treatment in comparison to the control group and patients with stages II and III of the disease. Moreover, higher concentrations of MDA and nitrotyrosine were determined in the serum of patients in all stages of the disease in comparison to healthy people. After treatment, lower concentrations of NO in the serum of patients with stage IV of the disease were observed in comparison to the amounts obtained prior to treatment. In addition, lower levels of nitrotyrosine in the serum of patients with all stages of the disease were recorded, whereas higher concentrations of MDA were determined in these patients in comparison to results obtained before treatment. The compounds formed with the contribution of NO, such as MDA and nitrotyrosine, may lead to cancer progression in patients with SCC of the oral cavity, and contribute to formation of resistance to therapy in these patients as well. Moreover, the lack of a relationship between concentrations of NO and MDA, and between NO and nitrotyrosine in serum suggests that the process of lipid peroxidation and nitration in patients with SCC does not just depend on NO. PMID:23970140

  10. Serum Levels of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide as a Prognostic Marker in Early Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Carmen; Ortiz, Ana M.; Juarranz, Yasmina; Lamana, Amalia; Seoane, Iria V.; Leceta, Javier; García-Vicuña, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    Objective Suitable biomarkers are essential for the design of therapeutic strategies in personalized medicine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory properties in autoimmune murine and ex vivo human models. Our aim was to study serum levels of VIP during the follow-up of an early arthritis (EA) cohort and to analyze its value as a biomarker predicting severity and therapeutic requirements. Methods Data from 91 patients on an EA register were analyzed (76% rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 24% undifferentiated arthritis, 73% women, and median age 54 years; median disease duration at entry, 5.4 months). We collected per protocol sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic data. VIP levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay in sera harvested from the 91 patients (353 visits; 3.9 visit/patient) and from 100 healthy controls. VIP values below the 25th percentile of those assessed in healthy population were considered low. To determine the effect of independent variables on VIP levels, we performed a longitudinal multivariate analysis nested by patient and visit. A multivariate ordered logistic regression was modeled to determine the effect of low VIP serum levels on disease activity at the end of follow-up. Results VIP concentrations varied considerably across EA patients. Those fulfilling the criteria for RA had the lowest values in the whole sample, although no significant differences were observed compared with healthy donors. Disease activity, which was assessed using DAS28, inversely correlated with VIP levels. After a two-year follow-up, those patients with low baseline levels of VIP displayed higher disease activity and received more intensive treatment. Conclusion Patients who are unable to up-regulate VIP seem to have a worse clinical course despite receiving more intense treatment. Therefore, measurement of VIP levels may be suitable as a prognostic biomarker. PMID:24409325

  11. The correlation of inflammatory markers and plasma vaspin levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Serhat; Sakci, Elif; Uzun, Sami; Aydin, Zeki; Cebeci, Egemen; Sumnu, Abdullah; Ozkan, Oktay; Yamak, Mehmet; Koldas, Macit; Behlul, Ahmet; Gursu, Meltem; Ataoglu, Esra; Ozturk, Savas

    2016-08-01

    Vaspin, a recently identified adipokine, is a visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor that may have insulin sensitizing effect on adipose tissue. Herein, we measured vaspin level in patients with different stages of diabetic nephropathy (DNP), and investigated the correlation of the vaspin level with other inflammatory parameters. 106 adult type 2 diabetic patients with no known chronic inflammatory disease were included and grouped according to the stage of DNP: Albuminuria <30 mg/day and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (Group-1); albuminuria 30-300 mg/day and eGFR >60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (Group-2); albuminuria >300 mL/min and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (Group-3). Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were recorded as well as vaspin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-1 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels. There were 38, 35 and 33 patients in Group 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Groups were similar regarding age and gender. Vaspin level did not differ between groups. When all the groups were considered, vaspin was positively correlated with IL-6 level (r = 0.215, p = 0.041). No correlation of vaspin was found with IL-1, TNF-α and hsCRP levels (p = 0.580, r = 0.054; p = 0.463, r = 0.072; p = 0.812, r = 0.025, respectively). Vaspin levels of the patients with GFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73m(2) was less than that of patients with GFR <60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (p = 0.03). Age and IL-6 were found to be the major determinants of vaspin level with linear regression analysis. In patients with DNP, vaspin level does not change within the early stages of DNP; while it is higher in patients with decreased GFR, which may be related with increasing inflammation regardless of the stage of the kidney disease. PMID:27216464

  12. A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Britta S; Matschiner, Michael; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-02-01

    The species-flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika constitute the most diverse extant adaptive radiations in vertebrates. Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the lakes, harbors the morphologically and genetically most diverse assemblage of cichlids and contains the highest number of endemic cichlid genera of all African lakes. Based on morphological grounds, the Tanganyikan cichlid species have been grouped into 12-16 distinct lineages, so-called tribes. While the monophyly of most of the tribes is well established, the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes remain largely elusive. Here, we present a new tribal level phylogenetic hypothesis for the cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika that is based on the so far largest set of nuclear markers and a total alignment length of close to 18kb. Using next-generation amplicon sequencing with the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we compiled a dataset consisting of 42 nuclear loci in 45 East African cichlid species, which we subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses. We analyzed the entire concatenated dataset and each marker individually, and performed a Bayesian concordance analysis and gene tree discordance tests. Overall, we find strong support for a position of the Oreochromini, Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini and Trematocarini outside of a clade combining the substrate spawning Lamprologini and the mouthbrooding tribes of the 'H-lineage', which are both strongly supported to be monophyletic. The Eretmodini are firmly placed within the 'H-lineage', as sister-group to the most species-rich tribe of cichlids, the Haplochromini. The phylogenetic relationships at the base of the 'H-lineage' received less support, which is likely due to high speciation rates in the early phase of the radiation. Discordance among gene trees and marker sets further suggests the occurrence of past hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting in the cichlid

  13. Levels of cytokines in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid, but not in plasma, are associated with levels of markers of lipid peroxidation in breath of ventilated ICU patients.

    PubMed

    Boshuizen, Margit; Leopold, Jan Hendrik; Zakharkina, Tetyana; Knobel, Hugo H; Weda, Hans; Nijsen, Tamara M E; Vink, Teunis J; Sterk, Peter J; Schultz, Marcus J; Bos, Lieuwe D J

    2015-09-01

    Alkanes and alkenes in the breath are produced through fatty acid peroxidation, which is initialized by reactive oxygen species. Inflammation is an important cause and effect of reactive oxygen species. We aimed to evaluate the association between fatty acid peroxidation products and inflammation of the alveolar and systemic compartment in ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients.Volatile organic compounds were measured by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in the breath of newly ventilated ICU patients within 24 h after ICU admission. Cytokines were measured in non-directed bronchial lavage fluid (NBL) and plasma by cytometric bead array. Correlation coefficients were calculated and presented in heatmaps.93 patients were included. Peroxidation products in exhaled breath were not associated with markers of inflammation in plasma, but were correlated with those in NBL. IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α concentration in NBL showed inverse correlation coefficients with the peroxidation products of fatty acids. Furthermore, NBL IL-10, IL-13, GM-CSF and IFNγ demonstrated positive associations with breath alkanes and alkenes. Correlation coefficients for NBL cytokines were high regarding peroxidation products of n-6, n-7 and particularly in n-9 fatty acids.Levels of lipid peroxidation products in the breath of ventilated ICU patients are associated with levels of inflammatory markers in NBL, but not in plasma. Alkanes and alkenes in breath seems to be associated with an anti-inflammatory, rather than a pro-inflammatory state in the alveoli. PMID:26333527

  14. The measurement equivalence of Big Five factor markers for persons with different levels of education

    PubMed Central

    Rammstedt, Beatrice; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Borg, Ingwer

    2009-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that the Big-Five factor structure is not guaranteed in samples with lower educational levels. The present study investigates the Big-Five factor structure in two large samples representative of the German adult population. In both samples, the Big-Five factor structure emerged only in a blurry way at lower educational levels, whereas for highly educated persons it emerged with textbook-like clarity. Because well-educated persons are most comparable to the usual subjects of psychological research, it might be asked if the Big Five are limited to such persons. Our data contradict this conclusion. There are strong individual differences in acquiescence response tendencies among less highly educated persons. After controlling for this bias the Big-Five model holds at all educational levels. PMID:20401177

  15. Plasmatic proinflammatory chemokines levels are tricky markers to monitoring HTLV-1 carriers.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Sales, Camila Campos; de Cássia Gonçalves, Poliane; da Silva-Malta, Maria Clara Fernandes; Romanelli, Luiz Cláudio; Ribas, João Gabriel; de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Martins, Marina Lobato

    2016-08-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is present throughout the world and is associated with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and other inflammatory conditions. The pathogenesis of HAM/TSP involves a chronic inflammatory response in central nervous system (CNS), with the presence of HTLV-1 infected cells and HTLV-1-specific CD8+ lymphocytes. Chemokines may have a role in the infiltration of these cells into the CNS. In this context, the present study analyzed the level of plasmatic chemokines CCL2 (MCP-1), CCL5 (RANTES), IL8 (CXCL8), CXCL9 (MIG), and CXCL10 (IP-10) and HTLV-1 proviral load from peripheral blood in 162 asymptomatic carriers and 136 HAM/TSP patients to determine the differences that be associated with the clinical status of the HTLV-1 infection. The results showed that patients with HAM/TSP have significantly higher levels of IL8 and CXCL9, and that the level of IL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 was significantly greater in HTLV-1 infected individuals with high (>1%) than those with low proviral load (<1%). However, the levels of the chemokines tested have not showed high sensitivity to discriminate HAM/TSP patients from asymptomatic carriers. In addition, chemokine profiles in asymptomatic carriers and HAM/TSP groups were similar, with no significant increased frequency of higher producers of chemokines in HAM/TSP individuals. Results indicate that the heterogeneity of the individuals in the groups regarding time of infection, duration of disease, proviral load level and other possible confound factors may impair the use of chemokines levels to monitor HTLV-1 carriers in clinical practice. J. Med. Virol. 88:1438-1447, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800845

  16. Effect of Yoga Practice on Levels of Inflammatory Markers After Moderate and Strenuous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Doreswamy, Venkatesh; Narasipur, Omkar Subbaramajois; Kunnavil, Radhika; Srinivasamurthy, Nandagudi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives To evaluate the effect of yoga practice and exercise challenge on Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and lipid profile. Materials and Methods Two hundred and eighteen subjects participated in the study. One hundred and nine volunteers (51 males and 58 females) in the age group of 20 to 60 years, who practiced yoga regularly for over five years for a period of one hour daily, performed a bout of moderate exercise and a bout of strenuous exercise as per Standardized Shuttle Walk test protocol. Anthropometrically matched, age matched and gender matched subjects, who did not practice yoga (non-yoga group) were chosen as controls (non-yoga, n=109). The non-yoga group also performed similar exercises. The blood samples of both the groups were collected before and after the exercises. TNF-α and IL-6 was analysed before and after the exercise by Sandwich ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Results Resting plasma TNF-α concentration was significantly higher in non-yoga group when compared to yoga group (p<0.05). There was an increase in TNF-α levels in both the groups in response to strenuous exercise. There was no gender difference in TNF-α and IL-6 levels before and after exercise in yoga and non-yoga groups. Conclusion Regular practice of yoga lowers basal TNF-α and IL-6 levels. It also reduces the extent of increase of TNF-α and IL-6 to a physical challenge of moderate exercise and strenuous exercise. There is no significant gender difference in the TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Regular practice of yoga can protect the individual against inflammatory diseases by favourably altering pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. PMID:26266115

  17. Monitoring protein phosphatase 1 isoform levels as a marker for cellular stress.

    PubMed

    Amador, Fátima Camões; Henriques, Ana Gabriela; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B; da Cruz E Silva, Edgar F

    2004-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is a central mechanism regulating many biological functions, and abnormal protein phosphorylation can have a devastating impact on cellular control mechanisms, including a contributing role in neurodegenerative processes. Hence, many promising novel drug development strategies involve targeting protein phosphorylation systems. In this study, we demonstrate that various cellular stresses relevant to neurodegeneration can specifically affect the protein expression levels of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). PP1 levels were altered upon exposure of PC12 and COS-1 cells to aluminium, Abeta peptides, sodium azide, and even heat shock. Particularly interesting, given PP1's involvement in aging and neurodegeneration, was the consistent decrease in PP1gamma(1) levels in response to stress agents. In fact, alterations in the expression levels of PP1 appear to correspond to an early response of stress induction, that is, before alterations in heat shock proteins can be detected. Our data suggest that monitoring PP1 isoform expression could constitute a useful diagnostic tool for cellular stress, possibly even neurodegeneration. Additionally, our results strengthen the rationale for signal transduction therapeutics and indicate that altering the specific activity of PP1 either directly or by targeting its regulatory proteins may be a useful therapeutic development strategy for the future. PMID:15113600

  18. New molecular markers for fungal phylogenetics: Two genes for species level systematics in the Sordariomycetes (Ascomycota)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although significant progress has been made resolving deep branches of the fungal tree of life in recent works, many fungal systematists are interested in species-level questions to both define species and to assess fungal biodiversity. Fungal genome sequences are a useful resource to systematic bio...

  19. Marsh accretion in Oregon estuaries using the marker horizon method and implications of sea level rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sea level rise and the ability of marshes to keep up with this rise have been extensively studied on the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US; however, there is limited information available for marshes in the Pacific Northwest. Our research focuses on measuring marsh sediment acc...

  20. Running a Marathon Induces Changes in Adipokine Levels and in Markers of Cartilage Degradation – Novel Role for Resistin

    PubMed Central

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3∶30∶46±0∶02∶46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = –0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001) and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation. PMID:25333960

  1. High Prolidase Levels may be a Marker of Irreversible Extracellular Matrix Changes in Controlled Acromegaly Patients?

    PubMed

    Tabur, S; Sezen, H; Korkmaz, H; Ozkaya, M; Akarsu, E

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the activity of prolidase in controlled acromegaly patients and its association with oxidative stress. 25 acromegalic patients in remission who were followed in our outpatient clinic and 31 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), total antioxidative status (TAS), total oxidative stress (TOS), total free sulfhydryl (-SH), paraoxonase (PON), arylesterase (ARE), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) and prolidase activity levels were measured. Percent ratio of TOS to TAS level was accepted as oxidative stress index (OSI). Serum prolidase activity, TOS, OSI, and LOOH levels were significantly higher in acromegaly patients compared to the healthy control group (p<0.001, p=0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively). SH levels were significantly lower in the acromegaly patients compared to the healthy control group (p=0.002). Prolidase activity were positively correlated with TOS, OSI, LOOH and negatively correlated with -SH in patients with acromegaly (r=0.471, p<0.001; r=0.527, p<0.001; r=0.717, p<0.001; r=- 0.516, p<0.001, respectively). These associations were confirmed in the multiple regression analysis (R(2)=0.502, p<0.001). In conclusion, serum prolidase activity and oxidative stress levels were high in controlled acromegaly patients. These results suggest that extracellular matrix changes continue eventhough the disease is controlled, and elevated oxidative stress is involved in the increased prolidase activity in acromegaly patients. PMID:26575119

  2. Marker genes that are less conserved in their sequences are useful for predicting genome-wide similarity levels between closely related prokaryotic strains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lan, Yemin; Rosen, Gail; Hershberg, Ruth

    2016-05-03

    The 16s rRNA gene is so far the most widely used marker for taxonomical classification and separation of prokaryotes. Since it is universally conserved among prokaryotes, it is possible to use this gene to classify a broad range of prokaryotic organisms. At the same time, it has often been noted that the 16s rRNA gene is too conserved to separate between prokaryotes at finer taxonomic levels. In this paper, we examine how well levels of similarity of 16s rRNA and 73 additional universal or nearly universal marker genes correlate with genome-wide levels of gene sequence similarity. We demonstrate that themore » percent identity of 16s rRNA predicts genome-wide levels of similarity very well for distantly related prokaryotes, but not for closely related ones. In closely related prokaryotes, we find that there are many other marker genes for which levels of similarity are much more predictive of genome-wide levels of gene sequence similarity. Finally, we show that the identities of the markers that are most useful for predicting genome-wide levels of similarity within closely related prokaryotic lineages vary greatly between lineages. However, the most useful markers are always those that are least conserved in their sequences within each lineage. In conclusion, our results show that by choosing markers that are less conserved in their sequences within a lineage of interest, it is possible to better predict genome-wide gene sequence similarity between closely related prokaryotes than is possible using the 16s rRNA gene. We point readers towards a database we have created (POGO-DB) that can be used to easily establish which markers show lowest levels of sequence conservation within different prokaryotic lineages.« less

  3. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels as clinical markers for patients with lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    TAS, FARUK; BILGIN, ELIF; TASTEKIN, DIDEM; ERTURK, KAYHAN; DURANYILDIZ, DERYA

    2016-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its essential binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) exhibit significant roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in numerous malignancies, including lung cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical roles of the serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in lung cancer patients. A total of 80 patients with lung cancer were enrolled in the study. Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 concentrations were determined by ELISA methods. The median age of patients was 58.5 years old, with a range of 36–80 years. The majority of the patients had non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (85%) and metastatic disease (56%). No significant differences were observed in serum IGF-1 levels between lung cancer patients and healthy subjects (P=0.403). However, baseline serum IGFBP-3 levels of the lung cancer patients were significantly lower compared to the control group (P<0.001). The male patients had elevated serum IGF-1 concentrations compared to females (P=0.025). Furthermore, patients with NSCLC histology and metastatic stage in NSCLC had elevated serum IGF-1 (P=0.022 and P=0.039, respectively) and IGFBP-3 (P=0.005 and P=0.043, respectively) levels compared with those with SCLC histology and non-metastatic stage in NSCLC. However, none of the other clinical variables, including age of patient, tumor histology and chemotherapy responsiveness, were observed as correlated with serum assays of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 (P>0.05). There was a significant association found between IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 serum levels in lung cancer patients (P<0.001). Neither serum IGF-1 nor IGFBP-3 concentrations were associated with outcome (P=0.552 and P=0.471, respectively). In conclusion, serum concentrations of IGFBP-3 may have a diagnostic predictor in patients with lung cancer compared to serum IGF-1 concentrations. However, predictive and prognostic values of the two serum assays were not observed. PMID:27123256

  4. Clotting Mimicry from Robust Hemostatic Bandages Based on Self-Assembling Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled bleeding from traumatic wounds is a major factor in deaths resulting from military conflict, accidents, disasters and crime. Self-assembling peptide nanofibers have shown superior hemostatic activity, and herein, we elucidate their mechanism by visualizing the formation of nanofiber-based clots that aggregate blood components with a similar morphology to fibrin-based clots. Furthermore, to enhance its direct application to a wound, we developed layer-by-layer assembled thin film coatings onto common materials used for wound dressings—gauze and gelatin sponges. We find these nanofibers elute upon hydration under physiological conditions and generate nanofiber-based clots with blood. After exposure to a range of harsh temperature conditions (−80 to 60 °C) for a week and even 5 months at 60 °C, these hemostatic bandages remain capable of releasing active nanofibers. In addition, the application of these nanofiber-based films from gauze bandages was found to accelerate hemostasis in porcine skin wounds as compared to plain gauze. The thermal robustness, in combination with the self-assembling peptide’s potent hemostatic activity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cost of production, makes this a promising approach for a cheap yet effective hemostatic bandage. PMID:26284753

  5. The use of adjunctive hemostatic agents in tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiawu; Zhang, Chengyao; Tan, Guangzhong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Tan, Dan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically review and assess the safety and efficacy of hemostatic agents in tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Original studies on the use of hemostatic agents in tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) from January 2001 to March 2014 were searched in Ovid, Science Direct, Pubmed, and Embase by two independent reviewers. A drop in hemoglobin (Hb), analgesic requirements, length of hospital stay, and necessity for blood transfusions were compared using Review Manager 5.2. The methods were done according to the Cochrane Handbook for interventional systematic reviews and written based on the PRISMA Statement. Seven studies involving 351 patients met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The baseline characteristics were comparable in all of the studies. The results showed that the length of hospital stay was less in the experimental group than in the control group (P < 0.05). There were no significant statistical differences in terms of a drop in Hb, analgesic requirements, and the necessity for a blood transfusion between the two groups (P > 0.05). The meta-analysis indicated that the hemostatic agents in tubeless PCNL were not expected to be unsafe or mandatory, but that they were expected to be expensive. We concluded that hemostatic agents might not be necessary in tubeless PCNL. PMID:25200703

  6. Plasma levels of miRNA-155 as a powerful diagnostic marker for dedifferentiated liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Boro, Aleksandar; Bauer, David; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Atypic lipomatous tumors (ALT) and dedifferentiated liposarcomas (DDLS) are closely related liposarcoma subtypes, often difficult to distinguish but they exhibit an entirely different clinical outcome. Recently discovered regulatory functions of miRNAs in liposarcoma progression prompted us to investigate miRNAs as potential diagnostic biomarkers in liposarcoma with a main focus on circulating miRNAs for fast and reliable differential diagnosis. Tumor and blood samples of 35 patients with lipomatous lesions collected between June 2011 and September 2014 were analyzed by qRT-PCR. They included 10 lipomas, 7 ALT, 5 DDLS and 13 myxoid liposarcomas (MLS). Ten samples of normal fat tissue and blood from 20 healthy volunteers were used as controls. A meta-analysis of public data on miRNA expression in liposarcoma revealed 9 miRNAs with potential diagnostic power. Out of these, miRNA-155 was found significantly elevated in the circulation of DDLS patients as compared to the plasma levels detected in all other liposarcoma subtypes and in healthy subjects. miRNA-155 levels in the plasma samples correlated significantly (r=0.41, p=0.02) with those in corresponding tumor extracts. This correlation was even more pronounced in an analysis of plasma and tumor extracts of malignant liposarcoma subtypes alone (r=0.51, p=0.02). Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that plasma miRNA-155 levels have a high diagnostic accuracy for distinguishing DDLS from healthy subjects (AUC=0.91, p=0.005) and from lipomas (AUC=0.86, p=0.02), MLS (AUC=0.92, p=0.006) and most importantly ALT (AUC=0.91, p=0.01) patients. In conclusion, this study identified miRNA-155 as a first blood biomarker for the differential diagnosis of DDLS. PMID:27186423

  7. Gli2 protein expression level is a feasible marker of ligand-dependent hedgehog activation in pancreatic neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Y; Sasajima, J; Mizukami, Y; Koizumi, K; Kawamoto, T; Ono, Y; Karasaki, H; Tanabe, H; Fujiya, M; Kohgo, Y

    2016-06-01

    The hedgehog pathway is known to promote proliferation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) and has been shown to restrain tumor progression. To understand how hedgehog causes these effects, we sought to carefully examine protein expression of hedgehog signaling components during different tumor stages. Genetically engineered mice, Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D and Pdx1-Cre;LSL-KrasG12D;p53lox/+, were utilized to model distinct phases of tumorigenesis, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PanIN) and PDA. Human pancreatic specimens of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and PDA were also employed. PanIN and IPMN lesions highly express Sonic Hedgehog, at a level that is slightly higher than that observed in PDA. GLI2 protein is also expressed in both PanIN/IPMN and PDA. Although there was no difference in the nuclear staining, the cytoplasmic GLI2 level in PDA was modest in comparison to that in PanIN/IPMN. Hedgehog interacting protein was strongly expressed in the precursors, whereas the level in PDA was significantly attenuated. There were no differences in expression of Patched1 at early and late stages. Finally, a strong correlation between Sonic Hedgehog and GLI2 staining was found in both human and murine pancreatic tumors. The results indicate that the GLI2 protein level could serve as a feasible marker of ligand-dependent hedgehog activation in pancreatic neoplasms. PMID:27543868

  8. The Expression of c-Myb Correlates with the Levels of Rhabdomyosarcoma-specific Marker Myogenin

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Petr; Zikova, Martina; Bartunek, Petr; Sterba, Jaroslav; Strnad, Hynek; Kren, Leos; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb is required for modulation of progenitor cells in several tissues, including skeletal muscle and its upregulation is observed in many human malignancies. Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are a heterogeneous group of mesodermal tumors with features of developing skeletal muscle. Several miRNAs are downregulated in RMS, including miR-150, a negative regulator of c-Myb expression. Using the C2C12 myoblast cell line, a cellular model of skeletal muscle differentiation, we showed that miR-150 controls c-Myb expression mainly at the level of translation. We hypothesized that a similar mechanism of c-Myb regulation operates in RMS tumors. We examined expression of c-Myb by immunohistochemistry and revealed c-Myb positivity in alveolar and embryonal tumors, the two most common subgroups of RMS. Furthermore, we showed direct correlation between c-Myb production and myogenin expression. Interestingly, high myogenin levels indicate poor prognosis in RMS patients. c-Myb could, therefore, contribute to the tumor phenotype by executing its inhibitory role in skeletal muscle differentiation. We also showed that c-Myb protein is abundant in migratory C2C12 myoblasts and its ectopic expression potentiates cell motility. In summary, our results implicate that metastatic properties of some RMS subtypes might be linked to c-Myb function. PMID:26462877

  9. The Expression of c-Myb Correlates with the Levels of Rhabdomyosarcoma-specific Marker Myogenin.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, Petr; Zikova, Martina; Bartunek, Petr; Sterba, Jaroslav; Strnad, Hynek; Kren, Leos; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor c-Myb is required for modulation of progenitor cells in several tissues, including skeletal muscle and its upregulation is observed in many human malignancies. Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) are a heterogeneous group of mesodermal tumors with features of developing skeletal muscle. Several miRNAs are downregulated in RMS, including miR-150, a negative regulator of c-Myb expression. Using the C2C12 myoblast cell line, a cellular model of skeletal muscle differentiation, we showed that miR-150 controls c-Myb expression mainly at the level of translation. We hypothesized that a similar mechanism of c-Myb regulation operates in RMS tumors. We examined expression of c-Myb by immunohistochemistry and revealed c-Myb positivity in alveolar and embryonal tumors, the two most common subgroups of RMS. Furthermore, we showed direct correlation between c-Myb production and myogenin expression. Interestingly, high myogenin levels indicate poor prognosis in RMS patients. c-Myb could, therefore, contribute to the tumor phenotype by executing its inhibitory role in skeletal muscle differentiation. We also showed that c-Myb protein is abundant in migratory C2C12 myoblasts and its ectopic expression potentiates cell motility. In summary, our results implicate that metastatic properties of some RMS subtypes might be linked to c-Myb function. PMID:26462877

  10. Comparison of Serum Levels of Vitamin D and Inflammatory Markers Between Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Healthy Pregnant Control

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Jalali, Mohammad-Taha; Shahbazian, Nahid; Haghighizadeh, Mohammad-Hossein; Azadegan, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D appears to be involved in regulation of glycemic and inflammatory responses in gestational diabetes. The purpose of this study was to compare the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), inflammatory biomarkers and glycemic profile between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) pregnant women. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, fasting serum levels of 25(OH)D, insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, hs-CRP and TNF-α were measured in 45 GDM and 45 NGT women at week 20-30 gestation whom referred to Reference Medical Laboratory of Ahvaz, Iran in 1394. Results: Serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower (p = 0.003 ) in the GDM group compared to the NGT group which remained even after controlling for confounders. Insulin and TNF-α levels were not statistically different between groups (p > 0.05). However, in unadjusted model, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP were significantly different between groups that disappeared in adjusted model. In the GDM group, there was a negative significant correlation between 25 (OH) D and fasting blood sugar (p = 0.009) and pre pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001). Levels of 25(OH)D were also negatively correlated with pre pregnancy BMI (p < 0.001) and hs-CRP levels (p = 0.003) in the NGT group. Conclusion: The lower level of vitamin D may be responsible for impairments of some glycemic and inflammatory markers in pregnant women. This is more important in overweight pregnant women. However, further studies with larger sample size are recommended in this regards. PMID:27385967

  11. Circulating Cytokine Levels as Markers of Inflammation in Philadelphia Negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: Diagnostic and Prognostic Interest

    PubMed Central

    Mondet, Julie; Hussein, Kais; Mossuz, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Cytokines are well known mediators of numerous physiological and pathological processes. They contribute to the regulation of normal hematopoiesis but increasing data suggest that they also have a clinical impact in some hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, there is evidence that cytokines are implicated in the functional symptoms of Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph− MPNs), suggesting that evaluation of circulating levels of cytokines could be of clinical interest for the characterization of patients at the time of diagnosis and for disease prognosis. In this review, we present the current knowledge on alteration of circulating cytokine profiles in MPNs and their role in myelofibrosis pathogenesis. Phenotypic correlation, prognostic value of cytokines, and impact of JAK inhibitors are also discussed. PMID:26525644

  12. Bone healing after median sternotomy: A comparison of two hemostatic devices

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bone wax is traditionally used as part of surgical procedures to prevent bleeding from exposed spongy bone. It is an effective hemostatic device which creates a physical barrier. Unfortunately it interferes with subsequent bone healing and increases the risk of infection in experimental studies. Recently, a water-soluble, synthetic, hemostatic compound (Ostene®) was introduced to serve the same purpose as bone wax without hampering bone healing. This study aims to compare sternal healing after application of either bone wax or Ostene®. Methods Twenty-four pigs were randomized into one of three treatment groups: Ostene®, bone wax or no hemostatic treatment (control). Each animal was subjected to midline sternotomy. Either Ostene® or bone wax was applied to the spongy bone surfaces until local hemostasis was ensured. The control group received no hemostatic treatment. The wound was left open for 60 min before closing to simulate conditions alike those of cardiac surgery. All sterni were harvested 6 weeks after intervention. Bone density and the area of the bone defect were determined with peripheral quantitative CT-scanning; bone healing was displayed with plain X-ray and chronic inflammation was histologically assessed. Results Both CT-scanning and plain X-ray disclosed that bone healing was significantly impaired in the bone wax group (p < 0.01) compared with the other two groups, and the former group had significantly more chronic inflammation (p < 0.01) than the two latter. Conclusion Bone wax inhibits bone healing and induces chronic inflammation in a porcine model. Ostene® treated animals displayed bone healing characteristics and inflammatory reactions similar to those of the control group without application of a hemostatic agent. PMID:21106051

  13. Variation in hospital resource use and cost among surgical procedures using topical absorbable hemostats

    PubMed Central

    Martyn, Derek; Meckley, Lisa M; Miyasato, Gavin; Lim, Sangtaeck; Riebman, Jerome B; Kocharian, Richard; Scaife, Jillian G; Rao, Yajing; Corral, Mitra

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjunctive hemostats are used to assist with the control of intraoperative bleeding. The most common types are flowables, gelatins, thrombins, and oxidized regenerated celluloses (ORCs). In the US, Surgicel® products are the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved ORCs. Objective To compare the outcomes of health care resource utilization (HRU) and costs associated with using ORCs compared to other adjunctive hemostats (OAHs are defined as flowables, gelatins, and topical thrombins) for surgical procedures in the US inpatient setting. Patients and methods A retrospective, US-based cohort study was conducted using hospital inpatient discharges from the 2011–2012 calendar years in the Premier Healthcare Database. Patients with either an ORC or an OAH who underwent a cardiovascular procedure (valve surgery and/or coronary artery bypass graft surgery), carotid endarterectomy, cholecystectomy, or hysterectomy were included. Propensity score matching was used to create comparable groups of ORC and OAH patients. Clinical, economic, and HRU outcomes were compared. Results The propensity score matching created balanced patient cohorts for cardiovascular procedure (22,718 patients), carotid endarterectomy (10,890 patients), cholecystectomy (6,090 patients), and hysterectomy (9,348 patients). In all procedures, hemostatic agent costs were 28%–56% lower for ORCs, and mean hemostat units per discharge were 16%–41% lower for ORCs compared to OAHs. Length of stay and total procedure costs for patients treated with ORCs were lower for carotid endarterectomy patients (0.3 days and US$700) and for cholecystectomy patients (1 day and US$3,350) (all P<0.001). Conclusion Costs and HRU for patients treated with ORCs were lower than or similar to patients treated with OAHs. Proper selection of the appropriate hemostatic agents has the potential to influence clinical outcomes and treatment costs. PMID:26604807

  14. Highly Variable Chloroplast Markers for Evaluating Plant Phylogeny at Low Taxonomic Levels and for DNA Barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wenpan; Liu, Jing; Yu, Jing; Wang, Ling; Zhou, Shiliang

    2012-01-01

    Background At present, plant molecular systematics and DNA barcoding techniques rely heavily on the use of chloroplast gene sequences. Because of the relatively low evolutionary rates of chloroplast genes, there are very few choices suitable for molecular studies on angiosperms at low taxonomic levels, and for DNA barcoding of species. Methodology/Principal Findings We scanned the entire chloroplast genomes of 12 genera to search for highly variable regions. The sequence data of 9 genera were from GenBank and 3 genera were of our own. We identified nearly 5% of the most variable loci from all variable loci in the chloroplast genomes of each genus, and then selected 23 loci that were present in at least three genera. The 23 loci included 4 coding regions, 2 introns, and 17 intergenic spacers. Of the 23 loci, the most variable (in order from highest variability to lowest) were intergenic regions ycf1-a, trnK, rpl32-trnL, and trnH-psbA, followed by trnSUGA-trnGUCC, petA-psbJ, rps16-trnQ, ndhC-trnV, ycf1-b, ndhF, rpoB-trnC, psbE-petL, and rbcL-accD. Three loci, trnSUGA-trnGUCC, trnT-psbD, and trnW-psaJ, showed very high nucleotide diversity per site (π values) across three genera. Other loci may have strong potential for resolving phylogenetic and species identification problems at the species level. The loci accD-psaI, rbcL-accD, rpl32-trnL, rps16-trnQ, and ycf1 are absent from some genera. To amplify and sequence the highly variable loci identified in this study, we designed primers from their conserved flanking regions. We tested the applicability of the primers to amplify target sequences in eight species representing basal angiosperms, monocots, eudicots, rosids, and asterids, and confirmed that the primers amplified the desired sequences of these species. Significance/Conclusions Chloroplast genome sequences contain regions that are highly variable. Such regions are the first consideration when screening the suitable loci to resolve closely related species or

  15. Levels of Neopterin and other Inflammatory Markers in Obese and Non-Obese Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Agacayak, Elif; Tunc, Senem Yaman; Sak, Sibel; Basaranoglu, Serdar; Yüksel, Hatice; Turgut, Abdulkadir; Gul, Talip

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to measure the levels of inflammatory markers and neopterin in obese and non-obese patients with PCOS by using 2 separate control groups with matching body mass index (BMI). Material/Methods A total of 60 women of reproductive age with (n=30) and without (n=30) PCOS were included in this study. Based on their BMI, patients with PCOS were divided into 2 groups as obese (n=15) and non-obese (n=15) PCOS groups. In addition, 2 BMI-matched control groups were formed. Neopterin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio), and vitamin B12 were assessed by complete blood count. Results No significant difference was found between patients with PCOS and control subjects in neopterin, IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP levels. However, N/L ratio levels were significantly higher (p 0.045) and vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower (p 0.033) in patients with PCOS compared to control subjects. No statistically significant difference was found between obese and non-obese patients with PCOS and control subjects in neopterin, IL-6, TNF-α, and N/L ratio levels. However, CRP levels were significantly higher in obese patients with PCOS compared to obese control subjects (p 0.007). Conclusions It can be concluded that inflammatory activity is increased in patients with PCOS, can lead to an increased risk for atherosclerosis, and this increase is not caused by obesity but rather by the polycystic ovary syndrome itself. However, studies with larger sample sizes are needed in this area. PMID:26292090

  16. Association of Allergic Rhinitis in Female University Students with Socio-economic Factors and Markers of Estrogens Levels.

    PubMed

    Wronka, I; Kliś, K; Jarzebak, K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the association of allergic rhinitis in female university students with socio-economic factors and sex-hormone markers, including age at menarche, menstrual disorders, and selected anthropometrics indexes. The research was conducted among 640 female university students, aged 19-25 years. The measurements of body height, body mass, waist and hip circumference were taken. Each person completed a questionnaire. The occurrence of allergy was determined on the basis of answers to the questions whether the allergy and its allergens were defined on the basis of medical workup. We found that a significantly larger number of cases of allergic rhinitis were recorded in the university students coming from families of high socio-economic level than those from lower level. Allergic rhinitis also was more frequent in the students who spent their childhood in cities than in those who lived in the countryside. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis was inversely correlated to the number of siblings. There were no differences in the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in relation to the birth order. The estrogen level seemed unassociated with rhinitis. However, there were slightly more allergic among females with an earlier age of menarche. PMID:26453067

  17. Elevated Levels of Monocyte Activation Markers Are Associated With Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Men With and Those Without HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    McKibben, Rebeccah A.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Grinspoon, Steven; Li, Xiuhong; Palella, Frank J.; Kingsley, Lawrence A.; Witt, Mallory D.; George, Richard T.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Budoff, Matthew; Tracy, Russell P.; Brown, Todd T.; Post, Wendy S.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Heightened immune activation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons may contribute to atherosclerosis. We assessed associations of serologic markers of monocyte activation, soluble CD163 (sCD163) and soluble CD14 (sCD14), and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2) with subclinical atherosclerosis among men with and those without HIV infection in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods. We performed noncontrast computed tomography on 906 men (566 HIV-infected men and 340 HIV-uninfected men), 709 of whom also underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography. Associations between each biomarker and the prevalence of coronary plaque, the prevalence of stenosis of ≥50%, and the extent of plaque were assessed by logistic and linear regression, adjusting for age, race, HIV serostatus, and cardiovascular risk factors. Results. Levels of all biomarkers were higher among HIV-infected men, of whom 81% had undetectable HIV RNA, and were associated with lower CD4+ T-cell counts. In the entire population and among HIV-infected men, higher biomarker levels were associated with a greater prevalence of coronary artery stenosis of ≥50%. Higher sCD163 levels were also associated with greater prevalences of coronary artery calcium, mixed plaque, and calcified plaque; higher CCL2 levels were associated with a greater extent of noncalcified plaque. Conclusions. sCD163, sCD14, and CCL2 levels were elevated in treated HIV-infected men and associated with atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease in individuals with HIV infection. PMID:25362192

  18. Biostimulation effect of low-level laser on healing process after third molar surgery, based on biochemical markers in saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroulikova, Veronika; Dostálová, Tatjana; Podzimek, Stepan

    2015-02-01

    Third molar extractions in general anesthesia have become a standard procedure in dentistry. There is an effort to shorten healing time and decrease the number of complications as well as increase comfort after the treatment. Low-level lasers are known for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and stimulatory effect. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of low-level laser after surgery in general anesthesia reducing the patient's discomfort, i.e. mainly pain, and also, to monitor the biostimulation process. Our study included 79 patients treated at the Department of Maxilofacial Surgery, diagnosed with third molar retention. Diode low-level laser radiation (wavelength 830 nm, output power 270 mW, probe aperture of 6.4 mm2) with dose ~ 3 mJ was applied. The control group was treated by using placebo - red light. The exposure time was 11 seconds immediately after the suture; the treatment was repeated every day for the following 3 days. To evaluate the effect of laser biostimulation, the objective markers for immunological determination of healing - sIgA and lysozyme in non-stimulated saliva of patients - were used. The sIgA decreases after laser application from 546.91 mg/l to 304. 91mg/l and in the control group from 602.25mg/l to 425.62 mg/l. The results were statistically significant. The level of lysozyme decreases from 54.27 mg/l to 2.45mg/l after laser biostimulation, from 304.371mg/l to 11.08mg/l after placebo effect. The study has confirmed a low-level laser healing effect not directly related to pain.

  19. The association of intensity and overall level of physical activity energy expenditure with a marker of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Assah, F. K.; Brage, S.; Wareham, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Physical activity is important in preventing insulin resistance, but it is unclear which dimension of activity confers this benefit. We examined the association of overall level and intensity of physical activity with fasting insulin level, a marker of insulin resistance. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Medical Research Council Ely population-based cohort study (2000–2002). Physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in kJ kg−1 min−1 was measured by heart rate monitoring with individual calibration over a period of 4 days. The percentage of time spent above 1.5, 1.75 and 2 times resting heart rate (RHR) represented all light-to-vigorous, moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous activity, respectively. Results Data from a total of 643 non-diabetic individuals (319 men, 324 women) aged 50 to 75 years were analysed. In multivariate linear regression analyses, adjusting for age, sex and body fat percentage, PAEE was significantly associated with fasting insulin (pmol/l) (β = −0.875, p = 0.006). Time (% of total) spent above 1.75 × RHR and also time spent above 2 × RHR were both significantly associated with fasting insulin (β = −0.0109, p = 0.007 and β = −0.0365, p = 0.001 respectively), after adjusting for PAEE, age, sex and body fat percentage. Time spent above 1.5 × RHR was not significantly associated with fasting insulin in a similar model (β = −0.0026, p = 0.137). Conclusions/interpretation The association between PAEE and fasting insulin level, a marker of insulin resistance, may be attributable to the time spent in moderate-to-vigorous and vigorous activity, but not to time spent in light-intensity physical activity. PMID:18488189

  20. CEA serum level as early predictive marker of outcome during EGFR-TKI therapy in advanced NSCLC patients.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Francesco; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Aloe, Rosalia; Bortesi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Andrea; Tiseo, Marcello

    2015-08-01

    Considering the role of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) serum levels as potential useful predictive marker during chemotherapy treatment, we studied its applicability in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Our retrospective cohort consists of 79 patients (33 EGFR mutated and 46 EGFR wild type or unknown) affected by advanced NSCLC, for whom CEA serum values at the beginning of TKI therapy and after the first month of treatment were available, regardless of treatment line. Baseline CEA value, percentage of CEA reduction after 1 month, and percentage of patients with ≥20 % CEA decrease after 1 month (CEA response) were correlated with disease control rate (DCR), progression-free (PFS), and overall (OS) survival, according to EGFR mutational status. Median baseline CEA levels were significantly higher in EGFR mutated (40.9 ng/ml; interquartile range (IQR) 8.9-197.6) than in wild-type cases (6.2 ng/ml; IQR 2.8-12.8; p = 0.003). Both percentage reduction in CEA levels (-10.7 vs. +13.4 %) and percentage of cases with CEA response (42 vs. 20 %) were significantly higher in mutated vs. wild-type/unknown patients (p = 0.007 and p = 0.027, respectively). In wild-type/unknown patients, CEA response was significantly correlated with DCR (p = 0.001) and resulted as a significant predictor of PFS both in univariate (p = 0.002) and in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio (HR) 0.27; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.11-0.66; p = 0.004); only a trend was found for OS prediction (p = 0.082). In EGFR-mutated group, CEA reduction did not show any correlation either with PFS or OS. CEA response after 1 month of EGFR-TKI therapy could be a useful marker, worthy to further studies, as early predictor of treatment outcome in EGFR wild-type/unknown unselected NSCLC cases for which no molecular predictor is yet available. PMID:25731731

  1. A Potential Epigenetic Marker Mediating Serum Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels Contributes to the Risk of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Keat Wei, Loo; Sutherland, Heidi; Au, Anthony; Camilleri, Emily; Haupt, Larisa M.; Gan, Siew Hua; Griffiths, Lyn R.

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a multifactorial disease that may be associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. We investigated epigenetic dysregulation for the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene among ischemic stroke patients. Cases and controls were recruited after obtaining signed written informed consents following a screening process against the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Serum vitamin profiles (folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine) were determined using immunoassays. Methylation profiles for CpGs A and B in the MTHFR gene were determined using a bisulfite-pyrosequencing method. Methylation of MTHFR significantly increased the susceptibility risk for ischemic stroke. In particular, CpG A outperformed CpG B in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 levels to increase ischemic stroke susceptibility risks by 4.73-fold. However, both CpGs A and B were not associated with serum homocysteine levels or ischemic stroke severity. CpG A is a potential epigenetic marker in mediating serum folate and vitamin B12 to contribute to ischemic stroke. PMID:25705649

  2. Plastid and nuclear DNA markers reveal intricate relationships at subfamilial and tribal levels in the soapberry family (Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Buerki, Sven; Forest, Félix; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Callmander, Martin W; Nylander, Johan A A; Harrington, Mark; Sanmartín, Isabel; Küpfer, Philippe; Alvarez, Nadir

    2009-05-01

    The economically important soapberry family (Sapindaceae) comprises about 1900 species mainly found in the tropical regions of the world, with only a few genera being restricted to temperate areas. The infrafamilial classification of the Sapindaceae and its relationships to the closely related Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae - which have now been included in an expanded definition of Sapindaceae (i.e., subfamily Hippocastanoideae) - have been debated for decades. Here we present a phylogenetic analysis of Sapindaceae based on eight DNA sequence regions from the plastid and nuclear genomes and including 85 of the 141 genera defined within the family. Our study comprises 997 new sequences of Sapindaceae from 152 specimens. Despite presenting 18.6% of missing data our complete data set produced a topology fully congruent with the one obtained from a subset without missing data, but including fewer markers. The use of additional information therefore led to a consistent result in the relative position of clades and allowed the definition of a new phylogenetic hypothesis. Our results confirm a high level of paraphyly and polyphyly at the subfamilial and tribal levels and even contest the monophyletic status of several genera. Our study confirms that the Chinese monotypic genus Xanthoceras is sister to the rest of the family, in which subfamily Hippocastanoideae is sister to a clade comprising subfamilies Dodonaeoideae and Sapindoideae. On the basis of the strong support demonstrated in Sapindoideae, Dodonaeoideae and Hippocastanoideae as well as in 14 subclades, we propose and discuss informal groupings as basis for a new classification of Sapindaceae. PMID:19405193

  3. Serum level of oxidative stress marker is dramatically low in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tocilizumab.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Makoto; Yamasaki, Naomi; Oze, Hiroki; Ebina, Kosuke; Nampei, Akihide; Kawato, Yoshitaka; Shi, Kenrin; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Regarding the pathobiology of rheumatoid arthritis, oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species is an important mechanism that underlies destructive and proliferative synovitis. Abundant amounts of reactive oxygen species have been detected in the synovial fluid of inflamed rheumatoid joints. It is reported that drugs that block tumor necrosis factor-α reduce the oxidative stress marker levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we measured reactive oxygen species using a free radical analytical system in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, tumor necrosis factor-α-blocking drugs (infliximab, etanercept), and an interleukin-6-blocking drug (tocilizumab). The serum level of oxidative stress was drastically low in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with tocilizumab, suggesting that interleukin-6 blocking therapy reduces not only joint damage, but also vascular degeneration in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We believe that such a drastic effect would reduce the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21909945

  4. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes. PMID:27180144

  5. Expression level of chromodomain Y (CDY): potential marker for prediction of sperm recovery in non-obstructive azoospermia

    PubMed Central

    Heydarian, Neda; Favaedi, Raha; Sadighi Gilani, Mohammad Ali; Shahhoseini, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background: The availability of testis specific genes will be of help in choosing the most promising biomarkers for the detection of testicular sperm retrieval in patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). Testis specific chromodomain protein Y 1 (CDY1) is a histone acetyltransferase which concentrates in the round spermatid nucleus, where histone hyperacetylation occurs and causes the replacement of histones by the sperm-specific DNA packaging proteins, TNPs and PRMs. Objective: The aim was to evaluate CDY1 gene as a marker for predicting of successful sperm retrieval in NOA patients. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted on 29 patients with NOA who had undergone testicular sperm extraction (TESE) procedure. NOA patients were subdivided into patients with successful sperm retrieval (NOA+, n=12) and patients with unsuccessful sperm retrieval (NOA-, n=17). Relative expression of CDY1 gene and chromatin incorporation of CDY1 protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and ELISA assay, respectively. Results: Quantification of mRNA relative expression and incorporation of CDY1 protein in chromatin showed significant lower expressions and protein levels of CDY1 in testis tissues of NOA- in comparison to NOA+ group. Conclusion: The findings in this study demonstrated a correlation between the low levels of CDY1 function and unsuccessful sperm recovery in the testicular tissues of NOA- compared to NOA+ patients. Therefore, it can be reasonable to consider CDY1 as a potential biomarker for predicting the presence of spermatozoa, although the claim needs more samples to be confirmed. PMID:27525321

  6. Ostene, a New Alkylene Oxide Copolymer Bone Hemostatic Material, Does Not Inhibit Bone Healing

    PubMed Central

    Magyar, Clara E.; Aghaloo, Tara L.; Atti, Elisa; Tetradis, Sotirios

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, we investigate the effects of a soft bone hemostatic wax comprised of water-soluble alkylene oxide copolymers (Ostene; Ceremed, Inc., Los Angeles, CA) on bone healing in a rat calvaria defect model. We compared the effects with a control (no hemostatic agent) and bone wax, an insoluble and nonresorbable material commonly used for bone hemostasis. METHODS Two bilateral 3-mm circular noncritical-sized defects were made in the calvariae of 30 rats. Alkylene oxide copolymer or bone wax was applied or no hemostatic material was used (control). After 3, 6, and 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and the calvariae excised. Bone healing, expressed as fractional bone volume (± standard error of the mean), was measured by microcomputed tomography. RESULTS Immediate hemostasis was achieved equally with bone wax and alkylene oxide copolymer. Bone wax-filled defects remained unchanged at all time points with negligible healing observed. At 3 weeks, no evidence of alkylene oxide copolymer was observed at the application site, with fractional bone volume significantly greater than bone wax-treated defects (0.20 ± 0.03 versus 0.02 ± 0.01; P = 0.0003). At 6 and 12-weeks, alkylene oxide copolymer-treated defects continued to show significantly greater healing versus bone wax (0.18 ± 0.04 versus 0.05 ± 0.01 and 0.31 ± 0.04 versus 0.06 ± 0.02, respectively). At all time points, alkylene oxide copolymer-treated and control defects showed good healing with no significant difference. CONCLUSION Alkylene oxide copolymer is an effective hemostatic agent that does not inhibit osteogenesis or bone healing. PMID:18981846

  7. Hemostatic agents for access tract in tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Is it worth?

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Francisco; Aliaga, Alfredo; Fleck, Daniela; Fernandez, Mario; Mercado, Alejandro; Vilches, Roberto; Moya, Francisco; Ledezma, Rodrigo; Reyes, Diego; Marchant, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role of hemostatic agents as an adjunct for closure of the nephrostomy tract in tubeless percutaneous surgery (tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy [tPNL]) has been previously evaluated, observing a potential benefit in terms of reduced bleeding and urinary leakage. We assessed the rate of postoperative complications after the use of hemostatic agents for sealing the nephrostomy tract in patients undergoing tPNL at our institution. Subjects and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 52 consecutive patients undergoing tPNL at our center between January 2010 and December 2013. No substance was placed within the tract in 25 patients (Group 1). A cylinder of Surgicel® in addition to 1 unit of Gelita® were placed within the access tract in 27 patients (Group 2). We accounted for demographic variables, stone size, operative time, postoperative pain, development of hematoma, postoperative hematocrit drop, urinary leakage, residual lithiasis, and hospital stay length. Results: Age and sex differed significantly between the two groups (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.048 respectively). However, there were no significant differences in terms of body mass index and stone burden. No significant differences between groups were found with regards to operative time, postoperative hematocrit drop, postoperative pain and presence of residual lithiasis. Conclusion: The use of Gelita® and Surgicel® as hemostatic agents in tPNL is safe, but we were not able to demonstrate any significant benefit in terms of postoperative morbidity after comparing the use of these agents in tPNL. We concluded that the uses of hemostatic agents needed to be evaluated in prospective randomized trials to define its benefits. PMID:27141194

  8. [Research on hemostatic mechanism of extracts from carbonized Schizonepeta tenuifolia Brig].

    PubMed

    Ding, A W; Wu, H; Kong, L D; Wang, S L; Gao, Z Z; Zhao, M X; Tan, M

    1993-10-01

    It has been shown that StE can significantly shorten PT, TT, KPTT and RT of experimental animals and has an antiheparin function in the body. Meanwhile, it can significantly shorten ELT and strengthen FA. Its hemostatic action is accomplished through promoting coagulation and inhibiting fibrinolysis. 3P test and EG test were negative, it is thus impossible for a large dosage of StE to lead to DIC. PMID:8003212

  9. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource. PMID:24363681

  10. Fibrin Sealant: The Only Approved Hemostat, Sealant, and Adhesive—a Laboratory and Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Spotnitz, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Fibrin sealant became the first modern era material approved as a hemostat in the United States in 1998. It is the only agent presently approved as a hemostat, sealant, and adhesive by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The product is now supplied as patches in addition to the original liquid formulations. Both laboratory and clinical uses of fibrin sealant continue to grow. The new literature on this material also continues to proliferate rapidly (approximately 200 papers/year). Methods. An overview of current fibrin sealant products and their approved uses and a comprehensive PubMed based review of the recent literature (February 2012, through March 2013) on the laboratory and clinical use of fibrin sealant are provided. Product information is organized into sections based on a classification system for commercially available materials. Publications are presented in sections based on both laboratory research and clinical topics are listed in order of decreasing frequency. Results. Fibrin sealant remains useful hemostat, sealant, and adhesive. New formulations and applications continue to be developed. Conclusions. This agent remains clinically important with the recent introduction of new commercially available products. Fibrin sealant has multiple new uses that should result in further improvements in patient care. PMID:24729902

  11. Evaluation of hemostatic field dressing for bacteria, mycobacteria, or fungus contamination.

    PubMed

    Murray, Clinton K; Brunstetter, Tyson; Beckius, Miriam; Dunne, James R; Mende, Katrin

    2013-03-01

    Infectious complications have a major impact on wounded warriors. Pathogens causing infections include multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and mycobacteria. The potential sources for these pathogens include nosocomial transmission, the environment (e.g., dirt), or the patients (skin flora) themselves. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the possibility that hemostatic field dressings might act as an inoculation source of pathogens into wounds. To accomplish this, hemostatic field dressings were assessed for the presence of bacterial, fungal, or mycobacterial contamination. We evaluated two samples of QuikClot Combat Gauze and two samples of CELOX Gauze subjected to normal stresses associated with storage after receipt from the manufacturer. We then evaluated 16 samples of QuikClot Combat Gauze that were collected from personnel deployed in Afghanistan and had undergone routine mechanical stress. Samples underwent screening with Trypticase Soy Broth, blood agar plates, MacConkey agar plates, CHROMagar Staphylococcus aureus plates, chocolate agar plates, Potato Flake agar, Lowenstein-Jensen media, and Middlebrook 7H11 media. No bacteria, fungi, or mycobacteria were recovered from the dressings. It does not appear that hemostatic field dressings are contaminated, even after subjected to field conditions. Further research is needed to identify inoculation sources of fungi and mycobacteria, which cause infections. PMID:23707133

  12. A new hemostatic clip for endoscopic surgery that can maintain blood flow after clipping

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Kyoung Won; Lee, Sang Bong; Kim, In Young; Kim, Kwang Gi; Park, Sang Jae

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To develop a new hemostatic device for endoscopic surgery that can control the bleeding without completely occluding the bleeding vessel. METHODS: A hemostatic clip and its applier that can stanch bleeding while maintaining blood flow through the clipped vessel was introduced, and the performance of the proposed clip was evaluated using in vitro and in vivo experiments. RESULTS: During in vitro experiments, no leakage was found after clipping at cuts made in artificial vessels, and flow was maintained through the clipped artificial vessels. In experiments on rats, all the implanted clips occluded the target vessels successfully, and no bleeding or tissue damage was observed at the operative site after the rats were euthanized on postoperative day 7. In experiments on pigs, bleeding stopped immediately after partial clipping of a damaged vessel, and some amount of blood flow was consistently maintained through the clipped vessel after hemostasis. CONCLUSION: We believe that the proposed hemostatic clip and clip applier can enhance patient safety during laparoscopic surgery. PMID:24574807

  13. Role of hemostatic powders in the endoscopic management of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Plumé, Gema

    2014-08-15

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) is a prevalent condition with significant influence on healthcare costs. Endoscopy is essential for the management of AGIB with a pivotal role in diagnosis, risk stratification and management. Recently, hemostatic powders have been added to our endoscopic armamentarium to treat gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. These substances are intended to control active bleeding by delivering a powdered product over the bleeding site that forms a solid matrix with a tamponade function. Local activation of platelet aggregation and coagulation cascade may be also boosted. There are currently three powders commercially available: hemostatic agent TC-325 (Hemospray(®)), EndoClot™ polysaccharide hemostatic system, and Ankaferd Bloodstopper(®). Although the available evidence is based on short series of cases and there is no randomized controlled trial yet, these powders seem to be effective in controlling GI bleeding from a variety of origins with a very favorable side effects profile. They can be used either as a primary therapy or a second-line treatment, and they seem to be especially indicated in cases of cancer-related bleeding and lesions with difficult access. In this review, we will comment on the mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and technical challenges of the use of powders in several clinical scenarios and we will try to define the main current indications of use and propose new lines of research in this area. PMID:25133029

  14. Role of hemostatic powders in the endoscopic management of gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Plumé, Gema

    2014-01-01

    Acute gastrointestinal bleeding (AGIB) is a prevalent condition with significant influence on healthcare costs. Endoscopy is essential for the management of AGIB with a pivotal role in diagnosis, risk stratification and management. Recently, hemostatic powders have been added to our endoscopic armamentarium to treat gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. These substances are intended to control active bleeding by delivering a powdered product over the bleeding site that forms a solid matrix with a tamponade function. Local activation of platelet aggregation and coagulation cascade may be also boosted. There are currently three powders commercially available: hemostatic agent TC-325 (Hemospray®), EndoClot™ polysaccharide hemostatic system, and Ankaferd Bloodstopper®. Although the available evidence is based on short series of cases and there is no randomized controlled trial yet, these powders seem to be effective in controlling GI bleeding from a variety of origins with a very favorable side effects profile. They can be used either as a primary therapy or a second-line treatment, and they seem to be especially indicated in cases of cancer-related bleeding and lesions with difficult access. In this review, we will comment on the mechanism of action, efficacy, safety and technical challenges of the use of powders in several clinical scenarios and we will try to define the main current indications of use and propose new lines of research in this area. PMID:25133029

  15. Reproducing the Hemoglobin Saturation Profile, a Marker of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI Effect, at the Microscopic Level.

    PubMed

    Hadjistassou, Constantinos; Moyle, Keri; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    The advent of functional MRI in the mid-1990s has catalyzed progress pertaining to scientific discoveries in neuroscience. With the prospect of elucidating the physiological aspect of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect we present a computational capillary-tissue system capable of mapping venous hemoglobin saturation- a marker of the BOLD hemodynamic response. Free and facilitated diffusion and convection for hemoglobin and oxygen are considered in the radial and axial directions. Hemoglobin reaction kinetics are governed by the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. Brain activation, mimicked by dynamic transitions in cerebral blood velocity (CBv) and oxidative metabolism (CMRO2), is simulated by normalized changes in m = (ΔCBv/CBv)/(ΔCMRO2/CMRO2) of values 2, 3 and 4. Venous hemoglobin saturation profiles and peak oxygenation results, for m = 2, based upon a 50% and a 25% increase in CBv and CMRO2, respectively, lie within physiological limits exhibiting excellent correlation with the BOLD signal, for short-duration stimuli. Our analysis suggests basal CBv and CMRO2 values of 0.6 mm/s and 200 μmol/100g/min. Coupled CBv and CMRO2 responses, for m = 3 and m = 4, overestimate peak hemoglobin saturation, confirming the system's responsiveness to changes in hematocrit, CBv and CMRO2. Finally, factoring in neurovascular effects, we show that no initial dip will be observed unless there is a time delay in the onset of increased CBv relative to CMRO2. PMID:26939128

  16. Reproducing the Hemoglobin Saturation Profile, a Marker of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI Effect, at the Microscopic Level

    PubMed Central

    Hadjistassou, Constantinos; Moyle, Keri; Ventikos, Yiannis

    2016-01-01

    The advent of functional MRI in the mid-1990s has catalyzed progress pertaining to scientific discoveries in neuroscience. With the prospect of elucidating the physiological aspect of the Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) effect we present a computational capillary-tissue system capable of mapping venous hemoglobin saturation— a marker of the BOLD hemodynamic response. Free and facilitated diffusion and convection for hemoglobin and oxygen are considered in the radial and axial directions. Hemoglobin reaction kinetics are governed by the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. Brain activation, mimicked by dynamic transitions in cerebral blood velocity (CBv) and oxidative metabolism (CMRO2), is simulated by normalized changes in m = (ΔCBv/CBv)/(ΔCMRO2/CMRO2) of values 2, 3 and 4. Venous hemoglobin saturation profiles and peak oxygenation results, for m = 2, based upon a 50% and a 25% increase in CBv and CMRO2, respectively, lie within physiological limits exhibiting excellent correlation with the BOLD signal, for short-duration stimuli. Our analysis suggests basal CBv and CMRO2 values of 0.6 mm/s and 200 μmol/100g/min. Coupled CBv and CMRO2 responses, for m = 3 and m = 4, overestimate peak hemoglobin saturation, confirming the system’s responsiveness to changes in hematocrit, CBv and CMRO2. Finally, factoring in neurovascular effects, we show that no initial dip will be observed unless there is a time delay in the onset of increased CBv relative to CMRO2. PMID:26939128

  17. Single-locus EST-SSR markers for characterization of population genetic diversity and structure across ploidy levels in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass is a promising bioenergy crop native to North America. Population genetic diversity was characterized in 12 cultivars that included upland and lowland ecotypes encompassing variation in ploidy levels, geographical origins, and breeding history using 21 EST-SSR marker loci that showed sin...

  18. Effects of Noise Exposure on Systemic and Tissue-Level Markers of Glucose Homeostasis and Insulin Resistance in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lijie; Wang, Fanfan; Lu, Haiying; Cao, Shuangfeng; Du, Ziwei; Wang, Yongfang; Feng, Xian; Gao, Ye; Zha, Mingming; Guo, Min; Sun, Zilin; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have indicated that noise exposure is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the nature of the connection between noise exposure and T2DM remains to be explored. Objectives: We explored whether and how noise exposure affects glucose homeostasis in mice as the initial step toward T2DM development. Methods: Male ICR mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: the control group and three noise groups (N20D, N10D, and N1D), in which the animals were exposed to white noise at 95 decibel sound pressure level (dB SPL) for 4 hr per day for 20 successive days, 10 successive days, or 1 day, respectively. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were evaluated 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after the final noise exposure (1DPN, 1WPN, and 1MPN). Standard immunoblots, immunohistochemical methods, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed to assess insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, the morphology of β cells, and plasma corticosterone levels. Results: Noise exposure for 1 day caused transient glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas noise exposure for 10 and 20 days had no effect on glucose tolerance but did cause prolonged insulin resistance and an increased insulin response to glucose challenge. Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in response to exogenous insulin were decreased in the skeletal muscle of noise-exposed animals. Conclusions: Noise exposure at 95 dB SPL caused insulin resistance in male ICR mice, which was prolonged with longer noise exposure and was likely related to the observed blunted insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. Citation: Liu L, Wang F, Lu H, Cao S, Du Z, Wang Y, Feng X, Gao Y, Zha M, Guo M, Sun Z, Wang J. 2016. Effects of noise exposure on systemic and tissue-level markers of glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in male mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1390–1398; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP162 PMID:27128844

  19. Influence of feeding graded levels of canned sardines on the inflammatory markers and tissue fatty acid composition of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro O; Martins, Susana V; Lopes, Paula A; Ramos, Cristina; Miguéis, Samuel; Alfaia, Cristina M; Pinto, Rui M A; Rolo, Eva A; Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Prates, José A M

    2014-08-14

    Canned sardines are a ready-to-use fish product with excellent nutritional properties owing to its high n-3 long-chain PUFA content, mainly EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3). The present study aimed to assess the effect of two dosages of canned sardines, recommended for the primary and secondary prevention of human CVD, on the inflammatory marker concentrations and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes and key metabolic tissues (liver, muscle, adipose tissue and brain) in the rat model. Wistar rats were fed a diet containing 11 % (w/w) of canned sardines (low-sardine (LS) diet) and a diet containing 22 % (w/w) of canned sardines (high-sardine (HS) diet) for 10 weeks. Daily food intake, weight gain, and organ and final body weights were not affected by the dietary treatments. The concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in both the LS and HS groups, while those of alanine aminotransferase and adiponectin increased. The concentrations of IL-1β increased only with the highest dosage of sardine. The dose-dependent influence of the graded levels of EPA+DHA was tissue specific. Compared with that of other tissues and erythrocytes, the fatty acid composition of the brain was less affected by the canned sardine-supplemented diets. In contrast, the retroperitoneal adipose tissue was highly responsive. The deposition ratios of EPA and DHA indicated that the LS diet was optimal for DHA deposition across the tissues, except in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. Taken together, our findings indicate that a LS diet positively affects plasma lipid profiles and inflammatory mediators, whereas a HS diet has contradictory effects on IL-1β, which, in turn, is not associated with variations in the concentrations of other pro-inflammatory cytokines. This finding requires further investigation and pathophysiological understanding. PMID:24775714

  20. Preparation and characterization of PEG-PPG-PEG copolymer/pregelatinized starch blends for use as resorbable bone hemostatic wax.

    PubMed

    Suwanprateeb, J; Suvannapruk, W; Thammarakcharoen, F; Chokevivat, W; Rukskul, P

    2013-12-01

    In this study, polymer blends between PEG-PPG-PEG copolymer mixtures and pregelatinized starch at various compositions ranging from 0 to 3 % by weight were prepared and evaluated for potential use as novel resorbable bone hemostatic wax. It was found that the prepared samples had sufficient smearability for use as a bone wax. An addition of pregelatinized starch increased the hardness, smoothness and consistency of the texture while decreasing the adherence to glove. Thermal analysis indicated that the heat of fusion slightly decreased with increasing pregelatinized starch content. Compressive stiffness tended to decrease with increasing starch content for concentrations lower than 20 %, but re-increased at higher starch levels. In contrast, adherence deformation increased initially, but then decreased with increasing starch content. This behavior was related to the dependence of softening or reinforcing effect on the level of starch concentration in the samples. Adherence load and energy decreased with the addition of pregelatinized starch implying the decrease in adhesiveness of the samples. Furthermore, increasing the pregelatized starch amount also increased the liquid sealing duration of the samples at both 23 and 37 °C. Cytotoxicity tests against osteoblasts using a MTT assay revealed that the all the prepared samples and their raw materials did not show any cytotoxic potential. Formulations containing pregelatinized starch content between 20 and 30 % were found to show optimized performance. PMID:23955721

  1. A systems approach to hemostasis: 4. How hemostatic thrombi limit the loss of plasma-borne molecules from the microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Welsh, John D; Muthard, Ryan W; Stalker, Timothy J; Taliaferro, Joshua P; Diamond, Scott L; Brass, Lawrence F

    2016-03-24

    Previous studies have shown that hemostatic thrombi formed in response to penetrating injuries have a core of densely packed, fibrin-associated platelets overlaid by a shell of less-activated, loosely packed platelets. Here we asked, first, how the diverse elements of this structure combine to stem the loss of plasma-borne molecules and, second, whether antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants that perturb thrombus structure affect the re-establishment of a tight vascular seal. The studies combined high-resolution intravital microscopy with a photo-activatable fluorescent albumin marker to simultaneously track thrombus formation and protein transport following injuries to mouse cremaster muscle venules. The results show that protein loss persists after red cell loss has ceased. Blocking platelet deposition with an αIIbβ3antagonist delays vessel sealing and increases extravascular protein accumulation, as does either inhibiting adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) P2Y12receptors or reducing integrin-dependent signaling and retraction. In contrast, sealing was unaffected by introducing hirudin to block fibrin accumulation or a Gi2α gain-of-function mutation to expand the thrombus shell. Collectively, these observations describe a novel approach for studying vessel sealing after injury in real time in vivo and show that (1) the core/shell architecture previously observed in arterioles also occurs in venules, (2) plasma leakage persists well beyond red cell escape and mature thrombus formation, (3) the most critical events for limiting plasma extravasation are the stable accumulation of platelets, ADP-dependent signaling, and the emergence of a densely packed core, not the accumulation of fibrin, and (4) drugs that affect platelet accumulation and packing can delay vessel sealing, permitting protein escape to continue. PMID:26738537

  2. Bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive to dentin surfaces treated with saliva, blood, and different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Nimet; Cebe, Fatma; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cetin, Ali Riza; Cobanoglu, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive to dentin surfaces after treatment with 4 different hemostatic agents in the presence of saliva and blood. After testing, no significant differences were found between the mean bond strength of Clearfil SE (CSE) Bond resin adhesive to normal dentin and those of CSE to dentin treated with the hemostatic agents ViscoStat Clear, Astringedent, or Astringedent X (P > 0.05). However, the mean bond strength of CSE Bond to dentin treated with Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) was significantly greater than those of the other groups (P < 0.05). Thus, while 3 of the tested hemostatic agents did not have significant effects on the bond strength of composite resin to dentin, ABS increased the bond strength of CSE Bond to dentin. PMID:26147164

  3. Chemical characteristics and hemostatic performances of ordered mesoporous calcium-doped silica xerogels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaohui; Wei, Jie; Lu, Xun; Lv, Yang; Chen, Fangping; Zhang, Yanglan; Liu, Changsheng

    2010-06-01

    A well-ordered mesoporous silicon dioxide calcium-doped xerogel (m-SXC) was synthesized by a sol–gel process. The in vitro bioactivity of the m-SXC was investigated by analyzing the apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid (SBF) and MC3T3-E1 cell culture with materials, and the hemostatic activity of the m-SXC was determined by measuring the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and prothrombin time (PT) in vitro. The results suggested that the m-SXC exhibited excellent in vitro bioactivity, with surface apatite formation for them-SXC containing 10 w% Ca (m-SXC10) exceeding that containing 5 w% Ca (n-SXC5) and 0% Ca (m-SXC0) at 7 days, and the cell response test (MTT assay) and cell morphology observation demonstrated that these materials were biocompatible with no obvious negative effects on cellular viability. Moreover, the m-SXC with a high surface area (m-SXC0: 489.9 m(2) g(-1), m-SXC5: 466.5 m2 g(-1), m-SXC10: 438.1 m(2) g(-1)) possessed good hemostatic property because it could absorb a large amount of water from the blood, which could concentrate the components of blood and reduce the clotting time. Furthermore, the addition of calcium in the m-SXC had significant effects on the clotting time, in which the APTT(m-SXC0: 8 s, m-SXC5: 7 s, m-SXC10: 6 s, respectively) and PT (m-SXC0: 16 s, m-SXC5:11 s, m-SXC10: 10 s, respectively) were shortened with the increase of Ca amounts in them-SXC, indicating that incorporation of Ca in the m-SXC could improve its hemostatic activity. PMID:20460688

  4. Use and Utility of Hemostatic Screening in Adults Undergoing Elective, Non-Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Isabel A.; Seicean, Sinziana; Neuhauser, Duncan; Schiltz, Nicholas K.; Seicean, Andreea

    2015-01-01

    Introduction One view of value in medicine is outcome relative to cost of care provided. With respect to operative care, increased attention has been placed on evaluation and optimization of patients prior to undergoing an elective surgery. We examined more than 2 million patients having elective, non-cardiac surgery to assess the incidence and utility of pre-operative hemostatic screening, compared with a composite of history variables that may indicate a propensity for bleeding, to assess several important outcomes of surgery. Materials & Methods We queried the NSQIP database to identify 2,020,533 patients and compared hemostatic tests (PT, aPTT, platelet count) and history covariables indicative of potential for abnormal hemostasis. We compared outcomes across predictor values; used Person’s chi-square tests to compare differences, and logistic regression to model outcomes. Results Approximately 36% of patients had all three tests pre-operatively while 16% had none of them; 11.2% had a history predictive of potential abnormal bleeding. Outcomes of interest across the cohort included death in 0.7%, unplanned return to the operating room or re-admission within 30 days in 3.8% and 6.2% of patients; 5.3% received a transfusion during or after surgery. Sub-analyses in each of the nine surgical specialties’ most common procedures yielded similar results. Conclusion The limited predictive value of each hemostatic screening test, as well as excess costs associated with them, across a broad spectrum of elective surgeries, suggests that limiting pre-operative testing to a more select group of patients may be reasonable, equally efficacious, efficient, and cost-effective. PMID:26623648

  5. Marker development

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    This report is to discuss the marker development for radioactive waste disposal sites. The markers must be designed to last 10,000 years, and place no undue burdens on the future generations. Barriers cannot be constructed that preclude human intrusion. Design specifications for surface markers will be discussed, also marker pictograms will also be covered.

  6. Role of the Hemostatic System on SCD Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Pakbaz, Zahra; Wun, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Recent studies suggest that sickle cell disease is a hypercoagulable state contributing to the vaso-occlusive events in microcirculation resulting in acute and chronic sickle cell related organ damage. In this article, we will review the existing evidence for contribution of hemostatic system perturbation to sickle cell disease pathophysiology. We will also review the data showing increased risk of thromboembolic events, particularly newer information on the incidence of VTE. Finally, the potential role of platelet inhibitors and anticoagulants in SCD will be briefly reviewed. PMID:24589271

  7. Laminin Peptide-Immobilized Hydrogels Modulate Valve Endothelial Cell Hemostatic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Balaoing, Liezl Rae; Post, Allison Davis; Lin, Adam Yuh; Tseng, Hubert; Moake, Joel L.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Valve endothelial cells (VEC) have unique phenotypic responses relative to other types of vascular endothelial cells and have highly sensitive hemostatic functions affected by changes in valve tissues. Furthermore, effects of environmental factors on VEC hemostatic function has not been characterized. This work used a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel platform to evaluate the effects of substrate stiffness and cell adhesive ligands on VEC phenotype and expression of hemostatic genes. Hydrogels of molecular weights (MWs) 3.4, 8, and 20 kDa were polymerized into platforms of different rigidities and thiol-modified cell adhesive peptides were covalently bound to acrylate groups on the hydrogel surfaces. The peptide RKRLQVQLSIRT (RKR) is a syndecan-1 binding ligand derived from laminin, a trimeric protein and a basement membrane matrix component. Conversely, RGDS is an integrin binding peptide found in many extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including fibronectin, fibrinogen, and von Willebrand factor (VWF). VECs adhered to and formed a stable monolayer on all RKR-coated hydrogel-MW combinations. RGDS-coated platforms supported VEC adhesion and growth on RGDS-3.4 kDa and RGDS-8 kDa hydrogels. VECs cultured on the softer RKR-8 kDa and RKR-20 kDa hydrogel platforms had significantly higher gene expression for all anti-thrombotic (ADAMTS-13, tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and tissue plasminogen activator) and thrombotic (VWF, tissue factor, and P-selectin) proteins than VECs cultured on RGDS-coated hydrogels and tissue culture polystyrene controls. Stimulated VECs promoted greater platelet adhesion than non-stimulated VECs on their respective culture condition; yet stimulated VECs on RGDS-3.4 kDa gels were not as responsive to stimulation relative to the RKR-gel groups. Thus, the syndecan binding, laminin-derived peptide promoted stable VEC adhesion on the softer hydrogels and maintained VEC phenotype and natural hemostatic function. In conclusion

  8. Splenectomy Improves Hemostatic and Liver Functions in Hepatosplenic Schistosomiasis Mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Luiz Arthur Calheiros; Pimenta Filho, Adenor Almeida; Ferreira, Rita de Cássia dos Santos; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; dos Santos, Bianka Santana; Montenegro, Silvia Maria Lucena; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa de Almeida; Domingues, Ana Lúcia Coutinho; Owen, James Stuart; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis mansoni is a chronic liver disease, in which some patients (5–10%) progress to the most severe form, hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. This form is associated with portal hypertension and splenomegaly, and often episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, even with liver function preserved. Splenectomy is a validated procedure to reduce portal hypertension following digestive bleeding. Here, we evaluate beneficial effects of splenectomy on blood coagulation factors and liver function tests in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni compared to non-operated patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-five patients who had undergone splenectomy surgery were assessed by laboratory analyses and ultrasound examination and compared to a non-operated group (n = 55). Blood samples were obtained for liver function tests, platelet count and prothrombin time. Coagulation factors (II, VII, VIII, IX and X), protein C and antithrombin IIa, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were measured by routine photometric, chromogenic or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, while hyperfibrinolysis was defined by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels. Both groups had similar age, gender and pattern of periportal fibrosis. Splenectomized patients showed significant reductions in portal vein diameter, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin levels compared to non-operated patients, while for coagulation factors there were significant improvement in prothrombin, partial thromboplastin times and higher levels of factor VII, VIII, IX, X, protein C and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Conclusion/Significance This study shows that the decrease of flow pressure in portal circulation after splenectomy restores the capacity of hepatocyte synthesis, especially on the factor VII and protein C levels, and these findings suggest that portal hypertension in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis influences liver functioning and the blood coagulation status. PMID:26267788

  9. Marginal integrity of low-shrinkage and methacrylate-based composite resins: Effect of three different hemostatic agents

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Sahraneshin-Samani, Mahsa

    2016-01-01

    Background Moisture control is very important in restorative procedures in dentistry. Use of hemostatic agents helps control moisture; however, they might result in changes on enamel and dentin surfaces, affecting composite resin bond quality. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of two different composite resins with the use of three different hemostatic agents. Material and Methods Standardized Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 48 premolars with cervical margins 1 mm apical to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). The samples were randomly divided into 8 groups. In groups 1 to 4, an etch-and-rinse adhesive (Adper Single Bond) was applied as the bonding system, followed by exposure to different hemostatic agent: group 1: no hemostatic agent (control); group 2: ViscoStat; group 3: ViscoStat Clear; and group 4: trichloracetic acid, as hemostatic agents. The cavities were restored with Z-250 composite resin. In group 5 to 8 Silorane System Adhesive (Filtek P90 Adhesive) was applied as a bonding agent, followed by exposure to different hemostatic agents in a manner similar to that in groups 1to 4. The cavities were restored with Filtek P90, a low-shrinkage composite resin. The samples in each group were evaluated for dye penetration under a stereomicroscope at ×36 after 24 hours and a 500-round thermocycling procedure at enamel and dentin margins. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05). Results Z-250 composite resin exhibited significantly higher dentin microleakage scores compared to Filtek P90 (P = 0.004). Trichloracetic acid increased dentin microleakage with Filtek P90 (P=0.033). Conclusions Under the limitations of this in vitro study, application of hemostatic agents did not affect microleakage of the two tested composite resins except for trichloracetic acid that increased marginal microleakage when used with Filtek P90. Key words

  10. Comparative hemostatic parameters in BALB/c, C57BL/6 and C3H/He mice.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Mariana; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Gil, Amparo; Salazar, Ana M; Taylor, Peter; Sánchez, Elda E; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Guerrero, Belsy

    2009-07-01

    This study describes micro-methods to determine biological parameters in plasma of three strains of mice. Platelet count was significantly different among strains. C57BL/6 mice showed the highest values (988 x 10(3)/microL) and BALB/c the lowest (782 x 10(3)/microL). Fibrinogen levels were 2.55 (C57BL/6), 2.37 (BALB/c) and 2.28 g/L (C3H/He). Some inter-strain differences were observed in factor XIII (94, 118 and 114%) and plasminogen levels (142, 80 and 135%) in C57BL/6, BALB/c and C3H/He, respectively. Additionally, we observed individual mice factor XIII and plasminogen levels between 80 to 200% and 65 to 180%, respectively, in relation to pooled human plasma; and between 70 to 185% and 70 to 155%, respectively, against pooled mice plasma. To our knowledge, this is first report in the literature in diverse mice strains regarding hemostasis, mainly on factor XIII, plasminogen levels, and a very simple test that allows measurement of endogenous fibrinolytic activity present in the plasma. The different results are discussed in relationship with existing literature regarding if the animals in some studies were maintained under strict pathogen-free conditions, the collection of blood was from the heart or eye and if the analysis method was tested by counting manually or automatically. This work could contribute useful knowledge to the field of investigations regarding hemostatic disorders using mouse models, especially for laboratories that are not well equipped. PMID:19101712

  11. Application of the No Action Level (NAL) protocol to correct for prostate motion based on electronic portal imaging of implanted markers

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Hans C.J. de . E-mail: j.deboer@erasmusmc.nl; Os, Marjolein J.H. van; Jansen, Peter P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of the No Action Level (NAL) off-line correction protocol in the reduction of systematic prostate displacements as determined from electronic portal images (EPI) using implanted markers. Methods and materials: Four platinum markers, two near the apex and two near the base of the prostate, were implanted for localization purposes in patients who received fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy. During the following course of 25 fractions of external beam radiotherapy, the position of each marker relative to the corresponding position in digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) was measured in EPI in 15 patients for on average 17 fractions per patient. These marker positions yield the composite displacements due to both setup error and internal prostate motion, relative to the planning computed tomography scan. As the NAL protocol is highly effective in reducing systematic errors (recurring each fraction) due to setup inaccuracy alone, we investigated its efficacy in reducing systematic composite displacements. The analysis was performed for the center of mass (COM) of the four markers, as well as for the cranial and caudal markers separately. Furthermore, the impact of prostate rotation on the achieved positioning accuracy was determined. Results: In case of no setup corrections, the standard deviations of the systematic composite displacements of the COM were 3-4 mm in the craniocaudal and anterior-posterior directions, and 2 mm in the left-right direction. The corresponding SDs of the random displacements (interfraction fluctuations) were 2-3 mm in each direction. When applying a NAL protocol based on three initial treatment fractions, the SDs of the systematic COM displacements were reduced to 1-2 mm. Displacements at the cranial end of the prostate were slightly larger than at the caudal end, and quantitative analysis showed this originates from left-right axis rotations about the prostate apex. Further analysis revealed

  12. Genomic breeding value prediction for simple maize hybrid yield using total effects of associated markers, under different imbalance levels and environments.

    PubMed

    Cantelmo, N F; Von Pinho, R G; Balestre, M

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of a maize breeding program is to generate hybrid combinations that are more productive than those pre-existing in the market. However, the number of parents, and consequently the number of crosses, increases so rapidly that the phenotypic evaluation of all the possible combinations becomes economically and technically infeasible. In this context, predicting the performance of the most promising genotypes may increase the genetic gains with increased selection intensity and reduced breeding cycles. Thus, the present study aimed to use the total effects of associated markers method to predict genomic breeding values (GBVs) via cross-validation and by using different imbalance levels (10, 30, 50, and 70%). A set of 51 genotyped strains was used with 79 microsatellite markers and 273 hybrids that were generated by a partial diallel. A total of 186 and 272 hybrids were analyzed in the experiments within the southern and central regions of Brazil, respectively. The GBVs were, thus, predicted for each location in both the regions, and for training in one region and validation in another region. The correlation between the predicted and observed GBVs ranged from 0.48 to 0.91, depending on the imbalance level and the region analyzed. Overall, the results obtained in the present study were promising, particularly considering that a small number of markers were used and that the training and predictions occurred in the very distinct regions of southern and central Brazil. PMID:26985952

  13. Hemostatic properties of the lymph: relationships with occlusion and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2012-03-01

    Lymphatic thrombosis is a rare occurrence, and although its frequency is likely underestimated, its burden remains substantially lower than that of venous or arterial thrombosis. Current evidence suggests that despite measurable levels of fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and other coagulation factors in the lymph, fibrin generation is substantially inhibited under physiological conditions, essentially making the lymph a hypocoagulable biological fluid. Although factor VIIa-tissue factor-catalyzed activation of factor X is possible in the lymph, fibrin generation is largely counteracted by the unavailability of cell surface anionic phospholipids such as those physiologically present on blood platelets, combined with only low levels of coagulation factors, and the strong inhibitory activity of heparin, antithrombin, and tissue factor pathway inhibitor. Enhanced fibrinolytic activity further contributes to reduce the development and growth of lymph clots. Nevertheless, lymphatic thrombosis is occasionally detected, especially in the thoracic duct, axillary, or inguinal lymphatics. Pathogenetic mechanisms are supported by the release of thromboplastin substances from the injured lymphatic endothelium accompanied by chronic obstruction of lymph flow in the presence of a hypercoagulable milieu, thereby mirroring the Virchow triad that otherwise characterizes venous thrombosis. In theory, any source of lymphatic vessel occlusion, such as internal obliteration, external compression, or increased lymphatic pressure, might predispose to localized lymphatic thrombosis. The leading pathologies that can trigger thrombosis in the lymphatic vessels include cancer (due to external compression, neoplastic obliteration of the lymphatic lumen by metastatic cells, or lymphatic dysfunction after lymph node dissection), infections (especially lymphatic filariasis or sustained by Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Treponema pallidum, or Streptococcus pyogenes

  14. Comparative hemostatic protein alterations accompanying pregnancy and parturition.

    PubMed

    Gentry, P A; Liptrap, R M

    1988-06-01

    Pregnancy and parturition represent adaptive, physiological stress situations that elicit both blood coagulation protein changes and endocrine alterations. This paper briefly reviews the interrelationships of these responses by comparing the available data in several mammalian species including man, dog, cow, and pig. Hemostasis is an enzymatically controlled cascade process involving platelets and specific coagulation proteins that results in the formation of insoluble strands of fibrin. Although qualitatively similar in most mammals, quantitative differences exist in the circulating levels of individual coagulation proteins which may contribute towards the different rates of clot formation. In the late gestation stage of human pregnancy, significant increases are observed in the circulating biological activities of the coagulation factors VII, VIII:C, IX, and X. In the dog, the activities of factors VII and IX reach peak values in midpregnancy, while in the cow little or no changes are observed except for factor VII values which show a significant increase only around the time of parturition. These coagulation changes appear to be associated with fluctuations in circulating hormone values, particularly plasma estrogen. In human pregnancy, the circulating levels of fibrinogen, the precursor of fibrin, increase during the gestation period reaching maximum values during and immediately following parturition. In the dog and the cow two distinct increases in fibrinogen values are observed, the first in the midgestation period and the second in the immediate postparturition period. In the pig, fibrinogen values also rise significantly at parturition. Oral contraceptive studies in the human female have indicated that changes in circulating activities of coagulation proteins are hormonally influenced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3048617

  15. Association between Serum Vitamin D Level and Glycemic and Inflammatory Markers in Non-obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Zakerkish, Mehrnoosh; Karandish, Majid; Saki, Azadeh; Pooraziz, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) has been shown to correlate with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic and inflammatory markers in non-obese patients with T2DM. Methods: Eighty-four non-obese patients with T2DM were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary information was obtained from all the participants. The serum concentrations of glucose, HbA1C, insulin, 25(OH)D, and inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. A homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also evaluated. Results: The mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D was 11.01±5.55 ng/mL. Severe deficiency, deficiency, and insufficiency of vitamin D were detected in 60.71%, 35.72%, and 3.57% of the participants, respectively. The results showed that those in the lowest group of serum 25(OH)D had significantly higher TNF-α than did those in the highest group (P=0.026). Although the association between serum 25(OH)D and fasting blood sugar and TNF-α was statistically significant (P=0.049 and P=0.044, respectively), the other glycemic markers and hs-CRP did not have any significant relationships with 25(OH)D. Conclusion: According to the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the diabetic patients and the inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D and fasting blood sugar and TNF-α in this study, vitamin D status may be a determining factor of systemic inflammation in patients with T2DM. Further studies with larger sample sizes are suggested in this regard. PMID:27582585

  16. Hemostatic status in liver transplantation: association between preoperative procoagulants/anticoagulants and postoperative hemorrhaging/thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Nakazawa, Akiko; Nishioka, Yujiro; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-02-01

    The delicate rebalanced hemostatic status of liver transplant recipients may lead to both hemorrhagic and thrombotic tendencies in this population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between pretransplant procoagulants/anticoagulants and posttransplant bleeding and thrombosis among living donor liver transplant recipients. The study subjects were 403 consecutive recipients with chronic liver disease. Perioperative variables, including preoperative values for procoagulants and anticoagulants, were assessed to determine their association with posttransplant hemorrhaging and thrombosis. There were 35 hemorrhagic complications (9%) and 21 thrombotic complications (5%). In logistic regression analyses, a higher Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (P = 0.01) and a lower fibrinogen value (P < 0.001) were independently associated with hemorrhaging, whereas only a lower protein C value (P < 0.001) was independently associated with thrombosis. In a receiver operating characteristic analysis, a low preoperative protein C value (with the most accurate cutoff value being 25%) was a reliable predictor of thrombotic complications after liver transplantation (area under the curve = 0.921, P < 0.001, sensitivity = 0.9, specificity = 0.8). In conclusion, the decreases in both procoagulants and anticoagulants in liver transplant recipients may additively result in a delicate hemostatic balance and predispose patients to both hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications. A lower preoperative protein C value (<25%) was demonstrated to be a significant and reliable predictor of postoperative thrombotic complications in liver transplant recipients. PMID:25370801

  17. Development and assessment of kerateine nanoparticles for use as a hemostatic agent.

    PubMed

    Luo, Tiantian; Hao, Shilei; Chen, Xiaoliang; Wang, Ju; Yang, Qian; Wang, Yazhou; Weng, Yulan; Wei, Huimin; Zhou, Jin; Wang, Bochu

    2016-06-01

    Uncontrolled bleeding frequently occurs in some emergencies which can result in severe injury and even death. Keratin hydrogel has been found that it had good ahemostatic efficacy in the previous studies. However, an ideal hemostatic agent should not require mixing or preparation in advance, and hydrogel is not easy to store and carry. In the present study, the kerateine was firstly extracted from human hair, and then was prepared nanoparticles by a modified emulsion diffusion method. The synthesized nanoparticles showed spherical morphology with an average diameter of approximately 200 nm. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated that the chemical structure of kerateine did not change but the crystal form may be transformed in the nanoparticles. In addition, kerateine nanoparticles displayed a faster clotting time in vitro study than the kerateine extracts. Furthermore, kerateine nanoparticles significantly reduced the blood loss and coagulation time in the liver puncture and tail amputation in rat models. Our results indicated that kerateine nanoparticles could quickly form a high viscosity gel onto the wound and accelerate the blood coagulation based on their high specific surface area. Therefore, kerateine nanoparticles have great potential for hemostatic application. PMID:27040229

  18. Effect of Aspirin Supplementation on Hemostatic Responses in Firefighters Aged 40 to 60 Years.

    PubMed

    Smith, Denise L; Horn, Gavin P; Woods, Jeffrey; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-07-15

    Sudden cardiovascular events account for approximately 45% to 50% of all duty-related deaths among firefighters and a disproportionate number of these fatalities occur after strenuous fire suppression activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute and chronic aspirin supplementation on hemostatic function before and after live firefighting activities in older firefighters. A double-blind, crossover design included 4 treatments: a 2-week aspirin/placebo treatment ("chronic") and a single prefirefighting aspirin/placebo treatment ("acute"). Hemostatic function was assessed in 24 male firefighters (mean age = 48.2 ± 5.9 years) immediately before and after 18 minutes of live-fire firefighting activity. An acute bout of firefighting activity significantly decreased platelet aggregation time and decreased activated partial thromboplastin time. Compared with placebo, acute aspirin supplementation resulted in a significant increase in epinephrine closure time, which was further augmented by chronic supplementation. Aspirin supplementation had no effect on coagulatory or fibrinolytic factors. Our findings suggest that an acute bout of firefighting leads to increased coagulatory potential in older firefighters. In conclusion, aspirin supplementation had an antiplatelet effect that decreased platelet aggregability at rest and after an acute bout of firefighting compared with placebo. PMID:27241836

  19. Hierarchical organization in the hemostatic response and its relationship to the platelet-signaling network.

    PubMed

    Stalker, Timothy J; Traxler, Elizabeth A; Wu, Jie; Wannemacher, Kenneth M; Cermignano, Samantha L; Voronov, Roman; Diamond, Scott L; Brass, Lawrence F

    2013-03-01

    Achieving hemostasis following vascular injury requires the rapid accumulation of platelets and fibrin. Here we used a combination of confocal intravital imaging, genetically engineered mice, and antiplatelet agents to determine how variations in the extent of platelet activation following vascular injury arise from the integration of different elements of the platelet-signaling network. Two forms of penetrating injury were used to evoke the hemostatic response. Both produced a hierarchically organized structure in which a core of fully activated platelets was overlaid with an unstable shell of less-activated platelets. This structure emerged as hemostasis was achieved and persisted for at least 60 minutes following injury, its organization at least partly reflecting agonist concentration gradients. Thrombin activity and fibrin formation were found primarily in the innermost core. As proposed previously, greater packing density in the core facilitated contact-dependent signaling and limited entry of plasma-borne molecules visualized with fluorophores coupled to dextran and albumin. Blocking contact-dependent signaling or inhibiting thrombin reduced the size of the core, while the shell was heavily influenced by adenosine 5'-diphosphate and regulators of Gi2-mediated signaling. Thus, the hemostatic response is shown to produce a hierarchical structure arising, in part, from distinct elements of the platelet-signaling network. PMID:23303817

  20. Adsorption of tranexamic acid on hydroxyapatite: Toward the development of biomaterials with local hemostatic activity.

    PubMed

    Sarda, Stéphanie; Errassifi, Farid; Marsan, Olivier; Geffre, Anne; Trumel, Catherine; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    This work proposes to combine tranexamic acid (TAX), a clinically used antifibrinolytic agent, and hydroxyapatite (HA), widely used in bone replacement, to produce a novel bioactive apatitic biomaterial with intrinsic hemostatic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorptive behavior of the TAX molecule onto HA and to point out its release in near physiological conditions. No other phase was observed by X-ray diffraction or transmission electron microscopy, and no apparent change in crystal size was detected. The presence of TAX on the powders was lightly detected on Raman spectra after adsorption. The adsorption data could be fitted with a Langmuir-Freundlich equation, suggesting a strong interaction between adsorbed molecules and the formation of multilayers. The concentration of calcium and phosphate ions in solution remained low and stable during the adsorption process, thus ion exchange during the adsorption process could be ruled out. The release of TAX was fast during the first hours and was governed by a complex process that likely involved both diffusion and dissolution of HA. Preliminary aPTT (activated partial thromboplastin time) hemostasis tests offered promising results for the development of osteoconductive apatitic biomaterials with intrinsic hemostatic properties, whether for dental or orthopedic applications. PMID:27207032

  1. Enhancement of Experimental Anaerobic Infections by Blood, Hemoglobin, and Hemostatic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Gale B.

    1978-01-01

    Certain foreign materials have been demonstrated to enhance the infectivity of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Whole blood and other protein compounds encountered in surgical settings or trauma were tested for their effect on infectivity of nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria. Infectious synergistic mixtures of Bacteroides fragilis plus Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Bacteroides melaninogenicus plus Fusobacterium necrophorum were each diluted to a barely noninfectious or minimally infectious concentration (subinfective inoculum) that was injected intraperitoneally into mice alone and in combination with test proteins. Infectivity was measured by deaths from sepsis or abscess(es) within the abdominal cavity at autopsy at 1 week. Two hemostatic agents, Gelfoam powder and Avitene (final concentrations, 10 mg/ml), and crystalline hemoglobin (4 g/100 ml) each produced a marked increase (P < 0.001) in the rate of infection when mixed with a normally subinfective inoculum of either bacterial mixture. Fresh homologous mouse blood (0.25 ml) injected intraperitoneally without anticoagulant also significantly enhanced infectivity (P < 0.01) of a subinfective inoculum of B. fragilis plus P. anaerobius. These studies demonstrated the capacity of whole blood, hemoglobin, and hemostatic agents to enhance the infectivity of certain nonsporeforming anaerobic bacteria. The high concentrations of anaerobic bacteria in the gastrointestinal, female genital, and respiratory tracts produce an increased risk of human infection after surgery or trauma in these sites; the protein agents studied here may further enhance infection. PMID:631883

  2. Levels of certain tumor markers as differential factors between bilharzial and non-biharzial bladder cancer among Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective Bladder cancer is the commonest type of malignant tumors as a result of schistosomaisis which is a major healthy problem in many subtropical developing countries. The aim of this study is to comparatively elucidate the underlying biochemical tumor markers in schistosomal bladder cancer versus non-schistosomal bladder cancer when compared to normal healthy ones. Methods This work was performed on tissue specimens from total 25 patients and serum samples from total 30 patients versus ten healthy individuals served as control. The investigated parameters in serum are: xanthine oxidase (XO), fructosamine, lactate dehydrogense (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total proteins, essential and non- essential amino acids profile, hydroxyproline, total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, the current investigation also extended to study some markers in tumor bladder tissues including, pyruvate kinase enzyme (PK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results Results showed that biharzial bladder cancer patients recored more significant elevation in serum XO, fructosamine, LDH, AST, ALT, hydroxyproline, IgE and TNF-α than in bladder cancer patients when compared to control ones. While, in tissues there were significant increase in PK, LDH, AST & ALT activities of schistosomal bladder cancer than in bladder cancer as compared to control healthy patients. Conclusions It could be concluded that, bilharzial and non-bilharzial bladder cancer showed distinct biochemical profile of tumor development and progression which can be taken into consideration in diagnosis of bladder cancer. PMID:21473769

  3. Exercise restores decreased physical activity levels and increases markers of autophagy and oxidative capacity in myostatin/activin-blocked mdx mice.

    PubMed

    Hulmi, Juha J; Oliveira, Bernardo M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Hoogaars, Willem M H; Pasternack, Arja; Kainulainen, Heikki; Ritvos, Olli

    2013-07-15

    The importance of adequate levels of muscle size and function and physical activity is widely recognized. Myostatin/activin blocking increases skeletal muscle mass but may decrease muscle oxidative capacity and can thus be hypothesized to affect voluntary physical activity. Soluble activin receptor IIB (sActRIIB-Fc) was produced to block myostatin/activins. Modestly dystrophic mdx mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS with or without voluntary wheel running exercise for 7 wk. Healthy mice served as controls. Running for 7 wk attenuated the sActRIIB-Fc-induced increase in body mass by decreasing fat mass. Running also enhanced/restored the markers of muscle oxidative capacity and autophagy in mdx mice to or above the levels of healthy mice. Voluntary running activity was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc during the first 3-4 wk correlating with increased body mass. Home cage physical activity of mice, quantified from the force plate signal, was decreased by sActRIIB-Fc the whole 7-wk treatment in sedentary mice. To understand what happens during the first weeks after sActRIIB-Fc administration, when mice are less active, healthy mice were injected with sActRIIB-Fc or PBS for 2 wk. During the sActRIIB-Fc-induced rapid 2-wk muscle growth period, oxidative capacity and autophagy were reduced, which may possibly explain the decreased running activity. These results show that increased muscle size and decreased markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy during the first weeks of myostatin/activin blocking are associated with decreased voluntary activity levels. Voluntary exercise in dystrophic mice enhances the markers of oxidative capacity and autophagy to or above the levels of healthy mice. PMID:23695214

  4. May serum levels of advanced oxidized protein products serve as a prognostic marker of disease duration in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; García-Sánchez, María-Isabel; Méndez-Lucena, Carolina; Damas-Hermoso, Fátima; Rus, Macarena; Chacón, José; Fernández, Emilio

    2013-04-10

    Protein and amine halogenation is a type of oxidative stress induced by phagocytic overstimulation, and its role in Parkinson's disease (PD) has not been discerned. We have detected that advanced oxidized protein products, markers of protein halogenation, are reliably enhanced in serum of patients with PD (n=60) relative to control subjects (n=45, p<0.012), and to a lesser extent in the cerebrospinal fluid. Amine halogenation, as evaluated through 3-chlorotyrosine, is not affected. Mieloperoxidase and hydrogen peroxide levels, halogenative factors of phagocytes, are devoid of changes. Levels of advanced oxidized protein products are progressively reduced over time, and the duration of PD is larger in the Hoehn-Yahr-stage-2/3 patients (n=34) with low serum levels (R(2)=0.0145, p<0.003). Levodopa treatment contributes to this reduction (R(2)=0.259, p<0.001). These protein products are not cytotoxic, unlike 3-chlorotyrosine, but they are known to form inflammatory mediators after conjugation with serum albumin. Our observations lead to the hypothesis that the serum level of advanced oxidized protein products is a prognostic marker of PD duration, and these oxidized proteins could participate in the development of parkinsonian neurodegeneration. PMID:23121480

  5. Bone Markers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alkaline Phosphatase; Osteocalcin; P1NP; Procollagen Type 1 N-Terminal Propeptide Formal name: Biochemical Markers of Bone Remodeling ... tests for evaluating bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker ...

  6. Inflammatory/Hemostatic Biomarkers and Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in Women at Midlife (from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Wang, Norman C; Matthews, Karen A; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma J M; Chang, Chung-Chou H; El Khoudary, Samar R

    2016-08-01

    It is unknown whether inflammatory/hemostatic biomarkers are associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) progression. Our purpose was to evaluate the associations of baseline levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator antigen, and circulating factor VII with CAC progression in healthy midlife women. Inflammatory/hemostatic biomarkers were measured at baseline. CAC was quantified by computed tomography scans at baseline and after 2.3 ± 0.5 years of follow-up. Significant CAC progression was defined as present if (1) follow-up CAC Agatston score was >0 if baseline CAC score = 0; (2) annualized change in CAC score was ≥10 if baseline CAC score >0 to <100; and (3) annualized percent change in CAC score was ≥10% if baseline CAC score ≥100. Extent of CAC progression was defined as [log(CAC(follow-up)+25) - log(CAC(baseline)+25)]/year. Logistic and linear regression models were used as appropriate, and the final models were adjusted for baseline CAC score, age, study site, race/ethnicity, menopausal status, sociodemographics, traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, family history of CVD, and CVD medication use. The study included 252 women (baseline age 51.2 ± 2.6 years; 67.5% white; 56.4% premenopausal or early perimenopausal). In final models, only log(PAI-1) was associated with presence of CAC progression (odds ratio 1.91, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.93; per 1 log unit increase in PAI-1; p = 0.003). In addition, higher log(PAI-1) was marginally associated with greater extent of CAC progression (p = 0.06). In conclusion, PAI-1 is associated with the presence of CAC progression in middle-aged women. Targeting PAI-1 may decrease atherogenesis beyond conventional CVD risk factors. PMID:27289291

  7. Tracing novel hemostatic compounds from heating products of total flavonoids in Flos Sophorae by spectrum-effect relationships and column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yeqing; Yu, Hongli; Wu, Hao; Pan, Yaozong; Wang, Kuilong; Liu, Liping; Jin, Yangping; Zhang, Chenchao

    2015-05-01

    Flos Sophorae and its processed product have been clinically used to treat hemorrhage. In this study, the total ion chromatographic fingerprints of the heating products of total flavonoids in Flos Sophorae were established by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and the hemostatic activities were studied by hemostatic screening tests in vivo. The spectrum-effect relationships between fingerprints and hemostatic activities were investigated using canonical correlation analysis to trace the peaks responsible for the hemostatic effects. The predicted active peaks in fingerprints were isolated by column chromatography and their structures were identified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The hemostatic activities of them were verified by platelet aggregation and procoagulation assays in vitro. Canonical correlation analysis results showed that peak 8 and peak 11 were correlated most closely, thus probably being the main hemostatic compounds. Through column chromatography separation, peak 8 (compound I) and peak 11 (compound II) were obtained with purities of 95.61 and 93.38%, respectively, and were discovered new hemostatic compounds named as huaicarbon A (I) and huaicarbon B (II), respectively. This study provides a universal model to trace the active compounds of other herbs which have bioactivity enhancement after processing by spectrum-effect relationships and column chromatography. PMID:25764522

  8. Are elevated levels of soluble ICAM-1 a marker of chronic graft disease in heart transplant recipients?

    PubMed

    Campana, E; Parlapiano, C; Borgia, M C; Papalia, U; Laurenti, A; Pantone, P; Giovanniello, T; Marangi, M; Sanguigni, S

    2000-02-01

    Positivity for circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in heart transplant recipients has been claimed to predict the development of coronary artery disease and risk of graft failure. Soluble ICAM-1 were evaluated in 32 heart transplant recipients. Five of these patients, who had undergone transplantation several years before, were positive for soluble ICAM-1 but did not present any clinical sign of graft rejection. Furthermore, although heart graft coronary disease was diagnosed in 15 of the 32 patients, they did not show significantly higher titres of soluble ICAM-1 compared to the remaining patients. These findings suggest that major caution is necessary when considering ICAM-1 positivity as a marker of graft disease. PMID:10657564

  9. Individual differences in the motivation to communicate relate to levels of midbrain and striatal catecholamine markers in male European starlings

    PubMed Central

    Heimovics, Sarah A; Salvante, Katrina G; Sockman, Keith W; Riters, Lauren V

    2013-01-01

    Individuals display dramatic differences in social communication even within similar social contexts. Across vertebrates dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and midbrain central gray (GCt) strongly influence motivated, reward-directed behaviors. Norepinephrine is also rich in these areas and may alter dopamine neuronal activity. The present study was designed to provide insight into the roles of dopamine and norepinephrine in VTA and GCt and their efferent striatal target, song control region area X, in the regulation of individual differences in the motivation to sing. We used high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to measure dopamine, norepinephrine and their metabolites in micropunched samples from VTA, GCt, and area X in male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). We categorized males as sexually motivated or non-sexually motivated based on individual differences in song produced in response to a female. Dopamine markers and norepinephrine in VTA and dopamine in area X correlated positively with sexually-motivated song. Norepinephrine in area X correlated negatively with non-sexually-motivated song. Dopamine in GCt correlated negatively with sexually-motivated song, and the metabolite DOPAC correlated positively with non-sexually-motivated song. Results highlight a role for evolutionarily conserved dopaminergic projections from VTA to striatum in the motivation to communicate and highlight novel patterns of catecholamine activity in area X, VTA, and GCt associated with individual differences in sexually-motivated and non-sexually-motivated communication. Correlations between dopamine and norepinephrine markers also suggest that norepinephrine may contribute to individual differences in communication by modifying dopamine neuronal activity in VTA and GCt. PMID:21907203

  10. Field level evaluation of rice introgression lines for heat tolerance and validation of markers linked to spikelet fertility.

    PubMed

    Prasanth, V Vishnu; Basava, Kumari Ramana; Babu, M Suchandranath; V G N, Venkata Tripura; Devi, S J S Rama; Mangrauthia, S K; Voleti, S R; Sarla, N

    2016-04-01

    Rice lines derived from wild species and mutants can serve as a good resource for favorable alleles for heat tolerance. In all, 48 stable lines including 17 KMR3/O. rufipogon introgression lines (KMR3 ILs), 15 Swarna/O. nivara ILs (Swarna ILs) along with their parents, Nagina 22 (N22) and its 4 EMS induced mutants and 7 varieties were evaluated for heat tolerance under irrigated conditions under field in two seasons, wet season 2012 using poly cover house method and dry season 2013 using late sown method. Spikelet fertility (SF), yield per plant (YP) and heat susceptibility index (HSI) for these two traits were considered as criteria to assess heat tolerance compared to control. Four KMR3 ILs and eight Swarna ILs were identified as heat tolerant based on SF and YP and their HSIs in both wet and dry seasons. S-65 and S-70 showed low SF and high YP consistently in response to heat in both seasons. We provide evidence that SF alone may not be the best criterion to assess heat tolerance and including YP is important as lines with low SF but high YP and vice versa were identified under heat stress. Out of 49 SSR markers linked to spikelet fertility, 18 were validated for five traits. RM229 in wet season and RM430 and RM210 in dry season were significantly associated with both SF and its HSI under heat stress. RM430 was also significantly associated with both YP and its HSI in dry season. Thirty two candidate genes were identified close to nine markers associated with traits under heat stress. PMID:27436910

  11. Do glycemic marker levels vary by race? Differing results from a cross-sectional analysis of individuals with and without diagnosed diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P; Muntner, Paul; Selvin, Elizabeth; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Li, Xuelin; Gross, Myron D; Garvey, W Timothy; Lewis, Cora E

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is well known that A1c varies by race. However, racial differences in other biomarkers of hyperglycemia are less well characterized. The objective of this study was to determine whether average levels of glycemic markers differ by race in adults with and without diagnosed diabetes, before and after accounting for postchallenge glucose. Research design and methods This cross-sectional study included 2692 middle-aged men and women (5.5% with diagnosed diabetes; 44% African-American; and 56% white) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study (2005–2006) who had fasting glucose, 2-hour postchallenge glucose, A1c, glycated albumin, fructosamine, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) measured. Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate racial differences in mean levels of each glycemic marker stratified by the diabetes status and adjusted for sociodemographics, cardiovascular factors, and postchallenge glucose. Results Among those with diagnosed diabetes, racial differences were not observed for any of the glycemic markers. In contrast, among those without diagnosed diabetes, African-Americans had higher mean levels than whites of A1c (β=0.19% points; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.24), glycated albumin (β=0.82% points; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.97), fructosamine (β=8.68 μmol/L; 95% CI 6.68 to 10.68), and 2-hour glucose (β=3.50 mg/dL; 95% CI 0.10 to 6.90) after multivariable adjustment, whereas there were no statistically significant racial difference in 1,5-AG. The racial differences observed for A1c, glycated albumin, and fructosamine persisted after further adjustment for fasting and 2-hour glucose and were of similar magnitude (SD units). Conclusions Racial differences in glycemic marker levels were evident among middle-aged adults without diagnosed diabetes even after adjustment for postchallenge glucose. Whether these racial differences in biomarkers of hyperglycemia affect the risk of complications warrants additional study. PMID:27335652

  12. Intraocular levels of interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-10 as respective determinant markers of toxoplasmosis and viral uveitis.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Arnaud; Villard, Odile; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Chiquet, Christophe; Berrod, Jean-Paul; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Bourcier, Tristan; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is a potentially blinding inflammatory disease. Thirty to 50% of uveitis cases are considered idiopathic. The present study sought to determine the intraocular cytokine patterns in the different etiological types of uveitis in order to better understand their immunological regulation and to determine whether the cytokine pattern may be a useful diagnostic tool. From a multicenter institutional prospective study, the clinical and biological data from patients with uveitis of various etiologies, determined after a complete workup, were compared with those from a control group of cataract patients. A multiplex assay was used to assess the profiles of 27 cytokines and chemokines in aqueous humor samples from these patients. In total, 62 patients with infectious or noninfectious uveitis and 88 controls were included. After a complete workup, the cause of uveitis remained unknown in 25 patients (40% idiopathic uveitis). Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) levels were markedly increased in viral uveitis, as were IL-10 levels, whereas IL-17A levels were augmented in toxoplasmic uveitis. Based on the cytokine pattern, the patients were reassigned to specific groups. At the end of the study, the diagnosis of idiopathic uveitis was still valid in only 11 patients (18%). The observation that some markers are specific to certain diseases enables a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis and paves the way for new diagnostic methods aimed to identify inflammatory markers, which may perhaps be targeted by therapy. PMID:25378353

  13. Intraocular Levels of Interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and IL-10 as Respective Determinant Markers of Toxoplasmosis and Viral Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Villard, Odile; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Chiquet, Christophe; Berrod, Jean-Paul; Speeg-Schatz, Claude; Bourcier, Tristan; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Uveitis is a potentially blinding inflammatory disease. Thirty to 50% of uveitis cases are considered idiopathic. The present study sought to determine the intraocular cytokine patterns in the different etiological types of uveitis in order to better understand their immunological regulation and to determine whether the cytokine pattern may be a useful diagnostic tool. From a multicenter institutional prospective study, the clinical and biological data from patients with uveitis of various etiologies, determined after a complete workup, were compared with those from a control group of cataract patients. A multiplex assay was used to assess the profiles of 27 cytokines and chemokines in aqueous humor samples from these patients. In total, 62 patients with infectious or noninfectious uveitis and 88 controls were included. After a complete workup, the cause of uveitis remained unknown in 25 patients (40% idiopathic uveitis). Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) levels were markedly increased in viral uveitis, as were IL-10 levels, whereas IL-17A levels were augmented in toxoplasmic uveitis. Based on the cytokine pattern, the patients were reassigned to specific groups. At the end of the study, the diagnosis of idiopathic uveitis was still valid in only 11 patients (18%). The observation that some markers are specific to certain diseases enables a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis and paves the way for new diagnostic methods aimed to identify inflammatory markers, which may perhaps be targeted by therapy. PMID:25378353

  14. Hemostatic Function, Survival, and Membrane Glycoprotein Changes in Young versus Old Rabbit Platelets

    PubMed Central

    Blajchman, Morris A.; Senyi, Andrew F.; Hirsh, Jack; Genton, Edward; George, James N.

    1981-01-01

    Although in vitro studies have demonstrated functional differences between young and old platelets, in vivo differences have not been precisely established. Therefore the in vivo hemostatic function of young and old platelets and the survival time have been examined in rabbits. The hemostatic function was measured by performing serial ear bleeding times in irradiation-induced thrombocytopenic rabbits. After irradiation with 930 rad the platelet count gradually diminished reaching a nadir (∼20 × 103/μl) at 10 d. The platelets present in the circulation, 7-10 d after irradiation, were considered old platelets, and the platelets present after recovery, 11-14 d postirradiation, young platelets. The measurement of platelet size was consistent with the hypothesis that platelets become smaller with age: the mean size was 3.84 μm3 for old platelets and 5.86 μm3 for young platelets. Regression analysis of the relationship between the bleeding time and the platelet count in 18 rabbits showed a significantly different slope for rabbits with predominantly old platelets compared with rabbits with predominantly young platelets (P < 0.001). Young platelets were more effective giving much shorter bleeding times than old platelets at comparable platelet counts. Survival times of young and old platelets were measured using platelets harvested on day 8 postirradiation (old platelets) and day 12 postirradiation (young platelets) that were labeled and then reinjected into normal recipient animals. The mean platelet survival time, calculated by gamma function, of old platelets was 28.8 h; of young platelets, 87.4 h; and of normally circulating heterogeneous platelets, (normal platelets) 53.0 h. Notably, the survival of old platelets was found to be exponential, and of young platelets, linear. Analysis of the membrane glycoproteins in young, old and normal platelets indicated that there was no qualitative difference amongst the young, normal, and old platelets. The relative

  15. Lenalidomide treatment induced the normalization of marker protein levels in blood plasma of patients with 5q-myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Messingerová, Lucia; Jonášová, Anna; Barančik, Miroslav; Poleková, Lenka; Šereš, Mário; Gibalová, Lenka; Breier, Albert; Sulová, Zdena

    2015-10-01

    A specific type of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is associated with isolated deletion on the long arm of chromosome 5, i.e., 5q-syndrome (del(5q)). The treatment approaches for MDS del(5q) include the immunomodulating drug lenalidomide (LEN). Thirteen MDS del(5q) patients were included in this study. We found elevated activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in the blood plasma of MDS del(5q) patients as compared with healthy controls. This was stabilized to control values after LEN treatment. Similar behavior we registered also for the thioredoxin and calnexin contents in BP. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with MDS del(5q) prior to and after treatment with LEN did not exhibit any detectable amount of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) gene transcript. However, we detected a measurable amount of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1) mRNA in PBMCs from three patients prior to LEN treatment and in one patient during LEN treatment but it was not present prior to treatment. These data indicated on usefulness of applied protein markers estimation for monitoring of MDS del(5q) patient treatment effectiveness by LEN. Expression of MRP1 seems to be independent on LEN treatment and reflects probably the molecular variability in the ethiopathogenesis of MDS del(5q). PMID:26001289

  16. Application of NIR fluorescent markers to quantify expression level of HER2 receptors in carcinomas in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernomordik, Victor; Hassan, Moinuddin; Lee, Sang Bong; Zielinski, Rafal; Capala, Jacek; Gandjbakhche, Amir

    2010-02-01

    HER2 overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis and resistance to therapy in breast cancer patients. However, quantitative estimates of this important characteristic have been limited to ex vivo ELISA essays of tissue biopsies and/or PET. We develop a novel approach in optical imaging, involving specific probes, not interfering with the binding of the therapeutic agents, thus, excluding competition between therapy and imaging. Affibody-based molecular probes seem to be ideal for in vivo analysis of HER2 receptors using near-infrared optical imaging. Fluorescence intensity distributions, originating from specific markers in the tumor area, can reveal the corresponding fluorophore concentration. We use temporal changes of the signal from a contrast agent, conjugated with HER2-specific Affibody as a signature to monitor in vivo the receptors status in mice with different HER2 over-expressed tumor models. Kinetic model, incorporating saturation of the bound ligands in the tumor area due to HER2 receptor concentration, is suggested to analyze relationship between tumor cell characteristics, i.e., HER2 overexpression, obtained by traditional ("golden standard") ex vivo methods (ELISA), and parameters, estimated from the series of images in vivo. Observed correlation between these parameters and HER2 overexpression substantiates application of our approach to quantify HER2 concentration in vivo.

  17. Low Levels of Microbial Translocation Marker LBP Are Associated with Sustained Viral Response after Anti-HCV Treatment in HIV-1/HCV Co-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nyström, Jessica; Stenkvist, Jenny; Häggblom, Amanda; Weiland, Ola; Nowak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbial translocation (MT) contributes to immune activation during HIV and HCV infections. We investigated the kinetics of MT markers during anti-HCV and anti-HIV treatments, and if baseline plasma levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) could predict anti-HCV treatment outcome. Methods Plasma from 78 HIV-infected patients was evaluated for LPS, LBP and sCD14. The patients starting anti-HCV treatment (with ongoing antiretroviral (ART) treatment) were categorized into sustained viral responders (SVR; n = 21) or non-responders (NR; n = 15) based on treatment outcome. ART starting subjects—were categorized into chronically HCV-infected (CH; n = 24) and mono-infected (HIV; n = 18), based on the HCV infection status. Samples were collected before start (at baseline) of pegylated-interferon-alpha/ribavirin (peg-IFN/RBV) or antiretroviral-therapy and two years after treatment start (at follow up). χ2–test, non-parametric statistics and logistic regression were applied to determine the associations with treatment response and changes of the soluble markers. Results Plasma levels of LPS and sCD14 were elevated in all subjects before antiviral-treatment but remained unchanged at follow-up. Elevated levels of LBP were present in patients with HIV and HIV/HCV co-infection and were reduced by ART. Additionally, higher levels of LBP were present at baseline in NR vs. SVR. Higher levels of LBP at baseline were associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV treatment in both bivariate (OR: 0.19 95% CI: 0.06–0.31, p = 0.004) and multivariate analysis (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.1–1.86, p = 0.07). Conclusion In HIV/HCV co-infected patients high baseline LBP levels are associated with non-response to peg-IFN/RBV therapy. Plasma LBP (decreased by ART) may be a more relevant MT marker than LPS and sCD14. PMID:25785448

  18. Gallium nitrate induces fibrinogen flocculation: an explanation for its hemostatic effect?

    PubMed

    Bauters, A; Holt, D J; Zerbib, P; Rogosnitzky, M

    2013-12-01

    A novel hemostatic effect of gallium nitrate has recently been discovered. Our aim was to perform a preliminary investigation into its mode of action. Thromboelastography® showed no effect on coagulation but pointed instead to changes in fibrinogen concentration. We measured functional fibrinogen in whole blood after addition of gallium nitrate and nitric acid. We found that gallium nitrate induces fibrinogen precipitation in whole blood to a significantly higher degree than solutions of nitric acid alone. This precipitate is not primarily pH driven, and appears to occur via flocculation. This behavior is in line with the generally observed ability of metals to induce fibrinogen precipitation. Further investigation is required into this novel phenomenon. PMID:23959335

  19. Metastasis: Recent Discoveries and Novel Perioperative Treatment Strategies with Particular Interest in the Hemostatic Compound Desmopressin

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, D.F; Ripoll, G.V; Garona, J; Iannucci, N.B; Gomez, D.E

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic disease is responsible for most of cancer lethality. A main obstacle for therapy of advanced cancers is that the outcome of metastasis depends on a complex interplay between malignant and host cells. The perioperative period represents an underutilized window of opportunity for cancer treatment where tumor-host interactions can be modulated, reducing the risk of local recurrences and distant metastases. Blood-saving agents are attractive compounds to be administered during tumor surgery. Desmopressin (DDAVP) is a safe and convenient hemostatic peptide with proved antimetastastic properties in experimental models and veterinary clinical trials. The compound seems to induce a dual angiostatic and antimetastatic effect, breaking the cooperative function of cancer cells and endothelial cells during residual tumor progression. DDAVP is therefore an interesting lead compound to develop novel synthetic peptide analogs with enhanced antitumor properties. PMID:21470136

  20. [Hemostatic disorders in patients with pancreonecrosis at the stage of purulent complications].

    PubMed

    Molchanova, L V; Chernysheva, G G; Gridchik, I E

    2004-01-01

    The responses of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis show a clear phase course in patients with pancreonecrosis in the dynamics of the postresuscitation period. There were different changes in the phasic pattern of hemostatic disorders in survivors as compared with a group of deceased patients. With a good outcome, there was a twofold reduction in the concentration of fibrinogen as compared with the normal values and an increase in whole blood fibrinolytic activity on days 21-23. The increased whole blood fibrinolytic activity in the group of survivors in the presence of invariably decreased Hageman-dependent plasma fibrinolytic activity in both groups of the patients suggests that formed blood cells contributes to the process of recovery. PMID:15717512

  1. Up to date concepts about Von Willebrand disease and the diagnose of this hemostatic disorder

    PubMed Central

    Buga-Corbu, I; Arion, C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The authors review the current data in literature regarding the recent knowledge about hemostase, coagulation and clinical and laboratory diagnostic algorithms of hemostatic disorders. They also present the pathological classification of bleeding disorders - the basis to clinical approach of these diseases. Abbreviations: AD=autosomal dominant; Ag=antigen; DNA=deoxyribonucleic acid; ADAMTS13=serum metalloproteinase; AR=autosomal recessive; Arg=arginine; RNA=ribonucleic acid; VWD=von Willebrand disease; Cys=cysteine; C1—C9=factors of the seric complement; ELISA=enzyme linked immuno assay; FI---FXIII=plasmatic factors of coagulation; Glu=glutamines; Pg=platelet glycoprotein; HMW=high molecular weight; IL=interleukin; SLE=systemic lupus erythematosus; Met=methionine; PFA=automated study test of platelets aggregation; RCo=ristocetin cofactor; RI PA=ristocetin induced platelet aggregation; Tyr=tyrosine; VWF= von Willebrand factor PMID:25408749

  2. Value of the preoperative history as an indicator of hemostatic disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Borzotta, A P; Keeling, M M

    1984-01-01

    Eighty-three general surgical patients completed the standardized bleeding history questionnaire, and screening tests of platelet counts, prothrombin times, partial thromboplastin times, and Ivy bleeding times were done on these patients. Fifty-two per cent had undergone previous operation; 25% described symptoms of potential hemostatic disorders and seven per cent had positive family histories. Laboratory results indicated abnormalities in five patients (6%). The bleeding history is an important part of the preoperative evaluation of a patient, but it can have serious false-negative results. This history should guide the selection of laboratory tests. Such testing can yield an unexpectedly high rate of abnormalities. When identified, these abnormalities require further investigation. PMID:6486913

  3. Hemostatic potential of natural/synthetic polymer based hydrogels crosslinked by gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barba, Bin Jeremiah D.; Tranquilan-Aranilla, Charito; Abad, Lucille V.

    2016-01-01

    Various raw materials and hydrogels prepared from their combination were assessed for hemostatic capability using swine whole blood clotting analysis. Initial screening showed efficient coagulative properties from κ-carrageenan and its carboxymethylated form, and α-chitosan, even compared to commercial products like QuikClot Zeolite Powder. Blending natural and synthetic polymers formed into hydrogels using gamma radiation produced materials with improved properties. KC and CMKC hydrogels were found to have the lowest blood clotting index in granulated form and had the higher capacity for platelet adhesion in foamed form compared to GelFoam. Possible mechanisms involved in the evident thrombogenicity of the materials include adsorption of platelets and related proteins that aid in platelet activation (primary hemostasis), absorption of water to concentrate protein factors that control the coagulation cascade, contact activation by its negatively charged surface and the formation of gel-blood clots.

  4. Hemostatic assessment of dogs associated with hepatic parasite load of Leishmania infantum chagasi.

    PubMed

    Torres, Mariana de Medeiros; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Mendonça, Adriane Jorge; Nakazato, Luciano; Pescador, Caroline Argenta; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2016-06-14

    Leishmania infantum chagasi liver parasite load was compared to hemostatic abnormalities, as well as to clinical, laboratorial, and histopathological findings in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. The liver parasite load of 30 dogs L. infantum chagasi naturally-infected was evaluated by quantitative real- time PCR and the results were compared with serum biochemistry and primary and secondary hemostasis findings. Moreover, hepatic histological lesions were described in these dogs. Prolonged bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), were observed in the group with visceral leishmaniasis. Eleven dogs presented inflammatory liver lesions, with predominance of mild multifocal mononuclear periportal hepatitis. No association between the presence of parasites and abnormalities in screening tests was observed by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The clinical progression in leishmaniasis is associated with the occurrence of hemorrhagic diathesis, which depends not only on the presence of the parasite but also the inflammatory process, compromised immunological response, hepatic and renal failure in symptomatic dogs. PMID:27334828

  5. Hemostatic assessment of dogs associated with hepatic parasite load of Leishmania infantum chagasi.

    PubMed

    Torres, Mariana de Medeiros; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Mendonça, Adriane Jorge; Nakazato, Luciano; Pescador, Caroline Argenta; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2016-06-14

    Leishmania infantum chagasi liver parasite load was compared to hemostatic abnormalities, as well as to clinical, laboratorial, and histopathological findings in dogs with visceral leishmaniasis. The liver parasite load of 30 dogs L. infantum chagasi naturally-infected was evaluated by quantitative real- time PCR and the results were compared with serum biochemistry and primary and secondary hemostasis findings. Moreover, hepatic histological lesions were described in these dogs. Prolonged bleeding time, prothrombin time (PT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), were observed in the group with visceral leishmaniasis. Eleven dogs presented inflammatory liver lesions, with predominance of mild multifocal mononuclear periportal hepatitis. No association between the presence of parasites and abnormalities in screening tests was observed by Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The clinical progression in leishmaniasis is associated with the occurrence of hemorrhagic diathesis, which depends not only on the presence of the parasite but also the inflammatory process, compromised immunological response, hepatic and renal failure in symptomatic dogs. PMID:27304522

  6. Hemostatic efficacy of a traditional medicinal plant extract (Ankaferd Blood Stopper) in bleeding control.

    PubMed

    Sogut, Ozgur; Erdogan, Mehmet Ozgur; Kose, Rustu; Boleken, Mehmet Emin; Kaya, Halil; Gokdemir, Mehmet Tahir; Ozgonul, Abdullah; Iynen, Ismail; Albayrak, Levent; Dokuzoglu, Mehmet Akif

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the in vivo hemostatic effect of Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) on rats using a tail bleeding model. Wistar rats were randomized into 4 groups of 9 each: group 1, control, no pretreatment, irrigated with saline; group 2, no pretreatment, irrigated with ABS; group 3, control, heparin pretreatment, irrigated with saline; and group 4, heparin pretreatment, irrigated with ABS. To control bleeding, compressive dressings were placed after instilling 1 mL of either ABS or saline to the bleeding area. Without heparin pretreatment, ABS shortened hemostasis time by 1.57 minutes and reduced the amount of bleeding by 0.85 g. With heparin pretreatment, ABS shortened hemostasis time by 3.29 minutes and reduced the amount of bleeding by 1.32 g. The ABS was more effective than saline irrigation for treating tail tip bleeding in rats, with or without heparin pretreatment, while also using a compressive dressing. PMID:24057394

  7. Hemostatic hydrodissection of the neurovascular bundles during robotic assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: safety and efficacy trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekattil, Sijo J.; Dahm, Philipp; Vieweg, Johannes W.

    2009-02-01

    Preservation of continence and potency after Robotic Assisted Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy (RALP) are two key outcome measures that patients consider when comparing different treatment options for localized prostate cancer. Ensuring that positive surgical margins are as low as possible provides oncologic control. Various techniques to optimize these outcomes have been employed. This study presents the early outcomes for Hemostatic Hydrodissection of the Neurovascular Bundles during 86 consecutive RALPs. Positive margin rates were 12.5% overall (9% for pT2 and 28.6% for pT3); continence at 6 months was 100%, at 3 months 90% and at 1 month 66%. In patients with no preoperative erectile dysfunction (preoperative SHIM of 25), 79% had return of erections sufficient for intercourse by 6 months. 2 of these patients were able to have intercourse 2 weeks after surgery. These preliminary findings appear promising.

  8. The mRNA level of Charcot-Leyden crystal protein/galectin-10 is a marker for CRTH2 activation in human whole blood in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tai-An; Kourteva, Galina; Hilton, Holly; Li, Hongli; Tare, Nadine S; Carvajal, Valerie; Hang, Julie S; Wei, Xin; Renzetti, Louis M

    2010-11-01

    CRTH2 is one of the prostaglandin D₂ receptors and plays a proinflammatory role in allergic diseases. Gene expression markers in whole blood induced by CRTH2 activation have not previously been reported. Using microarray analyses of 54 675 genes, we revealed modest gene expression changes in human whole blood stimulated in vitro by a selective CRTH2 agonist, DK-PGD₂. Five genes were found to exhibit 1.5- to 2.6-fold changes in expression. The expression of Charcot-Leyden crystal protein/galectin-10 (CLC/Gal-10) in particular was consistently enhanced in human whole blood stimulated by DK-PGD₂, as confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. DK-PGD(2)-induced increases in blood CLC/Gal-10 mRNA levels were largely attenuated by the CRTH2 antagonist CAY10471.Thus, the DK-PGD₂-induced CLC/Gal-10 mRNA level can serve as a potential marker for monitoring pharmacodynamic effects of blood exposure to CRTH2 modulating agents. PMID:20858065

  9. Nucleoplasmic bridges and acrocentric chromosome associations as early markers of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation in occupationally exposed hospital workers.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Ionising radiation, with the contribution of telomere shortening, induces DNA double-strand breaks that result in chromosome end fusion, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and chromosome aberrations (ChAbs) as well as dicentric chromosomes. In order to investigate the chromosomal damage induced by occupational ionising radiation at low exposure levels, and to find early markers of health hazard, peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed hospital workers were cytogenetically analysed. Results showed a significant difference in the frequency of ChAbs in exposed subjects relative to controls. A significant number of NPBs between nuclei of binucleated cultured lymphocytes from exposed subjects were also observed, as well as a consistent amount of acrocentric chromosomes with associations of their short arms. Excluding confounding factors, the frequencies of all these three biological endpoints differed significantly in exposed subjects from those in controls. Because the absence of telomeres and/or their short length could be a common root for both the findings, we utilised fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique with telomeric repeat as probe to demonstrate that, in exposed subjects, chromatin of short arms of involved acrocentric chromosomes did not exhibit a telomeric shortening but appeared strongly decondensed. This finding suggests that NPBs and telomeric acrocentric association should be regarded as early markers of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation and their increase should be seen as an early warning for the health of the involved workers. PMID:25381312

  10. Technical note: The role of circulating low-density lipoprotein levels as a phenotypic marker for Holstein cholesterol deficiency in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Saleem, S; Heuer, C; Sun, C; Kendall, D; Moreno, J; Vishwanath, R

    2016-07-01

    With the recent discovery of a Holstein cholesterol deficiency (HCD) haplotype, the USDA has labeled many dairy animals as HCD carriers based on haplotype and pedigree analysis. We set out to investigate the effect of HCD status on various cholesterol transport molecules, namely low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides in both males and females. A genome-wide association study was also conducted to narrow down the genomic region correlated with varying LDL-C levels. In the study, 34 HCD carrier animals showed significantly lower cholesterol and LDL-C levels compared with their 34 closely related, non-HCD controls. The genome-wide association study based on 73 animals using 56,198 SNP markers revealed an association with chromosome 11 in the region of 66,218,925 to 66,946,746 bp. We also tested the effect of HCD status on sperm quality traits using fresh ejaculates and frozen-thawed semen samples, but did not find any discriminating effects. Our study has demonstrated the use of LDL-C as a key phenotypic marker for determining HCD status in dairy cattle and this is the first study that clearly shows a cause-effect relationship of the HCD haplotype on circulating LDL-C. PMID:27108167