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Sample records for herb trillium apetalon

  1. Distribution of genetic diversity among disjunct populations of the rare forest understory herb, Trillium reliquum.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, E; Hamrick, J L

    2005-10-01

    We assessed genetic diversity and its distribution in the rare southeastern US forest understory species, Trillium reliquum. In all, 21 loci were polymorphic (PS=95.5%) and the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus was 3.05. However, genetic diversity was relatively low (Hes=0.120) considering the level of polymorphism observed for this outcrossing species. A relatively high portion of the genetic diversity (29.7%) was distributed among populations. There was no relationship between population size and genetic diversity, and we did not detect significant inbreeding. These results are best explained by the apparent self-incompatibility of this species, its longevity and clonal reproduction. To address questions regarding the history of T. reliquum's rarity, we compared results for T. reliquum with that of its more common and partially sympatric congener, T. cuneatum. Despite shared life history traits and history of land use, we observed significant genetic differences between the two species. Although T. cuneatum contains slightly lower polymorphism (Ps=85%), we detected significantly higher genetic diversity (Hes=0.217); most of its genetic diversity is contained within its populations (GST=0.092). Our results suggest that not only is there little gene flow among extant T. reliquum populations, but that rarity and population isolation in this species is of ancient origins, rather than due to more recent anthropogenic fragmentation following European colonization. The Chattahoochee River was identified as a major barrier to gene exchange. PMID:16094302

  2. Long-term population demography of Trillium recurvatum on loess bluffs in western Tennessee, USA

    PubMed Central

    Moore, James E.; Franklin, Scott B.; Wein, Gary; Collins, Beverly S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Understanding the demography of long-lived clonal herbs, with their extreme modularity, requires knowledge of both their short- and long-term survival and ramet growth patterns. The primary objective of this study was to understand the dynamics of a clonal forest herb, Trillium recurvatum, by examining temporal and small-scale demographic patterns. We hypothesized: (i) there would be more variability in the juvenile age class compared with non-flowering adult and flowering adult classes due to year-to-year fluctuations in recruitment; (ii) rates of population growth (λ) and increase (r) would be highest in non-flowering ramets due to a combination of transitions from the juvenile stage and reversions from flowering adults; and (iii) inter-ramet distances would be most variable between flowering and juvenile ramets due to a combination of clonal growth, seed dispersal by ants and ramet death over time. Methodology Census data were collected on the total number of stems in the population from 1990 to 2007, and placed within one of three life stages (juvenile, three-leaf non-flowering and three-leaf flowering). Modified population viability equations were used to assess temporal population viability, and spatial structure was assessed using block krigging. Correlations were performed using current and prior season weather to current population demography. Principal results The first hypothesis was rejected. The second hypothesis was supported: population increase (r) and growth rate (λ) were highest in non-flowering ramets. Finally, the third hypothesis was rejected: there was no apparent density dependence within this population of Trillium and no apparent spatial structure among life stages. Conclusions Overall population density fluctuated over time, possibly due to storms that move soil, and prior year's temperature and precipitation. However, density remained at some dynamic stable level. The juvenile age class had greater variability for

  3. Spatial patterning and floral synchrony among trillium populations with contrasting histories of herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Michael A.; Poznanovic, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the spatial patterning and floral synchrony within and among populations of a non-clonal, forest understory herb, Trillium catesbaei. Two populations of T. catesbaei within Great Smoky Mountains National Park were monitored for five years: Cades Cove (high deer abundance) and Whiteoak Sink (low deer abundance). All individuals within each population were mapped during year one and five. Only flowering and single-leaf juveniles were mapped during intervening years. Greater distances between flowering plants (plants currently in flower) and substantially lower population densities and smaller patch sizes were observed at Cades Cove versus Whiteoak Sink. However, with the exception of flowering plants, contrasting histories of herbivory did not appear to fundamentally alter the spatial patterning of the T. catesbaei population at Cades Cove, an area with a long and well-documented history of deer overabundance. Regardless of browse history, non-flowering life stages were significantly clustered at all spatial scales examined. Flowering plants were clustered in all years at Whiteoak Sink, but more often randomly distributed at Cades Cove, possibly as a result of their lower abundance. Between years, however, there was a positive spatial association between the locations of flowering plants at both sites. Flowering rate was synchronous between sites, but lagged a year behind favorable spring growing conditions, which likely allowed plants to allocate photosynthate from a favorable year towards flowering the subsequent year. Collectively, our results suggest that chronically high levels of herbivory may be associated with spatial patterning of flowering within populations of a non-clonal plant. They also highlight the persistence of underlying spatial patterns, as evidenced by high levels of spatial clustering among non-flowering individuals, and the pervasive, although muted in a population subjected to chronic herbivory, influence of precipitation and

  4. Impacts of white-tailed deer on red trillium (Trillium recurvatum): defining a threshold for deer browsing pressure at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, Noel B.; Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Overabundant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) have been a concern for land managers in eastern North America because of their impacts on native forest ecosystems. Managers have sought native plant species to serve as phytoindicators of deer impacts to supplement deer surveys. We analyzed experimental data about red trillium (Trillium recurvatum), large flowered trillium (T. grandiflorum), nodding trillium (T. cernuum), and declined trillium (T. flexipes) growth in paired exclosure (fenced) plots and control (unfenced) plots from 2002 to 2010 at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The latter two species lacked replication, so statistical analysis was not possible. All red trillium plants were surveyed for height-to-leaf, effects of browsing, and presence of flowers. Data from individuals in 2009 demonstrated a sigmoidal relationship between height-to-leaf and probability of flowering. The relationship on moraine soils was shifted to taller plants compared to those on sand substrates, with respectively 50 percent flowering at 18 and 16 cm and 33 percent flowering at 16 and 14 cm height-to-leaf. On a plot basis, the proportion of plants flowering was influenced by height to leaf, duration of protection, and deviation in rainfall. The proportion of plants flowering increased ninefold in exclosures (28 percent) compared to control plots (3 percent) over the 8 years of protection. The mean height-to-leaf was a function of the interaction between treatment and duration, as well as red trillium density. Changes in height-to-leaf in control plots from year to year were significantly influenced by an interaction between change in deer density and change in snowfall depth. There was a significant negative correlation between change in deer density and snowfall depth. Plants in the exclosures increased in height at a rate of 1.5 cm yr−1 whereas control plants decreased in height by 0.9 cm yr−1. In all, 78 percent of the control plots lacked flowering

  5. Beneficial Effects of Trillium govanianum Rhizomes in Pain and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ur Rahman, Shafiq; Adhikari, Achyut; Ismail, Muhammad; Raza Shah, Muhammad; Khurram, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Ali, Farman; Haseeb, Abdul; Akbar, Fazal; Iriti, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    Trillium govanianum rhizome is used as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional medicine in northern Pakistan. In an attempt to establish its medicinal value, the present research evaluated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of T. govanianum. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of extract and fractions was investigated in the carrageenan induced paw edema assay. The in vitro suppression of oxidative burst of extract, fractions and isolated compounds was assessed through luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assay. The in vivo analgesic activity was assayed in chemical and thermal induced nociceptive pain models. The crude methanol extract and its solvent fractions showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic responses, exhibited by significant amelioration of paw edema and relieve of the tonic visceral chemical and acute phasic thermal nociception. In the oxidative burst assay, based on IC50, the crude methanol extract and n-butanol soluble fraction produced a significant inhibition, followed by chloroform and hexane soluble fractions as compared to ibuprofen. Similarly, the isolated compounds pennogenin and borassoside E exhibited significant level of oxidative burst suppressive activity. The in vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities as well as the in vitro inhibition of oxidative burst validated the traditional use of T. govanianum rhizomes as a phytotherapeutic remedy for both inflammatory conditions and pain. The observed activities might be attributed to the presence of steroids and steroid-based compounds. Therefore, the rhizomes of this plant species could serve as potential novel source of compounds effective for alleviating pain and inflammation. PMID:27556434

  6. Govanoside A, a new steroidal saponin from rhizomes of Trillium govanianum.

    PubMed

    Shafiq-ur-Rahman; Ismail, Muhammad; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Adhikari, Achyut; Anis, Itrat; Ahmad, Malik Shoaib; Khurram, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    A new spirostane steroidal saponin, govanoside A (1) along with three known compounds borassoside E (2) pennogenin (3) and diosgenin (4) were isolated from rhizomes of Trillium govanianum. Their structures were elucidated through 1D, 2D-NMR spectroscopic data analysis and acid hydrolysis. Compound (2) in genus Trillium and all compounds (1-4) in T. govanianum are reported herein for the first time. Furthermore, compounds 1 &2 exhibited good to moderate activities against Aspergillus niger ATCC 16888, Aspergillus flavus ATCC 9643, Candida albicans ATCC 18804, and Candida glabrata ATCC 90030. This is a significant finding keeping in view the limited antifungal drugs for aspergillosis and candidiasis. PMID:26505320

  7. Insight into infrageneric circumscription through complete chloroplast genome sequences of two Trillium species

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung Sung; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Genomic events including gene loss, duplication, pseudogenization and rearrangement in plant genomes are valuable sources for exploring and understanding the process of evolution in angiosperms. The family Melanthiaceae is distributed in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and divided into five tribes (Heloniadeae, Chionographideae, Xerophylleae, Melanthieae and Parideae) based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses. At present, complete chloroplast genomes of the Melanthiaceae have been reported from three species. In the previous genomic study of Liliales, a trnI-CAU gene duplication event was reported from Paris verticillata, a member of Parideae. To clarify the significant genomic events of the tribe Parideae, we analysed the complete chloroplast genome sequences of two Trillium species representing two subgenera: Trillium and Phyllantherum. In Trillium tschonoskii (subgenus Trillium), the circular double-stranded cpDNA sequence of 156 852 bp consists of two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26 501 bp each, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 83 981 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 19 869 bp. The chloroplast genome sequence of T. maculatum (subgenus Phyllantherum) is 157 359 bp in length, consisting of two IRs (25 535 bp), one SSC (19 949 bp) and one LSC (86 340 bp), and is longer than that of T. tschonoskii. The results showed that the cpDNAs of Parideae are highly conserved across genome structure, gene order and contents. However, the chloroplast genome of T. maculatum contained a 3.4-kb inverted sequence between ndhC and rbcL in the LSC region, and it was a unique feature for subgenera Phyllantherum. In addition, we found three different types of gene duplication in the intergenic spacer between rpl23 and ycf2 containing trnI-CAU, which were in agreement with the circumscription of subgenera and sections in Parideae excluding T. govanianum. These genomic features provide informative molecular markers for identifying the infrageneric taxa of

  8. Insight into infrageneric circumscription through complete chloroplast genome sequences of two Trillium species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Chul; Kim, Jung Sung; Kim, Joo-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Genomic events including gene loss, duplication, pseudogenization and rearrangement in plant genomes are valuable sources for exploring and understanding the process of evolution in angiosperms. The family Melanthiaceae is distributed in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere and divided into five tribes (Heloniadeae, Chionographideae, Xerophylleae, Melanthieae and Parideae) based on the molecular phylogenetic analyses. At present, complete chloroplast genomes of the Melanthiaceae have been reported from three species. In the previous genomic study of Liliales, atrnI-CAU gene duplication event was reported fromParis verticillata, a member of Parideae. To clarify the significant genomic events of the tribe Parideae, we analysed the complete chloroplast genome sequences of twoTrilliumspecies representing two subgenera:TrilliumandPhyllantherum InTrillium tschonoskii(subgenusTrillium), the circular double-stranded cpDNA sequence of 156 852 bp consists of two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 26 501 bp each, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 83 981 bp and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 19 869 bp. The chloroplast genome sequence ofT. maculatum(subgenusPhyllantherum) is 157 359 bp in length, consisting of two IRs (25 535 bp), one SSC (19 949 bp) and one LSC (86 340 bp), and is longer than that ofT. tschonoskii The results showed that the cpDNAs of Parideae are highly conserved across genome structure, gene order and contents. However, the chloroplast genome ofT. maculatumcontained a 3.4-kb inverted sequence betweenndhCandrbcLin the LSC region, and it was a unique feature for subgeneraPhyllantherum In addition, we found three different types of gene duplication in the intergenic spacer betweenrpl23andycf2containingtrnI-CAU, which were in agreement with the circumscription of subgenera and sections in Parideae excludingT. govanianum These genomic features provide informative molecular markers for identifying the infrageneric taxa ofTrilliumand improve our

  9. The Herb Garden Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery County Public Schools, Rockville, MD.

    The booklet, intended to acquaint students or visitors with the herb garden at the Lathrop E. Smith Environmental Education Center (Rockville, Maryland), describes 25 herbs and suggests ways to extend learning further by providing historic background and other information about the herbs. Each herb is described on a separate page, with each…

  10. Herbs Indoors. Container Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Duane

    This package consists of two bilingual instructional booklets for use in helping Indochinese refugees learn basic gardening skills. Included in the package are Cambodian, Vietnamese, and English translations of instructions for raising herbs indoors and Cambodian and English translations of guidelines for container gardening. The herb booklet…

  11. Herbs: Bridging the Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, Deborah J.

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for caregivers in developing intergenerational programs is to engage both groups with the materials and with each other while taking into consideration each group's needs and interests. Offers tips for planning any intergenerational activity. Explains how to plan activities using herbs, presents instructions for three…

  12. Hepatoprotective Herbs, Avicenna Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi-Baghbanan, Hamid; Sharifian, Afsaneh; Esmaeili, Somayeh; Minaei, Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Background: Liver injury or dysfunction is considered as a serious health problem. The available synthetic drugs to treat liver disorders are expensive and cause further damage. Hence, hepatoprotective effects of some herbal drugs have been investigated, and one of the methods to choose herbs in order to study their biological effects is to search in ancient medical texts. Avicenna who is known as the prince of physicians had collected and classified Greek, Persian and Islamic medicine in the best possible way in the book of Canon in Arabic. Objectives: Avicenna’s book of The Canon of Medicine was reviewed to find the hepatoprotective herbs. Patients and Methods: Three different versions of the Canon were prepared and utilized. To find scientific names of plants we took advantage of three botany references. All of the herbs were investigated on the basis of scientific data from hepatoprotective effects point of view. The searched term was “hepatoprotective” without narrowing and limiting. The searched databases included Cochrane library, Web of science, SID, Irandoc and IranMedex. Results: 18 plants were found. 85% of the presented species, genus or families of plants were reported to have hepatoprotective properties and in the remaining 15% there were no reports of hepatoprotective effect. Flowers and fruits were the most used part of the plants. Most of the plants had simultaneous protective effects on multiple organs but the protective effect on the liver was mostly accompanied by protective effect on the stomach (83%). The average temperament of these herbs is "hot" in the 2nd phase of the 2nd grade, and "dry" in the 3rd phase of the 2nd grade. Hepatoprotective herbs mostly prescribed as a part of hepatoprotective compound drugs formula or other formula for liver diseases are Crocus sativus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Cinnamomum spp. Conclusions: Maybe there is common mechanism for protecting both liver and stomach. Aquilaria agallocha, Aquilaria malaccensis

  13. Antioxidants from tropical herbs.

    PubMed

    Razab, Rasyidah; Abdul-Aziz, Azlina

    2010-03-01

    Plants that contain high amounts of polyphenolic compounds are potential candidates for natural antioxidant sources. Studies are on going in the search for new sources of antioxidants. Not much data are available on the antioxidant capacity of tropical herbs. With this in mind, 19 commonly consumed Malaysian herbs were analyzed for their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. A majority of these plants have never been studied before with regards to their polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities. The shoots of Anacardium occidentale, the shoots and fruits of Barringtonia racemosa, Pithecellobium jiringa and Parkia speciosa had high polyphenolic contents (> 150 microg gallic acid equivalents/mg dried plant) and antioxidant activities when measured using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (>1.2 mM) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays (>2.4 mM). A strong correlation was observed between the two antioxidant assays (FRAP vs TEAC) implying that the plants could both scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidants. There was also a strong correlation between the antioxidant activities and polyphenolic content suggesting the observed antioxidant activities were contributed mainly by the polyphenolics in the plants. PMID:20420325

  14. Warfarin interactions with medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Milić, Natasa; Milosević, Natasa; Golocorbin Kon, Svetlana; Bozić, Teodora; Abenavoli, Ludovico; Borrelli, Francesca

    2014-08-01

    Recognition of the adverse effects of medicinal herbs is not routine and the reports on such effects are even less frequent in clinical practice. Potential herb-drug interactions are of a major safety concern, especially for drugs with narrow therapeutic indices like warfarin, which can lead to severe adverse reactions that are sometimes life-threatening. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs described in the literature have been summarized in this paper relying on Medline database (via PubMed) using the key words: warfarin, herbal supplements and interactions. The references on the analyzed literature have been investigated in order to collect the existing data. The case reports with severe adverse effects such as spontaneous postoperative bleeding, formation of hematomas, hematemesis, melena, thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage and/or subdural hematomas after concomitant use of warfarin and the medicinal herbs: Panax ginseng, Hypericum perforatum, Salvia milthiorizza, Gingko biloba, Serenoa repens, Angelica sinensis, Vaccinium species, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Tanacetum parthenium, Lucium barbarum, Matricaria chamomilla, Boswellia serrata and Camellia sinensis have been estimated. Some of the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs have been well assessed proving that they are closely-dependent. The interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs, not generally reported in previous reviews, are presented in our review. The health professionals who are involved in treating the patients are expected to be fully informed about the interactions between warfarin and medicinal herbs in order to minimize the health risks of the patients. PMID:25233607

  15. Chinese herbs for dementia diseases.

    PubMed

    Hügel, H M; Jackson, N; May, B H; Xue, C C I

    2012-05-01

    In the last twenty years a considerable body of information has accumulated on the chemical constituents of Chinese herbs and their therapeutic potential. Our evaluation/systematic review [1, 2] of well-designed, randomized double blind controlled trials on Chinese herbal medicines beneficial for the improvement of cognitive function revealed a range of either single herbs or herbal mixtures that provided neuroprotective benefits. Oxidative stress may directly initiate neurodegeneration and herbal antioxidant neuroprotection is considered as a preventative and therapeutic approach. We encountered Acoris gramineus rhizome (AGR), Panax ginseng, Polygala tenuifolia and Poria cocos as the four most frequently used herbs as single/herbal mixtures that were associated with positive cognitive enhancing outcomes. This review focuses on the evidence of their medicinal effects attributed to those constituents present in relatively high concentration. PMID:22303969

  16. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on ... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ...

  17. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) ... of people with diabetes used some type of herbal therapy , while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

  18. An Evening with Herb Luft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, Michael; Mattei, Janet A.

    1989-06-01

    Herbert A. Luft (1908 - 1988) contributed sunspot observations to the AAVSO Solar Division for over 50 years. He received the 1987 E. E. Barnard Observer's Award from the Western Astronomical Association, and he was a member of the AAVSO for 44 years. Sadly, Herb Luft passed away in October 1988 while on his way to the AAVSO annual meeting. It would be a fitting tribute to Herb's memory to share with you some of the fascinating memories of this astronomer's early development as he shared them with us at his home on the evening of November 21, 1987. For example, his 54mm refractor was one of the few personal possessions he carried with him when he fled from Germany in 1939. Without exaggeration, it can be said that Herbert Luft dedicated his life to solar astronomy. The reminiscences below are compiled from a video tape of that evening, now a permanent part of the AAVSO archives.

  19. Toxicological risks of Chinese herbs.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Debbie

    2010-12-01

    As traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become more popular there have been increasing concerns about safety and potential toxicity of the Chinese materia medica (CMM) comprising plants, animal parts and minerals. The potential toxicity of many CMM is well recognised in TCM and to reduce risks use of some herbs is restricted whilst specific processing methods have been developed to modify the activities/toxicity of others. However adverse reactions have been reported, many of these are due misuse or abuse of Chinese medicine. The main problem remains products adulterated with pharmaceuticals for weight loss or erectile dysfunction. But some herbs have narrow therapeutic ranges (e.g., Aconitum species) so toxic effects are frequently reported. Toxic effects from chronic or cumulative dosing are difficult to detect in the traditional setting and recent reports have demonstrated the health problems from Aristolochia species. Despite safety concerns, Chinese medicine appears to be relatively safe with comparatively few reports of adverse reactions compared with overall drug reports. The wealth of information in the Chinese literature needs to be more widely available. As TCM is widely used by patients, improved pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology can contribute valuable safety information, relevant to clinical use. PMID:21077025

  20. Herbs as a food source in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Esiyok, Dursun; Otles, Semih; Akcicek, Eren

    2004-01-01

    Medical benefits of herbs have been known for centuries. Many examples contain powerful active components that, if used correctly, can help in healing the living organism. These herbs can also be provided in the form of capsules and powders, as dietary supplements, and thus differ from conventional foods or food ingredients. The traditional Turkish kitchen is rich of various herbs which have been employed as ingredients since ancient times. The present paper provides a brief overview of some important herbs in the Turkish flora, including fennel, sage, rosemary, mallow, sweet basil, savory, chicory, nettle, thyme, flax, cumin, caper, coriander, milk thistle, spanish lavender, marjoram, dandelion, rocket, purslane, spanish salsify, amaranthus, wild radish, and wild mustard. Studies on these herbs have revealed that they contain powerful active components that might be effective for increasing human health and preventing cancer. PMID:15373716

  1. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drugs Learn about your prescription drugs and over-the- ...

  2. Treatment of acute bronchiolitis with Chinese herbs.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, X T; Fang, H T; Jiang, G Q; Zhai, S Z; O'Connell, D L; Brewster, D R

    1993-01-01

    In a randomised single blind trial the Chinese herbs Shuang Huang Lian were evaluated for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis. Children with acute bronchiolitis and serological evidence of recent respiratory syncytial virus infection were studied in a tertiary hospital in Harbin, China. The 96 children were randomised into three treatment groups: herbs, herbs with antibiotics, and antibiotics alone. The herbs were prepared by the medical school pharmacy and administered daily by intravenous infusion for seven days. The main outcomes, assessed blindly, were symptomatic improvement in cough, fever, wheezing, chest signs, and duration of stay in hospital. The mean duration of symptoms from the start of treatment was 6.2 (confidence interval 5.6 to 6.9) days in the two groups treated with herbs compared with 8.6 (confidence interval 7.5 to 9.8) days in the group treated with antibiotics alone. The mean reductions in duration of clinical manifestations for treatment with antibiotics alone compared with herbs were: from 3.1 to 1.5 days for fever, 9.1 to 6.1 days for cough, 6.5 to 4.1 days for wheezing, and 7.2 to 4.9 days for chest crackles. No adverse effect of Shuang Huang Lian herbal treatment was detected. In conclusion, this study confirms Chinese experience with Shuang Huang Lian that it is safe and effective, and warrants further study. PMID:8503668

  3. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomić, Sinisa

    2009-12-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework. PMID:20061249

  4. Interaction of Herbs and Glibenclamide: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Amita; Eapen, Cicy; Prasanth, V. G.

    2012-01-01

    Herbs and herbal products are considered to be safer and people mix it often with the oral hypoglycemic agent in diabetes therapy. But numerous reports say that every combination of herbs and drugs is not safe. Some combinations may be beneficial and some may be harmful also. So before taking any herbal remedies with oral hypoglycemic agent, patient should consult physician. In this paper we are summarizing the reports available on the interaction of herbal remedies to one of the oral hypoglycemic agents (glibenclamide) and categorizing the effect of the combination is beneficial and harmful. PMID:22844612

  5. Using of the herb in space foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi

    2016-07-01

    The astronaut must do much work in a short time. The astronaut is exposed to much stress. For examples; Break of the hormone balance, Inappetence, Sleep shortage. Therefore the role that the meal serves as becomes big. It greatly participates in not only the health maintenance but also the mental health to consume a meal. Most of space foods are freeze dry, and the mineral is abundant, but it is necessary for the vitamins to add it particularly. When I think about it, the cultivation of the fresh vegetables with the spaceship is necessary. The Asian project team suggested cultivation of the herb in the space. The herbs were sweet basil, Dukung Abak, Hempedu Bumi and Chinese holly basil. Each herb has a fragrance ingredient. The fragrance ingredient stimulates human sense of smell. The fragrance ingredient increases an appetite. The good fragrance derives a good sleep. I can feel passage of time by observing a plant being brought up. It helps mental health to bring up a plant. We try that we bring up herb under a condition of the space. Because an experiment on the ground was over, we report it. The sweet basil which a germination rate has good is the first candidate when we think about temperature and light quantity in the space. Three kinds of other herbs are slow-growing and germination-rate is lower than sweet basil. We think that probably we will send a sweet basil to the spaceship in space. After a sweet basil grew up in a spaceship, we analyze a fragrance ingredient. We will cook the sweeter basil and want to eat.

  6. Updates on the Clinical Evidenced Herb-Warfarin Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Beikang; Zhang, Zhen; Zuo, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Increasing and inadvertent use of herbs makes herb-drug interactions a focus of research. Concomitant use of warfarin, a highly efficacious oral anticoagulant, and herbs causes major safety concerns due to the narrow therapeutic window of warfarin. This paper presents an update overview of clinical findings regarding herb-warfarin interaction, highlighting clinical outcomes, severity of documented interactions, and quality of clinical evidence. Among thirty-eight herbs, Cannabis, Chamomile, Cranberry, Garlic, Ginkgo, Grapefruit, Lycium, Red clover, and St. John's wort were evaluated to have major severity interaction with warfarin. Herbs were also classified on account of the likelihood of their supporting evidences for interaction. Four herbs were considered as highly probable to interact with warfarin (level I), three were estimated as probable (level II), and ten and twenty-one were possible (level III) and doubtful (level IV), respectively. The general mechanism of herb-warfarin interaction almost remains unknown, yet several pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors were estimated to influence the effectiveness of warfarin. Based on limited literature and information reported, we identified corresponding mechanisms of interactions for a small amount of “interacting herbs.” In summary, herb-warfarin interaction, especially the clinical effects of herbs on warfarin therapy should be further investigated through multicenter studies with larger sample sizes. PMID:24790635

  7. Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Rhi; Choi, Jae Sue; Han, Yong Nam; Bae, Song Ja; Chung, Hae Young

    2002-06-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases. PMID:12112294

  8. Systematic Review of Breastfeeding and Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Budzynska, Katarzyna; Gardner, Zoë E.; Dugoua, Jean-Jacques; Low Dog, Tieraona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Despite popular and historical use, there has been little modern research conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of herb use during breastfeeding. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the clinical literature on herbal medicine and lactation. Methods The databases PubMed, CAB Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, HealthSTAR, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Reprotox were systematically searched for human trials from 1970 until 2010. Reference lists from relevant articles were hand-searched. Results Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Clinical studies were divided into three categories: survey studies (n=11), safety studies (n=8), and efficacy studies (n=13). Six studies were randomized controlled trials. The most common herbs studied were St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) (n=3), garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract (n=2), and senna (Cassia senna L.) (n=2). Studies were very heterogeneous with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Overall, poor methodological quality predominated among the studies. Conclusions Our review concludes that further research is needed to assess the prevalence, efficacy, and safety of commonly used herbs during breastfeeding. PMID:22686865

  9. Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, H B; Lucier, G W; Fisher, K D

    1999-01-01

    Virtually all cultures have, throughout history, used a variety of plants or materials derived from plants for the prevention and treatment of disease. Evidence of the beneficial therapeutic effects of these medicinal herbs is seen in their continued use. Additionally, the development of modern chemistry permitted the isolation of chemicals from medicinal herbs that have served as drugs or starting materials for the synthesis of many important drugs used today. Many more modern drugs have been synthesized as a result of knowledge gained from studies of mechanisms of actions of chemicals first isolated from medicinal herbs. Thus, medicinal herbs have played a major role in the development of modern medicine and continue to be widely used in their original form. Whereas it is generally agreed that most medicinal herbs are safe under the conditions used, some are toxic and should be avoided even though they are readily available, and others have significant adverse side effects when misused. Also, little has been done to investigate potential adverse effects that may be associated with extended or high-dose use of medicinal herbs. Thus, concern has been expressed that the lack of quality control used in the preparation of medicinal herbs, plus their unregulated sale and uninformed use, pose potential adverse health effects for consumers. There is also concern regarding potential herb/herb or herb/drug interactions and possible untoward health effects of medicinal herbs in sensitive subpopulations such as the young and the elderly and certain genetically predisposed individuals. In this paper, we discuss these concerns at some length and make recommendations for additional research and education discussed in the recent International Workshop to Evaluate Research Needs on the Use and Safety of Medicinal Herbs. PMID:10504141

  10. [Application of magnetic materials in analysis on Chinese herb medicines].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Wei; Wang, Jiu-Rong; Han, Xue-Feng

    2012-12-01

    China is the cradle of Chinese herb medicines,with rich plant resources. However, traditional processing methods have many disadvantages, such as high comsumption of organic solvent, long extraction time and high loss of effective constituents. For the purpose of rational use of Chinese herb medicines and accurate analysis on their constituents,the sample pre-treatment method with magnetic nanoparticles as the carrier brought new opportunities in recent years. after consulting literatures,the essay summarizes traditional extraction methods of Chinese herb medicines, characteristics of magnetic materials and their application in the analysis on Chinese herb medicines. PMID:23477130

  11. Herb-drug interaction between irinotecan and psoralidin-containing herbs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Shan; Zhao, Zhi-Qiang; Qin, Zhen-Sheng; Wu, Kun; Xia, Tian-Fang; Pang, Li-Qun

    2015-12-01

    Herb-drug interaction strongly limits the clinical utilization of herbs and drugs. Irinotecan-induced diarrhea is closely related with the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1-catalyzed glucuronidation of SN-38 which has been widely regarded to be the toxic substance basis of irinotecan. The present study aims to determine the influence of herbal component psoralidin toward the toxicity of irinotecan. In vitro inhibition potential of psoralidin toward the glucuronidation of SN-38 was firstly investigated using human intestinal microsomes incubation system. Dose-dependent inhibition of psoralidin toward SN-38 glucuronidation was observed. Furthermore, Dixon plot showed that the intersection point was located in the second quadrant, indicating the competitive inhibition of psoralidin toward the glucuronidation of SN-38. Through the data fitting using competitive inhibition fitting equation, the inhibition kinetic parameter (K i) was calculated to be 5.8 μM. The translation of these in vitro data into the in vivo situation showed that pre-treatment with psoralidin significantly increased the toxicity of irinotecan, as indicated by the increased body weight loss and more severe colon histology damage. All these data indicated the herb-drug interaction between irinotecan and psoralidin-containing herbs. PMID:25216634

  12. Analysis of trace elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Xu, Hou-En

    2009-01-01

    The bioactive elements in Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs that are frequently consumed by people in both the East and West are analyzed. These elements in their appropriate dosage range are considered to be beneficial to health. Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) were applied to determine the concentrations of various elements. Twenty-two Chinese therapeutic foods and herbs, resourced from the traditional high therapeutic quality areas or provinces were selected. Bioactive analysis focused on Lanthanum (La), Strontium (Sr), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se), especially in the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidemia and its associate disorders. The higher elemental concentration herbs, La in: Rhizoma Gastrodiae Elatae, Fructus Crataegi and Herba Hedyotidis Diffusae. Sr in: Radix Puerariae and Folium Ginkgo Biloba. Zn in: Flos Carthami Tinctorii and Fructus Crataegi. Se in: Flos Lonicerae Japonicae and Portulaca Oleracea. The results mainly showed that Chinese herbs which are also therapeutic foods may be used as nutritional supplements for preventing and treating elemental deficiency, e.g., hyperlipidemia. More attention in this regard should be paid to herbs that contain La and are traditionally used for regulating cardiovascular disorders. The knowledge of the effects and concentrations of bioactive elements in foods and herbs could guide the selection of Chinese herbs in clinical practice in conjunction with traditional Chinese medicine theories. Further studies should also be considered in relation to Sr, Zn and blood regulating herbs, which could prove to be beneficial. PMID:19655402

  13. Thermoluminescent (TL) trap characteristics in irradiated oregano herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furetta, C.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    The aim of this article is to investigate in a very simple way the trap characteristics of the irradiated oregano herb. The preparation of the polymineral dust obtained from the herb is described and then, through a fading experiment, the characteristics of the trapping levels responsible of the thermoluminescent emission are discussed.

  14. Treating adolescent ovarian cysts with Chinese herbs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fan; Zhou, Jue; Huang, Hefeng

    2008-12-01

    In the report an adolescent female patient who suffered from continuous lower abdominal distending pain with an ovarian cyst was successfully cured with Chinese herbs. Chinese herbs were orally administered for 18 days, after which all of the symptoms and the ovarian cyst disappeared. PMID:19003893

  15. [Discriminative stimulus properties of ephedra herb (Ephedra sinica) in rats].

    PubMed

    Furuya, I; Watanabe, S

    1993-02-01

    The stimulus properties of ephedra herb (drug of Chinese medicine) were demonstrated in rats trained to discriminate between 2.5 ml/kg extract of ephedra herb and same volume of distilled water (p.o.). On the discrimination training, animals were shaped on an FR20 schedule to respond to one of two levers for food reinforcement when they were administrated ephedra herb extract, and to respond to the other lever when they were treated with distilled water. Cumulative dosing tests for the discriminative stimulus properties consisted of two to five trials of FR20 schedule; responses for both levers were reinforced. d-Methamphetamine 1.43 mg/kg p.o. indicated complete generalization to the ephedra herb. Nicotine and caffeine indicated modest generalization, but some animals generalized completely. These results suggest that the ephedra herb has d-methamphetamine-like, but unique discriminative stimulus properties. PMID:8317176

  16. Chinese Herbs Interfering with Cancer Reprogramming Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Zhangfeng; Qiang, William W.; Tan, Wen; Zhang, Haotian; Wang, Shengpeng; Wang, Chunming; Qiang, Wenan; Wang, Yitao

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence promotes a reassessment of metabolic reprogramming regulation in cancer research. Although there exists a long history of Chinese herbs applied in cancer treatment, few reports have addressed the effects of Chinese herbal components on metabolic reprogramming, which is a central cancer hallmark involved in the slowing or prevention of chemoresistance in cancer cells. In this review, we have focused on four core elements altered by metabolic reprogramming in cancer cells. These include glucose transport, glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, and fatty acid synthesis. With this focus, we have summarized recent advances in metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells in response to specific Chinese herbal components. We propose that exploring Chinese herbal interference in cancer metabolic reprogramming might identify new therapeutic targets for cancer and more ways in which to approach metabolism-related diseases. PMID:27242914

  17. Triterpenoids from the Herbs of Salicornia bigelovii.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yu; Li, Huan; Guan, Fuqin; Chen, Yu; Yin, Min; Wang, Ming; Feng, Xu; Wang, Qizhi

    2015-01-01

    A new nortriterpene saponin, 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-30-norolean-12,20(29)-dien-23- oxo-28-oic acid, namely bigelovii D (11), was isolated from the hydroalcoholic extract of herbs of Salicornia bigelovii along with 10 known saponins (1-10). Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of spectroscopic analyses including two-dimensional NMR and a comparison with literature data. Some of these compounds showed potent antifungal activities in vitro. Compounds 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 11 demonstrated potent inhibitory activities against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and compound 11 displayed broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against Alternaria alternata, A. solani, Botrytis cinerea, C. gloeosporioides, Fusarium graminearum, F. verticilloides, Thanatephorus cucumeris and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, with EC50 values ranging from 13.6 to 36.3 μg/mL. PMID:26569214

  18. Microencapsulation of Traditional Chinese Herbs-PentaHerbs extracts and potential application in healthcare textiles.

    PubMed

    Hui, Patrick Chi-Leung; Wang, Wen-Yi; Kan, Chi-Wai; Ng, Frency Sau-Fun; Wat, Elaine; Zhang, Vanilla Xin; Chan, Chung-Lap; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2013-11-01

    In this work, Traditional Chinese Herbs (TCH)-PentaHerbs--was successfully microencapsulated in chitosan-sodium alginate (CSA) blend matrix using emulsion-chemical cross-linking method and the final product was characterised with regard to structure, surface morphology, particle size, in vitro drug release and skin toxicity by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser diffraction particle size analysis, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays respectively. Results showed that the microcapsules were in spherical form with diameter mostly in the range of 3-18 μm and that the release performance of the microcapsules was influenced by pH value of phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The microcapsules had no toxic effects on cells and were successfully grafted onto the surface of cotton fabrics. These results indicated that PentaHerbs loaded CSA microcapsule may possess potential application in clinical treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD). PMID:23792555

  19. Aromatic herbs in Corsican blue tit nests: The 'Potpourri' hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Marcel M.; Dos Santos, Anabelle

    2000-05-01

    This study reports that Corsican blue tit ( Parus caeruleus ogliastrae) nests contain between one to five aromatic herb species between the onset of egg laying till the chicks' finished growth 13 d after hatching. An herb removal experiment during the chick stage shows that blue tits bring fresh aromatic material 1-5 d after herb removal. Nests with a series of distinct odour classes easily perceived by humans have never been reported in birds. A new 'Potpourri' hypothesis is proposed that may explain the functional significance of this behaviour.

  20. Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Reena; Girish, K. J.; Kumar, Abhimanyu

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive deficits that present with many of neuropsychiatric conditions and/or alone as developmental deficit demand use of nootropics to boost cognitive abilities. Recently there is a tremendous urge to explore medicinal plants globally for improving cognitive function owing to their less adverse effects. Ayurveda provides a list of herbs known for nootropic activity as well as their multi-dimensional utility in various conditions. Present paper is a review to update knowledge on pharmacological properties, major chemical constituents, therapeutic actions, preclinical studies, safety and possible mode of action of the selected herbs from ayurvedic pharmacopoeia. Concurrently, it opens up for further research and standardization on nootropic herbs PMID:23055641

  1. Anethum graveolens: An Indian traditional medicinal herb and spice

    PubMed Central

    Jana, S.; Shekhawat, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    Anethum graveolens L. (dill) has been used in ayurvedic medicines since ancient times and it is a popular herb widely used as a spice and also yields essential oil. It is an aromatic and annual herb of apiaceae family. The Ayurvedic uses of dill seeds are carminative, stomachic and diuretic. There are various volatile components of dill seeds and herb; carvone being the predominant odorant of dill seed and α-phellandrene, limonene, dill ether, myristicin are the most important odorants of dill herb. Other compounds isolated from seeds are coumarins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and steroids. The main purpose of this review is to understand the significance of Anethum graveolens in ayurvedic medicines and non-medicinal purposes and emphasis can also be given to the enhancement of secondary metabolites of this medicinal plant. PMID:22228959

  2. Transient complete atrioventricular block associated with herb intake.

    PubMed

    Kolettis, Theofilos M; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Novas, Ioannis; Sideris, Dimitrios A

    2005-05-01

    We report a case of transient complete atrioventricular block in a 38-year-old man, after intake of a mixture of herbs, intended to aid cigarette smoking cessation. Since all other causes of conduction disturbances were excluded, a side-effect of the herbal remedy was identified as the most likely diagnosis. Given that most patients are unaware of the potential risks of the intake of various herbs, we would urge that their usage be regulated. PMID:15878559

  3. The Role of Herbs and Spices in Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Kaefer, Christine M.; Milner, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Historically herbs and spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior. A growing body of epidemiological and preclinical evidence points to culinary herbs and spices as minor dietary constituents with multiple anticancer characteristics. This review focuses on the anti-microbial, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic properties of herbs and spices, their ability to influence carcinogen bioactivation, and likely anticancer contributions. While culinary herbs and spices present intriguing possibilities for health promotion, more complete information is needed about the actual exposures to dietary components that are needed to bring about a response and the molecular target(s) for specific herbs and spices. Only after this information is obtained will it be possible to define appropriate intervention strategies to achieve maximum benefits from herbs and spices without eliciting ill-consequences. PMID:18499033

  4. [Strategies of the study on herb genome program].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-lin; Sun, Yong-zhen; Xu, Jiang; Luo, Hong-mei; Sun, Chao; He, Liu; Cheng, Xiang-lin; Zhang, Bo-li; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2010-07-01

    Herb Genome Program (HerbGP) includes a series of projects on whole genome sequencing (WGS) and post-genomics research of medicinal plants with unique secondary metabolism pathways or/and those of great medical and pharmaceutical importance. In this paper, we systematically discussed the strategy of HerbGP, from species selection, whole-genome sequencing, assembly and bioinformatics analysis, to postgenomics research. HerbGP will push study on Chinese traditional medicines into the front field of life science, by selecting a series of plants with unique secondary metabolism pathways as models and introducing "omics" methods into the research of these medicinal plants. HerbGP will provide great opportunities for China to be the leader in the basic research field of traditional Chinese medicine. HerbGP shall also have significant impacts on the R&D of natural medicines and the development of medicinal farming by analysis of secondary metabolic pathways and selection of cultivars with good agricultural traits. PMID:20931775

  5. Exposure to airborne microorganisms and endotoxin in herb processing plants.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Skórska, C; Sitkowska, J; Prazmo, Z; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    Microbiological air sampling was performed in two herb processing plants located in eastern Poland. Air samples for determination of the levels of bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin were collected at 14 sites during cleaning, cutting, grinding, sieving, sorting and packing of 11 kinds of herbs (nettle, caraway, birch, celandine, marjoram, mint, peppermint, sage, St. John's wort, calamus, yarrow), used for production of medications, cosmetics and spices. It was found that processing of herbs was associated with a very high pollution of the air with bacteria, fungi, dust and endotoxin. The numbers of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) in the air of herb processing plants ranged within 40.6-627.4 x 10(3) cfu/m3 (mean +/- S.D = 231.4 +/- 181.0 x 10(3) cfu/m3). The greatest concentrations were noted at the initial stages of production cycle, during cleaning, cutting and grinding of herbs. The numbers of airborne microorganisms were also significantly (p<0.0001) related to the kind of processed herb, being the greatest at processing marjoram, nettle, yarrow and mint. The values of the respirable fraction of airborne microflora in the examined facilities varied within a fairly wide range and were between 14.7-67.7%. The dominant microorganisms in the air of herb processing plants were mesophilic bacteria, among which endospore-forming bacilli (Bacillus spp.) and actinomycetes of the species Streptomyces albus were most numerous. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the most common was endotoxin-producing species Alcaligenes faecalis. Altogether, 37 species or genera of bacteria and 23 species or genera of fungi were identified in the air of herb processing plants, of these, 11 and 10 species or genera respectively were reported as having allergenic and/or immunotoxic properties. The concentrations of dust and bacterial endotoxin in the air of herb processing plants were large with extremely high levels at some sampling sites. The concentrations of airborne dust ranged within 3

  6. Screening Ingredients from Herbs against Pregnane X Receptor in the Study of Inductive Herb-Drug Interactions: Combining Pharmacophore and Docking-Based Rank Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhijie; Kang, Hong; Tang, Kailin; Liu, Qi; Cao, Zhiwei; Zhu, Ruixin

    2015-01-01

    The issue of herb-drug interactions has been widely reported. Herbal ingredients can activate nuclear receptors and further induce the gene expression alteration of drug-metabolizing enzyme and/or transporter. Therefore, the herb-drug interaction will happen when the herbs and drugs are coadministered. This kind of interaction is called inductive herb-drug interactions. Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) and drug-metabolizing target genes are involved in most of inductive herb-drug interactions. To predict this kind of herb-drug interaction, the protocol could be simplified to only screen agonists of PXR from herbs because the relations of drugs with their metabolizing enzymes are well studied. Here, a combinational in silico strategy of pharmacophore modelling and docking-based rank aggregation (DRA) was employed to identify PXR's agonists. Firstly, 305 ingredients were screened out from 820 ingredients as candidate agonists of PXR with our pharmacophore model. Secondly, DRA was used to rerank the result of pharmacophore filtering. To validate our prediction, a curated herb-drug interaction database was built, which recorded 380 herb-drug interactions. Finally, among the top 10 herb ingredients from the ranking list, 6 ingredients were reported to involve in herb-drug interactions. The accuracy of our method is higher than other traditional methods. The strategy could be extended to studies on other inductive herb-drug interactions. PMID:26339628

  7. Antimutagenic property of a Chinese herb

    SciTech Connect

    Hongen Zhang; Te-Hsiu Ma; Byeong-Seon Jeong; Chang-Deok Won

    1994-12-31

    The root extracts of a Chinese herb, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, has been used as internal medicine to improve liver and kidney functions for centuries. The antimutagenic property of this drug was evaluated with the Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay in this study. The Trad-MCN bioassay is a well-established test for chromosome damage induced by physical or chemical agents in terms of micronuclei (MCN) frequency. Inflorescences of the Tradescantia plant cuttings were first exposed to 35 R soft X-rays (80 Kv, 5 ma, 1 mm Al filter, dose rate around 50 R/min) and followed by drug treatments at 1%, 3% and 6% concentrations of the aqueous solution for a total of 24 hr recovery period. The positive (X-rays), negative (nutrient solution) and drug control (3% drug solution) groups were maintained in each of the three series of repeated experiments. Flower buds of the treated and control groups were fixed in aceto-alcohol (1:3 ratio) for preparation of slides to score MCN frequencies in the early tetrads of the meiotic pollen mother cells. The mean MCN frequencies (MCN/100 tetrads + SD) of the positive control (X-irradiated) was 26.67 + 9.62; the negative control was 2.92 + 1.90; the drug control was 2.06 + 1.50 and the 35 R X-ray/6% drug treated was 18.75 + 6.54. A 30% reduction of chromosome damage was observed. Antimutagenic effects were relatively lower at lower concentrations. This antimutagenic effect could be the results of the meiotic inhibition, DNA repair or radical elimination from the X-irradiation plant cells.

  8. Mechanisms of herb-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Allard, T; Wenner, T; Greten, H J; Efferth, T

    2013-01-01

    Herbal therapies gained much popularity among the general public, but compared to therapies approved by official authorities, toxicological studies are frequently not available for them. Hence, there may be inherent risks and the kidneys may be especially vulnerable to toxic effects. Herbs may induce nephrotoxicity by induction of apoptosis. High oxalate contents in Star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) may induce acute nephropathy. Triptolide from Thunder God Vine (Triperygium wilfordii Hook) is a diterpenoid epoxide with induces reactive oxygen species and nephrotubular apoptosis. Cranberry juice is discussed as promoter of kidney stone formation (nephrolithiasis). Abuse of guaifenesin from Roughbark (Guaicum officinale L.) increases stone formation. Aristolochia acids from Aristolochia fangchi Y.C.Wu ex L.D. Chow & S.M. Hwang causes the well-known aristolochic acid nephropathy and carcinogenesis by DNA adduct formation. Carboxyatractyloside from Impila (Callilepsis laureola DC.) inhibits mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Acute allergic interstitial nephritis was diagnosed after intake of Peruvian Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa Willd. DC.). Whether or not Willow Bark (Salix alba L.) induces analgesic nephropathwy is a matter of discussion. Other herbal therapies are considered to affect the rennin-angiotensisn-aldosterone (RAA) system Ephedra sinica Stapf with its ingredient ephedrine. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens DC. Ex Meisn.) and licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) may inhibit major renal transport processes needed for filtration, secretion, and absorption. Strategies to minimize nephrotoxicity include (1) quality control and standardization of herbal products, (2) research on the molecular modes of action to better understand pathophysiological mechanisms of herbal products as well as (3) clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy and safety. PMID:23597204

  9. Estrogen and progestin bioactivity of foods, herbs, and spices.

    PubMed

    Zava, D T; Dollbaum, C M; Blen, M

    1998-03-01

    In this study we report on the content and bioactivity of plant (phyto) estrogens and progestins in various foods, herbs, and spices, before and after human consumption. Over 150 herbs traditionally used by herbalists for treating a variety of health problems were extracted and tested for their relative capacity to compete with estradiol and progesterone binding to intracellular receptors for progesterone (PR) and estradiol (ER) in intact human breast cancer cells. The six highest ER-binding herbs that are commonly consumed were soy, licorice, red clover, thyme, tumeric, hops, and verbena. The six highest PR-binding herbs and spices commonly consumed were oregano, verbena, tumeric, thyme, red clover and damiana. Some of the herbs and spices found to contain high phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins were further tested for bioactivity based on their ability to regulate cell growth rate in ER (+) and ER (-) breast cancer cell lines and to induce or inhibit the synthesis of alkaline phosphatase, an end product of progesterone action, in PR (+) cells. In general, we found that ER-binding herbal extracts were agonists, much like estradiol, whereas PR-binding extracts, were neutral or antagonists. The bioavailability of phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins in vivo were studied by quantitating the ER-binding and PR-binding capacity of saliva following consumption of soy milk, exogenous progesterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate, or wild mexican yam products containing diosgenin. Soy milk caused a dramatic increase in saliva ER-binding components without a concomitant rise in estradiol. Consumption of PR-binding herbs increased the progestin activity of saliva, but there were marked differences in bioactivity. In summary, we have demonstrated that many of the commonly consumed foods, herbs, and spices contain phytoestrogens and phytoprogestins that act as agonists and antagonists in vivo. PMID:9492350

  10. [The research of revision on herb properties in Shaoxing Ben cao].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Zheng, Jin-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Shaoxing Bencao, wrote by WANG Jixian in South Song dynasty (1159), is a classic Chinese medicine book which aims to revise herb properties described in former literature. There are 371 items in the book evaluating herb properties recorded in books about herbs. Keeping those the thought right, correcting those he thought wrong, complementing those missed and selecting better ones from those with disputes. He revised herb properties in 50.9% of all the items. Herb properties were evaluated mainly according to record and clinical practice with emphasis on property-effect (effect and adverse effect) relationship. Logical deduction was also used to deduce herb toxicity and quality according to herb flavor, nature, tastes and their growing environment. The book described in detail the influence of processing on the herb properties and toxicity. The evaluation methods in this book are of reference value for learning about the formation of knowledge of herb properties. PMID:21569699

  11. Inhibitory effects of spices and herbs on iron availability.

    PubMed

    Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Zeder, Christophe; Siriprapa, Pudsadee; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri

    2009-01-01

    Spices and herbs are extensively used in indigenous diets in tropical regions where prevalence of iron deficiency is still high. They are rich in polyphenolic compounds that are expected to inhibit iron absorption by forming iron complexes in the intestine, making dietary iron less available for absorption. The effects of six spices and herbs (chili pepper, garlic, 'Pak kyheng' (Thai leafy vegetable), shallot, tamarind, turmeric) and one mixture of spices (curry paste) on iron availability were determined by measuring the percentage dialyzable iron after addition of spices and herbs to a rice meal after simulated digestion. All tested spices and herbs contained from 0.5 to 33 mg polyphenol per meal and were potent inhibitors of iron availability (20-90%), reducing iron availability in a dose-dependent manner--with the exception of tamarind, which at 11 mg polyphenol per meal enhanced iron availability. Our findings demonstrate that culinary spices and herbs can play an important role in iron nutrition. PMID:18651292

  12. Forage herbs improve mineral composition of grassland herbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies on plant mineral concentrations provided evidence of differences in mineral composition in plants species and their role in mineral supply to ruminants. We determined temporal differences in macro- and micromineral concentrations of grasses, legumes and herbs grown in a multi-species grassla...

  13. Effects of irradiation in medicinal and eatable herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, Paula M.; Villavicencio, Anna Lúcia C. H.; Brito, Mônica S.; Nahme, Ligia C.; Sebastião, Kátia I.; Rela, Paulo R.; Almeida-Muradian, Ligia B.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge; Freitas, Paulo C. D.

    2002-03-01

    For ages, herbs have been used as medicine and food. Nowadays, the interest in phytotherapeutics is increasing as well as the consumer attention. Some biochemical compounds synthesized by plants as alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, essential oils, tannins and vitamins, influence the composition of these plant pharmacologicals, which may produce various reactions in the human body. The microbial contamination in these raw plant materials is common, and the radiation processing is one appropriate technique for the reduction of microorganism. In herbs used as food products, the changes in total β-carotene and flavonoids upon the radiation treatment were tested. The powdered and dehydrated herbs were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses of 0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy. The botanical species investigated were rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis Linné), watercress ( Nasturtium officinale R. Br), artichoke ( Cynara scolymus Linné) and sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linné). The alterations in the active principles in the herbs following increasing doses of radiation were analyzed employing various methods of extraction and chromatography.

  14. Clinically Relevant Pharmacokinetic Herb-drug Interactions in Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Fasinu, Pius S; Gurley, Bill J; Walker, Larry A

    2015-01-01

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In this review, the bases for potential interaction of medicinal herbs with specific antiretroviral drugs are presented, and several botanicals are discussed for which clinically relevant interactions in humans are established. Such studies have provided, in most cases, sufficient ground to warrant the avoidance of concurrent administration of antiretroviral (ARVs) drugs with St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), black pepper (Piper species) and grapefruit juice. Other botanicals that require caution in the use with antiretrovirals include African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), ginseng (Panax species), garlic (Allium sativum), goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) and kava kava (Piper methysticum). The knowledge of clinically significant herb-drug interaction will be important in order to avoid herb-induced risk of sub-therapeutic exposure to ARVs (which can lead to viral resistance) or the precipitation of toxicity (which may lead to poor compliance and/or discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy). PMID:26526838

  15. The Public Health Impact of Herbs and Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Cassileth, Barrie R.; Heitzer, Marjet; Wesa, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Dietary supplement use has increased exponentially in recent years despite the lack of regulatory oversight and in the face of growing safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the public health implications and safety concerns associated with dietary supplement use, especially by cancer patients. Botanical research is actively pursued at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) Integrative Medicine department. Work of the MSKCC Center for the Study of Botanical Immunomodulators is described, and guidelines for cancer patients’ use of dietary supplements outlined. Herbs and other botanicals are complex, physiologically active agents, but little is known about most of the popular, widely available dietary supplements. Herb-drug interactions, a major concern, are exacerbated in the cancer setting. Biologically active agents may interfere with chemotherapy and other prescription medications. They may exert anti-coagulant activity at rather inconvenient times such as during surgery, and create other serious problems. Research on the bioavailability, effective dosage, safety and benefits of these complex agents is sorely needed. Oncology professionals and other healthcare providers should educate themselves and their patients about these issues. Probably the largest, continuously-updated free information resource is MSKCC’s AboutHerbs website (www.mskcc.org/AboutHerbs). PMID:19890479

  16. Dosimetry characteristics of coupled fast-thermal-core HERBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Milan; Milosevic, Miodrag; Milovanovic, Sava

    1997-02-01

    The 'HERBE' is new coupled fast-thermal core, designed in 1991, at the 'RB' reactor in the 'Vinca' Institute. It is used for verification of designed oriented computer codes developed in the Institute, training and sample irradiation in fast neutron field. For the last purpose a vertical experimental channel (VCH) is placed in the central axis of the fast core. Neutron spectrum in the center of the VCH is calculated in 44 energy groups. Space distributions of two energy group neutron flux in the 'HERBE' are measured using gold foils and converted into the neutron absorbed dose using group flux-dose conversion factors. Gamma absorption doses in the air in the center of the VCH are measured using calibrated small ionization chamber filed with air. Determined dose rates are related to the reactor power. The first preliminary irradiations of silicon diodes in the center of the VCH of the 'HERBE' fast core are carried out in 1994 and 1995. This paper describes calculation methods and measurement techniques applied to determination of the irradiation performance and dosimetry characteristics of the 'HERBE' system.

  17. Clinically relevant pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions in antiretroviral therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For healthcare professionals, the volume of literature available on herb-drug interactions often makes it difficult to separate experimental/potential interactions from those deemed clinically relevant. There is a need for concise and conclusive information to guide pharmacotherapy in HIV/AIDS. In t...

  18. Rosemary, the beneficial chemistry of a garden herb.

    PubMed

    Hanson, James R

    2016-01-01

    The major natural products that are present in the garden herb, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) including the mono di- and triterpenoid, flavonoid and phenolic constituents together with their biological activity as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, memory-enhancing and tumour-inhibitory agents, are reviewed. PMID:27120816

  19. Ethnobotanical Potentials of Common Herbs in Nigeria: A Case Study of Enugu State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, A. A.; Bello, O. A.

    2006-01-01

    Research was carried out on the ethnobotanical potentials of common herbs in Nigeria using Enugu State as a case study. A total of 200 questionnaires were administered on herb sellers in major herb markets in the state. In all, 96 different plant species were encountered in the markets. Attempts were made to write the names of the species both in…

  20. Drug discovery of neurodegenerative disease through network pharmacology approach in herbs.

    PubMed

    Ke, Zhipeng; Zhang, Xinzhuang; Cao, Zeyu; Ding, Yue; Li, Na; Cao, Liang; Wang, Tuanjie; Zhang, Chenfeng; Ding, Gang; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xu, Xiaojie; Xiao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases, referring to as the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, constitute one of the major challenges of modern medicine. Traditional Chinese herbs have been used as a major preventive and therapeutic strategy against disease for thousands years. The numerous species of medicinal herbs and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) compound formulas in nervous system disease therapy make it a large chemical resource library for drug discovery. In this work, we collected 7362 kinds of herbs and 58,147 Traditional Chinese medicinal compounds (Tcmcs). The predicted active compounds in herbs have good oral bioavailability and central nervous system (CNS) permeability. The molecular docking and network analysis were employed to analyze the effects of herbs on neurodegenerative diseases. In order to evaluate the predicted efficacy of herbs, automated text mining was utilized to exhaustively search in PubMed by some related keywords. After that, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves was used to estimate the accuracy of predictions. Our study suggested that most herbs were distributed in family of Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Apocynaceae. The predictive model yielded good sensitivity and specificity with the AUC values above 0.800. At last, 504 kinds of herbs were obtained by using the optimal cutoff values in ROC curves. These 504 herbs would be the most potential herb resources for neurodegenerative diseases treatment. This study would give us an opportunity to use these herbs as a chemical resource library for drug discovery of anti-neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26898452

  1. Traditional and Commercial Herb Use in Health Self-Management among Rural Multiethnic Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Altizer, Kathryn; Quandt, Sara A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Bell, Ronny A.; Sandberg, Joanne; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the role of traditional and commercial herbs in older adults’ health self-management based on Leventhal’s Self-Regulatory Model conceptual framework. Sixty-two African American and white adults age 65 and older completed qualitative interviews describing the forms of herbs currently being used, sources of information about them, interpretations of health (acute symptoms or chronic conditions) that lead to their use, and the initiation and suspension of use. Traditional herbs are native to the region or have been traditionally cultivated; usually taken raw or boiled to produce tea; and used for treating mild symptoms. Commercial herbs are prepared as pills, extracts, or teas; they are purchased at local stores or ordered by catalog or internet; and used for health promotion, illness prevention or treatment of chronic conditions. Herbs are widely used among older adults; this analysis differentiates the types of herbs they use and their reasons for herbs use. PMID:24991081

  2. An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy.

    PubMed

    Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and

  3. An update on Ayurvedic herb Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy

    PubMed Central

    Agarwa, Parul; Sharma, Bhawna; Fatima, Amreen; Jain, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (C. pluricaulis) is a perennial herb that seems like morning glory. All parts of the herb are known to possess therapeutic benefits. The plant is used locally in Indian and Chinese medicine to cure various diseases. It is used in Ayurvedic formulation for chronic cough, sleeplessness, epilepsy, hallucinations, anxiety etc. Based on the comprehensive review of plant profile, pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, pharmacological and toxicological data on the C. pluricaulis, there will be more opportunities for the future research and development on the herb C. pluricaulis. Information on the C. pluricaulis was collected via electronic search (using Pub Med, SciFinder, Google Scholar and Web of Science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information also was obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. This paper covers the literature, primarily pharmacological, from 1985 to the end of 2012. The C. pluricaulis is an important indigenous medicine, which has a long medicinal application for liver disease, epileptic disease, microbial disease, cytotoxic and viral diseases, central nervous system (CNS) disease in Ayurvedic medicine, traditional Chinese medicine and other indigenous medical systems. The isolated metabolites and crude extract have exhibited a wide of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effect, including CNS depression, anxiolytic, tranquillizing, antidepressant, antistress, neurodegenerative, antiamnesic, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticatatonic, and cardiovascular activity. A chemical study of this plant was then initiated, which led to the isolation of carbohydrats, proteins, alkaloids, fatty acids, steroids, coumarins, flavanoids, and glycosides as active chemicals that bring about its biological effects. A series of pharmacognostical studies of this plant show that it is a herb, its stem and

  4. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Korać, Radava R; Khambholja, Kapil M

    2011-07-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A "sclerojuglonic" compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  5. Potential of herbs in skin protection from ultraviolet radiation

    PubMed Central

    Korać, Radava R.; Khambholja, Kapil M.

    2011-01-01

    Herbs have been used in medicines and cosmetics from centuries. Their potential to treat different skin diseases, to adorn and improve the skin appearance is well-known. As ultraviolet (UV) radiation can cause sunburns, wrinkles, lower immunity against infections, premature aging, and cancer, there is permanent need for protection from UV radiation and prevention from their side effects. Herbs and herbal preparations have a high potential due to their antioxidant activity, primarily. Antioxidants such as vitamins (vitamin C, vitamin E), flavonoids, and phenolic acids play the main role in fighting against free radical species that are the main cause of numerous negative skin changes. Although isolated plant compounds have a high potential in protection of the skin, whole herbs extracts showed better potential due to their complex composition. Many studies showed that green and black tea (polyphenols) ameliorate adverse skin reactions following UV exposure. The gel from aloe is believed to stimulate skin and assist in new cell growth. Spectrophotometer testing indicates that as a concentrated extract of Krameria triandra it absorbs 25 to 30% of the amount of UV radiation typically absorbed by octyl methoxycinnamate. Sesame oil resists 30% of UV rays, while coconut, peanut, olive, and cottonseed oils block out about 20%. A “sclerojuglonic” compound which is forming from naphthoquinone and keratin is the reaction product that provides UV protection. Traditional use of plant in medication or beautification is the basis for researches and making new trends in cosmetics. This review covers all essential aspects of potential of herbs as radioprotective agents and its future prospects. PMID:22279374

  6. Synergistic antioxidant activity of green tea with some herbs

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dheeraj P.; Pancholi, Shyam S.; Patel, Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, arthritis, etc. are caused by free radicals that are byproducts of metabolic pathways. Selected plants namely Vitis vinifera, Phyllanthus emblica L., Punica granatum, Cinnamomum cassia, Ginkgo biloba L., and Camellia sinensis Linn. are reported to produce antioxidant property. This study is undertaken to support the hypothesis that formulation of a polyherbal combination of these plants shows a synergistic effect with green tea. The extracts of each drug were characterized by phytochemical studies and tests for phenolics and flavonoids. In vitro antioxidant activity for individual drug and its combination was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, and nitric oxide free radical scavenging methods. Our results suggest that a combination of all these herbs with green tea can synergistically enhance antioxidant activity and thus lower doses of each herb with green tea may be used. Antioxidant potential of polyherbal combination was also comparable to that of standard ascorbic acid. Studies showed that selected individual plants contained abundant quantity of phenolics and flavonoids and their polyherbal combination with green tea was found to produce best antioxidant activity among all individual extracts. This will help in avoiding undesirable side effects due to higher doses of single herb. PMID:22171315

  7. Emerging Trends in Microwave Processing of Spices and Herbs.

    PubMed

    Rahath Kubra, Ismail; Kumar, Devender; Jagan Mohan Rao, Lingamallu

    2016-10-01

    Today, spices are integral part of our food as they provide sensory attributes such as aroma, color, flavour and taste to food. Further their antimicrobial, antioxidant, pharmaceutical and nutritional properties are also well known. Since spices are seasonal so their availability can be extended year round by adopting different preservation techniques. Drying and extraction are most important methods for preservation and value addition to spices. There are different techniques for drying of spices with their own advantages and limitations. A novel, non-conventional technique for drying of spices is use of microwave radiation. This technique proved to be very rapid, and also provide a good quality product. Similarly, there are a number of non-conventional extraction methods in use that are all, in principle, solid-liquid extractions but which introduce some form of additional energy to the process in order to facilitate the transfer of analytes from sample to solvent. This paper reviews latest advances in the use of microwave energy for drying of spices and herbs. Also, the review describes the potential application of microwave energy for extraction of essential oil/bioactive components from spices and herbs and the advantages of microwave-assisted process over the other extraction processes generally employed for extraction. It also showcases some recent research results on microwave drying/extraction from spices and herbs. PMID:25751729

  8. [Combining herbs with medication--risks vs. chances].

    PubMed

    Amir, Nir

    2013-07-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is driven by the use of plants or parts of plants, which have undergone minimal processing in order to treat disease and improve health. The article: "Traditional Immunosuppression--Lei Gong Teng in Modern Medicine", published in this issue of "Harefuah", raises the importance of integrating herbal medicine within the existing medical system. However, there are various limitations on integrating herbology in official frameworks, such as bureaucratic and legislative restrictions concerning the safety and efficacy of the herbs. This allows the marketing of many plants without a prescription requirement or professional advice. Another limitation relates to therapists, some of whom have not undergone proper training and may recommend the improper use of plants, resulting in a problematic combination with drugs in some cases. Regulation is necessary in order to better serve both the public and doctors. Regulation will define who is allowed to work with herbs and this will create a secure integration of herbs into the formal medical world. PMID:23957086

  9. Biothermodynamic Assay of Coptis-Evodia Herb Couples

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongbo; Su, Min; Yao, Qi; Zhao, Yanling; Chen, Danhong; Jia, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To illustrate the difference in cold/hot natural properties and therapeutic effect of coptis-evodia herb couples by using cold/hot plate differentiating technology and microcalorimetry combined with material basis analysis in vivo and in vitro. It showed that animal retention ratio in hot pad significantly decreased along with the decrease in coptis proportion in coptis-evodia herb couples. In addition, Zuojin wan markedly reduced the retention ratio of gastritis mice in the hot pad, while Fanzuojin wan displayed an opposite result. Further, Mg2+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, and T-AOC activity significantly weakened in coptis-treated group in the livers of the mice. In the gastric cells from the gastritis mice, Fanzuojin wan remarkably increased calorific value for growth and metabolism, while Zuojin wan significantly reduced the calorigenic effect. It suggested that the changes in the major chemical compositions (especially alkaloids) were the material base-induced transformation between “cold” and “hot” syndromes. The material basis which affected the transformation between “cold” and “hot” syndromes might be X2, X3, X4, X8, epiberberine hydrochloride, jatrorrhizine hydrochloride, coptisine sulphate, palmatine hydrochloride, and berberine hydrochloride. The CHPD combined with microcalorimetry technology is a good method to determine the differences in the “cold” and “hot” natural properties of coptis-evodia herb couples. PMID:26379746

  10. Occurrence of Stachybotrys chartarum chemotype S in dried culinary herbs.

    PubMed

    Biermaier, Barbara; Gottschalk, Christoph; Schwaiger, Karin; Gareis, Manfred

    2015-02-01

    Stachybotrys (S.) chartarum is an omnipresent cellulolytic mould which produces secondary metabolites, such as the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes. While it is known to occur in animal feed like hay and straw as well as in water-damaged indoor environments, there is little knowledge about the occurrence of S. chartarum and its secondary metabolites in food. The objective of the present study was to examine selected dried culinary herbs for the presence of S. chartarum chemotype S, to assess the potential risk of a contamination of foods with macrocyclic trichothecenes. In total, 50 Stachybotrys isolates from different types of culinary herbs (n=100) such as marjoram (Origanum majorana Linné (L.)), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and savory (Satureja hortensis L.) were examined by MTT-cell culture test (effect-based bioassay), ELISA, and by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Selected toxic and non-toxic isolates (n=15) were genetically characterized by PCR and sequencing. Five isolates (10%) were highly toxic in the MTT-cell culture test, and the production of macrocyclic trichothecenes was proven by ELISA and LC-MS/MS. These five isolates were genetically confirmed as S. chartarum chemotype S. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report about a contamination of dried culinary herbs with toxigenic S. chartarum. PMID:25346283

  11. Identification of inflammatory factor TNFα inhibitor from medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hong; Wang, Yali; Bennett Jenson, A; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The inflammatory response is one of the first defenses our body has to fight against potential endangerments. It plays a critical role in host defense, clearing and slowing the infection in the case of microbial invasion. During an inflammatory response, a variety of cytokines are produced by cells and trigger or enhance the specific inflammation response. TNFα, one of these factors, plays a crucial role in many immune and inflammatory processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, and cell survival. It acts in orchestrating the cytokine cascade and the major regulator of inflammatory cytokine production. Abnormality of TNFα signaling leads to many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Due to the importance of TNFα, regulating TNFα activity is a key to treat the related diseases. There is a long history of using medicinal herbs to treat diseases related to inflammation. We searched for an ingredient that has the ability to inhibit TNFα, we examined AO herbal extract, containing 10 individual herbs and most of these herbs have anti-inflammatory activity within humans. We have tested the anti-inflammatory ability of AO herbal extract on mice. Furthermore, we used macrophage cell from young mice and found that AO extract has the ability to reduce the inflammation by inhibiting TNFα level. PMID:26778692

  12. A brief study of toxic effects of some medicinal herbs on kidney

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Increased use of complementary and alternative herbal medicines in the treatment of various diseases.Some herbal therapies may be causes of potential toxicity that may be renal toxicity caused by the ingestion of herbs. The goal of this study is the toxic and beneficial effects of medicinal herbs on renal health by which evidence for benefit or toxicity has been found. Included are nephrotoxicity from aristolochic acid and other components within herbs, herb-drug interactions, heavy metal toxicity in herbs and adulterants during careless preparation of herbal medicine, resulting in adverse renal effects and renal toxicity from contaminants within the extracts. The review aims to provide knowledge and guide to encourage future toxicity studies on the kidney by medicinal herbs. PMID:23326775

  13. Underground networking: the potential for improving yield and quality of pot-grown herbs with mycorrhizas.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Viviane; Gange, Alan C; Stead, Anthony D

    2012-01-30

    With constant pressure on herb growers to perform to a continuous high standard, finding new ways to improve herb quality and or quantity are gaining importance, with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) presenting one possible solution. Viviane Schroeder, Alan Gange and Anthony Stead discuss the introduction of AMF to the herb growth cycle and discuss the benefits and costs that their symbiosis with plants bring to modern agriculture. PMID:21987369

  14. [Cause and measure of short of quality control on Chinese medicine herbs].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiyan; Chen, Li; An, Zhibin; Yu, Xiaomei; Zhan, Yahua

    2003-01-01

    Chinese medicine is short of quality control for three reasons. Firstly, near 90 percent Chinese medicine herbs are lack of quality standards and hard to be evaluated. Secondly, basal study falls behind relatively, which limites development speed of quality control and quality standard. Finally, Chinese medicine herbs haven't uniform refine operating norm. We must strengthen basal study, constitute the inspection norm of Chinese medicine herbs quality and establish perfect technical supervise system as fast as possible. PMID:12858774

  15. Antioxidant activity of 45 Chinese herbs and the relationship with their TCM characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui; Banbury, Linda K; Leach, David N

    2008-12-01

    Here, 45 Chinese herbs that regulate blood circulation were analyzed for antioxidant activity using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. A recent publication by Ou et al. identified a close relationship between in vitro antioxidant activity and classification of Chinese herbs as yin or yang. The 45 Chinese herbs in this study could be assigned the traditional characteristics of natures (cold, cool, hot and warm), flavors (pungent, sweet, sour, bitter and salty) and functions (arresting bleeding, promoting blood flow to relieve stasis, nourishing blood and clearing away heat from blood). These characteristics are generalized according to the theory of yin and yang. We identified a broad range, 40-1990 micromol Trolox Equivalent/g herbs, of antioxidant activity in water extracts. There was no significant correlation between ORAC values and natures or functions of the herbs. There was a significant relationship between flavors and ORAC values. Bitter and/or sour herbs had the highest ORAC values, pungent and/or sweet herbs the lowest. Other flavors had intermediate values. Flavors also correspond with the yin/yang relationship and our results are supportive of the earlier publication. We reported for the first time antioxidant properties of many Chinese herbs. High antioxidant herbs were identified as Spatholobus suberectus vine (1990 micromol TE/g), Sanguisorba officinalis root (1940 micromol TE/g), Agrimonia pilosa herb (1440 micromol TE/g), Artemisia anomala herb (1400 micromol TE/g), Salvia miltiorrhiza root (1320 micromol TE/g) and Nelembo nucifera leaf (1300 micromol TE/g). Antioxidant capacity appears to correlate with the flavors of herbs identified within the formal TCM classification system and may be a useful guide in describing their utility and biochemical mechanism of action. PMID:18955214

  16. Multi-pathway cellular analysis on crude natural drugs/herbs from Japanese Kampo formulations.

    PubMed

    Eshima, Shizuka; Yokoyama, Satoru; Abe, Takashi; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Ikuo

    2015-01-01

    Kampo formulations comprise a number of crude natural drugs/herbs as constituents. The crude drugs/herbs have been traditionally classified by their traditional classifications or efficacies in Kampo medicines; however, it has been difficult to establish the scientific link between experimental evidence and traditional classifications in Kampo medicine. To clarify such traditional conceptions, we tested 112 crude drugs/herbs that are major components of Kampo formulations, in the multi-pathway analysis of 10 well-studied transcriptional activities including CREB, ERSF, HIF-1α, IRFs, MYC, NF-κB, p53, SMAD, SOX2, and TCF/LEF in A549 human lung cancer cells. By clustering the results of multi-pathway analysis with the Spearman rank-correlation coefficient and Ward linkage, three distinct traditional categories were significantly enriched in the major groupings, which are heat-clearing and dampness-drying herbs, acrid and warm exterior-resolving herbs, and acrid and cool exterior-resolving herbs. These results indicate that these crude drugs/herbs have similar effects on intracellular signaling and further imply that the traditional classifications of those enriched crude drugs/herbs can be supported by such experimental evidence. Collectively, our new in vitro multi-pathway analysis may be useful to clarify the mechanism of action of crude drugs/herbs and Kampo formulations. PMID:26035432

  17. Effect of a variety of Chinese herbs and an herb-containing dentifrice on volatile sulfur compounds associated with halitosis: An in vitro analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-yu; Wang, Jun; Xu, Zhu-ting

    2010-01-01

    Background: The principal components of halitosis are volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) such as hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethylsulfide or compounds such as butyric acid, propionic acid, putrescine, and cadaverine. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbs on VSCs in vitro. Methods: Saliva samples from volunteers were used as the source for the evaluation of bacterial activity and VSC inhibition. Extracted substances from Chinese herbs were identified by VSC inhibition tests with a Halimeter and microbial sensitivity testing. The effectiveness on halitosis was compared between a dentifrice containing one of the effective Chinese herbs (ie, chrysanthemum flower [Chrysanthemum morifolium flos]), 4 commercially available antihalitosis dentifrices, and a positive control that received no treatment. Results: Ten volunteers provided saliva samples for VSC testing. Of the 40 herbs tested, 14 extracts had percent inhibition rates of VSCs >50%. Ten herbs showed greatest effect against all culturable microorganisms with bacterial inhibition >70%. There was a weak positive correlation between bacteriostasis and the anti-VSC activity of the herbs with a correlation coefficient of 0.2579 (Pearson). The mean (SD) values of the VSC testing were as follows: dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower, 55.91 (8.16) ppb; Crest Tea Refreshing Dentifrice®, 48.39 (7.48) ppb (P = NS); Cortex Phellodendri Dentifrice®, 139.90 (14.70) ppb (P < 0.01); Colgate Total Plus Whitening®, 120.94 (15.58) ppb (P < 0.01); Zhong Hua Chinese Herbs Dentifrice®, 136.96 (13.06) ppb (P < 0.01); and positive control, 312.38 (28.58) ppb (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Of 40 herbs tested, 14 Chinese herbs were found to be effective for VSC inhibition. A dentifrice containing chrysanthemum flower reduced the formation of VSC in vitro, showing a significantly greater effect than the control group and 3 of 4 dentifrices already on the market. PMID:24683259

  18. Assessment of toxigenic fungi on Argentinean medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Inés; Vedoya, Gabriela; Maurutto, Silvio; Haidukowski, Miriam; Varsavsky, Edith

    2004-01-01

    This work was performed to determine the incidence of toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins on 152 dried medicinal and aromatic herbs, belonging to 56 species, which are used as raw material for drugs. International methodologies for fungal enumeration and identification were applied as well as TLC and HPLC techniques for toxins detection. The 52% out of 152 samples were contaminated with species from Aspergillus genus, 27% belonging to the Flavi section and 25% to the Circumdati section. The 16% of the total samples was contaminated with species from Fusarium genus. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus (Flavi section), were the predominant species isolated, 50% out of 40 isolates were toxigenic. Aflatoxin concentrations ranged from 10 to 2000 ng/g. Only 26% of isolates from the Circumdati section (A. alliaceus, A. ochraceus and A. sclerotiorum) produced ochratoxin A in low concentrations between 0.12 and 9 ng/g. From a total of 29 strains of Fusarium spp., 27.5% were Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, which produced fumonisin Bland fumonisin B2 ranged from 20 to 22000 microg/g and from 5 to 3000 microg/g respectively. The remaining species, F. equiseti, F. oxysporum, F. semitectum, F. compactum, F. sombucinum and F. solani were able to produce neither group A and B trichothecenes nor zearalenone. The incidence of A. ochraceus and Fusarium spp. and their toxigenic capacities on medicinal herbs were studied for the first time in Argentina. It would be important to look for natural contamination to define acceptability Limits which allow the control of sanitary quality of medicinal herbs used as phytotherapic medicines in several countries. PMID:15293944

  19. A new biflavonoid from the whole herb of Lepisorus ussuriensis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Zhou, Wei; Cao, Shuo; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Changhao; Jin, Xuejun; Cui, Jiongmo; Li, Gao

    2016-07-01

    A new biflavonoid, 7-O-methylnaringenin-(4'→O→6″)-scutellarein (1), together with 11 known compounds (2-12) were isolated from the whole herb of Lepisorus ussuriensis. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Amongst them, dihydroquercetin (6), diosmetin (9), baicalein (11) and 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (12) were reported from the family Polypodiaceae for the first time. Meanwhile, quercetin (7), diosmetin (9) and luteolin (10) inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB reporter gene expression on HeLa cells up to 30 and 100 μM. PMID:26569039

  20. Therapeutic agents and herbs in topical application for acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Acne vulgaris suppresses an individual's self-confidence by causing distress with regard to physical appearance, which affects a significant number of individuals during puberty and is delineated by adolescence. Several treatments have been introduced to decrease the aesthetic and psychological problems caused by acne. The topical application of therapeutic agents has been found to be more feasible than hormonal treatment and laser therapy. The ingredients in topical acne treatments, particularly herbs and naturally derived compounds, have received considerable interest as they have fewer adverse effects than synthetic agents. PMID:21401650

  1. Carcinogenicity of some folk medicinal herbs in rats.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, G J; Chung, E B; Ghosh, B; Shukla, Y N; Basak, S P; Morton, J F; Pradhan, S N

    1978-03-01

    Twelve medicinal herbs were bioassayed to correlate a high incidence of esophageal carcinoma in natives of different places with their habitual consumption of these products. Outbred NIH Black rats were given 72 weekly sc injections of the total aqueous extracts of the plant materials. The tanninrich plant extracts from Areca catechu and Rhus copallina produced local tumors in 100 and 33%, respectively, of the experimental animals. Other materials included Diospyros virginiana and extracts from plants not rich in tannins. Diospyros and extracts of Sassafras albidum and Chenopodium ambrosiodes were tumorigenic in over 50% of the treated animals. PMID:625070

  2. The Effects of Herbs and Fruits on Leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Saedi, Tayebeh Azam; Md Noor, Sabariah; Ismail, Patimah; Othman, Fauziah

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, herbal therapy is the first and basis form of treatment for most types of diseases. About 75–80% of the world's population prefers herbal therapy as a major treatment due to its better adequacy and satisfactoriness, which enhance human body's symmetry with minimal side effects. Fruits and plants have been presented from the past as promising tools in becoming a natural anticancer agents. Many of these plant extracts are currently used in cancer therapy and prevention. This review paper will particularly explore and emphasize on herbs and fruits used in the treatment of the leukaemia. PMID:25250054

  3. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiyang; Li, Bohui; Gao, Shuo; Bai, Yaofei; Shar, Piar Ali; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Zihu; Sun, Ke; Fu, Yingxue; Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Mu, Jiexin; Pei, Tianli; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records anticancer herbs related information through manual curation. Currently, CancerHSP contains 2439 anticancer herbal medicines with 3575 anticancer ingredients. For each ingredient, the molecular structure and nine key ADME parameters are provided. Moreover, we also provide the anticancer activities of these compounds based on 492 different cancer cell lines. Further, the protein targets of the compounds are predicted by state-of-art methods or collected from literatures. CancerHSP will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of natural anticancer products and accelerate anticancer drug development, especially facilitate future investigations on drug repositioning and drug discovery. CancerHSP is freely available on the web at http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu.cn/CancerHSP.php. PMID:26074488

  4. Systems Biology of Meridians, Acupoints, and Chinese Herbs in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Ling; Wang, Ya-Hui; Lai, Chi-Yu; Chau, Chan-Lao; Su, Guan-Chin; Yang, Chun-Yi; Lou, Shu-Ying; Chen, Szu-Kai; Hsu, Kuan-Hao; Lai, Yen-Ling; Wu, Wei-Ming; Huang, Jian-Long; Liao, Chih-Hsin; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2012-01-01

    Meridians, acupoints, and Chinese herbs are important components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). They have been used for disease treatment and prevention and as alternative and complementary therapies. Systems biology integrates omics data, such as transcriptional, proteomic, and metabolomics data, in order to obtain a more global and complete picture of biological activity. To further understand the existence and functions of the three components above, we reviewed relevant research in the systems biology literature and found many recent studies that indicate the value of acupuncture and Chinese herbs. Acupuncture is useful in pain moderation and relieves various symptoms arising from acute spinal cord injury and acute ischemic stroke. Moreover, Chinese herbal extracts have been linked to wound repair, the alleviation of postmenopausal osteoporosis severity, and anti-tumor effects, among others. Different acupoints, variations in treatment duration, and herbal extracts can be used to alleviate various symptoms and conditions and to regulate biological pathways by altering gene and protein expression. Our paper demonstrates how systems biology has helped to establish a platform for investigating the efficacy of TCM in treating different diseases and improving treatment strategies. PMID:23118787

  5. Climate change - Bad news for montane forest herb layer species?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2013-07-01

    Global warming presents a threat to plant species distributed at montane or alpine altitudes if the topography does not allow upward shifts in distribution ranges. Nevertheless, the species might also benefit from increasing temperatures and secondary effects on dominant species (e.g. bark beetle outbreaks or summer drought affecting the canopy species). As a consequence, disturbance frequency in montane forests might increase and light availability for herb layer species will increase. We addressed these interactions in a common garden experiment in Central Germany at different altitudes, representing cold and moist vs. warm and dry conditions. We investigated three montane species with different life forms, including a herb (Trientalis europaea), a grass (Calamagrostis villosa) and a dwarf shrub (Vaccinium myrtillus) under three shading treatments (3%, 28% and 86% of full sunlight). We hypothesized that montane species are at a disadvantage in the lowland, with the dwarf shrub suffering more than the grass. Furthermore, we hypothesized an antagonistic interaction of increased temperature and increased light conditions. While T. europaea and V. myrtillus showed only slightly responses to low altitude conditions, C. villosa displayed a nearly fifteen fold increase in biomass production, despite higher observed herbivory levels in the lowland. We failed to show an antagonistic effect of increased temperature and increased light availability, as all study species suffered from deep shade conditions and grew best under full light conditions at both sites. In conclusion, both improved temperature and light conditions might be principally beneficial for the investigated boreal species, in particular for the grass species C. villosa.

  6. Medicinal Herbs in Iranian Traditional Medicine for Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Shojaii, Asie; Ghods, Roshanak; Fard, Mehri Abdollahi

    2016-01-01

    Background: A few factors such as age, stress, and emotions may lead to impaired learning, memory loss, amnesia, and dementia or threats like schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) recommends some herbs and herbal preparations for the treatment or prevention of CNS problems. Methods: In this study, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of ITM herbal medicine on memory, learning and AD is reviewed. The scientific evidence of plant efficacy was searched in electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, SID, Science Direct, and Google Scholar by keywords such as memory, Alzheimer, amnesia, learning and scientific plant names from 1969 to 2014. Results: The findings of this study confirmed the effectiveness of certain ITM medicinal plants on enhancing memory and learning or in the treatment/prevention of amnesia and AD. Some ITM plants like Melissa officinalis, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa showed improving effects on memory and the treatment of AD in clinical trials. In some cases, active principles responsible for the efficacy of these plants on memory were also determined. Discussion: Most of the studies on ITM plants were designed in animal models and a few herbs were evaluated in clinical trials on AD. Furthermore, there are insufficient or no investigations on certain herbal medicines used in ITM to confirm their effectiveness on memory and learning. Therefore, further experimental and clinical studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these plants on memory and AD as well as determining their active components. PMID:27516676

  7. CancerHSP: anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Weiyang; Li, Bohui; Gao, Shuo; Bai, Yaofei; Shar, Piar Ali; Zhang, Wenjuan; Guo, Zihu; Sun, Ke; Fu, Yingxue; Huang, Chao; Zheng, Chunli; Mu, Jiexin; Pei, Tianli; Wang, Yuan; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-06-01

    The numerous natural products and their bioactivity potentially afford an extraordinary resource for new drug discovery and have been employed in cancer treatment. However, the underlying pharmacological mechanisms of most natural anticancer compounds remain elusive, which has become one of the major obstacles in developing novel effective anticancer agents. Here, to address these unmet needs, we developed an anticancer herbs database of systems pharmacology (CancerHSP), which records anticancer herbs related information through manual curation. Currently, CancerHSP contains 2439 anticancer herbal medicines with 3575 anticancer ingredients. For each ingredient, the molecular structure and nine key ADME parameters are provided. Moreover, we also provide the anticancer activities of these compounds based on 492 different cancer cell lines. Further, the protein targets of the compounds are predicted by state-of-art methods or collected from literatures. CancerHSP will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of natural anticancer products and accelerate anticancer drug development, especially facilitate future investigations on drug repositioning and drug discovery. CancerHSP is freely available on the web at http://lsp.nwsuaf.edu.cn/CancerHSP.php.

  8. HerDing: herb recommendation system to treat diseases using genes and chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Wonjun; Choi, Chan-Hun; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Seon-Jong; Na, Chang-Su; Lee, Hyunju

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, herbs have been researched for new drug candidates because they have a long empirical history of treating diseases and are relatively free from side effects. Studies to scientifically prove the medical efficacy of herbs for target diseases often spend a considerable amount of time and effort in choosing candidate herbs and in performing experiments to measure changes of marker genes when treating herbs. A computational approach to recommend herbs for treating diseases might be helpful to promote efficiency in the early stage of such studies. Although several databases related to traditional Chinese medicine have been already developed, there is no specialized Web tool yet recommending herbs to treat diseases based on disease-related genes. Therefore, we developed a novel search engine, HerDing, focused on retrieving candidate herb-related information with user search terms (a list of genes, a disease name, a chemical name or an herb name). HerDing was built by integrating public databases and by applying a text-mining method. The HerDing website is free and open to all users, and there is no login requirement. Database URL: http://combio.gist.ac.kr/herding PMID:26980517

  9. HerDing: herb recommendation system to treat diseases using genes and chemicals.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wonjun; Choi, Chan-Hun; Kim, Young Ran; Kim, Seon-Jong; Na, Chang-Su; Lee, Hyunju

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, herbs have been researched for new drug candidates because they have a long empirical history of treating diseases and are relatively free from side effects. Studies to scientifically prove the medical efficacy of herbs for target diseases often spend a considerable amount of time and effort in choosing candidate herbs and in performing experiments to measure changes of marker genes when treating herbs. A computational approach to recommend herbs for treating diseases might be helpful to promote efficiency in the early stage of such studies. Although several databases related to traditional Chinese medicine have been already developed, there is no specialized Web tool yet recommending herbs to treat diseases based on disease-related genes. Therefore, we developed a novel search engine, HerDing, focused on retrieving candidate herb-related information with user search terms (a list of genes, a disease name, a chemical name or an herb name). HerDing was built by integrating public databases and by applying a text-mining method. The HerDing website is free and open to all users, and there is no login requirement. Database URL: http://combio.gist.ac.kr/herding. PMID:26980517

  10. Effects of herbs and essential oils on in vitro batch culture ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medicinal herbs and essential oils were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiment as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. A total of 88 essential oils and 14 herbs were tested. Rumen inoculum enriched with particle-associated microorganisms was collected from ...

  11. Pharmacogenomics and Herb-Drug Interactions: Merge of Future and Tradition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue-Li; Zeng, Mei-Zi; He, Fa-Zhong; Luo, Zhi-Ying; Luo, Jian-Quan; Wen, Jia-Gen; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide using of herb products and the increasing potential herb-drug interaction issue has raised enthusiasm on discovering the underlying mechanisms. Previous review indicated that the interactions may be mediated by metabolism enzymes and transporters in pharmacokinetic pathways. On the other hand, an increasing number of studies found that genetic variations showed some influence on herb-drug interaction effects whereas these genetic factors did not draw much attention in history. We highlight that pharmacogenomics may involve the pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic pathways to affect herb-drug interaction. We are here to make an updated review focused on some common herb-drug interactions in association with genetic variations, with the aim to help safe use of herbal medicines in different individuals in the clinic. PMID:25821484

  12. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    PubMed

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. PMID:23896146

  13. Bioactive Compounds in Some Culinary Aromatic Herbs and Their Effects on Human Health.

    PubMed

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Gonçalves, Fernando J

    2016-01-01

    Culinary herbs are herbaceous (leafy) plants that add flavour and colour to all types of meals. There is a wide variety of herbs that are used for culinary purposes worldwide, which are also recognized for their beneficial health effects, and thus have also been used in folk medicine. Besides their nutritional value herbs are rich in many phytochemical components with bioactive effects, thus improving human health. The aim of the present work was to make a general overview of some of these herbs, including their gastronomic usage, their chemical composition in bioactive components and their reported health effects. This work showed that the health effects are very diverse and differ according to the herb in question. However, some of the most frequently citted biological activities include antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects. PMID:26864553

  14. Effect of added herb extracts on oxidative stability of ghee (butter oil) during accelerated oxidation condition.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Nilkanth; Gandhi, Kamal; Purohit, Akash; Arora, Sumit; Singh, R R B

    2014-10-01

    The antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), shatavari (Asparagus racemosus) and ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) were evaluated and compared with BHA using β-carotene bleaching assay, DPPH assay and Rancimat method. Phenolic contents of ethanolic extracts of herbs were high compared to their aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts showed more antioxidant activity (β-carotene-linoleic acid model system) than their aqueous counterparts. In DPPH system also, ethanolic extracts were superior to that of aqueous extracts. The ethanolic extracts of the herbs were more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene in ghee compared to their aqueous extracts. Ethanolic extracts of herbs showed the higher induction period as compared to their aqueous counter parts in the Rancimat. Antioxidant activity of the herbs decreased in the order vidarikand > ashwagandha > shatavari. Thus, the ethanolic extract of vidarikand was having the maximum antioxidant activity among all the herbs. PMID:25328218

  15. Microbiological quality of selected spices and herbs including the presence of Cronobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Garbowska, M; Berthold-Pluta, A; Stasiak-Różańska, L

    2015-08-01

    The cultivation of spices and herbs in parts of the world characterized by warm climate and high humidity provides excellent conditions for the development of microorganisms, including the undesirable ones. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of spices and herbs available on the Polish market, considering the occurrence of Cronobacter species bacteria. Analyses covered 60 samples of commercial spices and herbs, including 38 samples of dried herbs (basil, bay leaves, thyme, oregano, tarragon, marjoram, dill, parsley, rosemary, lovage) and 16 samples of seasoning blends as well as 6 samples of spices seeds and fruits (pimento, black pepper, coriander). All samples were tested for the total count of aerobic mesophilic bacteria (TAMB) and for the presence of Cronobacter spp. In most of the samples of spices and herbs (60.0%), the TAMB did not exceed 10(4) CFU/g, and the level regarded as unacceptable (>10(6) CFU/g) was not identified in any of the samples. The presence of Cronobacter spp. was demonstrated in 10 (16.7%) samples of the analyzed products, however these were mainly samples of herbs (basil, tarragon, parsley) and one sample of a seasoning blend (Provence herbs). The highest microbiological contamination (TAMB) was found in samples of herbs (oregano, tarragon, basil) and in ready seasoning blends, in 21.1% and 25.0% of which the total count of aerobic mesophiles was in the range of 10(5)-10(6) CFU/g. In all samples of spices seeds and fruits (coriander, black pepper and pimento), the total count of aerobic bacteria reached <10(4) CFU/g. Results achieved in the study indicate good hygienic conditions in the production process of spices and herbs available on the Polish market. The study demonstrated also that dried spices and herbs may be carriers of Cronobacter species bacteria, though their presence in not often detected in products of this type. PMID:25846909

  16. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  17. Effects of Plant Herb Combination Supplementation on Rumen Fermentation and Nutrient Digestibility in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wanapat, M.; Kang, S.; Khejornsart, P.; Wanapat, S.

    2013-01-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  18. Alkaloids Isolated from Natural Herbs as the Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jin-Jian; Bao, Jiao-Lin; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Huang, Min; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloids are important chemical compounds that serve as a rich reservoir for drug discovery. Several alkaloids isolated from natural herbs exhibit antiproliferation and antimetastasis effects on various types of cancers both in vitro and in vivo. Alkaloids, such as camptothecin and vinblastine, have already been successfully developed into anticancer drugs. This paper focuses on the naturally derived alkaloids with prospective anticancer properties, such as berberine, evodiamine, matrine, piperine, sanguinarine, and tetrandrine, and summarizes the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Based on the information in the literature that is summarized in this paper, the use of alkaloids as anticancer agents is very promising, but more research and clinical trials are necessary before final recommendations on specific alkaloids can be made. PMID:22988474

  19. Photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds for drying medical herb

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Rehim, Z.S.; Fahmy, F.H.

    1998-03-01

    This work presents design and optimization of a cylindrical photovoltaic dryer with dual packed beds thermal energy storage for drying medical herb. The dryer is provided with electrical heater where the electrical energy is generated by using photovoltaic system. The electrical heater is designed and sized to realize continuous drying (day and night) to minimize the drying time. Two packed beds are used to fix the drying temperature in dryer during day and night. The main packed bed thermal energy storage is charged during the sunlight hours directly, to realize continued drying after sunset. An efficient PV dryer is devised to work under forced air created by air blower and heated by the electrical coils.

  20. Medicinal protection with Chinese herb-compound against radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.J.; Qian, J.K.; Yang, G.H.; Wang, B.Z.; Wen, X.L. )

    1990-08-01

    Experiments were carried out on mice and the subjects irradiated for cancer therapy to evaluate the protective efficacy of a Chinese medicinal herb-compound (CMHC). The lethality and the degree of leucopenia caused by radiation in mice medicated with CMHC were significantly less in comparison with control mice (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). CMHC significantly improved the WBC and the thrombocytes in irradiated workers (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001, respectively). The WBC count of 40 patients under radiotherapy while treated with CMHC recovered from 3450 +/- 77/c.mm to 5425 +/- 264/c.mm (p less than 0.001); whereas, in the control group, without any medication, the WBC count dropped significantly (p less than 0.001). Our results revealed the applicabilities of CMHC in protection against radiation damage in spaceflight and in other fields.

  1. RUCAM in Drug and Herb Induced Liver Injury: The Update.

    PubMed

    Danan, Gaby; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) or its previous synonym CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) is a well established tool in common use to quantitatively assess causality in cases of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI). Historical background and the original work confirm the use of RUCAM as single term for future cases, dismissing now the term CIOMS for reasons of simplicity and clarity. RUCAM represents a structured, standardized, validated, and hepatotoxicity specific diagnostic approach that attributes scores to individual key items, providing final quantitative gradings of causality for each suspect drug/herb in a case report. Experts from Europe and the United States had previously established in consensus meetings the first criteria of RUCAM to meet the requirements of clinicians and practitioners in care for their patients with suspected DILI and HILI. RUCAM was completed by additional criteria and validated, assisting to establish the timely diagnosis with a high degree of certainty. In many countries and for more than two decades, physicians, regulatory agencies, case report authors, and pharmaceutical companies successfully applied RUCAM for suspected DILI and HILI. Their practical experience, emerging new data on DILI and HILI characteristics, and few ambiguous questions in domains such alcohol use and exclusions of non-drug causes led to the present update of RUCAM. The aim was to reduce interobserver and intraobserver variability, to provide accurately defined, objective core elements, and to simplify the handling of the items. We now present the update of the well accepted original RUCAM scale and recommend its use for clinical, regulatory, publication, and expert purposes to validly establish causality in cases of suspected DILI and HILI, facilitating a straightforward application and an internationally harmonized approach of causality assessment as a common

  2. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  3. Elemental uptake by edible herbs and lettuce (Latuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Pillay, Veni; Jonnalagadda, Sreekanth B

    2007-05-01

    The total concentration of toxic elements (aluminum, cadmium, chromium and lead) and selected macro and micro elements (iron, manganese, copper and zinc) are reported in six leafy edible vegetation species, namely lettuce, spinach, cabbage, chards and green and red types of Amaranth herbs. Although spinach and chards had greater than 125 mv of iron, both the amaranthus herbs recorded > than 320 microg g(-1) dry weight. In both the spinach and chard species, the Mn and Zn levels were appreciable recording > 225 microg g(-1) and 150 microg g(-1) dry weight, respectively. Aluminum concentrations were (in microg g(-1) dry weight) lettuce (10), cabbage (11), spinach (167), chards (65), amaranthus green (293) and amaranthus red (233). All the micro and macro elements and the toxic elements (Ni, Cr, Cd and Pb) elements analyzed, were below the recommended maximum permitted levels (RMI) in vegetables. Further the elemental uptake and distribution of the nine elements, at three growth stages of the lettuce plant grown on soil bed under controlled conditions are detailed. In the soil, except for iron (16%), greater than 33% of the other cations were in exchangeable form. Generally in the lettuce plant, roots retained much of the iron (> 224 microg g(-1)) and aluminum (> 360 microg g(-1)), while leaves had less than 200 microg g(-1) of iron and 165 microg g(-1) of Al. Although the concentrations of elements marginally decreased with growth, the lettuce leaves had significant amounts of Mn (30 microg g(-1)), Zn (50 microg g(-1)) and Cu (3.6 microg g(-1)). Some presence of lead in leaves (2.0 microg g(-1)) was noticed, but all the toxic and other elements analyzed were well below the RMI values for the vegetables. PMID:17474022

  4. Tulsi - Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Marc Maurice

    2014-01-01

    The predominant cause of global morbidity and mortality is lifestyle-related chronic diseases, many of which can be addressed through Ayurveda with its focus on healthy lifestyle practices and regular consumption of adaptogenic herbs. Of all the herbs used within Ayurveda, tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) is preeminent, and scientific research is now confirming its beneficial effects. There is mounting evidence that tulsi can address physical, chemical, metabolic and psychological stress through a unique combination of pharmacological actions. Tulsi has been found to protect organs and tissues against chemical stress from industrial pollutants and heavy metals, and physical stress from prolonged physical exertion, ischemia, physical restraint and exposure to cold and excessive noise. Tulsi has also been shown to counter metabolic stress through normalization of blood glucose, blood pressure and lipid levels, and psychological stress through positive effects on memory and cognitive function and through its anxiolytic and anti-depressant properties. Tulsi's broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes activity against a range of human and animal pathogens, suggests it can be used as a hand sanitizer, mouthwash and water purifier as well as in animal rearing, wound healing, the preservation of food stuffs and herbal raw materials and traveler's health. Cultivation of tulsi plants has both spiritual and practical significance that connects the grower to the creative powers of nature, and organic cultivation offers solutions for food security, rural poverty, hunger, environmental degradation and climate change. The use of tulsi in daily rituals is a testament to Ayurvedic wisdom and provides an example of ancient knowledge offering solutions to modern problems. PMID:25624701

  5. Herb Hydraulics: Inter- and Intraspecific Variation in Three Ranunculus Species.

    PubMed

    Nolf, Markus; Rosani, Andrea; Ganthaler, Andrea; Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The requirements of the water transport system of small herbaceous species differ considerably from those of woody species. Despite their ecological importance for many biomes, knowledge regarding herb hydraulics remains very limited. We compared key hydraulic features (vulnerability to drought-induced hydraulic decline, pressure-volume relations, onset of cellular damage, in situ variation of water potential, and stomatal conductance) of three Ranunculus species differing in their soil humidity preferences and ecological amplitude. All species were very vulnerable to water stress (50% reduction in whole-leaf hydraulic conductance [kleaf] at -0.2 to -0.8 MPa). In species with narrow ecological amplitude, the drought-exposed Ranunculus bulbosus was less vulnerable to desiccation (analyzed via loss of kleaf and turgor loss point) than the humid-habitat Ranunculus lanuginosus Accordingly, water stress-exposed plants from the broad-amplitude Ranunculus acris revealed tendencies toward lower vulnerability to water stress (e.g. osmotic potential at full turgor, cell damage, and stomatal closure) than conspecific plants from the humid site. We show that small herbs can adjust to their habitat conditions on interspecific and intraspecific levels in various hydraulic parameters. The coordination of hydraulic thresholds (50% and 88% loss of kleaf, turgor loss point, and minimum in situ water potential) enabled the study species to avoid hydraulic failure and damage to living cells. Reversible recovery of hydraulic conductance, desiccation-tolerant seeds, or rhizomes may allow them to prioritize toward a more efficient but vulnerable water transport system while avoiding the severe effects that water stress poses on woody species. PMID:26896395

  6. RUCAM in Drug and Herb Induced Liver Injury: The Update

    PubMed Central

    Danan, Gaby; Teschke, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) or its previous synonym CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) is a well established tool in common use to quantitatively assess causality in cases of suspected drug induced liver injury (DILI) and herb induced liver injury (HILI). Historical background and the original work confirm the use of RUCAM as single term for future cases, dismissing now the term CIOMS for reasons of simplicity and clarity. RUCAM represents a structured, standardized, validated, and hepatotoxicity specific diagnostic approach that attributes scores to individual key items, providing final quantitative gradings of causality for each suspect drug/herb in a case report. Experts from Europe and the United States had previously established in consensus meetings the first criteria of RUCAM to meet the requirements of clinicians and practitioners in care for their patients with suspected DILI and HILI. RUCAM was completed by additional criteria and validated, assisting to establish the timely diagnosis with a high degree of certainty. In many countries and for more than two decades, physicians, regulatory agencies, case report authors, and pharmaceutical companies successfully applied RUCAM for suspected DILI and HILI. Their practical experience, emerging new data on DILI and HILI characteristics, and few ambiguous questions in domains such alcohol use and exclusions of non-drug causes led to the present update of RUCAM. The aim was to reduce interobserver and intraobserver variability, to provide accurately defined, objective core elements, and to simplify the handling of the items. We now present the update of the well accepted original RUCAM scale and recommend its use for clinical, regulatory, publication, and expert purposes to validly establish causality in cases of suspected DILI and HILI, facilitating a straightforward application and an internationally harmonized approach of causality assessment as a common

  7. Reducing drug–herb interaction risk with a computerized reminder system

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Shing; Tsai, Chiu-Lin; Tu, Ching-Yeh; Hsieh, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Western medicine are both popular in Taiwan. Approximately 14.1% of Taiwanese residents use Western drugs and Chinese herbs concurrently; therefore, drug–herb interaction is critical to patient safety. This paper presents a new procedure for reducing the risk of drug interactions. Methods Hospital computer systems are modified to ensure that drug–herb interactions are automatically detected when a TCM practitioner is writing a prescription. A pop-up reminder appears, warning of interactions, and the practitioner may adjust doses, delete herbs, or leave the prescription unchanged. A pharmacist will receive interaction information through the system and provide health education to the patient. Results During the 2011–2013 study period, 256 patients received 891 herbal prescriptions with potential drug–herb interactions. Three of the 50 patients who concurrently used ginseng and antidiabetic drugs manifested hypoglycemia (fasting blood sugar level ≤70 mg/dL). Conclusion Drug–herb interactions can cause adverse reactions. A computerized reminder system can enable TCM practitioners to reduce the risk of drug–herb interactions. In addition, health education for patients is crucial in avoiding adverse reaction by the interactions. PMID:25733840

  8. Assessment of microbiological cleanness of selected medicinal herbs in relations to the level of resource fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Sobczak, Paweł; Wróblewska, Paula; Adamczuk, Piotr; Cholewa, Grażyna; Zawiślak, Kazimierz; Mazur, Jacek; Panasiewicz, Marian; Wojciechowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are commonly used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Their vast use is connected with their antibacterial or antioxidising properties, as well as numerous pro-health properties. The aim of the presented research was assessment of the quantitative and qualitative composition of moulds which contaminate samples of dried herbs: Sage (Salvia officinalis L.), Camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Melissa (Mellisa officinalis L.) with different degrees of resource fragmentation. The dried herbs investigated had a characteristic mould content below 1•10(6) CFU/g according to the recommendations of the European Herbal Infusions Association (EHIA). The most contaminated resource turned out to be Camomile, the least--Melissa. The most often isolated moulds were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ulocladium, Alternaria. Moreover, it was observed that more fragmented dried herbs were characteristic of lower--by approx. 40-55% microbiological contamination--depending on the type of tested herb, which might be connected with the time of dried herbs' processing, higher aeration, moisture changes or mechanical damaging of fungi's fragments in the case of a resource with higher fragmentation. High contamination of a herbal resource might be harmful for a consumer, and moulds and their metabolites in the form of mitotoxins might constitute a threat for human health. To keep all the sensory features and activity of herbs' active substances, it is extremely important to secure their high microbiological quality. PMID:24364459

  9. Potential herbs and herbal nutraceuticals: food applications and their interactions with food components.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Panjagari, Narender Raju; Singh, R R B; Patil, G R

    2015-01-01

    Since ancient times, herbs have been used as natural remedies for curing many physiological disorders. Traditional medicinal literature appreciated their value as nature's gift to mankind for the healing of illnesses. Some of the herbs have also been used for culinary purposes, and few of them have been used in cheese manufacture both as coagulating agents and flavor ingredients. Scientific investigations regarding biological activity and toxicity of chemical moieties present in many herbs have been carried out over a period of time. Consequently, literature related to the use of herbs or their functional ingredients in foods and their interaction with food constituents has been appearing in recent times. This article presents the information regarding some biologically active constituents occurring in commonly used herbs, viz., alkaloids, anthraquinones, bitters, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and essential oils, their physiological functionalities, and also the description of few herbs of importance, viz., Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Bacopa monniera, Pueraria tuberose, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Terminalia arjuna, and Aloe vera, in terms of their chemical composition, biological functionality, and toxicity. This article also reviews the use of herbs and their active ingredients in foods and their interactions with different food constituents. PMID:24915396

  10. Enhancing consumer liking of low salt tomato soup over repeated exposure by herb and spice seasonings.

    PubMed

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Rowland, Ian; Methven, Lisa

    2014-10-01

    There is strong evidence for the link between high dietary sodium and increased risk of cardiovascular disease which drives the need to reduce salt content in foods. In this study, herb and spice blends were used to enhance consumer acceptability of a low salt tomato soup (0.26% w/w). Subjects (n = 148) scored their liking of tomato soup samples over 5 consecutive days. The first and last days were pre-and post-exposure visits where all participants rated three tomato soup samples; standard, low salt and low salt with added herbs and spices. The middle 3 days were the repeated exposure phase where participants were divided into three balanced groups; consuming the standard soup, the low salt soup, or the low salt soup with added herbs and spices. Reducing salt in the tomato soup led to a significant decline in consumer acceptability, and incorporating herbs and spices did not lead to an immediate enhancement in liking. However, inclusion of herbs and spices enhanced the perception of the salty taste of the low salt soup to the same level as the standard. Repeated exposure to the herbs and spice-modified soup led to a significant increase in the overall liking and liking of flavour, texture and aftertaste of the soup, whereas no changes in liking were observed for the standard and low salt tomato soups over repeated exposure. Moreover, a positive trend in increasing the post-exposure liking of the herbs and spices soup was observed. The findings suggest that the use of herbs and spices is a useful approach to reduce salt content in foods; however, herbs and spices should be chosen carefully to complement the food as large contrasts in flavour can polarise consumer liking. PMID:24879887

  11. Herb formula enhances treatment of impotent patients after penile venous stripping: a randomised clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, C-H; Tsai, H-C; Hsu, G-L; Chen, C-C; Hsu, C-Y

    2016-09-01

    Herbs have been regarded as aphrodisiacs in treating impotence for many centuries despite little true scientific evidence. Our latest refined penile venous stripping (PVS) technique is effective in treating impotence, although this procedure remains controversial. A synergic effect of PVS and oral herbs was confirmed in our practice but lacked rigorous scientific proof. The objective of this report was to review our experience with this combination. From August 2010 to May 2014, 263 males underwent PVS. Among these, 67 unsatisfied men chose additional salvage therapy and were randomly assigned to oral herbs (n = 35) or placebo treatment (n = 32) which replaced herb eventually. All were evaluated with the international index of erectile function (IIEF-5) scoring and our dual pharmaco-cavernosography. The pre-op IIEF-5 score for the herb group was 9.7 ± 3.7, post-operative 13.9 ± 3.3 and post-herb 19.6 ± 3.4, while the control group scores were as follows: pre-op 9.3 ± 4.1, post-op 14.5 ± 3.6, post-placebo 15.1 ± 3.5 and post-herb 19.9 ± 3.2. Although there was no significant difference between the two groups pre-operatively, post-operatively and post-herb, a statistically significant difference was found post-salvage therapy (19.6 ± 3.4 versus 15.1 ± 3.6, P < 0.001). It appears that the combination of oral herbs and PVS treatment provides an enhanced outcome to impotent patients refractory to medicine and unsatisfied with PVS monotherapy alone. PMID:26688463

  12. Review on Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah): bioactive phytochemicals and skin collagen synthesis promoting herb.

    PubMed

    Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Sze Yean; Abdullah, Norhanisah; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji

    2012-12-01

    Labisia pumila is a traditional herb widely used as post-partum medication for centuries. Recently, extensive researches have been carried out on the phytochemical identification, biological and toxicological studies for the herb. Phytochemicals found in the herbal extract showed high antioxidant properties, which were essential for various pharmacological activities. The significant findings are anti-estrogenic deficiency and -immunodeficiency diseases. Another finding that has considerable impact on natural product research is the contribution of L. pumila in promoting skin collagen synthesis. The performance of the herb as anti-aging agent due to natural aging process and accelerated by UV radiation was reviewed critically. PMID:22521793

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi) on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra-) Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang-hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-ling; Xing, Xue-feng; Chen, Fei-long; Tan, Xiao-mei; Luo, Jia-bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination. PMID:25691910

  14. In Vitro Screening of Tumoricidal Properties of International Medicinal Herbs: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Mazzio, Elizabeth A.; Soliman, Karam F. A.

    2010-01-01

    With growing use of anticancer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) worldwide, there is a need to assess and screen commercially available natural products for relative tumoricidal properties under standard experimental conditions. In the current study, we screened and ranked 264 traditional Chinese and Egyptian herbal medicines for tumoricidal potency against malignant neuroblastoma in vitro. The data obtained show that tumoricidal potencies of plants were randomly dispersed throughout similar orders, families and genera under the Division: Magnoliophyta, class: Magnoliopsida, subclasses: Asteridae, Caryophyllidae, Dilleniidae, Hamamelididae, Magnoliidae and Rosidae. The most potent plant extracts (LC50 < 0.08 mg/ml) were prepared from gromwell root also known as ‘Hong Tiao Zi Cao’ (Lithospermum Erythrorhizon) Family (Boraginaceae) > beth root (Trillium Pendulum), Family (Liliaceae) and galbanum (Ferula Galbaniflua), Family (Apiaceae). Gromwell root is traditionally used in the preparation of Chinese medicinal tea. In addition, galbanum was highly regarded for its sacred and medicinal value according to ancient texts and the bible. Future research will be required to isolate and identify chemical constituents within these plants which are responsible for tumoricidal effects. PMID:20564497

  15. Determination of mineral and trace elements in some medicinal herbs and their infusions consumed in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Başgel, S; Erdemoğlu, S B

    2006-04-15

    Fourteen mineral and trace elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn) were determined in the herbs and their infusions consumed for medical purposes in Turkey such as chamomile (Matricaria chammomile L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), linden (Tilia vulgaris), nettle (Urtica dioical), rosehip (Fr.Rosa caninae), sage (Salvia officinalis) and senna tea (Cassia anqustifolia). Microwave digestion procedure was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal herbs. Element concentrations in the medicinal herbs and their infusions were determined by FAAS and ICP-AES. The accuracy and precision were verified against a GBW 07605 Poplar leaves and Tea certified reference material. The mineral and trace element content of medicinal herbs and their infusions showed a wide variability. However, distribution of the elements in the infusions is not high and it is nil especially for Cd, Co, Cr and Pb. PMID:15907975

  16. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  17. Structure of the herb stratum under different light regimes in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Lima, R A F; Gandolfi, S

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography. PMID:19675929

  18. [Analysis on the part of local medicinal herbs in Guangyangzaji (Guang Yang Miscellaneous Notes)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun-Ke

    2010-09-01

    Guangyangzaji (Guang Yang Miscellaneous Notes) are historical notes written by a scholar of the Qing dynasty: Liu Xian-ting. This book recorded much medical content of the people. Doing simple research and analysis on the name, physical nature and effectiveness of the Lobular Pyrolae, Kai Wood (Chinese pistache), Huanglian snakes (a snake habitat with Coptis grass) and other native herbs can contribute to understanding the evolution of the medicinal herbs. PMID:21163084

  19. Chinese medicinal herbs inhibit growth of murine renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lau, B H; Ruckle, H C; Botolazzo, T; Lui, P D

    1994-01-01

    Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing immune functions. We previously showed that a murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) suppressed macrophage function in vitro and that this suppression was abolished by co-incubation with extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs. We now report that these phytochemicals are capable of inhibiting growth of Renca in vivo. BALB/c mice were transplanted intraperitoneally (IP) with 1-2 x 10(5) Renca cells. One day after tumor transplant, mice were randomized into two groups. One group was treated IP, daily for 10 days, with 100 microliters of phytochemicals containing 500 micrograms each of Astragalus membranaceus and Ligustrum lucidum, while the other group received saline as controls. A cure rate of 57% was obtained with these phytochemicals when the initial tumor load was 2 x 10(5), and 100% when the initial tumor load was 1 x 10(5). Additional experiments were performed to investigate the mechanisms involved in this protection. Splenic macrophages from tumor-bearing mice were shown to have depressed chemiluminescent oxidative burst activity, and this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Splenocytes from mice transplanted with Renca responded less favorably to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in generating lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells; again this depression was restored with phytochemical treatment. Our data suggest that these phytochemicals may have exerted their antitumor effects via augmentation of phagocyte and LAK cell activities. PMID:7812364

  20. Chinese medicinal herbs reverse macrophage suppression induced by urological tumors.

    PubMed

    Rittenhouse, J R; Lui, P D; Lau, B H

    1991-08-01

    Tumors are known to produce factors suppressing macrophage function. In this study we demonstrated in vitro suppression of macrophage chemiluminescent oxidative burst associated with viable cells and cell-free extracts of two urological neoplasms--murine renal cell carcinoma (Renca) and murine bladder tumor (MBT). Suppression was reversed by extracts of two Chinese medicinal herbs, Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Ligustrum lucidum (LL). Murine macrophage cell line J774 was incubated with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extract for 18 hours at 37C and 5% CO2. Chemiluminescent oxidative burst as an indicator of macrophage function was triggered by adding zymosan A suspension containing luminol and assayed in an automated luminometer. Photon emission over time was counted and the results were expressed as integrated photon emission. Significant dose-related depression of oxidative burst occurred with either the viable tumor cells or the cell-free tumor extracts. Depression was partially or completely reversed by the presence of 50-100 micrograms./ml. of either the AM or the LL extract. AM and LL have previously been shown to modulate immune response. Data from this study suggest that they may also exert their antitumor activity via abolition of tumor-associated macrophage suppression. PMID:1856958

  1. Herbs as an antioxidant arsenal for periodontal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Asha; Varghese, Sheeja Saji; Doraiswamy, Jayakumar Nadathur; Malaiappan, Sankari

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease. PMID:27069730

  2. Airborne pollen of allergenic herb species in Toledo (Spain).

    PubMed

    Vaquero, Consolación; Rodríguez-Torres, Alfonso; Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed airborne pollen counts for allergenic herb taxa in Toledo (central Spain), a major tourist city receiving over 2 million visitors per year, located in the region of Castilla-La Mancha. The taxa selected were Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae, Plantago, Poaceae and Urticaceae, all of which produce allergenic pollen giving rise to serious symptoms in pollen-allergy sufferers. Aerobiological data were recorded over a 6-year period (2005 to 2010) using the sampling and analysis procedures recommended by the Spanish Aerobiology Network. The abundance and the temporal (annual, daily and intradiurnal) distribution of these pollen types were analysed, and the influence of weather-related factors on airborne pollen counts was assessed. Pollen from herbaceous species accounted for 20.9% of total airborne pollen in Toledo, the largest contributor being Poaceae, with 8.5% of the total pollen count; this family was also the leading cause of respiratory allergies. Examination of intradiurnal variation revealed three distinct distribution patterns: (1) peak daily counts for Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae and Plantago were recorded during the hottest part of the day, i.e. from 1400 to 1600 hours; (2) Urticaceae displayed two peaks (1400-1600 and 2200 hours); and (3) Poaceae counts remained fairly stable throughout the day. Two main risk periods were identified for allergies: spring, with allergies caused by Urticaceae, Plantago and Poaceae pollen, and summer, due to Chenopodiaceae-Amaranthaceae pollen. PMID:22331454

  3. Neuropharmacological Review of the Nootropic Herb Bacopa monnieri

    PubMed Central

    Borowski, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This review synthesizes behavioral research with neuromolecular mechanisms putatively involved with the low-toxicity cognitive enhancing action of Bacopa monnieri (BM), a medicinal Ayurvedic herb. BM is traditionally used for various ailments, but is best known as a neural tonic and memory enhancer. Numerous animal and in vitro studies have been conducted, with many evidencing potential medicinal properties. Several randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have substantiated BM's nootropic utility in humans. There is also evidence for potential attenuation of dementia, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Current evidence suggests BM acts via the following mechanisms—anti-oxidant neuroprotection (via redox and enzyme induction), acetylcholinesterase inhibition and/or choline acetyltransferase activation, β-amyloid reduction, increased cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter modulation (acetylcholine [ACh], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT], dopamine [DA]). BM appears to exhibit low toxicity in model organisms and humans; however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans have yet to be conducted. This review will integrate molecular neuroscience with behavioral research. PMID:23772955

  4. Linking vital rates to invasiveness of a perennial herb.

    PubMed

    Ramula, Satu

    2014-04-01

    Invaders generally show better individual performance than non-invaders and, therefore, vital rates (survival, growth, fecundity) could potentially be used to predict species invasiveness outside their native range. Comparative studies have usually correlated vital rates with the invasiveness status of species, while few studies have investigated them in relation to population growth rate. Here, I examined the influence of five vital rates (plant establishment, survival, growth, flowering probability, seed production) and their variability (across geographic regions, habitat types, population sizes and population densities) on population growth rate (λ) using data from 37 populations of an invasive, iteroparous herb (Lupinus polyphyllus) in a part of its invaded range in Finland. Variation in vital rates was often related to habitat type and population density. The performance of the populations varied from declining to rapidly increasing independently of habitat type, population size or population density, but differed between regions. The population growth rate increased linearly with plant establishment, and with the survival and growth of vegetative individuals, while the survival of flowering individuals and annual seed production were not related to λ. The vital rates responsible for rapid population growth varied among populations. These findings highlight the importance of both regional and local conditions to plant population dynamics, demonstrating that individual vital rates do not necessarily correlate with λ. Therefore, to understand the role of individual vital rates in a species ability to invade, it is necessary to quantify their effect on population growth rate. PMID:24390414

  5. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of herb extracts.

    PubMed

    Denev, Petko; Kratchanova, Maria; Ciz, Milan; Lojek, Antonin; Vasicek, Ondrej; Blazheva, Denitsa; Nedelcheva, Plamena; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    The present study provides a comprehensive data on the antioxidant, antimicrobial and neutrophil-modulating activities of extracts from six medicinal plants--blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) leaves, chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) leaves, hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves, lady's mantle (Alchemilla glabra) aerial parts, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) aerial parts and raspberry (Rubus idaeus) leaves. In order to analyze the antioxidant activity of the herbs, several methods (ORAC, TRAP, HORAC and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) were used. Blackberry leaves and meadowsweet extracts revealed the highest antioxidant activities via all methods. All extracts studied blocked almost completely the opsonized zymosan particle-activated ROS production by neutrophils from human whole blood. On the other hand, the effect of extracts on phorbol myristate acetate-activated ROS production was much milder and even nonsignificant in the case of chokeberry leaves. This latter result suggests that extracts (apart from their antioxidative activity) interfere with the signaling cascade of phagocyte activation upstream of the protein kinase C activation. The antimicrobial activity of the investigated extracts against 11 human pathogens was investigated using three different methods. Meadowsweet and blackberry leaves extracts had the highest antimicrobial effect and the lowest minimal inhibiting concentrations (MICs) against the microorganisms tested. PMID:24945135

  6. Herbs as an antioxidant arsenal for periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Asha; Varghese, Sheeja Saji; Doraiswamy, Jayakumar Nadathur; Malaiappan, Sankari

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines have long been used as a traditional mode of therapy for various ailments in India. They are being used increasingly as dietary supplements to ward off common diseases. Periodontal diseases are highly prevalent and can affect up to 90% of the world population. Gingivitis is the mild form whereas periodontitis results in an irreversible loss of supporting structures of the teeth. Even though periodontal pathogens form a crucial component in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting oxidative stress playing a pivotal role in the disease initiation and progression. Studies have shown a direct correlation between increased levels of biomarkers for tissue damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) to the severity of periodontal disease. Thus, the focus of attention has revolved back to herbal medicines due to their wide spectrum of biological and medicinal activities, lower costs, and higher safety margin. Internet databases Pubmed and Google Scholar were searched, and the most relevant articles were considered for review. This review briefly describes the various herbs with antioxidant capacity and their potency in the treating periodontal disease. PMID:27069730

  7. Treating ovarian cysts with Chinese herbs: a case report.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fan; Zhou, Jue; Yu, Yongping; Linc, Qiao; Jiang, Yue-Mingming

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a female patient suffering from continuous lower abdominal distending pain from an ovarian cyst for 1 year. The sonography taken on February 12, 2008 showed on the right ovary in the frontal position a cystic mass of 43.0 x 22.0 x 45.0 mm, which was found with an intact, regular, and thin membrane and a uniform echo without blood flow. The acoustic density of the sac fluid was transparent. Pelvic fluid collection with a depth of 10 mm existed as a liquid dark area around the uterus. A simple formula of Chinese herbs, Penyan Kang (formula for treating pelvic inflammation), was orally administered to the patient for 90 days. On the 6th return visit on May 10, 2008, the patient said that all the symptoms reported during the first visit had disappeared. The sonography taken on May 27, 2008 showed that the ovarian cyst on the right side had disappeared and that no abnormality was present. No side-effect of the treatment was reported. PMID:19887813

  8. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jingxiang; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanli; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; Yang, Meina; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Nie, Xiaoyan; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL). A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views. PMID:27478482

  9. Spectral Analysis of Chinese Medicinal Herbs Based on Delayed Luminescence

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Yanli; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Nie, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plays a critical role in healthcare; however, it lacks scientific evidence to support the multidimensional therapeutic effects. These effects are based on experience, and, to date, there is no advanced tool to evaluate these experience based effects. In the current study, Chinese herbal materials classified with different cold and heat therapeutic properties, based on Chinese medicine principles, were investigated using spectral distribution, as well as the decay probability distribution based on delayed luminescence (DL). A detection system based on ultraweak biophoton emission was developed to determine the DL decay kinetics of the cold and heat properties of Chinese herbal materials. We constructed a mathematical model to fit the experimental data and characterize the properties of Chinese medicinal herbs with different parameters. The results demonstrated that this method has good reproducibility. Moreover, there is a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the spectral distribution and the decay probability distribution of Chinese herbal materials with cold and heat properties. This approach takes advantage of the comprehensive nature of DL compared with more reductionist approaches and is more consistent with TCM principles, in which the core comprises holistic views. PMID:27478482

  10. Use of Chinese herb medicine in experimental radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Y.; Yang, X.Y.; Zhan, Q.M.; Guo, R.; Liu, J.W.; Yang, C.Z.

    1989-02-01

    Extracts from a group of destagnative herbs, 764-1, and the effective chemical, 764-3, were tested by an in vitro experiment using a HeLa-S3 cell line. Under aerobic conditions, the shoulder of the cell survival curve diminished or disappeared according to the different doses of 764-1 used, but no change in slope was observed. In nitrogen, when the dose of 764-1 increased to 20 mg/ml (ID20), besides the disappearance of the shoulder, the slope of the curve also showed changes at lower doses (4-8 Gy); up to 10-25 Gy the curve became more flattened. 764-3 showed almost a similar effect by mainly affecting the shoulder of the survival curve. At low drug doses a SER as high as 1.87 might be obtained under hypoxic condition. At the same time 764-1 was used in testing the effect on radiation lung damage. It was found that 764-1 could markedly inhibit the change of alveolar surfactant at 1 and 3 weeks after radiation. A wide field of investigation is thus spread out in front of us on radiosensitization and protection. Further studies on 764-3 are carried out.

  11. [Impact of storage conditions and time on herb of Lonicera macranthoides].

    PubMed

    Ma, Peng; Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    To study the effect of different storage conditions and storage time on herb quality of Lonicera macranthoides, different packaging materials including vacuum plastic bags, plastic bags, woven bags, sealed with endometrial bags, paper bags, sack bags were selected for the study under different storage conditions including room temperature, 5 degrees C refrigerator, low temperature of - 20 degrees C refrigerator and desiccator. Twenty-four batches of samples were used for the study, and active ingredients were determined. The experimental results showed that the ingredients in each storage group changed with the storage time, storage conditions (storage environment, packaging). Under the same storage time, the storage environment (temperature, humidity) had effect on the stability of herb quality. Low temperature had less effect on herb quality. The effect of packaging on herb quality was as following: plastic vacuum packaging > woven with endometrial sealed packaging > plastic bag > woven bag > sack bags > paper bags. Under the same storage conditions, with the increase of storage time, caffeic acid content increased slowly, and other five ingredients content decreased gradually. Storage time affected significantly on the intrinsic quality (chemical composition) and appearance of herb. It is suggested that low temperature (5 degrees C), dark and sealed storage are suitable for storage of L. macranthoides herb, the storage time should be not more than 24 months. PMID:24956836

  12. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 Levels in Organic Spices and Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53 μg/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5 μg/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5 μg/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs. PMID:23766719

  13. Infusions and decoctions of mixed herbs used in folk medicine: synergism in antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2011-08-01

    Infusions (herbal teas) and decoctions are used frequently to administer oral doses of herbs. Although some herbs are used as single ingredients, they are often prepared as mixtures, as reported by numerous ethnobotanical surveys. The present work was carried out to identify the different types of interaction (synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects) which may be found in the antioxidant activity of preparations from mixtures of the popular herbs Aloysia citrodora (lemon verbena), Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and Mentha spicata (spearmint). Herbs were prepared using traditional methods, and the effects after different periods of storage, up to 120 days, were also evaluated. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the β-carotene - linoleate system and the TBARS assay. Known antioxidant compounds such as total phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars were also determined. Spearmint was found to be present in the herb mixtures with the greatest antioxidant activity and these also had the highest flavonoid content. The most potent antioxidant activity was found in combinations of different herbs, suggesting synergistic effects. PMID:21308820

  14. Molecular targets of Chinese herbs: a clinical study of hepatoma based on network pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Niu, Yang-Yang; Duan, Dan-Dan; Yang, Xue; Hao, Jian; Zhu, Cui-Hong; Chen, Dan; Wang, Ke-Xin; Qin, Xue-Mei; Wu, Xiong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat tumors for years and has been demonstrated to be effective. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of herbs remain unclear. This study aims to ascertain molecular targets of herbs prolonging survival time of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on network pharmacology, and to establish a research method for accurate treatment of TCM. The survival benefit of TCM treatment with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) was proved by Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis among 288 patients. The correlation between herbs and survival time was performed by bivariate correlation analysis. Network pharmacology method was utilized to construct the active ingredient-target networks of herbs that were responsible for the beneficial effects against HCC. Cox regression analysis showed CHM was an independent favorable prognostic factor. The median survival time was 13 months and the 5-year overall survival rates were 2.61% in the TCM group, while there were 6 months, 0 in the non-TCM group. Correlation analysis demonstrated that 8 herbs closely associated with prognosis. Network pharmacology analysis revealed that the 8 herbs regulated multiple HCC relative genes, among which the genes affected proliferation (KRAS, AKT2, MAPK), metastasis (SRC, MMP), angiogenesis (PTGS2) and apoptosis (CASP3) etc. PMID:27143508

  15. Understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial communities in subtropical plantations

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Dima; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Feifei; Wen, Meiping; Yuan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities in forest plantations remain inadequate although they have been extensively studied in natural forest and grassland ecosystems. In this study, using data from 12 subtropical plantation sites, we found that the overstory tree biomass and tree cover increased with increasing plantation age. However, there was a decline in the aboveground biomass and species richness of the understory herbs as plantation age increased. Biomass of all microbial community groups (i.e. fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinomycete) decreased with increasing plantation age; however, the biomass ratio of fungi to bacteria did not change with increasing plantation age. Variation in most microbial community groups was mainly explained by the understory herb (i.e. herb biomass and herb species richness) and overstory trees (i.e. tree biomass and tree cover), while soils (i.e. soil moisture, soil organic carbon, and soil pH) explained a relative low percentage of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial community in subtropical plantations. These findings suggest that maintenance of plantation health may need to consider the management of understory herb in order to increase the potential of plantation ecosystems as fast-response carbon sinks. PMID:27243577

  16. An overview of important ethnomedicinal herbs of Phyllanthus species: present status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Bharti; Verma, Nidhi; Martín, Juan Pedro; Mohanty, Aparajita

    2014-01-01

    The genus Phyllanthus consists of more than 1000 species, of which many are used as traditional medicines. The plant extracts have been used since ancient times, for treating hypertension, diabetes, hepatic, urinary, and sexual disorders, and other common ailments. Modern day scientific investigations have now confirmed pharmacognostic properties of Phyllanthus herbs. The phytochemicals attributing these medicinal properties have been identified in many of the Phyllanthus herbs. The morphologically similar herbs of Phyllanthus grow together and admixture of species during collection for manufacture of herbal medicines is quite common. Hence, along with pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies, appropriate protocols for correct identification of species are also important. As the use of these herbs as green medicines is becoming more popular, it is imperative to assess its genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness for future conservation strategies. This review is an attempt to present an overview of the existing studies on pharmacognostics, phytochemistry, species identification, and genetic diversity of Phyllanthus herbs and consequently (i) highlight areas where further research is needed and (ii) draw attention towards extending similar studies in underutilized but potentially important herbs such as P. maderaspatensis, P. kozhikodianus, P. rheedii, P. scabrifolius, and P. rotundifolius. PMID:24672382

  17. Chinese herbs for memory disorders: a review and systematic analysis of classical herbal literature.

    PubMed

    May, Brian H; Lu, Chuanjian; Lu, Yubo; Zhang, Anthony L; Xue, Charlie C L

    2013-02-01

    Text mining and other literature-based investigations can assist in identifying natural products for experimental and clinical research. This article details a method for systematically analyzing data derived from the classical Chinese medical literature. We present the results of electronic searches of Zhong Hua Yi Dian ("Encyclopaedia of Traditional Chinese Medicine"), a CD of 1000 premodern (before 1950) medical books, for single herbs, and other natural products used for dementia, memory disorders, and memory improvement. This review explores how the terminology for these disorders has changed over time and which herbs have been used more or less frequently, and compares the results from the premodern literature with the herbs indexed for memory disorders in a modern pharmacopoeia. The searches located 731 citations deriving from 127 different books written between ca. 188 ad and ca. 1920. Of the 110 different natural products identified, those most frequently cited for forgetfulness were yuan zhi (Polygala tenuifolia), fu shen (Poria cocos), and chang pu (Acorus spp.), all of which have been cited repeatedly over the past 1800 years and appear among the 31 herbs indexed in a modern pharmacopoeia. By providing a complete, hierarchically organized list of herbs for a specific disorder, this approach can assist researchers in selecting herbs for research. PMID:23433049

  18. Screening for hemostatic activities of popular Chinese medicinal herbs in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ohkura, Naoki; Yokouchi, Haruna; Mimura, Mariyo; Nakamura, Riki; Atsumi, Gen-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to identify new hemostyptics by assessing the coagulation enhancing activity of 114 Chinese herbal extracts in vitro. Methods: Herbs were boiled in water for 30 min, filtered and then lyophilized filtrates (10 mg/mL) were dissolved in water. Coagulation was assayed as prothrombin time (PT). Plasma diluted in saline was incubated with each extract for 5 min and then PT reagent was added, followed by CaCl2 solution and the time taken to form clots was measured. Extracts that decreased coagulation time were regarded as containing active compounds. The abilities of extracts to activate Factor XII were assessed and the activated form of factor XII (XIIa) was resolved by SDS-PAGE and visualized by silver staining. Results: Coagulation time was obviously shortened by extracts of Alpinia Rhizome, Areca, Artemisia Leaf, Cassia Bark, Danshen Root, Ephedra Herb, Epimedium Herb, Forsythia Fruit, Great Burdock Achene, Moutan Bark, Perilla Herb, Red Paeony Root, Schizonepeta Spike, Senticosus Rhizome, Sweet Annie, Uncaria Thorn and Zanthoxylum Peel. Factor XII was obviously activated by extracts of Artemisia Leaf and Great Burdock Achene, and slightly by Perilla herb. Conclusion: Some popular Chinese medicinal herbs have potential as hemostatic agents and could thus be develope as new strategies for the treatment and prevention of bleeding. PMID:26401379

  19. Toxicological safety and stability of the components of an irradiated Korean medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Jeong, Ill-Yun; Park, Hae-Ran; Oh, Heon; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2004-09-01

    As utilization of medicinal herbs in food and bio-industry increases, mass production and the supply of herbs with a high quality are required. As the use of fumigants and preservatives for herbs is being restricted, safe hygienic technologies are demanded. To consider the possibility of the application of irradiation technology for this purpose, the genotoxicological safety and stability of the active components of the γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix were studied. The herb was irradiated with γ-rays at a practical dosage of 10 kGy, and then it was extracted with hot water. The genotoxicity of the extract of the irradiated herb was examined in two short-term in vitro tests: (1) Ames test in Salmonella typhimurium; (2) Micronucleus test in cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The extract of the irradiated herb did not show mutagenicity in the Ames test of the Salmonella reverse mutation assay, and did not show cytogenetic toxicity in the culture of the CHO cells. HPLC chromatogram of paeoniflorin in the irradiated Paeoniae Radix was similar with that of the non-irradiated sample. The quantity of paeoniflorin did not change significantly with irradiation. These results suggest that γ-irradiated Paeoniae Radix is toxicologically safe and chemically stable.

  20. The Common Prescription Patterns Based on the Hierarchical Clustering of Herb-Pairs Efficacies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Prescription patterns are rules or regularities used to generate, recognize, or judge a prescription. Most of existing studies focused on the specific prescription patterns for diverse diseases or syndromes, while little attention was paid to the common patterns, which reflect the global view of the regularities of prescriptions. In this paper, we designed a method CPPM to find the common prescription patterns. The CPPM is based on the hierarchical clustering of herb-pair efficacies (HPEs). Firstly, HPEs were hierarchically clustered; secondly, the individual herbs are labeled by the HPEC (the clusters of HPEs); and then the prescription patterns were extracted from the combinations of HPEC; finally the common patterns are recognized statistically. The results showed that HPEs have hierarchical clustering structure. When the clustering level is 2 and the HPEs were classified into two clusters, the common prescription patterns are obvious. Among 332 candidate prescriptions, 319 prescriptions follow the common patterns. The description of the patterns is that if a prescription contains the herbs of the cluster (C 1), it is very likely to have other herbs of another cluster (C 2); while a prescription has the herbs of C 2, it may have no herbs of C 1. Finally, we discussed that the common patterns are mathematically coincident with the Blood-Qi theory. PMID:27190534

  1. Understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial communities in subtropical plantations.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Dima; Tian, Yichen; Zhang, Feifei; Wen, Meiping; Yuan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The patterns and drivers of soil microbial communities in forest plantations remain inadequate although they have been extensively studied in natural forest and grassland ecosystems. In this study, using data from 12 subtropical plantation sites, we found that the overstory tree biomass and tree cover increased with increasing plantation age. However, there was a decline in the aboveground biomass and species richness of the understory herbs as plantation age increased. Biomass of all microbial community groups (i.e. fungi, bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and actinomycete) decreased with increasing plantation age; however, the biomass ratio of fungi to bacteria did not change with increasing plantation age. Variation in most microbial community groups was mainly explained by the understory herb (i.e. herb biomass and herb species richness) and overstory trees (i.e. tree biomass and tree cover), while soils (i.e. soil moisture, soil organic carbon, and soil pH) explained a relative low percentage of the variation. Our results demonstrate that the understory herb layer exerts strong controls on soil microbial community in subtropical plantations. These findings suggest that maintenance of plantation health may need to consider the management of understory herb in order to increase the potential of plantation ecosystems as fast-response carbon sinks. PMID:27243577

  2. Molecular targets of Chinese herbs: a clinical study of hepatoma based on network pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Li; Wang, Xiao-dong; Niu, Yang-yang; Duan, Dan-dan; Yang, Xue; Hao, Jian; Zhu, Cui-hong; Chen, Dan; Wang, Ke-xin; Qin, Xue-mei; Wu, Xiong-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used to treat tumors for years and has been demonstrated to be effective. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of herbs remain unclear. This study aims to ascertain molecular targets of herbs prolonging survival time of patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) based on network pharmacology, and to establish a research method for accurate treatment of TCM. The survival benefit of TCM treatment with Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) was proved by Kaplan–Meier method and Cox regression analysis among 288 patients. The correlation between herbs and survival time was performed by bivariate correlation analysis. Network pharmacology method was utilized to construct the active ingredient-target networks of herbs that were responsible for the beneficial effects against HCC. Cox regression analysis showed CHM was an independent favorable prognostic factor. The median survival time was 13 months and the 5-year overall survival rates were 2.61% in the TCM group, while there were 6 months, 0 in the non-TCM group. Correlation analysis demonstrated that 8 herbs closely associated with prognosis. Network pharmacology analysis revealed that the 8 herbs regulated multiple HCC relative genes, among which the genes affected proliferation (KRAS, AKT2, MAPK), metastasis (SRC, MMP), angiogenesis (PTGS2) and apoptosis (CASP3) etc. PMID:27143508

  3. A Systematic Review of Single Chinese Herbs for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li-Min; Li, Ju-Tzu

    2011-01-01

    The objectives here are to provide a systematic review of the current evidence concerning the use of Chinese herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to understand their mechanisms of action with respect to the pathophysiology of the disease. AD, characterized microscopically by deposition of amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, has become the most common cause of senile dementia. The limitations of western medications have led us to explore herbal medicine. In particular, many Chinese herbs have demonstrated some interesting therapeutic properties. The following databases were searched from their inception: MEDLINE (PUBMED), ALT HEALTH WATCH (EBSCO), CINAH and Cochrane Central. Only single Chinese herbs are included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data and performed quality assessment. The quality assessment of a clinical trial is based on the Jadad criteria. Seven Chinese herbs and six randomized controlled clinical trials were identified under the predefined criteria. Ginkgo biloba, Huperzine A (Lycopodium serratum) and Ginseng have been assessed for their clinical efficacy with limited favorable evidence. No serious adverse events were reported. Chinese herbs show promise in the treatment of AD in terms of their cognitive benefits and more importantly, their mechanisms of action that deal with the fundamental pathophysiology of the disease. However, the current evidence in support of their use is inconclusive or inadequate. Future research should place emphasis on herbs that can treat the root of the disease. PMID:19737808

  4. Inhibition of the interactions between eosinophil cationic protein and airway epithelial cells by traditional Chinese herbs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) is cytotoxic to bacteria, viruses, parasites and mammalian cells. Cells are damaged via processes of pore formation, permeability alteration and membrane leaking. Some clinical studies indicate that ECP gathers in the bronchial tract of asthma sufferers, damages bronchial and airway epithelial cells, and leads to in breathing tract inflammation; therefore, prevention of the cytotoxicity caused by ECP may serve as an approach to treat airway inflammation. To achieve the purpose, reduction of the ECP-cell interactions is rational. In this work, the Chinese herbal combinative network was generated to predict and identify the functional herbs from the pools of prescriptions. It was useful to select the node herbs and to demonstrate the relative binding ability between ECP and Beas-2B cells with or withour herb treatments. Results Eighty three Chinese herbs and prescriptions were tested and five effective herbs and six prescription candidates were selected. On the basis of effective single-herbal drugs and prescriptions, a combinative network was generated. We found that a single herb, Gan-cao, served as a node connecting five prescriptions. In addition, Sheng-di-huang, Dang-guei and Mu-tong also appeared in five, four and three kinds of prescriptions, respectively. The extracts of these three herbs indeed effectively inhibited the interactions between ECP and Beas-2B cells. According to the Chinese herbal combinative network, eight of the effective herbal extracts showed inhibitory effects for ECP internalizing into Beas-2B cells. The major components of Gang-cao and Sheng-di-huang, glycyrrhizic acid and verbascose, respectively, reduced the binding affinity between ECP and cells effectively. Conclusions Since these Chinese herbs reduced the binding affinity between ECP and cells and inhibited subsequent ECP entrance into cells, they were potential for mitigating the airway inflammation symptoms. Additionally, we

  5. Intakes of culinary herbs and spices from a food frequency questionnaire evaluated against 28-days estimated records

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Worldwide, herbs and spices are much used food flavourings. However, little data exist regarding actual dietary intake of culinary herbs and spices. We developed a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for the assessment of habitual diet the preceding year, with focus on phytochemical rich food, including herbs and spices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the intakes of herbs and spices from the FFQ with estimates of intake from another dietary assessment method. Thus we compared the intake estimates from the FFQ with 28 days of estimated records of herb and spice consumption as a reference method. Methods The evaluation study was conducted among 146 free living adults, who filled in the FFQ and 2-4 weeks later carried out 28 days recording of herb and spice consumption. The FFQ included a section with questions about 27 individual culinary herbs and spices, while the records were open ended records for recording of herbs and spice consumption exclusively. Results Our study showed that the FFQ obtained slightly higher estimates of total intake of herbs and spices than the total intake assessed by the Herbs and Spice Records (HSR). The correlation between the two assessment methods with regard to total intake was good (r = 0.5), and the cross-classification suggests that the FFQ may be used to classify subjects according to total herb and spice intake. For the 8 most frequently consumed individual herbs and spices, the FFQ obtained good estimates of median frequency of intake for 2 herbs/spices, while good estimates of portion sizes were obtained for 4 out of 8 herbs/spices. Conclusions Our results suggested that the FFQ was able to give good estimates of frequency of intake and portion sizes on group level for several of the most frequently used herbs and spices. The FFQ was only able to fairly rank subjects according to frequency of intake of the 8 most frequently consumed herbs and spices. Other studies are warranted to further explore the

  6. Low molecular weight proteinuria in Chinese herbs nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kabanda, A; Jadoul, M; Lauwerys, R; Bernard, A; van Ypersele de Strihou, C

    1995-11-01

    Urinary excretion of five low molecular weight proteins (LMWP) [beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m), cystatin C (cyst C), Clara cell protein (CC16), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and alpha 1-microglobulin (alpha 1m)], albumin and N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) were quantified in 16 patients who followed a weight reduction program which included Chinese herbs, which have been incriminated in the genesis of Chinese herbs nephropathy (CHN). An additional group of four patients transplanted for CHN were investigated. Urinary data were obtained for comparison purpose in five groups of proteinuric patients: two groups with normal serum creatinine (SCr) and glomerular albuminura [12 patients with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria (DN), 10 patients with primary nephrotic syndrome (NS)]; two groups with normal SCr and toxic nephropathy [6 patients with analgesic (AN), 9 patients with cadmium nephropathy (CdN)]; and one group of seven patients with glomerular diseases and increased SCr (GN). Patients were classified according to serum level S beta 2m to take into account the possibility of overflow proteinuria at S beta 2m > or = 5 mg/liter. Three patients (CHN0) with a S beta 2m < 5 mg/liter, had a normal urinary protein pattern including NAG and a normal S beta 2m. Eight patients (CHN1) with a S beta 2m < 5 mg/liter had various abnormalities of their urinary protein pattern. In four of them (CHN1a) only beta 2m, RBP and CC16 were increased while total proteinuria and SCr were normal. In the other four (CHN1b and c) albumin, cyst C, alpha 1m and NAG were also elevated, while total proteinuria and SCr were moderately raised. Five patients (CHN2) with a S beta 2m > or = 5 mg/liter had a markedly increased excretion of all LMWP, albumin and NAG (CHN1 vs. CHN2, P < 0.05) as well as a further increase in total proteinuria and SCr. The urinary LMWP/albumin concentration ratio was strikingly higher in CHN patients than in patients with glomerular albuminuria (CHN1 vs. DN

  7. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. Methods: The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. Results: In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Conclusion: Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products. PMID:27516675

  8. Tropical forest fragmentation limits pollination of a keystone understory herb.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Adam S; Frey, Sarah J K; Robinson, W Douglas; Kress, W John; Betts, Matthew G

    2014-08-01

    Loss of native vegetation cover is thought to be a major driver of declines in pollination success worldwide. However, it is not well known whether reducing the fragmentation of remaining vegetation can ameliorate these negative effects. We tested the independent effects of composition vs. configuration on the reproductive success of a keystone tropical forest herb (Heliconia tortuosa). To do this we designed a large-scale mensurative experiment that independently varied connected forest-patch size (configuration) and surrounding amount of forest (composition). In each patch, we tested whether pollen tubes, fruit, and seed set were associated with these landscape variables. We also captured hummingbirds as an indication of pollinator availability in a subset of patches according to the same design. We found evidence for an effect of configuration on seed set of H. tortuosa, but not on other aspects of plant reproduction; proportion of seeds produced increased 40% across the gradient in patch size we observed (0.64 to > 1300 ha), independent of the amount of forest in the surrounding landscape at both local and landscape scales. We also found that the availability of pollinators was dependent upon forest configuration; hummingbird capture rates increased three and one-half times across the patch size gradient, independent of forest amount. Finally, pollinator availability was strongly positively correlated with seed set. We hypothesize that the effects of configuration on plant fitness that we observed are due to reduced pollen quality resulting from altered hummingbird availability and/or movement behavior. Our results suggest that prioritizing larger patches of tropical forest may be particularly important for conservation of this species. PMID:25230471

  9. The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, S.; Narayanan, M. M.; Joshi, R.; Gargari, S.; Kanjilal, D.; Datta, S. K.; Mehta, G. K.

    1999-04-26

    Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given.

  10. The last large pelletron accelerator of the Herb era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, S.; Narayanan, M. M.; Joshi, R.; Gargari, S.; Kanjilal, D.; Datta, S. K.; Mehta, G. K.

    1999-04-01

    Prof. Ray Herb pioneered the concept and design of the tandem Pelletron accelerator in the late sixties at NEC. The 15UD Pelletron at Nuclear Science Centre (NSC), upgraded for 16MV operation using compressed geometry accelerating tubes is the last such large Pelletron. It has unique features like offset and matching quadrupoles after the stripper for charge state selection inside the high voltage terminal and consequently the option of further stripping the ion species of the selected charge states at high energy dead section, and elaborate pulsing system in the pre-acceleration region consisting of a beam chopper, a travelling wave deflector, a light ion buncher (1-80 amu) and a heavy ion buncher (>80 amu). NSC was established as a heavy ion accelerator based inter university centre in 1985. It became operational in July 1991 to cater to the research requirements of a large user community which at present includes about fifty universities, twenty-eight colleges and a dozen other academic institutes and research laboratories. The number of users in Materials and allied sciences is about 500. Various important modifications have been made to improve the performance of the accelerator in the last seven years. These include replacement of the corona voltage grading system by a resistor based one, a pick-up loop to monitor charging system performance, conversion from basic double unit structure to singlet, installation of a spiral cavity based phase detector system with post-accelerator stripper after the analyzing magnet, and a high efficiency multi harmonic buncher. Installation of a turbo pump based stripper gas recirculation system in the terminal is also planned. A brief description of utilization of the machine will be given.

  11. Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbs on squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: histopathologic analysis of 240 cases.

    PubMed

    Xian, M S; Hayashi, K; Lu, J P; Awai, M

    1989-12-01

    Three types of traditional Chinese herb medicine were used to treat 98 patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prior to surgical treatment. Forty-two patients with the same diagnosis were treated with these herbs plus cyclophosphamide (endoxan). One hundred similar patients received surgical treatment without herbs or endoxan treatment as controls. Histologic examinations of surgical specimens were made on all of these patients. Stromal lymphoid-cell infiltration and cancer tissue degeneration were more prominent in Menispernum dehuricum DC- or Chelidonium majus L-treated patients, and were less clear in patients treated with herbs plus endoxan and the controls. The antitumor action of herbs is thought to be brought about by the activation of an immunological rejection mechanism. Herbs plus endoxan may result in the masking of the immunological response of hosts without obviously damaging cancer tissues. PMID:2624142

  12. [Relationship between geopolitical political structure and distribution of dao-di herbs in frontier provinces of China].

    PubMed

    Peng, Hua-Sheng; Hao, Jin-Da; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-09-01

    Dao-di herbs have both natural and humanistic attribute. Geopolitical political structure of Northeast, Mongolian, Xinjiang, Tibet, Yunnan and Guangxi provinces form frontier inland of China were summarized in this paper. The relationship between distribution of the Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure in above-mentioned provinces were described. In a strict sense, humanistic attribute of Dao-di herbs belonged to medical culture of Han Nationality. Distribution range of Dao-di herbs was determined by sphere of influence of central plains dynasty. Development of Dao-di herbs in the frontier inland area was unbalanced. The relationship between distribution of Dao-di herbs and geopolitical political structure proofed that natural attribute and humanistic attribute were inseparable. Recognition of this relationship is helpful to understand and develop genuine medicinal materials in frontier provinces. PMID:24380321

  13. Vasorelaxation Study and Tri-Step Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Malaysian Local Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chu Shan; Loh, Yean Chun; Ahmad, Mariam; Zaini Asmawi, Mohd.; Yam, Mun Fei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate the activities of Malaysian local herbs (Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, Strobilanthes crispus, Murdannia bracteata, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia bleo, Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Vernonia amygdalina, and Swietenia macrophylla King) for anti-hypertensive and vasorelaxant activity. An infrared (IR) macro-fingerprinting technique consisting of conventional fourier transform IR (FTIR), second-derivative IR (SD-IR), and two-dimensional correlation IR (2D-correlation IR) analyses were used to determine the main constituents and the fingerprints of the Malaysian local herbs. Methods: The herbs were collected, ground into powder form, and then macerated by using three different solvents: distilled water, 50% ethanol, and 95% ethanol, respectively. The potentials of the extracts produced from these herbs for use as vasorelaxants were determined. Additionally, the fingerprints of these herbs were analyzed by using FTIR spectra, SD-IR spectra, and 2D-correlation IR spectra in order to identify their main constituents and to provide useful information for future pharmacodynamics studies. Results: Swietenia macrophylla King has the highest potential in terms of vasorelaxant activity, followed by Vernonia amygdalina, Pereskia bleo, Strobilanthes crispus, Elephantopus scaber Linn., Pereskia grandifolia Haw., Clinacanthus nutans Lindau, and Murdannia bracteata. The tri-step IR macro-fingerprint of the herbs revealed that most of them contained proteins. Pereskia bleo and Pereskia grandifolia Haw. were found to contain calcium oxalate while Swietenia macrophylla King was found to contain large amounts of flavonoids. Conclusion: The flavonoid content of the herbs affects their vasorelaxant activity, and the tri-step IR macro- fingerprint method can be used as an analytical tool to determine the activity of a herbal medicine in terms of its vasorelaxant effect. PMID:27386148

  14. An innovative example of herb residues recycling by gasification in a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feiqiang; Dong, Yuping; Dong, Lei; Jing, Yuanzhuo

    2013-04-01

    A utilization way of herb residues is designed to convert herb residues to gas fuel in industrial-scale by a circulating fluidized bed gasifier in this paper. The product gas is used in the production of Chinese medicine, and the heat of the flue gas from the boiler can be used in herb residues drying to realize the energy recycling and no herb residues discharge. The gasification characteristics of herb residues in the circulating fluidized bed of 300 kg/h were investigated for about 200 h. The results indicated that the gas composition and tar yield were affected by biomass flow rate, equivalence ratio (ER), moisture content and char circulating. The lower heating value of product gas was 4-5 MJ/m(3) using herb residues as feedstock. When mean biomass flow rate was at 5.5 kg m(-2)s(-1) and ER at 0.35, the product gas reached a good condition with lower heating value of 4.89 MJ/m(3) and cold gas efficiency of 62.36%. When the moisture content changed from 12.5% to 18.7%, the concentrations of H2, CO and CO2 changed from 4.66% to 6.92%, 11.23% to 10.15%, and 16.55% to 17.82% respectively, and the tar content in gas decreased from 15.1g/m(3) to 14.4 g/m(3) when the moisture content increased from 12.5% to 15.4%. There are metal oxides in the ash of herb residues, especially CaO, MgO, K2O, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 which have obvious function on tar catalytic decomposition. The ash that attaches to the char particles can decrease the tar yield and improve the quality of gas after returning to the gasifier. PMID:23313058

  15. Quality assurance for Chinese herbal formulae: standardization of IBS-20, a 20-herb preparation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The employment of well characterized test samples prepared from authenticated, high quality medicinal plant materials is key to reproducible herbal research. The present study aims to demonstrate a quality assurance program covering the acquisition, botanical validation, chemical standardization and good manufacturing practices (GMP) production of IBS-20, a 20-herb Chinese herbal formula under study as a potential agent for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Purity and contaminant tests for the presence of toxic metals, pesticide residues, mycotoxins and microorganisms were performed. Qualitative chemical fingerprint analysis and quantitation of marker compounds of the herbs, as well as that of the IBS-20 formula was carried out with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Extraction and manufacture of the 20-herb formula were carried out under GMP. Chemical standardization was performed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Stability of the formula was monitored with HPLC in real time. Results Quality component herbs, purchased from a GMP supplier were botanically and chemically authenticated and quantitative HPLC profiles (fingerprints) of each component herb and of the composite formula were established. An aqueous extract of the mixture of the 20 herbs was prepared and formulated into IBS-20, which was chemically standardized by LC-MS, with 20 chemical compounds serving as reference markers. The stability of the formula was monitored and shown to be stable at room temperature. Conclusion A quality assurance program has been developed for the preparation of a standardized 20-herb formulation for use in the clinical studies for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The procedures developed in the present study will serve as a protocol for other poly-herbal Chinese medicine studies. PMID:20175906

  16. Medicinal herb use among asthmatic patients attending a specialty care facility in Trinidad

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Yuri N; Williams, Arlene F; Aranda, Derick; Chase, Ronald; Watson, Nadya; Mohammed, Rochelle; Stubbs, Odia; Williamson, Deneil

    2005-01-01

    Background There is an increasing prevalence of asthma in the Caribbean and patients remain non-compliant to therapy despite the development of guidelines for management and prevention. Some patients may self-medicate with medicinal herbs for symptomatic relief, as there is a long tradition of use for a variety of ailments. The study assessed the prevalence of use and the factors affecting the decision to use herbs in asthmatic patients attending a public specialty care clinic in Trinidad. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Chest Clinic in Trinidad using a de novo, pilot-tested, researcher-administered questionnaire between June and July 2003. Results Fifty-eight out of 191 patients (30.4%) reported using herbal remedies for symptomatic relief. Gender, age, ethnicity, and asthma severity did not influence the decision to use herbs; however, 62.5% of patients with tertiary level schooling used herbs, p = 0.025. Thirty-four of these 58 patients (58.6%) obtained herbs from their backyards or the supermarket; only 14 patients (24.1%) obtained herbs from an herbalist, herbal shop or pharmacy. Relatives and friends were the sole source of information for most patients (70.7%), and only 10.3% consulted an herbalist. Ginger, garlic, aloes, shandileer, wild onion, pepper and black sage were the most commonly used herbs. Conclusions Among patients attending the Chest Clinic in Trinidad the use of herbal remedies in asthma is relatively common on the advice of relatives and friends. It is therefore becoming imperative for healthcare providers to become more knowledgeable on this modality and to keep abreast with the latest developments. PMID:15713232

  17. Are herb-pairs of traditional Chinese medicine distinguishable from others? Pattern analysis and artificial intelligence classification study of traditionally defined herbal properties.

    PubMed

    Ung, Choong Yong; Li, Hu; Cao, Zhi Wei; Li, Yi Xue; Chen, Yu Zong

    2007-05-01

    Multi-herb prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often include special herb-pairs for mutual enhancement, assistance, and restraint. These TCM herb-pairs have been assembled and interpreted based on traditionally defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs) without knowledge of mechanism of their assumed synergy. While these mechanisms are yet to be determined, properties of TCM herb-pairs can be investigated to determine if they exhibit features consistent with their claimed unique synergistic combinations. We analyzed distribution patterns of TCM-HPs of TCM herb-pairs to detect signs indicative of possible synergy and used artificial intelligence (AI) methods to examine whether combination of their TCM-HPs are distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs assembled by random combinations and by modification of known TCM herb-pairs. Patterns of the majority of 394 known TCM herb-pairs were found to exhibit signs of herb-pair correlation. Three AI systems, trained and tested by using 394 TCM herb-pairs and 2470 non-TCM herb-pairs, correctly classified 72.1-87.9% of TCM herb-pairs and 91.6-97.6% of the non-TCM herb-pairs. The best AI system predicted 96.3% of the 27 known non-TCM herb-pairs and 99.7% of the other 1,065,100 possible herb-pairs as non-TCM herb-pairs. Our studies suggest that TCM-HPs of known TCM herb-pairs contain features distinguishable from those of non-TCM herb-pairs consistent with their claimed synergistic or modulating combinations. PMID:17267151

  18. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  19. Interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts on renal interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jia; He, Li-Qun; Su, Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) is a common development in chronic renal diseases that can lead to uremia and be life-threatening. The RIF pathology has complicated extracellular and intercellular mechanisms, involving many cells and cytokines, resulting in an incomplete mechanistic understanding of the disease. Finding effective herbs or herbal extracts for prevention and treatment of RIF is crucial because current medical approaches do not reliably slow or reverse RIF. In recent years, many experts have worked to identify herbs or herbal extracts to combat RIF both in vivo and in vitro, with some success. This review attempts to summarize the possible interventional mechanisms of herbs or herbal extracts involved in protecting and reversing RIF. The authors found some herbs and their extracts that may ameliorate renal impairments through anti-inflammation, anti-fibrogenesis and stabilization of extra cellular matrix. Among them, tetramethylpyrazine/ligustrazine, curcumin and polyglucoside of Tripterygium have experimentally shown good potential for improving RIF. However, conclusive evidence is still needed, especially in randomized controlled clinical trials. We expect that herbs or herbal extracts will play an important role in RIF treatment and reversal in the future. PMID:27181123

  20. Assessment of metal contents in spices and herbs from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Seddigi, Z S; Kandhro, G A; Shah, F; Danish, E; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-02-01

    In the recent years, there has been a growing interest in monitoring heavy metal contamination of spices/herbs. Spices and herbs are sources of many bioactive compounds that can improve the tastes of food as well as influence digestion and metabolism processes. In the present study, the levels of some essential and toxic elements such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd), present in common spices/herbs that were purchased from the local market in Saudi Arabia, were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after digestion with nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Samples from the following spices/herbs were used: turmeric, cloves, black pepper, red pepper, cumin, legume, cinnamon, abazir, white pepper, ginger, and coriander. The concentration ranges for the studied elements were found as 48.8-231, 4.7-19.4, 2.5-10.5, below detection level (BDL)-1.0, 8.8-490, 1.0-2.6, and BDL-3.7 µg g(-1) for Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb, respectively, while Cd and Co levels were below the detection limit. Consumers of these spices/herbs would not be exposed to any risk associated with the daily intake of 10 g of spices per day as far as metals Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb are concerned. PMID:24097370

  1. Reversal effects of traditional Chinese herbs on multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Wei, Dan-Dan; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Jun-Song; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2011-11-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) continues to be a major obstacle for successful anticancer therapy. In this work, fractions from 17 clinically used antitumour traditional Chinese medicinal herbs were tested for their potential to restore the sensitivity of MCF-7/ADR and A549/Taxol cells to a known antineoplastic agent. The effects of these fractions were evaluated by MTT method and an assay of the cellular accumulation of doxorubicin. Fractions from the PB group (herbs with the ability to promote blood circulation and remove blood stasis) showed more significant effects than fractions from the CH group (herbs with the ability to clear away heat and toxic materials). Fractions from CH₂Cl₂ extracts were more effective than fractions from EtOAc extracts. Five herbs (Curcuma wenyujin, Chrysanthemum indicum, Salvia chinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. and Cassia tora L.) could sensitise these resistant cancer cells at a non-toxic concentration (10 µg mL⁻¹), and markedly increased doxorubicin accumulation in MCF-7/ADR cells, which necessitates further investigations on the active ingredients of these herbs and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:21848372

  2. Herb-Induced Liver Injury in the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Douros, Antonios; Bronder, Elisabeth; Andersohn, Frank; Klimpel, Andreas; Kreutz, Reinhold; Garbe, Edeltraut; Bolbrinker, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) has recently attracted attention due to increasing reports of hepatotoxicity associated with use of phytotherapeutics. Here, we present data on HILI from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The study was initiated in 2000 to investigate the serious toxicity of drugs including herbal medicines. Potential cases of liver injury were ascertained in more than 180 Departments of all 51 Berlin hospitals from October 2002 to December 2011. Drug or herb intake was assessed through a standardized face-to-face interview. Drug or herbal aetiology was assessed based on the updated Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale. In ten of all 198 cases of hepatotoxicity included in the study, herbal aetiology was assessed as probable (once ayurvedic herb) or possible (Valeriana five times, Mentha piperita once, Pelargonium sidoides once, Hypericum perforatum once, Eucalyptus globulus once). Mean age was 56.4 ± 9.7 years, and the predominant pattern of liver injury was hepatocellular. No cases of acute liver failure or death were observed. This case series corroborates known risks for ayurvedic herbs, supports the suspected association between Valeriana use and liver injury, and indicates a hepatotoxic potential for herbs such as Pelargonium sidoides, Hypericum perforatum or Mentha piperita that were rarely associated with liver injury before. However, given that possible causality does not prove clinical significance, further studies in this field are needed. PMID:26784183

  3. Anti-Hypertensive Herbs and Their Mechanisms of Action: Part II.

    PubMed

    Anwar, M Akhtar; Al Disi, Sara S; Eid, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine has a history extending back to thousands of years, and during the intervening time, man has identified the healing properties of a very broad range of plants. Globally, the use of herbal therapies to treat and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise. This is the second part of our comprehensive review where we discuss the mechanisms of plants and herbs used for the treatment and management of high blood pressure. Similar to the first part, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were utilized, and the following keywords and phrases were used as inclusion criteria: hypertension, high blood pressure, herbal medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, endothelial cells, nitric oxide (NO), vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, hydrogen sulfide, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), oxidative stress, and epigenetics/epigenomics. Each of the aforementioned keywords was co-joined with plant or herb in question, and where possible with its constituent molecule(s). This part deals in particular with plants that are used, albeit less frequently, for the treatment and management of hypertension. We then discuss the interplay between herbs/prescription drugs and herbs/epigenetics in the context of this disease. The review then concludes with a recommendation for more rigorous, well-developed clinical trials to concretely determine the beneficial impact of herbs and plants on hypertension and a disease-free living. PMID:27014064

  4. Anti-Hypertensive Herbs and Their Mechanisms of Action: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, M. Akhtar; Al Disi, Sara S.; Eid, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine has a history extending back to thousands of years, and during the intervening time, man has identified the healing properties of a very broad range of plants. Globally, the use of herbal therapies to treat and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD) is on the rise. This is the second part of our comprehensive review where we discuss the mechanisms of plants and herbs used for the treatment and management of high blood pressure. Similar to the first part, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were utilized, and the following keywords and phrases were used as inclusion criteria: hypertension, high blood pressure, herbal medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, endothelial cells, nitric oxide (NO), vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation, hydrogen sulfide, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), oxidative stress, and epigenetics/epigenomics. Each of the aforementioned keywords was co-joined with plant or herb in question, and where possible with its constituent molecule(s). This part deals in particular with plants that are used, albeit less frequently, for the treatment and management of hypertension. We then discuss the interplay between herbs/prescription drugs and herbs/epigenetics in the context of this disease. The review then concludes with a recommendation for more rigorous, well-developed clinical trials to concretely determine the beneficial impact of herbs and plants on hypertension and a disease-free living. PMID:27014064

  5. Determination of Heavy Metals Concentration in Traditional Herbs Commonly Consumed in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Dghaim, Rania; Al Khatib, Safa; Rasool, Husna; Ali Khan, Munawwar

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1–1.11 mg·kg−1 for cadmium, less than 1.0–23.52 mg·kg−1 for lead, 1.44–156.24 mg·kg−1 for copper, 12.65–146.67 mg·kg−1 for zinc, and 81.25–1101.22 mg·kg−1 for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits (PL). PMID:26000023

  6. Determination of heavy metals concentration in traditional herbs commonly consumed in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Dghaim, Rania; Al Khatib, Safa; Rasool, Husna; Ali Khan, Munawwar

    2015-01-01

    Herbs are extensively consumed in the United Arab Emirates for their flavoring and medicinal properties. This study aimed at determining the concentration of heavy metals in selected traditional herbs consumed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 81 samples of seven herbs, parsley (Petroselinum crispum), basil (Ocimum basilicum), sage (Salvia officinalis), oregano (Origanum vulgare), mint (Mentha spicata), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), and chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla), were purchased from the local market in Dubai and analyzed for their cadmium, lead, copper, iron, and zinc contents. Microwave-assisted digestion was applied for the dissolution of the samples and heavy metals concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). Metals were found to be present in varied concentrations in the herb samples. The concentration ranges were found as follows: less than 0.1-1.11 mg·kg(-1) for cadmium, less than 1.0-23.52 mg·kg(-1) for lead, 1.44-156.24 mg·kg(-1) for copper, 12.65-146.67 mg·kg(-1) for zinc, and 81.25-1101.22 mg·kg(-1) for iron. The findings of the study suggest that most of the analyzed herbs contained unsafe levels of heavy metals that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits (PL). PMID:26000023

  7. A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

    2013-11-01

    This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

  8. A Review on the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs and Formulae with Hypolipidemic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Sham, Tung-Ting; Chan, Chi-On; Wang, You-Hua; Yang, Jian-Mei; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2014-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia, characterized by the abnormal blood lipid profiles, is one of the dominant factors of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). For the low cost, effectiveness, and fewer side effects, the popularity of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to handle hyperlipidemia is increasing and its role in health care has been recognized by the public at large. Despite the importance of TCM herbs and formulations, there is no comprehensive review summarizing their scientific findings on handling hyperlipidemia. This review summarizes the recent experimental and clinical results of nine representative single Chinese herbs and seven classic TCM formulae that could improve lipid profiles so as to help understand and compare their underlying mechanisms. Most of single herbs and formulae demonstrated the improvement of hyperlipidemic conditions with multiple and diverse mechanisms of actions similar to conventional Western drugs in spite of their mild side effects. Due to increasing popularity of TCM, more extensive, well-designed preclinical and clinical trials on the potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions as well as their mechanisms are warranted. Hyperlipidemic patients should be warned about the potential risks of herb-drug interactions, particularly those taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. PMID:25110708

  9. [Aromatic trees and herbs that connect Heaven and earth].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    It has been known for a long time that aromatic substances (essential oils) contained in plants often exert psychological effects ranging from sedative to excitatory actions. Medicinal effects have also been confirmed through numerous experiences. In ancient times, aromatic trees and herbs were offered to deities, mostly as incenses that were believed to carry people's wishes, such as requests to cure sick people, to Heaven. In the medieval periods, their deep and subtle aromas elevated aromatics to so-called "treasures of the world," while their various medicinal activities including the psychological effects made them useful as treatment measures. Demands for aromatics in our time as raw materials for cosmetics far outweigh those as medicines. The market for aromatics, however, has become virtually non-existent, as the popularity of synthetic aromatics for cosmetics grew. In West Asia, olibanum and myrrh were highly regarded both as incense and analgesics for tooth pain. In India, sandalwood was prized as incense, and sometimes as an antidote for poisonous snakebites. In China and Japan, agalloch (Kyara is agalloch of the highest quality) was considered the most significant of the aromatics. Agalloch and many other aromatics were in possession of the Emperor's family in 8th century Japan; some of which are kept in Nara to this day. Olfactory sense is ultimately identified in the olfactory area of the frontal lobe of the human brain. When stimuli reach the olfactory area, they also affect other cells such as those around the hypothalamus when they go through it. The hypothalamus is the center of instinctive behaviors with the centers for appetite, sexuality, blood pressure and thirst, and greatly affects the psychological side of the human behavior with its delicate connection to the autonomic nerve system. It therefore may not be surprising that aromatics were often used in medicine, which once had close ties with shamanism, animism and other religious activities

  10. Retrospect and prospect of active principles from Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Lu-qi; Tang, Xi-can; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2010-01-01

    With an ageing population, dementia has become one of the world's primary health challenges. However, existing remedies offer limited benefits with certain side effects, which has prompted researchers to seek complementary and alternative therapies. China has long been known for abundant usage of various herbs. Some of these herbal decoctions are effective in stimulating blood circulation, supplementing vital energy and resisting aging, the lack of which are believed to underlie dementia. These herbs are regarded as new and promising sources of potential anti-dementia drugs. With the rapid evolution of life science and technology, numerous active components have been identified that are highly potent and multi-targeted with low toxicity, and therefore meet the requirements for dementia therapy. This review updates the research progress of Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia, focusing on their effective principles. PMID:20523337

  11. Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Herbs with Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The concurrent use of drugs and herbal products is becoming increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Several herbal products have been known to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which are recognized as representative drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter, respectively. Thus, a summary of knowledge on the modulation of CYP and P-gp by commonly used herbs can provide robust fundamentals for optimizing CYP and/or P-gp substrate drug-based therapy. Herein, we review ten popular medicinal and/or dietary herbs as perpetrators of CYP- and P-gp-mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The main focus is placed on previous works on the ability of herbal extracts and their phytochemicals to modulate the expression and function of CYP and P-gp in several in vitro and in vivo animal and human systems. PMID:25632290

  12. [Use of FTIR and pattern recognition to determine geographical origins of Chinese medical herbs].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-hua; Zhang, Xue-gong; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin

    2005-06-01

    Geographical origin of medical herbs is an important factor of the quality of many traditional Chinese herbal medicines. The objective of this study is to investigate whether FTIR spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition techniques could effectively discriminate geographical origins of medical herbs. Nearest neighbor method (NNM) and a SVM-based multiclass classifier were employed to discriminate 269 angelicae dahuricae radix (ADR) samples from 4 provinces in China and 380 salviae miltiorrhizae radix (SMR) samples from 6 provinces. A leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy of 99% was achieved by the multiclass classifier. The study shows this classification scheme can be a highly accurate approach for the discrimination of medical herbs of different origins. PMID:16201362

  13. Natural compounds from traditional medicinal herbs in the treatment of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng-fei; Zhang, Zui; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-guo

    2010-01-01

    More and more attention in the field of drug discovery has been focused on the neuroprotection of natural compounds from traditional medicinal herbs. Cerebral ischemia is a complex pathological process involving a series of mechanisms, and a framework for the development of neuroprotectants from traditional herb medicine is a promising treatment for cerebral ischemia. Natural compounds with the effects of anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, calcium antagonization, anti-apoptosis, and neurofunctional regulation exhibit preventive or therapeutic effects on experimental ischemic brain injury. According to the pharmacological mechanisms underlying neuroprotection, we evaluated natural products from traditional medicinal herbs that exhibit protective effects on ischemic brain injury and characterized the promising targets. PMID:21127495

  14. Advances in treatment of ulcerative colitis with herbs: from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Wan, Ping; Chen, Hao; Guo, Yuan; Bai, Ai-Ping

    2014-10-21

    Ulcerative colitis (UC), an idiopathic inflammatory disorder in the colon, has become a clinical challenge, owing to the increasing incidence and poor prognosis. The conventional treatments for UC including aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressants, induce remission in only half of patients. Meanwhile, the treatments often come with serious side effects which can be life-threatening. Herbal medicine, one of the most common traditional Chinese medicine modalities, has been introduced for centuries into clinical treatment of many human diseases such as infections and functional disorders. Recently, the potential effectiveness of herbs has been suggested as the treatment of UC, as shown by a variety of clinical trials and experimental studies. The herbs reported in the literature include aloe vera gel, butyrate, tormentil extracts, wheat grass juice, and curcumin. In the review, bioactivity of the herbs and their involvement in UC treatment are discussed. PMID:25339799

  15. Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao

    2014-06-01

    Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study. PMID:24621269

  16. [Uses of fresh herbs with antioxidant effect and prospect for population ecology reconstruction in Macau].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chun-song; Zhou, Liang-yun; Xu, Shi-qiang; Lang, Jian-sheng; Zhang, Zhi-feng

    2015-02-01

    The average life expectancy in Macau is ranking the second in the world, the consumption of fresh medicinal plants is a profound culture in Macau. The paper focus on the distribution of the antioxidant herbs, a comprehensive investigation and analysis the amount of the plant resources was carried out. The antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts was determined by using the DPPH method, and six kinds fresh herbs with high antioxidant free radical activity were screened out. Reference to adult daily dose of vitamin C, it is calculated that the daily dose amount of fresh herbs is less than 200 g. For the expected shortage of resources and the ecological status of Macau, we give some suggestions of herbal introduction in population ecology reconstruction. PMID:26084161

  17. Influence of six medicinal herbs on collagenase-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Pallavi; Koppikar, Soumya; Bhondave, Prashant; Narkhede, Aarti; Nagarkar, Bhagyashri; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Wagh, Narendrakumar; Kulkarni, Omkar; Harsulkar, Abhay; Jagtap, Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been effectively used for their anti-inflammatory activity, but their exact role has not yet been documented in scientific literature for the management of Osteoarthritis (OA). Since Sida cordifolia L., Piper longum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc., Ricinus communis L., Vitex negundo L. and Tribulus terrestris L. have been widely used in traditional medicine for their anti-inflammatory activity, to evaluate anti-osteoarthritic activity of these herbs, we used a collagenase type II-induced osteoarthritis (CIOA) rat model. Arthritis was induced in wistar rats by intra-articular injection of collagenase type II. Powders of herbs were given orally for 20 days as a suspension in water (270 mg/kg b. wt.). The effects of the treatment in the rats were monitored by physiological parameters like body weight, knee diameter, paw retraction, paw volume, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release, radiography and histopathology of knee joint. Selected herbs have significantly prevented body weight loss and knee swelling compared to arthritic control (CIOA). All test groups, including indomethacin (standard drug, 3 mg/kg), significantly reduced paw volume compared to CIOA. GAG release in the serum was significantly lowered in herb treated groups compared to indomethacin. The anterior posterior radiographs of S. cordifolia and P. longum treated groups showed a protective effect against OA. Histopathology revealed protection in the structure of the articular cartilage and in chondrocyte pathology as well as reduced clefting. Treatment with herbs has shown chondroid matrix within normal limits. From the results, we observed that S. cordifolia and P. longum possess potent anti-osteoarthritic activity. PMID:24228609

  18. Effects of native herbs and light on garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips-Mao, Laura; Larson, Diane L.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    The degree to which invasive species drive or respond to environmental change has important implications for conservation and invasion management. Often characterized as a driver of change in North American woodlands, the invasive herb garlic mustard may instead respond to declines in native plant cover and diversity. We tested effects of native herb cover, richness, and light availability on garlic mustard invasion in a Minnesota oak woodland. We planted 50 garlic mustard seeds into plots previously planted with 0 to 10 native herb species. We measured garlic mustard seedling establishment, survival to rosette and adult stages, and average (per plant) and total (per plot) biomass and silique production. With the use of structural equation models, we analyzed direct, indirect, and net effects of native cover, richness, and light on successive garlic mustard life stages. Native plant cover had a significant negative effect on all life stages. Species richness had a significant positive effect on native cover, resulting in indirect negative effects on all garlic mustard stages, and net negative effects on adult numbers, total biomass, and silique production. Light had a strong negative effect on garlic mustard seedling establishment and a positive effect on native herb cover, resulting in significant negative net effects on garlic mustard rosette and adult numbers. However, light's net effect on total garlic mustard biomass and silique production was positive; reproductive output was high even in low-light/high-cover conditions. Combined effects of cover, richness, and light suggest that native herbs provide biotic resistance to invasion by responding to increased light availability and suppressing garlic mustard responses, although this resistance may be overwhelmed by high propagule pressure. Garlic mustard invasion may occur, in part, in response to native plant decline. Restoring native herbs and controlling garlic mustard seed production may effectively reduce

  19. Analysis of bioactive components and pharmacokinetic study of herb-herb interactions in the traditional Chinese patent medicine Tongmai Yangxin Pill.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Li, Hongfa; Liu, Yuanxue; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-02-20

    Tongmai Yangxin (TMYX) Pill is a traditional Chinese patent medicine, composed of eleven Chinese medicinal herbs. It has been used to treat coronary heart disease for several decades. In this study, six male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with TMYX methanol extract, and a serum pharmacochemistry technique was used to screen absorbed bioactive compounds by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. By comparing MS spectra to the published literature data, 40 bioactive components were identified. The results indicated that almost 45% of the absorbed compounds were from Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC). Subsequently, a reliable HPLC method was used to determine the concentrations of liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma following oral administration of GC or the combination of GC and Ramulus Cinnamomi (GZ). The results showed that GZ enhanced the absorption of four bioactive components: liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid. The data demonstrate that herb combination in TMYX Pill exhibit a synergistic action. PMID:26771134

  20. Response of herb processing workers to work-related airborne allergens.

    PubMed

    Dutkiewicz, J; Skórska, C; Milanowski, J; Mackiewicz, B; Krysińska-Traczyk, E; Dutkiewicz, E; Matuszyk, A; Sitkowska, J; Golec, M

    2001-01-01

    A group of 51 herb processing workers employed in a big herb processing facility located in eastern Poland were examined by the skin and precipitin tests with, respectively, 4 and 17 extracts of microorganisms associated with organic dusts. Out of this number, 32 workers were examined by the skin test with 7 extracts of selected herbs processed in the facility. All the subjects were asked about the occurrence of work-related symptoms. 32 healthy office workers were examined with microbial extracts as a reference group. The herb processing workers showed a high proportion of early skin reactions (after 20 min) to the extract of Gram-negative bacterium Alcaligenes faecalis (41.2%), significantly higher compared to the reference group (p<0.01). At all time intervals (20 min, 8 hrs, 24 hrs), the workers responded with a high frequency to the extract of Bacillus subtilis (respectively 72.5%, 64.7%, and 15.7%), significantly greater compared to the reference group (respectively p<0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.05). No significant differences were found between the groups of herb processing workers and referents in skin response to the extracts of Streptomyces albus and Alternaria alternata and, except for the extract of Pantoea agglomerans, in the frequency of positive precipitin reactions to microbial antigens. In the skin test with herb extracts, the highest response among workers were caused by the extracts of chamomile flowers and nettle leaves which evoked 40-65% of positive skin reactions at all time intervals. 39 out of 51 interviewed herb processing workers (76.5%) reported the occurrence of work-related general, respiratory and skin symptoms. The positive skin reactions occurred more frequently among symptomatic workers which suggests that the specific immunologic response might be implicated in etiopathogenesis of work-related symptoms in examined workers. However, in most cases the differences did not attain a significance level which indicates that there is no

  1. Midlife women, bone health, vegetables, herbs and fruit study. The Scarborough Fair study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bone loss is accelerated in middle aged women but increased fruit/vegetable intake positively affects bone health by provision of micronutrients essential for bone formation, buffer precursors which reduce acid load and phytochemicals affecting inflammation and oxidative stress. Animal studies demonstrated bone resorption inhibiting properties of specific vegetables, fruit and herbs a decade ago. Objective: To increase fruit/vegetable intake in post menopausal women to 9 servings/day using a food specific approach to significantly reduce dietary acid load and include specific vegetables, fruit and herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties to assess effect on bone turnover, metabolic and inflammatory markers. Methods/Design The Scarborough Fair Study is a randomised active comparator controlled multi centre trial. It aimed to increase fruit and vegetable intake in 100 post menopausal women from ≤ 5 servings/day to ≥ 9 servings/day for 3 months. The women in the dietary intervention were randomly assigned to one of the two arms of the study. Both groups consumed ≥ 9 servings/day of fruit/vegetables and selected herbs but the diet of each group emphasised different fruit/vegetables/herbs with one group (B) selecting from a range of vegetables, fruit and culinary herbs with bone resorbing inhibiting properties. 50 women formed a negative control group (Group C usual diet). Primary outcome variables were plasma bone markers assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Secondary outcome variables were plasma inflammation and metabolic markers and urinary electrolytes (calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium) assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Dietary intake and urine pH change also were outcome variables. The dietary change was calculated with 3 day diet diaries and a 24 hour recall. Intervention participants kept a twice weekly record of fruit, vegetable and herb intake and urine pH. Discussion This study will provide information on midlife women

  2. The pharmacological activity of medical herbs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owczarczyk, H. B.; Migdał, W.; K ȩdzia, B.

    2000-03-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research on microbiological decontamination of medicinal herbs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose of 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of essential biologically active substances such as essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of medicinal herbs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation.

  3. Enhancement of ATP generation capacity, antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activities by Chinese Yang and Yin tonifying herbs

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kam Ming; Leung, Hoi Yan

    2007-01-01

    Chinese tonifying herbs such as Herba Cistanche, Ganoderma and Cordyceps, which possess antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory activities, can be useful in the prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Pharmacological studies on Yang and Yin tonifying herbs suggest that Yang tonifying herbs stimulate mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) generation, presumably through the intermediacy of reactive oxidant species, leading to the enhancement of cellular/mitochondrial antioxidant status. Yin tonifying herbs, however, apart from possessing antioxidant properties, exert mainly immunomodulatory functions that may boost a weak immune system and may also suppress overreactive immune responses. The abilities of Yang and Yin Chinese tonifying herbs to enhance ATP generation and to exhibit antioxidant and/or immunomodulatory actions are the pharmacological basis for their beneficial effects on the retardation of aging. PMID:17386115

  4. [Thinking about evaluation of proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs during switch process of non-prescription drugs].

    PubMed

    Xia, Dongsheng; Cheng, Gang; Li, Xinling; Zhou, Jieming; Xiao, Aili; Zhang, Chengxu; Du, Xiaoxi

    2010-12-01

    To enhance the scientific and fair evaluation about proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs during the switch process of non-prescription drugs, and to ensure those medicines to be used safely by the public in their self-medication. Combined with current research status of toxic herbs, the experience and knowledge accumulated in the practical work of selection and switch of OTC Chinese medicines for years, thinking about the feasible standards about evaluation and management of proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs at this stage. Initially established ideas and methods about evaluation of proprietary Chinese medicines containing toxic herbs during the switch process of non-prescription drugs. Basically solved the main problem currently faced by toxic herbs during the OTC switch process of proprietary Chinese medicines, effectively promoted the work on OTC switch, and had the important significance in making consumers use non-prescription drugs conveniently and safely. PMID:21438414

  5. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism for the Medicinal Herb Folium Eriobotryae

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Su-Shing; Zhang, Lilei; Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Zhang, Shuwei; Pan, Yanqiu; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases like diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis and arthritis. Thus, lots of concerns have been raised toward developing novel anti-inflammatory agents. Many alternative herbal medicines possess excellent anti-inflammatory properties, yet their precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, a novel systems pharmacology approach based on a large number of chemical, biological and pharmacological data was developed and exemplified by a probe herb Folium Eriobotryae, a widely used clinical anti-inflammatory botanic drug. The results show that 11 ingredients of this herb with favorable pharmacokinetic properties are predicted as active compounds for anti-inflammatory treatment. In addition, via systematic network analyses, their targets are identified to be 43 inflammation-associated proteins including especially COX2, ALOX5, PPARG, TNF and RELA that are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, the rheumatoid arthritis pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. All these demonstrate that the integrated systems pharmacology method provides not only an effective tool to illustrate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of herbs, but also a new systems-based approach for drug discovery from, but not limited to, herbs, especially when combined with further experimental validations. PMID:25636035

  6. Fingerprint of Herb Product by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Product authentication, quality assurance, and identification of adulterants/contamination are major issues facing the dietary supplement industry. Scutellaria lateriflora is an herb widely used as a remedy for many ailments ranging from rabies to epilepsy. It could be easily contaminated by similar...

  7. Pesticide residues in some herbs growing in agricultural areas in Poland.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Elżbieta; Jankowski, Kazimierz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess residue content of plant protection products in selected herbs: Achillea millefolium L., Cichorium intybus L., Equisetum arvense L., Polygonum persicaria L., Plantago lanceolata L., and Plantago major L. The study comprises herbs growing in their natural habitat, 1 and 10 m away from crop fields. The herbs, 30 plants of each species, were sampled during the flowering stage between 1 and 20 July 2014. Pesticide residue content was measured with the QuECHERS method in the dry matter of leaves, stalks, and inflorescence, all mixed together. Out of six herb species growing close to wheat and maize fields, pesticide residues were found in three species: A. millefolium L., E. arvense L., and P. lanceolata L. Most plants containing the residues grew 1 m away from the wheat field. Two active substances of fungicides were found: diphenylamine and tebuconazole, and one active substance of insecticides: chlorpyrifos-ethyl. Those substances are illegal to use on herbal plants. Samples of E. arvense L. and P. lanceolata L. contained two active substances each, which constituted 10% of all samples, while A. millefolium L. contained one substance, which is 6.6% of all samples. PMID:26612566

  8. Stability and quality of herb (Pueraria Tuberosa)-milk model system.

    PubMed

    Sawale, Pravin Digambar; Singh, R R B; Arora, Sumit

    2015-02-01

    The medicinal benefits of herbs could be conveyed via certain foods as carriers. Milk is one of the important carrier which has been effectively used to deliver phytochemicals presents in herbs (mainly polyphenols) for targeted health benefits in the traditional Indian system of medical science. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of herb components (Pueraria tuberosa) on properties of Pueraria tuberosa-milk model system. The herb was added into cow milk on the basis of sensory evaluation (0.4 %) by using 9-point hedonic scale. The physical and chemical changes were evaluated after various processing treatments viz. pasteurization (72 °C, 15 s), sterilization (121 °C, 15 min), separation etc. These changes were determined using viscosity, hydroxy methyl furfural (HMF) value, ethanol stability, colour characteristics and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). It was observed that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk resulted in decreased HMF content, ethanol stability and lightness whereas antioxidant activity, redness and yellowness increased as compared to control. It can be concluded that addition of Pueraria tuberosa to milk at 0.4 % concentration altered the functional properties of milk and Pueraira tuberosa could be suitable for preparation of low heat treated functional dairy food products. PMID:25694723

  9. Effects of simulated storm sizes and nitrogen on three Chihuahuan Desert perennial herbs and a grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment and growth of three perennial herbs and a small tussock grass were studied in an experiment that provided simulated rainfall of 6 mm week_1 or 25 mm once per month and nitrogen fertilization in combination with the different simulated rainfall regimes. Wild onion, Allium macropetalum, ...

  10. Systems pharmacology dissection of the anti-inflammatory mechanism for the medicinal herb Folium eriobotryae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Su-Shing; Zhang, Lilei; Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Zhang, Shuwei; Pan, Yanqiu; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases like diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis and arthritis. Thus, lots of concerns have been raised toward developing novel anti-inflammatory agents. Many alternative herbal medicines possess excellent anti-inflammatory properties, yet their precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, a novel systems pharmacology approach based on a large number of chemical, biological and pharmacological data was developed and exemplified by a probe herb Folium Eriobotryae, a widely used clinical anti-inflammatory botanic drug. The results show that 11 ingredients of this herb with favorable pharmacokinetic properties are predicted as active compounds for anti-inflammatory treatment. In addition, via systematic network analyses, their targets are identified to be 43 inflammation-associated proteins including especially COX2, ALOX5, PPARG, TNF and RELA that are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, the rheumatoid arthritis pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. All these demonstrate that the integrated systems pharmacology method provides not only an effective tool to illustrate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of herbs, but also a new systems-based approach for drug discovery from, but not limited to, herbs, especially when combined with further experimental validations. PMID:25636035

  11. Network understanding of herb medicine via rapid identification of ingredient-target interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power. PMID:24429698

  12. Classification of Chinese herbs based on the cluster analysis of delayed luminescence.

    PubMed

    Pang, Jingxiang; Yang, Meina; Fu, Jialei; Zhao, Xiaolei; van Wijk, Eduard; Wang, Mei; Liu, Yanli; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Fan, Hua; Han, Jinxiang

    2016-03-01

    Traditional Chinese material medica are an important component of the Chinese pharmacopeia. According to the traditional Chinese medicinal concept, Chinese herbal medicines are classified into different categories based on their therapeutic effects, however, the bioactive principles cannot be solely explained by chemical analysis. The aim of this study is to classify different Chinese herbs based on their therapeutic effects by using delayed luminescence (DL). The DL of 56 Chinese herbs was measured using an ultra-sensitive luminescence detection system. The different DL parameters were used to classify Chinese herbs according to a hierarchical cluster analysis. The samples were divided into two groups based on their DL kinetic parameters. Interestingly, the DL classification results were quite consistent with classification according to the Chinese medicinal concepts of 'cold' and 'heat' properties. In this paper, we show for the first time that by using DL technology, it is possible to classify Chinese herbs according to the Chinese medicinal concept and it may even be possible to predict their therapeutic properties. PMID:26240033

  13. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices

    PubMed Central

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms. PMID:26473926

  14. Nation-Based Occurrence and Endogenous Biological Reduction of Mycotoxins in Medicinal Herbs and Spices.

    PubMed

    Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Oh, Sang-Keun; Moon, Yuseok

    2015-10-01

    Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices. The phytochemicals in these food stuffs can influence mold growth, mycotoxin production and biological action of the mycotoxins in exposed crops, as well as in animal and human bodies. The present review focuses on the occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal herbs and spices and the biological interaction between mold, mycotoxin and herbal components. These networks will provide insights into the methods of mycotoxin reduction and toxicological risk assessment of mycotoxin-contaminated medicinal food components in the environment and biological organisms. PMID:26473926

  15. YIELD POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS AT THREE PLANT SPACINGS IN NEW MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...

  16. Chinese herbs as modulators of human mesangial cell proliferation: preliminary studies.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Y C; Sun, C M; Tsai, W J; Ou, J C; Chen, W P; Lin, C Y

    1998-07-01

    In the hope of identifying agents of therapeutic value in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA-N), we tested crude methanol extracts of 15 Chinese herbs for their effect on human mesangial cel proliferation in vitro. The results indicated that 7 out of the 15 crude extracts inhibited human mesangial cell proliferation activated by interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The extracts and their median inhibitory concentrations were as follows (in microg/ml): Selaginella tamariscina (MLS-032), 56.0 +/- 2.0; Ixeris chinensis (MLS-033), 62.7 +/- 1.7; Polygonum hypoleucum Ohwi (MLS-034), 25.0 +/- 1.5; Scutellaris rivularis (MLS-036), 39.6 +/- 1.1; Condonacanthus paucifiorus (MLS-042),63.6 +/- 2.6; Xanthium strumarium (MLS-043), 42.8 +/- 1.3; Daemonoropus margaritae (MLS-044), 56.1 +/- 1.9. These findings indicate that human mesangial cells were most sensitive to MLS-034 treatment. These herbs also decreased interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Moreover, TNF-alpha mRNA expression was inhibited by MLS-034. It is unlikely that cytotoxicity was involved, because no cell deaths were observable. We hypothesize that the inhibitory mechanisms of these Chinese herbs may be related to the impairments of gene expression and production of cytokines in human mesangial cells. Plans are underway for the isolation of pure compounds from these Chinese herbs and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action. PMID:9665376

  17. Traditional Chinese medical herbs staged therapy in infertile women with endometriosis: a clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhaorong; Lian, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease defined as the presence of endometrioid tissue (glands and stroma) outside the uterus. About 30 to 40% patients with endometriosis are infertile. In traditional Chinese medical system, endometriosis associated infertility is mostly caused by kidney deficiency and blood stasis. The herb of reinforcing kidney and removing blood stasis is designed to treat the disease. Material and methods: All the 80 up-to-standard patients were divided into two different groups exactly according to the random principle. They were treated with hormone and traditional Chinese medical herb separately. After half year’s therapy, all the patients received one year’s follow-up. Their transvaginal ultrasonographic changes, serum hormone levels and pregnancy rate were recorded to analysis the effect. Results: No significant difference happened in two groups’ demographic and clinical characteristics (P > 0.05). After the treatment, the effect on serum hormone levels and specific markers are significant (P < 0.05). The transvaginal ultrasonographic changes were positive, too. The text on hepatic and renal function confirmed to the safety of the herb. Compared to hormone therapy, the traditional Chinese medical herb is safe and effective for endometriosis patients with infertility. Conclusion: Compared with hormone therapy, traditional Chinese medical herb’s two-staged therapy is effective and safe for endometriosis patients with infertility. PMID:26550373

  18. Antioxidant activity and anti-adipogenic effects of wild herbs mainly cultivated in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kim, Dan-Bi; Lee, Jong Seok; Cho, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Bong Kyun; Choi, Hyeon-Son; Lee, Boo-Yong; Lee, Ok-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Wild herbs, which are edible plants that grow in mountainous areas, have diverse biological effects such as anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of Aster scaber, Ligularia fischeri, Kalopanax pictus, Codonopsis lanceolata, and Cirsium setidens and to assess their effects on lipid accumulation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. The results revealed that among the five studied wild herb extracts, Ligularia fischeri showed the highest total phenolic contents (215.8 ± 14.2 mg GAE/g) and Aster scaber showed the highest total flavonoid content (103.9 ± 3.4 mg RE/g). Furthermore, Aster scaber and Ligularia fischeri extracts showed higher antioxidant activity than the other wild herbs. Regarding anti-adipogenic activity, the Cirsium setidens extract significantly inhibited lipid accumulation (~80%) and ROS production (~50%) during adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells compared with control cells. These results suggest that wild herbs could be used for the development of functional foods as well as health promoting and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:24141244

  19. Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

  20. Herbs versus Trees: Influences on Teenagers' Knowledge of Plant Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lückmann, Katrin; Menzel, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The study reports on species knowledge among German adolescents (n = 507) as: (1) self-assessed evaluation of one's species knowledge; and (2) factual knowledge about popular local herbs and trees. Besides assessing species knowledge, we were interested in whether selected demographic factors, environmental attitude (as measured through the…

  1. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during processing of peppermint and chamomile herbs on farms.

    PubMed

    Skórska, Czesława; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Cholewa, Grazyna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of microorganisms, dust and endotoxin in the air during processing of peppermint (Mentha piperita) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) by herb farmers, and to examine the species composition of airborne microflora. Air samples were collected on glass fibre filters by use of personal samplers on 13 farms owned by herb cultivating farmers, located in Lublin province (eastern Poland). The concentrations of total viable microorganisms (bacteria + fungi) in the farm air during processing of peppermint herb were large, within a range from 895.1-6,015.8 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 1,055.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). During processing of chamomile herb they were much lower and varied within a range from 0.88-295.6 x 10(3) cfu/m(3) (median 27.3 x 10(3) cfu/m(3)). Gram-negative bacteria distinctly prevailed during processing of peppermint leaves, forming 46.4-88.5 % of the total airborne microflora. During processing of chamomile herb, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant at 3 out of 6 sampling sites forming 54.7-75.3 % of total microflora, whereas at the remaining 3 sites the most common were fungi forming 46.2-99.9 % of the total count. The species Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Erwinia herbicola, Enterobacter agglomerans ), having strong allergenic and endotoxic properties, distinctly prevailed among Gram-negative isolates. Among fungi, the most common species was Alternaria alternata. The concentrations of airborne dust and endotoxin determined on the examined herb farms were large. The concentrations of airborne dust during peppermint and chamomile processing ranged from 86.7-958.9 mg/m(3), and from 1.1-499.2 mg/m(3), respectively (medians 552.3 mg/m(3) and 12.3 mg/m(3)). The concentrations of airborne endotoxin determined during peppermint and chamomile processing were within a wide range 1.53-208.33 microg/m(3) and 0.005-2604.19 microg/m(3) respectively (medians 57.3 microg/m(3) and 0.96 microg/m(3)). In conclusion, farmers

  2. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, “Dongeuibogam,” we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in “Dongeuibogam.” These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects. PMID:25861371

  3. A Systematic Review of the Reporting of Adverse Events Associated With Medical Herb Use Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Denise; Filippelli, Amanda C.; Nasser, Hafsa; Saper, Robert; White, Laura; Vohra, Sunita

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Information about the safety of herbal medicine often comes from case reports published in the medical literature, thus necessitating good quality reporting of these adverse events. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of the comprehensiveness of reporting of published case reports of adverse events associated with herb use in the pediatric population. Methods: Electronic literature search included 7 databases and a manual search of retrieved articles from inception through 2010. We included published case reports and case series that reported an adverse event associated with exposure to an herbal product by children under the age of 18 years old. We used descriptive statistics. Based on the International Society of Epidemiology's “Guidelines for Submitting Adverse Events Reports for Publication,” we developed and assigned a guideline adherence score (0-17) to each case report. Results: Ninety-six unique journal papers were identified and represented 128 cases. Of the 128 cases, 37% occurred in children under 2 years old, 38% between the ages of 2 and 8 years old, and 23% between the ages of 9 and 18 years old. Twenty-nine percent of cases were the result of an intentional ingestion while 36% were from an unintentional ingestion. Fifty-two percent of cases documented the Latin binomial of the herb ingredients; 41% documented plant part. Thirty-two percent of the cases reported laboratory testing of the herb, 20% documented the manufacturer of the product, and 22% percent included an assessment of the potential concomitant therapies that could have been influential in the adverse events. Mean guideline adherence score was 12.5 (range 6-17). Conclusions: There is considerable need for improvement in reporting adverse events in children following herb use. Without better quality reporting, adverse event reports cannot be interpreted reliably and do not contribute in a meaningful way to guiding recommendations for medicinal herb use

  4. [Examination of nickel and chromium contents in selected herbs, herbal fruit teas and their infusions].

    PubMed

    Błoniarz, Jadwiga; Zareba, Stanisław; Rahnama, Mansur

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contents of nickel and chromium (the trace elements that are necessary for the human organism only in specified amounts) in selected dry herbs, herbal-fruit teas and their water extracts. This examination was expected to answer the question whether infusions or decoctions may constitute the additional source of these elements, or whether the amounts of nickel and chromium included in them may be dangerous for the human organism. The samples were dry mineralized at the temperature of 450 degrees C. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was performed using SOLAAR M5 appliance produced by a US-based Thermo Elemental company; nickel contents were determined from the organic phase, and chromium directly from the mineralisate. Nickel contents ranged on average from 0.56 microg/g to 2.68 microg/g in herbs and from 0.99 microg/g to 1.70 microg/g in herbal fruit teas. On average 40.0% to 82.5% of the amount present in dry, raw material passed into the infusions. The determined amounts of chromium ranged from 0.57 microg/g to 1.36 microg/g in herbs, and from 0.47 microg/g to 1.17 microg/g in herbal fruit teas (average values). The maximum extraction of this element into the infusion or decoction equaled 85.0%. The contents of nickel and chromium in the examined dry herb samples were comparable to results obtained by authors of the other papers. Infusions or decoctions of the examined herbs and herbal fruit teas contain the amounts of these elements that do not harm health and may constitute an additional source of nickel and chromium for the human organism. PMID:15682946

  5. Anti-Aging Effects of Some Selected Iranian Folk Medicinal Herbs-Biochemical Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadirad, Azadeh; Aghamohammadali-Sarraf, Fatemeh; Badiei, Simin; Faraji, Zakie; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Baeeri, Maryam; Gholami, Mahdi; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): In the current study, the effects of selected folk medicinal herbs were evaluated in D-galactose-induced aging in male mice. Materials and Methods: Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 12 groups composing sham, control, and treated groups. Aging was induced by administration of D-galactose (500 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks). A positive control group was assigned that received vitamin E (200 mg/kg/day). The extract of herbs was prepared, lyophilized, and used in this study. The herbs were administered by gavage for 4 weeks to D-galactose-aged animals at the selected doses (mg/kg/day) as follows: Zingiber officinale (250), Glycyrrhiza glabra (150), Rosmarinus officinalis (300), Peganum harmala (50), Aloe vera (150), Satureja hortensis (200), Teucrium scordium (200), Hypericum perforatum (135) and Silybum marianum (150). One group of animals was assigned as sham and not given D-galactose. Results: At the end of treatment, pro-inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interlukine-1β (IL-β), interlukine-6 (IL-6), NF-kappaB (NF-κb), total antioxidant power (TAP), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) as lipid peroxidation (LPO) marker and male sex hormones i.e. testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) were measured in the blood. Conclusion: These data for the first time indicate significant anti-aging potential of examined herbs. Results showed that D-galactose induces a significant oxidative stress and promotes proinflammatory cascade of aging while all herbs more or less recovered these changes. Among 9 herbal extracts, Silybum marianum showed the best effect in restoring aging changes. PMID:24494070

  6. [Study on anti-hyperlipidemia mechanism of high frequency herb pairs by molecular docking method].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lu-di; He, Yu-su; Chen, Xi; Tao, Ou; Li, Gong-Yu; Zhang, Yan-ling

    2015-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has definitely clinical effect in treating hyperlipidemia, but the action mechanism still need to be explored. Based on consulting Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010), all the lipid-lowering Chinese patent medicines were analyzed by associated rules data mining method to explore high frequency herb pairs. The top three couplet medicines with high support degree were Puerariae Lobatae Radix-Crataegi Fructus, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Crataegi Fructus, and Polygoni Multiflori Radix-Crataegi Fructus. The 20 main ingredients were selected from the herb pairs and docked with 3 key hyperlipidemia targets, namely 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α (PPAR-α ) and niemann-pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) to further discuss the molecular mechanism of the high frequency herb pairs, by using the docking program, LibDock. To construct evaluation rules for the ingredients of herb pairs, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between computed and initial complexes was first calculated to validate the fitness of LibDock models. Then, the key residues were also confirmed by analyzing the interactions of those 3 proteins and corresponding marketed drugs. The docking results showed that hyperin, puerarin, salvianolic acid A and polydatin can interact with two targets, and the other five compounds may be potent for at least one of the three targets. In this study, the multi-target effect of high frequency herb pairs for lipid-lowering was discussed on the molecular level, which can help further researching new multi-target anti-hyperlipidemia drug. PMID:26591535

  7. The effect of water activity and storage temperature on the growth of Aspergillus flavus in medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Kulshrestha, Rashmi; Gupta, Chandra Prakash; Shukla, Gyanesh; Kundu, Madan Gopal; Bhatnagar, Satyendra Prasad; Katiyar, Chandra Kant

    2008-08-01

    The quality control of medicinal herbs post harvesting or after collection becomes very critical because of susceptibility to fungal invasion during storage depending on the temperature and humidity of the storage area. The information on moisture equilibrium is important on the process and storage of foods which can be extended to medicinal herbs. In the present study, the growth of Aspergillus flavus was observed on selected ten medicinal herbs with water activity aw above 0.81 when stored at 25 +/- 2 degrees C, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 40 +/- 2 degrees C except for Picrorhiza kurrooa and Alpinia galanga which were found to have anti-fungal properties. Aspergillus flavus did not grow in any samples of medicinal herbs with water activity aw below 0.81 at temperatures of 25 +/- 2 degrees C, 30 +/- 2 degrees C and 40 +/- 2 degrees C. Also Aspergillus flavus did not grow in any samples of medicinal herbs with water activity aw above 0.81 when stored below 10 +/- 2 degrees C. Therefore it can be concluded that the contamination of medicinal herbs with aflatoxins can be minimized by controlling water activity and storage temperature. Sorption isotherms (desorption) can be interpreted to determine the optimum drying which can lower the water activity to the level required for preventing growth of Aspergillus flavus and also for ensuring quality of medicinal herbs which may get destroyed upon over drying. Furthermore, it also saves incremental cost in prolonged drying over the optimum drying. PMID:18553273

  8. [Modern elucidative strategies for scientific connotation of controlling toxic reactions while toxic herbs are used to the indication syndrome].

    PubMed

    Tan, Yong; Li, Jian; Lu, Cheng; He, Xiao-Juan; Jiang, Miao; Lu, Ai-Ping

    2013-10-01

    One of effective measures for controlling toxic reactions is to use toxic herbs according to corresponding indication syndrome. It is important to develop toxicity theory of Chinese medicine in a sound and international way using modern language to elucidate its scientific connotation. We expect to explain scientific connotation of controlling toxic reaction while toxic herbs are used to the indication syndrome by using holistic research ideas and methods capable of reflecting governing exterior to infer interior, establish appropriate corresponding syndrome animal models by cutting into dose-effect/toxicity of toxic Chinese herbs, construct and analyze multi-layer molecular network using theories and technologies of metabonomics, network biology, and bioinformatics. PMID:24432691

  9. Microbiological study of fresh herbs from retail premises uncovers an international outbreak of salmonellosis.

    PubMed

    Elviss, N C; Little, C L; Hucklesby, L; Sagoo, S; Surman-Lee, S; de Pinna, E; Threlfall, E J

    2009-08-31

    This Local Authorities Co-ordinators of Regulatory Services/Health Protection Agency study was prompted by the increasing concern regarding the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat salad vegetable products, particularly fresh herbs. During May to October 2007, 3760 ready-to-eat fresh herbs, of different varieties, were sampled across the UK to assess their microbiological safety in relation to salmonella contamination and levels of Escherichia coli. Sixty (1.6%) herb samples were found to be of unsatisfactory quality according to Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 on the microbiological criteria of foodstuffs, i.e. contaminated with Salmonella spp. and/or containing E. coli at >10(3) cfu/g. When criteria in the PHLS Microbiological Guidelines for some ready-to-eat foods (2000) were used, 117 (3.9%) of herb samples were of unsatisfactory quality due to the presence of salmonella and/or E. coli at > or = 10(2) cfu/g. Eighteen (0.5%) samples of six different herb types were contaminated with Salmonella spp.: identified as serotypes Senftenberg (8), Agona (2), Anatum (1), Durban (1), Javiana (1), Mgulani (1), Montevideo (1), Unnamed (I 16:g, t: z42) (1), Virchow (1) and mixed Newport & Virchow (1). In each case the retailer and the UK Food Standards Agency were immediately informed and remedial action taken. Samples contaminated with S. Senftenberg were specifically associated with basil grown in Israel. Thirty-two human cases of S. Senftenberg infection were subsequently identified throughout England and Wales and a further 19 in Scotland, Denmark, The Netherlands and the USA. The strain of S. Senftenberg identified from the basil and that from cases had an indistinguishable molecular profile, suggesting a likely connection between consumption of basil and human infection. The presence of Salmonella spp. is unacceptable in ready-to-foods such as fresh herbs. This study highlights the necessity of applying good agricultural and hygiene practices pre-, during and post

  10. Effects of Kaolinite (Macsumsuk) and Herb Mixtures on the Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Pork.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Ki; Hwang, Eun Gyeong; Jung, Dae Jin; Ha, Jae Jung; Oh, Dong Yep; Choi, Chang Bon

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to identify technology for the production of high quality pork, based on the meat consumption habits of consumers. Macsumsuk, a type of kaolinite (a clay mineral), and/or a mixture of herbs (Mori Folium, Sophorae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium, and Pogostemi Herba) were added to the diets of fattening pigs. Sixty barrow pigs (4 kinds of treatment × 5 pigs/treatment × 3 replicates) were randomly assigned to either the Control (no additives), T1 (3% Macsumsuk), T2 (3% Herb mixtures), or T3 (3% Macsumsuk + 3% Herb mixtures) groups, and were fed the diets for 60 d. Dressed weights were in the order of T1 (93.40±4.68kg) > T2 (91.40±6.52kg) > Control (88.80±1.57kg) > T3 (86.80±2.01kg). Back-fat thickness of the Control animals (23.2±1.03) was significantly greater than that of the various treatment groups (p<0.01). Numeric values representing the carcass yield and quality grade were higher for all the treated groups than the Control group, thought the difference was not statistically significant. Crude fat content was significantly higher in the Control group (2.23±0.34%) than in the treated groups (p<0.05). The addition of both Macsumsuk and herb mixtures into the diets of the pigs significantly reduced cooking loss of the pork compared to the Control (p<0.05). No statistically significant changes were observed in the shear force (average 5.87±0.54 kg/cm(2)), water holding capacity (average 54.59±3.16%), or CIE values of the pork, whereas cholesterol levels significantly decreased (p<0.01) in those fed Macsumsuk and/or the herb mixtures. No significant changes in fatty acid composition, total saturated fatty acid (SFA), total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), or UFA/SFA ratios were observed by any of the treatments. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study suggest that the addition of Macsumsuk and/or herb mixtures into the diets of growing and fattening pigs improves the pork quality by reducing

  11. Effects of Kaolinite (Macsumsuk) and Herb Mixtures on the Quality and Physicochemical Properties of Pork

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Ki; Hwang, Eun Gyeong; Jung, Dae Jin; Ha, Jae Jung; Oh, Dong Yep

    2014-01-01

    The current study was conducted to identify technology for the production of high quality pork, based on the meat consumption habits of consumers. Macsumsuk, a type of kaolinite (a clay mineral), and/or a mixture of herbs (Mori Folium, Sophorae Radix, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Citri Leiocarpae Exocarpium, and Pogostemi Herba) were added to the diets of fattening pigs. Sixty barrow pigs (4 kinds of treatment × 5 pigs/treatment × 3 replicates) were randomly assigned to either the Control (no additives), T1 (3% Macsumsuk), T2 (3% Herb mixtures), or T3 (3% Macsumsuk + 3% Herb mixtures) groups, and were fed the diets for 60 d. Dressed weights were in the order of T1 (93.40±4.68kg) > T2 (91.40±6.52kg) > Control (88.80±1.57kg) > T3 (86.80±2.01kg). Back-fat thickness of the Control animals (23.2±1.03) was significantly greater than that of the various treatment groups (p<0.01). Numeric values representing the carcass yield and quality grade were higher for all the treated groups than the Control group, thought the difference was not statistically significant. Crude fat content was significantly higher in the Control group (2.23±0.34%) than in the treated groups (p<0.05). The addition of both Macsumsuk and herb mixtures into the diets of the pigs significantly reduced cooking loss of the pork compared to the Control (p<0.05). No statistically significant changes were observed in the shear force (average 5.87±0.54 kg/cm2), water holding capacity (average 54.59±3.16%), or CIE values of the pork, whereas cholesterol levels significantly decreased (p<0.01) in those fed Macsumsuk and/or the herb mixtures. No significant changes in fatty acid composition, total saturated fatty acid (SFA), total unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), or UFA/SFA ratios were observed by any of the treatments. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study suggest that the addition of Macsumsuk and/or herb mixtures into the diets of growing and fattening pigs improves the pork quality by reducing

  12. Acaricidal effects of herb essential oils against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) and qualitative analysis of a herb Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal)

    PubMed Central

    Rim, In-Sook

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was undertaken to screen the acaricidal effects of herb essential oils (pennyroyal, ylang ylang, citronella, lemon grass, tea tree, and rosemary) at different doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, 0.0125, and 0.00625 µl/cm2) and exposure times (5, 10, 20, 20, 30 and 60 min) on house dust mites Dermatophgoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. The most effective acaricidal components of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) were analyzed using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Of these essential oils, the most effective was pennyroyal, which is composed essentially of pulegone (> 99%), at a dose of 0.025 µl/cm2 which at an exposure time of 5 min killed more than 98% of house dust mites. In the pennyroyal fumigation test, the closed method was more effective than the open method and maximum acaricidal effect was 100% at 0.025 µl/cm2, 60 min. The results show that herb essential oils, in particular, pennyroyal was proved to have potent acaricidal activity. PMID:16809961

  13. [Immunomodulative effects of Chinese herbs in mice treated with anti-tumor agent cyclophosphamide].

    PubMed

    Jin, R; Wan, L L; Mitsuishi, T; Kodama, K; Kurashige, S

    1994-07-01

    Extracts of Chinese herbs were administered with antitumor agent, cyclophosphamide (CY), and their effects on macrophages and lymphocytes were studied. Number of peritoneal macrophages significantly decreased and their chemotactic activity was suppressed by treatment with CY. Blastogenic responsiveness to Concanavalin A and NK cell activity of spleen lymphocytes were suppressed significantly in CY-treated mice. Extracts of Lithospermi radix, Astragali radix and Glycyrrhizae radix showed protective effects on immunosuppressive mice. The number of macrophages, chemotactic activity of macrophages and blastogenic response of lymphocytes were recovered to the same or more than that of normal levels. An extract of Ginseng radix showed protective effects on the number and functions of macrophages by treatment with CY but did not show any effects on the lymphocytic blastogenesis. On the contrary it showed a strong inhibitory effect on the NK cell activity. These results suggest that Chinese herbs could modulate cellular immune response, especially in the activation of macrophages and splenic lymphocytes. PMID:7932098

  14. [Effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-Juan; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Huan; Yang, Xiao-Xue; Chen, Xu-Fei; Dai, Jun

    2013-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of herb residue vermicompost on maize growth and soil fertility. With the increasing application rate of vermicompost, the plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, and chlorophyll content of maize all increased significantly. After 60 days growth of maize, the soil bulk density in most vermicompost treatments decreased significantly. The soil pH in vermicompost treatments was significantly higher than that in CK and in chemical fertilization treatments. In addition, the soil total nitrogen and organic matter contents in vermicompost treatments were obviously higher than those in chemical fertilization treatments. It was suggested that herb residue vermicompost could be used as an efficient and high-quality organic fertilizer, and its appropriate application could improve soil physical structure, alleviate soil acidification, increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents, and promote crop growth. PMID:24417126

  15. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  16. The Efficacy of Chinese Medicinal Herbs towards Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junping; Liu, Weiwei; Hussain Dhiloo, Khalid; Guo, Yuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Bio-insecticidal effects of seven Chinese medicinal herbs on mortality, fecundity, developmental periods and life table parameters of the grape phylloxera were investigated. In an excised root bioassay experiment aqueous extracts from seven Chinese medicinal herbs increased grape phylloxera first instar mortality (26.00–38.50%) compared to other instars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), fecundity rate and net reproductive rate (R0) were significantly reduced by A. bidentata, A. tataricus, O. basilicum, P. frutescens and N. cataria. In a glasshouse pot trial, eggs, nymphs, adults and total population were significantly reduced before population establishment compared to those after its population established, by A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum. Overall, A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum can be used to suppress all life-stages of grape phylloxera. PMID:26186216

  17. Mechanisms of action of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

    2014-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive dementia and deterioration of cognitive function. Although several drugs currently used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease delay its onset and slow its progression, still there is no drug with profound disease-modifying effects. Studies aiming the treatment of this neurodegenerative disorder explore various disease mechanisms. Since antiquity, medicinal herbs have been used in traditional medicine. Recent studies suggest that the neurobiological effects of phytochemicals from medicinal herbs may contribute to clinical benefits in in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease. This review focuses on five phytochemicals, berberine, curcumin, ginsenoside Rg1, puerarin, and silibinin, which have been mostly investigated to treat the development and progression of this neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:25210998

  18. The Efficacy of Chinese Medicinal Herbs towards Grape Phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) (Hemiptera, Phylloxeridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqiang; Wang, Zhongyue; Su, Junping; Liu, Weiwei; Hussain Dhiloo, Khalid; Guo, Yuyuan

    2015-01-01

    Bio-insecticidal effects of seven Chinese medicinal herbs on mortality, fecundity, developmental periods and life table parameters of the grape phylloxera were investigated. In an excised root bioassay experiment aqueous extracts from seven Chinese medicinal herbs increased grape phylloxera first instar mortality (26.00-38.50%) compared to other instars. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm), finite rate of increase (λ), fecundity rate and net reproductive rate (R0) were significantly reduced by A. bidentata, A. tataricus, O. basilicum, P. frutescens and N. cataria. In a glasshouse pot trial, eggs, nymphs, adults and total population were significantly reduced before population establishment compared to those after its population established, by A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum. Overall, A. bidentata, A. tataricus and O. basilicum can be used to suppress all life-stages of grape phylloxera. PMID:26186216

  19. Current Status and Clinical Studies of Oriental Herbs in Sexual Medicine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yu Seob; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Li Tao

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common diseases among aging men. Although previous studies have shown that type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE5-Is) are very effective for the treatment of ED, many researchers are currently attempting to identify therapeutic agents from natural sources with comparable or better effects than PDE5-Is. Herbal medicine is thought to be advantageous because it is natural; moreover, it not only treats isolated symptoms, but also maintains general well-being. Furthermore, since newly created chemical compound libraries have limited structural diversity with regard to pharmaceutical agents, more attention has recently been paid to the ability of oriental herbs to enhance physical health, including sexual function. Herein, we review the current status of Korean preclinical or clinical studies of the application of oriental herbs to sexual medicine. PMID:26331122

  20. Theranostics meets traditional Chinese medicine: rational prediction of drug-herb interactions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Miao; Fan, Lan; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Herbal medicines including traditional Chinese medicine are becoming increasingly more popular worldwide. However, there is considerable potential for interaction between herbal components and drugs, as all herbal medicines contain a combination of potentially biologically active compounds possessing various inherent pharmacological activities, and the components of herbal products consumed are eliminated from the body by the same mechanisms that remove drugs. Indeed, many so-called conventional drugs are derived from plant sources. This article provides an update on the mechanisms and evidence of drug-herb interactions (DHIs) and genetic influences on DHIs. The rational prediction of clinically important DHIs is also discussed. Individualized and targeted drug therapy could be achieved by identifying the population most likely to be helped or harmed by drug-herb coadministration. PMID:23249200

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstracts Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of anti-inflammation, including cellular immunity, inflammatory mediators, reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide and several transcriptional factors, in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. This article reviews the roles of Chinese medicinal herbs as well as their ingredients in the inflammatory cascade induced by cerebral ischemia. Chinese medicinal herbs exert neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. The effects include inhibiting the activation of microglia, decreasing levels of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1, attenuating expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, reducing inducible nitric oxide synthase and reactive oxygen species, and regulating transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB. PMID:21740583

  2. The Health Benefits of Selected Culinary Herbs and Spices Found in the Traditional Mediterranean Diet.

    PubMed

    Bower, Allyson; Marquez, Susan; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2016-12-01

    The Mediterranean diet is considered one of the healthiest diets in the world. This is often attributed to low saturated fat consumption, moderate wine consumption, and high vegetable consumption. However, herbs and spices associated with these diets may also play an important role in the quality of this diet. This review summarizes the most recent research regarding the anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-hypertensive properties of this collection of culinary species. Additionally, this review briefly summarizes studies performed on lesser known herbs from around the world, with the goal of identifying new culinary species that may be useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases. PMID:25749238

  3. [Determination of sulfur dioxide residues in sulfur fumigated Chinese herbs with headspace gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Jia, Zheng-Wei; Mao, Bei-Ping; Miao, Shui; Mao, Xiu-Hong; Ji, Shen

    2014-02-01

    This paper aims to establish a method for the determination of sulfur dioxide in sulfur fumigation Chinese herbs. Sample powder and hydrochloric acid solution were isolated by paraffin layer in order to avoid early reactions, with the generation of sulfur dioxide, headspace with airtight needle was used to transfer sulfur dioxide into gas chromatograph, and detected with thermal conductivity detector. The analytical performance was demonstrated by the analysis of 12 herbs, spiked at four concentration levels. In general, the recoveries ranging from 70% to 110%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) within 15%, were obtained. The limit of detection (LOD) was below 10 mg x kg(-1). Standard addition can be used for low recovery samples. The method is simple, less time-consuming, specific and sensitive. Methods comparison revealed that gas chromatography is better than traditional titration in terms of method operability, accuracy and specificity, showing good application value. PMID:24761623

  4. Metabolic Activation of Rhein: Insights into the Potential Toxicity Induced by Rhein-Containing Herbs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Zheng, Jiyue; Wang, Meiyu; Li, Yuan; Ruan, Jianqing; Zhang, Hongjian

    2016-07-20

    Rhein is a major component of the many medicinal herbs such as rhubarb. Despite wide use, intoxication cases associated with rhein-containing herbs are often reported. The present work aimed to investigate if rhein was subject to metabolic activation leading to toxicity. Upon incubations with different species of liver microsomes, three monoglucuronides were identified, corresponding to two hydroxyl glucuronides and one acyl glucuronide via the carboxyl group, respectively. Further study revealed that rhein acyl glucuronide was chemically reactive, and showed cytotoxicity toward hepatocarcinoma cells. In addition, significant species differences in glucuronidation of rhein were observed between laboratory animals and humans. Reaction phenotyping experiments demonstrated that rhein acyl glucuronide was catalyzed predominantly by uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1, 1A9, and 2B7. Taken together, the present study confirmed that rhein could be metabolically activated via the formation of acyl glucuronide, especially in human. PMID:27362917

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Spices and Medicinal Herbs against Selected Microbes Associated with Juices.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Romika; Aggarwal, Neeraj; Aneja, Kamal Rai; Kaur, Manpreet

    2016-01-01

    In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices. PMID:26880927

  6. Isolation of two new bioactive proanthocyanidins from Cistus salvifolius herb extract.

    PubMed

    Qa'dan, F; Nahrstedt, A; Schmidt, M

    2011-06-01

    Two new proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin (1) and epigallocatechin-3-O-p-hydroxybenzoate-(4beta-->8)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (2) in addition to the known compound epigallocatechin-(4beta-->6)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (3), were isolated from the air-dried herb of Cistus salvifolius. The chemical structures were determined on the basis of 1D-and 2D-NMR-spectra (HSQC, HMBC) of their peracetylated derivatives, MALDI-TOF-mass spectra, and by acid-catalysed degradation with phloroglucinol. The isolated compounds 1-3 and the water extract of C. salvifolius herb were tested for their inhibitory activities against COX-1 and COX-2. Compound 2 showed the strongest inhibitory effect on COX-2 followed by compound 3, compound 1 and the water extract, while compounds 1-3 exhibited moderate in vitro inhibition against COX-1. PMID:21699087

  7. Plasma-Induced Degradation of Polypropene Plastics in Natural Volatile Constituents of Ledum palustre Herb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Yu, Shenjing; Ren, Chunsheng; Xiu, Zhilong

    2012-02-01

    Polypropene (PP) plastics can be effectively degraded by natural volatile constituents from Ledum palustre catalyzed by atmospheric air dielectric barrier (DBD) plasma. The electron spin resonance (ESR) result indicates that the volatile constituents produce radicals in aerobic condition energized by power sources such as light, UV, plasma and so on. The degradation is a novel chemically oxidative way and it is initiated by a series of radical reactions. Lots of active and oxidative species, radicals, products and high energy electromagnetic field in plasma aggravate the degradation process. The results about PP maximum tensile strength (σbmax) confirm this conclusion. PP plastic heavily loses its extensibility, mechanical integrity and strength in a short time after suffering a synergetic treatment of the herb extract and air DBD plasma with no toxic residues left. The components of herb extract keep almost unchanged and may be reused. This study offers a new approach to manage and recycle typical plastics.

  8. A comprehensive strategy to detect the fraudulent adulteration of herbs: The oregano approach.

    PubMed

    Black, Connor; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Elliott, Christopher T

    2016-11-01

    Fraud in the global food supply chain is becoming increasingly common due to the huge profits associated with this type of criminal activity. Food commodities and ingredients that are expensive and are part of complex supply chains are particularly vulnerable. Both herbs and spices fit these criteria perfectly and yet strategies to detect fraudulent adulteration are still far from robust. An FT-IR screening method coupled to data analysis using chemometrics and a second method using LC-HRMS were developed, with the latter detecting commonly used adulterants by biomarker identification. The two tier testing strategy was applied to 78 samples obtained from a variety of retail and on-line sources. There was 100% agreement between the two tests that over 24% of all samples tested had some form of adulterants present. The innovative strategy devised could potentially be used for testing the global supply chains for fraud in many different forms of herbs. PMID:27211681

  9. Bioactive compounds from culinary herbs inhibit a molecular target for type 2 diabetes management, dipeptidyl peptidase IV

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare), marjoram (Origanum majorana), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) are concentrated sources of bioactive compounds. The aims of this study were to characterize extracts from greenhouse grown or commercially purchased herbs for th...

  10. Rare medicinal herbs of the Himalayas: an ardent need for preservation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pt Kartikay

    2007-07-01

    The forest wealth of the Himalayan ranges is abundant with unique medicinal herbs, having tremendous economic importance. Latterly, these have adversely suffered at the hands of poachers and unlawful trade activities. The author cites the names of some of the rare species, in a bid to achieve their conservation through sensitization and participation of the masses, especially the tribals, in the greater interest of humanity. PMID:17638343

  11. Cytoprotective and pro-apoptotic activities of native Australian herbs polyphenolic-rich extracts.

    PubMed

    Sakulnarmrat, Karunrat; Fenech, Michael; Thomas, Philip; Konczak, Izabela

    2013-01-01

    Three commercially grown native herbs unique to Australia, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata R. Br., Winteracea; TPL), anise myrtle (Syzygium anisatum Vickery, Craven & Biffen, Myrtaceae; AM) and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora F. Muell, Myrtaceae; LM) as well as a reference sample bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L., Lauraceae; BL) were examined for potential cytoprotective properties. All native herbs exhibited greater cellular antioxidant activity as measured by the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay than bay leaf and reduced the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells by 25-50%. All herb extracts reduced the proliferation of colon (HT-29; IC(50)=0.75-1.39mg/ml), stomach (AGS; IC(50)=0.59-1.88mg/ml), bladder (BL13; IC(50)=0.56-1.12mg/ml) and liver (HepG2; IC(50)=0.38-1.36mg/ml) cancer cells. No significant reduction of cell viability of non-transformed colon (CCD-18Co; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) and mixed stomach and intestine (Hs 738.St/Int; IC(50)>2.0mg/ml) cells was observed. Flow cytometry analysis and the results of the cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMNCyt) assay conducted with respectively, promyelocytic leukaemia (HL-60) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells suggest an increase in apoptosis following treatment with the herb extracts. The occurrence of apoptotic cells coincided with an increase in caspase-3 enzyme activity. The results of the CBMNCyt assay suggested no direct DNA damage in colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells as a result of treatment with all extracts, applied at final concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0mg/ml. PMID:23017386

  12. Plasticity in response to phosphorus and light availability in four forest herbs.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Lander; Vanhellemont, Margot; De Frenne, Pieter; De Schrijver, An; Hermy, Martin; Verheyen, Kris

    2010-08-01

    The differential ability of forest herbs to colonize secondary forests on former agricultural land is generally attributed to different rates of dispersal. After propagule arrival, however, establishing individuals still have to cope with abiotic soil legacies from former agricultural land use. We focused on the plastic responses of forest herbs to increased phosphorus availability, as phosphorus is commonly found to be persistently bioavailable in post-agricultural forest soils. In a pot experiment performed under field conditions, we applied three P levels to four forest herbs with contrasting colonization capacities: Anemone nemorosa, Primula elatior, Circaea lutetiana and Geum urbanum. To test interactions with light availability, half of the replicas were covered with shade cloths. After two growing seasons, we measured aboveground P uptake as well as vegetative and regenerative performance. We hypothesized that fast-colonizing species respond the most opportunistically to increased P availability, and that a low light availability can mask the effects of P on performance. All species showed a significant increase in P uptake in the aboveground biomass. The addition of P had a positive effect on the vegetative performances of two of the species, although this was unrelated to their colonization capacities. The regenerative performance was affected by light availability (not by P addition) and was related to the species' phenology. Forest herbs can obviously benefit from the increased availability of P in post-agricultural forests, but not all species respond in the same way. Such differential patterns of plasticity may be important in community dynamics, as they affect the interactions among species. PMID:20300776

  13. Estimating fresh grass/herb biomass from HYMAP data using the red edge position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Moses A.; Sobhan, Istiak M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.

    2006-08-01

    Remote sensing of grass/herb quantity is essential for rangeland management of livestock and wildlife. Spectral indices such as NDVI, determined from red and near infrared bands are affected by variable soil and atmospheric conditions and saturate in dense vegetation. Alternatively, the wavelength of maximum slope in the red-NIR transition, termed the red edge position (REP) has potential to mitigate these effects. But the utility of the REP using air- and space-borne imagery is determined by the availability of narrow bands in the region of the red edge and the simplicity of the extraction method. Very recently, we proposed a simple technique for extracting the REP called the linear extrapolation method [Cho and Skidmore, Remote Sens. Environ., 101(2006)118.]. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of the linear extrapolation method for estimating fresh grass/herb biomass and compare its performance with the four-point linear interpolation and three-point Lagrangian interpolation methods. The REPs were derived from atmospherically corrected HYMAP images collected over Majella National Park, Italy in July 2004. The predictive capabilities of various REP linear regression models were evaluated using leave-one-out cross validation and test set validation methods. For both validation methods, the linear extrapolation REP models produced higher correlations with grass/herb biomass and lower prediction errors compared with the linear interpolation and Lagrangian REP models. This study demonstrates the potential of REPs extracted by the linear extrapolation method using HYMAP data for estimating fresh grass/herb biomass.

  14. [A preliminary study of two Chinese herbs protective tablets on some Chinese traditional medicines].

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Liu, R; Han, Q; Xia, C; Luo, J; Han, J; Mei, Y; Jian, W; Ou, S

    1999-11-01

    The protective action of 2 tablets of Chinese herb to 5 Chinese traditional medicines against harm of insects and mildews was tested. It was found that 2 tablets have a obvious effects of insect-repellency and mouthproof in the test with Homalomena occulta and Prunus armeniaca, the bore in the medicinal materials was decreased 94.95% and 95.55% respectively than that of check. The tablets have some effects of mildewproof in the test with Tussilago farfara. PMID:12571894

  15. Critical review of Ayurvedic Varṇya herbs and their tyrosinase inhibition effect

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Khemchand; Joshi, Namrata; Goyal, Chinky

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aspiration for light skin (fair complexion) is becoming pronounced in a greater number of people in the present times with natural products being more in demand than their synthetic counterparts. Research in the area of skin-lightening agents is an expanding field with the knowledge being updated regularly. In Ayurveda, varṇya, raktaprasādana, tvacya are few terms specifying skin lightening with respect to its modern counterpart i.e., Tyrosinase inhibition, the most commonly reported method of skin lightening. Aim: The present review is undertaken for screening twenty herbs from Varṇya Mahākaṣāya, Lodhrādi varṇya gaṇa, Elādi varṇa prasādana gaṇa and few varṇya formulations to evaluate their probable modes of action through which the skin lightening is effected as per both Ayurveda and biomedical concepts. Materials and Methods: Critical review of herbs to show varṇya property is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts as well as from multiple articles on the internet to justify their skin lightening property on the basis of data collected. Result and Conclusion: All the twenty herbs reviewed are found to act as varṇya directly (citation as varṇya) or indirectly (alleviation of pitta and rakta) as per Ayurveda and to interfere in melanogenesis pathway through tyrosinase inhibition as per biomedicine. This shows their potential to act as good skin whitening agents. Śuṇṭhi being a part of many varṇya formulations, is the only herb among all reviewed in the present study found to exhibit tyrosinase inhibition without any Ayurvedic citation of varṇya property. PMID:26600663

  16. Evaluation of the anticancer potential of six herbs against a hepatoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Six herbs in the Plant Genetics Conservation Project that have been used as complementary medicines were chosen on the basis of their medicinal value, namely Terminalia mucronata, Diospyros winitii, Bridelia insulana, Artabotrys harmandii, Terminallia triptera, and Croton oblongifolius. This study aims to evaluate the potential anticancer activity of 50% ethanol-water extracts of these six herbs. Methods Fifty percent ethanol-water crude extracts of the six herbs were prepared. The cytotoxicity of the herbal extracts relative to that of melphalan was evaluated using a hepatoma cell line (HepG2), and examined by neutral red assays and apoptosis induction by gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry after 24 h. Results A significant difference was found between the cytotoxicity of the 50% ethanol-water crude extracts and melphalan (P = 0.000). The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of all six herbs exhibited cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells, with IC50 values ranging from 100 to 500 μg/mL. The extract of T. triptera showed the highest cytotoxicity with an IC50 of 148.7 ± 12.3 μg/mL, while melphalan had an IC50 of 39.79 ± 7.62 μg/mL. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii and T. triptera, but not A. harmandii, produced a DNA ladder. The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii induced apoptosis detected by flow cytometry. Conclusion The 50% ethanol-water crude extracts of D. winitii, T. triptera, and A. harmandii showed anticancer activity in vitro. PMID:22682026

  17. Forest herb layer response to long-term light deficit along a forest developmental series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plue, J.; Van Gils, B.; De Schrijver, A.; Peppler-Lisbach, C.; Verheyen, K.; Hermy, M.

    2013-11-01

    Temperate deciduous forest communities are slow-changing systems, with herbaceous understorey communities displaying a delayed response to overstorey canopy and light dynamics. While light availability constrains herbaceous understorey diversity and composition in space and time, its response in the long-term absence of light has seldom been quantified, particularly as it is often confounded by covariation in soil conditions. We studied a developmental high-forest series in two widespread NW-European temperate deciduous forest communities with different dominant canopy tree species: Stellario-Carpinetum (Oak-hornbeam canopy) and Milio-Fagetum (Beech canopy). All plots had soil conditions which were not significantly different, enabling investigation into the direct effects of the long-term absence of light on the herbaceous understorey, disentangled from the confounding effects of soil variation. Plant species richness measures declined with canopy cover continuity in the herb layer of the oak-hornbeam stands, whereas richness in the herb layer of the beech stands displayed a unimodal response. Nonetheless, in both plant communities, species richness and closed-forest species richness were negatively affected by the extended absence of light in stands with the longest period of continuous canopy cover. The long-term limitation or decline in quantitative and qualitative light availability as a result of extended periods of canopy cover was shown to be the primary driver behind losses in alpha-diversity, community composition turn-over and individual species dynamics. Heliophilous species were lost from both communities, while closed-forest species also declined, as a direct consequence of the prolonged period without ample light on the forest floor. This study demonstrates how the herb layer is affected by the absence of light on the forest floor mediated by long periods of continuous canopy cover. Despite different temporal responses in herb layer richness and

  18. [C, N, P stoichiometric characteristics of tree, shrub, herb leaves and litter in forest community of Shaanxi Province, China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Pei-pei; Cao, Yang; Chen, Yun-ming

    2016-02-01

    A total of 121 sampling sites were selected to study the C, N, P stoichiometric characteristics among the leaves of tree, shrub, herb and the litter of the majority forest community of Shaanxi Province, China. We also studied their relationships with geographical factors. The results showed that C, N concentrations were highest in tree leaf, P concentration was highest in herb leaf, and the C, N, P concentrations were lowest in litter. Leaf C: N: P ratios of tree, shrub, herb leaves and litter were 439.4:14.2:1, 599.2:13.5:1, 416.5:13.3:1, 504.8:15.5:1, respectively. The N:P ratios of tree, shrub and herb leaves were not significantly different, but they were all significantly higher than that of litter layer, indicating N:P ratio of different living life forms' leaves was stable. Compared with N, C and P had better relationships in each layer, and the relationships of leaf C, N, P stoichiometry between tree and herb leaves were better than those between tree and shrub leaves. The correlations of C, N, P stoichiometry between litter and the tree or herb leaves were highly significantly positive, and the correlations of P stoichiometry between litter and shrub leaves were highly significantly positive. Shrub leaf N, P concentration increased with the increasing latitude, and herb leaf N, P concentrations decreased with the increasing longitude. Compared with the longitude and latitude, the effect of altitude was smaller, and only tree leaf N:P decreased with the increasing latitude. Multivariate linear regression analysis results showed that the influence of geographical factors on herb leaf was longitude > latitude > altitude, while was latitude > longitude > altitude for tree, shrub leaves and litter. PMID:27396106

  19. Antioxidant effects of 14 Chinese traditional medicinal herbs against human low-density lipoprotein oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsin-Hung; Charles, Albert Linton; Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lee, Ya-Chi; Ciou, Jhih-Ying

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the antioxidant activities and inhibitory effect of 14 Chinese medicinal herbs against oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) formation was evaluated. Prolongation of the lag phase of LDL oxidation depended on the concentration of the herbs. The concentration of each herb that was able to prolong the lag time by about two-fold was calculated and expressed as doubling-time concentration. The lower the doubling-time concentration, the stronger the inhibitory effect exhibited toward LDL oxidation. Among them, Chrysanthemi Flos (Chrysanthemum morifolium ramat; 甘菊花 gān jú huā), Crataegi Fructus (Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.; 山楂 shān zhā), and Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.; 洛神 luò shén) showed significant inhibitory effects. Correlation coefficients between doubling-time concentration and radical-scavenging activities were high; the total phenolic content was also high. In conclusion, phenolic compounds contributed not only to antioxidant activities, but also to the inhibitory effect against LDL oxidation. Chrysanthemi Flos, Crataegi Fructus, and H. sabdariffa, with lower doubling-time concentrations, could be potent phytochemical agents to reduce LDL oxidation and prevent the progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26151009

  20. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products. PMID:26305257

  1. Investigation of the Biosynthetic Potential of Endophytes in Traditional Chinese Anticancer Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kristin I.; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man Yuen; Neilan, Brett A.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a rich empirical knowledge of the use of plants for the treatment of disease. In addition, the microorganisms associated with medicinal plants are also of interest as the producers of the compounds responsible for the observed plant bioactivity. The present study has pioneered the use of genetic screening to assess the potential of endophytes to synthesize bioactive compounds, as indicated by the presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and polyketide synthase (PKS) genes. The total DNA extracts of 30 traditional Chinese herbs, were screened for functional genes involved in the biosynthesis of bioactive compounds. The four PCR screens were successful in targeting four bacterial PKS, six bacterial NRPS, ten fungal PKS and three fungal NRPS gene fragments. Analysis of the detected endophyte gene fragments afforded consideration of the possible bioactivity of the natural products produced by endophytes in medicinal herbs. This investigation describes a rapid method for the initial screening of medicinal herbs and has highlighted a subset of those plants that host endophytes with biosynthetic potential. These selected plants can be the focus of more comprehensive endophyte isolation and natural product studies. PMID:22629306

  2. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework for quantitative prediction of an herb-drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Brantley, S J; Gufford, B T; Dua, R; Fediuk, D J; Graf, T N; Scarlett, Y V; Frederick, K S; Fisher, M B; Oberlies, N H; Paine, M F

    2014-01-01

    Herb-drug interaction predictions remain challenging. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling was used to improve prediction accuracy of potential herb-drug interactions using the semipurified milk thistle preparation, silibinin, as an exemplar herbal product. Interactions between silibinin constituents and the probe substrates warfarin (CYP2C9) and midazolam (CYP3A) were simulated. A low silibinin dose (160 mg/day × 14 days) was predicted to increase midazolam area under the curve (AUC) by 1%, which was corroborated with external data; a higher dose (1,650 mg/day × 7 days) was predicted to increase midazolam and (S)-warfarin AUC by 5% and 4%, respectively. A proof-of-concept clinical study confirmed minimal interaction between high-dose silibinin and both midazolam and (S)-warfarin (9 and 13% increase in AUC, respectively). Unexpectedly, (R)-warfarin AUC decreased (by 15%), but this is unlikely to be clinically important. Application of this PBPK modeling framework to other herb-drug interactions could facilitate development of guidelines for quantitative prediction of clinically relevant interactions.CPT Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol. (2014) 3, e107; doi:10.1038/psp.2013.69; advance online publication 26 March 2014. PMID:24670388

  3. Evaluation of 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful as antiandrogens.

    PubMed

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2014-08-01

    This study demonstrates 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of certain herbs useful in the management of androgenic disorders. Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst (GL), Urtica dioica Linn. (UD), Caesalpinia bonducella Fleming. (CB), Tribulus terrestris Linn. (TT), Pedalium murex Linn. (PM), Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (SI), Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. (CR), Citrullus colocynthis Schrad. (CC), Benincasa hispida Cogn. (BH), Phyllanthus niruri Linn. (PN) and Echinops echinatus Linn. (EE) were included in the study. Petroleum ether, ethanol and aqueous extracts of these herbs were tested for their 5α-reductase inhibitory activity against the standard 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. A biochemical method to determine the activity of 5α-reductase was used to evaluate the inhibition of different extracts to the enzyme. The optical density (OD) value of each sample was measured continuously with ultraviolet spectrophotometer for the reason that the substrate NADPH has a specific absorbance at 340 nm. As the enzyme 5α-reductase uses NADPH as a substrate, so in the presence of 5α-reductase inhibitor, the NADPH concentration will increase with the function of time. This method thus implicates the activity of 5α-reductase. The method proved to be extremely useful to screen the herbs for their 5α-reductase inhibitory potential. GL, UD, BH, SI and CR came out to be promising candidates for further exploring their antiandrogenic properties. PMID:23710567

  4. MicroRNAs and Chinese Medicinal Herbs: New Possibilities in Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ming; Wang, Ning; Tan, Hor Yue; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades Chinese medicine has been used worldwide as a complementary and alternative medicine to treat cancer. Plenty of studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play fundamental roles in many pathological processes, including cancer, while the anti-cancer mechanisms of Chinese medicinal herbs targeting miRNAs also have been extensively explored. Our previous studies and those of others on Chinese medicinal herbs and miRNAs in various cancer models have provided a possibility of new cancer therapies, for example, up-regulating the expression of miR-23a may activate the positive regulatory network of p53 and miR-23a involved in the mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effect of berberine in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this review, we survey the role of Chinese medicinal herbal products in regulating miRNAs in cancer and the use of mediating miRNAs for cancer treatment. In addition, the controversial roles of herb-derived exogenous miRNAs in cancer treatment are also discussed. It is expected that targeting miRNAs would provide a novel therapeutic approach in cancer therapy by improving overall response and survival outcomes in cancer treatment, especially when combined with conventional therapeutics and Chinese medicinal herbal products. PMID:26305257

  5. Hepatoprotective effect of herb formula KIOM2012H against nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Gun; Jeon, Jongwook; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-04-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic ailment with a rapidly increasing incidence due to dietary hypernutrition and subsequent obesity. Fatty liver disease can lead to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even cancer, which is associated with various complications. Discovering effective natural materials and herbs can provide alternative and complementary medical treatments to current chemical pharmaceuticals. To develop an effective natural agent for NAFLD, we formulated a combination of four herb mixtures (KIOM2012H) and observed lipid-lowering efficacy. The inhibitory effects of KIOM2012H on free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were analyzed in HepG2 cells. Using high fat diet-fed mice, body weight changes, gross liver appearances, hepatic triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were evaluated. KIOM2012H dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation and gene expressions involved in lipogenesis and related regulators. Experimental animals also showed a decrease in body weight changes and lipid-associated physiological parameters. This study shows that KIOM2012H has an alleviating effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation, and therefore can be applied for development of new therapeutic pharmaceuticals for treatment of NAFLD using natural products and herbs. PMID:25849950

  6. Sulfur Fumigation Processing of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Herbs: Beneficial or Detrimental?

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Winnie Lai Ting; Ma, Bin; Lin, Ge

    2011-01-01

    Majority of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbs need to undergo post-harvesting processing to convert raw material into the form readily used for prescription. In general, processing procedures are either according to China Pharmacopeia or based on traditional methods. Recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used to replace traditional sun-drying for its pesticidal and anti-bacterial properties in a cheap and convenient manner. However, to date information on effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal safety and efficacy are limited. This article addresses potential destructive effects of sulfur fumigation on herbal efficacy and safety through reviewing currently available information. Since recently increased numbers of studies have demonstrated that sulfur fumigation-induced dramatic changes in chemical profiles of various sulfur-fumigated herbs, consequent alteration of efficacy, and/or potential incidence of toxicity are suspected. Therefore comprehensive investigations on effects of sulfur fumigation on toxicity, chemical profiles, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivities of TCM herbs are timely to provide scientific basis for standardization and regulation of this currently common but potentially harmful processing method. PMID:22207851

  7. Emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs fermentation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyeh; Lin, Tachen; Shieh, Youmin

    2015-10-01

    Much attention has been paid to biosurfactants produced using microorganisms, but little direct evidence for the development of natural biosurfactants combined with Chinese medicinal herbs are available. We investigated the emulsification and antioxidation of biosurfactant extracts from Chinese medicinal herb fermentation (BECMHF) in vitro and their application in water retention capacity and the skin prick and allergy test (SPAT) index for skin cells. The results showed that the water retention capacity of BECMHF was positively associated with the emulsification index. The SPAT index of 8 Chinese medicinal herbs was 0 at a 1% or 2% concentration, suggesting no sensitivity or adverse effects on the skin cells. Eight BECMHFs produced using Alcaligenes piechaudii CC-ESB2 exhibited antioxidant capabilities, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and superoxide scavenging activity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity at a concentration of 10 mg/ml. The mechanism involved inhibitory effects on nitrite, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and reactive oxygen species (ROSs) generation. BECMHFs exhibit favorable antioxidative properties in health food and satisfactory emulsifying and moisturizing characteristics in cosmetic formulations, which have potential applications in the health food and cosmetic industries, respectively. PMID:25812919

  8. Photo- and thermally stimulated luminescence of polyminerals extracted from herbs and spices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Marcazzó, J.; Chernov, V.

    2012-08-01

    Ionizing radiation processing is a widely employed method for preservative treatment of foodstuffs. Usually it is possible to detect irradiated herbs and spices by resorting to luminescence techniques, in particular photo- and thermostimulated luminescence. For these techniques to be useful, it is necessary to characterize the response to radiation of each particular herb or spice. In this work, the thermoluminescence (TL) and photostimulated luminescence (PSL) properties of inorganic polymineral fractions extracted from commercial herbs and spices previously irradiated for disinfestation purposes have been analyzed. Samples of mint, cinnamon, chamomile, paprika, black pepper, coriander and Jamaica flower were irradiated from 50 to 400 Gy by using a beta source. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has shown that the mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and feldspars. The PSL and TL response as a function of the absorbed dose, and their fading at room temperature have been determined. The TL glow curves have been deconvolved in order to obtain characteristic kinetics parameters in each case. The results of this work show that PSL and TL are reliable techniques for detection and analysis of irradiated foodstuffs.

  9. Hepatoprotective Effect of Herb Formula KIOM2012H against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hwayong; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Gun; Jeon, Jongwook; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic ailment with a rapidly increasing incidence due to dietary hypernutrition and subsequent obesity. Fatty liver disease can lead to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and even cancer, which is associated with various complications. Discovering effective natural materials and herbs can provide alternative and complementary medical treatments to current chemical pharmaceuticals. To develop an effective natural agent for NAFLD, we formulated a combination of four herb mixtures (KIOM2012H) and observed lipid-lowering efficacy. The inhibitory effects of KIOM2012H on free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were analyzed in HepG2 cells. Using high fat diet-fed mice, body weight changes, gross liver appearances, hepatic triglyceride contents, and gene expressions were evaluated. KIOM2012H dose-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation and gene expressions involved in lipogenesis and related regulators. Experimental animals also showed a decrease in body weight changes and lipid-associated physiological parameters. This study shows that KIOM2012H has an alleviating effect on fatty acid and lipid accumulation, and therefore can be applied for development of new therapeutic pharmaceuticals for treatment of NAFLD using natural products and herbs. PMID:25849950

  10. Effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection.

    PubMed

    Song, Z; Johansen, H K; Moser, C; Høiby, N

    1996-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of two kinds of Chinese medicinal herbs, Isatis tinctoria L (ITL) and Daphne giraldii Nitsche (DGN), on a rat model of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection mimicking cystic fibrosis (CF). Compared to the control group, both drugs were able to reduce the incidence of lung abscess (p < 0.05) and to decrease the severity of the macroscopic pathology in lungs (p < 0.05). In the great majority of the rats, the herbs altered the inflammatory response in the lungs from an acute type inflammation, dominated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), to a chronic type inflammation, dominated by mononuclear leukocytes (MN). DGN also improved the clearance of P. aeruginosa from the lungs (p < 0.03) compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between the control group and the two herbal groups with regard to serum IgG and IgA anti-P. aeruginosa sonicate antibodies. However, the IgM concentration in the ITL group was significantly lower than in the control group (p < 0.03). These results suggest that the two medicinal herbs might be helpful to CF patients with chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection, DGN being the most favorable. PMID:8703440