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Sample records for hepatitis a

  1. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  2. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Español Hepatitis A Page Content On this page: What is ... Nutrition Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is hepatitis A? Hepatitis * A is a virus , or infection, ...

  3. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... suggest medicines to help relieve your symptoms. The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent HAV. Good hygiene can also ...

  4. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is found in ...

  5. Hepatitis A Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  6. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis A FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  7. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician ... Body Hepatitis means “inflammation of the liver.” This inflammation can be caused by a wide variety of toxins, drugs, and metabolic diseases, as well as infection. There ...

  8. Hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Low-grade fever Nausea and vomiting Pale or clay-colored stools Yellow skin (jaundice) ... The virus does not remain in the body after the infection is gone. Most people with hepatitis A recover within 3 months. Nearly all people get better within 6 months. There ...

  9. Preventing hepatitis A

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  10. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... have the virus and do not practice good hygiene. Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B ... where diapers are changed to ensure that proper hygiene is followed. If your child gets hepatitis A, ...

  11. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Kids > Hepatitis Print A A A ... an important digestive liquid called bile . What Is Hepatitis? Hepatitis is an inflammation (say: in-fluh-MAY- ...

  12. Hepatitis A - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... hepatitis A. Children can get hepatitis A at day care center from other children or from child care ... treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. If your child attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the ...

  13. Hepatic encephalopathy: a review.

    PubMed

    Lizardi-Cervera, Javier; Almeda, Paloma; Guevara, Luis; Uribe, Misael

    2003-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a complication that presents in as many as 28% of patients with cirrhosis, and reported up to ten years after the diagnosis of cirrhosis. Commonly, it is observed in patients with severe hepatic failure and is characterized by neuropsychiatric manifestations that can range in severity from a mild alteration in mental state to a coma; additionally, some neuromuscular symptoms can be observed. This complication of either acute or chronic hepatic disease is the result of a diminished hepatic reservoir and inability to detoxify some toxins that originate in the bowel. Today, the role of astrocytes, specifically the Alzheimer type II cells, is known to be very important in the pathogenesis of the hepatic encephalopathy, and will be reviewed later. In conclusion, the objectives of this review are: To understand the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, To recognize the precipitating factors, as well as preventive measures for the development of the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the new classification of hepatic encephalopathy and its clinical implications, To recognize the clinical manifestations and stages of the disease, To understand the main diagnostic tests used to detect the hepatic encephalopathy, To describe the main therapeutic treatments of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:15115963

  14. Hepatitis A FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... 185°F (85°C), kill the virus, although freezing temperatures do not. Symptoms Does Hepatitis A cause ... food, such as drinking beverages (with or without ice) of unknown purity, eating uncooked shellfish, and eating ...

  15. Hepatitis C virus. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, E.

    1991-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus has been shown to be responsible for most cases of posttransfusion hepatitis, as well as for sporadic non-A, non-B viral hepatitis. Hepatitis C virus has also been implicated in the development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma, autoimmune hepatitis, and fulminant viral hepatitis. Although the role of the parenteral transmission of hepatitis C virus is well established, its route of transmission in cases of sporadic infection remains unclear. Sexual transmission is suspected but not confirmed. Recent work regarding treatment has shown interferon alfa to be effective, but the discontinuation of therapy is associated with a 50% relapse rate. PMID:1656611

  16. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been associated with drinking contaminated water. Hepatitis Viruses Type Transmission Prognosis A Fecal-oral (stool to ... risk for severe disease. Others A variety of viruses can affect the liver Signs and Symptoms Hepatitis ...

  17. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of Contents For ... condition is called chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis A and E do not cause chronic hepatitis. Hepatitis viruses B, ...

  18. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    MedlinePlus

    Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is inflammation of the liver caused ...

  19. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... be serious. Some can lead to scarring, called cirrhosis, or to liver cancer. Sometimes hepatitis goes away by itself. If it does not, it can be treated with drugs. Sometimes hepatitis lasts a lifetime. Vaccines can help prevent some viral forms.

  20. Dengue causing fulminant hepatitis in a hepatitis B virus carrier.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, M P; Giri, S; Sharma, V; Roy, U; Gharsangi, K

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness resulting from infection by a flavivirus transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. It is characterized by bleeding manifestations and a plasma leak syndrome. Hepatic involvement in the form of elevation in transaminases is common. However, acute hepatic failure is uncommon. It is not known how the presence of an underlying chronic hepatitis or liver disease affects the likelihood of severity of hepatitis from dengue. The present report is of a 33-year-old man, a carrier of hepatitis B virus, who presented with fever, altered sensorium, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathy. He was diagnosed to have developed acute hepatic failure due to dengue. The patient improved with supportive measures. PMID:21422600

  1. [Hepatitis in dogs; a review].

    PubMed

    Rothuizen, J; van den Ingh, T S

    1998-04-15

    As with most liver diseases, the symptoms of hepatitis in dogs are nearly always aspecific: the dogs eat less, are apathetic, sometimes have polyuria/polydipsia, and sometimes have diarrhoea. Hepatoencephalopathy and ascites only occur with these symptoms in very advanced stages of chronic hepatitis. Only a part of the dogs have jaundice. Because of these aspecific symptoms, the diagnosis hepatitis is often not taken into consideration, even though the presence of a liver disease can be easily detected by measuring plasma concentrations of alkaline phosphatase and bile acids, one or both of which are elevated. The diagnosis is confirmed by histological examination of a liver biopsy sample. The most common forms of hepatitis are non-specific reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis. Non-specific reactive hepatitis is a reaction against endotoxin as a result of sepsis or an increased gastrointestinal absorption. Treatment is directed to the primary process. Leptospirosis also causes non-specific reactive hepatitis, but then renal insufficiency is the most prominent feature. The diagnosis is made not on the basis of a liver biopsy but on the basis of increased IgM titres against Leptospira. Immediate treatment with antibiotics and infusions at the first signs (jaundice and uraemia) can save the animal's life. Acute hepatitis can develop as a result of infection, toxins, or liver hypoxia. There is no specific treatment, but adequate recovery often occurs with supportive treatment. Corticosteroids are contraindicated. Chronic hepatitis, which can lead to cirrhosis, is the most common form of hepatitis. It is an autoimmune inflammatory reaction that is usually caused by a virus infection but sometimes by poisoning (intoxication). Long treatment with prednisolone or azathioprine is usually successful, but early recognition of the disease increases the likelihood of success. Nowadays, chronic hepatitis due to hepatic copper accumulation in Beddlington

  2. [Vaccination against hepatitis A].

    PubMed

    Balli, F; Di Biase, A R; Viola, L

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatitis A, a disease endemic in various countries, is in a state of continuous change. Adults are more exposed to infection and considering the frequent absence of immunity, in contrast to children in whom the disease is almost always asymptomatic, the disease is often serious and prolonged with a mortality of up to 2.5%. The mode of transmission of HAV is predominantly the fecal-oral route; the virus is isolated during the prodromic period of the disease from the feces, blood, bile and seminal fluid. The virus can also be found in saliva (OMS '95); in addition it may also be transmitted by the maternal-fetal route. The HAV infects cells in vitro but does not cause a direct cytopathic effect. At the beginning of the acute phase of the disease the production of anti-HAV antibodies is of the IgM type followed later by IgG. Some studies have shown a potential role of cellular immunity in clearance of the virus from the hepatocytes and in the pathogenesis of the infection of HAV. The efficacy of immunoglobulin serum in the prevention of hepatitis A has been demonstrated since 1944. As regards active immunity two types of vaccinations have been prepared. One with live attenuated HAV carried by either bacteria or virus. The other, killed inactivated HAV, HAV capsule, antigenic subunit, synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes or virosomes. The recent literature describe the vaccine produced by Merck Sharp & Dohme and by Smith Kline Beecham (SKB); both vaccines are made from HAV, grown in vitro, inactivated with formalin and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The protection of the vaccine begins 14 days after administration and lasts from one month to one year. Numerous studies have been conducted which have shown that the vaccine is effective when given in 2 doses and confers protection against HAV for at least one year. The results have shown that the vaccination causes seroconversion in approximately 100% of subjects, and does not cause serious side

  3. Hepatitis A: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... are poor sanitary conditions or where good personal hygiene is not observed. Most hepatitis A viral infections ... person who doesn’t wash his or her hands after using the bathroom and then handles food ...

  4. Hepatitis D Virus: A Call to Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis D virus causes an aggressive viral hepatitis with a virulent course of progression to cirrhosis and hepatic decompensation. It relies on hepatitis B coinfection for its pathogenesis and propagation. Hepatitis D virus had become the forgotten virus, with reduced public awareness, medical interest, and research support. Recently, there has been a resurgence of awareness and interest in hepatitis D, with improvements in diagnostic testing and establishment of international collaborative efforts to improve therapy. This article provides a framework to understand the impetus for increased screening as well as to identify key issues toward which collaborative efforts can be directed.

  5. Hepatitis A infection during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Question Many of my patients are from Southeast Asia, where hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is quite common. What precautions can I suggest my pregnant patients take before traveling to these areas and what is the risk of contracting HAV during pregnancy? Answer Hepatitis A virus is a water-borne pathogen transmitted by the fecal-oral route. To reduce the risk of contracting HAV while traveling to endemic areas, it is important to maintain hygienic practices such as hand washing with safe water, particularly before handling food, avoiding drinking water or using ice cubes of unknown purity, and avoiding eating unpeeled fruits and vegetables. An HAV vaccine is available and can be administered before traveling to endemic countries. Hepatitis A virus infection has a largely favourable expected outcome even during pregnancy. Infection occurring in the second or third trimester has been reported to be associated with preterm labour. PMID:26881283

  6. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    MedlinePlus

    ... A be prevented? The hepatitis A vaccine offers immunity to adults and children older than age 1. ... Treatment with immune globulin can provide short-term immunity to hepatitis A when given before exposure or ...

  7. Hepatitis C: a current perspective.

    PubMed

    Farrell, G C

    1995-03-01

    This article covers several dilemmas posed by hepatitis C for the family physician. It is proposed that patients with known risk factors, such as injecting drug use or blood transfusion, be treated for an anti HCV. The problems of counselling the patient with an incidental positive anti HCV test are discussed; at present, the history of risk factors and liver test results are the most important aspects as there is no gold standard for hepatitis C diagnosis. Family and sexual transmission of HCV are rare; only mothers with extremely high levels of HCV viraemia are likely to transmit HCV to their offspring. Decisions about interferon treatment for hepatitis C require consideration of the natural history of this disease, the chances of a long-term response to treatment, and the adverse affects of interferon. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma is proposed for patients who already have cirrhosis. PMID:7717894

  8. Hepatic tumor angiography: a subject review

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, V.P.

    1983-09-01

    The dual blood supply of the normal hepatic parenchyma and the single arterial supply of hepatic neoplasms are important factors in the interpretation of celiac and hepatic arteriograms. Depending on whether the hepatic artery, portal vein, or both are opacified, three types of hepatogram can occur: arterial, portal, or mixed. On the celiac arteriogram, the densely opacified hepatic parenchyma makes the less well opacified tumor appear relatively hypovascular; and conversely, on the hepatic arteriogram the nonopacified portal flow has a ''wash-out'' effect on the normal parenchyma so that the neoplasm remains hypervascular. Thus most hepatic neoplasms are hypervascular on the hepatic arteriogram, and conversion of a hypervascular tumor to a hypovascular one is indicative of its response to treatment.

  9. Hepatitis A: Old and New

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Jennifer A.

    2001-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV), a picornavirus, is a common cause of hepatitis worldwide. Spread of infection is generally person to person or by oral intake after fecal contamination of skin or mucous membranes; less commonly, there is fecal contamination of food or water. Hepatitis A is endemic in developing countries, and most residents are exposed in childhood. In contrast, the adult population in developed countries demonstrates falling rates of exposure with improvements in hygiene and sanitation. The export of food that cannot be sterilized, from countries of high endemicity to areas with low rates of infection, is a potentially important source of infection. After ingestion and uptake from the gastrointestinal tract, the virus replicates in the liver and is excreted into the bile. Cellular immune responses to the virus lead to destruction of infected hepatocytes with consequent development of symptoms and signs of disease. Humoral immune responses are the basis for diagnostic serologic assays. Acute HAV infection is clinically indistinguishable from other causes of acute viral hepatitis. In young children the disease is often asymptomatic, whereas in older children and adults there may be a range of clinical manifestations from mild, anicteric infection to fulminant hepatic failure. Clinical variants include prolonged, relapsing, and cholestatic forms. Management of the acute illness is supportive, and complete recovery without sequelae is the usual outcome. Research efforts during World War II led to the development of passive immunoprophylaxis. Pooled immune serum globulin is efficacious in the prevention and attenuation of disease in exposed individuals. More recently, active immunoprophylaxis by vaccination has been accomplished. Future eradication of this disease can now be contemplated. PMID:11148002

  10. Hepatic yersiniosis in a cougar (Felis concolor).

    PubMed

    Owston, Michael A; Wu, Ching Ching; Ramos-Vara, José A

    2006-09-01

    A cougar (Felis concolor) was diagnosed with hepatic yersiniosis by bacterial culture and histopathology. The animal had a 2-week history of anorexia and jaundice before its death. Grossly, the liver exhibited caseo-necrotic foci. Histopathologically, there was necrotizing and suppurative hepatitis, with large numbers of intralesional gram-negative coccobacilli. Additional hepatic lesions included central vein thrombosis, lymphoplasmacytic portal hepatitis, and capsulitis. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis coccobacilli were isolated in pure culture from the hepatic lesions. Because the hepatic lesions in this animal resemble those of other zoonotic diseases, such as plague and tularemia, veterinarians and laboratory personnel who handle samples should take adequate safety precautions. This report is the first to describe the pathology associated with hepatic yersiniosis in a cougar. PMID:17037628

  11. Recurrent paratyphoid fever A co-infected with hepatitis A reactivated chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanling; Xiong, Yujiao; Huang, Wenxiang; Jia, Bei

    2014-01-01

    We report here a case of recurrent paratyphoid fever A with hepatitis A co-infection in a patient with chronic hepatitis B. A 26-year-old male patient, who was a hepatitis B virus carrier, was co-infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A and hepatitis A virus. The recurrence of the paratyphoid fever may be ascribed to the coexistence of hepatitis B, a course of ceftriaxone plus levofloxacin that was too short and the insensitivity of paratyphoid fever A to levofloxacin. We find that an adequate course and dose of ceftriaxone is a better strategy for treating paratyphoid fever. Furthermore, the co-infection of paratyphoid fever with hepatitis A may stimulate cellular immunity and break immunotolerance. Thus, the administration of the anti-viral agent entecavir may greatly improve the prognosis of this patient with chronic hepatitis B, and the episodes of paratyphoid fever and hepatitis A infection prompt the use of timely antiviral therapy. PMID:24884719

  12. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... or past infection, or immunity to hepatitis A Hepatitis B tests: Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), you have ...

  13. Hepatitis C and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis C Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living ...

  14. Hepatitis B and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  15. Chronic hepatitis E: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Murali, Arvind R; Kotwal, Vikram; Chawla, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E viral infection has traditionally been considered an acute, self-limited, water borne disease similar to hepatitis A, endemic to developing countries. However, over the past decade, zoonotic transmission and progression to chronicity in human patients has been identified, resulting in persistently elevated transaminase levels, progressive liver injury and cirrhosis. In addition to liver injury, neurological, renal and rheumatological manifestations have also been reported. Chronic hepatitis E occurs mainly in immunosuppressed individuals such as transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus patients with low CD4 counts and in patients with hematological malignancies receiving chemotherapy. Diagnosis is established by persistent elevation of hepatitis E virus RNA in the stool or serum. This population often requires treatment with antiviral agents, particularly ribavirin, as spontaneous clearance with reduction in immunosuppression occurs only in about a third of the patients. The purpose of this review, is to further discuss the clinical presentation, and recent advances in diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of chronic hepatitis E. PMID:26380044

  16. Hepatic Resection Using a Water Jet Dissector

    PubMed Central

    Stain, S. C.; Guastella, T.; Maddern, G. J.; Blumgart, L. H.

    1993-01-01

    The mortality and morbidity in major hepatic resection is often related to hemorrhage. A high pressure, high velocity water jet has been developed and has been utilized to assist in hepatic parenchymal transection. Sixty-seven major hepatic resections were performed for solid hepatic tumors. The tissue fracture technique was used in 51 patients (76%), and the water jet dissector was used predominantly in 16 patients (24%). The extent of hepatic resection using each technique was similar. The results showed no difference in operative duration (p = .499). The mean estimated blood loss using the water jet was 1386 ml, and tissue fracture technique 2450 ml (p = .217). Transfusion requirements were less in the water jet group (mean 2.0 units) compared to the tissue fracture group (mean 5.2 units); (p = .023). Results obtained with the new water dissector are encouraging. The preliminary results suggest that blood loss may be diminished. PMID:8387808

  17. Feature Hepatitis: The Dangers of Hepatitis: What you should know from A to E

    MedlinePlus

    ... is spread by eating food or drinking water contaminated with human waste. Hepatitis A is rarely life- ... or soon after, and also through sexual contact, contaminated blood transfusions and needles. Hepatitis B may scar ...

  18. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aim Hepatitis A is among the diseases that can be prevented with vaccination in our time. Acute hepatitis A progresses more severely in individuals with a liver disease. Therefore, patients with a chronic liver disease (because of hepatitis B or hepatitis C) are advised vaccination with the hepatitis A vaccine. This study is aimed to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies in patients infected with hepatitis C virus or hepatitis B virus in Konya province of Turkey. Methods A total of 537 patients who had chronic viral hepatitis between January 2011 and December 2014 were included in the study. Serum samples were collected from each patient and tested for anti-HAV using the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Results The overall seroprevalence of total anti-HAV IgG was 94.2%. The overall prevalence of anti-HAV IgG in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection was 97.5 and 93.6%, respectively. Anti-HAV IgG positivity was 97.4% in cirrhotic patients and 93.9% in noncirrhotic individuals. Conclusion At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine. PMID:26703930

  19. Fulminant hepatic failure from hepatitis E in a non-pregnant female traveller.

    PubMed

    Chris, Robert B; Keystone, Jay S

    2016-04-01

    A non-pregnant Canadian woman returning from India presented with a 1-week history of jaundice and malaise. Subsequently, she developed fulminant hepatic failure caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV can cause fulminant hepatic failure, most commonly in pregnant women and those with chronic liver disease; however, all travellers are at risk. PMID:27069000

  20. Hepatitis A Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... A is common, • are a man who has sex with other men, • use illegal drugs, • have a chronic liver disease such as hepatitis B or hepatitis C, • are being treated with clotting-factor concentrates, • work with hepatitis A-infected animals or in a hepatitis A research laboratory, or • ...

  1. Hepatitis virus panel

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatitis A antibody test; Hepatitis B antibody test; Hepatitis C antibody test; Hepatitis D antibody test ... There are different tests for hepatitis A and B. A positive test is ... may mean: You currently have a hepatitis infection. This may ...

  2. [Estimation of risk areas for hepatitis A].

    PubMed

    Braga, Ricardo Cerqueira Campos; Valencia, Luís Iván Ortiz; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha

    2008-08-01

    This study estimated hepatitis A risk areas in a region of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. A cross-sectional study consisting of a hepatitis A serological survey and a household survey were conducted in 19 census tracts. Of these, 11 tracts were selected and 1,298 children from one to ten years of age were included in the study. Geostatistical techniques allowed modeling the spatial continuity of hepatitis A, non-use of filtered drinking water, time since installation of running water, and number of water taps per household and their spatial estimation through ordinary and indicator kriging. Adjusted models for the outcome and socioeconomic variables were isotropic; risk maps were constructed; cross-validation of the four models was satisfactory. Spatial estimation using the kriging method detected areas with increased risk of hepatitis A, independently of the urban administrative area in which the census tracts were located. PMID:18709215

  3. Viral Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with hepatitis? How does a pregnant woman pass hepatitis B virus to her baby? If I have hepatitis B, what does my baby need so that she ... Can I breastfeed my baby if I have hepatitis B? More information on viral hepatitis What is hepatitis? ...

  4. Hepatitis E in a Canadian traveller

    PubMed Central

    Akai, Peter S; Fonseca, Kevin; Horne, Duff; Ho, May

    1995-01-01

    Hepatitis E is clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis A and is caused by an enterically transmitted rna virus that is endemic in developing countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and North America. This report describes a Canadian traveller to Nepal, Thailand and India with one of the first confirmed cases of hepatitis E reported in Canada. Although this disease is usually self-limited with no known sequelae, it may produce fulminant hepatitis with a high case fatality rate in pregnancy. Diagnosis can be confirmed by serological tests. Apart from strict food and beverage hygiene, there are presently no prophylactic measures against this disease, and pregnant women in the third trimester should avoid travel to endemic areas. PMID:22514380

  5. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C & INCARCERATION What is hepatitis? “Hepatitis” means inflammation or swelling of the liver. The liver is an important ... viral hepatitis: Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. They are all different from each other and ...

  6. Establishing a viral hepatitis prevention and control program: Florida's experience.

    PubMed

    Baldy, Linda M; Urbas, Cheryl; Harris, Jennie L; Jones, T Stephen; Reichert, Philip E

    2007-01-01

    In 1999, the Florida State Legislature established and funded the statewide Hepatitis Prevention Program (HPP) to address growing concern about hepatitis C virus (HCV) and its potential public health burden. HPP supports county health departments' (CHDs') provision of viral hepatitis prevention services to at-risk adults through free hepatitis A and B vaccine in most CHDs and hepatitis serologic testing and statewide viral hepatitis-related education, consultation, and referral services. Some CHDs are directly funded by HPP. In 2001-2005, HPP support helped CHDs provide 59,228 hepatitis A and 74,039 hepatitis B vaccinations statewide. In 2005, HPP supported almost 17,000 hepatitis B and C tests. From January to June 2005, 1,603 positive HCV tests were reported, a 9.5% seropositivity rate. With $24 million from the Florida State Legislature through 2006, HPP has helped CHDs statewide provide substantial viral hepatitis prevention services to at-risk adults. PMID:17542449

  7. Viral hepatitis: a sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed

    Buzby, M

    1996-03-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are often discussed in the context of herpes, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and AIDS. Viral hepatitis, specifically hepatitis B, is also an STD often omitted from these discussions. The incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is variable throughout the world. In North America, the highest incidence occurs in patients who are between the ages of 15 and 25 years. Safe and effective vaccines are available to prevent HBV infection, which has an associated increased risk of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in the carrier state. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a newly identified hepatotrophic virus that may also be sexually transmitted. There are no vaccines for the prevention of HCV infection and the majority of those who are infected become chronic carriers with chronic liver disease. Discussions focused on the prevention of STDs must include counseling for the prevention of HBV and HCV. PMID:8788658

  8. Hepatic Echinococcal Cysts: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pakala, Tina; Molina, Marco; Wu, George Y

    2016-03-28

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widely endemic helminthic disease caused by infection with metacestodes (larval stage) of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. E. granulosus are common parasites in certain parts of the world, and are present on every continent with the exception of Antarctica. As a result, a large number of people are affected by CE. The increased emigration of populations from endemic areas where prevalence rates are as high as 5-10% and the relatively quiescent clinical course of CE pose challenges for accurate and timely diagnoses. Upon infection with CE, cyst formation mainly occurs in the liver (70%). Diagnosis involves serum serologic testing for antibodies against hydatid antigens, but preferably with imaging by ultrasound or CT/MRI. Treatment methods include chemotherapy with benzimidazole carbamates and/or surgical approaches, including percutaneous aspiration injection and reaspiration. The success of these methods is influenced by the stage and location of hepatic cysts. However, CE can be clinically silent, and has a high risk for recurrence. It is important to consider the echinococcal parasite in the differential diagnosis of liver cystic lesions, especially in patients of foreign origin, and to perform appropriate long-term follow-ups. The aim of this review is to highlight the epidemiology, natural history, diagnostic methods, and treatment of liver disease caused by E. granulosus. PMID:27047771

  9. Hepatic Echinococcal Cysts: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Pakala, Tina; Molina, Marco; Wu, George Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a widely endemic helminthic disease caused by infection with metacestodes (larval stage) of the Echinococcus granulosus tapeworm. E. granulosus are common parasites in certain parts of the world, and are present on every continent with the exception of Antarctica. As a result, a large number of people are affected by CE. The increased emigration of populations from endemic areas where prevalence rates are as high as 5–10% and the relatively quiescent clinical course of CE pose challenges for accurate and timely diagnoses. Upon infection with CE, cyst formation mainly occurs in the liver (70%). Diagnosis involves serum serologic testing for antibodies against hydatid antigens, but preferably with imaging by ultrasound or CT/MRI. Treatment methods include chemotherapy with benzimidazole carbamates and/or surgical approaches, including percutaneous aspiration injection and reaspiration. The success of these methods is influenced by the stage and location of hepatic cysts. However, CE can be clinically silent, and has a high risk for recurrence. It is important to consider the echinococcal parasite in the differential diagnosis of liver cystic lesions, especially in patients of foreign origin, and to perform appropriate long-term follow-ups. The aim of this review is to highlight the epidemiology, natural history, diagnostic methods, and treatment of liver disease caused by E. granulosus. PMID:27047771

  10. Hepatitis A in the US Army: epidemiology and vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Hoke, C H; Binn, L N; Egan, J E; DeFraites, R F; MacArthy, P O; Innis, B L; Eckels, K H; Dubois, D; D'Hondt, E; Sjogren, M H

    1992-01-01

    Control of hepatitis A has been an important concern for US military forces in war and peace. Immune serum globulin, although effective, is exceedingly cumbersome to use. The prevalence of antibody against hepatitis A is decreasing in young American soldiers, putting them at risk of hepatitis A during deployment. The US Army has been an active participant in development of hepatitis A vaccine. The first successful cell-culture-derived, formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine was developed at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. This prototype vaccine was shown, in 1986, to be safe and immunogenic for humans. Since then we have evaluated the following issues related to the use of inactivated hepatitis A vaccines in military populations. Immunogenicity of vaccine derived from the CLF and HM175 strains; immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine given by jet injector; immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine when given with hepatitis B vaccine; immunogenicity when given in shortened schedules; safety and immunogenicity in Thai children; and efficacy under field conditions in the tropics. The hepatitis A vaccines which we tested are safe and highly immunogenic. Immunization by jet gun confers immunity equivalent to immunization by needle. Hepatitis A vaccine is equally potent when given with hepatitis B vaccine. Data on rapid immunization schedules and efficacy are under evaluation. We conclude that hepatitis A vaccine is a major improvement in our ability to prevent hepatitis A in soldiers. PMID:1335665

  11. Viral hepatitis in the Arctic. A review from a Circumpolar Workshop on Viral hepatitis, ICCH13.

    PubMed

    Tulisov, Andrei; McMahon, Brian J; Koch, Anders; Minuk, Gerald; Chulanov, Vladimir; Bruce, Michael G; Uhanova, Julia; Børresen, Malene; Williams, James; Osiowy, Carla; Gelvan, Allan; Alexeeva, Marfa; Larke, Bryce; Watt, Kymberly

    2007-01-01

    This article is a review of the viral hepatitis workshop, held during the 13th International Congress of the Circumpolar Health consists of a review of data on viral hepatitis in the Arctic territories of four countries: Canada, Greenland, Russia and United States (Alaska). The main purpose of the workshop was to exchange knowledge on viral hepatitis in the Arctic and identify further needs for collaborative hepatitis research, which is planned to be implemented through the established Viral Hepatitis Working Group in the Arctic. The review is based on the available published research results, surveillance data and professional opinions of the authors. The information is presented by Arctic country. Viral hepatitis constitutes an important problem among Aboriginal peoples of the Arctic; the incidence of most types of viral hepatitis is higher among indigenous populations than in the general public. However, due to differences in the available information from each of the four Arctic countries, it is difficult to compare differences in types of disease in them. The main areas for future research are: HBV genotypes distribution, relations between different types of HBV, HCV and disease outcomes, HBV mutation rate and specific substitutions in the HBV genome over time in the Arctic, and occurrence of active liver disease in HBsAg carriers living in the Arctic, as well as further research in viral hepatitis A, C, D and E. PMID:17929632

  12. Hepatitis E: A newcomer to the hepatitis alphabet – Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Karl; Poirier, Louise; Varin, Sylvain; Beliveau, Claire; Laverdière, Michel

    1995-01-01

    The first Canadian case of hepatitis E is described in a patient who travelled to Asia for a six-month period and spent most of his time in India. Hepatitis E shares some similarities with hepatitis A, notably the mode of transmission and the absence of chronic course. However, a few important differences have been noted, including a higher mortality rate and a high fatality rate in pregnant women. Hepatitis E is very common in developing countries and should be suspected more often in individuals with gastrointestinal complaints returning from endemic areas. PMID:22514379

  13. Primary hepatic malignant melanoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Du, Fangjuan; Yang, Maowu; Fang, Jingzhong; Jing, Changchun

    2015-01-01

    Primary hepatic malignant melanoma is a very rare disease. In order to provide clues concerning diagnosis, differential diagnosis and pathogenesis of the disease, a case of a 49 year-old female patient with primary hepatic malignant melanoma is presented. B-mode ultrasound and Contrast-enhanced abdominal computerized tomography (CT) examinations revealed that nodules of varying sizes are diffusely distributed in her enlarged liver. Pathological examination revealed that tumor cells with poor differentiation were located in nests with prominent melanin deposition. Immuno-histochemical staining showed that the tumor cells were positive for HMB-45 and S-100 protein. No evidence for primary malignant melanoma of other sites had been found by comprehensive examinations. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with primary malignant melanoma of liver. Our case showed that primary malignant melanoma of liver is of histological heterogeneity, and immunohistochemical staining may aid in differential diagnosis between it and other hepatic neoplasms. PMID:25973128

  14. Hepatitis A vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Hepatitis A Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/ ... statements/hep-a.html CDC review information for Hepatitis A VIS: Page last reviewed: June 13, 2014 ...

  15. Hepatitis A vaccine - what you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... A person who has hepatitis A can easily pass the disease to others within the same household. Hepatitis A can cause: "Flu-like" illness Jaundice (yellow skin or eyes, dark urine) Severe stomach pains and ...

  16. Spontaneous Hepatic Infarction in a Patient with Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang Min; Joung, Hannah; Heo, Jung Won; Woo, Seo Kyung; Woo, In Sook; Jung, Yun Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic infarction is known as a rare disease entity in nontransplant patients. Although a few cases of hepatic infarction have been reported to be linked with invasive procedures, trauma, and hypercoagulability, a case of spontaneous hepatic infarction in a nontransplanted patient has hardly ever been reported. However, many clinical situations of patients with cancer, in particular biliary cancer, can predispose nontransplant patients to hepatic infarction. Besides, the clinical outcome of hepatic infarction in patients with cancer can be worse than in patients with other etiologies. As for treatment, anticoagulation treatment is usually recommended. However, because of its multifactorial etiology and combined complications, treatment of hepatic infarction is difficult and not simple. Herein, we report a case of fatal hepatic infarction that occurred spontaneously during the course of treatment in a patient with gallbladder cancer. Hepatic infarction should be considered as a possible fatal complication in patients during treatment of biliary malignancies. PMID:27462232

  17. Hepatitis C virus: A global view

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amal Ahmed; Elbedewy, Tamer A; El-Serafy, Magdy; El-Toukhy, Naglaa; Ahmed, Wesam; Ali El Din, Zaniab

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global challenge; 130-175 million are chronically infected. Over 350000 die each year from HCV. Chronic HCV is the primary cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and end-stage liver disease. Management of chronic HCV is aimed at preventing cirrhosis, reducing the risk of HCC, and treating extra hepatic complications. New treatments for chronic HCV has been devoted based on direct-acting antivirals, as pegylated interferon (peginterferon) is responsible for many side effects and limits treatment access. Sofosbuvir is the first compound to enter the market with Peginterferon-free combination regimens. PMID:26609344

  18. Hepatitis C virus: A global view.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amal Ahmed; Elbedewy, Tamer A; El-Serafy, Magdy; El-Toukhy, Naglaa; Ahmed, Wesam; Ali El Din, Zaniab

    2015-11-18

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global challenge; 130-175 million are chronically infected. Over 350000 die each year from HCV. Chronic HCV is the primary cause of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and end-stage liver disease. Management of chronic HCV is aimed at preventing cirrhosis, reducing the risk of HCC, and treating extra hepatic complications. New treatments for chronic HCV has been devoted based on direct-acting antivirals, as pegylated interferon (peginterferon) is responsible for many side effects and limits treatment access. Sofosbuvir is the first compound to enter the market with Peginterferon-free combination regimens. PMID:26609344

  19. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus. ...

  20. Hepatitis A - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... List of All Topics All Hepatitis A - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Arabic (العربية) Armenian (Հայերեն) Burmese (myanmasa) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) ...

  1. Major hepatic resection. A 25-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, H H; Tompkins, R K; Longmire, W P

    1983-01-01

    Major hepatic resections were performed on 138 patients for a variety of conditions. There was one intraoperative death. Including this patient, there were 15 deaths within 30 days of the operation (operative mortality 10.9%). Important postoperative complications were intra-abdominal sepsis (17%), biliary leak (11%), hepatic failure (8%), and hemorrhage (6%). The results of 30 resections for the benign lesions, liver cell adenoma, focal nodular hyperplasia, hemangioma, and cystadenoma showed no operative mortality and low morbidity. Of 26 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, seven died within a month of operation. The cumulative survival of the 26 at five years was 38%, and of the 19 who survived the procedure, 51%. Poor survival followed resections for cholangiocarcinoma and "mixed tumors." The five-year cumulative survival of 22 patients who had colorectal metastases excised was 31%. Apart from a patient with carcinoid, prolonged survival was rare after resection of other secondaries and after en bloc resections for tumors directly invading the liver. Hepatic resection was of value in the management of some patients with hepatic trauma, Caroli's disease, liver cysts, and intrahepatic stones. PMID:6299217

  2. Hepatitis C: Clinical Trials

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Public Home » Hepatitis C » Treatment Decisions Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... can I find out about participating in a hepatitis C clinical trial? Many trials are being conducted ...

  3. Hepatitis C: Sex and Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Hepatitis » Sex and Sexuality: Entire Lesson Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... hepatitis C virus through sex. Can you pass hepatitis C to a sex partner? Yes, but it ...

  4. Vasculitis as a Presenting Manifestation of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harpreet; Sukhija, Gagandeep; Kaur, Parminder; Govil, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus is responsible for causing hepatic complications like acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma along with some uncommon immune mediated extrahepatic manifestations. Vasculitis remains an uncommon extrahepatic complication of hepatitis B virus infection. Herein we report a case of hepatitis B infection that presented with leucocytoclastic vasculitis as an initial manifestation and managed successfully with entacavir therapy. PMID:27042512

  5. A new transmissible agent causing acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, W F; O'Neil, B W

    1985-06-15

    There is a hepatitis of dogs which occurs in acute, persistent and chronic forms. Histological studies of spontaneous cases suggested that several apparently diverse hepatic diseases might be stages of one process. This was also implied by follow up studies and case histories: acute non-lethal episodes were followed later by the development of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver failure. Serum was taken and homogenates of liver were made from three field cases representing different putative temporal stages of the complex. These were injected into experimental dogs and a hepatitis was induced in all. The cytopathological and histological changes were the same in all animals and were identical to field cases. Acute lethal disease and persistent infections were produced. Two second passages were carried out and an identical condition was induced, characterised by recurrent episodes of subclinical hepatitis and persistent infection. It is suggested that the disease might be named canine acidophil cell hepatitis in view of the pathognomonic cytopathology. Specific morphological criteria have been established for this hepatitis. PMID:4024428

  6. Herpes viral hepatitis in a toucan.

    PubMed

    Charlton, B R; Barr, B C; Castro, A E; Davis, P L; Reynolds, B J

    1990-01-01

    Herpesvirus infection was diagnosed in a toucan. The herpesvirus was isolated from the liver and identified by electron microscopy in the liver and in cell culture. A negative immunofluorescent reaction was obtained when virus-infected cell cultures were reacted with a conjugate to the herpesvirus of Pacheco's disease. The main pathologic finding in the toucan consisted of a severe necrotizing hepatitis with intranuclear inclusions in the liver and spleen. A presumptive diagnosis of chlamydiosis was also made, based on a positive direct fluorescent monoclonal antibody reaction to chlamydial antigens in impression smears of liver and spleen. Chlamydial isolation attempts were unsuccessful. The toucan had been in contact with two macaws that had died 5 days before the toucan died and were diagnosed by histology as having herpesvirus hepatitis. PMID:2173540

  7. The hepatic cannabinoid 1 receptor as a modulator of hepatic energy state and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Martin E; Regnell, Simon E

    2014-01-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) has a well-established role in appetite regulation. Central CB1R antagonists, notably rimonabant, induced weight loss and improved the metabolic profile in obese individuals, but were discontinued due to psychiatric side-effects. The CB1R is also expressed peripherally, where its effects include promotion of liver fat accumulation, which consumes ATP. Type 2 diabetes in obese subjects is linked to excess liver fat, whilst there is a negative correlation between hepatic ATP content and insulin resistance. A decreased hepatic ATP/AMP ratio increases food intake by signals via the vagus nerve to the brain. The hepatic cannabinoid system is highly upregulated in obesity, and the effects of hepatic CB1R activation include increased activity of lipogenic and gluconeogenic transcription factors. Thus, blockade of hepatic CB1Rs could contribute significantly to the weight-reducing and insulin-sensitizing effects of CB1R antagonists. Additionally, upregulation of the hepatic CB1R may contribute to chronic liver inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis from causes including obesity, alcoholism and viral hepatitis. Peripheral CB1R antagonists induce weight loss and metabolic improvements in obese rodents; however, as there is evidence that hepatic CB1Rs are predominately intracellular, due to high intrinsic clearance, many drugs may not effectively block these receptors and therefore have limited efficacy. Hepatoselective CB1R antagonists may be effective at reducing hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and bodyweight in obese, diabetic patients, with far fewer side-effects than first-generation CB1R antagonists. Additionally, such compounds may be effective in treating inflammatory liver disease, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, reducing the likelihood of disease progression to cirrhosis or cancer. PMID:23452341

  8. The hepatic cannabinoid 1 receptor as a modulator of hepatic energy state and food intake.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Martin E; Regnell, Simon E

    2014-01-01

    The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) has a well-established role in appetite regulation. Central CB1R antagonists, notably rimonabant, induced weight loss and improved the metabolic profile in obese individuals, but were discontinued due to psychiatric side-effects. The CB1R is also expressed peripherally, where its effects include promotion of liver fat accumulation, which consumes ATP. Type 2 diabetes in obese subjects is linked to excess liver fat, whilst there is a negative correlation between hepatic ATP content and insulin resistance. A decreased hepatic ATP/AMP ratio increases food intake by signals via the vagus nerve to the brain. The hepatic cannabinoid system is highly upregulated in obesity, and the effects of hepatic CB1R activation include increased activity of lipogenic and gluconeogenic transcription factors. Thus, blockade of hepatic CB1Rs could contribute significantly to the weight-reducing and insulin-sensitizing effects of CB1R antagonists. Additionally, upregulation of the hepatic CB1R may contribute to chronic liver inflammation, fibrosis and cirrhosis from causes including obesity, alcoholism and viral hepatitis. Peripheral CB1R antagonists induce weight loss and metabolic improvements in obese rodents; however, as there is evidence that hepatic CB1Rs are predominately intracellular, due to high intrinsic clearance, many drugs may not effectively block these receptors and therefore have limited efficacy. Hepatoselective CB1R antagonists may be effective at reducing hepatic steatosis, insulin resistance and bodyweight in obese, diabetic patients, with far fewer side-effects than first-generation CB1R antagonists. Additionally, such compounds may be effective in treating inflammatory liver disease, such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, reducing the likelihood of disease progression to cirrhosis or cancer. PMID:23452341

  9. Chronic Hepatitis D; at a Standstill?

    PubMed

    Rizzetto, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis D (CHD) is a severe liver disease with worldwide distribution caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV). Therapy of CHD is at a standstill. It still relies on interferon (IFN), introduced empirically in the 1980s; results are limited. With the peghilated IFNs that are now in use, only 25% of CHD reach a sustained viral response, that is, clear the HDV-RNA 6 months after stopping therapy. However, HDV remains infectious and ready to reactivate at very low titers undetectable by current assays, if the HBsAg persists in serum; relapses of hepatitis D post-therapy are frequent and further diminish the therapeutic response. The major obstacle to CHD therapy is the minimalist nature of the HDV. It does not encode for any enzymatic function but is replicated by host RNA polymerases deceived to recognize the viral RNA as it were a cellular DNA; therefore, it has no replicative machinery of its own to be targeted by antivirals. The only help required from hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the HBsAg coat to attach to hepatocytes and assembly in the virion; HBV antivirals that decrease HBV-DNA but leave HBsAg unaffected are of no avail in CHD. Novel therapeutic strategies are under evaluation. Myrcludex B, a peptidic inhibitor of HBV entry, was used with some success in vitro in the mouse to block the Na+-tauro chocolate cotransporting polypeptide and prevent entry of the HD virion into hepatocytes. The nuclei acid polymer REP-2139 was shown to distinctly diminish serum HBsAg and HDV-RNA by blocking HBsAg entry and inhibiting its intracellular synthesis. Prenylation of the large HD-antigen is critical for its interaction with the HBsAg in the assembly of the virion. A proof of concept study in humans has shown that the prenylation inhibitor lonafarnib reduced HDV-viremia. PMID:27170382

  10. Simulating Microdosimetry in a Virtual Hepatic Lobule

    PubMed Central

    Wambaugh, John; Shah, Imran

    2010-01-01

    The liver plays a key role in removing harmful chemicals from the body and is therefore often the first tissue to suffer potentially adverse consequences. To protect public health it is necessary to quantitatively estimate the risk of long-term low dose exposure to environmental pollutants. Animal testing is the primary tool for extrapolating human risk but it is fraught with uncertainty, necessitating novel alternative approaches. Our goal is to integrate in vitro liver experiments with agent-based cellular models to simulate a spatially extended hepatic lobule. Here we describe a graphical model of the sinusoidal network that efficiently simulates portal to centrilobular mass transfer in the hepatic lobule. We analyzed the effects of vascular topology and metabolism on the cell-level distribution following oral exposure to chemicals. The spatial distribution of metabolically inactive chemicals was similar across different vascular networks and a baseline well-mixed compartment. When chemicals were rapidly metabolized, concentration heterogeneity of the parent compound increased across the vascular network. As a result, our spatially extended lobule generated greater variability in dose-dependent cellular responses, in this case apoptosis, than were observed in the classical well-mixed liver or in a parallel tubes model. The mass-balanced graphical approach to modeling the hepatic lobule is computationally efficient for simulating long-term exposure, modular for incorporating complex cellular interactions, and flexible for dealing with evolving tissues. PMID:20421935

  11. Hepatitis B screening in a northern Irish mental handicap institution: relevance to hepatitis B vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kee, F; McGinnity, M; Marriott, C; Calvert, G J; Shanks, O E; O'Neill, H; Connolly, J

    1989-10-01

    The current DHSS guidelines on immunisation against hepatitis B in mental handicap hospitals recommend vaccination for personnel at risk directly involved in patient care (who may have direct contact with patients or their body fluids) and for new admissions into institutions where the incidence is known to be high. We report a serological survey of hepatitis B markers in over 99% of the residents of a large mental handicap hospital. Of 720 patients tested only one carried hepatitis surface antigen. This patient was anti-HBe positive. Only 4.5% of the residents carried any hepatitis marker. These results do not suggest the need for a local vaccination programme for patients or staff. PMID:2575104

  12. Hepatitis Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by viruses. They include hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. To diagnose hepatitis, your health care provider will ask you about your medical history and symptoms, do a physical exam, and order blood tests. There are blood tests for each type of ...

  13. Nucleotide sequence of a cloned woodchuck hepatitis virus genome: comparison with the hepatitis B virus sequence.

    PubMed Central

    Galibert, F; Chen, T N; Mandart, E

    1982-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a woodchuck hepatitis virus genome cloned in Escherichia coli was determined by the method of Maxam and Gilbert. This sequence was found to be 3,308 nucleotides long. Potential ATG initiator triplets and nonsense codons were identified and used to locate regions with a substantial coding capacity. A striking similarity was observed between the organization of human hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus. Nucleotide sequences of these open regions in the woodchuck virus were compared with corresponding regions present in hepatitis B virus. This allowed the location of four viral genes on the L strand and indicated the absence of protein coded by the S strand. Evolution rates of the various parts of the genome as well as of the four different proteins coded by hepatitis B virus and woodchuck hepatitis virus were compared. These results indicated that: (i) the core protein has evolved slightly less rapidly than the other proteins; and (ii) when a region of DNA codes for two different proteins, there is less freedom for the DNA to evolve and, moreover, one of the proteins can evolve more rapidly than the other. A hairpin structure, very well conserved in the two genomes, was located in the only region devoid of coding function, suggesting the location of the origin of replication of the viral DNA. Images PMID:7086958

  14. Characterization of a prototype strain of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed Central

    Tsarev, S A; Emerson, S U; Reyes, G R; Tsareva, T S; Legters, L J; Malik, I A; Iqbal, M; Purcell, R H

    1992-01-01

    A strain of hepatitis E virus (SAR-55) implicated in an epidemic of enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis, now called hepatitis E, was characterized extensively. Six cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were infected with a strain of hepatitis E virus from Pakistan. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the pattern of virus shedding in feces, bile, and serum relative to hepatitis and induction of specific antibodies. Virtually the entire genome of SAR-55 (7195 nucleotides) was sequenced. Comparison of the sequence of SAR-55 with that of a Burmese strain revealed a high level of homology except for one region encoding 100 amino acids of a putative nonstructural polyprotein. Identification of this region as hypervariable was obtained by partial sequencing of a third isolate of hepatitis E virus from Kirgizia. Images PMID:1731327

  15. Hepatitis B surface antigen positivity after twinrix vaccination: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yirang; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Ji-Young; Kim, Soo Young; Hwang, In Hong; Cho, Hyoun Chan

    2014-01-01

    Travelers might have an increased risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We report a case of prolonged transient hepatitis B surface antigenemia in a healthy Canadian female 8 days after administration of a combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine. Travel health providers providing hepatitis B vaccines need to be aware of this phenomenon and educate their patients accordingly. PMID:24861218

  16. A novel technique for hepatic vein reconstruction during hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Surjan, Rodrigo C; Basseres, Tiago; Pajecki, Denis; Puzzo, Daniel B; Makdissi, Fabio F; Machado, Marcel A C; Battilana, Alexandre Gustavo Bellorio

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for malignant liver tumours. Nevertheless, surgical approach to tumours located close to the confluence of the hepatic veins is a challenging issue. Trisectionectomies are considered the first curative option for treatment of these tumours. However, those procedures are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates primarily due to post-operative liver failure. Thus, maximal preservation of functional liver parenchyma should always be attempted. We describe the isolated resection of Segment 8 for the treatment of a tumour involving the right hepatic vein and in contact with the middle hepatic vein and retrohepatic vena cava with immediate reconstruction of the right hepatic vein with a vascular graft. This is the first time this type of reconstruction was performed, and it allowed to preserve all but one of the hepatic segments with normal venous outflow. This innovative technique is a fast and safe method to reconstruct hepatic veins. PMID:27076622

  17. A novel technique for hepatic vein reconstruction during hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Surjan, Rodrigo C.; Basseres, Tiago; Pajecki, Denis; Puzzo, Daniel B.; Makdissi, Fabio F.; Machado, Marcel A.C.; Battilana, Alexandre Gustavo Bellorio

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for malignant liver tumours. Nevertheless, surgical approach to tumours located close to the confluence of the hepatic veins is a challenging issue. Trisectionectomies are considered the first curative option for treatment of these tumours. However, those procedures are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates primarily due to post-operative liver failure. Thus, maximal preservation of functional liver parenchyma should always be attempted. We describe the isolated resection of Segment 8 for the treatment of a tumour involving the right hepatic vein and in contact with the middle hepatic vein and retrohepatic vena cava with immediate reconstruction of the right hepatic vein with a vascular graft. This is the first time this type of reconstruction was performed, and it allowed to preserve all but one of the hepatic segments with normal venous outflow. This innovative technique is a fast and safe method to reconstruct hepatic veins. PMID:27076622

  18. A morphologic study of unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Wills, E. J.; Walton, B.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of postoperative jaundice throughout the United Kingdom allowed the detailed analysis of 76 patients with unexplained hepatitis following halothane anesthesia ("halothane hepatitis"). In 16 patients liver biopsy specimens were examined by light and/or electron microscopy to determine whether the liver morphology could aid the differentiation between "halothane" and "acute viral" hepatitis. The mitochondrial changes often claimed to be characteristic of holothane hepatitis were unremarkable in our patients. Since lipid vacuolation and a predominantly centrilobular distribution of necrosis are not classically described in fatal viral hepatitis, the presence of these features in some of our fatal cases was of some diagnostic interest. In general, however, the results of light and electron microscopy in patients with unexplained postoperative hepatitis is considered to have little differential diagnositc value. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:645815

  19. Successful case of pancreaticoduodenectomy with resection of the hepatic arteries preserving a single aberrant hepatic artery for a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ichida, Akihiko; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kaneko, Junichi; Aoki, Taku; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-03-01

    A 65-year-old male with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting with a duodenal ulcer was referred to our department. The tumor involved the common hepatic artery, gastroduodenal artery, left hepatic artery and the right posterior hepatic artery, but not the right anterior hepatic artery originating from the superior mesenteric artery. The hepatic arteries, except the aberrant right anterior hepatic artery, were embolized using coils 18 days before the surgery. The patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy with resection of the tumor-encased hepatic arteries, while preserving the aberrant artery. The patient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 13 with no ischemic complications. A histopathological examination revealed a grade 2 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor according to the classification of the World Health Organization, and the surgical margin was negative. The patient developed hepatic metastases 16 months after surgery; hence, hepatic resection was performed. The present surgical strategy is applicable in patients with relatively low-grade pancreatic malignancies involving major hepatic arteries. PMID:24477525

  20. Hepatic Shock Differential Diagnosis and Risk Factors: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Soleimanpour, Hassan; Safari, Saeid; Rahmani, Farzad; Nejabatian, Arezu; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2015-01-01

    Context: Liver as an important organ has a vital role in physiological processes in the body. Different causes can disrupt normal function of liver. Factors such as hypo-perfusion, hypoxemia, infections and some others can cause hepatic injury and hepatic shock. Evidence Acquisition: Published research resources from 2002 to May 2015 in some databases (PubMed, Scopus, Index Copernicus, DOAJ, EBSCO-CINAHL, Science direct, Cochrane library and Google scholar and Iranian search database like SID and Iranmedex) were investigated for the present study. Results: Different causes can lead to hepatic shock. Most of these causes can be prevented by early resuscitation and treatment of underlying factors. Conclusions: Hepatic shock is detected in ill patients, especially those with hemodynamic disorders. It can be prevented by early treatment of underlying disease. There is no definite treatment for hepatic shock and should be managed conservatively. Hepatic shock in patients can increase the mortality rate. PMID:26587034

  1. Hepatic teratoma and peritoneal gliomatosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The hepatic teratoma is a very rare entity of which only 25 cases have been published so far. In our case the hepatic teratoma is associated with peritoneal gliomatosis, which is an indicator for an ongoing peritoneal spread of a teratoma. Wall calcifications and the homogeneity as well as the well defined border misled the radiologist to the diagnosis of an echinococcal cyst, which is the most common differential diagnosis, however the hepatic teratoma has to be taking into consideration when dealing with unclear hepatic cysts, although it is very rare. PMID:20062626

  2. A Case of Primary Hepatic Lymphoma and Related Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yonghua; Jiang, Jinhong; Wu, Qinli; Zhang, Qiaolei; Xu, Yehui; Qu, Zhigang; Ma, Guangli; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Wang, Xiaoli; Jin, Weimei; Fang, Bingmu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Primary hepatic lymphoma is a rare disease. And the clinical manifestations of this disease are nonspecific. The objective of this paper is to improve clinicians' understanding of this disease. Methods. We analyzed the clinical characteristics of a case of primary hepatic lymphoma in association with hepatitis B virus infection and reviewed the literature. Conclusion. The clinical manifestations of primary hepatic lymphoma are nonspecific. And it is easily misdiagnosed. Postoperative radiotherapy of patients with early stage was previously speculated to achieve favorable improvement. The application of targeted therapeutic drugs, chemotherapy, or combined local radiotherapy has become the first-line treatment strategy. PMID:27403354

  3. A review of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Bosan, Altaf; Qureshi, Huma; Bile, Khalif Mohamud; Ahmad, Irtaza; Hafiz, Rehan

    2010-12-01

    A review of published literature on viral hepatitis infections in Pakistan is presented. A total of 220 abstracts available in the Pakmedinet and Medline have been searched. All relevant articles were reviewed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis viral infections in Pakistan. Two hundred and three (203) relevant articles/abstracts including twenty nine supporting references are included in this review. Of the articles on prevalence of hepatitis infection, seven were related to Hepatitis A, fifteen to Hepatitis E while the remaining articles were on frequency of hepatitis B and C in different disease and healthy population groups. These included eight studies on healthy children, three on vertical transmission, nineteen on pregnant women, fifteen on healthy individuals, six on army recruits, thirty one on blood donors, thirteen on health care workers, five on unsafe injections, seventeen on high risk groups, five on patients with provisional diagnosis of hepatitis, thirty three on patients with chronic liver disease, four on genotypes of HBV and five on genotypes of HCV. This review highlights the lack of community-based epidemiological work as the number of subjects studied were predominantly patients, high risk groups and healthy blood donors. High level of Hepatitis A seroconversion was found in children and this viral infection accounts for almost 50%-60% of all cases of acute viral hepatitis in children in Pakistan. Hepatitis E is endemic in the country affecting mostly the adult population and epidemic situations have been reported from many parts of the country. The mean results of HBsAg and Anti-HCV prevalence on the basis of data aggregated from several studies was calculated which shows 2.3% and 2.5% prevalence of HBsAg and Anti-HCV in children, 2.5% and 5.2% among pregnant women, 2.6% and 5.3% in general population, 3.5% and 3.1% in army recruits, 2.4% and 3.6% in blood donors, 6.0% and 5.4% in health care workers, 13.0% and 10.3% in high risk groups

  4. Pharmacokinetics of hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitor JNJ-56914845 (GSK2336805) in subjects with hepatic impairment.

    PubMed

    Adkison, Kimberly K; Gan, Jianjun; Elko-Simms, Lucinda; Gardner, Stephen; Dumont, Etienne; Jones, Lori S; Saunders, Joanne; Marbury, Thomas; Smith, William; Berg, Jolene; Galloway, Christopher; Stump, Patrick J

    2015-09-01

    JNJ-56914845 (GSK2336805) is a hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein 5A inhibitor under development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. This open-label, parallel-group, 2-part study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single oral 60 mg dose of JNJ-56914845 in 4 cohorts: healthy, mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment (n = 8/cohort). Severity of hepatic impairment was categorized using Child-Pugh score, and the healthy subjects were matched for age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status to the moderate hepatic impairment cohort. JNJ-56914845 plasma AUC0-∞ was 26%, 52%, and 45% lower in subjects with mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment, respectively, relative to healthy subjects with no difference in half-life among the groups. The apparent oral clearance and volume of distribution were higher in subjects with hepatic impairment. The lower plasma concentrations were largely explained by decreased plasma protein binding in hepatically impaired subjects. One subject with severe hepatic impairment had 2 non-drug-related serious adverse events: an esophageal bleed requiring hospitalization, encephalopathy. Although hepatically impaired subjects have lower exposures than healthy matched controls, they had similar or slightly higher exposures than those observed in past studies of noncirrhotic, CHC patients, suggesting that no dose adjustments for hepatic impairment will be needed. PMID:25857714

  5. Versican: a novel modulator of hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bukong, Terence N; Maurice, Sean B; Chahal, Barinder; Schaeffer, David F; Winwood, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the deposition and turnover of proteoglycans in liver fibrosis, despite their abundance in the extracellular matrix. Versican plays diverse roles in modulating cell behavior in other fibroproliferative diseases, but remains poorly described in the liver. Hepatic fibrosis was induced by carbon tetrachloride treatment of C57BL/6 mice over 4 weeks followed by recovery over a 28-day period. Primary mouse hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were activated in culture and versican was transiently knocked down in human (LX2) and mouse HSCs. Expression of versican, A Disintegrin-like and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin-1 motifs (ADAMTS)-1, -4, -5, -8, -9, -15, and -20, and markers of fibrogenesis were studied using immunohistochemistry, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blotting. Immunohistochemistry showed increased expression of versican in cirrhotic human livers and the mouse model of fibrosis. Carbon tetrachloride treatment led to significant increases in versican expression and the proteoglycanases ADAMTS-5, -9, -15, and -20, alongside TNF-α, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen-1, and TGF-β expression. During recovery, expression of many of these genes returned to control levels. However, expression of ADAMTS-5, -8, -9, and -15 showed delayed increases in expression at 28 days of recovery, which corresponded with decreases in versican V0 and V1 cleavage products (G1-DPEAAE(1401) and G1-DPEAAE(441)). Activation of primary HSCs in vitro significantly increased versican, α-SMA, and collagen-1 expression. Transient knockdown of versican in HSCs led to decreases in markers of fibrogenesis and reduced cell proliferation, without inducing apoptosis. Versican expression increases during HSC activation and liver fibrosis, and proteolytic processing occurs during the resolution of fibrosis. Knockdown studies in vitro suggest a possible role of versican in modulating hepatic fibrogenesis. PMID:26752747

  6. Chronic hepatitis: a retrospective study in 34 dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentealba, C; Guest, S; Haywood, S; Horney, B

    1997-01-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize the histological changes observed in 34 accessioned cases of canine chronic hepatitis and to correlate these changes with the clinical pathological data. Cases of chronic hepatitis were subdivided into 6 categories: chronic active hepatitis (10/34), chronic persistent hepatitis (7/32), chronic cholestatic hepatitis (6/34), fibrosing hepatitis with cirrhosis (3/34), chronic cholangiohepatitis (3/34), and miscellaneous secondary hepatitis (5/34). Iron accumulation was a consistent finding in all livers examined. Although all cases of chronic hepatitis had elevated liver enzymes, no correlation was detected between biochemical parameters and the severity of morphologic changes. Similarly, no correlation was detected between rhodanine staining for copper and morphologic or biochemical indicators of cholestasis. However, presence of copper correlated well with reticulo-fibrosis (r = 0.8) and bile duct hyperplasia, suggesting that changes in the hemodynamics of the hepatic acini due to fibrosis could influence storage of copper. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:9187802

  7. Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I ...

  8. Scintigraphic finding of a silent hepatic haemangioma.

    PubMed

    Borse, Rohan; Mahapatra, G N; Meht, Rajeev; Plumber, Saifee; Dhuri, Sandeep; Ali, Sarfaraz

    2010-10-01

    Hepatic haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of liver. Most of them remain asymptomatic and are detected incidentally. Tc 99m RBC blood pool imaging is highly specific diagnostic modality of choice for hepatic haemangioma as its hypervascular nature may create equivocal result on CT or MRI. The sensitivity and specificity increases using SPECT especially in lesion less than 2 cm. Therefore all patients suspected of having hepatic haemangioma should undergo Tc 99m blood pool imaging. PMID:21510118

  9. Copper-associated hepatitis in a Pembroke Welsh corgi.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, Jean; Miller, Matthew D

    2014-06-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female Pembroke Welsh corgi dog was diagnosed with copper-associated hepatitis; an uncommon disease to which a variety of breeds are predisposed. This case report describes copper-associated hepatitis in a breed in which the disease has not previously been reported. PMID:24891642

  10. Copper-associated hepatitis in a Pembroke Welsh corgi

    PubMed Central

    Rifkin, Jean; Miller, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female Pembroke Welsh corgi dog was diagnosed with copper-associated hepatitis; an uncommon disease to which a variety of breeds are predisposed. This case report describes copper-associated hepatitis in a breed in which the disease has not previously been reported. PMID:24891642

  11. Collapsing glomerulopathy associated with hepatitis B infection: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mantan, M.; Grover, R.; Kaur, S.; Batra, V.

    2016-01-01

    Collapsing glomerulopathy has been classified as a variant of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. It is associated with infections, inflammations, and certain medications. While its association with human immunodeficiency virus has been well established its occurrence with hepatitis B has not been reported. We present here a case of collapsing glomerulopathy in a child with hepatitis B infection. PMID:27512304

  12. Hepatitis C - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus (HCV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis B . ... Elisofon SA, Jonas MMF. Viral hepatitis in children. In: Boyer TD, Manns MP, Sanyal AJ, eds. Zakim & Boyer's Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. 6th ed. ...

  13. Extra-hepatic manifestations associated with hepatitis E virus infection: a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bazerbachi, Fateh; Haffar, Samir; Garg, Sushil K; Lake, John R

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant public health problem that afflicts almost 20 million individuals annually and causes acute liver injury in 3.5 million, with approximately 56 000 deaths. As with other viral hepatitides, extra-hepatic manifestations could represent an important aspect of this infection. The spectrum of these manifestations is still emerging. Acute pancreatitis and neurological, musculoskeletal, hematological, renal, and other immune-mediated manifestations have been described. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review the published literature of extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection. Data sources: We searched the PubMed database using the MeSH term “hepatitis E” and each of the extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection. No language or date restrictions were set in these searches. Searches retrieving articles with non-A, non-B hepatitis were excluded. Additional articles were identified through the reference lists of included articles. Results: Several extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection have been published. The temporal association between some extra-hepatic manifestations and HEV infection and the exclusion of other possible etiologies suggests that HEV infection could have caused some of them. According to the available data, HEV infection appears to be strongly associated with acute pancreatitis, neurological disorders (with primarily dominant peripheral nerve involvement, most commonly manifested as Guillain-Barré syndrome, followed by neuralgic amyotrophy), hematological diseases (hemolytic anemia due to glucose phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and severe thrombocytopenia), glomerulonephritis, and mixed cryoglobulinemia. More data are needed to clarify whether an association exists with musculoskeletal or other immune-mediated manifestations. Conclusions: HEV infection should be considered in patients with acute pancreatitis

  14. Hepatitis C FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  15. Hepatitis B FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  16. [Vaccination against hepatitis A among occupational risk groups].

    PubMed

    Mukomolov, S L; Levakova, I A

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate vaccine prevention of hepatitis A in occupational risk groups in Russian Federation over 2011-2013. Epidemiologic analysis method was used. Data array for the analysis included information about 1,162,619 individuals vaccinated against hepatitis A throughout the country. Findings are that during the studied period a total of 470,278 adults over 18 years were vaccinated (i.e., 0,4% of all population of this age). Among occupational risk groups subjected to anti-hepatitis A vaccination within immunization calendar on epidemic indications, major (29%) share was presented by catering enterprises workers and individuals engaged into food trade and supply. Other occupational risk groups (workers maintaining water supply systems and sewerage system, medical staff, preschool institution teachers, etc) demonstrated significantly lower levels of being vaccinated. Vaccination against hepatitis Ain occupational risk groups should be in a focus of prophylactic measures, as will help to control over hepatitis A spread. PMID:25881392

  17. TYPE A VIRAL HEPATITIS: EFFECT OF CHLORINE ON INFECTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of (HOCl) treatment on the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Prodromal chimpanzee feces, shown to induce hepatitis in marmosets (Saginus sp.), was clarified (JA 20/8K/30 min/5C), the virus precipitated with 7% PEG 6000...

  18. EFFECT OF CHLORINE TREATMENT ON INFECTIVITY OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the effect of chlorine treatment on the infectivity of hepatitis A virus (HAV). Prodromal chimpanzee feces, shown to induce hepatitis in marmosets (Saguinus sp.), was clarified, and the virus was precipitated with 7% polyethylene glycol 6000, harvested and res...

  19. Coagulopathy and encephalopathy in a dog with acute hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Strombeck, D R; Krum, S; Rogers, Q

    1976-10-15

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation developed secondary to hepatic necrosis in a 5-year-old Saint Bernard. Although the coagulopathy responded to treatment with heparin, the dog died from the combined effects of gastric hemorrhage and encephalopathy, both of which are complications of hepatic necrosis. PMID:977448

  20. Hepatic PEComa: a potential pitfall in the evaluation of hepatic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Hadi Mohammad; Katz, Steven C; Libbey, N Peter; Somasundar, Ponnandai S

    2014-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumour (PEComa) of the liver is very uncommon and may be overlooked in the clinical and histological differential diagnosis of a liver tumour. We report the case of an incidentally discovered liver mass suspicious for hepatocellular carcinoma, which on biopsy was suggestive of a pseudocyst but after resection was found to be hepatic PEComa with some of the usual characteristics of this neoplasm as well as several less familiar features. We have also reviewed cases of hepatic PEComa from the literature in order to provide insight into recognising possible PEComa preoperatively and assessing its risk of malignancy after diagnosis. PMID:24907216

  1. Cytomegalic hepatitis in a patient receiving omalizumab.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R; Valente, C; Ferreira, E; Serra, J E; da Cunha, J Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus is a double stranded DNA virus that can be present in nearly all organs and body fluids. The primary infection is usually asymptomatic in the immunocompetent host and it is common among adolescents and young adults. The symptomatic form appears, in the majority of cases, as a mononucleosis syndrome with full recovery without specific treatment. We report a case of a 25 years old woman who presented with hepatitis due to CMV infection and history of omalizumab administration one month earlier. This recombinant monoclonal antibody is used to control refractory asthma and chronic spontaneous urticarial as it inhibits human IgE. Despite that, the long course of the disease lead us to initiate treatment with valganciclovir. The improvement after that was rapid and complete. PMID:27583207

  2. Discovery of hepatitis E: the epidemic non-A, non-B hepatitis 30 years down the memory lane.

    PubMed

    Khuroo, Mohammad Sultan

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis E was first recognised during an epidemic of hepatitis, which occurred in Kashmir Valley in 1978. The epidemic involved an estimated 52,000 cases of icteric hepatitis with 1700 deaths. The disease had unique clinical and epidemiological features. The epidemic was water-borne with highly compressed epidemic curve. Following the epidemic, secondary waves of hepatitis did not occur. Clinical profile was characterized by cholestasis in around 20% of patients. The disease predominantly occurred in young adults. There was increased incidence and severity of the disease in pregnant women. A subset of patients had distinctive liver histology with bile plugs in the canaliculi and formation of pseudo-ductules by hepatocytes around the bile plugs. All surviving patients had self limiting disease. Sera lacked serological markers of acute hepatitis A and hepatitis B. Based on these data, the possibility of another human hepatitis virus distinct from post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis was postulated. Balayan et al. (1983) successfully transmitted the disease into himself by oral administration of pooled stool extracts of 9 patients from a non-A, non-B hepatitis outbreak which had occurred in a Soviet military camp located in Afghanistan. Reyes et al. (1990) cloned and sequenced hepatitis E virus genome. Over the years, hepatitis E was identified as a major health problem in developing countries with unsafe water supplies and poor sanitary disposal. Data from sero-surveys forced re-evaluation of the epidemiology of hepatitis E and gave an indirect indication to vocationally acquired HEV infections in industrialized countries. Soon, autochthonous hepatitis E was recognised as a clinical problem in such countries. Several animal species especially domestic swine, wild boar and wild deer were found to be reservoirs of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 & 4 in these countries. Human infections occur through intake of uncooked or undercooked meat of the infected animals and

  3. Spontaneous rupture of hepatic hemangiomas: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Marcelo AF Ribeiro; Papaiordanou, Francine; Gonçalves, Juliana M; Chaib, Eleazar

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, considered the most common benign mesenchymal hepatic tumors, composed of masses of blood vessels that are atypical or irregular in arrangement and size. Hepatic hemangiomas can be divided into two major groups: capillary hemangiomas and cavernous hemangiomas These tumors most frequently affect females (80%) and adults in their fourth and fifth decades of life. Most cases are asymptomatic although a few patients may present with a wide variety of clinical symptoms, with spontaneous or traumatic rupture being the most severe complication. In cases of spontaneous rupture, clinical manifestations consist of sudden abdominal pain, and anemia secondary to a haemoperitoneum. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy can also occur. Haemodynamic instability and signs of hypovolemic shock appear in about one third of cases. As the size of the hemangioma increases, so does the chance of rupture. Imaging studies used in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas include ultrasonography, dynamic contrast-enchanced computed tomography scanning, magnetic resonance imaging, hepatic arteriography, digital subtraction angiography, and nuclear medicine studies. In most cases hepatic hemangiomas are asymptomatic and should be followed up by means of periodic radiological examination. Surgery should be restricted to specific situations. Absolute indications for surgery are spontaneous or traumatic rupture with hemoperitoneum, intratumoral bleeding and consumptive coagulopathy (Kassabach-Merrit syndrome). In a patient presenting with acute abdominal pain due to unknown abdominal disease, spontaneous rupture of a hepatic tumor such as a hemangioma should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis. PMID:21191518

  4. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Hepatic Encephalopathy, sometimes referred to as portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that ... medical care is an important factor in staying as healthy as possible. The American Liver Foundation is ...

  5. Hepatic ischemia

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen, causing injury to ... pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. Such conditions may include: Abnormal heart rhythms Dehydration ...

  6. Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 507 Hepatitis C WHAT IS HEPATITIS C? HOW IS IT DIAGNOSED? ... treatment may be less likely to work. Hep C treatment is less effective for coinfected people. Cure ...

  7. Secondary Syphilis With Hepatitis and Nephrotic Syndrome: A Rare Concurrence.

    PubMed

    Makker, Jasbir; Bajantri, Bharat; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Syphilis, a chronic multisystem disease, is caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Clinical presentation may expand to several stages including primary, secondary and latent syphilis, which may present as early or late syphilis. Nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis are well-known complications of secondary syphilis. To the best of our knowledge, secondary syphilis with coexisting renal and hepatic complications has rarely been reported. Here we present a rare case of concurrent nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis in a patient with secondary syphilis. PMID:27298666

  8. Secondary Syphilis With Hepatitis and Nephrotic Syndrome: A Rare Concurrence

    PubMed Central

    Makker, Jasbir; Bajantri, Bharat; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Syphilis, a chronic multisystem disease, is caused by a spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Clinical presentation may expand to several stages including primary, secondary and latent syphilis, which may present as early or late syphilis. Nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis are well-known complications of secondary syphilis. To the best of our knowledge, secondary syphilis with coexisting renal and hepatic complications has rarely been reported. Here we present a rare case of concurrent nephrotic syndrome and acute hepatitis in a patient with secondary syphilis. PMID:27298666

  9. Hepatitis E virus as a Cause of Acute Hepatitis in The Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Tholen, Aletta T. R.; Schinkel, Janke; Molenkamp, Richard; Ang, C. Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies indicate that 27% of Dutch blood donors have evidence of past infection with HEV. However, the low number of diagnosed HEV infections indicates either an asymptomatic course or under diagnosis. Objectives We investigated whether HEV is a cause of acute hepatitis in Dutch patients and which diagnostic modality (serology or PCR) should be used for optimal detection. Study design Serum samples were retrospectively selected from non-severely immuno-compromised patients from a university hospital population, suspected of having an infectious hepatitis. Criteria were: elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT> 34 U/l) and request for antibody testing for CMV, EBV or Hepatitis A (HAV). Results All samples were tested for HEV using ELISA and PCR. Ninety patients/sera were tested, of which 22% were HEV IgG positive. Only one serum was IgM positive. HEV PCR was positive in two patients: one patient was both HEV IgM and IgG positive, the other patient was only IgG positive. Both HEV RNA positive samples belonged to genotype 3. Evidence of recent infection with CMV, EBV and HAV was found in 13%, 10% and 3% respectively. Conclusions Although our study is limited by small numbers, we conclude that HEV is a cause of acute hepatitis in hospital associated patients in The Netherlands. Moreover, in our study population the prevalence of acute HAV (3%) was almost similar to acute HEV (2%). We propose to incorporate HEV testing in panels for acute infectious hepatitis. Negative results obtained for HEV IgM in a HEV PCR positive patient, indicates that antibody testing alone may not be sufficient and argues for PCR as a primary diagnostic tool in hospital associated patients. The high percentage of HEV IgG seropositivity confirms earlier epidemiological studies. PMID:26840767

  10. Vaccination Against Hepatitis A for Hemophilic Patients: Is It Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Jamal; Ziaee, Masood; Farsad, Seyed Ali; Fereydooni, Mohammad; Anani Sarab, Gholamreza; Rezvani Khorashad, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemophilic patients require long-life intravenous infusion of factor concentrates to treat bleedings. This could increase the risk of transmission of blood-borne infections like hepatitis C. Objectives The current study was aimed at investigating the immunity status against hepatitis A in hemophilic patients in south Khorasan and evaluating the necessity of hepatitis A vaccination for this population. Patients and Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between 2014 and 2015 on all hemophilic patients of south Khorasan province, Iran (n = 108) for anti-HAV total, anti- HCV, HBs-Ag, anti-HIV, and anti-HTLV-I /II. Note that no one had already received a hepatitis A vaccine. Results As our results show, 77.8% of the participants (59% under 20 and 88.4% above 20 years old) were seropositive for anti-HAV total; 20.4% and 2.8% (three patients) of the cases were anti-HCV positive and anti-HTLV-1 positive, respectively, while none of the subjects were HBS-Ag or HIV-Ab positive. Seventeen of the patients (15.75%) showed a co-infection of HAV with HCV, and five HCV-infected patients (22.73%) had no immunity against hepatitis A. There was a significant relationship between age, rural life, and anti-HAV positive state in our patients (P < 0.001). No significant relationship between positive anti-HAV status and sex (P = 0.16), severity of hemophilia (P = 0.23), and infection with HIV, HCV, HTLV-1, and hepatitis B (P > 0.05) was detected. Conclusions More than 40% of the hemophilic patients under 20 years of age in the present study had no immunity against hepatitis A, and 23% of hepatitis C patients had not had a hepatitis A co-infection yet. Since hepatitis A can show a fulminant course in hepatitis C patients, vaccination against hepatitis A seems necessary in hemophilic patients in the region. PMID:27257430

  11. Tenoxicam-associated hepatic injury: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Katsinelos, P; Katsos, I; Patsiaoura, K; Xiarchos, P; Goulis, I; Eugenidis, N

    1997-04-01

    A 51-year-old woman developed jaundice while taking tenoxicam. A full evaluation, including ultrasound, computed tomography, endoscopic cholangiography and liver biopsy, confirmed the diagnosis of mixed hepatic injury. The patient's jaundice and all other liver function abnormalities normalized 1 month after she discontinued taking tenoxicam. This is the first case report of mixed hepatic injury, confirmed with biopsy, associated with tenoxicam. Tenoxicam should be considered as a potential cause of hepatic injury when other more common aetiologies have been excluded. PMID:9160206

  12. A case of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion.

    PubMed

    Sari Dogan, Fatma; Ozaydin, Vehbi; Incealtin, Onur; Guneysel, Ozlem; Demireller, Merve

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatitis is characterized by liver inflammation and liver cell necrosis. The most frequently observed underlying cause thereof is viruses, but various other causes, such as alcohol, medication, or toxins may also lead thereto. In this paper, a case of acute hepatitis presenting with bradycardia, hypotension, and a prominent increase in liver enzymes following mad honey ingestion is discussed. Since there are only few cases of acute hepatitis following mad honey ingestion in the literature, we want to present this subject matter. PMID:27239626

  13. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​​ Alternate Language URL Autoimmune Hepatitis Page Content On this page: What is autoimmune ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is autoimmune hepatitis? Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic—or long lasting— ...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY THE EMERGING PATHOGEN HEPATITIS E IN WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Like the hepatitis A virus, it is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and can cause short-term, acute hepatitis. In addition, hepatitis E has been found to cause a signific...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY THE MERGING PATHOGEN HEPATITIS E IN WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Like the hepatitis A virus, it is transmitted via the fecal-oral route and can cause short-term, acute hepatitis. In addition, hepatitis E has been found to cause a signific...

  16. Inorganic Nanoparticle as a Carrier for Hepatitis B Viral Capsids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekhtyar, Yu.; Romanova, M.; Kachanovska, A.; Skrastiņa, D.; Reinhofa, R.; Pumpens, P.; Patmalnieks, A.

    Virus like particles (VLP) are used to transport immune response-modulating agents to target cells to treat them. In order to deliver a high concentration of VLP to the cell, a number of VLP can be attached to a nanoparticle to be used as a nanolorry. In this study, SiO2 nanoparticles were attached to Hepatitis B VLP. Spectrophotometry measurements, electron, and fluorescent microscopy evidence showed that the SiO2 - Hepatitis B VLP complexes were formed.

  17. Surgical management of hepatic arterioportal fistula in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Priya; Shanmugam, N P; Vij, M; Rela, M

    2014-05-01

    Congenital arterioportal fistulae in the liver are rare malformations which can lead to portal hypertension. We report a hepatic arterioportal fistula in a neonate who presented with intestinal hypoperfusion. Computerised tomography angiography showed a fistulous communication between the left hepatic artery and portal vein with hypoperfusion of small and large bowel. A formal left hepatectomy was done followed by clinical improvement and reduction in portal venous pressures. The case and the literature pertaining to it are discussed. PMID:24448912

  18. Changing epidemiology and clinical aspects of hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Forbes, A; Williams, R

    1990-04-01

    The picornavirus responsible for hepatitis A is no longer thought directly cytopathic; it is probable that pathogenesis is dependent on T-cell mediation. Although well known to cause a generally milder illness in young children, it is now clear that the severity of hepatitis A continues to increase steadily with increasing age through adulthood also. Earlier and controversial reports of relapsing hepatitis A are now better supported by investigatory data. Cyclic epidemics are becoming less apparent in the developed world, where particular groups, such as intravenous drug abusers and those in contact with children, account for an increasing proportion of cases. Endemicity is gradually being overcome in developing countries, an effect mainly of improved sanitation, and it has been shown that hepatitis A may disappear entirely from isolated communities. PMID:2198989

  19. [True aneurysm of the common hepatic artery: a case report].

    PubMed

    Mighri, Mohamed Mongi; Boujelbene, Salah; Trabelsi, Khaled; Zouaoui, Taieb; Khemakhem, Abdelhamid; Abid, Skander; Gzara, Kaouther; Chebbi, Fethi; Touinsi, Hassen; Azzouz, Mohamed Moussadek; Sassi, Sadok

    2004-02-01

    We report a case of hepatic artery aneurysm suggested by the appearance of epigastric mass. The diagnosis was confirmed by doppler sonography and helical CT. Surgical excision of the aneurysm without vascular reconstruction was carried out. PMID:15185605

  20. Hepatitis A and E: update on prevention and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    FitzSimons, David; Hendrickx, Greet; Vorsters, Alex; Van Damme, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    In March 2009 the Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board (VHPB) organized a meeting in Antwerp, in order to review the status of epidemiology and prevention of both hepatitis A and E. International hepatitis experts from the public health and academic sector provided the state of the art on HAV and emphasized the growing public health importance of the disease, in particular in intermediate endemicity regions, and the need for control at global level. The information shared on HEV showed clearly that it is emerging, but still a lot of efforts are needed to clarify among others the transmission routes, the clinical presentations and the burden of disease. First data on hepatitis E vaccines were discussed, showing a promising safety and efficacy profile. The meeting was concluded with lessons learnt, challenges, needs and proposed step forwards for both diseases. PMID:19925903

  1. Development and characterization of a new human hepatic cell line.

    PubMed

    Ramboer, Eva; De Craene, Bram; De Kock, Joey; Berx, Geert; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand and hampered use of primary human hepatocytes for research purposes have urged scientists to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. The aim of this study was to develop a human hepatic cell line using the combined overexpression of TERT and the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and mutant isoform CDK4R24C. Following transduction of adult human primary hepatocytes with the selected immortalization genes, cell growth was triggered and a cell line was established. When cultured under appropriate conditions, the cell line expressed several hepatocytic markers and liver-enriched transcription factors at the transcriptional and/or translational level, secreted liver-specific proteins and showed glycogen deposition. These results suggest that the immortalization strategy applied to primary human hepatocytes could generate a novel hepatic cell line that seems to retain some key hepatic characteristics. PMID:26869867

  2. Development and characterization of a new human hepatic cell line

    PubMed Central

    Ramboer, Eva; De Craene, Bram; De Kock, Joey; Berx, Geert; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand and hampered use of primary human hepatocytes for research purposes have urged scientists to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. The aim of this study was to develop a human hepatic cell line using the combined overexpression of TERT and the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and mutant isoform CDK4R24C. Following transduction of adult human primary hepatocytes with the selected immortalization genes, cell growth was triggered and a cell line was established. When cultured under appropriate conditions, the cell line expressed several hepatocytic markers and liver-enriched transcription factors at the transcriptional and/or translational level, secreted liver-specific proteins and showed glycogen deposition. These results suggest that the immortalization strategy applied to primary human hepatocytes could generate a novel hepatic cell line that seems to retain some key hepatic characteristics. PMID:26869867

  3. The discovery of viral hepatitis: a military perspective.

    PubMed

    Martin, N A

    2003-06-01

    Viral hepatitis is one of the most common infectious diseases and over the years the jaundice associated with it has been known by many names. Several viruses are now known to cause hepatitis in humans, but sixty years ago, these viruses were unknown. In the years before and during the Second World War, there emerged a significant understanding of the clinical and epidemiological nature of the disease due to the dedicated efforts of doctors and scientists around the world. By the end of the war years, the discrete entities of Hepatitis A and B had been identified and preventative measures were proving to be effective. However, the bane of viral hepatitis was far from being resolved. PMID:12929519

  4. A Recombinant Multiepitope Protein for Hepatitis B Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Marilen Queiroz; Galdino, Alexsandro Sobreira; dos Santos, José Carlos; Soares, Marcus Vinicius; de Nóbrega, Yanna C.; Álvares, Alice da Cunha Morales; de Freitas, Sonia Maria; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves; Felipe, Maria Sueli Soares

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a liver inflammation caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and can be diagnosed in clinical stage by hepatitis B core antibody from IgM class (anti-HBcIgM). Hepatitis B core antibody from IgG class (Anti-HBcIgG) appears quickly after IgM, reaching high titers in chronic hepatitis, and remains even after cure. Since hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) is the first antibody identified and sometimes the only marker detected during the course of infection, it can be used both to indicate HBV acute infection (anti-HBc-IgM) and to identify individuals who have come into contact with the virus (anti-HBc-IgG). In this work we propose a recombinant hepatitis B core multiepitope antigen (rMEHB) to be used for diagnosis of hepatitis B. For this purpose, a synthetic gene coding for rMEHB was designed and cloned into vector pET21a with a 6xHis tag at the C-terminal. Time course induction in E. coli showed an induced protein with an apparent molecular mass of ~21 kDa. Protein purification was performed by a single step with affinity chromatography Ni-NTA. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated rMEHB as a thermal stable protein at pH 7.0 and 8.0. In these conditions rMEHB was successfully used to perform an enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) with positive and negative sera. PMID:24294596

  5. Hepatitis E as a cause of acute jaundice syndrome in northern Uganda, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Gerbi, Gemechu B; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7-24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

  6. Hepatitis E as a Cause of Acute Jaundice Syndrome in Northern Uganda, 2010–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gerbi, Gemechu B.; Williams, Roxanne; Bakamutumaho, Barnabas; Liu, Stephen; Downing, Robert; Drobeniuc, Jan; Kamili, Saleem; Xu, Fujie; Holmberg, Scott D.; Teshale, Eyasu H.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries; however, its contribution to acute jaundice syndrome is not well-described. A large outbreak of hepatitis E occurred in northern Uganda from 2007 to 2009. In response to this outbreak, acute jaundice syndrome surveillance was established in 10 district healthcare facilities to determine the proportion of cases attributable to hepatitis E. Of 347 acute jaundice syndrome cases reported, the majority (42%) had hepatitis E followed by hepatitis B (14%), malaria (10%), hepatitis C (5%), and other/unknown (29%). Of hepatitis E cases, 72% occurred in Kaboong district, and 68% of these cases occurred between May and August of 2011. Residence in Kaabong district was independently associated with hepatitis E (adjusted odds ratio = 13; 95% confidence interval = 7–24). The findings from this surveillance show that an outbreak and sporadic transmission of hepatitis E occur in northern Uganda. PMID:25448237

  7. AIDS and hepatitis: a problem for the dental team.

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A

    1994-02-01

    The different types of viral hepatitis are briefly reviewed in relation to transmission during dental treatment, hepatitis B remaining the greatest threat to the dental team which is not immunised. The significance of hepatitis C for the dental profession is as yet undetermined. Transmission of HIV in the dental practice may occur from patient to dentist, from patient to patient and from dentist to patient. Epidemiological data show that none of these routes seems to be common. To date only five patients have been infected with HIV in a dental practice, the mode of transmission of which is unknown. In order to minimise the risk the dental profession is advised to strongly adhere to the recommendations for preventing HIV and hepatitis virus infection in health-care settings. Between patients all dental instruments should be submitted to sterilisation such as steam autoclaving. PMID:8021033

  8. Alcoholic hepatitis: A comprehensive review of pathogenesis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chayanupatkul, Maneerat; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic inflammation associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current evidence suggests that the pathogenesis is the end result of the complex interplay between ethanol metabolism, inflammation and innate immunity. Several clinical scoring systems have been derived to predict the clinical outcomes of patients with AH; such as Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, the Maddrey discriminant function, the Lille Model, the model for end stage liver disease scores, and the Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score. At present, Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are the current pharmacologic treatment options; though the outcomes from the therapies are poor. Liver transplantation as the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis remains controversial, and in an era of organ shortage current guidelines do not recommend transplantation as the treatment option. Because of the limitations in the therapeutic options, it is no doubt that there is a critical need for the newer and more effective pharmacological agents to treat AH. PMID:24876748

  9. Alcoholic hepatitis: a comprehensive review of pathogenesis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Chayanupatkul, Maneerat; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2014-05-28

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic inflammation associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Current evidence suggests that the pathogenesis is the end result of the complex interplay between ethanol metabolism, inflammation and innate immunity. Several clinical scoring systems have been derived to predict the clinical outcomes of patients with AH; such as Child-Turcotte-Pugh score, the Maddrey discriminant function, the Lille Model, the model for end stage liver disease scores, and the Glasgow alcoholic hepatitis score. At present, Corticosteroids or pentoxifylline are the current pharmacologic treatment options; though the outcomes from the therapies are poor. Liver transplantation as the treatment of alcoholic hepatitis remains controversial, and in an era of organ shortage current guidelines do not recommend transplantation as the treatment option. Because of the limitations in the therapeutic options, it is no doubt that there is a critical need for the newer and more effective pharmacological agents to treat AH. PMID:24876748

  10. Therapy of chronic viral hepatitis: a critical view.

    PubMed

    Rizzetto, M

    1999-11-01

    Many oral nucleoside analogues that are potent inhibitors of hepatitis B virus have recently been developed for the treatment of hepatitis B. The problems with these drugs are bioavailability, toxicity and the time-dependent emergence of resistant hepatitis B virus mutants. Lamivudine appears to be the most useful in terms of clinical benefit, safety and tolerance. It is active on wild type hepatitis B virus as well as on HBeAg-minus variants of the virus. However, although hepatitis B virus is consistently repressed while on therapy, only a minority of patients are cured or remain in remission after Lamivudine withdrawal. Maintenance therapy would appear to be in order, but the long-term use of Lamivudine is precluded by the emergence of polymerase gene-mutants which may rekindle disease. Combination with other antivirals (Adefovir?) active also against Lamivudine escape mutants opens promising new prospects. There is, as yet, no valid therapy for chronic hepatitis D virus hepatitis. Attempts to improve the results of alpha-interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C with new interferons, or the manipulation of interferon monotherapy so as to obtain the maximum results compatible with tolerance, have not produced significantly better results than the classic protocols of alpha-interferon monotherapy. A more concrete improvement has been achieved by the combination of interferon with Ribavirin, with the overall rate of response increasing three times compared to interferon monotherapy. Anaemia, however, is a common additional side-effect induced by Ribavirin. Combination therapy has become the treatment of choice for interferon naive patients as well as for interferon relapses; it is not efficacious in patients who have not responded to interferon. PMID:10730571

  11. A method for quickly and exactly extracting hepatic vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qing; Yuan, Rong; Wang, Luyao; Wang, Yanchun; Li, Zhen; Hu, Daoyu; Xie, Qingguo

    2013-02-01

    It is of vital importance that providing detailed and accurate information about hepatic vein (HV) for liver surgery planning, such as pre-operative planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Due to the different blood flow rate of intra-hepatic vascular systems and the restrictions of CT scan, it is common that HV and hepatic portal vein (HPV) are both filled with contrast medium during the scan and in high intensity in the hepatic venous phase images. As a result, the HV segmentation result obtained from the hepatic venous phase images is always contaminated by HPV which makes accurate HV modeling difficult. In this paper, we proposed a method for quick and accurate HV extraction. Based on the topological structure of intra-hepatic vessels, we analyzed the anatomical features of HV and HPV. According to the analysis, three conditions were presented to identify the nodes that connect HV with HPV in the topological structure, and thus to distinguish HV from HPV. The method costs less than one minute to extract HV and provides a correct and detailed HV model even with variations in vessels. Evaluated by two experienced radiologists, the accuracy of the HV model obtained from our method is over 97%. In the following work, we will extend our work to a comprehensive clinical evaluation and apply this method to actual LDLT surgical planning.

  12. A clarified conceptual meaning of hepatitis C-related depression.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Jana C; Cookman, Craig A

    2005-01-01

    A clarified conceptual meaning of depression in individuals with hepatitis C virus infection is proposed based on a critical review of literature. Moving beyond an exclusively biomedical perspective, depression in hepatitis C is explained by a cluster of factors that incorporate physiological, psychological, and social dimensions. Symptom experience, stigma, and uncertainty are factors that span the complex nature of depression in individuals with hepatitis C. This broadened perspective incorporates individual and societal values and beliefs regarding hepatitis C and encompasses the multidimensional complexity of depression in hepatitis C. Hepatitis C-related depression presents an enormous challenge for nurses because of its interference with treatment adherence and significant negative impact on the individual's quality of life. Nursing theorists, researchers, and clinicians may benefit from a clear conceptual understanding of the unique nature of depression in this growing segment of the U.S. population. This clarified conceptual meaning needs to be validated through qualitative, quantitative, and longitudinal studies with this population. It is hoped that future theorists, researchers, and practitioners will contribute to our conceptual understanding, resulting in improved quality of life for this special population. PMID:15832112

  13. Livedoid Vasculopathy and Mononeuritis Multiplex, with a Fulminant Hepatic Failure which was caused by Herpes Simplex Hepatitis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pai B, Sathish; Pai, Kanthilatha

    2013-01-01

    Livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex is a rare association. We are presenting a case of an unusual association of livedoid vasculopathy with mononeuritis multiplex, who developed fulminant hepatic failure which was secondary to Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis, while she was on treatment with immunosuppressants. Her skin biopsy and immunofluorescence studies showed the features of vasculitis. A biopsy from the sural nerve showed the features of chronic vasculitis. PMID:23814745

  14. [Hepatitis E virus seroprevalence: a reappraisal].

    PubMed

    Covarrubías, Natalia; Hurtado, Carmen; Díaz, Alex; Mezzano, Gabriel; Brahm, Javier; Venegas, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Reported seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in developed countries is between 0.3-53%. Published data relies on the assays used and its technical performance. Sensitivity on new available tests has improved, which has changed HEV seroprevalence around the world. We re-evaluated retrospectively, 178 serum samples of patients with previous anti HEV IgG determination between 2009 and 2012. Initial analysis was performed with ELISA kit Genelabs (Singapore), with 7.3% positivity. The reevaluation was done with ELISA kit AccuDiag TM HEV-IgG (Diagnostic Automation, United States), with reported sensitivity and specificity over 99.8%. With the new assay, 32.6% positive samples were found, significantly greater to the previous result (p<0.001) (4.5 times more). There were no differences in gender but a significant association between age and HEV IgG seropositivity was found (p<0.001). This suggests that previous testing might have underestimated HEV seroprevalence in Chile, which should be reevaluated using the new available test. PMID:26436799

  15. Obstructive jaundice as a complication of a right hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Ting-Chun; Lai, Hong-Shiee; Yang, Ching-Yao; Tien, Yu-Wen

    2015-01-01

    A hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare, but a potentially life-threatening complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). Obstructive jaundice owing to a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after LC has never been reported. We report a patient with a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm after LC who presented with tarry stools, bloody drainage and obstructive jaundice. PMID:25883462

  16. A Successful Hepatitis B Vaccination Program in a Dental School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, David; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A carefully controlled hepatitis B immunization program among the University of Pittsburgh's dental students and faculty resulted in 96 percent of tested recipients having positive protective antibody titers. A direct relationship between age and positive titers emerged, supporting vaccination early in the dental career. (MSE)

  17. Alcohol induced hepatic degeneration in a hepatitis C virus core protein transgenic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Noh, Dong-Hyung; Lee, Eun-Joo; Kim, Ah-Young; Lee, Eun-Mi; Min, Chang-Woo; Kang, Kyung-Ku; Lee, Myeong-Mi; Kim, Sang-Hyeob; Sung, Soo-Eun; Hwang, Meeyul; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Jeong, Kyu-Shik

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become a major public health issue. It is prevalent in most countries. HCV infection frequently begins without clinical symptoms, before progressing to persistent viremia, chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the majority of patients (70% to 80%). Alcohol is an independent cofactor that accelerates the development of HCC in chronic hepatitis C patients. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate ethanol-induced hepatic changes in HCV core-Tg mice and mutant core Tg mice. Wild type (NTG), core wild-Tg mice (TG-K), mutant core 116-Tg mice (TG-116) and mutant core 99-Tg mice (TG-99) were used in this investigation. All groups were given drinking water with 10% ethanol and 5% sucrose for 13 weeks. To observe liver morphological changes, we performed histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations. Histopathologically, NTG, TG-K and TG-116 mice showed moderate centrilobular necrosis, while severe centrilobular necrosis and hepatocyte dissociation were observed in TG-99 mice with increasing lymphocyte infiltration and piecemeal necrosis. In all groups, a small amount of collagen fiber was found, principally in portal areas. None of the mice were found to have myofibroblasts based on immunohistochemical staining specific for α-SMA. CYP2E1-positive cells were clearly detected in the centrilobular area in all groups. In the TG-99 mice, we also observed cells positive for CK8/18, TGF-β1 and phosphorylated (p)-Smad2/3 and p21 around the necrotic hepatocytes in the centrilobular area (p < 0.01). Based on our data, alcohol intake induced piecemeal necrosis and hepatocyte dissociation in the TG-99 mice. These phenomena involved activation of the TGF-β1/p-Smad2/3/p21 signaling pathway in hepatocytes. Data from this study will be useful for elucidating the association between alcohol intake and HCV infection. PMID:24608925

  18. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  19. Hepatitis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  20. Co-occurrence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection and autoimmune hepatitis in a young Senegalese girl.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Valerio; Marcellini, Matilde; Devito, Rita; Comparcola, Donatella; Vento, Sandro

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a 9-year-old Senegalese girl with co-occurring wild-type (HBeAg-positive) chronic hepatitis B and antinuclear antibody-positive autoimmune hepatitis. Her HLA haplotype was A1, B8, DRB1*04, DQB1*02. Steriod and lamivudine therapy led to biochemical remission, and reactivation occurred when the patient stopped steroids. Persistent HBV infection due to wild-type virus (likely acquired vertically or early in life, as the mother was HBsAg positive) may have acted as a trigger for autoimmune hepatitis in this young girl. PMID:16825914

  1. Multistate outbreak of hepatitis A associated with frozen strawberries.

    PubMed

    Niu, M T; Polish, L B; Robertson, B H; Khanna, B K; Woodruff, B A; Shapiro, C N; Miller, M A; Smith, J D; Gedrose, J K; Alter, M J

    1992-09-01

    A multistate outbreak of hepatitis A was traced to frozen strawberries processed at a single plant. Among 827 students and 60 teachers at an elementary school in Georgia during a 2-week period, 15 developed hepatitis A. Three months later, among 174 residents and 467 staff in an institution for the developmentally disabled in Montana during a 3-week period, 13 developed hepatitis A. Primary attack rates were 10% in the school and 8% in the institution. Cohort analysis in the school implicated consumption of strawberry shortcake in hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection (relative risk, 7.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-55.6). In the institution, such analysis implicated desserts and uncooked strawberries as the most biologically plausible vehicle of HAV transmission. Molecular analysis of HAV from patients in the two outbreaks revealed that the viral genomes were genetically identical and distinct from other known US strains. Contamination of food products before retail distribution is rare but should be considered in investigating common-source outbreaks of hepatitis A. PMID:1323618

  2. The concanavalin A model of acute hepatitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Heymann, F; Hamesch, K; Weiskirchen, R; Tacke, F

    2015-04-01

    The intravenous injection of the plant lectin concanavalin A (ConA) is a widely used model for acute immune-mediated hepatitis in mice. In contrast to several other models for acute hepatic damage, ConA-induced injury is primarily driven by the activation and recruitment of T cells to the liver. Hence, the ConA model has unique features with respect to its pathogenesis and important similarities to immune-mediated hepatitis in humans, such as autoimmune hepatitis, acute viral hepatitis or distinct entities of drug toxicity leading to immune activation. However, the ConA model has considerable variability, depending on the preparation of the compound, genetic background of the mice, sex, age and microbial environment of the animal facility barrier. This standard operating procedure (SOP) comprises a detailed protocol for the ConA application, including preparation of ConA working solution, handling of the animals, choice of the appropriate conditions and endpoints, as well as efficient dose-finding. PMID:25835734

  3. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from infection with the hepatitis B virus. When first infected, a person can develop ...

  4. A retrospective study on imported hepatitis E in Japan.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Cheng; Ochiai, Susumu; Ishiko, Hiroaki; Wakita, Takaji; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Takeda, Naokazu

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a causative agent of human hepatitis E, is transmitted through an oral-fecal route, often by contaminated drinking water. Serum specimens were collected from 112 non-A, -B, and -C acute hepatitis patients from 1989 to 2004 in Japan. Of these, 24 patients were found to be positive for anti-HEV IgM and diagnosed with acute Hepatitis E. Seventeen of these patients had a clear history of traveling abroad before disease onset and were counted as cases of imported HEV infection. HEV RNA was detected in 16 of these imported cases, and the nucleotide sequences similar to those of HEV detected in India, Bangladesh, and China were identified. By phylogenetic analysis, the remaining imported case appeared to have been imported from India, even though the patient's travel history was uncertain. These results indicated that some sporadic cases of hepatitis E in Japan are caused by imported HEV, and that phylogenetic analyses enable us to identify the country or area where a patient has been infected. PMID:22405678

  5. Large hepatic adenoma in a 21-year-old male

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Mier, Gustavo; Enriquez De los Santos, Horacio; Grube-Pagola, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic adenoma is an uncommon benign lesion of the liver that occurs more frequently in women in their third and fourth decades. The female/male ratio is up to 11:1. Hepatic adenomas may be single or multiple occasionally reaching sizes up to 20 cm. They are non-cancerous lesions, however they can become malignant. We present a 21-year-old male patient with no medical history who presented with abdominal pain, a palpable abdominal mass, abnormal liver function tests and a 14 kg weight loss in a 2-year period. A CT scan was performed with a 17 cm tumour compressing intrahepatic bile ducts. The patient underwent a right hepatectomy with no complications. Histopathological analysis of the tumour revealed a hepatic adenoma with central necrosis. The patient is asymptomatic at 1-year follow-up. PMID:24306431

  6. What Is Hepatitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  7. Budd-Chiari Syndrome in a Patient with Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Hennemeyer, Charles; Flores, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome can present with cirrhosis and signs and symptoms similar to those of other chronic liver diseases. We present a case of Budd-Chiari syndrome discovered during attempted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting in a patient with decompensated cirrhosis believed to be secondary to hepatitis C. Although the patient had hepatocellular carcinoma, the Budd-Chiari syndrome was a primary disease due to hepatic venous webs. Angioplasty was performed in this case, which resolved the patient's symptoms related to portal hypertension. Follow-up venography 5 months after angioplasty demonstrated continued patency of the hepatic veins. A biopsy was obtained in the same setting, which showed centrilobular fibrosis indicating that venous occlusion was indeed the cause of cirrhosis. It is important to consider a second disease when treating a patient with difficult to manage portal hypertension. PMID:27525135

  8. Budd-Chiari Syndrome in a Patient with Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Frankl, Joseph; Hennemeyer, Charles; Flores, Michael S; Desai, Archita P

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Budd-Chiari syndrome can present with cirrhosis and signs and symptoms similar to those of other chronic liver diseases. We present a case of Budd-Chiari syndrome discovered during attempted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting in a patient with decompensated cirrhosis believed to be secondary to hepatitis C. Although the patient had hepatocellular carcinoma, the Budd-Chiari syndrome was a primary disease due to hepatic venous webs. Angioplasty was performed in this case, which resolved the patient's symptoms related to portal hypertension. Follow-up venography 5 months after angioplasty demonstrated continued patency of the hepatic veins. A biopsy was obtained in the same setting, which showed centrilobular fibrosis indicating that venous occlusion was indeed the cause of cirrhosis. It is important to consider a second disease when treating a patient with difficult to manage portal hypertension. PMID:27525135

  9. Sirtuin 1 Deacetylase: A Key Regulator of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kemper, Jongsook Kim; Choi, SungE; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Obesity is a serious medical problem worldwide and disruption of metabolic/energy homeostasis plays a pivotal role in this global epidemic. In obese people, fatty liver (steatosis) develops, which increases the risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and even, liver cancer. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a NAD+-dependent deacetylase that functions as a key metabolic/energy sensor and mediates homeostatic responses to nutrient availability. Accumulating evidence indicates that SIRT1 is a master regulator of the transcriptional networks that control hepatic lipid metabolism. During energy-deprived conditions, SIRT1 deacetylates and alters the expression and activities of key transcriptional regulators involved in hepatic lipogenesis, fatty acid β-oxidation, and cholesterol/bile acid metabolism. This review will discuss the latest advances in this field, focusing on beneficial roles of SIRT1 in hepatic lipid metabolism including its potential as a therapeutic target for treatment of steatosis and other obesity-related metabolic diseases. PMID:23374725

  10. Possible roxithromycin-induced fulminant hepatic failure in a child.

    PubMed

    Easton-Carter, K L; Hardikar, W; Smith, A L

    2001-07-01

    A pediatric formulation of roxithromycin is a relatively new addition to the antibiotic market in Australia. A previously healthy 5-year-old boy with no significant medical history was treated with roxithromycin 50 mg twice/day for cough, fever, and anorexia. After completing a 5-day course of the agent, he developed a nonpruritic, nonurticarial, erythematous, maculopapular, generalized rash and occasional vomiting. Three days later his symptoms included jaundice, dark urine, and pale stools. Laboratory results revealed acute hepatitis, and the patient was admitted to the hospital. His hepatic function continued to deteriorate, so the boy was transferred to a tertiary pediatric hospital. His condition continued to worsen, and 6 days after transfer, he underwent liver transplantation. Clinicians should be aware of potential hepatic complications associated with the use of roxithromycin. PMID:11444584

  11. Predictors of hepatitis knowledge improvement among methadone maintained clients enrolled in a hepatitis intervention program.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Tyler, Darlene; Sinha, Karabi; Marfisee, Mary; Cohen, Allan; Greengold, Barbara

    2010-08-01

    This randomized, controlled study (n = 256) was conducted to compare three interventions designed to promote hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination completion, among clients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Los Angeles and Santa Monica. The participants were randomized into three groups: Motivational Interviewing-Single Session (MI-Single), Motivational Interviewing-Group (MI-Group), or Nurse-Led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP). All three treatment groups received the 3-series HAV/HBV vaccine. The MI sessions were provided by trained therapists, the Nurse-Led HHP sessions were delivered by a research nurse. The main outcome variable of interest was improvement in HBV and HCV knowledge, measured by a 6-item HBV and a 7-item HCV knowledge and attitude tool that was administered at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. The study results showed that there was a significant increase in HBV- and HCV-related knowledge across all three groups (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences found with respect to knowledge acquisition among the groups. Irrespective of treatment group, gender (P = 0.008), study site (P < 0.0001) and whether a participant was abused as a child (P = 0.017) were all found to be predictors of HCV knowledge improvement; only recruitment site (P < 0.0001) was found to be a predictor of HBV knowledge. The authors concluded that, although MI-Single, MI-Group and Nurse-Led HHP are all effective in promoting HBV and HCV knowledge acquisition among MMT clients, Nurse-Led HHP may be the method of choice for this population as it may be easier to integrate and with additional investigation may prove to be more cost efficient. PMID:20358265

  12. Hepatitis a screening for internationally adopted children from hepatitis A endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Vanessa N; Sautter, Casey; Chesney, Mary; Eckerle, Judith K; Howard, Cynthia R; John, Chandy C

    2014-01-01

    Screening for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is not currently routinely recommended in internationally adopted children. International adoptees seen at the University of Minnesota International Adoption Clinic from 2006 to 2010 were assessed for acute HAV infection (positive HAV immunoglobulin M). Thirty of the 656 children screened (4.6%) were acutely HAV infected. HAV-infected children emigrated from Ethiopia (16), Guatemala (4), China (2), Colombia (2), Haiti (2), Philippines (2), Liberia (1), and Nepal (1). Infection was most frequent among children younger than 2 years (6.7%). No symptoms distinguished children with acute HAV infection from uninfected children. HAV infection caused significant social disruption, including separation of children from their ill adoptive parents during the initial weeks postarrival, a period important for postadoption adjustment and attachment. All international adoptees arriving from countries with high or intermediate HAV endemicity should be screened for HAV infection on arrival to the United States. PMID:24137028

  13. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  14. "Know Hepatitis B:" A Multilingual Communications Campaign Promoting Testing for Hepatitis B Among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Cynthia; Chen, Sherry; Carnes, C Amanda; Block, Joan; Chen, Daniel; Caballero, Jeffrey; Moraras, Kate; Cohen, Chari

    2016-01-01

    The "Know Hepatitis B" campaign was the first national, multilingual communications campaign to promote testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). This population comprises fewer than 5% of the total U.S. population but accounts for more than half of the up to 1.4 million Americans living with chronic HBV infection. To address this health disparity with a national campaign, CDC partnered with Hep B United, a national coalition of community-based partners working to educate AAPIs about hepatitis B and the need for testing. Guided by formative research, the "Know Hepatitis B" campaign was implemented in 2013 with a two-pronged communications strategy. CDC used available Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese media outlets on a national level and relied on Hep B United to incorporate campaign materials into educational efforts at the local level. This partnership helped facilitate HBV testing among the priority population. PMID:27168659

  15. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  16. Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hesamizadeh, Khashayar; Sharafi, Heidar; Keyvani, Hossein; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Najafi-Tireh Shabankareh, Azar; Sharifi Olyaie, Roghiyeh; Keshvari, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) are both transmitted by the fecal-oral route and are known as the leading causes of acute viral hepatitis in the world, especially in developing countries. There is a lack of updated data on HAV and HEV seroprevalence in Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV among a group of blood donors in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2014 to December 2014, on a total of 559 blood donors referred to the Tehran blood transfusion center. The serum samples were tested for antibodies to HAV and HEV, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results In the present study, 536 (95.9%) cases were male and 23 (4.1%) female with mean age of 38 years. Out of 559 blood donors, 107 (19.1%) were first-time donors, 163 (29.2%) lapsed donors and 289 (51.7%) regular donors. Anti-HAV was found in 395 (70.7%) and anti-HEV in 45 (8.1%) of the blood donors. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence increased by age. There was no significant difference between genders in terms of anti-HAV and anti-HEV status. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly related to the level of education, where the donors with higher level of education had lower rate of HAV and HEV seroprevalence. The HAV and HEV seroprevalence was significantly higher in regular and lapsed donors than in first-time donors. Conclusions The present study showed that both HAV and HEV infections are still endemic in Iran. PMID:27110256

  17. Hepatitis delta virus: A fascinating and neglected pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Celso; Tavanez, João Paulo; Gudima, Severin

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the etiologic agent of the most severe form of virus hepatitis in humans. Sharing some structural and functional properties with plant viroids, the HDV RNA contains a single open reading frame coding for the only virus protein, the Delta antigen. A number of unique features, including ribozyme activity, RNA editing, rolling-circle RNA replication, and redirection for a RNA template of host DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II, make this small pathogen an excellent model to study virus-cell interactions and RNA biology. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis Delta are scarce and ineffective. The disease burden is perhaps largely underestimated making the search for new, specific drugs, targets, and treatment strategies an important public health challenge. In this review we address the main features of virus structure, replication, and interaction with the host. Virus pathogenicity and current treatment options are discussed in the light of recent developments. PMID:26568914

  18. Hepatitis delta virus: A fascinating and neglected pathogen.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Celso; Tavanez, João Paulo; Gudima, Severin

    2015-11-12

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the etiologic agent of the most severe form of virus hepatitis in humans. Sharing some structural and functional properties with plant viroids, the HDV RNA contains a single open reading frame coding for the only virus protein, the Delta antigen. A number of unique features, including ribozyme activity, RNA editing, rolling-circle RNA replication, and redirection for a RNA template of host DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II, make this small pathogen an excellent model to study virus-cell interactions and RNA biology. Treatment options for chronic hepatitis Delta are scarce and ineffective. The disease burden is perhaps largely underestimated making the search for new, specific drugs, targets, and treatment strategies an important public health challenge. In this review we address the main features of virus structure, replication, and interaction with the host. Virus pathogenicity and current treatment options are discussed in the light of recent developments. PMID:26568914

  19. Acute Hepatic Failure in a Dog after Xylitol Ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Renee D; Hovda, Lynn R

    2016-06-01

    Xylitol is a five-carbon sugar alcohol produced from natural resources frequently used as a sugar substitute for humans. We report the development and successful treatment of acute hepatic failure and coagulopathy in a dog after xylitol ingestion. A 9-year-old 4.95 kg (10.9 lb) neutered male Chihuahua was evaluated at a veterinary clinic for vomiting after ingesting 224 g (45 g/kg, 20.5 g/lb) of granulated xylitol. Hypoglycemia developed within 1-2 h, elevated liver values, suggesting the development of acute hepatic failure, within 12 h and coagulopathy less than 24 h after ingestion. Treatment included maropitant, intravenous dextrose, phytonadione, metronidazole, and fresh frozen plasma. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and S-adensoyl-L-methionine (SAMe) provided hepatic detoxification and support. The dog survived and liver values returned to normal within 1 month post ingestion. No adverse effects to hepatic function have been identified 2 years after acute xylitol toxicity. This paper is one of the few reports of successful management of a dog with hypoglycemia, hepatic failure, and coagulopathy caused by xylitol toxicity. To date, this is the highest published xylitol dose survived by a dog, as well as the only reported case that documents laboratory changes throughout the course of toxicity and includes normal hepatic indices for 7 months following xylitol toxicity. The rapidly expanding use of xylitol in a variety of products intended for human consumption has led to a rise in xylitol toxicity cases reported in dogs, and clinicians should be aware that more dogs may potentially be exposed and develop similar manifestations. PMID:26691320

  20. Outbreak of Hepatitis A on an Offshore Petroleum Platform, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kosatsky, Tom; Middaugh, John P.; Hall, David

    1988-01-01

    An outbreak of 8 cases of hepatitis A among the 36-member crew of an offshore Alaska petroleum production platform was linked to a previous outbreak in an urban day-care center. Transmission of hepatitis A on the platform related most plausibly to refrigerated food items contaminated by a cook with mild disease. Control efforts included identifying and treating contacts of case patients who had traveled far from the platform before becoming ill. Early serologic confirmation of diagnosed cases and rapid reporting to public health authorities are essential to prevent disease transmission. Timely investigation can limit the administration of immune globulin to persons at high risk of contracting the disease. PMID:3348024

  1. Surveillance system for hepatitis C infection: A practical approach

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Najmeh; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Ataei, Behrooz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health concern throughout the world. Despite its public health prominence, however, how surveillance systems for hepatitis C should be designed is still a challenging issue especially in developing countries such as Iran. Establishing a surveillance system needs an ongoing process of case investigation, data collection, analysis of data and also dissemination of data to public health professionals and health care providers. This review article tries to provide the best recommendations for planning and implantation a surveillance system for HCV infection. PMID:22826770

  2. Hepatitis E-associated encephalopathy in a renal transplant recipient

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Marijke A; Samijn, Johnny P A; de Man, Rob; Boots, Johannes M M

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 is not rare in developed countries, and may cause chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients. This may not only lead to abnormalities in liver test and malaise, but to severe neurological symptoms as well. In this case, chronic hepatitis E infection caused encephalopathy, an atactic gait, Lhermitte's sign, incomplete bladder emptying and peripheral sensory neuropathy in a renal transplant recipient. The diagnosis was not performed until years after the onset of first symptoms and several months after the onset of neurological symptoms. If treated adequately, viral load can be reduced in over two-thirds of patients and neurological symptoms are often resolved. More widespread knowledge about this virus and its extrahepatic manifestations may lead to a quicker diagnosis, and may limit pathology. Serological screening should be added to standard pretransplant virological screening, so that, in the future, patients without antibodies could be vaccinated. PMID:24789162

  3. Hepatitis after the use of germander, a herbal remedy.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, L; Villeneuve, J P

    1996-01-01

    The authors report two cases of hepatic injury associated with the ingestion of germander, a herbal medicine used to facilitate weight loss. In both patients, hepatitis characterized by asthenia, jaundice and a marked increase in serum amino-transferase levels occurred after 5 to 6 months of germander use. The jaundice disappeared within 8 weeks after germander use was stopped, and the overall outcome was favourable. The subsequent resumption of germander therapy by one patient was soon followed by the recurrence of hepatitis. Similar reports from France have led to the banning of germander in that country. Like several other herbal remedies, germander may be hepatotoxic, and many herbal medicines may not be as safe as the public generally assumes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8646656

  4. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Hepatitis B HPV (Human Papillomavirus) Influenza (Flu) Measles Meningococcal Disease Mumps Pertussis (Whooping Cough) Pneumococcal Disease Rubella (German Measles) Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Tetanus (Lockjaw) Professional Resources Adult ...

  5. Experience With a Hepatitis-free Plasma Protein Solution

    PubMed Central

    Salsbury, A. J.; Brozovich, M.

    1968-01-01

    Clinical experience with a 4.3% solution of plasma protein treated to render it free of the agent of serum hepatitis is satisfactory. Sixty-seven transfusions of 400 ml. of the commercial preparation were given to 33 patients (25 with acute blood loss, 4 with severe burns, and 4 with hypoproteinaemia secondary to hepatic or renal disease). The solution was clinically as effective as reconstituted dried plasma in expanding plasma volume and in replacing serum protein lost in burns. Adverse effects were mild pyrexial reactions in one case and facial flushing in another. No cases of serum hepatitis occurred. The solution is available for immediate use, it can be kept at room temperature, and, as it does not cause rouleaux formation, it can be given before blood is taken for grouping and cross-matching. PMID:5662990

  6. A Family of Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis and Atypical Retinitis Pigmentosa

    PubMed Central

    Zanwar, Vinay; Mohite, Ashok; Surude, Ravindra; Rathi, Pravin; Balasubramani, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a rare cause of portal hypertension and esophageal varices in children. We report cases of siblings with biopsy proven congenital hepatic fibrosis and with atypical retinitis pigmentosa. They presented with repeated episodes of jaundice along with progressive decrease of vision in night. They had hepatosplenomegaly and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. One of the siblings had a large regenerating nodule replacing the entire right lobe of the liver and other one developed repeated hematemesis. This constellation of diagnosis belongs to the ciliopathy group of disorders. The spectrum of ciliopathy disorders has been evolving, and it varies from mild to severe manifestations. PMID:26918098

  7. A Family of Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis and Atypical Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Sunil; Zanwar, Vinay; Mohite, Ashok; Surude, Ravindra; Rathi, Pravin; Balasubramani, Meenakshi

    2015-11-01

    Congenital hepatic fibrosis is a rare cause of portal hypertension and esophageal varices in children. We report cases of siblings with biopsy proven congenital hepatic fibrosis and with atypical retinitis pigmentosa. They presented with repeated episodes of jaundice along with progressive decrease of vision in night. They had hepatosplenomegaly and portal hypertension with esophageal varices. One of the siblings had a large regenerating nodule replacing the entire right lobe of the liver and other one developed repeated hematemesis. This constellation of diagnosis belongs to the ciliopathy group of disorders. The spectrum of ciliopathy disorders has been evolving, and it varies from mild to severe manifestations. PMID:26918098

  8. Diabetes after infectious hepatitis: a follow-up study.

    PubMed Central

    Oli, J M; Nwokolo, C

    1979-01-01

    Eleven patients (nine men, one woman, and one girl) aged 11-62 years who developed diabetes mellitus after an attack of infectious hepatitis during the Eastern Nigerian epidemic of 1970-2 were followed up for two to nine years. One patient aged 60 years remained diabetic after the original illness. In the remaining 10 patients the diabetes remitted after three to nine months (mean 6.7 months) but in four it recurred after a remission lasting one and a half to four years (mean 2.6 years). Results of this follow-up study seem to confirm that the pancreas is sometimes permanently damaged during infectious hepatitis. PMID:435884

  9. Knowledge of Hepatitis B Virus Infection, Immunization with Hepatitis B Vaccine, Risk Perception, and Challenges to Control Hepatitis among Hospital Workers in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Adekanle, Olusegun; Ndububa, Dennis A.; Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Ijarotimi, Oluwasegun; Ijadunola, Kayode Thaddeus

    2015-01-01

    Background. Studies had reported high rate of hepatitis B infection among hospital workers with low participation in vaccination programmes, especially those whose work exposes them to the risk of HBV infection. The study assessed knowledge of hepatitis B virus infection, risk perception, vaccination history, and challenges to control hepatitis among health workers. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study. Consenting health care workers completed a self-administered questionnaire that assessed respondents' general knowledge of HBV, vaccination history and HBsAg status, risk perception, and challenges to control hepatitis. Data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results. Three hundred and eighty-two health care workers participated in the study. There were 182 males and 200 females. The respondents comprised 94 (25%) medical doctors, 168 (44%) nurses, 68 (18%) medical laboratory technologists, and 52 (14%) pharmacists. Over 33% had poor knowledge with 35% not immunized against HBV. Predictors of good knowledge include age less than 35 years, male sex, being a medical doctor, previous HBsAg test, and complete HBV immunisation. Identified challenges to control hepatitis include lack of hospital policy (91.6%), poor orientation of newly employed health workers (75.9%), and low risk perception (74.6%). Conclusion. Hospital policy issues and low risk perception of HBV transmission have grave implications for the control of HBV infection. PMID:25685549

  10. A New Soluble Gelatin Sponge for Transcatheter Hepatic Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Takasaka, Isao; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Sato, Morio Sahara, Shinya; Minamiguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Motoki; Ikoma, Akira; Nakata, Kouhei; Sonomura, Tetsuo

    2010-12-15

    To prepare a soluble gelatin sponge (GS) and to explore the GS particles (GSPs) that inhibit development of collateral pathways when transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization is performed. The approval of the Institutional Committee on Research Animal Care of our institution was obtained. By means of 50 and 100 kDa of regenerative medicine-gelatin (RM-G), RM-G sponges were prepared by freeze-drying and heating to temperatures of 110-150{sup o}C for cross-linkage. The soluble times of RM-GSPs were measured in vitro. Eight swine for transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization were assigned into two groups: six received 135{sup o}C/50RM-GSPs, 125{sup o}C/100RM-GSPs, and 138{sup o}C/50RM-GSPs, with soluble time of 48 h or more in vitro; two swine received Gelpart GSPs (G-GSPs) with insoluble time of 14 days as a control. Transarterial chemoembolization was performed on two branches of the hepatic artery per swine. RM-GSPs heated at temperatures of 110-138{sup o}C were soluble. Mean soluble times of the RM-GSPs increased with higher temperature. Hepatic branches embolized with G-GSP remained occluded after 6 days, and development of collateral pathways was observed after 3 days. Hepatic branches embolized with 135{sup o}C/50RM-GSP and 125{sup o}C/100RM-GSP remained occluded for 4 h, and recanalization was observed after 1 day. Hepatic branches embolized with 138{sup o}C/50RM-GS remained occluded for 1 day, and recanalization was observed after 2 days with no development of collateral pathways. In RM-GSs with various soluble times that were prepared by modulating the heating temperature, 138{sup o}C/50RM-GSP was the soluble GSP with the longest occlusion time without inducing development of collateral pathways.

  11. Selective internal radiation therapy of hepatic tumors: procedural implications of a patent hepatic falciform artery.

    PubMed

    Schelhorn, Juliane; Ertle, Judith; Schlaak, Joerg F; Mueller, Stefan; Bockisch, Andreas; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) using 90-yttrium is a local therapy for unresectable liver malignancies. Non-targeted 90-yttrium diversion via a patent hepatic falciform artery (HFA) is seen as risk for periprocedural complications. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of a patent HFA on SIRT. 606 patients with SIRT between 2006 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. SIRT preparation was performed by digital subtraction angiography including (99m)Tc-HSAM administration and subsequent SPECT/CT. Patients with an angiographically patent HFA were analyzed for procedural consequences and complications. 19 of 606 patients (3%) with an angiographically patent HFA were identified. Only 11 of these 19 patients received 90-yttrium in the hepatic vessel bed containing the HFA. Initial coil embolization of the HFA succeeded only in three of 11 patients. Out of the eight remaining patients four had no abdominal wall (99m)Tc-HSAM accumulation. The other four patients presented with an abdominal wall (99m)Tc-HSAM accumulation, for those a reattempt of HFA embolization was performed or ice packs were administered on the abdominal wall during SIRT. In summary, all patients tolerated SIRT well. A patent HFA should not be considered a SIRT contraindication. In patients with abdominal wall (99m)Tc-HSAM accumulation HFA embolization or ice pack administration seems to prevent complications. PMID:25332891

  12. Missed opportunities: Peripartum hepatic failure in a Chinese immigrant

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Shital

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity presents unique management challenges in pregnancy. We present the case of a 26-year-old HBsAg-positive woman who presented at 35 weeks gestational age with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain with markedly elevated liver enzymes. An elevated alpha feto-protein on antenatal screening had been misconstrued as fetal in origin. Magnetic resonance imaging and liver biopsy confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma. She died of fulminant hepatic failure two weeks after emergent delivery. This case highlights the importance of adequate evaluation and management of pregnant patients testing positive for HBsAg on routine antenatal testing.

  13. Computed Tomography Measurement of Hepatic Steatosis: Prevalence of Hepatic Steatosis in a Canadian Population

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Malcolm M.; Li, Zhe; Addeman, Bryan; McKenzie, Charles A.; Mujoomdar, Amol; Beaton, Melanie; Bird, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This retrospective chart review investigated the incidence of hepatic steatosis in London, Ontario, Canada. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed on emergency room (ER) patients undergoing nonscheduled computed tomography (CT) imaging over a six-month period in London, Ontario. CT images and reports were examined to determine presence of steatosis. Analyses of the electronic chart for a period of six months following the CT and communication with the patients' family doctors were used to determine if there was follow-up. Waist circumference, subcutaneous fat depth, and abdominal fat volumes were calculated. Results. 48/450 patients meeting inclusion criteria were identified by radiology as having steatosis, with 34/40 (85%) family physicians unaware of the finding. 24.7% (100/405) of patients met standard CT criteria for steatosis, 40 of which were reported by the radiologist. Waist circumference, subcutaneous adipose tissue depth, subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, and visceral adipose tissue volume were significantly associated with steatosis. Conclusions. The hepatic steatosis prevalence we report is the first reported in a Canadian population. Early identification of steatosis will become more important as new pharmacologic therapies arise. PMID:27446844

  14. Computed Tomography Measurement of Hepatic Steatosis: Prevalence of Hepatic Steatosis in a Canadian Population.

    PubMed

    Wells, Malcolm M; Li, Zhe; Addeman, Bryan; McKenzie, Charles A; Mujoomdar, Amol; Beaton, Melanie; Bird, Jeffery

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This retrospective chart review investigated the incidence of hepatic steatosis in London, Ontario, Canada. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed on emergency room (ER) patients undergoing nonscheduled computed tomography (CT) imaging over a six-month period in London, Ontario. CT images and reports were examined to determine presence of steatosis. Analyses of the electronic chart for a period of six months following the CT and communication with the patients' family doctors were used to determine if there was follow-up. Waist circumference, subcutaneous fat depth, and abdominal fat volumes were calculated. Results. 48/450 patients meeting inclusion criteria were identified by radiology as having steatosis, with 34/40 (85%) family physicians unaware of the finding. 24.7% (100/405) of patients met standard CT criteria for steatosis, 40 of which were reported by the radiologist. Waist circumference, subcutaneous adipose tissue depth, subcutaneous adipose tissue volume, and visceral adipose tissue volume were significantly associated with steatosis. Conclusions. The hepatic steatosis prevalence we report is the first reported in a Canadian population. Early identification of steatosis will become more important as new pharmacologic therapies arise. PMID:27446844

  15. HEPATIC NEOPLASMS IN THE MUMMICHOG, FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS L. FROM A CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    High prevalences of idiopathic hepatic lesions were found in mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus from a site in the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, Virginia contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). ross hepatic lesions occurred in 93% of the individuals fro...

  16. Prevalence of Hepatitis A Virus Antibody Among Navajo School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A serologic investigation of prevalence of immunity to hepatitis A (anti-HAV) was conducted in a rural school adjacent to a Navajo reservation in New Mexico. The results show rates of anti-HAV that are the highest reported at the ages tested in any subpopulation in the United States, comparable only with those in developing countries. (KH)

  17. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. While all three types of ... new Hepatitis A cases and 20% of new Hepatitis B cases occur in gay or bisexual men. Gay ...

  18. Compliance with a Voluntary Hepatitis B Vaccination Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Todd K.; Douglass, Chester W.

    1988-01-01

    Three years after the introduction of a voluntary hepatitis B vaccination program, the Harvard School of Dental Medicine has achieved a high vaccination rate among predoctoral students and a moderate rate among postdoctoral students and faculty. However, an unexpectedly low immunity was achieved, even among vaccinated individuals. (MSE)

  19. Fatal herpetic hepatitis in adult following short corticotherapy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seksik, P; Gozlan, J; Guitton, C; Galula, G; Maury, E; Offenstadt, G

    1999-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus hepatitis (HSV hepatitis) is an uncommon and severe complication of HSV type 1 and HSV type 2 infection. HSV hepatitis affects mostly immunocompromised patients. We report the case of a young man without any previous known immunodeficiency who developed fatal HSV hepatitis in the first 8 days of oral corticotherapy given for ulcerative colitis. A prompt diagnosis was possible because HSV was recovered from peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:10342519

  20. A novel linear neutralizing epitope of hepatitis E virus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zi-Min; Tang, Ming; Zhao, Min; Wen, Gui-Ping; Yang, Fan; Cai, Wei; Wang, Si-Ling; Zheng, Zi-Zheng; Xia, Ning-Shao

    2015-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a serious public health problem that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is primarily transmitted through fecal and oral routes. The major anti-HEV antibody responses are against conformational epitopes located in a.a. 459-606 of HEV pORF2. All reported neutralization epitopes are present on the dimer domain constructed by this peptide. While looking for a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb)-recognized linear epitope, we found a novel neutralizing linear epitope (L2) located in a.a. 423-437 of pORF2. Moreover, epitope L2 is proved non-immunodominant in the HEV-infection process. Using the hepatitis B virus core protein (HBc) as a carrier to display this novel linear epitope, we show herein that this epitope could induce a neutralizing antibody response against HEV in mice and could protect rhesus monkeys from HEV infection. Collectively, our results showed a novel non-immunodominant linear neutralizing epitope of hepatitis E virus, which provided additional insight of HEV vaccine. PMID:26051517

  1. The management of chronic viral hepatitis: A Canadian consensus conference 2004

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Morris; Bain, Vincent; Villeneuve, Jean-Pierre; Myers, Robert P; Cooper, Curtis; Martin, Steven; Lowe, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Several government and nongovernment organizations held a consensus conference on the management of acute and chronic viral hepatitis to update previous management recommendations. The conference became necessary because of the introduction of new forms of therapy for both hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The conference issued recommendations on the investigation and management of chronic hepatitis B, including the use of lamivudine, adefovir and interferon. The treatment of hepatitis B in several special situations was also discussed. There were also recommendations on the investigation and treatment of chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis C-HIV coinfection. In addition, the document makes some recommendations about the provision of services by provincial governments to facilitate the delivery of care to patients with hepatitis virus infection. The present document is meant to be used by practitioners and other health care providers, including public health staff and others not directly involved in patient care. PMID:18159509

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY HEPATITIS E VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a waterborne emerging pathogen that causes significant illness in the developing world. Thus far, an HEV outbreak has not been reported in the U.S., although a swine variant of the virus is common in Midwestern hogs. Because viruses isolated from two ...

  3. Rapid progression to gummatous syphilitic hepatitis and neurosyphilis in a patient with newly-diagnosed HIV.

    PubMed

    Pilozzi-Edmonds, Laura; Kong, Ling Yuan; Szabo, Jason; Birnbaum, Leora M

    2015-11-01

    We review the literature on hepatic involvement in patients with HIV and syphilis co-infection and describe a case of rapid progression to neurosyphilis and presumed gummatous syphilitic hepatitis in a patient newly diagnosed with HIV. To our knowledge, this is the first case of syphilitic hepatitis with gummas described in the HIV population. PMID:25525055

  4. Hepatic Enzyme Decline after Pediatric Blunt Trauma: A Tool for Timing Child Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baxter, Amy L.; Lindberg, Daniel M.; Burke, Bonnie L.; Shults, Justine; Holmes, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Previous research in adult patients with blunt hepatic injuries has suggested a pattern of serum hepatic transaminase concentration decline. Evaluating this decline after pediatric blunt hepatic trauma could establish parameters for estimating the time of inflicted injuries. Deviation from a consistent transaminase resolution pattern…

  5. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488

  6. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488

  7. Hepatic erythropoietin response in cirrhosis. A contemporary review.

    PubMed

    Risør, Louise Madeleine; Fenger, Mogens; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Møller, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The main function of erythropoietin (EPO) is to maintain red blood cell mass, but in recent years, increasing evidence has suggested a wider biological role not solely related to erythropoiesis, e.g. angiogenesis and tissue protection. EPO is produced in the liver during fetal life, but the main production shifts to the kidney after birth. The liver maintains a production capacity of up to 10% of the total EPO synthesis in healthy controls, but can be up-regulated to 90-100%. However, the hepatic EPO synthesis has been shown not to be adequate for correction of anemia in the absence of renal-derived EPO. Elevated circulating EPO has been reported in a number of diseases, but data from cirrhotic patients are sparse and the level of plasma EPO in patients with cirrhosis is controversial. Cirrhosis is characterized by liver fibrosis, hepatic dysfunction and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, which lead to arterial hypotension, hepatic nephropathy and anemia. An increase in EPO due to renal hypoperfusion, hypoxia and anemia or an EPO-mediated hepato-protective and regenerative mechanism is plausible. However, poor hepatic synthesis capacity, a decreasing co-factor level and inflammatory feedback mechanisms may explain a potential insufficient EPO response in end-stage cirrhosis. Finally, the question remains as to whether a potential increase in EPO production in certain stages of cirrhosis originates from the kidney or liver. This paper aims to review contemporary aspects of EPO relating to chronic liver disease. PMID:26919118

  8. Opt-Out Panel Testing for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C in an Urban Emergency Department: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Sarah; Lillis, Darren; Cotter, Aoife; O’Dea, Siobhan; Tuite, Helen; Fleming, Catherine; Crowley, Brendan; Fitzgerald, Ian; Dalby, Linda; Barry, Helen; Shields, Darragh; Norris, Suzanne; Plunkett, Patrick K.; Bergin, Colm

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Studies suggest 2 per 1000 people in Dublin are living with HIV, the level above which universal screening is advised. We aimed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a universal opt-out HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C testing programme for Emergency Department patients and to describe the incidence and prevalence of blood-borne viruses in this population. Methods An opt-out ED blood borne virus screening programme was piloted from March 2014 to January 2015. Patients undergoing blood sampling during routine clinical care were offered HIV 1&2 antibody/antigen assay, HBV surface antigen and HCV antibody tests. Linkage to care where necessary was co-ordinated by the study team. New diagnosis and prevalence rates were defined as the new cases per 1000 tested and number of positive tests per 1000 tested respectively. Results Over 45 weeks of testing, of 10,000 patient visits, 8,839 individual patient samples were available for analysis following removal of duplicates. A sustained target uptake of >50% was obtained after week 3. 97(1.09%), 44(0.49%) and 447(5.05%) HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C tests were positive respectively. Of these, 7(0.08%), 20(0.22%) and 58(0.66%) were new diagnoses of HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C respectively. The new diagnosis rate for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 0.8, 2.26 and 6.5 per 1000 and study prevalence for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C was 11.0, 5.0 and 50.5 per 1000 respectively. Conclusions Opt-out blood borne viral screening was feasible and acceptable in an inner-city ED. Blood borne viral infections were prevalent in this population and newly diagnosed cases were diagnosed and linked to care. These results suggest widespread blood borne viral testing in differing clinical locations with differing population demographic risks may be warranted. PMID:26967517

  9. An epidemic of cockles-associated hepatitis A in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Goh, K. T.; Chan, L.; Ding, J. L.; Oon, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    An epidemic of serologically confirmed hepatitis A occurred between May and September 1983 in Singapore. The vehicle of transmission was traced to raw and partially cooked cockles, Anadara granosa, which had been imported from places with no sanitary control on the production. Strict controls on imported cockles are warranted. PMID:6335847

  10. Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in a Rural Medicaid HMO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert Jr., James F.; Goldenberg, Paula C.; Schock, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C infection (CHCI) is an increasingly common problem, affecting about 2% of the US population. The cost and complexity of treatment and difficulties in communicating with the infected population are of concern to insurers and health planners. Purpose: To describe the clinical features of patients with CHCI in a rural…

  11. Hepatitis A, B, and C: Learn the Differences

    MedlinePlus

    ... adoptee’s arrival in the U.S. • People with chronic liver disease, including HCV • People working with HAV in a ... Europe, or the Middle East); • People with chronic liver disease Who should be tested ? Hepatitis C caused by ...

  12. Hepatitis C Seroprevalence in an Institution for Residents with a Developmental Disability. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Eric

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in Australia of 156 individuals with developmental disabilities who were long-term clients of a residential institution, to determine the incidence of hepatitis C antibodies. Results indicated that none of the residents was seropositive and that hepatitis C is less prevalent than hepatitis B in residential…

  13. Treatment of HEV Infection in Patients with a Solid-Organ Transplant and Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kamar, Nassim; Lhomme, Sébastien; Abravanel, Florence; Marion, Olivier; Peron, Jean-Marie; Alric, Laurent; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause hepatic and extra-hepatic manifestations. Treatment of HEV infection has been thoroughly studied in solid-organ-transplant patients who have developed a chronic HEV infection. In this review, we report on our current knowledge regarding treatment of HEV infection. PMID:27537905

  14. Treatment of HEV Infection in Patients with a Solid-Organ Transplant and Chronic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kamar, Nassim; Lhomme, Sébastien; Abravanel, Florence; Marion, Olivier; Peron, Jean-Marie; Alric, Laurent; Izopet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause hepatic and extra-hepatic manifestations. Treatment of HEV infection has been thoroughly studied in solid-organ-transplant patients who have developed a chronic HEV infection. In this review, we report on our current knowledge regarding treatment of HEV infection. PMID:27537905

  15. Resolution of Hepatic Encephalopathy Following Hepatic Artery Embolization in a Patient with Well-Differentiated Neuroendocrine Tumor Metastatic to the Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Erinjeri, Joseph P. Deodhar, Ajita; Thornton, Raymond H.; Allen, Peter J.; Getrajdman, George I.; Brown, Karen T.; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Reidy, Diane L.

    2010-06-15

    Hepatic encephalopathy is considered a contraindication to hepatic artery embolization. We describe a patient with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor metastatic to the liver with refractory hepatic encephalopathy and normal liver function tests. The encephalopathy was refractory to standard medical therapy with lactulose. The patient's mental status returned to baseline after three hepatic artery embolization procedures. Arteriography and ultrasound imaging before and after embolization suggest that the encephalopathy was due to arterioportal shunting causing hepatofugal portal venous flow and portosystemic shunting. In patients with a primary or metastatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor whose refractory hepatic encephalopathy is due to portosystemic shunting (rather than global hepatic dysfunction secondary to tumor burden), hepatic artery embolization can be performed safely and effectively.

  16. Hepatic metastases from gastric cancer: A surgical perspective.

    PubMed

    Tiberio, Guido Alberto Massimo; Roviello, Franco; Donini, Annibale; de Manzoni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Management of patients with hepatic metastases as the sole metastatic site at diagnosis of gastric cancer (synchronous setting) or detected during follow-up (metachronous) is controversial. The prevailing attitude in these cases is passive, leading to surgical palliation and, possibly, to chemotherapy. Authors focused this editorial in order to promote a more pragmatic attitude. They stress the importance of recognizing the good candidates to curative surgery of both gastric cancer and hepatic metastases (synchronous setting) or hepatic disease alone (metachronous disease) from those who will not benefit from surgical therapy. In fact, in adequately selected subgroup of patients surgery, especially if integrated in multimodal therapeutic strategies, may achieve unexpected 5-year survival rates, ranging from 10% to 40%. The critical revision of the literature suggests that some simple clinical criteria exist that may be effectively employed in patients selection. These are mainly related to the gastric cancer (factors T, N, G) and to the extent of hepatic involvement (factor H). Upon these criteria it is possible to adequately select about 50% of cases. In the remaining 50% of cases a critical discussion on a case-by-case basis is recommended, considering that among these patients some potential long-survivors exist, that survival is strictly influenced by the ablation of the tumor bulk and by multimodality treatments including chemotherapy and that in expert institutions this kind of surgery is performed with very low mortality and morbidity rates. PMID:26556981

  17. The mechanism of hepatic uptake of a radiolabelled monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Boyle, C C; Paine, A J; Mather, S J

    1992-04-01

    Clinical and experimental scintigraphic studies have found that radiolabelled antibodies are not only taken up by tumour(s) but also by normal liver. The accumulation of radionuclides in this organ poses a major problem to the use of radiolabelled antibodies as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. In an attempt to understand the mechanism of hepatic uptake and clearance of radiolabelled antibodies, the intrahepatic biodistribution of an 111In-labelled MAb (HMFG1), was determined following i.v. administration to normal male rats. Two hours after administration the liver contained 15% of the injected dose, with most of the remaining radioactivity in the blood. The hepatic burden of the 111In MAb remained constant over the next 72 hr in the face of decreasing blood levels of radioactivity as well as its urinary and faecal excretion. At 2 and 72 hr after injection, 50% and 10% respectively of the hepatic radiolabel was due to blood borne antibody. Following a collagenase-cell isolation procedure, only 23% of the amount remaining in the liver at 2 hr was found to be cell-associated; 66% was lost during the cell isolation and purification procedure. Cellular uptake increased with time so that, by 72 hr after administration, 58% was cell-associated and 29% freely removable. At all timepoints, the parenchymal cells contained more activity than non-parenchymal cells. No evidence of antibody-receptor interactions could be obtained either in vivo or in cultures of hepatic parenchymal and non-parenchymal cells. Our data suggest that the bulk of the hepatic burden of 111In MAb results from extravascular pooling of the antibody. PMID:1555890

  18. Comparison of hepatitis B, core, HBc, and hepatitis B antibody, anti HBs, in a presumed low risk donor population.

    PubMed

    Heck, Ellen; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2014-09-01

    Donors screened by medical social history interview negative for high risk behavior or communicable disease history, but subsequently exhibiting reactive serological markers, emphasize importance of duel safe guarding factors for determining donor suitability. This report examines a relationship between two immunoabsorption assay tests, hepatitis B core (HBc) antibody, a required food and drug administration (FDA) test, and hepatitis B antibody (anti HBs), non-required test. Reactive serology results, 129 cases, 3,581 donors (2008-2012) for HBc as the only initially positive serological marker were subjected to anti HBs testing in this history pre-screened donor population. Enzyme linked immunoabsorption assay kits hepatitis B, core and antibody, were used in this study. All samples were initially tested for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, utilizing nucleic acid testing and antigen antibody immunoabsorption assay. Testing was performed by a FDA-registered CLEA-certified reference laboratory. Samples were deceased donor blood samples and a limited number of pre-mortem samples, separated, stored and analyzed according to manufacturer recommendation and FDA regulations. 129 reactive HBc only samples, were subsequently tested for anti HBs. Of these 129, 94 were found to be reactive for anti HBs. This represented 72 % of samples tested for antibody, a higher percentage than anticipated for a medical history negative, low risk population. PMID:24374389

  19. Ascariasis as a cause of hepatic abscess: A report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, V; Thakur, S; Rana, B

    2015-01-01

    We receive around 60 cases of hepatic abscess in a year. The commonest diagnosis reached at the time of discharge is amoebic liver abscess. The diagnosis of amoebic liver abscess is mostly presumptive and thus the patients are usually given a mixed treatment with injection ceftriaxone and tablet metronidazole. Here we report three cases of hepatic abscess diagnosed recently, where ascariasis was the probable etiology. Ascariasis may be a much commoner cause of hepatic abscesses in this region than we think. PMID:26068350

  20. Fatal fulminant hepatitis caused by infection with subgenotype A1 hepatitis B virus with C1766T/T1768A core promoter mutations.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Takashi; Takagi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yuhei; Naganuma, Atsushi; Sato, Ken; Kakizaki, Satoru; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki; Yamada, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    Adults initially infected with the hepatitis B virus develop various types of hepatitis ranging from asymptomatic to fulminant, and the clinical course of infection is influenced by a variety of host and viral factors. The viral risk factors associated with fulminant hepatitis reportedly include subgenotype B1, negative HBe antigen, and mutations in the precore and core promoter regions. Here, we present a case of fatal fulminant hepatitis caused by infection with subgenotype A1 hepatitis B virus with C1766T/T1768A double mutations in the core promoter region. A 53-year-old man was hospitalized with acute hepatitis B. Immediately after admission, entecavir was administered. However, his condition deteriorated, developing into fulminant hepatitis 2 days later. Artificial extracorporeal liver support therapy with plasma exchange (PE) and hemodiafiltration (HDF) were started. At one time point, the severity of hepatic encephalopathy decreased from grade II to grade 0, and the prothrombin time also improved, increasing from 11 to 73 %. However, the total bilirubin levels remained at or above 20 mg/dL and blood creatinine levels gradually increased. HDF was restarted, and therapies such as bilirubin adsorption and PE were administered. However, neither hepatic nor renal failure was alleviated, and the patient died 78 days after admission. PMID:27165167

  1. Incidence of hepatitis non-A, non-B compared with types A and B in hospital patients.

    PubMed

    Richer, G; Chen, Y Y; Huet, P M

    1982-09-01

    To establish the relative frequencies of types A, B and non-A, non-B hepatitis, stored samples of blood from all the cases of acute viral hepatitis seen over a period of 9 years in a general hospital for adults were classified according to their type by presently available serologic methods. The study included 456 episodes of hepatitis in 447 patients, distributed as follows: 114 episodes of hepatitis A (25%), 282 of hepatitis B (62%) and 60 of hepatitis non-A, non-B (13%). The episodes of non-A, non-B hepatitis were equally distributed between the sexes, suggesting a mode of transmission different from that of hepatitis A or B, which had male/female ratios of 2.4 and 3.1 respectively. The low proportion of hepatitis non-A, non-B may not reflect its real frequency, since it often escapes clinical recognition. PMID:6809306

  2. Diffuse Hepatic Calcifications in a Transfusion-Dependent Patient with Beta-Thalassemia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Forough; Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Karimi, Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Hepatic calcification is usually associated with infectious, vascular, or neoplastic processes in the liver. We report the first case of beta-thalassemia major with isolated diffuse hepatic calcification in a 23 year old woman, who had been transfusion-dependent since the age of 6 months. She was referred to our center with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed diffuse hepatic calcification in the right, left, and caudate lobes of the liver. Her medical history disclosed hypoparathyroidism as well as chronic hepatitis C virus infection, which was successfully treated but led to early micronodular cirrhosis on liver biopsy. Other studies done to search for the cause of hepatic calcification failed to reveal any abnormalities. We suspect that hypoparathyroidism caused liver calcification, and should be, therefore, considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatic calcification if other causative factors have been ruled out. PMID:24174700

  3. Fish Oil Decreases Hepatic Lipogenic Genes in Rats Fasted and Refed on a High Fructose Diet

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Gabriela S.; Cardoso, João Felipe R.; Calder, Philip C.; Jordão, Alceu A.; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-01-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  4. Fish oil decreases hepatic lipogenic genes in rats fasted and refed on a high fructose diet.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Gabriela S; Cardoso, João Felipe R; Calder, Philip C; Jordão, Alceu A; Vannucchi, Helio

    2015-03-01

    Fasting and then refeeding on a high-carbohydrate diet increases serum and hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations compared to standard diets. Fructose is a lipogenic monosaccharide which stimulates de novo fatty acid synthesis. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids stimulate hepatic β-oxidation, partitioning fatty acids away from TAG synthesis. This study investigated whether dietary n-3 fatty acids from fish oil (FO) improve the hepatic lipid metabolic response seen in rats fasted and then refed on a high-fructose diet. During the post-prandial (fed) period, rats fed a FO rich diet showed an increase in hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) gene expression and decreased expression of carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP), fatty acid synthase (FAS) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP). Feeding a FO rich diet for 7 days prior to 48 h of fasting resulted in lower hepatic TAG, lower PPAR-α expression and maintenance of hepatic n-3 fatty acid content. Refeeding on a high fructose diet promoted an increase in hepatic and serum TAG and in hepatic PPAR-α, ChREBP and MTTP expression. FO did not prevent the increase in serum and hepatic TAG after fructose refeeding, but did decrease hepatic expression of lipogenic genes and increased the n-3 fatty acid content of the liver. n-3 Fatty acids can modify some components of the hepatic lipid metabolic response to later feeding with a high fructose diet. PMID:25751821

  5. Screening for Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus at a Community Fair: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Garmen A.; Hill, Mary A.; de Medina, Maria D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite recommendations for screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), most individuals are still unaware of their infection status. The disparities in screening for HBV and HCV can be attributed to lack of awareness, language barriers, and difficulty in accessing healthcare. To address these issues, an exhibit booth was set up at an annual cultural festival to promote awareness about HBV and HCV and also provide free screening for a local Floridian community. Recruitment was conducted in various languages by physicians and nurses who specialize in hepatology. All materials associated with the screening process were sponsored by the Schiff Center for Liver Diseases, which is located at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine in Florida. In the first year of the screening initiative, 173 of 11,000 fair attendees were screened for HBV. Twenty-nine (17%) of those screened tested positive for antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and only 1 individual tested positive for chronic HBV, with positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Screening for HCV and an extended patient questionnaire were added to the screening program in the second year of the initiative. A total 231 of 9,000 fair attendees volunteered to be screened for both HBV and HCV. Twenty-nine (13%) of these people tested positive for anti-HBc, and 3 tested positive for HBsAg. Only 1 person tested positive for anti-HCV, but this individual had undetectable HCV RNA levels. Our single-center experience illustrates that, despite efforts to improve access to screening, only 2-3% of attendees at a cultural fair embraced the screening efforts. Other strategies will be required to enhance participation in screening programs for viral hepatitis. PMID:23943664

  6. Synchronous giant hepatic adenoma in siblings-A case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengsheng; Shi, Xuetao; Zhao, Lei

    2016-07-01

    A 47-year-old woman was referred to our department for a hepatic mass. She denied history of hepatitis or alcohol consumption and regular oral contraceptive use, except for the emergency contraceptive pill taken once a decade ago. Hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were negative, α-fetoprotein was within normal limit. CT scan revealed an enormous mass measuring 26.0×16 5×13 0 cm that almost totally replaced the right hepatic lobe. The neoplasm was completely resected and pathologically diagnosed as hepatic adenoma. Literature review indicates this is the largest hepatic adenoma reported so far. At the same time, clinical examination also revealed a hepatic mass in the patient's 42-year-old brother, which was pathologically confirmed as hepatic adenoma, too. He denied history of anabolic steroid use. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the subtypes of both tumors as the inflammatory hepatic adenoma. Literature review indicates this is the first report of synchronous hepatic adenomas in siblings. PMID:27096392

  7. IDENTIFICATION, ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE INFECTIOUS HEPATITIS (HEPATITIS A) AGENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program has the overall objective of combining the techniques of electron microscopy, ultracentrifugation, column chromatography, tissue culture and serology to identify, isolate and characterize the etiologic agent of infectious hepatitis, to propagate it in cell cu...

  8. Mirizzi syndrome associated with hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Oliver; Faroug, Radwane; Davidson, Brian R; Goode, J Antony

    2008-01-01

    Introduction This is the first case report of Mirizzi syndrome associated with hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. Case presentation A 54-year-old man presented with painful obstructive jaundice and weight loss. Computed tomography showed a hilar mass in the liver. Following an episode of haemobilia, angiography demonstrated a pseudoaneurysm of a branch of the right hepatic artery that was embolised. At surgery, a gallstone causing Mirizzi type II syndrome was found to be responsible for the biliary obstruction and a necrotic inflammatory mass and haematoma were found to be extending into the liver. The mass was debrided and drained, the obstructing stones removed and the bile duct drained with a t-tube. The patient made a full recovery. Conclusion This case highlights another situation where there may be difficulty in differentiating Mirizzi syndrome from biliary tract cancer. PMID:19014690

  9. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... develop yellowish eyes and skin. All the hepatitis viruses can cause acute, or short-term, hepatitis. Some can also cause chronic hepatitis, in which the infection lasts a long time, sometimes for your whole life. Chronic hepatitis can eventually lead to scarring of ...

  10. Hepatitis C in non-hepatic solid organ transplant candidates and recipients: A new horizon

    PubMed Central

    Belga, Sara; Doucette, Karen Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is estimated to affect 130-150 million people globally which corresponds to 2%-3% of the total world population. It remains the leading indication for liver transplant worldwide and has been demonstrated to negatively impact both patient and graft survival following non-hepatic organ transplantation. In the era of interferon-based therapy, although treatment and cure of HCV prior to non-hepatic transplant improved survival, tolerability and low cure rates substantially limited therapy. Interferon (IFN)-based therapy following non-hepatic solid organ transplant, due to the risk of allograft rejection, is generally contraindicated. Rapid advances in IFN-free therapy with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) in the last few years have completely changed the paradigm of hepatitis C therapy. Compared to IFN-based regimens, DAAs have less frequent and less severe adverse effects, shorter durations of therapy, and higher cure rates that are minimally impacted by historically negative predictors of response such as cirrhosis, ethnicity, and post-transplant state. Recent studies have shown that liver transplant (LT) recipients can be safely and effectively treated with DAA combination therapies; although data are limited, many of the principles of therapy in LT may be extrapolated to non-hepatic solid organ transplant recipients. Here we review the data on DAA combination therapies in transplantation, discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pre- vs post-transplant HCV therapy and future directions. PMID:26819530

  11. Hepatic hydatid cyst: a rare cause of recurrent pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kitchens, William H; Liu, Charles; Ryan, Edward T; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    A case of pancreatitis secondary to a hepatic hydatid cyst is illustrated together with its preoperative imaging and intraoperative appearance. Cystobiliary communication is a common complication of large hydatid cysts, and episodes of recurrent pancreatitis resulting from passage of cyst contents down the biliary tract are rarely described. The clinical manifestations, diagnostic workup, and surgical management options of echinococcal-related pancreatitis are discussed, and a review of the literature is provided. PMID:25149853

  12. [Isolation of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare from a hepatic biopsy].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Aroldo; Mederos, Lilian; Capó, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    A 64 years-old patient, who was a farmer suffering from chronic fever for two years, loss of weight and acute asthenia, was studied. He was admitted to "Pedro Kourí" Tropical Medicine Institute where the studies were conducted and revealed a globular sedimentation rate of 116 mm in 2 hours, and anemia of 9,8g% hemoglobin. The laparoscopic study indicated hepatic granulomatosis that was confirmed by hepatic biopsy in which a sample was taken from the liver to be microbiologically and cytologically examined. By microbiological methods, a non-pigmented slowly-growing strain was isolated, which was classified by conventional diagnostic techniques for the non-tuberculous mycobacteria classification and the alternative diagnosing technique known as bidimensional thin layer chromatography to confirm the previous classification and set the mycolic acid patterns. The isolated strain belonged to group III of Rynyon and was identified as Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare. PMID:15849945

  13. HDVDB: a data warehouse for hepatitis delta virus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sarita; Gupta, Sunil Kumar; Nischal, Anuradha; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Seth, Prahlad Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is an RNA virus and causes delta hepatitis in humans. Although a lot of data is available for HDV, but retrieval of information is a complicated task. Current web database 'HDVDB' provides a comprehensive web-resource for HDV. The database is basically concerned with basic information about HDV and disease caused by this virus, genome structure, pathogenesis, epidemiology, symptoms and prevention, etc. Database also supplies sequence data and bibliographic information about HDV. A tool 'siHDV Predict' to design the effective siRNA molecule to control the activity of HDV, is also integrated in database. It is a user friendly information system available at public domain and provides annotated information about HDV for research scholars, scientists, pharma industry people for further study. PMID:25786795

  14. Hepatic arterial loop with accessory right hepatic artery aneurysm with celiac atresia: endovascular therapy with a stent and detachable coils.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G; Seitun, Sara; Bovio, Giulio; Castellan, Lucio; De Paolis, Marco; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido R

    2008-08-01

    The present report describes an unusual case of an aneurysm of a right hepatic artery (RHA) branching from the superior mesenteric artery; the accessory RHA was looped to the left hepatic artery arising from the celiac axis (CA) and was associated with congenital atresia of the CA. The accessory RHA aneurysm was treated with the placement of a bare stent and detachable coils through the mesh of the stent. Complete and prompt exclusion of the aneurysm was achieved with blood flow preservation in the parent artery at midterm follow-up. PMID:18656020

  15. Euforia-induced acute hepatitis in a patient with scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Encarnación, Esther; Ríos, Grissel; Muñoz-Mirabal, Angel; Vilá, Luis M

    2012-01-01

    Euforia, a supplement containing a variety of natural ingredients, is widely used as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory formula. It is not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and its side effects are unknown. We report a 45-year-old woman with limited systemic sclerosis who presented with jaundice and marked elevation of serum transaminases. One month before, she started taking Euforia juice. A liver biopsy disclosed submassive hepatocellular necrosis with histopathological changes consistent with toxic hepatitis. The patient's symptoms resolved with cessation of Euforia. Six months later, she persisted with abnormal liver function tests, but these resolved 18 months after discontinuation of Euforia. The mechanism by which Euforia causes liver injury is unknown. Some ingredients contained in this supplement (green tea, Aloe vera, noni and goji) are linked to hepatic injury. To our knowledge, this is the first report of hepatotoxicity associated with Euforia. PMID:23257938

  16. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Eun; Kim, Byung Seok; Lee, Chang Hyeong

    2016-08-16

    Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs) are extremely rare and difficult to distinguish from other liver tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma, based on medical imaging findings. A 70-year-old man was referred for evaluation of liver mass incidentally discovered on abdominal computed tomography. The characteristic finding from dynamic liver magnetic resonance imaging led to a diagnosis of HCC. The patient underwent right hepatectomy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed grade 2 neuroendocrine tumor. The postoperative 24-h urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid was within the normal range. Further imaging investigations were performed. No other lesions were found making probable the diagnosis of PHNET. This case shows that the diagnosis of PHNET is a medical challenge, requiring differentiation of PHNETs other hepatic masses and exclusion of occult primary neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of PHNET can be ascertained after long term follow-up to exclude another primary origin. PMID:27574614

  17. Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jeong Eun; Kim, Byung Seok; Lee, Chang Hyeong

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs) are extremely rare and difficult to distinguish from other liver tumors, such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma, based on medical imaging findings. A 70-year-old man was referred for evaluation of liver mass incidentally discovered on abdominal computed tomography. The characteristic finding from dynamic liver magnetic resonance imaging led to a diagnosis of HCC. The patient underwent right hepatectomy. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed grade 2 neuroendocrine tumor. The postoperative 24-h urinary excretion of 5-hydroxy-indolacetic acid was within the normal range. Further imaging investigations were performed. No other lesions were found making probable the diagnosis of PHNET. This case shows that the diagnosis of PHNET is a medical challenge, requiring differentiation of PHNETs other hepatic masses and exclusion of occult primary neuroendocrine tumors. The diagnosis of PHNET can be ascertained after long term follow-up to exclude another primary origin. PMID:27574614

  18. Primary Hepatic Osteosarcoma: A Rare Cause of Primary Liver Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Tamang, Tsering Gyalpo Lama; Shuster, Marina; Chandra, Abhinav B.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Extraosseous osteosarcomas are rare, accounting for approximately 4% of all osteosarcomas. A literature review yields very few cases of osteosarcoma primarily arising from the hepatic parenchyma. CASE REPORT This report describes a case of a man in his 50s with a history of hepatitis C and cirrhosis who presented with 5 days of progressive right upper quadrant pain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a 4.4 cm × 4.8 cm × 4.8 cm right hepatic lobe mass with a large area of necrosis and peripheral enhancement. The subsequent liver biopsy showed few cores of tumor composed of fibroblastic malignant cells producing lace-like osteoid matrix. Osteosarcomatous foci in other parts of the body were excluded by performing extensive physical examination, radiologic imaging, and biopsy. Hence, a primary osteosarcoma was diagnosed. The patient underwent portal vein embolization in preparation for a surgical resection of the right liver lobe. He was admitted six weeks after the embolization for dyspnea and abdominal distension and expired due to abdominal hematoma and pulmonary embolism. CONCLUSION Based on the rarity, lack of consensus in treatment, and dismal prognosis, extraosseous osteosarcoma should be considered a separate entity from osseous osteosarcoma. More data and research are needed in this rare and understudied malignancy. PMID:27081321

  19. Use of a xanthine oxidase inhibitor in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Al-Shamma, Safa; Eross, Balint; Mclaughlin, Simon

    2013-03-01

    A 62-year-old woman with type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) failed to sustain remission when steroids were withdrawn from a regimen of steroids and azathioprine (AZA). Thiopurine metabolites revealed elevated 6-MMP (6-methyl mercaptopurine) and low 6-TGN (6-thioguanine nucleotide) consistent with AZA-induced hepatotoxicity. Introducing the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol led to rapid normalization of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and discontinuation of steroids. PMID:23238820

  20. Synthetic peptides for the immunodiagnosis of hepatitis A virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gauna, A; Losada, S; Lorenzo, M; Bermúdez, H; Toledo, M; Pérez, H; Chacón, E; Noya, O

    2015-12-01

    VP1, VP2 and VP3 molecules of hepatitis A virus are exposed capsid proteins that have shown to be antigenic and are used for diagnosis in recombinant-antigen commercial kits. In this study, we developed a sequence analysis in order to predict diagnostic peptide epitopes, followed by their spot synthesis on functionalized cellulose paper (Pepscan). This paper with synthetic peptides was tested against a sera pool of hepatitis A patients. Two peptide sequences, that have shown an antigenic recognition, were selected for greater scale synthesis on resin. A dimeric form of one of these peptides (IMT-1996), located in the C-Terminus region of protein VP1, was antigenic with a recognition frequency of 87-100% of anti-IgG antibodies and 100% of anti-IgM antibodies employing the immunological assays MABA and ELISA. We propose peptide IMT-1996, with less than twenty residues, as a cheaper alternative for prevalence studies and diagnosis of hepatitis A infection. PMID:26321053

  1. Neuralgic amyotrophy complicating acute hepatitis E infection: a rare association.

    PubMed

    Theochari, Evangelia; Vincent-Smith, Lisa; Ellis, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus infection (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that is under-recognised in developed countries. Preceding infection manifested by acute transaminitis has been associated with neurological manifestations, predominately involving the peripheral nervous system, even in immunocompetent patients. We present a case of a 65-year-old previously fit and well Caucasian man with bilateral neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) and acute transaminitis. Serology testing for immunoglobulin (Ig) M and G established the diagnosis of acute HEV infection. The patient received immunomodulatory treatment with an excellent long-term outcome. The temporal association of the clinical presentation of bilateral NA and acute transaminitis from HEV infection suggested the causal association of HEV to NA. We propose screening for HEV in patients presenting with NA and acute hepatitis. PMID:25739795

  2. Autoantibodies in chronic hepatitis C: A clinical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Narciso-Schiavon, Janaína Luz; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca

    2015-01-01

    Non-organ-specific autoantibodies and thyroid autoantibodies have been frequently found in chronic carriers of hepatitis C virus (HCV). With respect to endomysial antibodies and tissue transglutaminase, it is controversial whether the prevalence of gluten-related seromarkers is higher in patients with HCV. In such cases, in addition to acknowledging any currently existing autoimmune disease, recognizing the risk of the patient developing an autoimmune disease during interferon (IFN)-based treatment must be a principle concern. From a clinical point-of-view, the presence of autoantibodies arouses suspicion that an autoimmune disease may be present or may be precipitated by IFN-based HCV treatment. In this paper, we review the prevalence of autoantibodies in individuals with hepatitis C, the clinical significance of these autoantibodies, and the approach recommended for such situations. PMID:26052396

  3. Eosinophilic abscesses: a new facet of hepatic visceral larva migrans.

    PubMed

    Mukund, Amar; Arora, Ankur; Patidar, Yashwant; Mangla, Vivek; Bihari, Chhagan; Rastogi, Archana; Sarin, Shiv K

    2013-08-01

    Hepatic visceral larva migrans (VLM) refers to a condition characterized by granulomatous liver lesions containing eosinophils and inflammatory cells associated with migration of second-stage larvae of certain nematodes such as toxocara canis. The typical imaging findings described in the literature include small, ill-defined, oval or elongated, low-attenuating nodules with fuzzy margins, non-spherical shape, and absent or insignificant rim enhancement on contrast-enhanced CT scan. The present series in contrast depicts a new imaging manifestation of hepatic VLM presenting as confluent and clustered complex cystic liver lesions. Pre-treatment imaging studies including contrast-enhanced CT/MRI of three patients are presented. One of the patients underwent liver resection while post-treatment follow-up scan at 6 months in the remaining two displayed regression of the lesions with antihelminthic treatment. PMID:22801750

  4. Design and development of a receptor based hepatic radiopharmacokinetic system

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    A radiopharmaceutical system based upon the receptor properties of hepatic binding protein (HBP) was designed. Technetium-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA), a labeled analog of the receptor's native ligand, was synthesized and shown to exhibit high radiochemical stability and purity. Biokinetic studies in rabbits demonstrated that the time-course for liver uptake depended upon the moles of ligands injected and the number of galactose units coupled to each albumin molecule. Simulations using a nonlinear kinetic model adequately predicted the clearance of radioactivity from the blood and accumulation within the liver. The simulations were based upon the amount of radioligand injected, the systemic and hepatic blood volumes, the number of receptors and the hepatic blood flow. The model could independently account for the injected dose and affinity dependencies by mass action of the receptor-ligand binding and the forward rate constant. Using parameter identifiability analysis of the model, it was determined that after the appropriate chemical manipulation of the radiopharmaceutical, a kinetic model could be utilized to uniquely estimate all simulation parameters. By utilizing the /sup 99m/Tc-NGA-HBP system as a model for the transfer of kinetic information, it is proposed that restricting the injected dose to trace amounts limits the flexibility required to chemically optimize the sensitivity of the radiopharmaceutical to disease.

  5. Foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A, November 2007-January 2008, Austria.

    PubMed

    Schmid, D; Fretz, R; Buchner, G; König, C; Perner, H; Sollak, R; Tratter, A; Hell, M; Maass, M; Strasser, M; Allerberger, F

    2009-04-01

    An outbreak of hepatitis A affecting 21 residents of an Austrian city occurred from the end of November 2007 until mid-January 2008. A case series investigation suggested the consumption of food purchased from supermarket X as the common link. A food handler employed in the delicatessen department of that supermarket had been serologically diagnosed with hepatitis A on 28th November 2007. During the infectious period of approximately 3 weeks, he worked on 11 days. Interviews with the other cluster cases revealed that the hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected food handler did not practice appropriate hand hygiene. The investigation revealed no other possible source of infection. We hypothesize that the food of the delicatessen department contaminated by the HAV-infected food handler during his infectious period was the source of the outbreak. The district public health authority recommended the reinforcement of hygiene precautions, i.e., access to viricidal hand disinfectant and the use of disposable gloves and single-use paper towels, in the involved supermarket. The federal ministry of health recommended HAV vaccination for all food handlers in food production and gastronomy companies; this recommendation was included in the Austrian national vaccination plan 2008, even though the vaccination of food handlers is costly and its cost-effectiveness is not proven. Appropriate and regular hand hygiene, particularly after toilet visits, is the most effective measure for preventing HAV transmission. PMID:18850121

  6. A neurotoxic alcohol exposure paradigm does not induce hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M; Wilhelm, Clare J

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with neurological dysfunction, brain morphological deficits and frank neurotoxicity. Although these disruptions may be a secondary effect due to hepatic encephalopathy, no clear evidence of causality is available. This study examined whether a 72h period of alcohol intoxication known to induce physical dependence, followed by a single withdrawal, was sufficient to induce signs of hepatic encephalopathy in male and female mice. Animals were continuously intoxicated via alcohol vapor inhalation, a procedure previously shown to induce significant neurotoxicity in female mice. At peak synchronized withdrawal (8h following the end of alcohol exposure), blood samples were taken and levels of several liver-regulated markers and brain swelling were characterized. Glutathione levels were also determined in the medial frontal cortex (mFC) and hippocampus. Results revealed elevated levels of cholesterol, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and decreased levels of blood urea nitrogen and total bilirubin in alcohol-exposed male and female groups compared to controls. Brain water weight was not affected by alcohol exposure, though males tended to have slightly more water weight overall. Alcohol exposure led to reductions in tissue levels of glutathione in both the hippocampus and mFC which may indicate increased oxidative stress. Combined, these results suggest that hepatic encephalopathy does not appear to play a significant role in the neurotoxicity observed following alcohol exposure in this model. PMID:27268733

  7. The Evolving Nature of Hepatic Abscess: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mavilia, Marianna G.; Molina, Marco; Wu, George Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hepatic abscess (HA) remains a serious and often difficult to diagnose problem. HAs can be divided into three main categories based on the underlying conditions: infectious, malignant, and iatrogenic. Infectious abscesses include those secondary to direct extension from local infection, systemic bacteremia, and intra-abdominal infections that seed the portal system. However, over the years, the etiologies and risks factors for HA have continued to evolve. Prompt recognition is important for instituting effective management and obtaining good outcomes. PMID:27350946

  8. Changing Epidemiological Characteristics of Hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province, China: Increased Susceptibility in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifang; Chen, Yaping; Xie, Shuyun; Lv, Huakun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis A is a common acute hepatitis caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). Annually, it affects 1.4 million people worldwide. Between 1991 and 1994, HAV infections were highly endemic in Zhejiang Province (China), with 78,720 reported HAV infections per year. Hepatitis A vaccine came on the market in 1995 and was implemented for voluntary immunization. Since 2008, hepatitis A vaccine has been integrated into the national childhood routine immunization program. Objective To understand the current epidemiological profile of hepatitis A in Zhejiang Province since hepatitis A vaccine has been available for nearly two decades. Methods This study used the 2005–2014 National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System data to evaluate the incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases in Zhejiang Province. Results The overall trend of incidence rate of notified hepatitis A cases significantly decreased from 2005 to 2014 (P< 0.001). During the study period, the reported incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years declined to the historically lowest record in 2014. Compared with individuals aged ≤19 years, those aged ≥20 years showed the highest incidence rate (P< 0.001). Majority of HAV infected cases were Laborers, accounting for approximately 70% of reported cases. Conclusions Childhood immunization strategy with hepatitis A vaccine seemed to be effective in decreasing notified hepatitis A incidence rate in individuals aged ≤19 years. Those aged ≥20 years were observed to be the most susceptible population. The vast majority of hepatitis A cases were notified among Laborers. Therefore, we strongly suggest that future preventive and control measures should focus more on adults, particularly Laborers, in addition to the current childhood hepatitis A vaccination programme. PMID:27093614

  9. Ischemic hepatitis after percutaneous nephrolitotomy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Mustafa Zafer; Yuruk, Emrah; Teberik, Kutlu; Akbas, Burcu Kadriye; Piroglu, Mustafa Devrim; Oztorun, Hande Selvi; Kandirali, Engin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ischemic hepatitis (IH) is the necrosis of the centrilobular hepatocytes of liver and is secondary to liver hypoperfusion in most of the cases. The diagnosis is usually based on biochemical findings due to the absence of symptoms and signs. Although the disease course is often mild, and sometimes is even not diagnosed, the outcome is poor if the etiology of hypotension and liver anoxia is not promptly corrected. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 64-year-old patient who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for right renal pelvic stone developed acute IH at first postoperative day as a result of hemorrhage related severe hypotension. After restoring hemodynamic parameters, she completely recovered 2 weeks after the operation. DISCUSSION IH is a frequent cause of marked serum aminotransferase elevation and most commonly occurs as a result of arterial hypoxemia and insufficient hepatic perfusion. Although no specific treatment of IH exists, stabilizing the hemodynamic parameters of the patient resolves the problem in most of the cases. CONCLUSION This case is presented to demonstrate that ischemic hepatitis should be kept in mind if severe hemorrhage occurs during PNL. PMID:25437690

  10. Hepatitis C in Australian prisons: a national needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Mina, Michael Mokhlis; Herawati, Lilie; Butler, Tony; Lloyd, Andrew

    2016-03-14

    Purpose - Hepatitis C (HCV) infections are prevalent in custodial settings worldwide, yet provision of antiviral therapies is uncommon. Approximately 30,000 prisoners are held in Australian prisons at any one time, with more than 30 per cent testing positive for HCV antibodies. Prisoners have been identified in the National Hepatitis C Strategy as a priority population for assessment and treatment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the rates of HCV testing and treatment, as well as barriers and opportunities for development of infrastructure for enhanced services. Design/methodology/approach - Interviews were conducted with 55 stakeholders from the correctional sector in each state and territory in Australia in two stages: service directors to gather quantitative data regarding rates of testing and treatment; and other stakeholders for qualitative information regarding barriers and opportunities. Findings - Of more than 50,000 individuals put in in custody in Australian prisons in 2013, approximately 8,000 individuals were HCV antibody positive, yet only 313 prisoners received antiviral treatment. The barriers identified to assessment and treatment at the prisoner-level included: fear of side effects and the stigma of being identified to custodial authorities as HCV infected and a likely injecting drug user. Prisoners who came forward may be considered unsuitable for treatment because of prevalent mental health problems and ongoing injecting drug use. Provision of specialist hepatitis nurses and consultants were the most frequently recommended approaches to how prison hepatitis services could be improved. Originality/value - Many personal and systems-level barriers relevant to the delivery of HCV treatment services in the custodial setting were identified. Ready access to skilled nursing and medical staff as well as direct acting antiviral therapies will allow the prison-sector to make a major contribution to control of the growing burden of HCV disease. PMID

  11. Acute hepatitis C in an HIV-infected patient: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Driver, Todd H; Terrault, Norah; Saxena, Varun

    2013-05-01

    With the decrease in transmission via transfusions and injection drug use, acute symptomatic hepatitis C is infrequently seen in developed countries. We report a case of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adult who presented with abdominal pain. His alanine aminotransferase was greater than sixty times the upper limit of normal without any evidence on examination of fulminant hepatic failure. His workup revealed an elevated hepatitis C viral level with a negative hepatitis C antibody. He was discharged once his liver function tests improved. As an outpatient, he had a recurrent bout of symptoms with an elevation of his alanine aminotransferase and hepatitis C viral levels that promoted anti-hepatitis C virus treatment. This case illustrates the importance of considering acute hepatitis C as a cause of acute hepatitis in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. While patients with acute symptomatic hepatitis C generally have a higher rate of spontaneous viral clearance compared to those with an insidious acute infection, most still progress to chronic hepatitis C infection, and patients with HIV coinfection carry a higher risk of progression to chronic disease. PMID:23151989

  12. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Bleibel, Wissam; Al-Osaimi, Abdullah M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis affect hundreds of millions of patients all over the world. The majority of patients with cirrhosis will eventually develop complications related to portal hypertension. One of these recurrent and difficult to treat complications is hepatic encephalopathy. Studies have indicated that overt hepatic encephalopathy affects 30 to 45% of patients with cirrhosis and a higher percentage may be affected by minimal degree of encephalopathy. All of these factors add to the impact of hepatic encephalopathy on the healthcare system and presents a major challenge to the gastroenterologist, hospitalist and primary care physician. PMID:23006457

  13. Hepatic Steatosis as a Marker of Metabolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Magkos, Faidon

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the liver manifestation of the complex metabolic derangements associated with obesity. NAFLD is characterized by excessive deposition of fat in the liver (steatosis) and develops when hepatic fatty acid availability from plasma and de novo synthesis exceeds hepatic fatty acid disposal by oxidation and triglyceride export. Hepatic steatosis is therefore the biochemical result of an imbalance between complex pathways of lipid metabolism, and is associated with an array of adverse changes in glucose, fatty acid, and lipoprotein metabolism across all tissues of the body. Intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content is therefore a very good marker (and in some cases may be the cause) of the presence and the degree of multiple-organ metabolic dysfunction. These metabolic abnormalities are likely responsible for many cardiometabolic risk factors associated with NAFLD, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Understanding the factors involved in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of NAFLD will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the metabolic complications of obesity, and hopefully to the discovery of novel effective treatments for their reversal. PMID:26102213

  14. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Suwantika, Auliya A; Beutels, Philippe; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A immunization in Indonesia, including an explicit comparison between one-dose and two-dose vaccines. Methods An age-structured cohort model based on a decision tree was developed for the 2012 Indonesia birth cohort. Using the model, we made a comparison on the use of two-dose and one-dose vaccines. The model involved a 70-year time horizon with 1-month cycles for children less than 2 years old and annually thereafter. Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine the economic acceptability and affordability of the hepatitis A vaccination. Results Vaccination would save US$ 3 795 148 and US$ 2 892 920 from the societal perspective, for the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules, respectively, in the context of hepatitis A treatment. It also would save 8917 and 6614 discounted quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), respectively. With the vaccine price of US$ 3.21 per dose, the implementation of single dose vaccine would yield an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$ 4933 per QALY gained versus no vaccination, whereas the two-dose versus one-dose schedule would cost US$ 14 568 per QALY gained. Considering the 2012 gross-domestic-product (GDP) per capita in Indonesia of US$ 3557, the results indicate that hepatitis A vaccination would be a cost-effective intervention, both for the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules in isolation, but two-dose vaccination would no longer be cost-effective if one-dose vaccination is a feasible option. Vaccination would be 100% affordable at budgets of US$ 71 408 000 and US$ 37 690 000 for the implementation of the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules, respectively. Conclusions The implementation of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia would be a cost-effective health intervention under the market vaccine price. Given the budget limitations, the use of a one-dose-vaccine schedule would be more realistic to be applied than a two

  15. Effects of a farnesoid X receptor antagonist on hepatic lipid metabolism in primates.

    PubMed

    Amano, Yuichiro; Shimada, Mitsuyuki; Miura, Shotaro; Adachi, Ryutaro; Tozawa, Ryuichi

    2014-01-15

    We aimed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the anti-dyslipidemic effect of compound-T3, a farnesoid X receptor antagonist, by investigating its effects on hepatic lipid metabolism in non-human primates. We administered lipid-lowering drugs for 7 days to cynomolgus monkeys receiving a high-fat diet, and subsequently measured the levels of lipid parameters in plasma, feces, and hepatic tissue fluids. Compound-T3 (0.3 and 3mg/kg p.o.) significantly decreased the plasma levels of non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol and apolipoprotein B in a dose-dependent manner. It also decreased the mRNA levels of hepatic small heterodimer partner-1, induced the mRNA expression of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, reduced hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride levels, increased fecal bile acid excretion, and upregulated the expression of hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor. Furthermore, compound-T3 significantly increased plasma HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I levels. The mRNA expression levels of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I tended to increase after compound-T3 treatment. Compound-T3 also induced accumulation of hepatic bile acids and decreased the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic bile acid export pump. The effects of cholestyramine (300mg/kg p.o.) on the plasma and hepatic lipid parameters were similar to those of compound-T3, and it increased fecal bile acid levels without causing accumulation of hepatic bile acids. These findings suggest that LDL receptor-mediated hepatic LDL incorporation due to cholesterol catabolism catalyzed by cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase decreases plasma non-HDL cholesterol levels. Upregulation of hepatic apolipoprotein A-I mRNA expression may partially contribute to the increase in HDL cholesterol levels mediated by compound-T3. PMID:24361308

  16. Primary hepatic cancers with multiple pathologic features in a patient with hepatitis C: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Go; Shinoda, Masahiro; Tanabe, Minoru; Masugi, Yohei; Ueno, Akihisa; Takano, Kiminori; Kitago, Minoru; Itano, Osamu; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Ohara, Kentaro; Oda, Masaya; Tanimoto, Akihiro; Sakamaoto, Michiie; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of multiple primary hepatic cancers exhibiting different pathologic features coexisting in a patient with chronic hepatitis C. Computed tomography showed 2 tumors in segment 8, 20 mm (S8-A) and 5 mm (S8-B) in diameter, and a 10-mm tumor in segment 6 (S6). Based on the images, the S8-A lesion was diagnosed as cholangiocellular carcinoma or combined hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma (combined HCC-CC). The other 2 tumors were diagnosed as HCC. The patient underwent partial resections of segments 6 and 8. We found 2 more tumors (S8-C was 6 mm in diameter and S8-D was 4 mm) in the resected segment 8 specimen. Histopathologic examination revealed that the S8-A and S8-C tumors were combined HCC-CC, the S8-B and S6 lesions were scirrhous HCC, and the S8-D tumor was an early HCC. This is a very rare case in which different hepatic cancers with multiple pathologic features coexisted. PMID:23101996

  17. Hepatitis B

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Change Plan Wallet card for patients to record their alcohol use over a 4-week period as a way to monitor and reduce their drinking behavior. Glossary Definitions of terms commonly used with viral hepatitis and ...

  18. Ecstasy-induced recurrent toxic hepatitis in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Guneysel, Ozlem; Onur, Ozge Ecmel; Akoglu, Haldun; Denizbasi, Arzu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), otherwise known as “ecstasy,” is a synthetic amphetamine that produces euphoria, increases sociability and energy, and is often used as a “weekend” recreational drug by young adults. CASE SUMMARY: A 23-year-old male (height, 184 cm; weight, 68 kg) presented to the emergency department of Marmara University Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, with jaundice and nausea lasting for 6 days. The patient reported that he had been a chronic user of MDMA for 2 years. He also reported that 1 week before presenting, he had ingested twice (2 tablets) the usual amount (1 tablet) of the drug at the same time. Blood tests were performed and hematologic findings were as follows: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1423 U/L (reference range, 10–37 U/L); alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 2748 U/L (10–40 U/L); alkaline phosphatase, 271 U/L (0–270 U/L); γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, 124 U/L (7–49 U/L); total bilirubin, 13.23 mg/dL (0.2–1 mg/dL); direct bilirubin, 8.75 mg/dL (0–0.3 mg/dL); amylase, 80 U/L (0–220 U/L); prothrombin time, 21.2 sec; activated partial thromboplastin time, 37.3 sec; and international normalized ratio, 1.66. Liver enzymes and bilirubin levels were found to be extremely high (AST = 40x normal, ALT = 70x normal, and bilirubin = 13x normal). Viral, autoimmune, and metabolic causes were excluded. Serologic tests for hepatitis A, B, and C viruses, mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus, and HIV infection were all negative. A diagnosis of ecstasy-induced toxic hepatitis was made. The patient's medical history further revealed that the current incident was actually his second occurrence of jaundice and acute hepatitis associated with the ingestion of higher amounts (twice the usual amount of MDMA he ingested at the same time). Supportive therapy (IV saline and vital sign monitoring) was initiated and liver enzymes, bilirubin levels, and prothrombin times were monitored daily. All had returned to normal

  19. A highly conserved G-rich consensus sequence in hepatitis C virus core gene represents a new anti–hepatitis C target

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shao-Ru; Min, Yuan-Qin; Wang, Jia-Qi; Liu, Chao-Xing; Fu, Bo-Shi; Wu, Fan; Wu, Ling-Yu; Qiao, Zhi-Xian; Song, Yan-Yan; Xu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Zhi-Guo; Huang, Gai; Peng, Nan-Fang; Huang, Rong; Mao, Wu-Xiang; Peng, Shuang; Chen, Yu-Qi; Zhu, Ying; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Xiao-Lian; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    G-quadruplex (G4) is one of the most important secondary structures in nucleic acids. Until recently, G4 RNAs have not been reported in any ribovirus, such as the hepatitis C virus. Our bioinformatics analysis reveals highly conserved guanine-rich consensus sequences within the core gene of hepatitis C despite the high genetic variability of this ribovirus; we further show using various methods that such consensus sequences can fold into unimolecular G4 RNA structures, both in vitro and under physiological conditions. Furthermore, we provide direct evidences that small molecules specifically targeting G4 can stabilize this structure to reduce RNA replication and inhibit protein translation of intracellular hepatitis C. Ultimately, the stabilization of G4 RNA in the genome of hepatitis C represents a promising new strategy for anti–hepatitis C drug development. PMID:27051880

  20. A highly conserved G-rich consensus sequence in hepatitis C virus core gene represents a new anti-hepatitis C target.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Ru; Min, Yuan-Qin; Wang, Jia-Qi; Liu, Chao-Xing; Fu, Bo-Shi; Wu, Fan; Wu, Ling-Yu; Qiao, Zhi-Xian; Song, Yan-Yan; Xu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Zhi-Guo; Huang, Gai; Peng, Nan-Fang; Huang, Rong; Mao, Wu-Xiang; Peng, Shuang; Chen, Yu-Qi; Zhu, Ying; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Xiao-Lian; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    G-quadruplex (G4) is one of the most important secondary structures in nucleic acids. Until recently, G4 RNAs have not been reported in any ribovirus, such as the hepatitis C virus. Our bioinformatics analysis reveals highly conserved guanine-rich consensus sequences within the core gene of hepatitis C despite the high genetic variability of this ribovirus; we further show using various methods that such consensus sequences can fold into unimolecular G4 RNA structures, both in vitro and under physiological conditions. Furthermore, we provide direct evidences that small molecules specifically targeting G4 can stabilize this structure to reduce RNA replication and inhibit protein translation of intracellular hepatitis C. Ultimately, the stabilization of G4 RNA in the genome of hepatitis C represents a promising new strategy for anti-hepatitis C drug development. PMID:27051880

  1. Interferon-free therapies for chronic hepatitis C: toward a hepatitis C virus-free world?

    PubMed

    Gentile, Ivan; Buonomo, Antonio Riccardo; Zappulo, Emanuela; Borgia, Guglielmo

    2014-07-01

    About 2% of the world's population is estimated to be chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). These chronic carriers are at risk of developing liver cirrhosis and its complications. Successful treatment of HCV infection is associated with improved quality of life and increased survival. Antiviral approaches were formerly based on interferon and therefore all patients with a contraindication to interferon were excluded from treatment (e.g., patients with decompensated disease, severe impairment of other organs). Very recently, interferon-free combinations have become available for genotypes 2 and 3. This review focuses on the most recently reported data on the various interferon-free combinations used (namely, sofosbuvir-based combinations, the ABT-450/ombitasvir/dasabuvir/ribavirin combination, the daclatasvir/asunaprevir combination, and the MK-5172/MK-8742 combination). All these combinations yielded amazing results in terms of efficacy (90-100%), tolerability and safety. If the problem of the high cost is overcome, interferon-free therapies will lead to what has long been a chimera, namely, an HCV-free world. PMID:24918116

  2. CT, MRI and DWI Features of a Solid Organizing Hepatic Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Pellizzer, Giampiero; Di Grazia, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Solid organizing hepatic abscess is a rare form of focal infection, which needs differentiation from benign and malignant solid masses. We report a case of a 30-year-old man with a solid organizing hepatic abscess, diagnosed by imaging and ex juvantibus criteria. CT and MRI findings are presented and role of DWI is outlined. Noninvasive diagnosis of a solid organizing hepatic abscess is possible in the appropriate clinical setting; percutaneous or surgical biopsy may be indicated in equivocal cases. PMID:25197604

  3. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV and risk factors in entrants to Irish prisons: a national cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jean; Allwright, Shane; Barry, Joseph; Reynolds, Sheilagh Reaper; Thornton, Lelia; Bradley, Fiona; Parry, John V

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in entrants to Irish prisons and to examine risk factors for infection. Design Cross sectional, anonymous survey, with self completed risk factor questionnaire and oral fluid specimen for antibody testing. Setting Five of seven committal prisons in the Republic of Ireland. Participants 607 of the 718 consecutive prison entrants from 6 April to 1 May 1999. Main outcome measures Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, hepatitis C virus, and HIV in prison entrants, and self reported risk factor status. Results Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen was 37/596 (6%; 95% confidence interval 4% to 9%), to hepatitis C virus was 130/596 (22%; 19% to 25%), and to HIV was 12/596 (2%; 1% to 4%). A third of the respondents had never previously been in prison; these had the lowest prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (4/197, 2%), to hepatitis C (6/197, 3%), and to HIV (0/197). In total 29% of respondents (173/593) reported ever injecting drugs, but only 7% (14/197) of those entering prison for the first time reported doing so compared with 40% (157/394) of those previously in prison. Use of injected drugs was the most important predictor of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen and hepatitis C virus. Conclusions Use of injected drugs and infection with hepatitis C virus are endemic in Irish prisons. A third of prison entrants were committed to prison for the first time. Only a small number of first time entrants were infected with one or more of the viruses. These findings confirm the need for increased infection control and harm reduction measures in Irish prisons. What is already known on this topicHigh rates of using injected drugs, initiation of use of injected drugs, and sharing injecting equipment occur in Irish prisonsInjecting drug users have high rates of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses, and hepatitis C is

  4. Is hemodialysis a reason for unresponsiveness to hepatitis B vaccine? Hepatitis B virus and dialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Sit, Dede; Esen, Bennur; Atay, Ahmet Engin; Kayabaşı, Hasan

    2015-04-18

    Impaired renal function is associated with a high risk of chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Patients on hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis are at an increased risk of viral transmission due to frequent necessity of blood product transfer as well as use of contaminated dialysate or dialysis materials. Additionally, health professionals may cause viral spread via contaminated hands and carelessness against hygiene rules. The frequency of chronic HBV infection may be as high as 80% in patients on renal replacement therapies. This is because HBV vaccination is essential to eliminate chronic HBV infection. However, response rates of HD patients to HBV vaccination vary between 10%-50%. Dialysis adequacy and early vaccination before the onset of dialysis therapy seem to be major determinants of high seroconversion rates. Older age, male gender, duration of dialysis therapy and nutritional status are other well-known factors associated with seroconversion rate. There are controversial reports regarding the role of the presence of diabetes mellitus, HCV positivity, erythropoietin resistance, hyperparathyroidism, and vitamin D inadequacy. The role of genetic alteration in the functions or production of cytokines still needs to be elucidated. PMID:25914776

  5. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositivity Among Children in Kabul, Afghanistan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanju, Ilhan Asya; Levent, Fatma; Sezer, Rabia Gonul; Cekmez, Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C Virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are significant causes of morbidity and mortality all over the world, especially in underdeveloped countries like Afghanistan. Limited data are available concerning the seroprevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV in the pediatric age group in Afghanistan . Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess HBV, HCV and HIV serology among children at an outpatient clinic in Kabul. Patients and Methods: A total number of 330 children were included to the study from outpatient clinics of Ataturk Kabul ISAF Role II Military Hospital from May to November 2012. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (anti-HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus antibody (anti-HIV) were measured. Results: The mean age of children was 6.5 ± 4.2 years. The frequency of positive results for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HCV in all age groups were 12 (3.6%), 47 (14.2%) and 2 (0.6%), respectively. Anti-HIV was not detected in any of the children's serum samples. The frequency of positive results for HBsAg was significantly higher in children older than six years than in other age groups. Conclusions: Vaccination program including HBV has begun during the last five years in Afghanistan. The continuation of the vaccination program is of great importance. Vaccination program and implementation steps should be revised and the deficiencies, if any, should be overcome without delay. PMID:24693318

  6. Acute Hepatitis as a Manifestation of Parvovirus B19 Infection ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hatakka, Aleisha; Klein, Julianne; He, Runtao; Piper, Jessica; Tam, Edward; Walkty, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    There are few reports in the literature of hepatitis as a manifestation of parvovirus B19 infection. We describe a case of parvovirus B19-associated acute hepatitis diagnosed based on a positive serologic test (IgM) and molecular detection of parvovirus B19 DNA in a liver biopsy specimen. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute hepatitis. PMID:21734024

  7. Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a new noninvasive index for hepatic steatosis in patients with hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiqiao; Wang, Gongsui; Kang, Kaifu; Wu, Guobiao; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to construct a cost-effective noninvasive diagnostic index for prediction of hepatic steatosis in patients with hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. From January 2011 to January 2015, a total of 364 consecutive subjects who underwent liver biopsies were enrolled. The Receiver-operating characteristic(ROC) curves and Obuchowski measure were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the new index. The AUROCs of steatosis index of patients with HBV infection (SIHBV) in predicting of steatosis were 0.929 (95% confidence interval:0.889–0.970, P < 0.05) in the model group and 0.855 (0.794–0.917, P < 0.05) in the validation group respectively. Comparisons of AUROCs demonstrated that SIHBV was significantly superior to Korean Score, fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), lipid accumulation product(LAP), and fatty liver disease (FLD) index for prediction of hepatic steatosis in model group and validation group(all P < 0.01). Especially for patients with hepatic steatosis percentage of 5.0–9.9% and 10.0–19.9%, SIHBV had a sensitivity of 63.6% and 79.2%, whereas it were 29.1% and 45.8% for Ultrasonography (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, as a cost-effective, simple, noninvasive, and readily available method, SIHBV may act as a massive screening tool before further examinations such as MRI, CT, transient elastography, or liver biopsy, especially for developing countries. PMID:27597515

  8. Diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of a new noninvasive index for hepatic steatosis in patients with hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiqiao; Wang, Gongsui; Kang, Kaifu; Wu, Guobiao; Wang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to construct a cost-effective noninvasive diagnostic index for prediction of hepatic steatosis in patients with hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. From January 2011 to January 2015, a total of 364 consecutive subjects who underwent liver biopsies were enrolled. The Receiver-operating characteristic(ROC) curves and Obuchowski measure were constructed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the new index. The AUROCs of steatosis index of patients with HBV infection (SIHBV) in predicting of steatosis were 0.929 (95% confidence interval:0.889-0.970, P < 0.05) in the model group and 0.855 (0.794-0.917, P < 0.05) in the validation group respectively. Comparisons of AUROCs demonstrated that SIHBV was significantly superior to Korean Score, fatty liver index (FLI), hepatic steatosis index (HSI), lipid accumulation product(LAP), and fatty liver disease (FLD) index for prediction of hepatic steatosis in model group and validation group(all P < 0.01). Especially for patients with hepatic steatosis percentage of 5.0-9.9% and 10.0-19.9%, SIHBV had a sensitivity of 63.6% and 79.2%, whereas it were 29.1% and 45.8% for Ultrasonography (all P < 0.05). In conclusion, as a cost-effective, simple, noninvasive, and readily available method, SIHBV may act as a massive screening tool before further examinations such as MRI, CT, transient elastography, or liver biopsy, especially for developing countries. PMID:27597515

  9. Hepatic expression of the woodchuck hepatitis virus X-antigen during acute and chronic infection and detection of a woodchuck hepatitis virus X-antigen antibody response.

    PubMed

    Jacob, J R; Ascenzi, M A; Roneker, C A; Toshkov, I A; Cote, P J; Gerin, J L; Tennant, B C

    1997-12-01

    The expression and localization of the woodchuck hepatitis virus X-antigen (WHxAg) was examined and compared with other markers of a woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection using rabbit antisera generated against recombinant WHxAg produced in bacteria. Cellular fractionation studies showed that WHxAg was localized to the soluble and cytoskeletal fractions of the cell when assayed by immunoprecipitation of [35S]-met-cys labeled extracts derived from primary cultures of acute WHV-infected hepatocytes. Immunohistochemical examination of liver from chronic WHV-infected animals showed WHV core antigen (WHcAg) and WHxAg expression in non-neoplastic tissue. The WHxAg was found localized to the cytoplasm of infected cells, similar to WHcAg. WHxAg expression was diminished in the foci of altered hepatocytes and in hepatocellular adenomas but was found in only 1 of 11 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). Hepatic biopsies from woodchucks experimentally inoculated with WHV were examined during the acute phase of infection and during convalescence for WHcAg and WHxAg expression by immunohistochemistry. Concurrent expression of WHcAg and WHxAg was observed during the viremic phase of infection. The two antigens exhibited similar localization to the cell cytoplasm, similar distribution within the liver lobule, and similar patterns of clearance during convalescence. An immune response to WHxAg was documented in some woodchucks following acute WHV infection. These studies further define the woodchuck model of HBV infection and should allow for the investigation of the role of hepadnaviral X-antigen expression in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis and HCC. PMID:9398005

  10. Theoretical basis of a beneficial role for vitamin D in viral hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lương, Khanh vinh quốc; Nguyễn, Lan Thi Hoàng

    2012-01-01

    Abnormal bone metabolism and dysfunction of the calcium-parathyroid hormone-vitamin D axis have been reported in patients with viral hepatitis. Some studies suggested a relationship between vitamin D and viral hepatitis. Genetic studies have provided an opportunity to identify the proteins that link vitamin D to the pathology of viral hepatitis (i.e., the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, the vitamin D receptor, cytochrome P450, the renin-angiotensin system, apolipoprotein E, liver X receptor, toll-like receptor, and the proteins regulated by the Sp1 promoter gene). Vitamin D also exerts its effects on viral hepatitis via non-genomic factors, i.e., matrix metalloproteinase, endothelial vascular growth factor, prostaglandins, cyclooxygenase-2, and oxidative stress. In conclusion, vitamin D could have a beneficial role in viral hepatitis. Calcitriol is best used for viral hepatitis because it is the active form of the vitamin D3 metabolite. PMID:23082050