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  1. Case Report: Potential Arsenic Toxicosis Secondary to Herbal Kelp Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Amster, Eric; Tiwary, Asheesh; Schenker, Marc B.

    2007-01-01

    Context Medicinal use of dietary herbal supplements can cause inadvertent arsenic toxicosis. Case Presentation A 54-year-old woman was referred to the University of California, Davis, Occupational Medicine Clinic with a 2-year history of worsening alopecia and memory loss. She also reported having a rash, increasing fatigue, nausea, and vomiting, disabling her to the point where she could no longer work full-time. A thorough exposure history revealed that she took daily kelp supplements. A urine sample showed an arsenic level of 83.6 μg/g creatinine (normal < 50 μg/g creatinine). A sample from her kelp supplements contained 8.5 mg/kg (ppm) arsenic. Within weeks of discontinuing the supplements, her symptoms resolved and arsenic blood and urine levels were undetectable. Discussion To evaluate the extent of arsenic contamination in commercially available kelp, we analyzed nine samples randomly obtained from local health food stores. Eight of the nine samples showed detectable levels of arsenic higher than the Food and Drug Administration tolerance level of 0.5 to 2 ppm for certain food products. None of the supplements contained information regarding the possibility of contamination with arsenic or other heavy metals. The 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) has changed the way dietary herbal therapies are marketed and regulated in the United States. Less regulation of dietary herbal therapies will make inadvertent toxicities a more frequent occurrence. Relevance to Clinical Practice Clinicians should be aware of the potential for heavy metal toxicity due to chronic use of dietary herbal supplements. Inquiring about use of dietary supplements is an important element of the medical history. PMID:17450231

  2. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  3. Kelp

    SciTech Connect

    North, W.J.

    1981-05-01

    The Marine Farm Project is a large collaborative R and D effort presently studying possibilities of growing seaweed in offshore waters, and jointly funded by the Gas Research Institute and the US DOE. This paper reports on the part of the program which Cal Tech are involved in that's related to production and nutrition of kelp. Among the topics covered are: the life cycle of giant kelp, Macrocystis; estimated yields; transplanting techniques; mooring of plants; and the upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water. (Refs. 19).

  4. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  5. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  6. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  7. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the

  8. Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Haszianaliza; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit

    2015-10-01

    Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Prior knowledge on hepatotoxicity caused by herbs may be beneficial for clinicians and medical practitioners. PMID:26669124

  9. [Herbal supplements in sports: use and abuse].

    PubMed

    Caprino, Luciano; Braganò, Maria Cristina; Botrè, Francesco

    2005-01-01

    The use of natural supplements, included herbal supplements, by athletes has become an habit which often lacks any valid scientific rationale. It appears evident that this habit may entail health risks (including more or less serious adverse effects), consequent either: 1) to the pharmacodynamic effects of the drugs at high doses; or 2) to the occurrence of accumulation especially when their administration is not justified by a reduced synthesis or an increased demand; or 3) to the occurrence of intolerance; or, finally, 4) to the presence of unlabelled ingredients. The abuse of this kind of products always entails risks to the consumer, not only to the elite athlete, that can incur an adverse analytical finding on the occasion of anti-doping tests, but also to the amateur sportsman, for the possible occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR). PMID:16037647

  10. Use of Herbal Supplements in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal supplements that act like a diuretic or "water pill" may cause "kidney irritation" or damage. These include bucha leaves and juniper berries. Uva Ursi and ... NY Register Now 2016 Orangeburg Kidney Walk Thu, ...

  11. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J; Pakhomov, Serguei V; Melton, Genevieve B; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  12. Safety of Popular Herbal Supplements in Lactating Women.

    PubMed

    Amer, Marwa R; Cipriano, Gabriela C; Venci, Jineane V; Gandhi, Mona A

    2015-08-01

    The increasing popularity and use of dietary supplements has required health care professionals to become more knowledgeable of their properties, interactions, and adverse effects. The objectives of this review were to evaluate the safety of popular dietary supplements in breastfeeding mothers and the effects on the infants. Nine of the most popular herbal dietary supplements were identified based on the 2011 US market report of the top 10 selling botanicals and the most frequently received inquiries by the Ruth A. Lawrence Lactation Study Center at the University of Rochester Medical Center. Relevant publications were identified through June 2014 using PubMed and EMBASE; tertiary references, including the Drugs and Lactation Database and Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database, were also reviewed. These herbals include black cohosh, cranberry, echinacea, evening primrose, garlic, ginseng, melatonin, milk thistle, and St John's wort. Studies varied greatly with regard to study design, herbal intervention, and outcome measures. Findings suggested that dietary/herbal supplements have not been evaluated in high-quality clinical trials, and there is limited evidence supporting safety of use, particularly among lactating women. Therefore, it is essential for physicians to provide counseling for nursing mothers seeking information on dietary supplements, highlighting reliable safety profiles, inquiring about the potential benefits the patient is seeking, and assessing the patient's perception of this supplement during breastfeeding. More research and clinical trials are required in this area to guide the recommendations and expand our current knowledge of these products. PMID:25881578

  13. Immunopharmacology of the main herbal supplements: a review.

    PubMed

    Amico, Angelo P; Terlizzi, Annamaria; Damiani, Sabino; Ranieri, Maurizio; Megna, Marisa; Fiore, Pietro

    2013-12-01

    It is debated whether the use of herbal supplements in endurance sports, in order to have a better performance, is correct or not, from the perspective of both as safety and as effectiveness. In this review we try to find out if the most common herbal supplements (Echinacea, Rhodiola, Ginseng) are effective in the improvement of performance or in the modulation of the immune system. According to the results of our review, the prevalent effect is adaptogenic rather than ergogenic, with a better tolerance of the exercise induced stress, related to enhancement of the whole immune system and decrease of the oxidative damage. PMID:24456264

  14. Use of herbal supplements for overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ≥ 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the world's population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

  15. DNA Barcode Authentication of Saw Palmetto Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Little, Damon P.; Jeanson, Marc L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbal dietary supplements made from saw palmetto (Serenoa repens; Arecaceae) fruit are commonly consumed to ameliorate benign prostate hyperplasia. A novel DNA mini–barcode assay to accurately identify [specificity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.74–1.00); sensitivity = 1.00 (95% confidence interval = 0.66–1.00); n = 31] saw palmetto dietary supplements was designed from a DNA barcode reference library created for this purpose. The mini–barcodes were used to estimate the frequency of mislabeled saw palmetto herbal dietary supplements on the market in the United States of America. Of the 37 supplements examined, amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 34 (92%). Mini–barcode analysis of these supplements demonstrated that 29 (85%) contain saw palmetto and that 2 (6%) supplements contain related species that cannot be legally sold as herbal dietary supplements in the United States of America. The identity of 3 (9%) supplements could not be conclusively determined. PMID:24343362

  16. Authentication of Herbal Supplements Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Braukmann, Thomas W. A.; Borisenko, Alex V.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background DNA-based testing has been gaining acceptance as a tool for authentication of a wide range of food products; however, its applicability for testing of herbal supplements remains contentious. Methods We utilized Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) for taxonomic authentication of fifteen herbal supplements representing three different producers from five medicinal plants: Echinacea purpurea, Valeriana officinalis, Ginkgo biloba, Hypericum perforatum and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Experimental design included three modifications of DNA extraction, two lysate dilutions, Internal Amplification Control, and multiple negative controls to exclude background contamination. Ginkgo supplements were also analyzed using HPLC-MS for the presence of active medicinal components. Results All supplements yielded DNA from multiple species, rendering Sanger sequencing results for rbcL and ITS2 regions either uninterpretable or non-reproducible between the experimental replicates. Overall, DNA from the manufacturer-listed medicinal plants was successfully detected in seven out of eight dry herb form supplements; however, low or poor DNA recovery due to degradation was observed in most plant extracts (none detected by Sanger; three out of seven–by NGS). NGS also revealed a diverse community of fungi, known to be associated with live plant material and/or the fermentation process used in the production of plant extracts. HPLC-MS testing demonstrated that Ginkgo supplements with degraded DNA contained ten key medicinal components. Conclusion Quality control of herbal supplements should utilize a synergetic approach targeting both DNA and bioactive components, especially for standardized extracts with degraded DNA. The NGS workflow developed in this study enables reliable detection of plant and fungal DNA and can be utilized by manufacturers for quality assurance of raw plant materials, contamination control during the production process, and the final product

  17. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

  18. Estimation of Potential Availability of Essential Oil in Some Brands of Herbal Teas and Herbal Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Radosław; Baj, Tomasz; Kowalska, Grażyna; Pankiewicz, Urszula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to estimate potential availability of essential oil in some brands of herbal products. Methods A comparison was performed on the basis of the essential oil yield in the unprocessed raw materials such as leaves of peppermint and lemon balm and inflorescence of chamomile as well as herbal tea bags and in dietary supplements. The yield of essential oil was determined by distillation. Essential oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Results It was found that the average potential availability of essential oils in the products such as dietary supplements for the doses recommended by the producers is lower than in the corresponding tea infusions: for peppermint formulations approximately 6-fold lower, for the formulations with lemon balm about 4-fold lower, and for the chamomile preparations about 3-fold lower. It was found that essential oils extracted from herbal teas have a similar chemical profile with characteristic deviations in the amount of individual components, which arise from the origin of the raw material. Discussion In contrast to homogenous pharmaceutical herbal mixtures consistent with, the Pharmacopoeia requirements, herbal teas (available in grocery stores) and dietary supplements are often out of control in terms of the yield and composition of the essential oil, which is primarily responsible for the health benefits and aromatic qualities of these products. Analysis of the composition of the dietary supplements showed that they contain on average significantly lower amounts of plant material compared to the herbal teas. PMID:26110869

  19. Ulcerative colitis associated with the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajah, Vernon; Abdul, Quddus; Pardoe, Helen; Lunniss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old Iranian gentleman was admitted to hospital with severe bloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. He had similar episodes in the past. On each occasion his symptoms developed following the consumption of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut Hardcore X. On this admission, a (CT) scan demonstrated bowel wall thickening and peri-colonic fat stranding in the sigmoid colon. On flexible sigmoidoscopy, a continuous length of congested mucosa with multiple small ulcers was seen extending up to the mid-transverse colon, in keeping with ulcerative colitis. Histological analysis of biopsies was taken at the time and confirmed this. He was started on steroids early during his admission but this only provided a transient clinical improvement. The addition of cyclosporine, which was later changed to azathioprine, did not improve his condition either. He therefore underwent an open subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy. He made a slow but steady recovery and was discharged 3 weeks later. PMID:23291814

  20. Herbal materials used in dietary supplements: Comparison of luminescence methods for detection of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolin, E.; Boniglia, C.; Gargiulo, R.; Onori, S.

    2009-07-01

    In EU the treatment with ionising radiation is allowed for dried aromatic herbs, spices and seasonings, but not for herbal supplements and their ingredients. Nevertheless, controls carried out in EU at the product marketing stage, showed a large number of irradiated herbal supplements and herbal ingredients. Due to low sensitivity to radiation of this kind of products, the aim of this work was to test the efficacy of the luminescence-based methods in identifying irradiated herbal supplements. To this end, photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) and thermo-luminescence (TL) measurements were performed on 24 products, including 8 herbal raw materials (plants or parts of plants) and 16 herbal extracts. The PSL technique, provided intermediate results, with a low number of total counts near to the upper negative limit, for all irradiated herbal extracts, showing possible limits in the detection of these products, specially in view of their use in mixtures with non-irradiated components. The TL method, was successfully applied to all herbal materials; in the case of herbal extracts, however, particular attention at the mineral separation step was necessary.

  1. DNA barcode identification of black cohosh herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Baker, David A; Stevenson, Dennis W; Little, Damon P

    2012-01-01

    Black cohosh (Actaea racemosa) herbal dietary supplements are commonly consumed to treat menopausal symptoms, but there are reports of adverse events and toxicities associated with their use. Accidental misidentification and/or deliberate adulteration results in harvesting other related species that are then marketed as black cohosh. Some of these species are known to be toxic to humans. We have identified two matK nucleotides that consistently distinguish black cohosh from related species. Using these nucleotides, an assay was able to correctly identify all of the black cohosh samples in the validation set. None of the other Actaea species in the validation set were falsely identified as black cohosh. Of 36 dietary supplements sequenced, 27 (75%) had a sequence that exactly matched black cohosh. The remaining nine samples (25%) had a sequence identical to that of three Asian Actaea species (A. cimicifuga, A. dahurica, and A. simplex). Manufacturers should routinely test plant material using a reliable assay to ensure accurate labeling. PMID:22970567

  2. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein. PMID:25680499

  3. Bleeding risks of herbal, homeopathic, and dietary supplements: a hidden nightmare for plastic surgeons?

    PubMed

    Wong, Wendy W; Gabriel, Allen; Maxwell, G Patrick; Gupta, Subhas C

    2012-03-01

    The utilization of complementary and alternative medicine has increased tremendously in the last two decades. Herbal products, homeopathic medicines, and dietary supplements are extremely popular and are available without a prescription (which likely contributes to their popularity). Despite their "natural" characteristics, these remedies have the potential to cause bleeding in patients who undergo surgery. The high use of these supplements among cosmetic surgery patients, coupled with increasing reports of hematomas associated with herbal and homeopathic medicines, prompted the authors to conduct a comprehensive review focused on bleeding risks of such products in an effort to raise awareness among plastic surgeons. This review focuses on 19 herbs, three herbal formulas, two herbal teas, and several other supplements that can cause bleeding perioperatively and postoperatively. In addition to being aware of such adverse effects, plastic surgeons must adequately screen all patients and educate them on the possible dangers associated with these treatments. PMID:22395325

  4. Identification and Determination of Synthetic Pharmaceuticals as Adulterants in Eight Common Herbal Weight Loss Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Khazan, Marjan; Hedayati, Mehdi; Kobarfard, Farzad; Askari, Sahar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adulterated herbal weight loss products with containing undeclared synthetic drugs are common and responsible for many serious health damages. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine five synthetic adulterants in eight common herbal weight loss supplements, which are currently sold in Iran markets, to verify their presence in supplements, without mentioning on the labels. Materials and Methods: Eight common herbal weight loss samples were obtained from the Iran pharmaceutical market after advertising in the Persian language on satellite channels and internet. Five pharmacological classes of drugs used for weight loss, namely sibutramine, phenolphthalein, phenytoin, bumetanide and rimonabant, were investigated and quantified by GC-MS for the first three and LC-MS for the last two medications. Results: The most undeclared ingredients, which were illegally added include sibutramine, phenolphthalein, bumetanide, and phenytoin in the original super slim, herbaceous essence, super slim green lean, and fat loss, supplements, respectively. Rimonabant was not found. Caffeine, pseudoephedrine, theobromine and amfepramone were also found in the supplements using GC-MS assay. Conclusions: Adulterated synthetic substances were detected in the herbal weight loss products. Health care professionals should make people aware of the risks of taking herbal weight-loss supplements. PMID:24829782

  5. Soliciting an Herbal Medicine and Supplement Use History at Hospice Admission

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Karen; Jackson, Steve; McPherson, Mary Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Reconciling medication use and performing drug utilization review on admission of a patient into hospice care are essential in order to safely prescribe medications and to prevent possible adverse drug events and drug–drug interactions. As part of this process, fully assessing herbal medicine and supplement use in hospice patients is crucial, as patients in hospice may be likely to use these medications and may be more vulnerable to their potential adverse effects. Objective Our purpose was to identify herbals, vitamins, and supplements that should be routinely assessed on every hospice admission because of their higher likelihood of use or higher risk of adverse effects or drug interactions. Methods Experts in the fields of palliative medicine, pharmacy, and alternative medicine were asked to complete a Web-based survey on 37 herbals, vitamins, supplements, and natural products, rating likelihood of use, potential for harm, and recommendation to include it on the final list on a scale of 1 to 5 (least to most likely to agree). Results Twenty experts participated in the survey. Using a cutoff of 3.75 for inclusion of a medication on the final list, 12 herbal medicines were identified that should be routinely and specifically assessed on hospice admission. Conclusions Although assessing all herbal medicine use is ideal, thorough detection of herbals may be challenging. The list of herbals and supplements identified by this survey could be a useful tool for medication reconciliation in hospice and could aid in identifying potentially harmful medication use at the end of life. PMID:20557233

  6. Evaluating Term Coverage of Herbal and Dietary Supplements in Electronic Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Manohar, Nivedha; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Wang, Yan; Adam, Terrence J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement consumption has rapidly expanded in recent years. Due to pharmacological and metabolic characteristics of some supplements, they can interact with prescription medications, potentially leading to clinically important and potentially preventable adverse reactions. Electronic health record (EHR) system provides a valuable source from which drug-supplement interactions can be mined and assessed for their clinical effects. A fundamental prerequisite is a functional understanding of supplement documentation in EHR and associated supplement coverage in major online databases. To address this, clinical notes and corresponding medication lists from an integrated healthcare system were extracted and compared with online databases. Overall, about 40% of listed medications are supplements, most of which are included in medication lists as nutritional or miscellaneous products. Gaps were found between supplement and standard medication terminologies, creating documentation difficulties in fully achieving robust supplement documentation in EHR systems. In addition, in the clinical notes we identified supplements which were not mentioned in the medication lists. PMID:26958277

  7. Composition of Lutein Ester Regioisomers in Marigold Flower, Dietary Supplement, and Herbal Tea.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Rabalski, Iwona

    2015-11-11

    Characterization of lutein and its esters in a health product is necessary for its efficacy. In the current study lutein ester regioisomers were quantified and identified in several dietary supplements and herbal teas in comparison with marigold flower, the commercial source of lutein. The products were extracted with three solvents and separated on a C30 column. The separated esters were identified/confirmed with LC-MS in APCI+ve mode with the use of synthetic lutein esters. The total content of lutein esters substantially varied among marigold flowers (167-5752 μg/g), supplements (88,000-110,700 μg/g), and herbal teas (12.4-91.3 μg/g). Lutein supplement had a lutein profile similar to that of marigold flower, whereas herbal tea showed an extremely different profile. Lutein dipalmitate was the dominant compound in supplements and marigold flowers followed by lutein 3'-O-myristate-3-O-palmitate and lutein 3'-O-palmitate-3-O-myristate. Lutein was the major compound in marigold herbal tea with small amounts of lutein mono- and diesters. Differences in the concentration and composition of lutein compounds among marigold products could indicate distinct product quality and lutein bioavailability. PMID:26496496

  8. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Elizabeth X.; Navarro, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury. PMID:26357638

  9. Liver Injury from Herbal, Dietary, and Weight Loss Supplements: a Review.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Elizabeth X; Navarro, Victor J

    2015-06-28

    Herbal and dietary supplement usage has increased steadily over the past several years in the United States. Among the non-bodybuilding herbal and dietary supplements, weight loss supplements were among the most common type of HDS implicated in liver injury. While drug induced liver injury is rare, its consequences are significant and on the rise. The purpose of this review is to highlight case reports of weight loss products such as Hydroxycut and OxyElite Pro as one form of HDS that have hepatotoxic potential and to characterize its clinical effects as well as pattern of liver injury. We also propose future strategies in the identification and study of potentially hepatotoxic compounds in an effort to outline a diagnostic approach for identifying any drug induced liver injury. PMID:26357638

  10. Determination of Oxalate Content in Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Based on Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle, especially diet, is a prominent risk factor that affects the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinary oxalate excretion is directly related to the amount of oral intake and intestinal absorption rate of oxalate. This work evaluated the possibility of increasing oxalate ingestion, which could lead to secondary hyperoxaluria, associated with the intake of herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts. A wide variety of 17 commercially available drugs and dietary supplements were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed remarkable differences in oxalate contents of the extracts. Total oxalate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 2.2 mg/g in solid samples and from 0.005 to 0.073 mg/mL in liquid samples. The selected herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts represent only a low risk for calcium oxalate stone formers, if the recommended daily dose is not exceeded. PMID:26670692

  11. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  12. CAM and Hepatitis C: A Focus on Herbal Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... been clearly demonstrated. These supplements include the following: Probiotics are live microorganisms that are intended to have ... Research hasn’t produced any clear evidence that probiotics are helpful in people with hepatitis C. Most ...

  13. Acute liver injury associated with a newer formulation of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut.

    PubMed

    Araujo, James L; Worman, Howard J

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDS), serious cases of hepatotoxicity have been reported. The popular herbal weight loss supplement, Hydroxycut, has previously been implicated in acute liver injury. Since its introduction, Hydroxycut has undergone successive transformations in its formulation; yet, cases of liver injury have remained an ongoing problem. We report a case of a 41-year-old Hispanic man who developed acute hepatocellular liver injury with associated nausea, vomiting, jaundice, fatigue and asterixis attributed to the use of a newer formulation of Hydroxycut, SX-7 Clean Sensory. The patient required hospitalisation and improved with supportive therapy. Despite successive transformations in its formulation, potential liver injury appears to remain an ongoing problem with Hydroxycut. Our case illustrates the importance of obtaining a thorough medication history, including HDS, regardless of new or reformulated product marketing efforts. PMID:25948859

  14. Kelp growth experiments

    SciTech Connect

    North, W. J.

    1980-01-01

    Harvest yields obtainable from giant kelp plants that are adequately fertilized were investigated. The following topics are discussed: desirable characteristics in a candidate macroalga, and giant kelp as a candidate macroalga for ocean farming. Nutrient requirements, field experiments, and approaches to acquiring yield data are reviewed. (MHR)

  15. CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM KELP AND COPPER SULFATE: INITIAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DIOXIN FORMATION IN MINERAL FEED SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2002, dioxins were discovered in animal feed ingredients during a random sampling by Irish officials and subsequently traced to particular mineral supplements produced at a Minnesota plant in the United States. These products sold under the names of SQM Mineral Products and C...

  16. Development of an Alert System to Detect Drug Interactions with Herbal Supplements using Medical Record Data

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Melissa; Proulx, Joshua; Shane-McWhorter, Laura; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2014-01-01

    While potential medication-to-medication interaction alerting engines exist in many clinical applications, few systems exist to automatically alert on potential medication to herbal supplement interactions. We have developed a preliminary knowledge base and rules alerting engine that detects 259 potential interactions between 9 supplements, 62 cardiac medications, and 19 drug classes. The rules engine takes into consideration 12 patient risk factors and 30 interaction warning signs to help determine which of three different alert levels to categorize each potential interaction. A formative evaluation was conducted with two clinicians to set initial thresholds for each alert level. Additional work is planned add more supplement interactions, risk factors, and warning signs as well as to continue to set and adjust the inputs and thresholds for each potential interaction. PMID:25954326

  17. Development of an Alert System to Detect Drug Interactions with Herbal Supplements using Medical Record Data.

    PubMed

    Archer, Melissa; Proulx, Joshua; Shane-McWhorter, Laura; Bray, Bruce E; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2014-01-01

    While potential medication-to-medication interaction alerting engines exist in many clinical applications, few systems exist to automatically alert on potential medication to herbal supplement interactions. We have developed a preliminary knowledge base and rules alerting engine that detects 259 potential interactions between 9 supplements, 62 cardiac medications, and 19 drug classes. The rules engine takes into consideration 12 patient risk factors and 30 interaction warning signs to help determine which of three different alert levels to categorize each potential interaction. A formative evaluation was conducted with two clinicians to set initial thresholds for each alert level. Additional work is planned add more supplement interactions, risk factors, and warning signs as well as to continue to set and adjust the inputs and thresholds for each potential interaction. PMID:25954326

  18. Sildenafil and analogous phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors in herbal food supplements sampled on the Dutch market.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, N M; Venhuis, B J; de Kaste, D; Hoogenboom, L A P; Rietjens, I M C M; Martena, M J

    2013-01-01

    Herbal food supplements, claiming to enhance sexual potency, may contain deliberately added active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements on the Dutch market indeed contain APIs that inhibit phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors, such as sildenafil and analogous PDE-5 inhibitors. Herbal food supplements intended to enhance sexual potency (n = 71), and two soft drinks, were sampled from 2003 up to and including 2012. In 23 herbal supplements, nine different PDE-5 inhibitors were identified; in a few cases (n = 3), more than one inhibitor was indentified. The presence of these APIs was however not stated on the label. The concentrations of PDE-5 inhibitors per dose unit were analysed. Furthermore, the potential pharmacologically active properties of the detected PDE-5 inhibitors were estimated by using data from the scientific and patent literature regarding (1) in vitro PDE-5 activity, (2) reported effective doses of registered drugs with PDE-5 inhibitor activity and (3) similarity to other structural analogues. It was concluded that 18 of the 23 herbal food supplements, when used as recommended, would have significant pharmacological effects due to added APIs. Adequate use of existing regulation and control measures seems necessary to protect consumers against the adverse effects of these products. PMID:24261938

  19. Variable inhibitory effect of herbal supplements of different brands on human P450 CYP1A2

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2012-01-01

    Herbal supplements are not governed by the same regulations as prescription drugs, we hypothesize that the content of their active ingredients may vary largely among different manufacturers. This may produce variable therapeutic outcomes. This study aims to examine this hypothesis on commonly used herbal supplements among cancer patients. CYP1A2 has been implicated in the activation of many carcinogens and alteration in its activity may be a mechanism associated with the protective effect of herbal products. Activity of human CYP1A2 was used to determine the effect of four herbal supplements of different brands, namely, black cohosh (BC), ginseng, grape seed extract (GSE) and green tea extract (GTE). The herbal content was extracted with methanol, and extract aliquots were used to determine their effect on CYP1A2. Human liver microsomes, the CYP1A2 probe (7-ethoxyresorufin) and NADPH in buffer were incubated with and without herbal extract. Metabolite (resorufin) formation was monitored by HPLC. Seven BC products caused a mild inhibition of CYP1A2, ranging from 2.4 % by GNC Plus to 21.9 % by Nature's Resource. Among nine ginseng products tested, the inhibitory effect varied from 4.2 % by Imperial to 44.6 % by Solarays. The effect of nine GSE brands also varied, ranging from 1.7 % (Country Life) to 26.5 % (Veg Life). Of twelve GTE products, the inhibitory effect varied from 2.9 % by Henry's to 46.6 % by GNC Plus. It appears that the inhibition of selected herbal supplements on CYP1A2 activity varies considerably among different brands of the products. This may be due to variations in the herbal products' active ingredients content. PMID:27298605

  20. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Avigan, Mark I; Mozersky, Robert P; Seeff, Leonard B

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized. PMID:26950122

  1. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Avigan, Mark I.; Mozersky, Robert P.; Seeff, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized. PMID:26950122

  2. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Jayaram, C.; Jayapal, N.; Sondhi, N.; Kolte, A. P.; Senani, S.; Sridhar, M.; Dhali, A.

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder) and prebiotic (inulin) as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline), ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI). The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig. PMID:26176779

  3. Assessment of Fecal Microflora Changes in Pigs Supplemented with Herbal Residue and Prebiotic.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Ashis Kumar; Jayaram, C; Jayapal, N; Sondhi, N; Kolte, A P; Senani, S; Sridhar, M; Dhali, A

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder) and prebiotic (inulin) as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline), ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI). The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig. PMID:26176779

  4. Assessment of health claims, content, and safety of herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Heidi P.; Pelgrom, Sylvia M.G.J.; Stewart-Knox, Barbara; de Kaste, Dries; Verhagen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background European Regulation 1924/2006 states that all health claims made on foods need to be substantiated scientifically. Objective To apply the PASSCLAIM criteria for the scientific substantiation of health claims on foods to herbal supplements containing Ginkgo biloba. Evaluation of three selected claimed health effects for G. biloba (improvement of blood circulation, improvement of symptoms of old age, and improvement of memory) was achieved through review of publicly available scientific data. A total of 35 human intervention studies were evaluated. Commercially available products claimed to contain mainly G. biloba (N=29) were randomly sampled in the Netherlands and analyzed for their content on ginkgo extract. Also, a toxicological risk assessment was performed. Results The three selected health claims investigated could not be substantiated. This was mainly because of a lack of data from studies in healthy volunteers. In most studies results performed with a 24% standardized G. biloba extract were described. However, our chemical analysis showed that 25 of the 29 sampled products did not contain the required minimum 24% standardized extract. Moreover, in most preparations the content of substances typical for G. biloba did not conform to what was declared on the label. Since toxicity data for G. biloba are very limited, a safety limit could not be established. Conclusions Evidence is lacking for three health claims of herbal products with G. biloba. Neither safety nor efficacy can be guaranteed at the recommended daily dose. The multidisciplinary approach described in this paper provides good insight into issues that are relevant for the evaluation of health claims for herbal food supplements. PMID:20927202

  5. Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Over the past several decades, complementary and alternative medications have increasingly become a part of everyday treatment. With the rising cost of prescription medications and their production of unwanted side effects, patients are exploring herbal and other natural remedies for the management and treatment of psychological conditions. Psychological disorders are one of the most frequent conditions seen by clinicians, and often require a long-term regimen of prescription medications. Approximately 6.8 million Americans suffer from generalized anxiety disorder. Many also suffer from the spectrum of behavioural and physical side effects that often accompany its treatment. It is not surprising that there is universal interest in finding effective natural anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) treatments with a lower risk of adverse effects or withdrawal. Methods An electronic and manual search was performed through MEDLINE/PubMed and EBSCO. Articles were not discriminated by date of publication. Available clinical studies published in English that used human participants and examined the anxiolytic potential of dietary and herbal supplements were included. Data were extracted and compiled into tables that included the study design, sample population, intervention, control, length of treatment, outcomes, direction of evidence, and reported adverse events. Results A total of 24 studies that investigated five different CAM monotherapies and eight different combination treatments and involved 2619 participants met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 21 randomized controlled trials and three open-label, uncontrolled observational studies. Most studies involved patients who had been diagnosed with either an anxiety disorder or depression (n = 1786). However, eight studies used healthy volunteers (n = 877) who had normal levels of anxiety, were undergoing surgery, tested at the upper limit of the normal range of a trait anxiety scale, had adverse

  6. Effect of a herbal yeast food supplement and long-distance running on immunological parameters.

    PubMed Central

    Gmünder, F K; Joller, P W; Joller-Jemelka, H I; Bechler, B; Cogoli, M; Ziegler, W H; Müller, J; Aeppli, R E; Cogoli, A

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a food supplement on immunological parameters of 16 long-distance runners was tested in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial. The supplement comprised plasmolysed herbal yeast, malt, honey, and orange juice. No statistically significant differences between the two groups regarding the following variables were detected at three sessions at rest and immediately after a 21 km run: total and differential white blood cell counts, numbers of B- and T-cells and T-subpopulations, concanavalin-A-induced lymphocyte proliferation, serum levels of immunoglobulins, neopterin, IL-2 receptors, beta 2-microglobulin, complement factor b, c4 and c3c, and c1-inactivator. These findings suggest that the effects of the tested food supplement on these parameters are negligible with respect to improvements in the immunological status of long-distance runners. The changes observed immediately after the run had a transient character. In both groups, however, low lymphocyte counts, IgG subclass 2 levels and c1-inactivator levels were noted at rest, which indicate that the immune status of endurance athletes may be affected by training. PMID:2265308

  7. Associations of herbal and specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle study.

    PubMed

    Satia, Jessie A; Littman, Alyson; Slatore, Christopher G; Galanko, Joseph A; White, Emily

    2009-05-01

    Millions of Americans use dietary supplements with little knowledge about their benefits or risks. We examined associations of various herbal/specialty supplements with lung and colorectal cancer risk. Men and women, 50 to 76 years, in the VITamins And Lifestyle cohort completed a 24-page baseline questionnaire that captured duration (years) and frequency (days per week) of use of commonly used herbal/specialty supplements. Dose was not assessed due to the lack of accurate potency information. Supplement exposure was categorized as "no use" or "any use" over the previous 10 years. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by multivariate Cox regression models. Incident lung (n = 665) and colorectal cancers (n = 428) were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Any use of glucosamine and chondroitin, which have anti-inflammatory properties, over the previous 10 years, was associated with significantly lower lung cancer risk: HR 0.74 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.58-0.94] and HR 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54-0.96) and colorectal cancer risk: HR 0.73 (95% CI, 0.54-0.98) and HR 0.65 (95% CI, 0.45-0.93), respectively. There were also statistically significantly inverse associations of fish oil: HR 0.65 (95% CI, 0.42-0.99), methylsulfonylmethane: HR 0.46 (95% CI, 0.23-0.93), and St. John's wort: HR 0.35 (95% CI, 0.14-0.85) with colorectal cancer risk. In contrast, garlic pills were associated with a statistically significant 35% elevated colorectal cancer risk. These results suggest that some herbal/specialty supplements may be associated with lung and colorectal cancer risk; however, these products should be used with caution. Additional studies examining the effects of herbal/specialty supplements on risk for cancer and other diseases are needed. PMID:19423520

  8. Convenient TLC for the detection of a herbal ingredient in a food supplement.

    PubMed

    Carratù, Brunella; Boniglia, Concetta; Ciarrocchi, Marco; Gargiulo, Raffaella; Sanzini, Elisabetta

    2010-12-01

    This study describes a practical and suitable approach to solve a real problem: the analysis of polyherbal products for which some specifications addressing the composition are lacking (e.g. chemical components). It is reported that an analytical procedure to verify the possible presence in a botanical supplement of a plant is not authorised for use in Italy. No reference of chemical standards for the known components of the plant is commercially available. For this reason and because a rapid response was required, more selective chromatographic techniques such as high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were excluded and thin layer chromatography was chosen for applying different experimental procedures. The original English label of the product, which is made by a leading US manufacturer and sold online by American and Italian distributors, lists the same herbal ingredients as the Italian label, but with an addition of Eurycoma longifolia Jack, which is not included in the list of plants admitted in supplements compiled by the Italian Ministry of Health. For greater certainty of the result, a high-performance thin layer chromatography method was then applied. On the basis of the results obtained, it was possible to confirm that E. longifolia Jack was not present in the product. PMID:21108122

  9. Dietary supplementation with Chinese herbal powder enhances ileal digestibilities and serum concentrations of amino acids in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Kong, X F; Yin, Y L; He, Q H; Yin, F G; Liu, H J; Li, T J; Huang, R L; Geng, M M; Ruan, Z; Deng, Z Y; Xie, M Y; Wu, G

    2009-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of ultra-fine Chinese herbal powder as a dietary additive on serum concentrations and apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of amino acids (AA) in young pigs. In Experiment 1, 60 Duroc x Landrace x Yorkshire piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, representing supplementation with 0 or 2 g/kg of the powder, or 0.2 g/kg of colistin (an antibiotic) to corn- and soybean meal-based diets (n = 20 per group). Blood samples from five piglets per group were collected on days 7, 14, and 28 to determine serum AA concentrations. In Experiment 2, 12 barrows with an average initial body weight of 7.64 kg were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments, followed by surgical placement of a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. All of the diets contained 0.1% titanium oxide as a digestibility marker. The samples of terminal ileal digesta were collected on day 7 for determining AID of AA. Results show that dietary supplementation with the herbal powder increased (P < 0.05) serum concentrations and AID of most AA by 10-50% and 10-16%, respectively. As an indicator of improved intestinal function, AID values of calcium were also enhanced in piglets supplemented with the herbal powder. Dietary supplementation of colistin increased serum concentrations and AID values of some AA by 8-44% and 10-15%, respectively, in comparison with the non-supplemented group. These novel findings demonstrate that the herbal powder can enhance the digestibility of dietary protein and the intestinal absorption of AA into the systemic circulation in post-weaning pigs, therefore providing a new mechanism for its growth- and immunity-promoting efficacy. PMID:18763018

  10. Activation of the Ah receptor by extracts of dietary herbal supplements, vegetables, and fruits.

    PubMed

    Jeuken, Anoek; Keser, Bart J G; Khan, Elaine; Brouwer, Abraham; Koeman, Jan; Denison, Michael S

    2003-08-27

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that can be activated by a structurally diverse range of synthetic and natural chemicals, and it mediates the toxic and biological effects of environmental contaminants such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The spectrum of chemicals that bind to and activate the AhR signal transduction pathway and the identity of materials containing AhR active chemicals is only now being defined. Utilizing AhR-dependent gel retardation and reporter gene bioassays, the screening of extracts of 22 dietary herbal supplements and 21 food products (vegetables and fruits) was performed to identify those containing AhR agonists. Several herbal extracts (ginseng, Fo-Ti, white oak bark, licorice, ginkgo biloba, and black cohosh) stimulated AhR DNA binding and gene expression to levels between 20 and 60% of that produced by TCDD. Although some food extracts (corn, jalapeño pepper, green bell pepper, apple, Brussels sprout, and potato) were relatively potent activators of AhR DNA binding (30-50% of TCDD), only corn and jalapeño pepper extracts induced AhR-dependent luciferase reporter gene expression. However, dilution of corn, jalapeño pepper, bell pepper, and potato extracts dramatically increased their ability to induce luciferase activity, suggesting that these extracts contained AhR antagonists whose effectiveness was overcome by dilution. Overall, these results demonstrate that dietary products can be a major source of naturally occurring AhR ligands to which animals and humans are chronically exposed. PMID:12926901

  11. Herbal Supplement Extends Life Span Under Some Environmental Conditions and Boosts Stress Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Villeponteau, Bryant; Matsagas, Kennedy; Nobles, Amber C.; Rizza, Cristina; Horwitz, Marc; Benford, Gregory; Mockett, Robin J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100) that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span. PMID:25879540

  12. Determination of total selenium in pharmaceutical and herbal supplements by hydride generation and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Tasneem G; Kolachi, Nida F; Afridi, Hassan I; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Shah, Faheem

    2014-01-01

    The total selenium (Se) was determined in herbal and pharmaceutical supplements used for liver diseases. The total Se contents were determined in different pharmaceutical and herbal supplements by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The accuracy of the techniques was evaluated by using certified reference material and the standard addition method. The recoveries of total Se were 99.4 and 99.0% for HGAAS and GFAAS, respectively. The precision of the techniques expressed as RSD were 2.34 and 4.54% for HGAAS and GFAAS measurements, respectively. The LOD values for HGAAS and GFAAS were 0.025 and 0.052 pglg, respectively. The concentrations of Se in pharmaceutical and herbal supplements were found in the range of 19.2-53.8 and 25.0-42.5 pg/g, respectively, corresponding to 35-76% and 45-76% of the total recommended dose of Se for adults. PMID:25632445

  13. Herbal Products and Dietary Supplements: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Use, Attitudes, and Knowledge Among the Lebanese Population.

    PubMed

    El Khoury, Ghada; Ramadan, Wijdan; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    There has been a marked increase in use of herbal products and dietary supplements (HP/DS) in many developed and developing countries. However, data about consumption patterns and awareness about these products in the Lebanese population is scarce. The present study aimed to examine the determinants of HP/DS use in Lebanese adults, identify potential interactions and safety concerns and assess the knowledge and attitudes of consumers towards the efficacy and safety of these products. A face-to-face, 28-item survey was administered to Lebanese adults (n = 726) in community pharmacies across the country. Thirty-five percent of participants reported to be currently consuming at least one HP/DS including 23 % who were consuming vitamins and/or mineral supplements and 18 % consuming herbal products. Significant safety concerns were identified among consumers in the form of disease-supplement, drug-supplement as well as supplement-supplement interactions. Logistic multivariate regression analysis indicated that use of supplements was positively associated with the female gender and increasing age. The majority of respondents falsely believed that HP/DS pose no risk to the general population and that they must be safe to be sold in Lebanon. Moreover, most participants were consuming these products based on recommendations from friends or relatives rather than from healthcare professionals. Substantial misconceptions about HP/DS exist among Lebanese adults, indicating a need for consumers' education from professional and reliable sources on the efficacy and safety of such products. PMID:26659604

  14. A Phase II Trial of a Combination Herbal Supplement for Men with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dorff, Tanya B.; Groshen, Susan; Tsao-Wei, Denice D.; Xiong, Shigang; Gross, Mitchell E.; Vogelzang, Nicholas; Quinn, David I.; Pinski, Jacek K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Men with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of prostate cancer are typically observed or treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Non-hormonal, non-toxic treatments to slow the rise of PSA are desirable. We studied a combination herbal supplement, Prostate Health Cocktail (PHC), in prostate cancer cell lines and in a population of men with BCR. Methods PC3, LAPC3, and LNCaP cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of PHC suspension. Men previously treated for prostate cancer with surgery, radiation, or both with rising PSA but no radiographic metastases were treated with 3 capsules of PHC daily; the primary endpoint was 50% PSA decline. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were identified using parylene membrane filters. Results PHC showed a strong dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect in androgen-sensitive and independent cell lines in vitro and suppression of androgen receptor expression. 40 eligible patients were enrolled in the clinical trial. Median baseline PSA was 2.8 ng/mL (1.1-84.1) and 15 men (38%) had a PSA decline on study (1%-55% reduction) ; 25 (62%) had rising PSA on study. The median duration of PSA stability was 6.4 months. Two patients had grade 2/3 transaminitis; the only other grade 2 toxicities were hyperglycemia, hypercalcemia and flatulence. There were no significant changes in testosterone or dihydrotestosterone. CTCs were identified in 19 men (47%). Conclusion Although the primary endpoint was not met, Prostate Health Cocktail was well tolerated and was associated with PSA declines and stabilization in a significant number of patients. This is the first report of detecting CTCs in men with BCR prostate cancer. Randomized studies are needed to better define the effect of PHC in men with BCR. PMID:25245366

  15. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products. PMID:25920234

  16. Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

  17. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  18. The effect of dietary Digestarom® herbal supplementation on rabbit meat fatty acid profile, lipid oxidation and antioxidant content.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, S; Dal Bosco, A; Szendrő, Zs; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Castellini, C; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The experiment tested the effect of Digestarom® herbal supplementation on the antioxidant content, lipid oxidation and fatty acid profile of rabbit meat. At kindling, rabbit does and litters were divided into two dietary groups (N=162 kits/dietary group) and fed either a control diet (C) or the C diet supplemented with Digestarom® (D: 300mg/kg). At weaning (35days) four experimental fattening groups (54 rabbits each) were considered: CC, CD, DC and DD. After slaughtering (12weeks of age), Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were dissected from 20 rabbits/group and analyzed. Rabbit meat of DD group was enriched in essential C18:3 n-3 fatty acid and in other long-chain PUFA of n-3 series. Despite meat of DD group displayed the highest peroxidability index, TBARs value was the lowest. Meat antioxidant content followed the rank order: DD>CD>DC>CC. Digestarom® improved fatty acid composition and oxidative status of rabbit meat, particularly when administered from weaning throughout the growing period. PMID:27351068

  19. Methyl halide production associated with kelp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, Minoo N.; Manley, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    Methyl halides (MeX) are important trace constituents of the atmosphere because they, mostly MeCl, have a major impact on the atmospheric ozone layer. Also, MeCl may account for 5 pct. of the total Cl budget and MeI may have a central role in the biogeochemical cycling of iodine. High MeI concentrations were found in seawater from kelp beds and it has been suggested that MeI is produced by kelps and that MeI and MeBr along with numerous other halocarbons were released by non-kelp marine macroalgae. The objective was to determine if kelps (and other seaweeds) are sources of MeX and to assess their contribution to the estimated global source strength (EGSS) of MeX. Although the production of MeX appears to be associated with kelp, microbes involved with kelp degradation also produce MeX. Microbial MeX production may be of global significance. The microbial MeX production potential, assuming annual kelp production equals kelp degradation and 100 pct. conversion of kelp halides to MeX, is approx. 2 x the EGSS. This is not achieved but indicates that microbial production of MeX may be of global significance.

  20. Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin S

    2009-11-01

    Dietary supplements are widely used for desired effects on memory, insomnia, mood and anxiety. This review focuses on supplements which have anxiolytic or mild relaxation properties and enhance mood. For example, Kava (Piper methysticum) is reported to have anaxiolytic actions and to reduce tension through skeletal muscle relaxation. Dried passion flower (genus Passiflora) is reported to reduce insomnia and hysteria. Skullcap (genus Scutellaria), hops (Humulus lupulus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root are all herbs reported as anaxiolytic calming agents. Further, extracts of Magnolia and Phellondendron bark are mild sedatives. Supplements such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), theanine, tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are reported to promote relaxation. In general, these supplements appear to act as GABA receptor agonists or to boost GABA levels, although Kava inhibits both norephinephrine uptake and sodium and potassium channels and 5-HTP may act through elevation of serotonin. While questions remain in the literature regarding the medicinal value of these supplements in treating mood and anxiety disorders, based on cellular and animal studies as well as human clinical trials the literature supports a role for these preparations as useful alternatives in the management of the stress and anxiety of everyday life. PMID:19865069

  1. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness: a randomized placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We examined the effects of a proprietary herbal/botanical supplement (StemSport, Stemtech, San Clemente, CA.) suggested to increase circulating stem cells, decrease inflammation, and attenuate exercise induced muscle damage on recovery from delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods Sixteen subjects (male = 7, female = 9; age 23.8 ± 10 years; height 171.9 ± 10 cm, mass 72.2 ± 15 kg) were randomized in a crossover, double-blind, placebo controlled trial to receive a placebo or StemSport supplement (6150 mg/day) for 14 days. DOMS was induced on day 7 for both placebo and active conditions in the non-dominant elbow flexor group with repeated eccentric repetitions. Muscle swelling (biceps girth), elbow flexor isometric strength (hand held dynamometer), muscle pain/tenderness (visual analog scale), range of motion (active elbow flexion and extension), and inflammation (hsCRP, IL6, and TNF-α) were measured at baseline and at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 168 h (1 week) post eccentric exercise. The crossover washout period was ≥14 days. Results No significant condition-by-time interactions between placebo and StemSport supplementation were observed with regard to measures of pain (p = 0.59), tenderness (p = 0.71), isometric strength (p = 0.32), elbow flexion (p = 0.45), muscle swelling (p = 0.90), or inflammation (p > 0.90). Decrements in elbow extension range of motion 48 h post-exercise were less after StemSport supplementation (Δ elbow extension 48 h post; StemSport, −2.0 deg; placebo, −10 deg; p = 0.003). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, StemSport supplementation does not improve outcome measures related to muscle recovery after acute upper-arm induced DOMS. PMID:24966805

  2. Menorrhagia: A synopsis of management focusing on herbal and nutritional supplements, and chiropractic.

    PubMed Central

    Livdans-Forret, Anna B.; Harvey, Phyllis J.; Larkin-Thier, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction To make chiropractors more aware of menorrhagia and how they can serve a role in their patient’s care and education since women make up 60% of the population seeking chiropractic care. Method A review of the biomedical literature on menorrhagia was conducted. Items that were retrieved were synthesized and interpreted in order to give the best information to practicing chiropractors. Discussion Most of the information available relative to menorrhagia is medically oriented. Other treatment options can include: chiropractic, various types of herbs, and nutritional supplements. Conclusion Knowledge of medical treatment, nutritional supplements, along with chiropractic treatment options may be beneficial to doctors in their practice. PMID:18060009

  3. [Herbal drugs: from traditional use to regulation].

    PubMed

    Federici, Elena; Multari, Giuseppina; Gallo, Francesca Romana; Palazzino, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    Herbal preparations have been used for centuries as the main therapeutic means. In Italy there is an ancient tradition of using herbal remedies, which became extremely important from the 16th to the 18th century. Nowadays multinational companies invest great resources on herbal drugs and preparations. This article focuses on herbal medicines, herbal products, and food supplements. Moreover the European legislation on traditional medicinal plants and food supplements is analysed and discussed. PMID:16037650

  4. A Review of the Hypoglycemic Effects of Five Commonly Used Herbal Food Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ruitang

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is a pathological condition associated with prediabetes and diabetes. The incidence of prediabetes and diabetes is increasing and imposes great burden on healthcare worldwide. Patients with prediabetes and diabetes have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and other complications. Currently, management of hyperglycemia includes pharmacological interventions, physical exercise, and change of life style and diet. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hyperglycemia, especially for subjects with mild hyperglycemia. This review summarized current patents and patent applications with relevant literature on five commonly used food supplements with claims of hypoglycemic effects, including emblica officinalis (gooseberry), fenugreek, green tea, momordica charantia (bitter melon) and cinnamon. The data from human clinical studies did not support a recommendation for all five supplements to manage hyperglycemia. Fenugreek and composite supplements containing emblica officinalis showed the most consistency in lowering fasting blood sugar (FBS) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in diabetic patients. The hypoglycemic effects of cinnamon and momordica charantia were demonstrated in most of the trials with some exceptions. However, green tea exhibited limited benefits in reducing FBS or HbA1c levels and should not be recommended for managing hyperglycemia. Certain limitations are noticed in a considerable number of clinical studies including small sample size, poor experimental design and considerable variations in participant population, preparation format, daily dose, and treatment duration. Future studies with more defined participants, standardized preparation and dose, and improved trial design and size are warranted. PMID:22329631

  5. Effects of herbal essential oil mixture as a dietary supplement on egg production in quail.

    PubMed

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  6. Effects of Herbal Essential Oil Mixture as a Dietary Supplement on Egg Production in Quail

    PubMed Central

    Çabuk, Metin; Eratak, Serdar; Alçicek, Ahmet; Bozkurt, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and eighty 7-week-old laying quail were fed various diets over a 12-week period. The diets included a control diet (without essential oil mixture (EOM) or antibiotics (ANTs)), a basal diet including EOM (24 mg/kg feed), and a basal diet including an ANT (avilamycin, 10 mg/kg feed). Each treatment comprised 4 replications with 4 cages (15 quail per cage), amounting to 60 quail per treatment group. Diets (in mash form) and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. EOM consisted of 6 different essential oils derived from the following herbs: oregano (Origanum sp.), laurel leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), sage leaf (Salvia triloba L.), myrtle leaf (Myrtus communis), fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare), and citrus peel (Citrus sp.). In comparison with the control diet, adding supplements such as EOM and ANTs to the basal diet increased egg production in quail (P < 0.001). However, egg production was similar between EOM and ANT treatment groups. Moreover, there were no differences between the treatment groups with regard to egg weight. Feed intake was not affected by EOM or ANT supplementation, whereas feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by EOM and ANT supplementation. Thus, we concluded that EOM has beneficial effects as a dietary supplement on egg production and feed conversion ratio. PMID:24587729

  7. 21 CFR 172.365 - Kelp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special... lactating women. The food additive kelp is the dehydrated, ground product prepared from Macrocystis pyrifera... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Kelp. 172.365 Section 172.365 Food and Drugs...

  8. 21 CFR 172.365 - Kelp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special... lactating women. The food additive kelp is the dehydrated, ground product prepared from Macrocystis pyrifera... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Kelp. 172.365 Section 172.365 Food and Drugs...

  9. First identification and quantification of lorcaserin in an herbal slimming dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Rabab; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Gilard, Véronique

    2014-09-01

    The weight-loss drug lorcaserin, a FDA approved anorectic drug, was isolated from the dietary supplement "Lose quickly" claimed to be a pure natural fast slimming diet pill. After its purification by means of preparative liquid chromatography, its structure was characterized using LC-UV, NMR, MS, MS/MS, and IR spectroscopy. The amount of lorcaserin measured by qNMR was 6.6mg/capsule. PMID:24905289

  10. Review of Various Herbal Supplements as Complementary Treatments for Oral Cancer.

    PubMed

    Godsey, Jessie; Grundmann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, nearly 44,000 people are diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer annually. The life expectancy for those who are diagnosed have a survival rate of 57% after five years. Among them, oral cancer can be classified as benign or malignant tumors and is diagnosed at several stages in the development: premalignant conditions, premalignant lesions, and malignant cancer. The early signs of oral cancer often go unnoticed by the individual and are often discovered during routine dental examinations. Early detection and treatment may help to increase patient survival rates. The most widely used treatments for oral cancer include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy-alone or in combination. Preclinical and clinical evidence for the use of green tea, raspberry, asparagus, and cannabis extracts is discussed in this review. Diet changes, supplementation with antioxidants, high-dose vitamin C therapy, and cannabinoid use have been suggested to decrease cancer cell replication and increase chance of remission. Early detection and lifestyle changes, including the use of dietary supplements in at-risk populations, are critical steps in preventing and successfully treating oral cancer. The main evidence for supplement use is currently in cancer prevention rather than treatment. Further research, determination, and mechanism of action for bioactive compounds such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, and Bowman-Birk inhibitor concentrate, through in vitro, in vivo, and clinical trials need to be completed to support the use of natural products and their effectiveness in preventative care and supporting therapeutic approaches. PMID:26863913

  11. Restoration of the immune functions in aged mice by supplementation with a new herbal composition, HemoHIM.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae-Ran; Jo, Sung-Kee; Jung, Uhee; Yee, Sung-Tae

    2008-01-01

    The effect of a new herbal composition, HemoHIM, on immune functions was examined in aged mice, in which various immune responses had been impaired. The composition HemoHIM was prepared by adding the ethanol-insoluble fraction to the total water extract of a mixture of three edible herbs, Angelica Radix, Cnidium Rhizoma and Paeonia Radix. Supplementation to the aged mice with HemoHIM restored the proliferative response and cytokine production of splenocytes with a response to ConA. Also, HemoHIM recovered the NK cell activity which had been impaired in the aged mice. Meanwhile aging is known to reduce the Th1-like function, but not the Th2-like function, resulting in a Th1/Th2 imbalance. HemoHIM restored the Th1/Th2 balance in the aged mice through enhanced IFN-gamma and IgG2a production, and conversely a reduced IL-4 and IgG1 production. It was found that one factor for the Th1/Th2 imbalance in the aged mice was a lower production of IL-12p70. However, HemoHIM restored the IL-12p70 production in the aged mice. These results suggested that HemoHIM was effective for the restoration of impaired immune functions of the aged mice and therefore could be a good recommendation for immune restoration in elderly humans. PMID:17705143

  12. Quantification of aristolochic acids I and II in herbal dietary supplements by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-multistage fragmentation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, selective and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-multistage fragmentation mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS³) method was developed and evaluated for the determination of aristolochic acids I and II (AA I and II) in herbal dietary supplements. A hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion-trap mass spectrometry was used to monitor MS³ ion transitions m/z 359.2 > 298.1 > 268.0 and m/z 329.2 > 268.2 > 238.0 to detect AA I and II, respectively. The extraction and clean-up of target analytes from dry powdered samples was performed using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) procedure. Herbal liquid extracts were analysed directly. Average recoveries ranged from 89% to 112%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3% to 16%. Limits of quantification (LOQs) estimated for three selected matrices were as follows (AA I/II): 5/10 ng g⁻¹ (tablets); 25/50 ng g⁻¹ (capsules); and 2.5/5.0 ng ml⁻¹ (liquid herbal extract). The method was applied in a limited survey of 30 herbal products marketed in the United States via the Internet. AA I and II were detected in 20% and 7%, respectively, of tested samples. PMID:24512293

  13. Trophic versus structural effects of a marine foundation species, giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera).

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Page, Henry M; Reed, Daniel C

    2015-12-01

    Foundation species create milieus in which ecosystems evolve, altering species abundances and distribution often to a dramatic degree. Although much descriptive work supports their importance, there remains little definitive information on the mechanisms by which foundation species alter their environment. These mechanisms fall into two basic categories: provision of food or other materials, and modification of the physical environment. Here, we manipulated the abundance of a marine foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, in 40 × 40-m plots at Mohawk Reef off Santa Barbara, California and found that its biomass had a strong positive effect on the abundance of bottom-dwelling sessile invertebrates. We examined the carbon (C) stable isotope values of seven species of sessile invertebrates in the treatment plots to test the hypothesis that this positive effect resulted from a nutritional supplement of small suspended particles of kelp detritus, as many studies have posited. We found no evidence from stable isotope analyses to support the hypothesis that kelp detritus is an important food source for sessile suspension-feeding invertebrates. The isotope composition of invertebrates varied with species and season, but was not affected by kelp biomass, with the exception of two species: the tunicate Styela montereyensis, which exhibited a slight enrichment in C stable isotope composition with increasing kelp biomass, and the hydroid Aglaophenia sp., which showed the opposite effect. These results suggest that modification of the physical habitat, rather than nutritional subsidy by kelp detritus, likely accounts for increased abundance of sessile invertebrates within giant kelp forests. PMID:26358195

  14. Ancestral reproductive structure in basal kelp Aureophycus aleuticus

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Hanyuda, Takeaki; Ridgway, L. Michelle; Holser, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Laminarialean species (so-called kelps) are the largest photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments, constituting significant ecological components of coastal ecosystems. The largest kelps such as Macrocystis exhibit differentiation between stipe and blade, as well as buoyancy to maintain the distal portion at the water's surface for photosynthesis, while bearing reproductive structures only near the base on special blades (sporophylls). There is a considerable gap between basic kelps such as Chorda and derived kelps, and the evolution of kelp specialization remains unclear. Here we report novel reproductive adaptations in the recently discovered species Aureophycus aleuticus; unlike any known kelps, A. aleuticus forms zoidangia only on the expanded, disc-shaped holdfast. Molecular phylogeny suggests that A. aleuticus is most basal among derived kelps. Because Aureophycus lacks any of the elaborate anatomical structures found in other derived kelps, we suggest that it exhibits some of the most ancestral morphological features of kelps. PMID:23966101

  15. X-ray powder diffractometry and liquid chromatography studies of sibutramine and its analogues content in herbal dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Stypułkowska, K; Błażewicz, A; Maurin, J; Sarna, K; Fijałek, Z

    2011-12-15

    The contemporary societies of the developed countries are prone to use traditional far-east medicines as remedies for all diseases. Some of them, such as obesity, might be classified as civilization diseases. Combating the problem, people try not only several miraculous diets but also herbal infusions (teas) and variety of "herbal" preparations. All these believing that such treatment is healthy and harmless as far as it is "natural". Leaving out of the way the question if herbal medicines can be taken safely without doctors' control the query arises if the common preparations are strictly natural and herbal. Here we report examples of quality studies of such medicines using both X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and liquid chromatography (LC) with various types of detection: ultraviolet (UV), coulometric electrode array (CEAD) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS). Especially the XRPD assisted with an optical microscopy seems to be useful as a fast screening method of general sample composition of such preparations. First of all it can discriminate between capsules containing pure herbal materials and those with some chemical. PMID:21899974

  16. Staphylococcus aureus and Zygosaccharomyces bailii as primary microbial contaminants of a spoiled herbal food supplement and evaluation of their survival during shelf life.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Franca; Gaio, Elena; Torriani, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    This investigation was carried out to identify the microbiota in a spoiled commercial food supplement consisting of a syrup suspension of a mixture of dried herbs and herb extracts. The product did not contain alkyl-p-hydroxybenzoates (parabens) as preservatives, was kept at room temperature and showed abundant gas formation. Colonies of distinct morphology were recovered on bacteria- and yeast-specific media, and tested for their ability to grow in the product. Genetic differentiation and identification of the microbial contaminants were achieved by RAPD-PCR and rDNA sequence analysis. The bacteria Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Paenibacillus humicus, Paenibacillus glycanilyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and the yeasts Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii were detected. Of the two S. aureus strains isolated, one was enterotoxigenic, as indicated by the presence of five SE genes. Quantitative Real-Time PCR tests, specific for this pathogen and for Z. bailii, a microbial agent causing fermentation processes and consequent food spoilage, were carried out to quantify these microorganisms in the product and identify their source among the herbal ingredients and the fructose syrup used as sweetener. Most components appeared to be contaminated by both S. aureus and Z. bailii. These findings indicate the need to improve hygienic practices in the industrial manufacturing of the food supplement, starting with herbal ingredients, to ensure a high quality of the product. PMID:20227600

  17. Effect of an herbal/botanical supplement on strength, balance, and muscle function following 12-weeks of resistance training: a placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background StemSport (SS; StemTech International, Inc. San Clemente, CA) contains a proprietary blend of the botanical Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and several herbal antioxidant and anti-inflammatory substances. SS has been purported to accelerate tissue repair and restore muscle function following resistance exercise. Here, we examine the effects of SS supplementation on strength adaptations resulting from a 12-week resistance training program in healthy young adults. Methods Twenty-four young adults (16 males, 8 females, mean age = 20.5 ± 1.9 years, mass = 70.9 ± 11.9 kg, stature = 176.6 ± 9.9 cm) completed the twelve week training program. The study design was a double-blind, placebo controlled parallel group trial. Subjects either received placebo or StemSport supplement (SS; mg/day) during the training. 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, vertical jump height, balance (star excursion and center of mass excursion), isokinetic strength (elbow and knee flexion/extension) and perception of recovery were measured at baseline and following the 12-week training intervention. Results Resistance training increased 1-RM strength (p < 0.008), vertical jump height (p < 0.03), and isokinetic strength (p < 0.05) in both SS and placebo groups. No significant group-by-time interactions were observed (all p-values >0.10). Conclusions These data suggest that compared to placebo, the SS herbal/botanical supplement did not enhance training induced adaptations to strength, balance, and muscle function above strength training alone. PMID:24910543

  18. Prevalence of herbal and dietary supplement usage in Thai outpatients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few studies of the prevalence and patterns of herbal and dietary supplement (HDS) use in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), although many researchers and health professionals worldwide have raised concern about the potential effects of HDS on patients with renal insufficiency. A survey was conducted to determine: the prevalence and patterns of HDS use in Thai patients with CKD; the demographic factors related to HDS use; the reasons why Thai patients with CKD use HDS; respondent experiences of benefits and adverse effects from HDS; and the association between conventional medication adherence and HDS use. Methods This cross-sectional survey recruited patients with CKD attending two teaching hospitals in Thailand. Data were collected via an interview using a semi-structured interview schedule regarding demographics, HDS usage, reasons for HDS use, and respondent experiences of effects from HDS. Conventional medication adherence was measured using the Thai version of 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the prevalence and the patterns of HDS use. Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression were used to determine any associations between HDS use, demographics and conventional medication adherence. Results Four hundred and twenty-one eligible patients were recruited. The prevalence of HDS use in the previous 12 months was 45%. There were no demographic differences between HDS users and non-users, except former drinkers were less likely to use HDS, compared with non-drinkers (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.75). Those with a medium level of adherence to conventional medication were less likely to use HDS compared with those with a low level of adherence (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.87). Maintaining well-being was most common purpose for using HDS (36%). Nearly 18% used HDS, such as holy mushroom, river spiderwort and boesenbergia, to treat kidney disease. The top three most often reported reasons

  19. Nutritional content and a phase-I safety clinical trial of a herbal-nutritional supplement (IMUNITI) with putative immune-modulating properties.

    PubMed

    Matsabisa, M G; Sekhoacha, M P; Ibrahim, O; Moodley, P; Faber, M

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between HIV and AIDS and poor nutrition has been well established. Poor nutrition hastens the progression of HIV infection to AIDS. The rising pandemic of HIV and AIDS and high toxicity associated with anti-retroviral use are major factors that have compelled research to explore traditional herbal medicines as potential alternatives or supplements to anti-retroviral agents. A Phase I clinical trial was conducted on IMUNITI Wellness Pack, a herbal product with putative immune-modulating properties. The product is a combination of 7 herbal preparations, minerals, vitamins, and a specially formulated soya-maize meal porridge and a bottle of water purifier. The aim was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of IMUNITI, with a purpose of developing it for use in HIV-infected patients. The phase I study was conducted at the MRC clinic in Botha's hill and the study lasted 5 weeks from date of participant dosing. The study was a randomised blinded placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial conducted on 48 healthy males. The participants were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12. The 3 groups received different escalating doses of IMUNITI while the forth group received placebo tablets. Participants consumed IMUNITI daily for a period of 5 weeks. Assessments were done at baseline, week 1 and week 5 to determine the safety parameters in all participants. In this study, IMUNITI did not show any safety concerns. In all study participants, there were no significant changes above the upper limit of the reference ranges of the laboratory tests for full blood count, INR, renal and biochemical safety parameters. IMUNITI was well tolerated. Furthermore, the nutritional content analysis of IMUNITI showed that it is a high kilojoule, high protein content product which contains a mixture of sugars, vitamins, traces of calcium, phosphorus and minerals. PMID:23983351

  20. 21 CFR 172.365 - Kelp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Kelp. 172.365 Section 172.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED... children 4 or more years of age, and 300 micrograms for pregnant or lactating women. The food additive...

  1. Effect of pre- and post-weaning dietary supplementation with Digestarom® herbal formulation on rabbit carcass traits and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Celia, C; Cullere, M; Gerencsér, Zs; Matics, Zs; Tasoniero, G; Dal Bosco, A; Giaccone, V; Szendrő, Zs; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated effects of Digestarom® (D) dietary inclusion before weaning (0-5weeks old; BW) and/or after weaning (5-12weeks old; AW) on growing rabbit carcass traits and meat quality. During BW, Pannon-Ka rabbits (does, kits) received two diets: a control diet (C) and one supplemented with 300mg Digestarom®/kg (D). At weaning, each group was divided into 3 dietary sub-groups: CC and DD received C and D diets from 5 to 12weeks of age, whereas DC was fed D from 5 to 8weeks and C from 8 to 12weeks of age (54 rabbits/group; AW). Rabbits were slaughtered at 12weeks of age. Digestarom® supplementation improved carcass yield and body mid part proportion only when administered BW. Rabbits fed D BW had higher hind leg meat cooking losses. Loin meat spiciness and rancidity increased with D both BW and AW. In conclusion, Digestarom(®) herbal formulation was ineffective in improving growing rabbit carcass traits or meat quality. PMID:27062101

  2. Radioiodine in kelp from western Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, K.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Wood, W.; Smith, C.

    1987-03-25

    As part of a program to survey low levels of radioactivity in the marine environment of the southern hemisphere, we have studied the distribution and uptake of /sup 131/I found in the subtidal kelp Ecklonia radiata, on the west coast of Australia. Concentrations of 5 to 75 fCi/g of /sup 131/I exist in this species over a considerable distance along the coast. We have characterized the principal source of the /sup 131/I and found a general temporal correlation between the amount of radioiodine discharged from sewer outfalls and its concentration in kelp. Transplant experiments have enabled us to estimate uptake and depuration rates, and our results are consistent with laboratory measurements made by others.

  3. Phenological decoupling of mortality from wave forcing in kelp beds.

    PubMed

    De Bettignies, Thibaut; Wernberg, Thomas; Lavery, Paul S; Vanderklift, Mathew A; Gunson, Jim R; Symonds, Graham; Collier, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Kelps often live in a harsh hydrodynamic environment where wave-driven dislodgement of individuals can alter the biodiversity and functioning of reef systems, and increase production in coastal ecosystems adjacent to reefs. The current paradigm is that winter storms tear kelps from reefs once hydrodynamic forces exceed attachment or tissue strength--a threshold response that implies a pulsed relationship between wave forces and dislodgement. Here, we challenge this understanding by showing how kelp phenology can decouple susceptibility to dislodgement from seasonal patterns in wave forces. We measured kelp dislodgement rates and hydrodynamic forces at nine subtidal reefs over two years (n = 4320 kelps tagged and monitored). Contrary to expectation, we found relatively low and constant dislodgement rates for all reefs (13% +/- 6% [mean per season +/- SD]) in spite of a strong temporal pattern in wave action and extreme water velocities (winter peaks up to 3-4 m/s). A biomechanical model, based on the balance between kelp attachment strength and hydrodynamic drag, demonstrated that severe reduction in individual kelp size toward winter (>50% decrease in biomass for all sites) minimized drag and made the kelps less susceptible to high water velocities, allowing individuals to survive storm velocities over 3-4 m/s. We conclude that the timing of reduced susceptibility to disturbance, through the seasonal reduction of individual kelp biomass that coincides with times of highest water velocities is critical to the dynamics of kelp dislodgement and survival. We propose that phenological processes maintain many kelp beds in a higher degree of population stability and equilibrium with hydrodynamic forces than previously believed. PMID:26236880

  4. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  5. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective when taken with St. John’s Wort, an herbal supplement. Depending on the medication involved, the results OMCvoeeurd- ... a prescrip- tion blood thinner), ginkgo biloba (an herbal supplement), aspirin and vita- min E (a supplement) can ...

  6. Kelp meal (Ascophyllum nodosum) did not improve milk yield or mitigate heat stress but increased milk iodine in mid lactation organic Jersey cows during the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kelp meal (KM) made from dry and ground Ascophyllum nodosum, a brown algae, is often used as a mineral supplement on northeastern organic dairy farms. Twenty (12 primiparous and 8 multiparous) organic Jersey cows with an initial BW of 410 kg (SD ± 39) and DIM of 135 (SD ± 52) were blocked by milk yi...

  7. Supplementation of herbal plants differently modulated metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative stress in transition dairy cows fed various extruded oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Riasi, A; Taghizadeh, A; Zebeli, Q

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a mixture of herbal plants (HM) and two sources of unsaturated fatty acids (FA), extruded linseed (LS) and soybean (SB), on metabolic profile, insulin sensitivity, and oxidative status of transition dairy cows. Thirty-two prepartum Holstein cows, blocked by parity and calving day, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments, in a 2×2 factorial design, starting from 25 days before the expected calving date to 26 days postpartum. The supplementation rates of HM were 150 and 170 g/animal/day at pre- and postpartum, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed for metabolites on day 7.15±1.70 prepartum and on days 1 and 21 postpartum. An intravenous glucose tolerance test (IV-GTT) was conducted on day 25 postpartum. Data showed that cows supplemented with HM had lower serum concentration of NEFA (0.395 vs. 0.602±0.044 mmol/L; P<0.01) and NEFA to insulin ratio (P<0.01) postpartum. Compared to animals fed SB-based diets, cows fed the LS-based diet had greater serum glucose concentration during prepartum (80.7 vs. 71.3±3.32 mg/dL; P=0.06) and postpartum period (86.3 vs. 73.5±3.35 mg/dL; P=0.01), as well as lower NEFA (0.425 vs. 0.572±0.044 mmol/L; P=0.03) and insulin to glucose ratio (P<0.01) postpartum. Revised quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index revealed that supplementing HM in LS-based diet improved insulin sensitivity (0.45 vs. 0.41±0.013; P=0.03) prepartum, whereas after parturition, the HM addition was effective for both oil seeds (0.40 vs. 0.37±0.008; P=0.06) in enhancing insulin sensitivity. Result of IV-GTT indicated that cows fed LS-based diets had higher basal glucose concentration (63.7 vs. 55.7±2.37; mg/dL; P=0.02) and lower glucose area under the curve (995.8 vs. 1529.5±100.7; mg/dL×45 min; P<0.01). Supplementing HM resulted in greater total antioxidant capacity prepartum (0.55 vs. 0.48±0.017 nmol/L; P=0.01) and lower malondialdehyde concentration at prepartum (1.03 vs. 1.96±0.140 μmol/L; P<0.01) and

  8. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    An herb is a plant or plant part used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are ... go through the testing that drugs do. Some herbs, such as comfrey and ephedra, can cause serious ...

  9. Proton NMR for detection, identification and quantification of adulterants in 160 herbal food supplements marketed for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Hachem, Rabab; Assemat, Gaëtan; Martins, Nathalie; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2016-05-30

    One hundred and sixty food supplements (FS) marketed for weight loss and mainly purchased on the Internet were analyzed. All the FS were claimed as 100% natural containing only natural compounds, plant extracts and/or vitamins and the presence of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was never mentioned. (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used for detecting the presence of adulterants and for their identification and quantification. Mass spectrometry was used as a complementary method for supporting their identification. Among the 164 samples considered because capsules from 5 different blisters of the same FS were analyzed, 56% were tainted with six API. Forty three contained sibutramine as single adulterant (26%), 9 phenolphthalein (6%) and 23 a mixture of these API (14%) that were both withdrawn from the market several years ago because of toxicity concerns. Sildenafil was found in 12 samples, either as a single adulterant (n=5) or in combination with sibutramine (n=3), phenolphthalein (n=3) and both sibutramine and phenolphthalein (n=1). Fluoxetine was present in 4 formulations, alone (n=3) or in combination with sibutramine and orlistat (n=1). At last, lorcaserine was detected in one FS. The content of sibutramine per dosage unit was comprised between 0.1 and 22 mg and that of phenolphthalein between 0.05 and 56 mg. The study also highlights poor manufacturing practices as evidenced for instance by the variability of API in capsules from different blisters of the same box. This paper demonstrates the need for more effective quality control of weight loss FS and the efficiency of (1)H NMR spectroscopy for the detection of tainted FS. PMID:26928212

  10. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... not been able to prove that dietary or herbal supplements (including omega-3 supplements, cinnamon, and other herbs) ... of people with diabetes used some type of herbal therapy , while another study found that 31 percent used dietary supplements . Certain ethnic groups, such as Hispanics, Native Americans, ...

  11. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  12. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  13. Targeted analysis of multiple pharmaceuticals, plant toxins and other secondary metabolites in herbal dietary supplements by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbital ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vaclavik, Lukas; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Rader, Jeanne I

    2014-01-31

    In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbital ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-orbitrap MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of 96 pharmaceuticals, plant toxins, and other plant secondary metabolites in herbal dietary supplements. Target analytes were extracted from samples using the QuEChERS (quick easy cheap effective rugged safe) procedure. The instrument was operated in full MS-data dependent tandem mass spectrometry (full MS-dd-MS/MS) acquisition mode which enabled collection of quantitative high resolution (HR) full mass spectral data and confirmatory HR MS/MS data in a single run. The method provided excellent selectivity in both full MS and dd-MS/MS mode. Under optimized collision energy settings, product ion spectra containing both precursor and two or more product ions were obtained for most of the analytes. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) for the method differed significantly for the examined matrices. LODs≤10μg kg(-1) and LOQs≤50μg kg(-1) were obtained for 48 to 81% of target compounds across five different matrices. With the exception of highly polar analytes, the optimized QuEChERS extraction procedure provided acceptable recoveries in the range 70%-120%. The precision of the method, characterized as the relative standard deviation (RSD, n=5), was ≤25% and ≤18% at spiking concentrations of 50μg kg(-1) and 500μg kg(-1), respectively. Because of variations in matrix effects in extracts of herbal dietary supplements that differed in composition, the method of standard additions and an approach based on dilution of matrix components followed by quantification using solvent standards were applied for quantification. The procedure was used to examine commercial dietary supplements for the 96 analytes of interest. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an integrated analysis and quantification of this wide range of compounds

  14. Climate driven changes in subtidal kelp forest communities in NW Spain.

    PubMed

    Voerman, Sofie E; Llera, Eva; Rico, José M

    2013-09-01

    Reconstructions suggest a massive decline of nearly 1400 ha of kelp forest in North Western Spain in 2007. In line with global rising temperatures, we hypothesized that Sea Surface Temperature (SST) surpassed a lethal threshold for kelp. We examined whether changes in SST correlated to the proposed decline in kelp forest. All investigated SST characteristics suggested to affect kelp abundance increased significantly during the past thirty years, reaching extreme values during the last decade. In addition over the past two decades, the landscape formerly dominated by both cold and warm temperate canopy forming and understory species changed to one dominated by warm temperate understory species, resulting in a loss of vertical community structure. Fisheries landing data of kelp associated species was used to support the suggested change in kelp abundance. Subsequent recovery of the kelp appears to be occurring in deeper waters. PMID:23948150

  15. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on ... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ...

  16. Rope culture of the kelp Laminaria groenlandica in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.J.; Calvin, N.I.

    1981-02-01

    This paper is an account of rope culture of the brown seaweed or kelp, Laminaria groenlandica, in Alaska. It describes the placement of the ropes, time of first appearance of young L. groenlandica, size of the plants at various ages, and other life history features applicable to the use of rope for the culture of seaweeds in Alaska. (Refs. 3).

  17. Convergent evolution of vascular optimization in kelp (Laminariales).

    PubMed

    Drobnitch, Sarah Tepler; Jensen, Kaare H; Prentice, Paige; Pittermann, Jarmila

    2015-10-01

    Terrestrial plants and mammals, although separated by a great evolutionary distance, have each arrived at a highly conserved body plan in which universal allometric scaling relationships govern the anatomy of vascular networks and key functional metabolic traits. The universality of allometric scaling suggests that these phyla have each evolved an 'optimal' transport strategy that has been overwhelmingly adopted by extant species. To truly evaluate the dominance and universality of vascular optimization, however, it is critical to examine other, lesser-known, vascularized phyla. The brown algae (Phaeophyceae) are one such group--as distantly related to plants as mammals, they have convergently evolved a plant-like body plan and a specialized phloem-like transport network. To evaluate possible scaling and optimization in the kelp vascular system, we developed a model of optimized transport anatomy and tested it with measurements of the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, which is among the largest and most successful of macroalgae. We also evaluated three classical allometric relationships pertaining to plant vascular tissues with a diverse sampling of kelp species. Macrocystis pyrifera displays strong scaling relationships between all tested vascular parameters and agrees with our model; other species within the Laminariales display weak or inconsistent vascular allometries. The lack of universal scaling in the kelps and the presence of optimized transport anatomy in M. pyrifera raises important questions about the evolution of optimization and the possible competitive advantage conferred by optimized vascular systems to multicellular phyla. PMID:26423844

  18. Should You Take Dietary Supplements?

    MedlinePlus

    ... study. These include glucosamine (for joint pain) and herbal supplements such as echinacea (immune health) and flaxseed oil ( ... be fine,” Coates says. “According to the FDA, supplement products most likely ... ingredients are herbal remedies promoted for weight loss and for sexual ...

  19. Utilization and Safety of Common Over-the-Counter Dietary/Nutritional Supplements, Herbal Agents, and Homeopathic Compounds for Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Ruchir; Salvo, Marissa C

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplements are commonly used by patients as part of their medical care plan. Often clinicians may not be aware of their use, because patients do not always consider these to be medications. All clinicians need to continually ask patients about their use of dietary supplements when collecting a medication history. Dietary supplements and prescription medications often share similar enzymatic pathways for their metabolism. These interactions may lead to severe adverse reactions. This article reviews available evidence for a variety of dietary supplements in select disease categories. PMID:27542428

  20. Korean mistletoe enriched diet enhances innate immune response in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against Philasterides dicentrarchi.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-12-29

    The present study investigated the immunostimulatory effect of Korean mistletoe Viscum album extract (KM-E) on innate immune response in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus against Philasterides dicentrarchi. Kelp grouper were divided into four groups of 25 each and fed with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% enriched diets with Korean mistletoe extract (KM-E). After feeding for 30 days, the fish were injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 100 μl of P. dicentrarchi (4.2 × 10(7)ciliates/ml) to study the immune responses at weeks 1, 2, and 4. The respiratory burst activity did not significantly enhance when fed with 0.5% and 1.0% supplementation diets on week 1 when compared to control diet. On weeks 2 and 4, the respiratory burst activity significantly increased with 1.0% and 2.0% diets. The phagocytic activity significantly enhanced with 1.0% and 2.0% diets, but not with 0.5% diet at any time. When fed with 1.0% KM-E-diet the lysozyme activity did not significantly vary at any week whereas with 1.0% and 2.0% diets it was significantly enhanced. The total protein level significantly increased with 1.0% and 2.0% KM-E-diets from weeks 1 to 4 as compared to control. The present study suggests that 1.0% or 2.0% KM-E-supplementation diet positively enhances the innate immune response in E. bruneus against P. dicentrarchi infection. PMID:21807463

  1. Planctomycetes dominate biofilms on surfaces of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bacteria belonging to Planctomycetes display several unique morphological and genetic features and are found in a wide variety of habitats on earth. Their ecological roles in these habitats are still poorly understood. Planctomycetes have previously been detected throughout the year on surfaces of the kelp Laminaria hyperborea from southwestern Norway. We aimed to make a detailed investigation of the abundance and phylogenetic diversity of planctomycetes inhabiting these kelp surfaces. Results Planctomycetes accounted for 51-53% of the bacterial biofilm cells in July and September and 24% in February according to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results. Several separate planctomycetes lineages within Pirellulae, Planctomyces and OM190 were represented in 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and the most abundant clones belonged to yet uncultured lineages. In contrast to the abundance, the diversity of the planctomycete populations increased from July to February and was probably influenced by the aging of the kelp tissue. One planctomycete strain that was closely related to Rhodopirellula baltica was isolated using selective cultivation techniques. Conclusions Biofilms on surfaces of L. hyperborea display an even higher proportion of planctomycetes compared to other investigated planctomycete-rich habitats such as open water, sandy sediments and peat bogs. The findings agree well with the hypothesis of the role of planctomycetes as degraders of sulfated polymeric carbon in the marine environment as kelps produce such substances. In addition, the abundant planctomycete populations on kelp surfaces and in association with other eukaryotes suggest that coexistence with eukaryotes may be a key feature of many planctomycete lifestyles. PMID:20950420

  2. The unexpected response of kelp to wave motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullarney, J. C.; Pilditch, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Kelp ecosystems offer many ecosystem services such as providing critical habitat for numerous species, trapping contaminants and nutrients and influencing coastal morphology. However, the extent to which kelp 'goes with the flow' as opposed to dissipating wave and current energy is unclear. We present innovative measurements of the wave-forced motion of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera at different heights along the length of the stipe using a series of accelerometers attached at fixed intervals. Observations were taken at the Aramoana breakwater ("the Mole"), located at the entrance to Otago Harbor, New Zealand. This field site encompassed a wave-exposed region open to Pacific swells and a sheltered (harbor) region. Analysis of wave gauge measurements revealed that forcing was dominated by the swell frequency (0.11 Hz). However, the spectra also indicated periods of substantial energy at lower, infragravity wave frequencies (0.011 Hz). Preliminary analysis of the accelerometer data shows significant differences in displacement over the stem length, with large motions apparent at both the top and bottom of the kelp (consistent with visual observations from divers). Initial observations also revealed an unexpected result; different sections of the kelp responded most strongly to different forcing frequencies. In particular, the lowest sensor showed peaks in energy close to both swell and infragravity periods, whereas the higher sensor revealed the surprising result of a strong response at the infragravity frequencies but little movement at the swell frequencies. We discuss how these results may allow us to determine the extent to which aquatic plants are adapted to minimize stresses imposed by fluid flow and potential consequences for present and future plant community distributions.

  3. Indirect effects of sea otters on rockfish (Sebastes spp.) in giant kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Markel, Russell W; Shurin, Jonathan B

    2015-11-01

    Sea otters are a classic example of a predator controlling ecosystem productivity through cascading effects on basal, habitat-forming kelp species. However, their indirect effects on other kelp-associated taxa like fishes are poorly understood. We examined the effects of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) reintroduction along the west coast of Vancouver Island, Canada on giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) distributions and the trophic niches and growth of two common kelp forest fishes, black (Sebastes melanops) and copper (S. caurinus) rockfishes. We sampled 47 kelp forests, and found that red sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus franciscanus) were eliminated in the presence of otters, and that kelp forests were 3.7 times deeper and 18.8 times larger. Despite order-of-magnitude differences in kelp forest size, adult black and copper rockfishes contained less kelp-derived carbon in their tissues (as measured by stable isotopes of C and N) in regions with otters. Adults of both species had higher mean trophic positions in the presence of otters, indicating more frequent consumption of higher trophic level prey such as fishes. Smaller trophic niche space of rockfishes in the presence of otters indicated a higher degree of trophic specialization. Juvenile black rockfishes rapidly shifted to higher kelp-carbon contents, trophic positions, and body condition factors after settling in kelp forests. The relationships of growth to length, percentage of kelp carbon, and trophic position varied between the two regions, indicating that potential effects of kelp forest size on trophic ontogeny may also affect individual performance. Our results provide evidence that the indirect effects of otters on rockfishes arise largely through the creation of habitat for fishes and other prey rather than a direct trophic connection through invertebrates or other consumers of kelp productivity. PMID:27070008

  4. Alternative Medicine and Herbal Use among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan K.; Blanchard, Anita

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and herbal supplement use among university students. They investigated demographic factors, trait affectivity, symptom reports, and individuals' worries about modernity as potential contributors to use of CAM and herbals. The authors surveyed 506…

  5. Kelp, cobbles, and currents: biological reduction of coarse sediment entrainment stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masteller, C.; Finnegan, N. J.; Miller, I. M.; Warrick, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Kelp forests support diverse assemblages of organisms and grow along many rocky coastlines. Since the flow of water through kelp forests controls the transport and fate of nutrients in near shore environments, the hydrodynamics of kelp forests are well studied. In addition, a number of studies have observed transport of large grains attached to seaweed and/or kelp holdfasts. Such observations suggest that the biology colonizing the littoral zone may fundamentally influence coarse sediment transport processes. In this contribution, we set out to quantify the effect of kelp on near shore, current driven coarse sediment transport. By exploiting an existing model for kelp hydrodynamics, we build a physical model for incipient motion of a coarse grain coupled to a kelp frond under a unidirectional current. This model accounts for the additional buoyant, drag, and tensional forces transmitted from a kelp frond to the attached sediment. Application of the model demonstrates that the large surface area of kelp results in an increase in drag force, while the pull of the buoyant kelp frond reduces friction on the grain. Further, as the fluid flows over the kelp frond, it will 'go with the flow', stretching, and applying a tensional stress. Together, these effects significantly reduce the threshold stress for the initiation of motion. Thus kelp-assisted transport can occur at reduced fluid velocities where coarse sediment transport would otherwise be impossible. In addition, the results of this study provide an example of a system where biology must be explicitly accounted for in order to model coarse sediment transport accurately.

  6. The effects of commercial preparations of herbal supplements commonly used by women on the biotransformation of fluorogenic substrates by human cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shirley H Y; Singh, Mohini; Holloway, Alison C; Crankshaw, Denis J

    2011-07-01

    The study set out to determine the potential for commercially available preparations of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa), chaste tree berry (Vitex agnus-castus), crampbark (Viburnum opulus) and false unicorn (Chamaelirium luteum) to inhibit the major human drug metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 as well as CYP1A1 which activates some carcinogens. In vitro microplate-based assays using cDNA-expressed CYP450 isoforms and fluorogenic substrates were used. Components of the commercial herbal preparations interfered with the assays and limited the concentration ranges that could be tested. Nevertheless, the fluorogenic assays were robust, reproducible and easy to perform and thus are still useful for initial screening for potential herb-drug interactions. None of the preparations affected CYPs 1A1 or 2C9 at the concentrations tested but all preparations inhibited some of the enzymes with potencies around 1 μg/mL. The three most potent interactions were: chaste tree berry and CYP2C19 (IC₅₀) 0.22 μg/mL); chaste tree berry and CYP3A4 (IC₅₀) 0.3 μg/mL); black cohosh and CYP2C19 (IC₅₀) 0.37 μg/mL,). Thus, the study successfully identified the potential for the commercial herbal preparations to inhibit human drug metabolizing enzymes. Whether this potential translates into clinically significant herb-drug interactions can only be confirmed by appropriate in vivo studies. PMID:21213356

  7. Effects of kelp forest removal on associated fish assemblages in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bodkin, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Visual surveys along subtidal belt transects were used to compare fish assemblages on an experimental and a control site before and after the removal of a canopy-forming kelp forest. The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C.A. Agardh was removed at the holdfast from approximately equals 1 ha of high relief structurally complex rock substratum. The abundance of seven species of fish, of which five were considered midwater species, significantly declined after the kelp was removed. Results indicate that the presence of a giant kelp forest may increase the abundance and species diversity of the fish assemblages over a high relief rocky reef in central California, U.S.A.

  8. Deep-water kelp refugia as potential hotspots of tropical marine diversity and productivity.

    PubMed

    Graham, Michael H; Kinlan, Brian P; Druehl, Louis D; Garske, Lauren E; Banks, Stuart

    2007-10-16

    Classic marine ecological paradigms view kelp forests as inherently temperate-boreal phenomena replaced by coral reefs in tropical waters. These paradigms hinge on the notion that tropical surface waters are too warm and nutrient-depleted to support kelp productivity and survival. We present a synthetic oceanographic and ecophysiological model that accurately identifies all known kelp populations and, by using the same criteria, predicts the existence of >23,500 km(2) unexplored submerged (30- to 200-m depth) tropical kelp habitats. Predicted tropical kelp habitats were most probable in regions where bathymetry and upwelling resulted in mixed-layer shoaling above the depth of minimum annual irradiance dose for kelp survival. Using model predictions, we discovered extensive new deep-water Eisenia galapagensis populations in the Galápagos that increased in abundance with increasing depth to >60 m, complete with cold-water flora and fauna of temperate affinities. The predictability of deep-water kelp habitat and the discovery of expansive deep-water Galápagos kelp forests validate the extent of deep-water tropical kelp refugia, with potential implications for regional productivity and biodiversity, tropical food web ecology, and understanding of the resilience of tropical marine systems to climate change. PMID:17913882

  9. Kelp forest size alters microbial community structure and function on Vancouver Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Clasen, J L; Shurin, J B

    2015-03-01

    Bacteria are ubiquitous and important components of marine ecosystems, yet the interaction between bacteria and higher trophic levels remain poorly understood. The trophic cascade involving sea otters, urchins, and kelp in the North Pacific is a classic case of altered ecosystem states; however, its impacts on microbial communities are unknown. We investigated the response of microbial communities to variation in kelp abundance between regions with and without sea otter populations along the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. We compared bacterial community structure and function between regions with large and small kelp forests, including an subset of the bacterial community that produces alginate lyase, which allows direct utilization of kelp carbon. The abundance and activity of alginate-lyase-producing bacteria were 3.2 and 1.4 times higher, respectively, in the region with large kelp forests, and declined rapidly with increasing distance from kelp. Total bacterial abundance was 2.7 times greater, and bacteria grew faster and experienced more zooplankton grazing and viral-mediated mortality in the presence of large kelp forests. These patterns suggest that larger kelp forests produce more detritus and dissolved organic matter, which stimulate microbial activity. Our results indicate that variation in kelp forest size alters the community structure and productivity of microbes and contributes to the growing evidence that top predators interact with microbes and ecosystem processes through a cascade of indirect effects. PMID:26236881

  10. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. PMID:26152912

  11. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

  12. Threats and knowledge gaps for ecosystem services provided by kelp forests: a northeast Atlantic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Smale, Dan A; Burrows, Michael T; Moore, Pippa; O'Connor, Nessa; Hawkins, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Kelp forests along temperate and polar coastlines represent some of most diverse and productive habitats on the Earth. Here, we synthesize information from >60 years of research on the structure and functioning of kelp forest habitats in European waters, with particular emphasis on the coasts of UK and Ireland, which represents an important biogeographic transition zone that is subjected to multiple threats and stressors. We collated existing data on kelp distribution and abundance and reanalyzed these data to describe the structure of kelp forests along a spatial gradient spanning more than 10° of latitude. We then examined ecological goods and services provided by kelp forests, including elevated secondary production, nutrient cycling, energy capture and flow, coastal defense, direct applications, and biodiversity repositories, before discussing current and future threats posed to kelp forests and identifying key knowledge gaps. Recent evidence unequivocally demonstrates that the structure of kelp forests in the NE Atlantic is changing in response to climate- and non-climate-related stressors, which will have major implications for the structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems. However, kelp-dominated habitats along much of the NE Atlantic coastline have been chronically understudied over recent decades in comparison with other regions such as Australasia and North America. The paucity of field-based research currently impedes our ability to conserve and manage these important ecosystems. Targeted observational and experimental research conducted over large spatial and temporal scales is urgently needed to address these knowledge gaps. PMID:24198956

  13. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  14. Evolutionary consequences of food chain length in kelp forest communities.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, P D; Estes, J A; Winter, F C

    1995-01-01

    Kelp forests are strongly influenced by macroinvertebrate grazing on fleshy macroalgae. In the North Pacific Ocean, sea otter predation on macroinvertebrates substantially reduces the intensity of herbivory on macroalgae. Temperate Australasia, in contrast, has no known predator of comparable influence. These ecological and biogeographic patterns led us to predict that (i) the intensity of herbivory should be greater in temperate Australasia than in the North Pacific Ocean; thus (ii) Australasian seaweeds have been under stronger selection to evolve chemical defenses and (iii) Australasian herbivores have been more strongly selected to tolerate these compounds. We tested these predictions first by measuring rates of algal tissue loss to herbivory at several locations in Australasian and North Pacific kelp forests. There were significant differences in grazing rates among sea otter-dominated locations in the North Pacific (0-2% day-1), Australasia (5-7% day-1), and a North Pacific location lacking sea otters (80% day-1). The expectations that chronically high rates of herbivory in Australasia have selected for high concentrations of defensive secondary metabolites (phlorotannins) in brown algae and increased tolerance of these defenses in the herbivores also were supported. Phlorotannin concentrations in kelps and fucoids from Australasia were, on average, 5-6 times higher than those in a comparable suite of North Pacific algae, confirming earlier findings. Furthermore, feeding rates of Australasian herbivores were largely unaffected by phlorotannins, regardless of the compounds' regional source. North Pacific herbivores, in contrast, were consistently deterred by phlorotannins from both Australasia and the North Pacific. These findings suggest that top-level consumers, acting through food chains of various lengths, can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of plantherbivore interactions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:11607573

  15. Decline in Kelp in West Europe and Climate

    PubMed Central

    Raybaud, Virginie; Beaugrand, Grégory; Goberville, Eric; Delebecq, Gaspard; Destombe, Christophe; Valero, Myriam; Davoult, Dominique; Morin, Pascal; Gevaert, François

    2013-01-01

    Kelp ecosystems form widespread underwater forests playing a major role in structuring the biodiversity at a regional scale. Some seaweeds such as Laminaria digitata are also economically important, being exploited for their alginate and iodine content. Although some studies have shown that kelp ecosystems are regressing and that multiple causes are likely to be at the origin of the disappearance of certain populations, the extent to which global climate change may play a role remains speculative. Here we show that many populations of L. digitata along European coasts are on the verge of local extinction due to a climate-caused increase in sea temperature. By modeling the spatial distribution of the seaweed, we evaluate the possible implications of global climate change for the geographical patterns of the species using temperature data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Projections of the future range of L. digitata throughout the 21st century show large shifts in the suitable habitat of the kelp and a northward retreat of the southern limit of its current geographic distribution from France to Danish coasts and the southern regions of the United Kingdom. However, these projections depend on the intensity of warming. A medium to high warming is expected to lead to the extirpation of the species as early as the first half of the 21st century and there is high confidence that regional extinction will spread northwards by the end of this century. These changes are likely to cause the decline of species whose life cycle is closely dependent upon L. digitata and lead to the establishment of new ecosystems with lower ecological and economic values. PMID:23840397

  16. Noise-Dependent Fish Distribution in Kelp Beds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuguang; Guo, Hongy; Wang, Zhenhua; Pan, Yingjie; Song, Jiakun

    2016-01-01

    The marine marbled rockfish Sebastiscus marmoratus is dependent on kelp beds and rocks for survival and reproduction. We found that sound production and hearing sensitivity in S. marmoratus are closely matched in the frequency domain. We also found that the juvenile rockfish prefers the habitat of the larger macroalgae Sargassum horueri rather than the habitat containing the smaller algae Ulva pertusa where the adult rockfish prefers to live. Our underwater noise recording data from these two habitats indicate that their spectra of the background noise have different values. The results suggest that the acoustic cues may be critical for pelagic larvae when selecting the preferential habitat in which to settle. PMID:26611095

  17. Common herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Turkoski, B B

    2000-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

  18. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Baby; Kumar, Gopal; Kalam, Nazia; Ansari, Shahid H

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. PMID:23662276

  19. Current concepts and prospects of herbal nutraceutical: A review

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Baby; Kumar, Gopal; Kalam, Nazia; Ansari, Shahid H.

    2013-01-01

    Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides medical or health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. Nutraceutical has advantage over the medicine because they avoid side effect, have naturally dietary supplement, etc. Nutraceutical; on the basis of their natural source, chemical grouping, categories into three key terms -nutrients, herbals, dietary supplements, dietary fiber, etc. The most rapidly growing segments of the industry were dietary supplements (19.5 percent per year) and natural/herbal products (11.6 percent per year). Global nutraceutical market is estimated as USD 117 billion. FDA regulated dietary supplements as foods to ensure that they were safe. In 2006, the Indian government passed Food Safety and Standard Act to regulate the nutraceutical industry. Herbal nutraceutical is used as a powerful instrument in maintaining health and to act against nutritionally induced acute and chronic diseases, thereby promoting optimal health, longevity, and quality of life. PMID:23662276

  20. Bio-fuel extracted from kelp and its environmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, H.

    2009-12-01

    Due to the emissions of carbon dioxide caused by excessive combustion of the fossil fuels, the deterioration of global environment is keeping worse. Nowadays, to find a new alternative bio-energy has become a global goal. Kelp is a large seaweed that contains rich carbohydrate, which distributed widely in coastal water. In this research, through microbial fermentation process, part of the carbohydrate in the kelp can be turned into ethanol. To control the temperature of 30-35, pH=6-7 and fermentation time for 6-7 days, the largest ethanol production rate is gotten. After the fermentation process, the remnant could be turned into methane through the secondary fermentation process under the temperature conditions of 40-45 and pH=6-7. There are the high concentrations of iodine and rich organic matter and minerals in the residues, which can be used to produce organic fertilizer of iodine by combined with low-grade diatomaceous earth. It is not only open up a new way of developing algae bio-energy, but also has profound environmental significance to zero emissions of carbon dioxide.

  1. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M; Williams, Stefan B; Babcock, Russell C; Barrett, Neville S; Johnson, Craig R; Jordan, Alan; Kendrick, Gary A; Pizarro, Oscar R; Smale, Dan A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km) and depths (15-60 m) across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth) and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves. PMID:25693066

  2. Large-Scale Geographic Variation in Distribution and Abundance of Australian Deep-Water Kelp Forests

    PubMed Central

    Marzinelli, Ezequiel M.; Williams, Stefan B.; Babcock, Russell C.; Barrett, Neville S.; Johnson, Craig R.; Jordan, Alan; Kendrick, Gary A.; Pizarro, Oscar R.; Smale, Dan A.; Steinberg, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) facility of Australia’s Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10–100 m to 100–1,000 km) and depths (15–60 m) across several regions ca 2–6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth) and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40–50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves. PMID:25693066

  3. Evaluation of the in vitro/in vivo potential of five berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) commonly used as herbal supplements to inhibit uridine diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eu Jin; Park, Jung Bae; Yoon, Kee Dong; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated inhibitory potentials of popularly-consumed berries (bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, elderberry, and raspberry ketones) as herbal supplements on UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 in vitro. We also investigated the potential herb-drug interaction via UGT1A1 inhibition by blueberry in vivo. We demonstrated that these berries had only weak inhibitory effects on the five UGTs. Bilberry and elderberry had no apparent inhibitions. Blueberry weakly inhibited UGT1A1 with an IC50 value of 62.4±4.40 μg/mL and a Ki value of 53.1 μg/mL. Blueberry also weakly inhibited UGT2B7 with an IC50 value of 147±11.1 μg/mL. In addition, cranberry weakly inhibited UGT1A9 activity (IC50=458±49.7 μg/mL) and raspberry ketones weakly inhibited UGT2B7 activity (IC50=248±28.2 μg/mL). Among tested berries, blueberry showed the lowest IC50 value in the inhibition of UGT1A1 in vitro. However, the co-administration of blueberry had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its active metabolite, SN-38, which was mainly eliminated via UGT1A1, in vivo. Our data suggests that these five berries are unlikely to cause clinically significant herb-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism. These findings should enable an understanding of herb-drug interactions for the safe use of popularly-consumed berries. PMID:24997313

  4. Kelp growth on an ocean farm in relation to fertilizing

    SciTech Connect

    Gerard, V.A.; North, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    Results of fertilizing experiments on the test farm supported previous evidence that low macronutrient supplies limit kelp growth in offshore surface water. Enhanced N contents of blade tissues from adult and juvenile plants and enhanced growth of juvenile plants indicates that artificially upwelled deep water could provide a suitable source of nutrients. However, measurement of harvestable production depends on our ability to prevent damage to plants by currents and abrasion, which would be edge effects on a large-scale ocean farm. Three adult Macrocystis plants have been held successfully on the test farm for one year by locating them away from major structural elements. At least ten times that many plants, suitably protected and fertilized with deep water, are necessary to accomplish the immediate goal of determining yield. The test farm is now being redesigned to meet these requirements.

  5. Liver injury induced by herbal complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J; Seeff, Leonard B

    2013-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplement use is common. Most marketed products consist of complex mixtures. Although they are perceived as safe, instances of hepatotoxicity attributable to these products underscore their potential for injury, but the exact component that is responsible for injury is difficult to discern. The lenient regulatory environment in the United States, which opens the possibility of adulteration and contamination, adds to the challenge of disease attribution. Although many different herbal and dietary supplements have been reported to cause liver injury, in the United States, products used for bodybuilding and weight loss are the most commonly implicated. PMID:24099027

  6. Effect of suspended kelp culture on water exchange as estimated by in situ current measurement in Sanggou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Dingyong; Huang, Daji; Qiao, Xudong; He, Yuqing; Zhang, Tao

    2015-09-01

    Water exchange between Sanggou Bay and the Yellow Sea in China was estimated based on current profiles measured by four bottom-mounted Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers at the entrance of the bay during the kelp seeding and kelp harvesting periods. Hydrodynamics in the bay were dominated by tidal currents, especially semi-diurnal constituents. The effect of suspended kelp culture on the water exchange was investigated in terms of the tidal flux and tidal prism of the bay during a semi-diurnal period. Suspended kelp culture was found to significantly affect water exchange by changing the spatial pattern of the tidal flux but not the tidal prism. The inward tidal flux was reduced by 10% to 70% in the upper layers in the kelp seeding to kelp harvesting periods. Meanwhile, the inward tidal flux was increased by 10% to 140% in the lower layers. The mean inward tidal prism was 2.31 × 108 m3 and 2.17 × 108 m3 during the kelp seeding period and kelp harvesting period, respectively. Comparing with previous numerical simulations, our results did not show a prominent reduction in total water exchange across the entrance of the bay by suspended kelp culture.

  7. [Metabolomic approach to evaluating the effect of the mixed decoction of kelp and licorice on system metabolism of SD rats].

    PubMed

    Sun, Run-bin; Yu, Xiao-yi; Mao, Yong; Ge, Chun; Yang Na; A, Ji-ye; Tang, Yu-ping; Duan, Jin-ao; Ma, Zi-teng; Wu, Xu-tong; Zhu, Xuan-xuan; Wang, Guang-ji

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the single and mixed decoction of Thallus laminariae (kelp) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) on the metabolism and their difference. The mixed decoction of kelp and licorice and the single decoction were made and intragastrically administered to the SD rats. The effect on system metabolism, the toxicity of liver and kidney were assessed by GC-MS profiling of the endogenous molecules in serum, routine biochemical assays and histographic inspection of tissues from SD rats, separately. The mixed decoction of kelp and licorice induced more obvious pathological abnormalities in SD rats than a single decoction of kelp, while the extracts of licorice did not show any pathological change. Neither the mixed, nor the single decoction showed abnormal histopathology. After intragastric administration of extracts for 5 days, the mixed decoction induced a decrease of ALT (no significant change in the groups of single decoction) and an increase of BUN (so did the single decoction of kelp). Metabolomic profile of the molecules in serum revealed that the metabolic patterns were all obviously affected for the three groups, i.e., the mixed and single decoction of kelp and licorice. The rats given with the single decoction of kelp showed a similar pattern to that of the mixed decoction, indicating that the kelp primarily contributed the perturbation of metabolism for the mixed decoction. All three groups induced a decrease of branched chain amino acids, TCA cycle intermediates and glycolysis intermediates (e.g., pyruvic acid and lactic acid) and an increase of 3-hydroxybutyric acid. Kelp decoction showed stronger potential in reducing TCA cycle intermediates and glycolysis intermediates than the other two groups, while the levels of branched chain amino acids were the lowest after licorice extracts were given. These results suggested that the effect of the mixed decoction on metabolism was closely associated with both kelp and

  8. Herbal therapy: what every facial plastic surgeon must know.

    PubMed

    Pribitkin, E D; Boger, G

    2001-01-01

    Herbal medicine (phytomedicine) uses remedies possessing significant pharmacological activity and, consequently, potential adverse effects and drug interactions. The explosion in sales of herbal therapies has brought many products to the marketplace that do not conform to the standards of safety and efficacy that physicians and patients expect. Unfortunately, few surgeons question patients regarding their use of herbal medicines, and 70% of patients do not reveal their use of herbal medicines to their physicians and pharmacists. All surgeons should question patients about the use of the following common herbal remedies, which may increase the risk of bleeding during surgical procedures: feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, and Asian ginseng. Physicians should exercise caution in prescribing retinoids or advising skin resurfacing in patients using St John's wort, which poses a risk of photosensitivity reaction. Several herbal medicines, such as aloe vera gel, contain pharmacologically active ingredients that may aid in wound healing. Practitioners who wish to recommend herbal medicines to patients should counsel them that products labeled as supplements have not been evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration and that no guarantee of product quality can be made. PMID:11368667

  9. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  10. Synchrony in dynamics of giant kelp forests is driven by both local recruitment and regional environmental controls.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Kyle C; Kendall, Bruce E; Siegel, David A; Reed, Daniel C; Alberto, Filipe; Assis, Jorge

    2013-02-01

    Populations of many species display spatially synchronous fluctuations in abundance. Synchrony is most commonly attributed to three processes: factors that influence recruitment (e.g., dispersal, early survival), large-scale environmental variability, and spatially autocorrelated trophic interactions. However it is often difficult to link population synchrony to a specific dominant process, particularly when multiple synchronizing forces are operating. We utilized a new satellite-based data set of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) canopy biomass to examine population synchrony in southern California kelp forests on spatial scales ranging from 50 m to 300 km and temporal scales ranging from 1 to 11 years. We examined the relationship between synchrony and distance for adult kelp populations, kelp recruits, sea urchin abundance (a major grazer of kelp), and environmental variables known to influence kelp population dynamics. Population synchrony in giant kelp decreased with distance between populations: an initial rapid exponential decrease between 50 m and 1.3 km was followed by a second, large-scale decrease between distances of 1.3 km and 172 km. The 50-m to 1.3-km spatial scale corresponded to the scales of synchrony in the abundance of sea urchins and young kelp recruits, suggesting that local drivers of predation and recruitment influence small-scale synchrony in kelp populations. The spatial correlation patterns of environmental variables, particularly wave height, were similar to the synchrony-distance relationship of kelp populations from 1.3 km to 172 km, suggesting that regional environmental variability, i.e., the Moran effect, was the dominant process affecting synchrony at larger spatial scales. This two-step pattern in the relationship between kelp biomass synchrony and distance was apparent in each of the 11 years of our study. Our results highlight the potential for synthesizing approaches from both landscape and population ecology in order to

  11. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  12. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  13. Over-expression of putative transcriptional coactivator KELP interferes with Tomato mosaic virus cell-to-cell movement.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobumitsu; Ogata, Takuya; Deguchi, Masakazu; Nagai, Shoko; Tamai, Atsushi; Meshi, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Shigeki; Watanabe, Yuichiro; Matsushita, Yasuhiko; Nyunoya, Hiroshi

    2009-03-01

    Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) encodes a movement protein (MP) that is necessary for virus cell-to-cell movement. We have demonstrated previously that KELP, a putative transcriptional coactivator of Arabidopsis thaliana, and its orthologue from Brassica campestris can bind to ToMV MP in vitro. In this study, we examined the effects of the transient over-expression of KELP on ToMV infection and the intracellular localization of MP in Nicotiana benthamiana, an experimental host of the virus. In co-bombardment experiments, the over-expression of KELP inhibited virus cell-to-cell movement. The N-terminal half of KELP (KELPdC), which had been shown to bind to MP, was sufficient for inhibition. Furthermore, the over-expression of KELP and KELPdC, both of which were co-localized with ToMV MP, led to a reduction in the plasmodesmal association of MP. In the absence of MP expression, KELP was localized in the nucleus and the cytoplasm by the localization signal in its N-terminal half. It was also shown that ToMV amplified normally in protoplasts prepared from leaf tissue that expressed KELP transiently. These results indicate that over-expressed KELP interacts with MP in vivo and exerts an inhibitory effect on MP function for virus cell-to-cell movement, but not on virus amplification in individual cells. PMID:19236566

  14. A field investigation into the effects of a kelp forest (Macrocystis pyrifera) on coastal hydrodynamics and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosman, Johanna H.; Koseff, Jeffrey R.; Monismith, Stephen G.; Grover, Jamie

    2007-02-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp) forests form important habitats in temperate coastal regions. Hydrodynamics control the transport of nutrients, food particles, larvae and spores at scales ranging from boundary layers around individual blades to entire kelp forests. Our measurements include vertical profiles of current and temperature, and concurrent wave measurements, at a number of different locations in and around a kelp forest at Santa Cruz, California. We find that flow at the site is dominated by variations at diurnal and semidiurnal frequencies. A vertically sheared across-shore flow, consistent with flow driven by an across-shore density gradient, is thought to be important for exchange between the kelp forest and the surrounding coastal ocean. Within the kelp forest, currents are reduced by a factor that correlates with surface canopy coverage, higher frequency internal waves are damped, and onshore transport due to waves (Stokes drift) is estimated to be similar in magnitude to that due to currents. Richardson numbers within the kelp forest are higher than those outside the kelp forest and indicate that the water column within the kelp forest is usually stable to turbulence generation by mean velocity shear.

  15. Kelp forest monitoring. Channel Islands National Park (1991 annual report). Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Kushner, D.; Avery, W.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes the 1991 progress of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project. Population dynamics of 68 indicator species of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent transect sites in 1991 by divers using SCUBA and surface-supply-air. Survey dives were conducted at seven other locations for comparisons and general information. In 1991, nine sites had healthy kelp forests. Five others had some kelp growing on or near the transect, but were dominated somewhat by sea urchins. White sea urchins were present in moderate to high numbers at four sites with declines at two sites and an increase at one. Juvenile fish recruitment was down in 1991; however, young-of-year rockfish were numerous at San Miguel Island and juvenile sheepland and garibaldi were common at Santa Barbra and Anacapa Islands. Abalone recruitment modules proved effective at concentrating juveniles of several species. This year was a poor recruitment year for abalone.

  16. Predicting spatial kelp abundance in shallow coastal waters using the acoustic ground discrimination system RoxAnn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, F.; Bartsch, I.; Hass, H. C.; Wölfl, A.-C.; Bürk, D.; Betzler, C.

    2014-04-01

    Kelp forests represent a major habitat type in coastal waters worldwide and their structure and distribution is predicted to change due to global warming. Despite their ecological and economical importance, there is still a lack of reliable spatial information on their abundance and distribution. In recent years, various hydroacoustic mapping techniques for sublittoral environments evolved. However, in turbid coastal waters, such as off the island of Helgoland (Germany, North Sea), the kelp vegetation is present in shallow water depths normally excluded from hydroacoustic surveys. In this study, single beam survey data consisting of the two seafloor parameters roughness and hardness were obtained with RoxAnn from water depth between 2 and 18 m. Our primary aim was to reliably detect the kelp forest habitat with different densities and distinguish it from other vegetated zones. Five habitat classes were identified using underwater-video and were applied for classification of acoustic signatures. Subsequently, spatial prediction maps were produced via two classification approaches: Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and manual classification routine (MC). LDA was able to distinguish dense kelp forest from other habitats (i.e. mixed seaweed vegetation, sand, and barren bedrock), but no variances in kelp density. In contrast, MC also provided information on medium dense kelp distribution which is characterized by intermediate roughness and hardness values evoked by reduced kelp abundances. The prediction maps reach accordance levels of 62% (LDA) and 68% (MC). The presence of vegetation (kelp and mixed seaweed vegetation) was determined with higher prediction abilities of 75% (LDA) and 76% (MC). Since the different habitat classes reveal acoustic signatures that strongly overlap, the manual classification method was more appropriate for separating different kelp forest densities and low-lying vegetation. It became evident that the occurrence of kelp in this area is not

  17. Indirect food web interactions: Sea otters and kelp forest fishes in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reisewitz, S.E.; Estes, J.A.; Simenstad, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although trophic cascades - the effect of apex predators on progressively lower trophic level species through top-down forcing - have been demonstrated in diverse ecosystems, the broader potential influences of trophic cascades on other species and ecosystem processes are not well studied. We used the overexploitation, recovery and subsequent collapse of sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in the Aleutian archipelago to explore if and how the abundance and diet of kelp forest fishes are influenced by a trophic cascade linking sea otters with sea urchins and fleshy macroalgae. We measured the abundance of sea urchins (biomass density), kelp (numerical density) and fish (Catch per unit effort) at four islands in the mid-1980s (when otters were abundant at two of the islands and rare at the two others) and in 2000 (after otters had become rare at all four islands). Our fish studies focused on rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus), the numerically dominant species in this region. In the mid-1980s, the two islands with high-density otter populations supported dense kelp forests, relatively few urchins, and abundant rock greenling whereas the opposite pattern (abundant urchins, sparse kelp forests, and relatively few rock greenling) occurred at islands where otters were rare. In the 2000, the abundances of urchins, kelp and greenling were grossly unchanged at islands where otters were initially rare but had shifted to the characteristic pattern of otter-free systems at islands where otters were initially abundant. Significant changes in greenling diet occurred between the mid-1980s and the 2000 although the reasons for these changes were difficult to assess because of strong island-specific effects. Whereas urchin-dominated communities supported more diverse fish assemblages than kelp-dominated communities, this was not a simple effect of the otter-induced trophic cascade because all islands supported more diverse fish assemblages in 2000 than in the mid-1980s

  18. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  19. Physical-biological coupling in spore dispersal of kelp forest macroalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylord, Brian; Reed, Daniel C.; Washburn, Libe; Raimondi, Peter T.

    2004-08-01

    The physical-biological linkages controlling the dispersal of spores produced by macroalgae that reside in kelp forests are complicated and laced with feedbacks. Here we discuss the fundamental elements of these interactions. Biological considerations include spore swimming and sinking speeds, their periods of viability in the plankton, and the height of spore release above the seafloor, which together determine the durations over which spores can be swept by horizontal currents before they contact the seafloor. Morphologies and material properties of canopy forming kelps may also influence the drag exerted on passing waters by the kelps, the plants' ability to persist in the face of rapid flows, and thereby the degree to which impinging currents are redirected around, or slowed within, kelp forests. Macroalgal life histories, and the size of spore sources as controlled by the dimensions of kelp forests and the density and fecundity of individuals within them, influence effective dispersal distances as well. Physical considerations encompass the mean speed, direction, and timescales of variability of currents relative to spore suspension times, the interaction of surface gravity waves with currents in producing turbulence in the benthic boundary layer, wind-driven surface mixing, water stratification, and shoreline bathymetry and substratum roughness, all of which can affect the interplay of vertical and horizontal transport of macroalgal spores. Intricate within-forest processes may induce attenuation of current speeds and consequent reductions in seabed shear, along with simultaneous production of small-scale turbulence in kelp wakes. Slower mean currents and smaller eddy scales in turn may attenuate vertical mixing within forests, thus extending spore suspension times. Further complexities likely arise due to changes in the relative rates of horizontal and vertical dispersion, modifications to the overall profiles of vertical mixing, and the creation of fine

  20. The geological significance of kelp-rafted rock along the west coast of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodborne, M. W.; Rogers, J.; Jarman, N.

    1989-06-01

    Angular to well-rounded pebbles and cobbles have been observed along the southwest coast of South Africa, attached to holdfasts of three species of kelp: Ecklonia maxima, Laminaria pallida, and Laminaria schinzii. A kelp-rafted clast has been dredged from the outer shelf and other clasts have been observed in situ in up to 5 m of water near Cape Town. The clasts have been found on both rocky and sandy shores as well as in a large backshore lagoon on the exposed Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula. Isolated clasts in a mid-Holocene lagoon were probably rafted ashore during winter storms in the mid-Holocene.

  1. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  2. Kelp forest fish populations in marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas of central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paddack, M.J.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Population structure (density and size distribution) of 10 species of epibenthic kelp forest fishes was compared between three marine reserves and adjacent exploited areas in central California. We also contrasted substrate relief, algal turf cover, and kelp population density among these areas. Densities of fishes were 12-35% greater within the reserves, but this difference was not statistically) significant. Habitat features explained only 4% of the variation in fish density and did not vary consistently between reserves and nonreserves. The average length of rockfish (genus Sebastes) was significantly greater in two of the three reserve sites, as was the proportion of larger fish. Population density and size differences combined to produce substantially greater biomass and, therefore, greater reproductive potential per unit of area within the reserves. The magnitude of these effects seems to be influenced by the reserve's age. Our findings demonstrate that current levels of fishing pressure influence kelp forest rockfish populations and suggest that this effect is widespread in central California. Existing marine reserves in central California kelp forests may help sustain exploited populations both through adult emigration and larval pool augmentation. The magnitude of these effects remains uncertain, however, because the spatial scale of both larval and adult dispersal relative to the size of existing reserves is unknown.

  3. Post-glacial redistribution and shifts in productivity of giant kelp forests

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Michael H.; Kinlan, Brian P.; Grosberg, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary glacial–interglacial cycles create lasting biogeographic, demographic and genetic effects on ecosystems, yet the ecological effects of ice ages on benthic marine communities are unknown. We analysed long-term datasets to develop a niche-based model of southern Californian giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) forest distribution as a function of oceanography and geomorphology, and synthesized palaeo-oceanographic records to show that late Quaternary climate change probably drove high millennial variability in the distribution and productivity of this foundation species. Our predictions suggest that kelp forest biomass increased up to threefold from the glacial maximum to the mid-Holocene, then rapidly declined by 40–70 per cent to present levels. The peak in kelp forest productivity would have coincided with the earliest coastal archaeological sites in the New World. Similar late Quaternary changes in kelp forest distribution and productivity probably occurred in coastal upwelling systems along active continental margins worldwide, which would have resulted in complex shifts in the relative productivity of terrestrial and marine components of coastal ecosystems. PMID:19846450

  4. Development of PCR‐Based Markers to Determine the Sex of Kelps

    PubMed Central

    Lipinska, Agnieszka P.; Ahmed, Sophia; Peters, Akira F.; Faugeron, Sylvain; Cock, J. Mark; Coelho, Susana M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex discriminating genetic markers are commonly used to facilitate breeding programs in economically and ecologically important animal and plant species. However, despite their considerable economic and ecological value, the development of sex markers for kelp species has been very limited. In this study, we used the recently described sequence of the sex determining region (SDR) of the brown algal model Ectocarpus to develop novel DNA-based sex-markers for three commercially relevant kelps: Laminaria digitata, Undaria pinnatifida and Macrocystis pyrifera. Markers were designed within nine protein coding genes of Ectocarpus male and female (U/V) sex chromosomes and tested on gametophytes of the three kelp species. Seven primer pairs corresponding to three loci in the Ectocarpus SDR amplified sex-specific bands in the three kelp species, yielding at least one male and one female marker for each species. Our work has generated the first male sex-specific markers for L. digitata and U. pinnatifida, as well as the first sex markers developed for the genus Macrocystis. The markers and methodology presented here will not only facilitate seaweed breeding programs but also represent useful tools for population and demography studies and provide a means to investigate the evolution of sex determination across this largely understudied eukaryotic group. PMID:26496392

  5. Spatially variable synergistic effects of disturbance and additional nutrients on kelp recruitment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Carnell, Paul E; Keough, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the impact of multiple stressors on ecosystems is of pronounced importance, particularly when one or more of those stressors is anthropogenic. Here we investigated the role of physical disturbance and increased nutrients on reefs dominated by the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata. We combined experimental kelp canopy removals and additional nutrient at three different locations in a large embayment in temperate southeastern Australia. Over the following winter recruitment season, Ecklonia recruitment was unaffected by increased nutrients alone, but tripled at all sites where the canopy had been removed. At one site, the combination of disturbance and increased nutrients resulted in more than four times the recruitment of the introduced kelp Undaria pinnatifida. Six months after disturbance, the proliferation of the Undaria canopy in the canopy-removal and nutrient-addition treatment negatively influenced the recovery of the native kelp Ecklonia. Given the otherwise competitive dominance of adult Ecklonia, this provides a mechanism whereby Undaria could maintain open space for the following recruitment season. This interplay between disturbance, nutrients and the response of native and invasive species makes a compelling case for how a combination of factors can influence species dynamics. PMID:24604540

  6. Connectivity of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among estuaries and open coast.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Melinda A

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats. PMID:23717648

  7. Kelp, cobbles, and currents: Biologic reduction of coarse grain entrainment stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masteller, Claire C; Finnegan, Noah J; Warrick, Jonathan; Miller, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Models quantifying the onset of sediment motion do not typically account for the effect of biotic processes because they are difficult to isolate and quantify in relation to physical processes. Here we investigate an example of the interaction of kelp (Order Laminariales) and coarse sediment transport in the coastal zone, where it is possible to directly quantify and test its effect. Kelp is ubiquitous along rocky coastlines and the impact on ecosystems has been well studied. We develop a physical model to explore the reduction in critical shear stress of large cobbles colonized by Nereocystis luetkeana, or bull kelp. Observations of coarse sediment motion at a site in the Strait of Juan de Fuca (northwest United States–Canada boundary channel) confirm the model prediction and show that kelp reduces the critical stress required for transport of a given grain size by as much as 92%, enabling annual coarse sediment transport rates comparable to those of fluvial systems. We demonstrate that biology is fundamental to the physical processes that shape the coastal zone in this setting.

  8. Kelp forest monitoring 1993 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, D.; Walder, R.; Gorodezky, L.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1993-06-01

    The 1993 results of the Channel Islands National Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algea, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using Sea Data batheothermographs, and HOBOTEMP temperature loggers. Temperature loggers were installed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artifical recruitment modules at nine sites. In 1993, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocysts pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. The 13 sites with kelp forests consisted of 10 mature and three young kelp forests. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins. Sea urchins wasting syndrome appears to have caused mass mortality of purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus, at two Santa Barbara Island sites.

  9. Dietary supplements: What's in a name? What's in the bottle?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Donald M

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA), which arbitrarily classified herbals and other medicinal products as dietary supplements, obscured fundamental differences between two classes of products. Authentic supplements to the diet, such as multivitamins or calcium, have nutritional value and are safe. Herbals are used worldwide as medicines, they do not supplement the diet, they may cause severe adverse events, and they should be regulated as medicines. DSHEA also prevented the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from effectively regulating herbal supplements as medicines. One consequence of weak FDA regulatory oversight is the poor quality of herbals. FDA inspections of manufacturing facilities have revealed violations of good manufacturing practices in over half of facilities inspected, including unsanitary conditions and lack of product specifications. Moreover, many "all natural" herbals marketed for weight loss, enhancement of sexual health and improving sports performance are adulterated with prescription and over-the-counter medications that have caused adverse cardiovascular events. New procedures to authenticate the identity of plants used in herbals will neither detect adulteration by medications nor provide assurance of appropriate pharmacological activity or safety. Nonvitamin, nonmineral "supplements" should be regulated as medicines, but revision or repeal of DSHEA faces strong opposition in Congress. The marketing of botanical supplements is based on unfounded claims that they are safe and effective. Health professionals need to inform patients and the public that there is no reason to take herbal medicines whose composition and benefits are unknown, and whose risks are evident. PMID:27072845

  10. Active and passive migration in boring isopods Limnoria spp. (Crustacea, Peracarida) from kelp holdfasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Leonardo; Thiel, Martin

    2008-10-01

    Many boring isopods inhabit positively buoyant substrata (wood and algae), which float after detachment, permitting passive migration of inhabitants. Based on observations from previous studies, it was hypothesized that juvenile, subadult and male isopods migrate actively, and will rapidly abandon substrata after detachment. In contrast, reproductive females and small offspring were predicted to remain in floating substrata and thus have a high probability to disperse passively via rafting. In order to test this hypothesis, a colonization and an emigration experiment were conducted with giant kelp ( Macrocystis integrifolia), the holdfasts of which are inhabited by boring isopods from the genus Limnoria. A survey of benthic substrata in the kelp forest confirmed that limnoriids inhabited the holdfasts and did not occur in holdfast-free samples. Results of the colonization experiment showed that all life history stages of the boring isopods immigrated into young, largely uncolonized holdfasts, and after 16 weeks all holdfasts were densely colonized. In the emigration experiment, all life history stages of the isopods rapidly abandoned the detached holdfasts — already 5 min after detachment only few individuals remained in the floating holdfasts. After this initial rapid emigration of isopods, little changes in isopod abundance occurred during the following 24 h, and at the end of the experiment some individuals of all life history stages still remained in the holdfasts. These results indicate that all life history stages of Limnoria participate in both active migration and passive dispersal. It is discussed that storm-related dynamics within kelp forests may contribute to intense mixing of local populations of these burrow-dwelling isopods, and that most immigrants to young holdfasts probably are individuals emigrating from old holdfasts detached during storm events. The fact that some individuals of all life history stages and both sexes remain in floating

  11. Effects of kelp phenolic compounds on the feeding-associated mobility of the herbivore snail Tegula tridentata.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Tala, Fadia; Fernández, Miriam; Subida, Maria Dulce

    2015-12-01

    Tegula tridentata, is a common herbivore gastropod inhabiting the subtidal Lessonia trabeculata kelp forest, which tends to show higher densities after kelp harvesting. We investigated if harvested kelp beds may harbor higher densities of herbivore invertebrates, and the underlying mechanisms. Thus, we evaluated if the exudates of L. trabeculata change the seawater levels of soluble phenols, known to have a deterrent effect against the feeding behavior of some herbivore invertebrates. Finally we investigated whether the increase in T. tridentata densities in harvested kelp grounds could be related to a decrease in the seawater levels of soluble phenols. Our results showed that the density of invertebrate herbivores increased up to 32% in harvested kelp grounds. We provide the first estimate of the rate of phenolic exudation by L. trabeculata, and we demonstrate that T. tridentata changes its food dependent movement in the presence of exudates with synthetic phloroglucinol. We suggest that the recovery of harvested kelp ecosystems can be jeopardized by increased herbivory triggered by water-borne changes in the levels of herbivore deterrent compounds. PMID:25956816

  12. Herbal toxicity in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyazema, N Z

    1986-01-01

    Indigenous natural drugs are in common use in Zimbabwe because modern life-saving drugs are beyond the reach of nearly 85% of the population. These natural drugs have caused a number of poisoning cases. In a study of the records of four hospitals from 1971 to 1982, carried out to see how many people had been poisoned with herbal remedies, it was found that the number had increased since 1971. 50 traditional healers were questioned about record-keeping and knowledge of toxicity and Health Assistants were also interviewed. PMID:3798540

  13. Time to Talk: 5 Things To Know About Safety of Dietary Supplements for Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nearly 12 percent of children (about 1 in 9) in the United States are using some form of complementary health product or practice, such as dietary or herbal supplements . A dietary or herbal supplement may contain many compounds and its active ingredients may not be known. Also, what’s on ...

  14. Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.

    PubMed

    Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-08-01

    The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374

  15. Evidence of an evolutionary-developmental trade-off between drag avoidance and tolerance strategies in wave-swept intertidal kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

    PubMed

    Starko, Samuel; Martone, Patrick T

    2016-02-01

    Kelps are a clade of morphologically diverse, ecologically important habitat-forming species. Many kelps live in wave-swept environments and are exposed to chronic flow-induced stress. In order to grow and survive in these harsh environments, kelps can streamline (reducing drag coefficient) to avoid drag or to increase attachment and breakage force to tolerate it. We aimed to quantify the drag tolerance and streamlining strategies of kelps from wave-swept intertidal habitats. We measured drag coefficient and tenacity of populations from eight kelp species over a wide range of sizes to determine whether kelps avoid dislodgement by reducing drag coefficient or by increasing tenacity as they grow, and whether these traits are traded off. We employed phylogenetic comparative methods to rule out potentially confounding effects of species' relatedness. There was a significant negative relationship between drag avoidance and tolerance strategies, even after incorporating phylogeny. Kelps that were more tenacious were less able to reduce drag, resulting in a continuum from "tolerators" to "streamliners," with some species demonstrating intermediate, mixed strategies. Drag and tenacity were correlated with geometric properties (i.e., second moment of area) of the stipe in large kelps. Results presented in this study suggest that kelps are either strong or streamlined, but not both. This continuum is consistent with avoidance and tolerance trade-offs that have been documented in many different biological systems and may have widespread implications for the evolution of large macroalgae, perhaps driving morphological diversity within this group. PMID:26987088

  16. Kelp forest monitoring 1994 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kushner, D.; Lerma, D.; Richards, D.

    1994-12-31

    The 1994 results of the Channel Islands Natonal Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrants, band transects, random point contacts, fish transects, video transects, size frequency measurements, artificial recruitment modules, and species list surveys. Temperature data was collected using temperature loggers deployed at each of the sixteen sites. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules at ten sites. In 1994, 13 sites had giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, forests, one site was dominated by the aggregating red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one site was dominated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus francisanus, and another by purple sea urchins, S. purpuratus. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and wasting syndrome was apparent in sea urchins.

  17. Micronutrients and kelp cultures: Evidence for cobalt and manganese deficiency in Southern California deep seawater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    It has been suggested that naturally occurring copper and zinc concentrations in deep seawater are toxic to marine organisms when the free ion forms are overabundant. The effects of micronutrients on the growth of gametophytes of the ecologically and commercially significant giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) were studied in defined media. The results indicate that toxic copper and zinc ion concentrations as well as cobalt and manganese deficiencies may be among the factors controlling the growth of marine organisms in nature. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  18. A kelp with integrity: Macrocystis pyrifera prioritises tissue maintenance in response to nitrogen fertilisation.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Tiffany A; Hepburn, Christopher D

    2016-09-01

    Our understanding of the response of vascular, terrestrial plants to nitrogen (N) addition is advanced and provides the foundation for modern agriculture. In comparison, information on responses of marine macroalgae to increased nitrogen is far less developed. We investigated how in situ pulses of nitrate (NO3 (-)) affected the growth and N physiology of Macrocystis pyrifera by adding N using potassium nitrate dissolution blocks during a period of low seawater N concentration. Multiple parameters (e.g. growth, pigments, soluble NO3 (-)) were measured in distinct tissues throughout entire fronds (apical meristem, stipe, adult blade, mature blade, sporophyll, and holdfast). Unexpectedly, N fertilisation did not enhance elongation rates within the frond, but instead thickness (biomass per unit area) increased in adult blades. Increased blade thickness may have enhanced tissue integrity as fertilised kelp had lower rates of blade erosion. Tissue chemistry also responded to enrichment; pigmentation, soluble NO3 (-), and % N were higher throughout fertilised fronds. Labelled (15)N traced N uptake and translocation from N sources in the kelp canopy to sinks in the holdfast, 10 m below. This is the first evidence of long-distance (>1 m) transport of N in macroalgae. Patterns in physiological parameters suggest that M. pyrifera displays functional differentiation between canopy and basal tissues that may aid in nutrient-tolerance strategies, similar to those seen in higher plants and unlike those seen in more simple algae (i.e. non-kelps). This study highlights how little we know about N additions and N-use strategies within kelp compared to the wealth of literature available for higher plants. PMID:27170330

  19. Kelp canopy facilitates understory algal assemblage via competitive release during early stages of secondary succession.

    PubMed

    Benes, Kylla M; Carpenter, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Kelps are conspicuous foundation species in marine ecosystems that alter the composition of understory algal assemblages. While this may be due to changes in the competitive interactions between algal species, how kelp canopies mediate propagule supply and establishment success of understory algae is not well known. In Southern California, USA, Eisenia arborea forms dense kelp canopies in shallow subtidal environments and is associated with an understory dominated by red algal species. In canopy-free areas, however, the algal assemblage is comprised of mostly brown algal species. We used a combination of mensurative and manipulative experiments to test whether Eisenia facilitates the understory assemblage by reducing competition between these different types of algae by changes in biotic interactions and/or recruitment. Our results show Eisenia facilitates a red algal assemblage via inhibition of brown algal settlement into the canopy zone, allowing recruitment to occur by vegetative means rather than establishment of new individuals. In the canopy-free zone, however, high settlement and recruitment rates suggest competitive interactions shape the community there. These results demonstrate that foundation species alter the distribution and abundance of associated organisms by affecting not only interspecific interactions but also propagule supply and recruitment limitation. PMID:26236909

  20. Unconventional anaerobic digester designs for improving methane yields from sea kelp

    SciTech Connect

    Fannin, K F; Srivastava, V J; Chynoweth, D P

    1982-01-01

    Studies were performed as part of an ongoing comprehensive research program to develop and optimize the anaerobic digestion process for producing methane from sea kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera). Laboratory-scale studies focused on digester design and operating techniques applicable toward the goal of increasing methane yields and production rates over those observed in previous studies using conventional stirred tank reactors (STR). Two unconventional anaerobic digesters, an upflow solids reactor and a baffle flow reactor, were used to study the anaerobic digestion performance of kelp; both digesters permit solids retention times that are longer than the hydraulic retention times. The performance of the unconventional digesters was compared with that of the STR on the basis of methane yield and process stability. These studies demonstrated that, although digester performance was markedly affected by kelp variability, the methane yield in both unconventional digesters exceeded 70% of the theoretical yield and was substantialy higher than that of the STR. Utilization of simple digester designs that promoted long solids retention times improved the anaerobic digester performance significantly over that observed in conventional anaerobic digestion processes.

  1. Host specificity and growth of kelp gametophytes symbiotic with filamentous red algae (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Charlene B.; Garbary, David J.; Kim, Kwang Young; Chiasson, David M.

    2004-02-01

    Kelp gametophytes were previously observed in nature living endophytically in red algal cell walls. Here we examine the interactions of two kelp species and six red algae in culture. Gametophytes of Nereocystis luetkeana (Mertens) Postels et Ruprecht became endophytic in the cell walls of Griffithsia pacifica Kylin and Antithamnion defectum Kylin, and grew epiphytically in high abundance on G. japonica Okamura and Aglaothamnion oosumiense Itono. Alaria esculenta (Linnaeus) Greville from the Atlantic coast of Nova Scotia became endophytic in Aglaothamnion oosumiense, Antithamnion defectum, Callithamnion sp., G. japonica, G. pacifica, and Pleonosporium abysicola Gardner, all from the Pacific Ocean. Some cultures were treated with phloroglucinol before infection to thicken the cell walls. The endophytic gametophytes were smaller and grew more slowly than gametophytes epiphytic on the same host. N. luetkeana failed to become endophytic in some of the potential hosts, and this may reflect host specificity, or culture artifacts. This work improves our understanding of the process of infection of red algae by kelp gametophytes, and broadens our knowledge of host specificity in endophytic symbioses.

  2. Kelp forest monitoring 1992 annual report. Channel Islands National Park. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.; Kushner, D.

    1992-12-31

    The 1992 results of the Channel Islands Natioanl Park Kelp Forest Monitoring Project are described in this report. Population dynamics of 68 taxa or categories of algae, fish, and invertebrates were measured at 16 permanent sites around the five islands within the park. Survey techniques utilized SCUBA and surface-supplied-air, and included quadrats, band transects, random point contacts, fish and video transects, photogrammetric plots, size frequency measurements, artifical recruitment habitats, and species list surveys. Some batheothermograph data was collected. In 1992, nine sites and healthy kelp forests while seven were mostly barren. The seven barren sites consisted of one that was dominated by the aggregated red sea cucumber, Pachythyone rubra, one was barren with high sedimentation, one was domainated by red sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus franciscanus, and four sites were dominated by purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, three of which had signs of a developing kelp forest. Wasting disease was observed in sea stars and a wasting syndrome was observed in sea urchins. Fish recruitment appeared to be late this year. Size frequency measurements were taken from artificial recruitment modules (previously named `abalone recruitment modules`) at six of the sites.

  3. The Impact of Climatological Variables on Kelp Canopy Area in the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigner, K.; Bausell, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Kelp canopy area (KCA), a proxy for kelp forest health, has important implications for small and large-scale processes pertaining to fisheries, near shore currents, and marine ecosystems. As part of the NASA Airborne Science Research Program (SARP), this study examines the impact of ocean chemistry and climatological variables on KCA in the Santa Barbara Channel through time series analysis. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), and upwelling indices as well as sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, nitrate, and chlorophyll-a concentrations taken within the Santa Barbara channel (1990-2014) were acquired from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI), and Di Lorenzo's NPGO websites. These data were then averaged for winter (November-January) and summer (May-August) seasons and compared to KCA measurements derived from Landsat images via unsupervised classification. Regression, cumulative sum tests, and cross-correlation coefficients revealed a two year lag between KCA and the NPGO, indicating the presence of an additional factor driving both variables. Further analyses suggests that the NPO may be this driving factor, as indicated by the correlation (lag 0) with KCA. Comparing relationships between kelp and other variables over various time periods supports the acceleration of the NPGO and other variables in more recent years. Exploring relationships between KCA, NPGO, and NPO may provide insight into potential impacts of climate change on coastal marine ecosystems.

  4. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Induced by Adulterated "Tiger King", a Chinese Herbal Medicine Containing Sildenafil.

    PubMed

    Nissan, Ran; Poperno, Alina; Stein, Gideon Y; Shapira, Barak; Fuchs, Shmuel; Berkovitz, Ronny; Hess, Zipora; Arieli, Mickey

    2016-01-01

    Detection of Phosphodiesterase Type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors and their analogues in "100% natural" or "herbal" supplements have been described in numerous reports. However, few reports have been published in relation to actual harm caused by counterfeit erectile dysfunction herbal supplements. We describe a case of a 65-year old male admitted to a tertiary hospital with acute liver toxicity, possibly induced by adulterated "Chinese herbal" supplement "Tiger King" for sexual enhancement. Chemical analysis of the tablets discovered the presence of therapeutic doses of sildenafil with no other herbal components. Other medications were excluded as potential causes of the hepatic impairment. According to the Naranjo adverse drug reaction scale and the Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method (RUCAM) the probability of association of Hepatotoxicity with Sildenafil was "possible" and "probable" respectively (Naranjo score of 4, RUCAM score of 7). Within three days of admission, the patient's clinical status and liver function improved without any specific treatment. His liver function tests normalized 30 days post discharge. Further pharmacovigilance actions should be taken by regulatory authorities and pharmaceutical companies in order to determine the relation between sildenafil and hepatotoxicity. This case emphasizes the importance of raising public awareness on the potential dangers of "Tiger king" in particular, and other counterfeit medications or herbal supplements of unknown origin. PMID:26560492

  5. Importance of kelp-derived organic carbon to the scallop Chlamys farreri in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Gao, Fei; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Bivalves and seaweeds are important cleaners that are widely used in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems. A beneficial relationship between seaweed and bivalve in the seaweed-based IMTA system has been confirmed, but the trophic importance of seaweed-derived particulate organic materials to the co-cultured bivalve is still unclear. We evaluated the trophic importance of the kelp Saccharina japonica to the co-cultured scallop Chlamys farreri in a typical IMTA farm in Sungo Bay (Weihai, North China). The dynamics of detritus carbon in the water were monitored during the culturing period. The proportion of kelp-derived organic matter in the diet of the co-cultured scallop was assessed via the stable carbon isotope method. Results showed that the detritus carbon in the water ranged from 75.52 to 265.19 μg/L, which was 25.6% to 73.8% of total particulate organic carbon (TPOC) during the study period. The amount of detritus carbon and its proportion in the TPOC changed throughout the culture cycle of the kelp. Stable carbon isotope analysis showed that the cultured scallop obtained 14.1% to 42.8% of its tissue carbon from the kelp, and that the percentages were closely correlated with the proportion of detritus carbon in the water ( F =0.993, P= 0.003). Evaluation showed that for 17 000 tons (wet weight) of annual scallop production, the kelp contributed about 139.3 tons of carbon (535.8 tons of dry mass). This confirms that cultured kelp plays a similar trophic role in IMTA systems as it does in a natural kelp bed. It is a major contributor to the detritus pool and supplies a vital food source to filter-feeding scallops in the IMTA system, especially during winter and early spring when phytoplankton are scarce.

  6. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-09-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  7. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  8. [Artichoke--herbal drug].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Adamska, Katarzyna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Woźniak, Anna; Wachowiak, Anna; Miechowicz, Izabela; Horoszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Nowak, Gerard; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders. PMID:23421105

  9. The Hypoglycemic Effect of the Kelp on Diabetes Mellitus Model Induced by Alloxan in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Long, Shao-Hua; Yu, Zhu-Qin; Shuai, Li; Guo, Yun-Liang; Duan, De-Lin; Xu, Xin-Ying; Li, Xiao-Dan

    2012-01-01

    Hypoglycemic effects and the use of kelp in diabetes mellitus (DM) model rats induced by alloxan were investigated. Sixty healthy male rats were used to establish DM models by injecting alloxan intraperitoneally. Kelp powder was added to the general forage for the rats. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) were determined by an automatic blood glucose device. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was applied to determine the serum levels of insulin. The serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured by thiobarbituric acid assay and nitric oxide (NO) by nitrate reductase assay. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined by xanthinoxidase assay and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) by chemical colorimetry. The shape and structure of islet cells were observed with Hematine-Eosin staining, and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in islet cells were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The results showed that the serum levels of insulin after treatment with kelp powder increased significantly compared to those in the DM-model group, while the FBG in the medium-high dose treated groups decreased significantly compared to those in the DM-model group (P < 0.05). The levels of MDA and NO in the kelp powder groups were lower than those in the DM-model group, while the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were higher than those in the DM-model group, of which a significant difference existed between the medium-high dose treated groups and the DM-model group (P < 0.05). The shape and structure of islet cells improved with the up-expressing SOD and down-expressing iNOS in the medium-high dose treated groups compared to those in the DM-model group (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the medium and high dose treated groups, all above indexes (P > 0.05). It is suggested that kelp might aid recovery of the the islet cell secreting function and reduce the level of FBG by an antioxidant

  10. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  11. Herbal hepatotoxicity in traditional and modern medicine: actual key issues and new encouraging steps

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Eickhoff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results. Sixty five different commonly used herbs, herbal drugs, and herbal supplements and 111 different herbs or herbal mixtures of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are reported causative for liver disease, with levels of causality proof that appear rarely conclusive. Encouraging steps in the field of herbal hepatotoxicity focus on introducing analytical methods that identify cases of intrinsic hepatotoxicity caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and on omics technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and assessing circulating micro-RNA in the serum of some patients with intrinsic hepatotoxicity. It remains to be established whether these new technologies can identify idiosyncratic HILI cases. To enhance its globalization, herbal medicine should universally be marketed as herbal drugs under strict regulatory surveillance in analogy to regulatory approved chemical drugs, proving a positive risk/benefit profile by enforcing evidence based clinical trials and excellent herbal drug quality. PMID:25954198

  12. Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biloba, Ginseng, Hoodia, Kava, St. John’s Wort, and Valerian. Herbal products are available as tablets, liquids, granules, ... with other medications that prolong effects of anesthesia. Valerian Increased sedative effects.

  13. Environmental controls on spatial patterns in the long-term persistence of giant kelp in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, Mary Alida; Cavanaugh, Kyle C.; Bell, Tom W.; Raimondi, Peter T.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Drake, Patrick T.; Erikson, Li H.; Storlazzi, Curt

    2016-01-01

    As marine management is moving towards the practice of protecting static areas, it is 44 important to make sure protected areas capture and protect persistent populations. Rocky reefs in 45 many temperate areas worldwide serve as habitat for canopy forming macroalgae and these 46 structure forming species of kelps (order Laminariales) often serve as important habitat for a great 47 diversity of species. Macrocystis pyrifera is the most common canopy forming kelp species found 48 along the coast of California but the distribution and abundance of M. pyrifera varies in space and 49 time. The purpose of this study is to determine what environmental parameters are correlated with 50 the spatial and temporal persistence of M. pyrifera along the central coast of California and how 51 well those environmental parameters can be used to predict areas where M. pyrifera is more likely 52 to persist. Nine environmental variables considered in this study included depth of the seafloor, 53 structure of the rocky reef, proportion of rocky reef, size of kelp patch, biomass of kelp within a 54 patch, distance from the edge of a kelp patch, sea surface temperature, wave orbital velocities, and 55 population connectivity of individual kelp patches. Using a generalized linear mixed effects model 56 (GLMM), the persistence of M. pyrifera was significantly associated with seven of the nine 57 variables considered: depth, complexity of the rocky reef, proportion of rock, patch biomass, 58 distance from the edge of a patch, population connectivity, and wave-orbital velocities. These 59 seven environmental variables were then used to predict the persistence of kelp across the central 60 coast and these predictions were compared to a reserved dataset of M. pyrifera persistence, which 61 was not used in the creation of the GLMM. The environmental variables were shown to accurately 62 predict the persistence of M. pyrifera within the central coast of California (r = 0.71, P<0.001). 63 Because

  14. Kelp as a bioindicator: does it matter which part of 5 m long plant is used for metal analysis?

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Gray, Matt; Shukla, Tara; Shukla, Sheila; Burke, Sean

    2007-05-01

    Kelp may be useful as a bioindicator because they are primary producers that are eaten by higher trophic level organisms, including people and livestock. Often when kelp or other algae species are used as bioindicators, the whole organism is homogenized. However, some kelp can be over 25 m long from their holdfast to the tip of the blade, making it important to understand how contaminant levels vary throughout the plant. We compared the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in five different parts of the kelp Alaria nana to examine the variability of metal distribution. To be useful as a bioindicator, it is critical to know whether levels are constant throughout the kelp, or which part is the highest accumulator. Kelp were collected on Adak Island in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska from the Adak Harbor and Clam Cove, which opens onto the Bering Sea. In addition to determining if the levels differ in different parts of the kelp, we wanted to determine whether there were locational or size-related differences. Regression models indicated that between 14% and 43% of the variation in the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, manganese, mercury, and selenium was explained by total length, part of the plant, and location (but not for lead). The main contributors to variability were length (for arsenic and selenium), location (mercury), and part of the plant (for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and manganese). The higher levels of selenium occurred at Clam Cove, while mercury was higher at the harbor. Where there was a significant difference among parts, the holdfast had the highest levels, although the differences were not great. These data indicate that consistency should be applied in selecting the part of kelp (and the length) to be used as a bioindicator. While any part of Alaria could be collected for some metals, for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and manganese a conversion should be made among parts. In the Aleutians the holdfast can be

  15. Using ecological function to develop recovery criteria for depleted species: sea otters and kelp forests in the Aleutian archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Recovery criteria for depleted species or populations normally are based on demographic measures, the goal being to maintain enough individuals over a sufficiently large area to assure a socially tolerable risk of future extinction. Such demographically based recovery criteria may be insufficient to restore the functional roles of strongly interacting species. We explored the idea of developing a recovery criterion for sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in the Aleutian archipelago on the basis of their keystone role in kelp forest ecosystems. We surveyed sea otters and rocky reef habitats at 34 island-time combinations. The system nearly always existed in either a kelp-dominated or deforested phase state, which was predictable from sea otter density. We used a resampling analysis of these data to show that the phase state at any particular island can be determined at 95% probability of correct classification with information from as few as six sites. When sea otter population status (and thus the phase state of the kelp forest) was allowed to vary randomly among islands, just 15 islands had to be sampled to estimate the true proportion that were kelp dominated (within 10%) with 90% confidence. We conclude that kelp forest phase state is a more appropriate, sensitive, and cost-effective measure of sea otter recovery than the more traditional demographically based metrics, and we suggest that similar approaches have broad potential utility in establishing recovery criteria for depleted populations of other functionally important species.

  16. Current Status of Herbal Drugs in India: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Vaidya, Ashok D.B.; Devasagayam, Thomas P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Herbal drugs constitute a major share of all the officially recognised systems of health in India viz. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathy and Naturopathy, except Allopathy. More than 70% of India’s 1.1 billion population still use these non-allopathic systems of medicine. Currently, there is no separate category of herbal drugs or dietary supplements, as per the Indian Drugs Act. However, there is a vast experiential-evidence base for many of the natural drugs. This offers immense opportunities for Observational Therapeutics and Reverse Pharmacology. Evidence-based herbals are widely used in the diverse systems and manufactured, as per the pharmacopoeial guidelines, by a well-organised industry. Significant basic and clinical research has been carried out on the medicinal plants and their formulations, with the state-of-the-art methods in a number of Institutes/Universities. There are some good examples. Indian medicinal plants also provide a rich source for antioxidants that are known to prevent/delay different diseased states. The antioxidant protection is observed at different levels. The medicinal plants also contain other beneficial compounds like ingredients for functional foods. Hence, the global knowledge about Ayurveda and Indian herbals will hopefully be enhanced by information on the evidence-base of these plants. This will yield rich dividends in the coming years. PMID:18392106

  17. Chemical and biological assessment of Angelica herbal decoction: comparison of different preparations during historical applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wendy Li; Zheng, Ken Yu-Zhong; Zhu, Kevin Yue; Zhan, Janis Ya-Xian; Bi, Cathy Wen-Chuan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Du, Crystal Ying-Qing; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-08-15

    The commonly used Angelica herbal decoction today is Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), which is a dietary supplement in treating menopausal irregularity in women, i.e. to nourish "Qi" and to enrich "Blood". According to historical record, many herbal decoctions were also named DBT, but the most popular formulation of DBT was written in Jin dynasty (1247 AD) of China, which contained Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) with a weight ratio of 5:1. However, at least two other Angelica herbal decoctions recorded as DBT were prescribed in Song (1155 AD) and Qing dynasties (1687 AD). Although AR and ASR are still the major components in the DBT herbal decoctions, they are slightly varied in the herb composition. In order to reveal the efficiency of different Angelica herbal decoctions, the chemical and biological properties of three DBT herbal extracts were compared. Significantly, the highest amounts of AR-derived astragaloside III, astragaloside IV, calycosin and formononetin and ASR-derived ferulic acid were found in DBT described in 1247 AD: this preparation showed stronger activities in osteogenic, estrogenic and erythropoetic effects than the other two DBT. The current results supported the difference of three DBT in chemical and biological properties, which could be a result of different herbal combinations. For the first time, this study supports the popularity of DBT described in 1247 AD. PMID:22902230

  18. Untargeted metabolomics: an emerging approach to determine the composition of herbal products

    PubMed Central

    Commisso, Mauro; Strazzer, Pamela; Toffali, Ketti; Stocchero, Matteo; Guzzo, Flavia

    2013-01-01

    Natural remedies, such as those based on traditional Chinese medicines, have become more popular also in western countries over the last 10 years. The composition of these herbal products is largely unknown and difficult to determine. Moreover, since plants respond to their environment changing the metabolome, the composition of plant material can vary depending on the plant growth conditions. However, there is a growing need of a deeper knowledge on such natural remedies also in view of the growing number of reports of toxicity following the consumption of herbal supplements. Untargeted metabolomics is a useful approach for the simultaneous analysis of many compounds in herbal products. In particular, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) can determine presence, amount and sometime structures of plant metabolites in complex herbal mixtures, with significant advantages over techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PMID:24688688

  19. Effects of sporophyll storage on giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Agardh) bioassay

    SciTech Connect

    Gully, J.R.; Bottomley, J.P.; Baird, R.B.

    1999-07-01

    The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Agardh) is a US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA)-approved west coast marine species for chronic toxicity monitoring and compliance in the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). The protocol allows field-collected sporophylls to be stored for up to 24 h at 9 to 12 C prior to use. However, the effects of sporophyll storage on the bioassay results have not been fully investigated, particularly with kelp collected from beds south of Point Conception, CA, USA. Therefore, 13 matched-pair reference toxicant bioassays using fresh and stored sporophylls collected from a subtidal kelp bed near Laguna Beach, CA, USA, were performed and compared. The results indicate that a lower percentage of spores germinate and the germ tube lengths are reduced when stored sporophylls are used. The intratest precision of the germination endpoint decreased as evidenced by significant increases in the percent minimum significant difference (%MSD) statistic. The intertest precision also decreased in the germination endpoint as demonstrated by significant increases in the coefficient of variation (CV) values at four effect levels. Conversely, a significant reduction in the CVs was observed in the germ tube length data, possibly as a consequence of the decrease in germ tube length associated with storage. Finally, significant decreases in mean effect concentrations in the germination endpoint in tests using stored sporophylls indicated that storage increased the sensitivity of the spores to the toxic effects of CuCl{sub 2}. The toxicological sensitivity and intratest precision of the germ tube length endpoint were not significantly affected by storage of the sporophylls. The effects of sporophyll storage resulted in a high frequency of invalid tests, lower statistical power, less effective quality assurance standards, and apparent bias in the observed toxicity of CuCl{sub 2}.

  20. Trophic cascades induced by lobster fishing are not ubiquitous in southern California kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Carla M; Lenihan, Hunter S; Grant, Laura E; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and

  1. Photosynthetic use of inorganic carbon in deep-water kelps from the Strait of Gibraltar.

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, María Jesús; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Fernández, José Antonio; Flores-Moya, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Mechanisms of inorganic carbon assimilation were investigated in the four deep-water kelps inhabiting sea bottoms at the Strait of Gibraltar; these species are distributed at different depths (Saccorhiza polysiches at shallower waters, followed by Laminaria ochroleuca, then Phyllariopsis brevipes and, at the deepest bottoms, Phyllariopsis purpurascens). To elucidate the capacity to use HCO3 (-) as a source of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis in the kelps, different experimental approaches were used. Specifically, we measured the irradiance-saturated gross photosynthetic rate versus pH at a constant dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentration of 2 mM, the irradiance-saturated apparent photosynthesis (APS) rate versus DIC, the total and the extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CAext), the observed and the theoretical photosynthetic rates supported by the spontaneous dehydration of HCO3 (-) to CO2, and the δ(13)C signature in tissues of the algae. While S. polyschides and L. ochroleuca showed photosynthetic activity at pH 9.5 (around 1.0 µmol O2 m(-2) s(-1)), the activity was close to zero in both species of Phyllariopsis. The APS versus DIC was almost saturated for the DIC values of natural seawater (2 mM) in S. polyschides and L. ochroleuca, but the relationship was linear in P. brevipes and P. purpurascens. The four species showed total and CAext activities but the inhibition of the CAext originated the observed photosynthetic rates at pH 8.0 to be similar to the theoretical rates that could be supported by the spontaneous dehydration of HCO3 (-). The isotopic (13)C signatures ranged from -17.40 ± 1.81 to -21.11 ± 1.73 ‰ in the four species. Additionally, the δ(13)C signature was also measured in the deep-water Laminaria rodriguezii growing at 60-80 m, showing even a more negative value of -26.49 ± 1.25 ‰. All these results suggest that the four kelps can use HCO3 (-) as external carbon source for photosynthesis mainly by the action of

  2. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in

  4. Herbal bioactivation, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Wu; Serag, Erini S; Sneed, Kevin B; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2011-07-15

    There have been increasing reports on the adverse reactions associated with herbal consumption. For many of these adverse reactions, the underlying biochemical mechanisms are unknown, but bioactivation of herbal compounds to generate reactive intermediates have been implicated. This minireview updates our knowledge on metabolic activation of herbal compounds, molecular targets and the toxicity relevance. A number of studies have documented that some herbal compounds can be converted to toxic or even carcinogenic metabolites by Phase I [e.g. cytochrome P450s (CYPs)] and less frequently by Phase II enzymes. For example, aristolochic acids (AAs) in Aristolochia spp, which undergo reduction of the nitro group by hepatic CYP1A1/2 or peroxidases in extrahepatic tissues to generate highly reactive cyclic nitrenium ions. The latter can react with macromolecules (DNA and protein), resulting in activation of H-ras and myc oncogenes and gene mutation in renal cells and finally carcinogenesis of the kidneys. Teucrin A and teuchamaedryn A, two diterpenoids found in germander (Teuchrium chamaedrys) used as an adjuvant to slimming herbal supplements that caused severe hepatotoxicity, are converted by CYP3A4 to reactive epoxide which reacts with proteins such as CYP3A and epoxide hydrolase and inactivate them. Some naturally occurring alkenylbenzenes (e.g. safrole, methyleugenol and estragole) and flavonoids (e.g. quercetin) can undergo bioactivation by sequential 1-hydroxylation and sulfation, resulting in reactive intermediates capable of forming DNA adducts. Extensive pulegone metabolism generated p-cresol that is a glutathione depletory. The hepatotoxicity of kava is possibly due to intracellular glutathione depletion and/or quinone formation. Moreover, several herbal compounds including capsaicin from chili peppers, dially sulfone in garlic, methysticin and dihydromethysticin in kava, oleuropein in olive oil, and resveratrol found in grape seeds are mechanism-based (suicide

  5. The paradox of inverted biomass pyramids in kelp forest fish communities.

    PubMed

    Trebilco, Rowan; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Anderson, Sean C; Salomon, Anne K

    2016-06-29

    Theory predicts that bottom-heavy biomass pyramids or 'stacks' should predominate in real-world communities if trophic-level increases with body size (mean predator-to-prey mass ratio (PPMR) more than 1). However, recent research suggests that inverted biomass pyramids (IBPs) characterize relatively pristine reef fish communities. Here, we estimated the slope of a kelp forest fish community biomass spectrum from underwater visual surveys. The observed biomass spectrum slope is strongly positive, reflecting an IBP. This is incongruous with theory because this steep positive slope would only be expected if trophic position decreased with increasing body size (consumer-to-resource mass ratio, less than 1). We then used δ(15)N signatures of fish muscle tissue to quantify the relationship between trophic position and body size and instead detected strong evidence for the opposite, with PPMR ≈ 1650 (50% credible interval 280-12 000). The natural history of kelp forest reef fishes suggests that this paradox could arise from energetic subsidies in the form of movement of mobile consumers across habitats, and from seasonally pulsed production inputs at small body sizes. There were four to five times more biomass at large body sizes (1-2 kg) than would be expected in a closed steady-state community providing a measure of the magnitude of subsidies. PMID:27335422

  6. Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller's sea cow.

    PubMed

    Estes, James A; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F

    2016-01-26

    The late Pleistocene extinction of so many large-bodied vertebrates has been variously attributed to two general causes: rapid climate change and the effects of humans as they spread from the Old World to previously uninhabited continents and islands. Many large-bodied vertebrates, especially large apex predators, maintain their associated ecosystems through top-down forcing processes, especially trophic cascades, and megaherbivores also exert an array of strong indirect effects on their communities. Thus, a third possibility for at least some of the Pleistocene extinctions is that they occurred through habitat changes resulting from the loss of these other keystone species. Here we explore the plausibility of this mechanism, using information on sea otters, kelp forests, and the recent extinction of Steller's sea cows from the Commander Islands. Large numbers of sea cows occurred in the Commander Islands at the time of their discovery by Europeans in 1741. Although extinction of these last remaining sea cows during early years of the Pacific maritime fur trade is widely thought to be a consequence of direct human overkill, we show that it is also a probable consequence of the loss of sea otters and the co-occurring loss of kelp, even if not a single sea cow had been killed directly by humans. This example supports the hypothesis that the directly caused extinctions of a few large vertebrates in the late Pleistocene may have resulted in the coextinction of numerous other species. PMID:26504217

  7. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift

    PubMed Central

    Ling, S. D.; Johnson, C. R.; Frusher, S. D.; Ridgway, K. R.

    2009-01-01

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans. PMID:20018706

  8. Sea otters, kelp forests, and the extinction of Steller’s sea cow

    PubMed Central

    Estes, James A.; Burdin, Alexander; Doak, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    The late Pleistocene extinction of so many large-bodied vertebrates has been variously attributed to two general causes: rapid climate change and the effects of humans as they spread from the Old World to previously uninhabited continents and islands. Many large-bodied vertebrates, especially large apex predators, maintain their associated ecosystems through top-down forcing processes, especially trophic cascades, and megaherbivores also exert an array of strong indirect effects on their communities. Thus, a third possibility for at least some of the Pleistocene extinctions is that they occurred through habitat changes resulting from the loss of these other keystone species. Here we explore the plausibility of this mechanism, using information on sea otters, kelp forests, and the recent extinction of Steller's sea cows from the Commander Islands. Large numbers of sea cows occurred in the Commander Islands at the time of their discovery by Europeans in 1741. Although extinction of these last remaining sea cows during early years of the Pacific maritime fur trade is widely thought to be a consequence of direct human overkill, we show that it is also a probable consequence of the loss of sea otters and the co-occurring loss of kelp, even if not a single sea cow had been killed directly by humans. This example supports the hypothesis that the directly caused extinctions of a few large vertebrates in the late Pleistocene may have resulted in the coextinction of numerous other species. PMID:26504217

  9. Overfishing reduces resilience of kelp beds to climate-driven catastrophic phase shift.

    PubMed

    Ling, S D; Johnson, C R; Frusher, S D; Ridgway, K R

    2009-12-29

    A key consideration in assessing impacts of climate change is the possibility of synergistic effects with other human-induced stressors. In the ocean realm, climate change and overfishing pose two of the greatest challenges to the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems. In eastern Tasmania, temperate coastal waters are warming at approximately four times the global ocean warming average, representing the fastest rate of warming in the Southern Hemisphere. This has driven range extension of the ecologically important long-spined sea urchin (Centrostephanus rodgersii), which has now commenced catastrophic overgrazing of productive Tasmanian kelp beds leading to loss of biodiversity and important rocky reef ecosystem services. Coincident with the overgrazing is heavy fishing of reef-based predators including the spiny lobster Jasus edwardsii. By conducting experiments inside and outside Marine Protected Areas we show that fishing, by removing large predatory lobsters, has reduced the resilience of kelp beds against the climate-driven threat of the sea urchin and thus increased risk of catastrophic shift to widespread sea urchin barrens. This shows that interactions between multiple human-induced stressors can exacerbate nonlinear responses of ecosystems to climate change and limit the adaptive capacity of these systems. Management actions focused on reducing the risk of catastrophic phase shift in ecosystems are particularly urgent in the face of ongoing warming and unprecedented levels of predator removal from the world's oceans. PMID:20018706

  10. Dietary niche expansion of a kelp forest predator recovering from intense commercial exploitation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Scott L; Newsome, Seth D; Caselle, Jennifer E

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are increasingly at risk from overexploitation and fisheries collapse. As managers implement recovery plans, shifts in species interactions may occur broadly with potential consequences for ecosystem structure and function. In kelp forests off San Nicolas Island, California, USA, we describe striking changes in size structure and life history traits (e.g., size at maturation and sex change) of a heavily fished, ecologically important predator, the California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher). These changes occurred in two phases: (1) after intense commercial fishery exploitation in the late 1990s and (2) following recovery in the late 2000s, nearly a decade after management intervention. Using gut contents and stable-isotope values of sheephead and their prey, we found evidence for a dietary niche expansion upon recovery of population size structure to include increased consumption of sea urchins and other mobile invertebrate grazers by larger sized fish. By examining historical diet data and a time series of benthic community composition, we conclude that changes in dietary niche breadth are more likely due to the recovery of size structure from fishing than major shifts in prey availability. Size-dependent predator-prey interactions may have ecosystem consequences and management measures that preserve or restore size structure, and therefore historical trophic roles of key predators, could be vital for maintaining kelp forest ecosystem health. PMID:24649656

  11. Seasonal sea ice cover as principal driver of spatial and temporal variation in depth extension and annual production of kelp in Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria; Olesen, Birgit; Sejr, Mikael K; Christensen, Peter Bondo; Rodrigues, João; Renaud, Paul E; Balsby, Thorsten JS; Rysgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    We studied the depth distribution and production of kelp along the Greenland coast spanning Arctic to sub-Arctic conditions from 78 °N to 64 °N. This covers a wide range of sea ice conditions and water temperatures, with those presently realized in the south likely to move northwards in a warmer future. Kelp forests occurred along the entire latitudinal range, and their depth extension and production increased southwards presumably in response to longer annual ice-free periods and higher water temperature. The depth limit of 10% kelp cover was 9–14 m at the northernmost sites (77–78 °N) with only 94–133 ice-free days per year, but extended to depths of 21–33 m further south (73 °N–64 °N) where >160 days per year were ice-free, and annual production of Saccharina longicruris and S. latissima, measured as the size of the annual blade, ranged up to sevenfold among sites. The duration of the open-water period, which integrates light and temperature conditions on an annual basis, was the best predictor (relative to summer water temperature) of kelp production along the latitude gradient, explaining up to 92% of the variation in depth extension and 80% of the variation in kelp production. In a decadal time series from a high Arctic site (74 °N), inter-annual variation in sea ice cover also explained a major part (up to 47%) of the variation in kelp production. Both spatial and temporal data sets thereby support the prediction that northern kelps will play a larger role in the coastal marine ecosystem in a warmer future as the length of the open-water period increases. As kelps increase carbon-flow and habitat diversity, an expansion of kelp forests may exert cascading effects on the coastal Arctic ecosystem.

  12. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  13. Responding to patient demand: community pharmacists and herbal and nutritional products for children.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Nicola; Lorenc, Ava

    2011-06-01

    The attitudes and behaviour of pharmacists working in a multi-ethnic community regarding herbal and nutritional products (HNPs) for children, were explored in depth. Qualitative interviews with four pharmacists were analysed using Framework Analysis. Quantitative diary recording of all HNP-related events for child customers in four pharmacies was carried out over two separate week periods between March and June 2008. Of 29 events recorded, most involved parents buying products for their child, especially herbal and nutritional supplements and topical products, and asking for advice. Pharmacists were generally open to herbal and nutritional products and perceived an increasing demand which they were keen to meet. Although they reported feeling competent to give advice, pharmacists wished to increase their knowledge as information on HNPs was limited, and the need to maintain professionalism at all times was recognized. Pharmacists appear to understand and empathize with customer demand for HNPs and are uniquely positioned within the National Health System to provide product advice and support. However, to maintain professionalism, pharmacists may require further information on herbal and nutritional products and continuing professional training, especially since herbal and nutritional supplements may interact with prescribed and over-the-counter drugs. PMID:21110397

  14. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  15. Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

  16. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Main results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects

  17. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus

  18. PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF FLOATING GIANT KELP MACROCYSTIS PYRIFERA (PHAEOPHYCEAE): LATITUDINAL VARIABILITY IN THE EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND GRAZING(1).

    PubMed

    Rothäusler, Eva; Gómez, Iván; Hinojosa, Iván A; Karsten, Ulf; Tala, Fadia; Thiel, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Rafts of Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C. Agardh can act as an important dispersal vehicle for a multitude of organisms, but this mechanism requires prolonged persistence of floating kelps at the sea surface. When detached, kelps become transferred into higher temperature and irradiance regimes at the sea surface, which may negatively affect kelp physiology and thus their ability to persist for long periods after detachment. To examine the effect of water temperature and herbivory on the photosynthetic performance, pigment composition, carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity, and the nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) content of floating M. pyrifera, experiments were conducted at three sites (20° S, 30° S, 40° S) along the Chilean Pacific coast. Sporophytes of M. pyrifera were maintained at three different temperatures (ambient, ambient - 4°C, ambient + 4°C) and in presence or absence of the amphipod Peramphithoe femorata for 14 d. CA activity decreased at 20° S and 30° S, where water temperatures and irradiances were highest. At both sites, pigment contents were substantially lower in the experimental algae than in the initial algae, an effect that was enhanced by grazers. Floating kelps at 20° S could not withstand water temperatures >24°C and sank at day 5 of experimentation. Maximal quantum yield decreased at 20° S and 30° S but remained high at 40° S. It is concluded that environmental stress is low for kelps floating under moderate temperature and irradiance conditions (i.e., at 40° S), ensuring their physiological integrity at the sea surface and, consequently, a high dispersal potential for associated biota. PMID:27021859

  19. Regulatory issues concerning the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Rousseaux, Colin G; Schachter, Howard

    2003-12-01

    Herbal remedies and alternative medicines are used throughout the world, and in the past herbs were often the original sources of most drugs. Today we are witnessing an increase in herbal remedy use throughout the Western world raising the question as to how safe are these preparations for the unborn fetus? Many women use herbal products during pregnancy. The dilemma facing most regulatory authorities is that the public considers these products as either traditional medicines or natural food supplements. The user sees no reason for regulation. Most countries have laws concerning foods, drugs, and cosmetics, the details of which seldom clearly define to what section of the law and regulations alternative remedies belong. In most countries alternative remedies are regulated as foods, provided that no medicinal claim is made on the label. The global regulatory sector, however, is changing rapidly. The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) in Australia created a Complimentary Medicines Evaluation Committee in late 1997 to address this issue, and Canada has created a new Natural Health Products Directorate in the realigned Therapeutic Products and Foods Branch in 2000. In parallel, the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products has drafted test procedures and acceptance criteria for herbal drug preparations and herbal medicinal products. In the US, the Food and Drug Administration classifies these natural products as dietary supplements. Manufacturers must label a dietary supplement thus: "this statement has not been evaluated by the FDA [, and] this product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease." Whether these products are foods or drugs is undecided. To add complexity to this issue, most of the potential deleterious effects of natural products on the unborn may be related to hormonal effects (e.g., phytoestrogens) and nutriceutical drug interactions (e.g., St. John's Wort and antidepressants), rather than direct embryotoxicity

  20. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional

  1. Perioperative analgesia and the effects of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Abe, Andrew; Kaye, Alan David; Gritsenko, Karina; Urman, Richard D; Kaye, Adam Marc

    2014-06-01

    With over 50,000 dietary supplements available, resurgence in consumer interest over the past few decades has resulted in an explosion of use of these agents worldwide. Disillusionment with current medications and belief in "natural medicines" has resulted in a multibillion dollar industry. Active ingredients in a number of herbs are being tested for therapeutic potential, and some are efficacious, so herbal medicines cannot be dismissed. The prevalence of herbology is further encouraged by a relatively relaxed policy of the FDA regarding these compounds, which they consider foods. As herbal products are included in the "supplement" category, there is no existing protocol for standardization of these products. There are numerous examples of herbals that can adversely affect patient recovery and outcomes in anesthesia. The prudent anesthesia provider will make sure to obtain correct information as to accurate herbal usage of each patient and attempt to discontinue these products two to three weeks prior to the delivery of an anesthetic. Postoperative analgesia, bleeding, and level of sedation can be negatively impacted related to herbal products and herbal-drug interactions. Over 90 herbal products are associated with bleeding and this can be a specific problem intraoperatively or when considering placement of a regional anesthetic for postoperative pain management. PMID:24993438

  2. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R

    2015-01-01

    There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S), the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape. PMID:26360294

  3. Herbivore-Alga Interaction Strength Influences Spatial Heterogeneity in a Kelp-Dominated Intertidal Community

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Moisés A.; Valdivia, Nelson; Broitman, Bernardo R.

    2015-01-01

    There is a general consensus that marine herbivores can affect algal species composition and abundance, but little empirical work exists on the role of herbivores as modifiers of the spatial structure of resource assemblages. Here, we test the consumption/bulldozing effects of the molluscan grazer Enoplochiton niger and its influence on the spatial structure of a low intertidal community dominated by the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica and the kelp Lessonia spicata. Through field experiments conducted at a rocky intertidal shore in north-central Chile (~30°-32°S), the edge of the grazer and algae geographic distributions, we estimated the strength and variability of consumptive effects of the grazer on different functional group of algae. We also used data from abundance field surveys to evaluate spatial co-occurrence patterns of the study species. Exclusion-enclosure experiments showed that E. niger maintained primary space available by preventing algal colonization, even of large brown algae species. The grazing activity of E. niger also reduced spatial heterogeneity of the ephemeral algal species, increasing bare space availability and variability through time in similar ways to those observed for the collective effect with other grazers. Overall, our result suggests that E. niger can be considered an important modifier of the spatial structure of the large brown algae-dominated community. Effects of E. niger on resource variability seem to be directly related to its foraging patterns, large body size, and population densities, which are all relevant factors for management and conservation of the large brown algae community. Our study thus highlights the importance of considering functional roles and identity of generalist consumers on spatial structure of the entire landscape. PMID:26360294

  4. The biogeography of kelps (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae): a global analysis with new insights from recent advances in molecular phylogenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, John J.

    2010-12-01

    Despite their ecological and economic importance, no summary of kelp global biogeography has been produced for almost two decades. The circumscription of the order Laminariales and familial and generic relationships in the group have changed considerably recently, in the light of molecular data. A global summary and geographical analysis of kelp species and their distributions (112 species in 33 genera) is presented. These data are analysed and discussed from the perspective of the new consensus of relationships within the group, and likely evolutionary events. The putative ancestors of the kelps occur and are overwhelmingly most diverse, in the cooler waters of northern Japan. The biogeographical evidence suggests three main lines of subsequent evolution: (a) a diversification producing the four ‘derived’ families Alariaceae, Costariceae, Laminariaceae, and Lessoniaceae and most extant genera in the temperate northern Pacific, probably during the Miocene. (b) The evolution of an Arctic flora which invaded the North Atlantic following the opening of the Bering Strait ca. 5.5 Ma. (c) At least four separate crossings, by different genera, of tropical regions from Northern to Southern Hemisphere (and one in the opposite direction). The recorded impacts of man on these distributions have thus far been minimal, with the notable exceptions of Undaria pinnatifida and species of Saccharina (grown in aquaculture systems for human food). Most genera are monospecific, with many confined to either the western or eastern temperate North Pacific, whereas the distribution of the most species-rich genera ( Alaria, Laminaria, Saccharina) includes the Arctic, and they are widespread in the North Atlantic. This rapid species-level evolution is hypothesised to have been promoted by the relatively recent invasion of the Atlantic by these taxa. The crossing of the tropics has occurred in warm-temperate species some of which occur and are sometimes abundant, in deeper water in today

  5. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  6. Antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, and herbal remedies in tinnitus therapy.

    PubMed

    Enrico, Paolo; Sirca, Donatella; Mereu, Maddalena

    2007-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is very popular in western countries and several CAM products are often used by individuals with tinnitus with or without medical guidance. CAM pharmacological approach to tinnitus today is mainly based on vitamins and minerals (dietary supplements), antioxidants, and herbal medications. Despite the popularity of CAM products, the evidence regarding their efficacy against tinnitus is in general scarce and their potential toxic effects are often underestimated or even neglected. In this paper the available literature on the efficacy of dietary supplements, antioxidants, and herbal medications against tinnitus is reviewed, and some of the major potential toxic effects are discussed. It is concluded that the use of CAM products in tinnitus therapy in general lack substantial scientific support, and that these substances are probably not clinically effective either. However, it is difficult to draw clear-cut conclusions regarding CAM pharmacological approach to tinnitus. In fact, the subjective nature of tinnitus and the reported variability in patient's response to therapy indicate that several non-pharmacological factors may be influencing drug effects, with the placebo effect playing a major role. Nevertheless, in view of the potential harm that may occur from inappropriate use of CAM products, physicians need to be aware of their principal characteristics with particular emphasis on toxicity and possibilities of interaction with prescription drugs. PMID:17956795

  7. Quantifying Temporal and Spatial Variability of Nearshore Processes Around a Nearshore Kelp Forest Rocky Reef with the Kelp Forest Array Cabled Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squibb, M. E.; Monismith, S. G.; Woodson, C. B.; Dunckley, J. F.; Martone, R. G.; Litvin, S. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Oceanographic data from the Kelp Forest Array (KFA) cabled observatory is used to determine the frequency, intensity, duration and seasonal variation of low-pH and low-DO events, and relate them to temperature and density variability associated with internal waves and upwelling. We employ standard time series analyses to determine the frequency distributions of variance in pH, DO, and T and coherence analysis to identify frequency dependent co-variability among the three variables. Statistical analysis is used to identify the probability of a hypoxic event of given strength (e.g., DO < 4.5 mg/l17) lasting for a given duration and compare this between habitats. Joint probability distribution functions of low-DO are computed from the data in the same way. This approach can be used to identify the likelihood of extreme events with respect to specific DO thresholds of physiological relevance for species of interest in MPAs. The time scales and vertical structure of velocities, temperature, and dissolved oxygen associated with low-DO events are also analyzed to determine the dominant transport mechanisms for these events and how they are tied to internal shoaling waves prevalent in the southern part of Monterey Bay. The structure and evolution of shoaling internal "bores" are also shown to substantially alter the background nearshore dynamics with their arrival and relaxation. Our work in 2015 is contextualized by multi-year data sets from the three previous years which contain observations of both upwelling and non-upwelling periods.

  8. Treatment of Hypothyroidism due to Iodine Deficiency Using Daily Powdered Kelp in Patients Receiving Long-term Total Enteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Takako; Kamasaki, Hotaka; Hotsubo, Tomoyuki; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    We investigated thyroid function and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in seven patients with severe motor intellectual disabilities. All seven received total enteral nutrition (TEN) for more than three years with a daily iodine intake of less than 20 µg. They were diagnosed as hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency (HID) because of high TSH levels (7.6–82.3 µIU/ml), lower free T4 (FT4 0.4–1.5 ng/dl), negative anti-thyroid antibodies (anti-thyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroidal peroxidase antibody) and extremely low UIC (<25–58 µg/l) levels. We gave them 1–2 g powdered kelp (200–400 µg as iodine) once a day, which restored their thyroid function and normalized their UICs. We proposed that daily powdered kelp would be effective and safe to treat HID in patient receiving long term TEN. PMID:23926395

  9. The use of herbal medicines by people with cancer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Gratus, Christine; Wilson, Sue; Greenfield, Sheila M; Damery, Sarah L; Warmington, Sally A; Grieve, Robert; Steven, Neil M; Routledge, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Background Between 7% and 48% of cancer patients report taking herbal medicines after diagnosis. Because of the possibility of unwanted side effects or interactions with conventional treatments, people with cancer are generally advised to tell the professionals treating them if they are taking any form of medication, including herbal medicines and supplements. Studies suggest that only about half do so and that the professionals themselves have at best very limited knowledge and feel unable to give informed advice. This study is intended to inform the future development of information resources for cancer patients, survivors and healthcare professionals including tools for use before or during consultation to make it easier for patients to mention, and for healthcare professionals to ask about, use of herbal medications. Methods/design This is a three-phase study. In phase 1, a systematic review of the literature on self-medication with herbal medicines among UK populations living with cancer will establish the current evidence base on use of herbal medicine, sources of information, characteristics and motivations. This will allow us to better understand what aspects need further investigation and inform the topic guide for a qualitative study (phase 2). Six focus groups of six to eight cancer patients who have used at least one herbal preparation since diagnosis will explore behaviour, beliefs, knowledge, information sources and needs in an informal conversational setting. Informed by the findings of the systematic review and qualitative study, in phase 3 we will construct and pilot a questionnaire for a future large-scale survey to quantify and prioritise people's beliefs, needs and information preferences. Discussion Despite known interactions with conventional cancer treatments and contraindications for some herbal remedies with specific cancers, reliable information resources for patients are very limited. Identifying cancer patients' information needs and

  10. Free-living and particle-associated prokaryote metabolism in giant kelp forests: Implications for carbon flux in a sub-Antarctic coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schapira, Mathilde; McQuaid, Christopher D.; Froneman, Pierre W.

    2012-06-01

    Extensive beds of large subtidal kelps are characteristic of many temperate and subpolar coastlines. They provide habitats for a wide range of other species and are sites of high primary production that generate large quantities of water-borne particles and dissolved organic compounds that support distinctive communities of prokaryotes. We measured prokaryotic metabolism along transects from the shore to the outside of three giant kelp forests (Macrocystis pyrifera) located in the shelf waters of the Prince Edward Islands (Southern Ocean). Abundance, heterotrophic production (PHP), respiration rates (R-ETS) and growth efficiencies (PGE) were investigated within the particle-associated (PA) and the free-living (FL) communities. Temperature, salinity and inorganic nutrient concentrations indicated distinct hydrological differences among the kelp forests that were related to different levels of freshwater input through island run-off. In contrast, detritus and particulate organic matter concentrations showed a common pattern, decreasing from the near-shore to offshore at all sampling sites, suggesting the retention of organically enriched water masses inshore of the kelp forests. While FL and PA abundances did not differ significantly along transects, FL and PA-PHP and PGE all varied significantly across the kelp forests, following the same pattern across each forest. PA-PGE was significantly higher than FL-PGE in the near-shore waters and farther offshore, while FL-PGE was higher or equal to PA-PGE inside the kelp. This shift can be interpreted in terms of gradients in both the age and origins of organic material across the kelp forests. Higher PA-PGE implies that a larger fraction of organic carbon on colonized particles is converted into prokaryotic biomass and so becomes available to higher trophic levels inshore and offshore of M. pyrifera forests than inside the kelp bed. In contrast, low PA-PGE suggests that a large quantity of carbon passes through the PA

  11. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, “advertisement/public relations” was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, “low manpower/seeking business partners” were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers. PMID:26199635

  12. Perspectives on the Market Globalization of Korean Herbal Manufacturers: A Company-Based Survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongsu; Ahn, Miyoung; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kwon, Soohyun; Park, Eun-Ji; Koo, Ki Hoon; Woo, Jong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The growth of herbal markets has increased substantially in South Korea, but the worldwide market share remains small despite significant governmental efforts. This study aimed to characterize manufacturing employment and identify employees' general perceptions of market expansion. A survey study covering 567 companies was conducted using face-to-face interviews in 2012. Data were analyzed using comparisons among three manufacturing groups (i.e., the herbal dietary supplement manufacturing group, the herbal medicine manufacturing group, and the personal care product manufacturing group) or among the manufacturers themselves. We found that the majority of the manufacturing employee respondents were regular permanent and production workers. The domestic distributors were primarily chain stores/direct outlets or retailers/wholesalers, and the dominant product was red ginseng (hongsam). Although the responding companies exhibited a variety of perspectives, "advertisement/public relations" was cited as the most important factor in the development of the herbal industry. In contrast, "low manpower/seeking business partners" were the most crucial limiting and challenging factors for market globalization. Our results can be used to design a proper national plan by reducing the gaps in perspective between herbal product producers and policy makers. PMID:26199635

  13. The growing use of herbal medicines: issues relating to adverse reactions and challenges in monitoring safety

    PubMed Central

    Ekor, Martins

    2014-01-01

    The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety. PMID:24454289

  14. Nutritional supplements for the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Michael H; Mulqueen, Jilian

    2014-10-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation appears to have modest benefit for improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Many other natural supplements are widely used in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side effects. This review synthesizes and evaluates the scientific evidence regarding the potential efficacy and side effects of natural supplements and herbal remedies for ADHD. We provide clinicians with recommendations regarding their potential use and role in overall ADHD treatment. PMID:25220092

  15. Effects of experimental overgrowth on survival and change in the turf assemblage of a giant kelp forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Meslow, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Crustose coralline algae were the prevalent cover among sessile organisms that paved or grew near the substratum, and also the most commonly overgrown species in a giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (L.) C.A. Agardh forest located off San Nicolas Island, California. Giant kelp was the largest and most conspicuous species that overgrew large patches of the substrata; overgrowth among turf organisms also appeared common. To determine the effects of giant kelp holdfasts on crustose coralline algae and other turf organisms,'artificial holdfasts' were placed on 0.125-m2 plots for 5, 8 and 12 months. In these treatments, 50?57% of the crustose coralline algae survived. Because these algae also recruited while covered, the total cover (survivorship plus recruitment) differed by only 7?26% from that sampled at the start of the study. The decline of these algae in control plots was similar to that in the treatment plots mostly because of overgrowth by sessile invertebrates. Bryozoans increased markedly on the control plots, whereas 0?12% survived in the treatment plots. Bryozoans and sponges also recruited under the artificial holdfasts. Some arborescent turf algae survived in the 5- and 8-month treatments; articulated coralline algae survived better than did foliose algae. High survival recruitment of crustose coralline algae while overgrown contributed to their prevalence in benthic communities.

  16. In situ microscopy reveals reversible cell wall swelling in kelp sieve tubes: one mechanism for turgor generation and flow control?

    PubMed

    Knoblauch, Jan; Tepler Drobnitch, Sarah; Peters, Winfried S; Knoblauch, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Kelps, brown algae (Phaeophyceae) of the order Laminariales, possess sieve tubes for the symplasmic long-distance transport of photoassimilates that are evolutionarily unrelated but structurally similar to the tubes in the phloem of vascular plants. We visualized sieve tube structure and wound responses in fully functional, intact Bull Kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana [K. Mertens] Postels & Ruprecht 1840). In injured tubes, apparent slime plugs formed but were unlikely to cause sieve tube occlusion as they assembled at the downstream side of sieve plates. Cell walls expanded massively in the radial direction, reducing the volume of the wounded sieve elements by up to 90%. Ultrastructural examination showed that a layer of the immediate cell wall characterized by circumferential cellulose fibrils was responsible for swelling and suggested that alginates, abundant gelatinous polymers of the cell wall matrix, were involved. Wall swelling was rapid, reversible and depended on intracellular pressure, as demonstrated by pressure-injection of silicon oil. Our results revive the concept of turgor generation and buffering by swelling cell walls, which had fallen into oblivion over the last century. Because sieve tube transport is pressure-driven and controlled physically by tube diameter, a regulatory role of wall swelling in photoassimilate distribution is implied in kelps. PMID:26991892

  17. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  18. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  19. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products. PMID:26076652

  20. Dietary supplementation practices of Singaporean athletes.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gary; Tan, Benedict; Teh, Kong Chuan

    2003-09-01

    The supplementation practices of elite athletes in Singapore were studied using an anonymous questionnaire. Information was sought on not only the type of supplements used but also dosage, rationale for use, and other factors that might influence supplement use including selected demographic parameters and sources of information relating to supplements. Data was collected from 160 athletes across a spectrum of 30 sports. Use of supplements was widespread, with 77% of respondents acknowledging use of at least 1 product. Respondents ingested a total of 59 different supplements, with each athlete using on average 3.6 +/- 0.3 different products. Sports drinks, caffeine, vitamin C, multivitamin/mineral supplements, and essence of chicken were some of the most commonly ingested products, confirming that while vitamin/mineral supplements are popular, sports supplements and traditional/herbal preparations were also well accepted. Respondents preferred to source information pertaining to supplements from "significant others" and other readily accessible sources. A small number of respondents acknowledged the use of International Olympic Committee (IOC) banned or restricted substances, highlighting the need for athletes to consult sports medicine professionals with specialist knowledge of dietary supplements in advance of initiating any supplementation regime. PMID:14669932

  1. How kelp produce blade shapes suited to different flow regimes: A new wrinkle.

    PubMed

    Koehl, M A R; Silk, W K; Liang, H; Mahadevan, L

    2008-12-01

    Many species of macroalgae have flat, strap-like blades in habitats exposed to rapidly flowing water, but have wide, ruffled "undulate" blades at protected sites. We used the giant bull kelp, Nereocystis luetkeana, to investigate how these ecomorphological differences are produced. The undulate blades of N. luetkeana from sites with low flow remain spread out and flutter erratically in moving water, thereby not only enhancing interception of light, but also increasing drag. In contrast, strap-like blades of kelp from habitats with rapid flow collapse into streamlined bundles and flutter at low amplitude in flowing water, thus reducing both drag and interception of light. Transplant experiments in the field revealed that shape of the blade in N. luetkeana is a plastic trait. Laboratory experiments in which growing blades from different sites were subjected to tensile forces that mimicked the hydrodynamic drag experienced by blades in different flow regimes showed that change in shape is induced by mechanical stress. During growth experiments in the field and laboratory, we mapped the spatial distribution of growth in both undulate and strap-like blades to determine how these different morphologies were produced. The highest growth rates occur near the proximal ends of N. luetkeana blades of both morphologies, but the rates of transverse growth of narrow, strap-like blades are lower than those of wide, undulate blades. If rates of longitudinal growth at the edges of a blade exceed the rate of longitudinal growth along the midline of the blade, ruffles along the edges of the blade are produced by elastic buckling. In contrast, flat blades are produced when rates of longitudinal growth are similar across the width of a blade. Because ruffles are the result of elastic buckling, a compliant undulate N. luetkeana blade can easily be pushed into different configurations (e.g., the wavelengths of the ruffles along the edges of the blade can change, and the whole blade can

  2. Contemporary habitat discontinuity and historic glacial ice drive genetic divergence in Chilean kelp

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background South America's western coastline, extending in a near-straight line across some 35 latitudinal degrees, presents an elegant setting for assessing both contemporary and historic influences on cladogenesis in the marine environment. Southern bull-kelp (Durvillaea antarctica) has a broad distribution along much of the Chilean coast. This species represents an ideal model taxon for studies of coastal marine connectivity and of palaeoclimatic effects, as it grows only on exposed rocky coasts and is absent from beaches and ice-affected shores. We expected that, along the central Chilean coast, D. antarctica would show considerable phylogeographic structure as a consequence of the isolating effects of distance and habitat discontinuities. In contrast, we hypothesised that further south - throughout the region affected by the Patagonian Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) - D. antarctica would show relatively little genetic structure, reflecting postglacial recolonisation. Results Mitochondrial (COI) and chloroplast (rbcL) DNA analyses of D. antarctica from 24 Chilean localities (164 individuals) revealed two deeply divergent (4.5 - 6.1% for COI, 1.4% for rbcL) clades from the centre and south of the country, with contrasting levels and patterns of genetic structure. Among populations from central Chile (32° - 44°S), substantial phylogeographic structure was evident across small spatial scales, and a significant isolation-by-distance effect was observed. Genetic disjunctions in this region appear to correspond to the presence of long beaches. In contrast to the genetic structure found among central Chilean populations, samples from the southern Chilean Patagonian region (49° - 56°S) were genetically homogeneous and identical to a haplotype recently found throughout the subantarctic region. Conclusions Southern (Patagonian) Chile has been recolonised by D. antarctica relatively recently, probably since the LGM. The inferred trans-oceanic ancestry of

  3. Global herbal medicine: a critique.

    PubMed

    Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

    2003-04-01

    Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry. PMID:12804085

  4. MDR- and CYP3A4-mediated drug-herbal interactions.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2006-03-27

    in higher MDR-1 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. Therefore, herbs can pharmacokinetically act as inhibitors or inducers. Medicinal agents that are substrates P-gp-mediated efflux and/or CYP-mediated metabolism are likely to be potential candidates for drug-herbal interactions. The duration of exposure of cells/healthy volunteers/animals to herbals appears to be critical for drug-herbal interaction. An increase in plasma drug concentration is possible during concomitant administration of SJW and prescribed drugs. In contrast, prolonged intake of herbal supplement followed by drug administration may result in subtherapeutic concentrations. Therefore, clinical implications of such drug herbal interactions depend on a variety of factors such as dose, frequency and timing of herbal intake, dosing regimen, route of drug administration and therapeutic range. In vitro screening techniques will play a major role in identifying possible herb-drug interactions and thus create a platform for clinical studies to emerge. Mechanisms of drug-herbal interaction have been discussed in this review article. PMID:16442130

  5. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: the detritivore community and species interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    The fauna associated with sea-bed accumulations of decomposing Laminaria saccharina has been studied by year-round SCUBA diving at two sites in the Clyde Sea area. Seasonal changes in density of 64 species are reported. In the autumn, large quantities of kelp are detached by storms. This weed carries with it to the sea bed a large part of its normal fauna. Additional species settle onto the weed from the plankton whilst others migrate onto it from the surrounding sea bed. Peak densities of associated species were recorded in autumn. Litter bag experiments in situ showed that, except during the summer, weed is lost from sea-bed accumulations at a faster rate when macrofaunal animals are excluded. The macrofauna therefore inhibits decomposition. The relative importance of interactive cropping by three macrodetritivores, Psammechinus miliaris (Echinodermata), Platynereis dumerilii (Polychaeta) and Gammarus locusta (Amphipoda) was studied by in situ containment of different species combinations. The presence of Gammarus with Psammechinus resulted in less weed being lost than when Psammechinus was isolated. This is because Gammarus selectively crops rotting weed, retarding frond disintegration by microbes. Platynereis retards microbial colonization of frond tissues ruptured during its feeding by repeated cropping of the same region. Weed would decompose very rapidly were it not for macrofaunal cropping. Macroalgal decay thus differs profoundly from that of vascular plants.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of metabolic function in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, across depth and season.

    PubMed

    Konotchick, Talina; Dupont, Christopher L; Valas, Ruben E; Badger, Jonathan H; Allen, Andrew E

    2013-04-01

    To increase knowledge of transcript diversity for the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and assess gene expression across naturally occurring depth gradients in light, temperature and nutrients, we sequenced four cDNA libraries created from blades collected at the sea surface and at 18 m depth during the winter and summer. Comparative genomics cluster analyses revealed novel gene families (clusters) in existing brown alga expressed sequence tag data compared with other related algal groups, a pattern also seen with the addition of M. pyrifera sequences. Assembly of 228 Mbp of sequence generated c. 9000 isotigs and c. 12,000 open reading frames. Annotations were assigned using families of hidden Markov models for c. 11% of open reading frames; M. pyrifera had highest similarity to other members of the Phaeophyceae, namely Ectocarpus siliculosus and Laminaria digitata. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of transcript targets verified depth-related differences in gene expression; stress response and light-harvesting transcripts, especially members of the LI818 (also known as LHCSR) family, showed high expression in the surface compared with 18 m depth, while some nitrogen acquisition transcripts (e.g. nitrite reductase) were upregulated at depth compared with the surface, supporting a conceptual biological model of depth-dependent physiology. PMID:23488966

  7. Oligoguluronates Elicit an Oxidative Burst in the Brown Algal Kelp Laminaria digitata1

    PubMed Central

    Küpper, Frithjof Christian; Kloareg, Bernard; Guern, Jean; Potin, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Oligomeric degradation products of alginate elicited a respiratory and oxidative burst in the sporophytes of the kelp Laminaria digitata. The generation of activated oxygen species (AOS), O2−, and H2O2 was detected at the single cell level, using nitroblue tetrazolium precipitation and a redox-sensitive fluorescent probe, respectively. The oxidative burst involved diphenyleneiodonium-sensitive AOS-generating machinery and its amplitude depended on the type of tissue. After a first elicitation plants were desensitized for about 3 h. The activity of alginate oligosaccharides was dose dependent, saturating around 40 μm. It was also structure-dependent, with homopolymeric blocks of α-1,4-l-guluronic acid, i.e. the functional analogs of oligogalacturonic blocks in pectins, being the most active signals. The perception of oligoguluronate signals resulted in a strong efflux of potassium. Pharmacological dissection of the early events preceding the emission of AOS indicated that the transduction chain of oligoguluronate signals in L. digitata is likely to feature protein kinases, phospholipase A2, as well as K+, Ca2+, and anion channels. PMID:11154336

  8. Iodide accumulation provides kelp with an inorganic antioxidant impacting atmospheric chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; McFiggans, Gordon B.; Palmer, Carl J.; Waite, Tim J.; Boneberg, Eva-Maria; Woitsch, Sonja; Weiller, Markus; Abela, Rafael; Grolimund, Daniel; Potin, Philippe; Butler, Alison; Luther, George W.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Feiters, Martin C.

    2008-01-01

    Brown algae of the Laminariales (kelps) are the strongest accumulators of iodine among living organisms. They represent a major pump in the global biogeochemical cycle of iodine and, in particular, the major source of iodocarbons in the coastal atmosphere. Nevertheless, the chemical state and biological significance of accumulated iodine have remained unknown to this date. Using x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we show that the accumulated form is iodide, which readily scavenges a variety of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We propose here that its biological role is that of an inorganic antioxidant, the first to be described in a living system. Upon oxidative stress, iodide is effluxed. On the thallus surface and in the apoplast, iodide detoxifies both aqueous oxidants and ozone, the latter resulting in the release of high levels of molecular iodine and the consequent formation of hygroscopic iodine oxides leading to particles, which are precursors to cloud condensation nuclei. In a complementary set of experiments using a heterologous system, iodide was found to effectively scavenge ROS in human blood cells. PMID:18458346

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of metabolic function in the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, across depth and season

    PubMed Central

    Konotchick, Talina; Dupont, Christopher L; Valas, Ruben E; Badger, Jonathan H; Allen, Andrew E

    2013-01-01

    To increase knowledge of transcript diversity for the giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, and assess gene expression across naturally occurring depth gradients in light, temperature and nutrients, we sequenced four cDNA libraries created from blades collected at the sea surface and at 18 m depth during the winter and summer. Comparative genomics cluster analyses revealed novel gene families (clusters) in existing brown alga expressed sequence tag data compared with other related algal groups, a pattern also seen with the addition of M. pyrifera sequences. Assembly of 228 Mbp of sequence generated c. 9000 isotigs and c. 12 000 open reading frames. Annotations were assigned using families of hidden Markov models for c. 11% of open reading frames; M. pyrifera had highest similarity to other members of the Phaeophyceae, namely Ectocarpus siliculosus and Laminaria digitata. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction of transcript targets verified depth-related differences in gene expression; stress response and light-harvesting transcripts, especially members of the LI818 (also known as LHCSR) family, showed high expression in the surface compared with 18 m depth, while some nitrogen acquisition transcripts (e.g. nitrite reductase) were upregulated at depth compared with the surface, supporting a conceptual biological model of depth-dependent physiology. PMID:23488966

  10. Effect of kelp waste extracts on the growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiyan; He, Meilin; Jiang, Jie; Zou, Shanmei; Yang, Weinan; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Jie; Wang, Changhai

    2016-02-01

    Kelp waste extracts (KWE) contained massive soluble sugars, amino acids and various mineral elements. To probe the effects of KWE on microalgal physiological and biochemical responses, the cultures were carried out under the different dilutions. The results showed that 8.0% KWE increased the biomass productivities and total lipid contents of Chlorella strains dramatically, which were 1.83-31.86 times and 20.78-25.91% higher than that of the control. Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Spirulina maxima presented a better growth performance in 1.0% and 4.0% treatment respectively, while their lipid accumulation were not enhanced. In Chlorella-Arc, Chlorella sorokiniana and P. tricornutum, the contents of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids could be increased, and polyunsaturated fatty acids could be decreased under the conditions of high concentration of KWE (6.0-8.0%). Briefly, KWE facilitated to enhance the biomass productivity and lipid content of Chlorella strains, also improved the fatty acid compositions for biodiesel production. PMID:26638137

  11. A multi-decade time series of kelp forest community structure at San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kenner, Michael C.; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Bodkin, James L.; Cowen, Robert K.; Harrold, Christopher; Novak, Mark; Rassweiler, Andrew; Reed, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    San Nicolas Island is surrounded by broad areas of shallow subtidal habitat, characterized by dynamic kelp forest communities that undergo dramatic and abrupt shifts in community composition. Although these reefs are fished, the physical isolation of the island means that they receive less impact from human activities than most reefs in Southern California, making San Nicolas an ideal place to evaluate alternative theories about the dynamics of these communities. Here we present monitoring data from seven sampling stations surrounding the island, including data on fish, invertebrate, and algal abundance. These data are unusual among subtidal monitoring data sets in that they combine relatively frequent sampling (twice per year) with an exceptionally long time series (since 1980). Other outstanding qualities of the data set are the high taxonomic resolution captured and the monitoring of permanent quadrats and swaths where the history of the community structure at specific locations has been recorded through time. Finally, the data span a period that includes two of the strongest ENSO events on record, a major shift in the Pacific decadal oscillation, and the reintroduction of sea otters to the island in 1987 after at least 150 years of absence. These events provide opportunities to evaluate the effects of bottom-up forcing, top-down control, and physical disturbance on shallow rocky reef communities.

  12. The relevance of pharmacognosy in pharmacological research on herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Pferschy-Wenzig, Eva-Maria; Bauer, Rudolf

    2015-11-01

    As all medicines, herbal medicinal products are expected to be safe, effective, and of appropriate quality. However, regulations on herbal medicinal products vary from country to country, and herbal preparations do occur not only in the form of medicinal products but also as less strictly regulated product groups like dietary supplements. Therefore, it is not always easy for the consumers to discriminate high-quality products from low-quality products. On the other hand, herbal medicines have many special features that distinguish them from conventional medicinal products. Plants are complex multicomponent mixtures; in addition, their phytochemical composition is not constant because of inherent variability and a plethora of external influences. Therefore, the production process of an herbal medicinal product needs to be strictly monitored. First of all, the starting materials need to be correctly authenticated and free of adulterants and contaminants. During plant growth, many factors like harvest season and time, developmental stage, temperature, and humidity have a strong impact on plant metabolite production. Also, postharvest processing steps like drying and storage can significantly alter the phytochemical composition of herbal material. As the production of many phytopharmaceuticals includes an extraction step, the extraction solvent and conditions need to be optimized in order to enrich the bioactive constituents in the extract. The quality of finished preparations needs to be determined either on the basis of marker constituents or on the basis of analytical fingerprints. Thus, all production stages should be accompanied by appropriate quality assessment measures. Depending on the particular task, different methods need to be applied, ranging from macroscopic, microscopic, and DNA-based authentication methods to spectroscopic methods like vibrational spectroscopy and chromatographic and hyphenated methods like HPLC, GC-MS and LC-MS. Also, when performing

  13. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  14. Herbal medicines--what do clinicians know?

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    In 1986, DTB published an article called Herbal medicines - safe and effective?, which discussed some of the issues around the availability, safety and efficacy of such treatments.1 We highlighted how the failure of orthodox medicines to cure, and anxiety about their potentially serious unwanted effects, had led some people to turn to herbal medicines for treatment for chronic and disabling conditions often in the belief, that natural medicines must be intrinsically safe. The article concluded by discussing the potential problems associated with herbal medicines and the role that doctors should play in asking about patients' use of such products. Revisiting these themes, here we present an overview of the results of an online survey conducted among DTB readers to explore four key issues: What do healthcare professionals know about herbal medicines? What challenges (if any) does patients' use of herbal medicines raise for healthcare professionals? What awareness do healthcare professionals have about the regulatory arrangements for herbal medicines? What sources of information (if any) do healthcare professionals use to inform themselves about herbal medicines? PMID:20392781

  15. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  16. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available. PMID:10030529

  17. Emerging trends of herbal care in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C L

    2013-08-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal 'renaissance' is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  18. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomić, Sinisa

    2009-12-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework. PMID:20061249

  19. Herbal medicine: from the past to the future.

    PubMed

    Tyler, V E

    2000-12-01

    A brief discussion of the history of the use of herbal medicines from prehistoric times to the mid-twentieth century precedes an explanation of why usage of such remedies in the United States declined in the 1940s but returned to popularity in the 1980s. The provisions of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 are presented together with its perceived influence, both positive and negative, on the health of the American people. Possible futures of herbal medicines are considered. The negative viewpoint that they will ultimately be rejected is refuted, and the more optimistic prediction that herbs are ultimately destined to become a part of mainstream medicine is defended. Stumbling blocks to such acceptance are evaluated and methods of overcoming them suggested. The urgent need for the development of a sensible regulatory environment encouraging the approval of botanicals as drugs is emphasized. After predicting a bright future for rational phytomedicines, the author opines that many of them will eventually play significant roles in medicinal practice. PMID:11276292

  20. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  1. The Influence of Physical Factors on Kelp and Sea Urchin Distribution in Previously and Still Grazed Areas in the NE Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla W.; Bekkby, Trine; Gundersen, Hege; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Hjermann, Dag Ø.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT) show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45–60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM) and a more complex (BRT) modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas. PMID:24949954

  2. The influence of physical factors on kelp and sea urchin distribution in previously and still grazed areas in the NE Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Rinde, Eli; Christie, Hartvig; Fagerli, Camilla W; Bekkby, Trine; Gundersen, Hege; Norderhaug, Kjell Magnus; Hjermann, Dag Ø

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of kelp (Laminaria hyperborea) and sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in the NE Atlantic are highly related to physical factors and to temporal changes in temperature. On a large scale, we identified borders for kelp recovery and sea urchin persistence along the north-south gradient. Sea urchin persistence was also related to the coast-ocean gradient. The southern border corresponds to summer temperatures exceeding about 10°C, a threshold value known to be critical for sea urchin recruitment and development. The outer border along the coast-ocean gradient is related to temperature, wave exposure and salinity. On a finer scale, kelp recovery occurs mainly at ridges in outer, wave exposed, saline and warm areas whereas sea urchins still dominate in inner, shallow and cold areas, particularly in areas with optimal current speed for sea urchin foraging. In contrast to other studies in Europe, we here show a positive influence of climate change to presence of a long-lived climax canopy-forming kelp. The extent of the coast-ocean gradient varies within the study area, and is especially wide in the southern part where the presence of islands and skerries increases the area of the shallow coastal zone. This creates a large area with intermediate physical conditions for the two species and a mosaic of kelp and sea urchin dominated patches. The statistical models (GAM and BRT) show high performance and indicate recovery of kelp in 45-60% of the study area. The study shows the value of combining a traditional (GAM) and a more complex (BRT) modeling approach to gain insight into complex spatial patterns of species or habitats. The results, methods and approaches are of general ecological relevance regardless of ecosystems and species, although they are particularly relevant for understanding and exploring the corresponding changes between algae and grazers in different coastal areas. PMID:24949954

  3. Camphor: an herbal medicine causing grand mal seizures.

    PubMed

    MacKinney, Theodore G; Soti, Kamal Raj; Shrestha, Poojan; Basnyat, Buddha

    2015-01-01

    Camphor is usually used in the USA to repel insects, but it is widely used in other countries as an herb. We report the case of a 52-year-old previously healthy Nepali man who ingested approximately 10 g of pure camphor with therapeutic intention. He developed grand mal seizures, and was evaluated in an emergency room. He failed to recall the camphor ingestion initially, and was treated with phenytoin for new-onset idiopathic seizures. Examining physicians only later found out about his camphor ingestion. Finding the cause of new-onset seizures is often challenging for emergency room physicians, internists and neurologists. In addition to other well-reported causes of secondary seizures, herbal medications and supplements must also be explored. PMID:26065546

  4. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  5. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  6. The role of attached kelp (seaweed) fronds in lowering threshold of coarse gravel entrainment in tidal flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carling, Paul

    2014-05-01

    There is a long history of reports of attached kelp (seaweed) fronds aiding entrainment of coarse sediment by flotation. In the intertidal zone of the Severn Estuary (UK) cobbles were observed to overpass fine gravel plane-beds and pebble-gravel dunes in those instances where seaweed fronds were attached. However, overpassing clasts without attached fronds were rare. Flume experiments were conducted to measure the reduction in velocity and shear stresses required for initial motion when fronds were attached. A range of factors influence entrainment including the ratio of seaweed weight:clast weight and length:width ratio of the seaweed frond. Reynolds stresses for entrainment, and the critical velocity for entrainment were reduced by around a factor of two for attached fronds in contrast to stones without fronds. Reductions in the critical velocity were associated with an increase in the values of drag coefficients for clasts with attached fronds; the majority of the drag being associated with the frond widths rather than the frond lengths. The significance of this study is manifold with respect to deposition of outsized clasts in the modern marine environment and in the geological record. The reduced entrainment values explain the presence of large clasts in near-shore and off-shore environments where measured velocities otherwise are not competent. In addition, when clasts are deposited and buried by sediment the seaweed fronds decay and so the role of kelp is not immediately evident. Thus in the geological marine sedimentary record buried outsized clasts may be related to kelp transport in some instances.

  7. Exploitation and recovery of a sea urchin predator has implications for the resilience of southern California kelp forests

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Scott L.; Caselle, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Size-structured predator–prey interactions can be altered by the history of exploitation, if that exploitation is itself size-selective. For example, selective harvesting of larger sized predators can release prey populations in cases where only large individuals are capable of consuming a particular prey species. In this study, we examined how the history of exploitation and recovery (inside marine reserves and due to fisheries management) of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has affected size-structured interactions with sea urchin prey in southern California. We show that fishing changes size structure by reducing sizes and alters life histories of sheephead, while management measures that lessen or remove fishing impacts (e.g. marine reserves, effort restrictions) reverse these effects and result in increases in density, size and biomass. We show that predation on sea urchins is size-dependent, such that the diet of larger sheephead is composed of more and larger sized urchins than the diet of smaller fish. These results have implications for kelp forest resilience, because urchins can overgraze kelp in the absence of top-down control. From surveys in a network of marine reserves, we report negative relationships between the abundance of sheephead and urchins and the abundance of urchins and fleshy macroalgae (including giant kelp), indicating the potential for cascading indirect positive effects of top predators on the abundance of primary producers. Management measures such as increased minimum size limits and marine reserves may serve to restore historical trophic roles of key predators and thereby enhance the resilience of marine ecosystems. PMID:25500572

  8. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Extemporaneously Prepared Herbal Mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Dua, Kamal; Sheshala, Ravi; Al-Waeli, Haider A; Gupta, Gauarv; Chellappan, Dinesh K

    2015-01-01

    Natural products like plants and its components have been in use for treatment and cure of diseases all around the globe from ancient times much before the discovery of the current modern drugs. These substances from the nature are well known to contain components which have therapeutic properties and can also behave as precursors for the synthesis of potential drugs. The beneficial results from herbal drugs are well reported where their popularity in usage has increased across the globe. Subsequently developing countries are now recognizing the many positive advantages from their use which has engaged the expansion of R & D from herbal research. The flow on effect from this expansion has increased the awareness to develop new herbal products and the processes, throughout the entire world. Mouth washes and mouth rinses which have plant oils, plant components or extracts have generated particular attention. High prevalence of gingival inflammation and periodontal diseases, suggests majority of the patients practice inadequate plaque control. Of the currently available mouthwashes in the market, Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) has been investigated on a larger scale with much detail. CHX is associated with side effects like staining of teeth when used daily as well as the bitter taste of the mouthwash which leads to patient incompliance. The present research encompasses the antibacterial activity of extemporaneously prepared herbal mouthwash using natural herbs and therefore allows for the potential commercialization with in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Also, the present research article reviewed details of various existing patents of herbal mouthwashes which shows the trend of existing market and significance of emerging mouthwashes in both pharmaceutical and herbal industries. The antimicrobial activity of prepared mouthwashes was found to be effective against various strains of bacteria. It also suggests that the prepared herbal mouthwashes may provide

  9. Management of Pacific herring closed pound spawn-on-kelp fisheries to optimize fish health and product quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Elder, N.E.; Marty, G.D.; Johnson, J.; Kocan, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Use of high densities of newly recruited Pacific herring Clupea pallasi for the closed-pound spawn-on-kelp (PPSOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, was associated with increased gamete retention, decreased product quality, and increased prevalence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) relative to the confinement of older cohorts at lower densities. To maximize product quality and reduce the potential for disease outbreaks, three management alternatives are proposed for the PPSOK fishery: (1) establish minimum pound volumes per permit holder; (2) prohibit PPSOK fisheries during years predominated by newly recruited cohorts; and (3) develop effective open-pounding techniques.

  10. Description of Maritrema formicae sp. nov. (Digenea, Microphallidae) parasitic in the kelp gull, Larus dominicanus, from the Patagonian coast, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Julia I; Gilardoni, Carmen; Cremonte, Florencia

    2012-06-01

    Maritrema formicae sp. nov. is described from the Patagonian coast, Argentina, based on adults obtained from the kelp gull, Larus dominicanus. The new species fits with the "eroliae complex" and can be distinguished from other related species mainly in shape and size of body, shape, size, and pattern of distribution of cirrus spines, uterus extension, number and size of eggs, vitellarium in a complete ring in all specimens, and its Neotropical distribution. The new species is sympatric with another species of the genus, Maritrema madrynense, which was recorded in the same host and locality. PMID:22807050

  11. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim Sooi, Law

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  12. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  13. Alternative community structures in a kelp-urchin community: A qualitative modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montano-Moctezuma, G.; Li, H.W.; Rossignol, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Shifts in interaction patterns within a community may result from periodic disturbances and climate. The question arises as to the extent and significance of these shifting patterns. Using a novel approach to link qualitative mathematical models and field data, namely using the inverse matrix to identify the community matrix, we reconstructed community networks from kelp forests off the Oregon Coast. We simulated all ecologically plausible interactions among community members, selected the models whose outcomes match field observations, and identified highly frequent links to characterize the community network from a particular site. We tested all possible biologically reasonable community networks through qualitative simulations, selected those that matched patterns observed in the field, and further reduced the set of possibilities by retaining those that were stable. We found that a community can be represented by a set of alternative structures, or scenarios. From 11,943,936 simulated models, 0.23% matched the field observations; moreover, only 0.006%, or 748 models, were highly reliable in their predictions and met conditions for stability. Predator-prey interactions as well as non-predatory relationships were consistently found in most of the 748 models. These highly frequent connections were useful to characterize the community network in the study site. We suggest that alternative networks provide the community with a buffer to disturbance, allowing it to continuously reorganize to adapt to a variable environment. This is possible due to the fluctuating capacities of foraging species to consume alternate resources. This suggestion is sustained by our results, which indicate that none of the models that matched field observations were fully connected. This plasticity may contribute to the persistence of these communities. We propose that qualitative simulations represent a powerful technique to raise new hypotheses concerning community dynamics and to

  14. Assessing vertebrate biodiversity in a kelp forest ecosystem using environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Port, Jesse A; O'Donnell, James L; Romero-Maraccini, Ofelia C; Leary, Paul R; Litvin, Steven Y; Nickols, Kerry J; Yamahara, Kevan M; Kelly, Ryan P

    2016-01-01

    Preserving biodiversity is a global challenge requiring data on species' distribution and abundance over large geographic and temporal scales. However, traditional methods to survey mobile species' distribution and abundance in marine environments are often inefficient, environmentally destructive, or resource-intensive. Metabarcoding of environmental DNA (eDNA) offers a new means to assess biodiversity and on much larger scales, but adoption of this approach for surveying whole animal communities in large, dynamic aquatic systems has been slowed by significant unknowns surrounding error rates of detection and relevant spatial resolution of eDNA surveys. Here, we report the results of a 2.5 km eDNA transect surveying the vertebrate fauna present along a gradation of diverse marine habitats associated with a kelp forest ecosystem. Using PCR primers that target the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of marine fishes and mammals, we generated eDNA sequence data and compared it to simultaneous visual dive surveys. We find spatial concordance between individual species' eDNA and visual survey trends, and that eDNA is able to distinguish vertebrate community assemblages from habitats separated by as little as ~60 m. eDNA reliably detected vertebrates with low false-negative error rates (1/12 taxa) when compared to the surveys, and revealed cryptic species known to occupy the habitats but overlooked by visual methods. This study also presents an explicit accounting of false negatives and positives in metabarcoding data, which illustrate the influence of gene marker selection, replication, contamination, biases impacting eDNA count data and ecology of target species on eDNA detection rates in an open ecosystem. PMID:26586544

  15. A Novel Phytomyxean Parasite Associated with Galls on the Bull-Kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso) Hariot

    PubMed Central

    Goecke, Franz; Wiese, Jutta; Núñez, Alejandra; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Neuhauser, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Durvillaea antarctica (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) is a large kelp of high ecological and economic significance in the Southern Hemisphere. In natural beds along the central coast of Chile (Pacific Ocean), abnormal growth characterized by evident gall development and discolorations of the fronds/thallus was observed. Analysing these galls by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of endophytic eukaryotes showing typical characteristics for phytomyxean parasites. The parasite developed within enlarged cells of the subcortical tissue of the host. Multinucleate plasmodia developed into many, single resting spores. The affiliation of this parasite to the Phytomyxea (Rhizaria) was supported by 18S rDNA data, placing it within the Phagomyxida. Similar microorganisms were already reported once 23 years ago, indicating that these parasites are persistent and widespread in D. antarctica beds for long times. The symptoms caused by this parasite are discussed along with the ecological and economic consequences. Phytomyxean parasites may play an important role in the marine ecosystem, but they remain understudied in this environment. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence of resting spores in Phagomyxida, an order in which resting spores were thought to be absent making this the first record of a phagomyxean parasite with a complete life cycle so far, challenging the existing taxonomic concepts within the Phytomyxea. The importance of the here described resting spores for the survival and ecology of the phagomyxid parasite will be discussed together with the impact this parasite may have on ‘the strongest seaweed of the world’, which is an important habitat forming and economic resource from the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:23028958

  16. Annual and Spatial Variation of the Kelp Forest Fish Assemblage at San Nicolas Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowen, R.J.; Bodkin, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The kelp forest fishes of San Nicolas Island, California were studied from 1981-1986 to examine the causes of among-site and among-year variation in the fish assemblages. Fish counts and seven physical and biological variables were recorded at six sites around the island every spring and fall. Over the study period, a total of 45 fish species from 18 families were recorded, though members of nive families dominated at all sites. Among-site variation was considereable with two sites on the south side of the island having two to four times as many non-schooling fishes as the other four sites. Three variables, based on stepwise multiple regression techniques, were important predictors of site-specific fish abundance: 1) vertical relief; 2) sand cover and 3) understory algal cover. The total number of fishes varied interannually by a factor of three. Due to recruitment occuring each spring, there was a strong seasonal component to the variation in fish abundance. The extent of seasonal and interannual variaton of fish abundance is an indication of the variable nature of recruitment to this area. Over the 6 yr period, there were three distinct groupings of fish assemblages correspondong to pre- (Fall 1981 - Fall 1982), during spring (Spring 1983 - Spring 1984) and post El Nino (Fall 1984 - Fall 1986) sampling dates. During El Nino sampling period, there was considerable recruitment of southern affinity fish species, increasing both the abundance and diversity of the fish assemblages. Large-scale oceanographic processes, coupled with site-specific features of the reef habitat, produce a moderately diverse, though relatively abundant fish fauna at San Nicolas Island.

  17. Dietary Supplements and Alternative Therapies for Pain Management.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Philip J

    2015-11-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) continues to grow in North America. The most recent National Health Interview Survey found that in 2012, 33.2 percent of respondents reported usage of some form of CAM in the previous 12 months. A survey of adult patients in a U.S. dental school clinic found that 24 percent reported the use of herbal supplements. Dietary supplements and alternative therapies are often used for pain management. PMID:26798883

  18. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  19. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  20. Herbal medicine, what physicians need to know.

    PubMed

    Simaan, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    Herbal medicine, the most major component of traditional medicine, is as old as recorded history. Beginning in the early 1800s, with the development in the science of chemistry, a new era in pharmacotherapeutics was initiated whereby active chemical ingredients in plants, historically known to produce a favorable therapeutic effect, were extracted, purified and their structure disclosed. This ushered the modern era of therapy with drugs based on exploration of pure chemical products as to chemical identity, physicochemical properties, pharmacodynamic actions, pharmacokinetic behavior in the biological system, toxicological profile and effective and safe application in therapy. This relegated herbal medicine to a secondary role. More recently, a revival in the use of herbal medicine has been witnessed, even in culturally advanced societies, probably enhanced by the false belief that natural products are safe and also by vigorous promotion. Parallel to the increase in the use of herbal preparations as remedies for major diseases, there is currently a growing concern about their efficacy, safety and control. This prompted the World Health Organization to come out with recommendations for control in the document "Research Guidelines for Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicines" in 1993. The guidelines are equal in strictness to those applicable for drugs in general. A large number of member states have adopted these guidelines. The dangers in using herbal preparations for treatment include: * unproven therapeutic benefit * undisclosed toxicities * interaction of the chemicals in herbal preparations with each other and with concomitantly taken drugs, at the level of functionally important biological entities such as the plasma proteins, receptors, ion channels, transporters and others * incompatibilities with patient-related factors such as age, sex, genetic background and the function of the organs responsible for eliminating the effects of chemicals in

  1. Nutritional supplements and the EU: is anyone happy?

    PubMed

    Eberhardie, Christine

    2007-11-01

    In 2000 an estimated pound sterling 335 x 106 was spent on food supplements and herbal remedies in the UK. Until recently, The Trades Description Act 1968, the Food Safety Act 1990 and The Food Labelling Regulations 1996 (amended 2004) were the only form of regulation available to protect the public. The medical community has been concerned about the risk to patients of inaccurate dosages and poor-quality products as well as drug-nutrient and nutrient-nutrient interactions. Following growing concern about the type and quality of food supplements and herbal remedies available in the EU, the European Commission has published directives regulating food supplements (2002/46/EC) and herbal remedies (2004/24/EC and 2004/27/EC) available within the EU. The directives came into force in 2005 and limit the number and quality of permitted food supplements through the creation of a 'positive list' of approved supplements. In the present paper the new regulatory frameworks and the implications for the food supplement manufacturers, traditional and complementary therapists, the healthcare professions and patients will be examined. It would appear that there is considerable dissatisfaction with the regulations in their present form. Several questions remain: is regulation the answer; who decides which nutrients go on the positive list; what effect has the regulation had on patient safety and patient choice? PMID:17961271

  2. Production of bromoform and dibromomethane by Giant Kelp: Factors affecting release and comparison to anthropogenic bromine sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodwin, K.D.; North, W.J.; Lidstrom, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp), a dominant macroalgal species in southern California, produced 171 ng per g fresh wt (gfwt) per day of CHBr3 and 48 ng gfwt-1 d-1 of CH2Br2 during laboratory incubations of whole blades. Comparable rates were measured during in situ incubations of intact fronds. Release of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 by M. pyrifera was affected by light and algal photosynthetic activity, suggesting that environmental factors influencing kelp physiology can affect halomethane release to the atmosphere. Data from H2O2 additions suggest that brominated methane production during darkness is limited by bromide oxidant supply. A bromine budget constructed for a region of southern California indicated that bromine emitted from the use of CH3Br as a fumigant (1 x 108 g Br yr-1) dominates macroalgal sources (3 x 106 g Br yr-1). Global projections, however, suggest that combined emissions of marine algae (including microalgae) contribute substantial amounts of bromine to the global cycle, perhaps on the same order of magnitude as anthropogenic sources.

  3. Styrax japonica supplementation diet enhances the innate immune response in Epinephelus bruneus against bacterial and protozoan infections.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Ju-Sang; Kim, Man-Chul; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-11-01

    Kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus, fed for 30 days with 0% (control), 0.1%, 1.0%, and 2.0% of Styrax japonica supplementation diets, led to reductions in mortality after being challenged with a bacterium (Vibrio harveyi) and a ciliate protozoan (Uronema marinum). The enriched diets significantly increased the survival rate as compared to the controls. The phagocytic and respiratory activities were significantly increased in kelp groupers given 1.0% and 2.0% enriched diets. The complement activity, lysozyme activity, serum bactericidal activity, and total protein level significantly increased with any enriched diet against the pathogens; however antiprotease activity and myeloperoxidase levels significantly increased only with 1.0% and 2.0% enriched diets while the α2-macroglobulin level was significantly enhanced with 1.0% enriched diet. The study suggests that incorporation of S. japonica at 1.0% and 2.0% level in the diet significantly enhances the immune responses in the kelp grouper E. bruneus against V. harveyi and U. marinum. PMID:21824474

  4. Chemical and biological assessment of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba)-containing herbal decoctions: Induction of erythropoietin expression in cultures.

    PubMed

    Lam, Candy T W; Chan, Pui H; Lee, Pinky S C; Lau, Kei M; Kong, Ava Y Y; Gong, Amy G W; Xu, Miranda L; Lam, Kelly Y C; Dong, Tina T X; Lin, Huangquan; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-07-15

    Jujubae Fructus, known as jujube or Chinese date, is the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba (Mill.), which not only serves as daily food, but acts as tonic medicine and health supplement for blood nourishment and sedation. According to Chinese medicine, jujube is commonly included in herbal mixtures, as to prolong, enhance and harmonize the efficiency of herbal decoction, as well as to minimize the toxicity. Here, we aim to compare the chemical and pharmacological properties of three commonly used jujube-containing decoctions, including Guizhi Tang (GZT), Neibu Dangguijianzhong Tang (NDT) and Zao Tang (ZOT). These decoctions share common herbs, i.e. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata cum Melle, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens and Jujube, and they have the same proposed hematopoietic functions. The amount of twelve marker biomolecules deriving from different herbs in the decoctions were determined by LC-MS, and which served as parameters for chemical standardization. In general, three decoctions showed common chemical profiles but with variations in solubilities of known active ingredients. The chemical standardized decoctions were tested in cultured Hep3B cells. The herbal treatment stimulated the amount of mRNA and protein expressions of erythropoietin (EPO) via the activation of hypoxia response elements: the three herbal decoctions showed different activation. The results therefore demonstrated the hematopoietic function of decoctions and explained the enhancement of jujube function within a herbal mixture. PMID:26432380

  5. The chemistry and biological activity of herbs used in Flor-Essence herbal tonic and Essiac.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, C; Richardson, M A; Diamond, S; Skoda, I

    2000-02-01

    The herbal mixtures, Essiac and Flor-Essence, are sold as nutritional supplements and used by patients to treat chronic conditions, particularly cancer. Evidence of anticancer activity for the herbal teas is limited to anecdotal reports recorded for some 40 years in Canada. Individual case reports suggest that the tea improves quality of life, alleviates pain, and in some cases, impacts cancer progression among cancer patients. Experimental studies with individual herbs have shown evidence of biological activity including antioxidant, antioestrogenic, immunostimulant, antitumour, and antiocholeretic actions. However, research that demonstrates these positive effects in the experimental setting has not been translated to the clinical arena. Currently, no clinical studies of Essiac or Flor-essence are published, but a clinical study is being planned at the British Columbia Cancer Agency by the University of Texas-Center for Alternative Medicine (UT-CAM) and Tzu-Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. PMID:10641040

  6. Light Energy Distribution in the Brown Alga Macrocystis pyrifera (Giant Kelp) 1

    PubMed Central

    Fork, David C.; Herbert, Stephen K.; Malkin, Shmuel

    1991-01-01

    The brown alga Macrocystis pyrifera (giant kelp) was studied by a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy at 77 kelvin, room temperature modulated fluorimetry, and photoacoustic techniques to determine how light energy is partitioned between photosystems I and II in states 1 and 2. Preillumination with farred light induced the high fluorescence state (state 1) as determined by fluorescence emission spectra measured at 77K and preillumination with green light produced a low fluorescence state (state 2). Upon transition from state 1 to state 2, there was an almost parallel decrease of all of the fluorescence bands at 693, 705, and 750 nanometers and not the expected decrease of fluorescence of photosystem II and increase of fluorescence in photosystem I. The momentary level of room temperature fluorescence (fluorescence in the steady state, Fs), as well as the fluorescence levels corresponding to all closed (Fm) or all open (Fo) reaction-center states were measured following the kinetics of the transition between states 1 and 2. Calculation of the distribution of light 2 (540 nanometers) between the two photosystems was done assuming both the `separate package' and `spill-over' models. Unlike green plants, red algae, and cyanobacteria, the changes here of the light distribution were rather small in Macrocystis so that there was approximately an even distribution of the photosystem II light at 540 nanometers to photosystem I and photosystem II in both states 1 and 2. Photoacoustic measurements confirmed the conclusions reached as a result of fluorescence measurements, i.e. an almost equal distribution of light-2 quanta to both photosystems in each state. This conclusion was reached by analyzing the enhancement phenomenon by light 2 of the energy storage measured in far red light. The effect of light 1 in decreasing the energy storage measured in light 2 is also consistent with this conclusion. The photoacoustic experiments showed that there was a significant energy

  7. Short-term temporal dynamics of algal species in a subtidal kelp bed in relation to changes in environmental conditions and canopy biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernberg, Thomas; Goldberg, Nisse

    2008-01-01

    Understanding temporal variation at the scale of weeks to months is critical to understanding broad temporal patterns in diversity in the same way as understanding diversity across landscapes relies on understanding variation at the scale of meters. However, whereas small-scale spatial variation in temperate reef algal assemblages has been extensively studied, fine-scale temporal changes have not been well addressed. By sampling the macroalgae of a subtidal reef near Perth (Australia), dominated by the small kelp Ecklonia radiata, every ˜40 days over a 2-year period, we were able to test whether temporal changes in species richness, assemblage structure and species turn-over were related to seasonal changes in surface temperature, solar radiation and wave height. A total of 93 macroalgal taxa were identified, and species richness per sampling time ranged from 25 to 64 taxa 1.25 m -2. Biomass of E. radiata was positively correlated with changes in sea surface temperature and light, and negatively correlated with wave height. Species richness, assemblage structure and turn-over of other macroalgae were more associated with seasonal changes in kelp biomass than environmental variables per se. We conclude that seasonal changes in environmental conditions drive changes in the kelp canopy, which in turn drive changes in species richness and assemblage structure. This suggests that habitat-formers such as kelps can exert a strong temporal influence on associated communities, analogous to well-described spatial influences. Thus, as kelp canopy biomass expands and retracts over time-scales of weeks to months, so does available space for colonization and growth, resulting in a high species turn-over. Species richness is therefore increased and maintained through time, in the same way as canopy-gap mosaics increase and maintain species richness across spatial landscapes.

  8. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    (1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise. PMID:18630390

  9. The politics of herbal drugs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, B H

    2000-08-01

    Hanbang, the Korean medical practice with origins in classical Chinese texts, is a prominent part of the Korean health care system. Hanbang physicians, called hanuisas, are looked down on by biomedical doctors, but their practice has enjoyed increasing popularity for several decades. As the market for herbal preparations has become more lucrative, biomedical pharmacists have begun to participate in it. The Pharmaceutical Act in 1993 explicitly allowed pharmacists to prescribe and dispense herbal drugs. This provoked a bitter public conflict between hanuisas and pharmacists, involving street demonstrations and strikes. The hanuisas asserted that the pharmacists were unqualified to assume their traditional practice. They also agitated for recognition in the state-sponsored system of health care and for the state's support for developing Hanbang medicine. This paper attributes the conflicts concerning Hanbang to the expanding market for herbal preparations, Korean nationalism, and to the oversupply of biomedical pharmacists. PMID:10868666

  10. Herbal medicine in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2011-02-01

    Herbal medicines are popular, self-prescribed treatments for rheumatic conditions. A recent US survey suggested that approximately 90% of arthritic patients use alternative therapies such as herbal medicines. This article provides a brief overview of the evidence on herbal medicines for 4 common rheumatic conditions: back pain, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21220089

  11. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

  12. Five Supplements and Multiple Psychotic Symptoms: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michelle K.; Darvishzadeh, Ayeh; Maler, Neal A.; Bota, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements, including vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and enzymes, have become increasingly more common and are used by approximately half of the US population. About three-fourths of supplements are obtained with no prescription from a physician, which raises medical concerns regarding safety as these products do not require US Food and Drug Administration approval. Common reasons for taking dietary supplements include improved mood, improved mental function, depression relief, anxiety reduction, and treatment of simple and migraine headaches. The use of herbs for medicinal purposes has a long-standing history among many cultures. We present the case of a 43-year-old man, who was taking dietary supplements, with a 6-month history of psychotic symptoms that increasingly caused impairment in functioning and eventually led to involuntary hospitalization. The published data with regard to supplements causing psychosis, herb-to-herb interaction, and reliability of herbal supplement manufacturers are discussed. PMID:27247830

  13. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe. PMID:25104008

  14. Intellectual property protection in the natural product drug discovery, traditional herbal medicine and herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Murat

    2007-02-01

    Traditional medicine is an important part of human health care in many developing countries and also in developed countries, increasing their commercial value. Although the use of medicinal plants in therapy has been known for centuries in all parts of the world, the demand for herbal medicines has grown dramatically in recent years. The world market for such medicines has reached US $ 60 billion, with annual growth rates of between 5% and 15%. Researchers or companies may also claim intellectual property rights over biological resources and/or traditional knowledge, after slightly modifying them. The fast growth of patent applications related to herbal medicine shows this trend clearly. This review presents the patent applications in the field of natural products, traditional herbal medicine and herbal medicinal products. Medicinal plants and related plant products are important targets of patent claims since they have become of great interest to the international drug and cosmetic industry. PMID:17117452

  15. UHPLC/HRMS analysis of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) seeds, seed extracts, and African mango based dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary Supplements based on extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, or AM) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract from the AM seeds is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the...

  16. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  17. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  18. [Pain management with herbal antirheumatic drugs].

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, Sigrun; Pollak, S

    2002-01-01

    Herbal antirheumatics are indicated in painful inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases. Their mechanism of action is broader than that of synthetic antirheumatics. Particular preparations from Devils's Claw with 50 to 100 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage as well as a particular willow bark extract with 120 to 240 mg salicin in the daily dosage proved efficacy in a number of clinical studies including confirmatory ones. Exploratory studies indicate that these herbal antirheumatics were not inferior to the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib when treating acute exacerbations of chronic low back pain. For the proprietary nettle root extract IDS23 promising in vitro/in vivo results indicate an anti-inflammatory effect, however there are only 2 open uncontrolled clinical studies available and the proof of efficacy is still missing. Safety data in order to recommend use during pregnancy and lactation are only available for the herbal combination product Phytodolor prepared from aspen, ash and goldenrod. In principle, blackcurrent leaf with not less than 1.5% flavonoids may be an appropriate antirheumatic. Likewise, the seed oils of blackcurrent, evening primrose and borage offering at least 1 to 3 g gammalinolenic acid/day are recommendable. In case superiority versus placebo has been established, proprietary herbal antirheumatics should be administered before the conventional analgesics due to the lower incidence of adverse events. PMID:12017748

  19. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers. PMID:24915414

  20. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions. PMID:24290486

  1. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  2. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  3. Herbal products in Canada. How safe are they?

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrskyj, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine existing evidence and inform family physicians about issues concerning herbal product use in Canada. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The Canadian Food and Drug Act and findings of an Expert Advisory Committee on Herbs and Botanical Preparations were consulted to provide an overview of the issues regarding herbal product regulation in Canada. Case reports of herbal toxicity were identified to illustrate some of the hazards of herbal products, and references provided to guide health professional in searching the literature for clinical trials that evaluate these drugs' efficacy. MAIN FINDINGS: Herbal products not registered as drugs in Canada are sold as foods and are exempt from the drug review process that evaluates product efficacy and safety. This places the public at risk of unwanted effects from the use of herbal products that are adulterated with other substances and of forgoing effective conventional therapy. Moreover, consumers are exposed to a plethora of information portraying herbal products as harmless. Some progress has been made to address these concerns by facilitating the registration of herbal products as drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Most herbal products that were evaluated were unsafe or ineffective, or no information was available to evaluate their efficacy. Despite the perception that herbal products are innocuous, family physicians need to be aware that herbal therapy can be harmful in order to help their patients make informed choices. Images p699-a PMID:9111986

  4. Dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ron J; King, Doug S; Lea, Trevor

    2004-01-01

    For the athlete training hard, nutritional supplements are often seen as promoting adaptations to training, allowing more consistent and intensive training by promoting recovery between training sessions, reducing interruptions to training because of illness or injury, and enhancing competitive performance. Surveys show that the prevalence of supplement use is widespread among sportsmen and women, but the use of few of these products is supported by a sound research base and some may even be harmful to the athlete. Special sports foods, including energy bars and sports drinks, have a real role to play, and some protein supplements and meal replacements may also be useful in some circumstances. Where there is a demonstrated deficiency of an essential nutrient, an increased intake from food or from supplementation may help, but many athletes ignore the need for caution in supplement use and take supplements in doses that are not necessary or may even be harmful. Some supplements do offer the prospect of improved performance; these include creatine, caffeine, bicarbonate and, perhaps, a very few others. There is no evidence that prohormones such as androstenedione are effective in enhancing muscle mass or strength, and these prohormones may result in negative health consequences, as well as positive drug tests. Contamination of supplements that may cause an athlete to fail a doping test is widespread. PMID:14971436

  5. Temporal variations in air-sea CO2 exchange near large kelp beds near San Diego, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikawa, Hiroki; Oechel, Walter C.

    2015-01-01

    study presents nearly continuous air-sea CO2 flux for 7 years using the eddy covariance method for nearshore water near San Diego, California, as well as identifying environmental processes that appear to control temporal variations in air-sea CO2 flux at different time scales using time series decomposition. Monthly variations in CO2 uptake are shown to be positively influenced by photosynthetically active photon flux density (PPFD) and negatively related to wind speeds. In contrast to the monthly scale, wind speeds often influenced CO2 uptake positively on an hourly scale. Interannual variations in CO2 flux were not correlated with any independent variables, but did reflect surface area of the adjacent kelp bed in the following year. Different environmental influences on CO2 flux at different temporal scales suggest the importance of long-term flux monitoring for accurately identifying important environmental processes for the coastal carbon cycle. Overall, the study area was a strong CO2 sink into the sea (CO2 flux of ca. -260 g C m-2 yr-1). If all coastal areas inhabited by macrophytes had a similar CO2 uptake rate, the net CO2 uptake from these areas alone would roughly equal the net CO2 sink estimated for the entire global coastal ocean to date. A similar-strength CO2 flux, ranging between -0.09 and -0.01 g C m-2 h-1, was also observed over another kelp bed from a pilot study of boat-based eddy covariance measurements.

  6. Introducing herbal medicine into conventional health care settings.

    PubMed

    Lee, L

    1999-01-01

    Herbal therapy is one of several holistic therapies gaining recognition within the health care community in the United States. As a discipline, herbal medicine is in its infancy regarding educational standards for credentialling, standardization, and regulation of products and clinical applications within this health care system. This article discusses professional considerations for midwives who are interested in integrating herbal healing into their clinical practices, and offers examples of how to incorporate herbal medicine into midwifery care. Resources for practitioners including books, newsletters, journals, courses, computer sites, and databases are presented. The author offers guidance for creating an herbal practice manual for the midwifery office as well as the hospital setting and for documenting herbal healing in the medical record. Collegial support, barriers to practice, liability, and insurance issues are discussed. A clinical applications section includes specific herbal formulas for preconception health, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, and postdates pregnancy. PMID:10380444

  7. Exploring scientifically proven herbal aphrodisiacs

    PubMed Central

    Kotta, Sabna; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ali, Javed

    2013-01-01

    Procreation was an important moral and religious issue and aphrodisiacs were sought to ensure both male and female potency. Sexual dysfunction is an inability to achieve a normal sexual intercourse, including premature ejaculation, retrograded, retarded or inhibited ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, arousal difficulties (reduced libido), compulsive sexual behavior, orgasmic disorder, and failure of detumescence. The introduction of the first pharmacologically approved remedy for impotence, Viagra (sildenafil) in 1990s caused a wave of public attention, propelled in part by heavy advertising. The search for such substances dates back millennia. An aphrodisiac is an agent (food or drug) that arouses sexual desire. The hunt for natural supplement from medicinal plants is being intensified mainly because of its fewer side effects. In this review, we have mentioned the pharmacologically tested (either in man or animal or in both) aphrodisiac plants, which have claimed for its uses. PMID:23922450

  8. Essiac? and Flor-Essence? herbal tonics stimulate the in vitro growth of human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K S; Montgomery, J L; McLimans, B; Latham, E R; Shattuck, D L; Klotz, D M; Bennett, L M

    2005-10-07

    People diagnosed with cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to supplement their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics are commercially available complex mixtures of herbal extracts sold as dietary supplements and used by cancer patients based on anecdotal evidence that they can treat or prevent disease. In this study, we evaluated Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} for their effects on the growth of human tumor cells in culture. The effect of Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics on cell proliferation was tested in MCF-7, MDA-MB-436, MDA-MB-231, and T47D cancer cells isolated from human breast tumors. Estrogen receptor (ER) dependent activation of a luciferase reporter construct was tested in MCF-7 cells. Specific binding to the ER was tested using an ICI 182,780 competition assay. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics at 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% stimulated cell proliferation relative to untreated controls and activated ER dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells. A 10{sup -7} M concentration of ICI 870,780 inhibited the induction of ER dependent luciferase activity by Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, but did not affect cell proliferation. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics can stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells through ER mediated as well as ER independent mechanisms of action. Cancer patients and health care providers can use this information to make informed decisions about the use of these CAMs.

  9. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA–ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Postinfectious Cough: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Hong-Li; Mao, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine has been commonly used in the treatment of postinfectious cough. The aim of this review is to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine for postinfectious cough. An extensive search for RCTs was performed using multiple electronic databases, supplemented with a manual search. All studies included were confirmed with specific inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of each study was examined according to the Cochrane risk of bias assessment. Quality of evidence was evaluated using rating approach developed by GRADE working group. The literature search yielded 352 results, of which 12 RCTs satisfied the inclusion criteria, offering moderate-to-high levels of evidence. Methodological quality was considered high in three trials, while in the other nine studies the unclear risk of bias was in the majority. Findings suggested that, compared with western conventional medicine or placebo, Chinese herbal medicine could effectively improve core symptoms of postinfectious cough, act better and have earlier antitussive effect, and enhance patients' quality of life. No serious adverse event was reported. PMID:24348727

  11. Effect of combined herbal feed additives on methane, total gas production and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Indu; Dutta, Tapas Kumar; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Sharma, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    The present study was to evaluate effect of herbal feed additives on methane and total gas production during the rumen fermentation for environment and animal health concern. Different parts of the five medicinal plants were selected such as leaf and small stems of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi), roots of Curcuma longa (Haldi), fruits of Emblica officinalis (Amla), leaves of Azadirachta indica (Neem) and leaves and small stem of Clerodendrum phlomidis (Arni) for our study. Addition of different herbal additive combinations did not influence IVDMD and total gas production however methane production (mg/g of substrate DM) was significantly (P<0.05) reduced in Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni combinations. Total nitrogen significantly (P<0.01) increased in the combinations of Tulsi: Haldi and Amla: Neem. TCA-ppt-N is significantly (P<0.01) increased in Tulsi: Haldi, Haldi: Amla, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni however NH3-N (mg/dl) significantly decreased in all treatments. We conclude that the screening of plant combinations, Amla: Neem and Neem: Arni have potential to decrease methane production and our herbal feed supplements have no side-effects on the ruminant in small amount. PMID:26124571

  12. Review of Herbal Traditional Chinese Medicine for the Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guang-dong; Li, Chao-yuan; Cui, Wen-peng; Guo, Qiao-yan; Dong, Chang-qing; Zou, Hong-bin; Liu, Shu-jun; Dong, Wen-peng; Miao, Li-ning

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most serious chronic complications of diabetes; 20–40% of diabetic patients develop into end stage renal disease (ESRD). However, exact pathogenesis of DN is not fully clear and we have great difficulties in curing DN; poor treatment of DN led to high chances of mortality worldwide. A lot of western medicines such as ACEI and ARB have been demonstrated to protect renal function of DN but are not enough to delay or retard the progression of DN; therefore, exploring exact and feasible drug is current research hotspot in medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used to treat and control diabetes and its complications such as DN in a lot of scientific researches, which will give insights into the mechanism of DN, but they are not enough to reveal all the details. In this paper, we summarize the applications of herbal TCM preparations, single herbal TCM, and/or monomers from herbal TCM in the treatment of DN in the recent 10 years, depicting the renal protective effects and the corresponding mechanism, through which we shed light on the renal protective roles of TCM in DN with a particular focus on the molecular basis of the effect and provide a beneficial supplement to the drug therapy for DN. PMID:26649322

  13. Herbals she peruseth’: reading medicine in early modern England

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    In 1631, Richard Brathwaite penned a conduct manual for ‘English Gentlewomen’. In Brathwaite's mind, the ideal English gentlewoman was not only chaste, modest and honourable but also an avid reader. In fact, Brathwaite specifically recommends English gentlewomen to first peruse herbals and then to deepen their medical knowledge via conference. Centred on the manuscript notebooks of two late seventeenth-century women, Margaret Boscawen (d. 1688) and Elizabeth Freke (1642–1714), this article explores women and ‘medical reading’ in early modern England. It first demonstrates that whilst both women consulted herbals by contemporary authors such as John Gerard and Nicholas Culpeper, their modes of reading could not be more different. Where Freke ruminated, digested and abstracted from Gerard's large tome, Boscawen made practical lists from Culpeper's The English Physitian. Secondly, the article shows that both supplemented their herbal reading with a range of other vernacular medical texts including printed medical recipe books, contemporary pharmacopoeia and surgical handbooks. Early modern English women's medical reading, I argue, was nuanced, sophisticated and diverse. Furthermore, I contend that well-informed readers like Boscawen and Freke made smart medical consumers and formidable negotiators in their medical encounters. PMID:25821333

  14. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  15. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... are not intended to treat, diagnose, prevent, or cure diseases. Do not take supplements instead of your ... Partners Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy ...

  16. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  17. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... take these supplements off the market. The Federal Trade Commission looks into reports of ads that might ... 504-5414 http://fnic.nal.usda.gov Federal Trade Commission 600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20580 ...

  18. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Winston I.; Lu, Dominic P.

    2014-01-01

    Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs. PMID:24719641

  19. Hepatoprotective effect of commercial herbal extracts on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Cordero-Pérez, Paula; Torres-González, Liliana; Aguirre-Garza, Marcelino; Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos; Guzmán-de la Garza, Francisco; Alarcón-Galván, Gabriela; Zapata-Chavira, Homero; de Jesús Sotelo-Gallegos, Ma.; Nadjedja Torres-Esquivel, Cipactli; Sánchez-Fresno, Ethel; Cantú-Sepúlveda, Daniel; González-Saldivar, Gerardo; Bernal-Ramirez, Judith; E. Muñoz-Espinosa, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Various hepatoprotective herbal products from plants are available in Mexico, where up to 85% of patients with liver disease use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. However, only few studies have reported on the biological evaluation of these products. Objective: Using a model of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, we evaluated the effects of commercial herbal extracts used most commonly in the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Mexico. Materials and Methods: The commercial products were identified through surveys in public areas. The effect of these products given with or without CCl4 in rats was evaluated by measuring the serum concentrations of aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), and histopathological analysis. Legalon® was used as the standard drug. Results: The most commonly used herbal products were Hepatisan® capsules, Boldo capsules, Hepavida® capsules, Boldo infusion, and milk thistle herbal supplement (80% silymarin). None of the products tested was hepatotoxic according to transaminase and histological analyses. AST and ALT activities were significantly lower in the Hepavida+CCl4-treated group as compared with the CCl4-only group. AST and ALT activities in the silymarin, Hepatisan, and Boldo tea groups were similar to those in the CCl4 group. The CCl4 group displayed submassive confluent necrosis and mixed inflammatory infiltration. Both the Hepatisan+CCl4 and Boldo tea+CCl4 groups exhibited ballooning degeneration, inflammatory infiltration, and lytic necrosis. The silymarin+CCl4 group exhibited microvesicular steatosis. The Hepavida+CCl4- and Legalon+CCL4-treated groups had lower percentages of necrotic cells as compared with the CCl4-treated group; this treatment was hepatoprotective against necrosis. Conclusion: Only Hepavida had a hepatoprotective effect. PMID:23900881

  20. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  1. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E.; Revill, Andrew T.; Hurd, Catriona L.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world’s oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  2. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw. PMID:26913886

  3. Effect of dietary inclusion of a herbal extract mixture and different oils on pig performance and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Hanczakowska, Ewa; Świątkiewicz, Małgorzata; Grela, Eugeniusz R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a herbal extract mixture on pig performance and meat quality. The experiment was performed on 60 fatteners (60±0.5-112±2.0kg). Group I (control) was fed with standard feed; groups II and III received the same feed supplemented with 150mg BHT or 500mg of a herbal extract mixture (sage, nettle, lemon balm and coneflower) per kg of feed, respectively. In each group, half of the animals received 4% rapeseed oil, the other half soybean oil. The herbal extracts had no effect on animal performance but significantly improved meat oxidative stability, lowered cholesterol and TI index and increased PUFA content in meat. Slight differences between animals fed with rapeseed or soybean oils were observed. Gilt meat had significantly better (P≤0.01) AI, TI, and h/H indices than barrow meat. It was concluded that herbal extracts have a beneficial effect on pork health-promoting properties due to changes in lipid fraction. PMID:26047978

  4. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  5. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  6. The quest for a herbal contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R R

    1993-01-01

    An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a

  7. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  8. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  9. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  10. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used. PMID:24934061

  11. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  12. Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications. PMID:20637103

  13. Future climate change is predicted to shift long-term persistence zones in the cold-temperate kelp Laminaria hyperborea.

    PubMed

    Assis, Jorge; Lucas, Ana Vaz; Bárbara, Ignacio; Serrão, Ester Álvares

    2016-02-01

    Global climate change is shifting species distributions worldwide. At rear edges (warmer, low latitude range margins), the consequences of small variations in environmental conditions can be magnified, producing large negative effects on species ranges. A major outcome of shifts in distributions that only recently received attention is the potential to reduce the levels of intra-specific diversity and consequently the global evolutionary and adaptive capacity of species to face novel disturbances. This is particularly important for low dispersal marine species, such as kelps, that generally retain high and unique genetic diversity at rear ranges resulting from long-term persistence, while ranges shifts during climatic glacial/interglacial cycles. Using ecological niche modelling, we (1) infer the major environmental forces shaping the distribution of a cold-temperate kelp, Laminaria hyperborea (Gunnerus) Foslie, and we (2) predict the effect of past climate changes in shaping regions of long-term persistence (i.e., climatic refugia), where this species might hypothetically harbour higher genetic diversity given the absence of bottlenecks and local extinctions over the long term. We further (3) assessed the consequences of future climate for the fate of L. hyperborea using different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5). Results show NW Iberia, SW Ireland and W English Channel, Faroe Islands and S Iceland, as regions where L. hyperborea may have persisted during past climate extremes until present day. All predictions for the future showed expansions to northern territories coupled with the significant loss of suitable habitats at low latitude range margins, where long-term persistence was inferred (e.g., NW Iberia). This pattern was particularly evident in the most agressive scenario of climate change (RCP 8.5), likely driving major biodiversity loss, changes in ecosystem functioning and the impoverishment of the global gene pool of L

  14. Multi-approach mapping to help spatial planning and management of the kelp species L. digitata and L. hyperborea: Case study of the Molène Archipelago, Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajjouk, Touria; Rochette, Sébastien; Laurans, Martial; Ehrhold, Axel; Hamdi, Anouar; Le Niliot, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    The Molène Archipelago in Brittany (France) hosts one of the largest kelp forests in Europe. Beyond their recognized ecological importance as an essential habitat and food for a variety of marine species, kelp also contributes towards regional economies by means of the alginate industry. Thousands of tons of kelp are collected each year for the needs of the chemical and food industries. Kelp harvesting in Brittany mainly concerns two species, Laminaria digitata (59,000 t) and Laminaria hyperborea (24,000 t), that, together, represent approximately 95% of the national landings. Estimating the available standing stock and its distribution is a clear need for providing appropriate and sustainable management measures. Prior to estimating the spatial distribution of biomasses, we produced a detailed seabed topography map with accurate hard substrate delineation thanks to surveys and appropriate processing of airborne optical and acoustic imaging. Habitat suitability models of presence-absence and biomass were then developed for each species by relating in situ observations from underwater video and sampling to the many biotic and abiotic factors that may govern kelp species distribution. Our statistical approach combining generalized additive models (GAM) in a delta approach also provided spatial uncertainty associated with each prediction to help management decisions. This study confirmed that the adopted strategy, based on an integrated approach, enhanced knowledge on kelp biomass distributions in the Molène Archipelago and provided a promising direct link between research and management. Indeed, the high resolution topography and hard substrate maps produced for the study greatly improved knowledge on the sea bottom of the area. This was also of major importance for an accurate mapping of kelp distribution. The quality of the habitat suitability models was verified with fishing effort data (RECOPESCA program) and confirmed by local managers and kelp harvesters

  15. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  16. Legal requirements for the quality of herbal substances and herbal preparations for the manufacturing of herbal medicinal products in the European union.

    PubMed

    Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed. PMID:19204891

  17. Identification of Ginkgo biloba supplements adulteration using HPTLC and UHPLC-DAD-QToF-MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ginkgo biloba is one of the most widely sold herbal supplements and medicines in the world. Its popularity stems to have a positive effect on memory and the circulatory system in clinical studies. As ginkgo popularity increased, non-proprietary extracts were introduced claiming to have similar phyto...

  18. APPROACH FOR ASSESSING RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS PRESENT IN BOTANICAL DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Botanical dietary supplements have a long history of use in Europe and China, but they are becoming increasing popular in the United States. Since these products are classified as herbals, the United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate nor monitor these suppleme...

  19. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    PubMed

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  20. DO HERBAL AGENTS HAVE A PLACE IN THE TREATMENT OF SLEEP PROBLEMS IN LONG-TERM CARE?

    PubMed Central

    Shimazaki, Mark; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    Sleep disruption is common in the long-term care setting. This paper discusses the available literature on two herbal approaches to sleep problems in long-term care. The largest body of evidence exists for the use of the dietary/herbal supplements valerian and melatonin. While these agents appear to have a modest positive effect on sleep quality among older adults, most studies were small in size and included only subjective assessments of sleep quality. In addition, it is unclear whether these agents pose risks to long-term care residents due to potential drug interactions. Additional research is needed prior to making conclusive recommendations about the use of these interventions for sleep in the long-term care setting. PMID:17498609

  1. Improving seedless kelp (Saccharina japonica) during its domestication by hybridizing gametophytes and seedling-raising from sporophytes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Qu, Shancun; Liang, Guangjin; Sun, Juan; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Cuiju; Cao, Zengmei; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinhua; Yu, Shenhui; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Xia; Luo, Shiju; Song, Shaofeng; Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-01-01

    Dongfang no.7 (Saccharina japonica) was bred and maintained by hybridizing gametophytes, self-crossing the best individuals, selecting the best self-crossing line and seedling-raising from yearly reconstructed sporophytes. It increased the air dry yield by 43.2% in average over 2 widely farmed controls. Dongfang no.7 was seedling-raised from bulked sporophytes reconstructed from its representative gametophyte clones. Such strategy ensured it against variety contamination due to possible cross fertilization and occasional mixing and inbred depletion due to self-crossing number-limited sporophytes year after year. It derived from an intraspecific hybrid through 4 rounds of self-crossing and selection and retained a certain degree of genetic heterozygosity, thus being immune to inbred depletion due to purification of unknown detrimental alleles. Most importantly, it can be farmed in currently available system as the seedlings for large scale culture can be raised from reconstructed Dongfang no.7 sporophytes. Breeding and maintaining Dongfang no.7 provided a model that other varieties of kelp (S. japonica) and brown algae may follow during their domestication. PMID:26887644

  2. Comparative effects of oil dispersants to the early life stages of topsmelt (Atherinops affinis) and kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera)

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, M.M.; George, S.; Jacobson, S.; Lee, I.; Tjeerdema, R.S. ); Sowby, M.L. )

    1994-04-01

    The acute effects of two oilspill dispersants were compared using the early life stages of two common nearshore marine organisms: the topsmelt (Atherinops affinis), a common fish in bays and estuaries, and the giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), a canopy-forming brown alga. Testing was done under closed, flow-through conditions, with spiked dispersant concentrations measured in real time using UV spectrophotometry. Both dispersants were composed of complex mixtures of anionic and non-ionic surfactants and solvents. Median-effect concentration data showed Atherinops tests to be more sensitive to both dispersants than Macrocystis tests, with values ranging from 48.2 to 72.9 ppm (LC50) and 73.0 to 79.4 ppm (IC50), respectively, for Nokomis[reg sign] 3, and from 43.7 to 45.8 ppm (LC50) and 73.0 to 95.9 ppm (IC50), respectively, for Slik-A-Way. Comparison of the present data with those previously compiled for the same products with two other species, the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and a mysid (Holmesimysis costata), showed fairly consistent interspecific patterns among three of the four species; Holmesimysis tests were seen to be least sensitive to Nokomis 3 and second most sensitive to Slik-A-Way. In addition, Slik-A-Way was more toxic to all species except Macrocystis.

  3. Improving seedless kelp (Saccharina japonica) during its domestication by hybridizing gametophytes and seedling-raising from sporophytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojie; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Qu, Shancun; Liang, Guangjin; Sun, Juan; Zhao, Nan; Cui, Cuiju; Cao, Zengmei; Li, Yan; Pan, Jinhua; Yu, Shenhui; Wang, Qingyan; Li, Xia; Luo, Shiju; Song, Shaofeng; Guo, Li; Yang, Guanpin

    2016-01-01

    Dongfang no.7 (Saccharina japonica) was bred and maintained by hybridizing gametophytes, self-crossing the best individuals, selecting the best self-crossing line and seedling-raising from yearly reconstructed sporophytes. It increased the air dry yield by 43.2% in average over 2 widely farmed controls. Dongfang no.7 was seedling-raised from bulked sporophytes reconstructed from its representative gametophyte clones. Such strategy ensured it against variety contamination due to possible cross fertilization and occasional mixing and inbred depletion due to self-crossing number-limited sporophytes year after year. It derived from an intraspecific hybrid through 4 rounds of self-crossing and selection and retained a certain degree of genetic heterozygosity, thus being immune to inbred depletion due to purification of unknown detrimental alleles. Most importantly, it can be farmed in currently available system as the seedlings for large scale culture can be raised from reconstructed Dongfang no.7 sporophytes. Breeding and maintaining Dongfang no.7 provided a model that other varieties of kelp (S. japonica) and brown algae may follow during their domestication. PMID:26887644

  4. Glutamine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Wernerman, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous glutamine supplementation is standard care when parenteral nutrition is given for critical illness. There are data of a reduced mortality when glutamine supplementation is given. In addition, standard commercial products for parenteral nutrition do not contain any glutamine due to glutamine instability in aqueous solutions. For the majority of critical ill patients who are fed enterally, the available evidence is insufficient to recommend glutamine supplementation. Standard formulation of enteral nutrition contains some glutamine: 2-4 g/L. However, this dose is insufficient to normalize glutamine plasma concentration.Plasma concentration of glutamine is low in many patients with critical illness and a low level is an independent risk factor for mortality. A low plasma glutamine concentration is the best indicator of glutamine depletion. Data are emerging about how the endogenous production of glutamine is regulated. We know that skeletal muscle is the major producer of glutamine and that a part of the profound depletion of skeletal muscle seen in critical illness is a reflection of the need to produce glutamine.Glutamine is utilized in rapidly dividing cells in the splanchnic area. Quantitatively most glutamine is oxidized, but the availability of glutamine in surplus is important for the de novo synthesis of nucleotides and necessary for cell division and protein synthesis. More knowledge about the regulation of the endogenous production of glutamine is needed to outline better guidelines for glutamine supplementation in the future. PMID:21906372

  5. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... specialist. The doc will be able to offer alternatives to supplements based on your body and sport. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: January 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Sports Center Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A ...

  6. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... SHOULD TAKE CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS? Calcium is an important mineral for the human body. It helps build and protect your teeth ... absorb calcium. You can get vitamin D from sunlight exposure to your skin and from your diet. Ask your provider whether ...

  7. Anticoccidial effects of herbal extracts on Eimeria tenella infection in broiler chickens: in vitro and in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Hasan; Firouzi, Sobhan; Nili, Hasan; Razavi, Mostafa; Asadi, Seyedeh Leili; Daneshi, Sajad

    2016-06-01

    Safe alternative anticoccidial drug to chemical feed additives are herbal extracts, because they don't results to tissue residue and drug resistance. In order to evaluate the effects of herbal extracts to control avian coccidiosis, 180 one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into nine equal groups, as follows: (1) Biarum bovei (2) Nectaroscordum tripedale( 3) Dorema aucheri (4) Cichorium intybus (5) Prangos ferulaceae (6) diclazuril (7) Artemisia absinthium (8) infected control (9) uninfected control (each contains two groups). Administration of herbal extracts and supplementation of diclazuril was began 2 days before challenge and lasted for the duration of the experiment. The chicks of all the groups except uninfected control group were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts (3 × 10(3) oocysts of Eimeria tenella) on the day 22 of age. The criteria employed were: body weight, feed conversion ratio, blood in feces, survival rate, lesion scoring, number of oocyst output per gram feces and histopathological changes. For histopathological evaluation, on day 12 post inoculation three birds from each group were randomly selected and humanly sacrificed. N. tripedale and diclazuril revealed better results in terms of growth performance, lesion score, extent of bloody diarrhea and oocyst count as compared to other herbal extracts. The increase in the severity of lesions was observed in groups of D. aucheri, A. absinthium, B. bovei, P. ferulaceae, C. intybus, diclazuril and N. tripedale, respectively. In conclusion, the current study showed that herbal extracts were effective in control of coccidiosis caused by the E. tenella infection. PMID:27413312

  8. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  9. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  10. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia

    2003-01-01

    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality. PMID:12807304

  11. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  12. DNA Microarrays in Herbal Drug Research

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Preeti; Joshi, Kalpana; Patwardhan, Bhushan

    2006-01-01

    Natural products are gaining increased applications in drug discovery and development. Being chemically diverse they are able to modulate several targets simultaneously in a complex system. Analysis of gene expression becomes necessary for better understanding of molecular mechanisms. Conventional strategies for expression profiling are optimized for single gene analysis. DNA microarrays serve as suitable high throughput tool for simultaneous analysis of multiple genes. Major practical applicability of DNA microarrays remains in DNA mutation and polymorphism analysis. This review highlights applications of DNA microarrays in pharmacodynamics, pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics and quality control of herbal drugs and extracts. PMID:17173108

  13. [Herbal medicine in womens' life cycle].

    PubMed

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Oren, Amnon; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2006-10-01

    Women use herbs and other traditional and complementary modalities to treat various ailments throughout their life circle. This article reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials, which studied efficacy and safety of various herbs in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), nausea and vomiting in the first trimester of pregnancy and menopausal hot flushes. Preliminary data support the efficacy of Chaste tree fruit (Vitex agnus) in the treatment of PMS, Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in the treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum and (Cimicifuga racemosa) in the treatment of menopausal hot flushes. Additional and more rigorous studies are warranted in order to support the efficacy and safety of these herbal remedies. PMID:17111709

  14. Antiviral Natural Products and Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Liang-Tzung; Hsu, Wen-Chan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Viral infections play an important role in human diseases, and recent outbreaks in the advent of globalization and ease of travel have underscored their prevention as a critical issue in safeguarding public health. Despite the progress made in immunization and drug development, many viruses lack preventive vaccines and efficient antiviral therapies, which are often beset by the generation of viral escape mutants. Thus, identifying novel antiviral drugs is of critical importance and natural products are an excellent source for such discoveries. In this mini-review, we summarize the antiviral effects reported for several natural products and herbal medicines. PMID:24872930

  15. Potential Health Risk of Herbal Distillates and Decoctions Consumption in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Moore, F; Akhbarizadeh, R; Keshavarzi, B; Tavakoli, F

    2015-10-01

    Concentration of 26 elements in 16 different herbal distillates and 5 herbal decoctions, were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental content of five raw herbal materials used for making decoctions and seven distilled and boiled residues were also evaluated by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The results indicated that herbal products display a wide range of elemental concentrations. Compared with world health regulations, the concentrations of the elements in herbal distillates and decoctions did not exceed the recommended limits. The analysis of herbal extracts did not show a significant transfer of toxic elements during decoction preparation. Comparison of elemental content among fresh herbal material and herbal distillate and decoction of the same herb showed that, besides the elemental abundance of herbal organs, the ionic potential of elements also play an important role in elemental content of herbal products. Based on the results of the research, it seems that most health benefits attributed to herbal products (especially herbal distillates) are more related to their organic compounds rather than elemental composition. Calculated hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were used to evaluate the noncarcinogenic health risk from individual and combined metals via daily consumption of 100 ml of herbal distillates and 250 ml of herbal decoctions. Both HQs and HI through consumption of herbal distillates and herbal decoctions (except Valerian) were below 1. Apparently, daily consumption of herbal distillates and decoctions at the indicated doses poses no significant health risk to a normal adult. PMID:25778835

  16. Homoeopathic and herbal prescribing in general practice in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Sarah; Simpson, Colin R; McLay, James S

    2006-01-01

    What is already known about this subject Homoeopathy and herbalism are increasingly popular among the public and prescribed by general practitioners in the NHS. Doctors and regulatory authorities have expressed concerns about their efficacy and safety. Studies from the 1990s suggest that between 5.9 and 7.5% of English NHS general practitioners have prescribed homoeopathy, while less than 1% have prescribed herbal remedies. Current levels of prescribing are unknown but are thought to have increased. What this study adds Sixty percent of Scottish general practices now prescribe homoeopathic or herbal remedies. The prevalence of homoeopathic prescribing in those under 16 years has doubled since 2000 and is maximal in children < 1 year old, of whom 1% are prescribed a homoeopathic remedy. Recognized drug–herb interactions were identified in 4% of patients prescribed oral herbal remedies. Aims To investigate the current levels of homoeopathic and herbal prescribing in Scottish general practice. Methods Prescribing of homoeopathic and herbal remedies in primary care was assessed in 1891 669 patients for the year 2003–2004, using computerized prescribing data retrieved from 323 general practices in Scotland. Results Forty-nine percent of practices prescribed homoeopathic and 32% herbal remedies. A total of 193 homoeopathic and 17 herbal remedies were prescribed, with 5% of practices accounting for 46% of patients and 50% of remedies. Four thousand one hundred and sixty patients (2.2/1000 registered patients) were prescribed at least one homoeopathic remedy during the study period, with the highest prevalence to children under 12 months of age (9.5/1000 children of that age). Children under the age of 16 made up 16% of the population prescribed homoeopathic remedies (2.2/1000 registered patients of that age). Three hundred and sixty-one patients (0.2/1000 registered patients) were prescribed at least one herbal remedy during the study period, 44 of whom were children

  17. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  18. Acute cholinergic syndrome following ingestion of contaminated herbal extract.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, M-J; Yen, Z-S; Chen, S-C; Fang, C-C

    2008-11-01

    Herbal preparations are becoming more and more popular and increasingly used in the USA. Herbs are from natural plants and therefore often considered to be harmless compared with western medicines. Nevertheless, as the use of herbal remedies has risen, so has the incidence of acute and chronic herbal intoxication. The case history is presented of a 68-year-old man who presented with an acute cholinergic syndrome soon after ingesting a herbal preparation containing Flemingia macrophylla and ginseng. His red blood cell acetylcholinesterase activity dropped to 50% of the normal reference range. He was treated successfully with atropine and supportive care. It was thought that contamination with pesticides, such as organophosphate residue, was the probable cause. This case highlights the need to be more aware of the possibility of acute pesticide intoxication in herbal users, even when only small amounts are consumed. PMID:18955628

  19. Therapeutic Applications of Herbal Medicines for Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shu-Yi; Wei, Wen-Chi; Jian, Feng-Yin; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Medicinal herbs and their derivative phytocompounds are being increasingly recognized as useful complementary treatments for cancer. A large volume of clinical studies have reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on the survival, immune modulation, and quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients, when these herbal medicines are used in combination with conventional therapeutics. Here, we briefly review some examples of clinical studies that investigated the use of herbal medicines for various cancers and the development of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in this emerging research area. In addition, we also report recent studies on the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of herbal medicines in specific tumor microenvironments and the potential application of specific phytochemicals in cell-based cancer vaccine systems. This review should provide useful technological support for evidence-based application of herbal medicines in cancer therapy. PMID:23956768

  20. Antioxidant screening of medicinal herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Speisky, Hernán; Rocco, Claudia; Carrasco, Catalina; Lissi, Eduardo A; López-Alarcón, Camilo

    2006-06-01

    Herbal tea consumption is deeply and widely rooted amongst South-American populations. In view of the involvement of oxygen- and nitrogen-reactive species in the ethiogenesis of several diseases, the antioxidant properties of some of the herbal teas most commonly consumed in the southern regions was assessed in vitro. Around one-third of the 13 examined herbs, displayed a substantially higher ability to scavenge ABTS(+.) radicals (TEAC assay), and to quench the pro-oxidant species, hypochlorite (HClO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Amongst the tested herbs, teas prepared from Haplopappus baylahuen, Rosa moschata and Peumus boldus showed the highest TEAC and HClO-quenching activities. These herbs were around 5- to 7-fold more potent than the least active herbs. Based on the TEAC assay, 150 mL of tea prepared from H. baylahuen, R. moschata and P. boldus would be equivalent to around 200 mg of Trolox). Teas from H. baylahuen and P. boldus were also found to be particularly potent in quenching HClO. In the ONOO(-) assay, H. baylahuen and Buddleia globosa showed the highest activities. The results obtained suggest that the regular consumption of teas prepared from some of these herbs may be useful potentially to provide the organism with molecules capable of protecting the gastrointestinal tract against certain pathologically relevant oxidant species. PMID:16619353

  1. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years. PMID:15998989

  2. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine and cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuh-Fung

    2012-01-01

    Stroke is an important cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide but effective therapeutic strategy for the prevention of brain injury in patients with cerebral ischemia is lacking. Although tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) has been used to treat stroke patients, this therapeutic strategy is confronted with ill side effects and is limited to patients within 3 hours of a stroke. Stroke-mediated cell death is a complex interplay of aberrant events involving excitotoxicity, acidosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, peri-infarct depolarization, and apoptosis. Due to the complexity of the events and the disappointing results from single agent trials, the combination of thrombolytic therapy and effective neural protection therapy may be an alternative strategy for patients with cerebral ischemia. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been described in ancient medicine systems as a treatment for various ailments associated with stroke. Recently, there have been reports of its benefits in treating stroke. This review will focus on various traditional Chinese herbal medicines and their neuroprotective effects on cerebral ischemia. PMID:22201915

  3. Herbal treatment for osteoporosis: a current review.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ping-Chung; Siu, Wing-Sum

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is an aging problem. The declining bone mineral density (BMD) enhances the chances of fractures during minor falls. Effective pharmaceuticals are available for a rapid improvement of BMD. However, hormonal treatment gives serious complications, and bisphosphonates may lead to odd fractures of long bones, resulting from excessive rigidity of the cortical components. Many medicinal herbs used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, known as kidney tonics, have been tested for their effects on bone metabolism in the laboratory and clinically. Three of these, viz. Herba epimedii (, Yín Yáng Huò), Fructus ligustri lucidi (, Nǚ Zhēn Zi), and Fructus psoraleae (, Bǔ Gǔ Zhī) were chosen to form a herbal formula, ELP. ELP was tested on in vitro platforms and was shown to have both osteoblastic and anti- osteoclastic action. ELP tested on ovariectomized rats also showed BMD protection. ELP was then put on a placebo- controlled randomized clinical trial. BMD protection was obvious among those women with the onset of menopause beyond 10 years (P < 0.05). A general protective trend was observed among all women under trial (P > 0.05). Although a thorough literature review on the herbal treatment effects did not give convincing answers to the use of Chinese herbs in osteoporosis, our study supports more research and trials in this area, while we are looking for safe and effective agents to keep the bone metabolism in a balanced state. PMID:24716161

  4. Comparison of population-genetic structuring in congeneric kelp- versus rock-associated snails: a test of a dispersal-by-rafting hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Nikula, Raisa; Spencer, Hamish G; Waters, Jonathan M

    2011-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies indicate that many marine invertebrates lacking autonomous dispersal ability are able to achieve trans-oceanic colonization by rafting on buoyant macroalgae. However, less is known about the impact of rafting on on-going population-genetic connectivity of intertidal species associated with buoyant macroalgae. We hypothesize that such species will have higher levels of population-genetic connectivity than those exploiting nonbuoyant substrates such as rock. We tested this hypothesis by comparing nuclear multilocus population-genetic structuring in two sister topshell species, which both have a planktonic larval phase but are fairly well segregated by their habitat preference of low-tidal bull-kelp holdfasts versus mid-to-low tidal bare rock. We analyzed population samples from four sympatric sites spanning 372 km of the east coast of southern New Zealand. The sampled region encompasses a 180 km wide habitat discontinuity and is influenced by a stable, northward coastal current. The level of connectivity was high in both species, and neither of them showed significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. However, a significant negative partial correlation between genetic distance and habitat discontinuity was found in the rock-associated species, and estimates of migrant movement between sites were somewhat different between the two species, with the kelp-associated species more often yielding higher estimates across the habitat discontinuity, whereas the rock-associated species more often exhibited higher estimates between sites interspersed by rock habitats. We conclude that for species with substantial means of autonomous dispersal, the most conspicuous consequence of kelp dwelling may be enhanced long-distance dispersal across habitat discontinuities rather than a general increase of gene flow. PMID:22393493

  5. Changes in sea urchins and kelp following a reduction in sea otter density as a result of the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, T.A.; Bodkin, J.L.; Jewett, S.C.; Monson, D.H.; Jung, D.

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between sea otters Enhydra lutris, sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, and kelp were investigated following the reduction in sea otter density in Prince William Sound, Alaska, after the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. At northern Knight Island, a heavily oiled portion of the sound, sea otter abundance was reduced by a minimum of 50% by the oil spill, and from 1995 through 1998 remained at an estimated 66% lower than in 1973. Where sea otter densities were reduced, there were proportionally more large sea urchins. However, except in some widely scattered aggregations, both density and biomass of sea urchins were similar in an area of reduced sea otter density compared with an area where sea otters remained about 10 times more abundant. Furthermore, there was no change in kelp abundance in the area of reduced sea otter density. This is in contrast to greatly increased biomass of sea urchins and greatly reduced kelp density observed following an approximate 90% decline in sea otter abundance in the western Aleutian Islands. The variation in community response to a reduction in sea otters may be related to the magnitude of the reduction and the non-linear response by sea urchins to changes in predator abundance. The number of surviving sea otters may have been high enough to suppress sea urchin populations in Prince William Sound, but not in the Aleutians. Alternatively, differences in response may have been due to differences in the frequency or magnitude of sea urchin recruitment. Densities of small sea urchins were much higher in the Aleutian system even prior to the reduction in sea otters, suggesting a higher rate of recruitment.

  6. Safety Assessment of Mainstream Smoke of Herbal Cigarette

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Min; Lim, Heung Bin

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the increase in price of cigarettes in Korea, herbal cigarettes have received increasing attention as a non-smoking aid; however, its safety has hardly been studied. We analyzed some of the toxic components in the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarettes, performed a mutagenicity test on smoke condensates for safety assessment, and compared the results with the corresponding values of a general cigarette with the same tar content. Herbal cigarette “A” was smoked using automatic smoking machine under ISO conditions in a manner similar to general cigarette “T”. The tar content measured was higher than that inscribed on the outside of a package. The mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette “A” did not contain detectable levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines and nicotine. Carbon monoxide and benzo(α)pyrene contents in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”. The phenolic contents such as hydroquinone, resorcinol, and catechol in herbal cigarette “A” were higher than those in the general cigarette “T”, but cresol contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The content of aromatic amines such as 4-aminobiphenyl in herbal cigarette “A” was higher than that in the general cigarette “T”; however, this difference was not statistically significant. On the other hand, 1-aminonaphthalene, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 3-aminobiphenyl contents in herbal cigarette “A” were lower than those in the general cigarette “T”. The smoke condensates of herbal cigarette “A” exhibited a higher mutagenic potential than the condensates from the general cigarette “T” at the same concentration. We concluded that the mainstream smoke of herbal cigarette contains some toxic components, the smoke condensates of herbal cigarettes are mutagenic similar to general cigarette because of combustion products, and that the evaluation of the chemical and biological safety of

  7. [Suggestions to strengthen quality management of herbal decoction pieces--based on production chain of herbal decoction pieces].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Nie, Qing; Chen, Jing

    2015-08-01

    With the development of society and the improvement of people's living standards, the effect of Chinese medicine in treatment and health care is more and more prominent. The herbal decoction pieces are the important part of Chinese medicine,it can be applied directly to clinical treatment and it's also the raw material of Chinese patent medicine. Therefore, the quality of herbal decoction pieces is quite important. The parts of the production of herbal decoction pieces are numerous, and there are possibilities of adverse effects on the quality of the herbal decoction pieces in every part. In this paper, we based on the production chain of herbal decoction pieces, analyzed the main problem that affect the quality of herbal decoction pieces in the part of selection of Chinese herbal medicines, planting, purchasing, processing, packaging, storage and transport, such as the poor quality of seed and seedlings of plant-based Chinese medicines, some plants left their place of origin and have been introduced in the place that is not suitable for this kind of plant, the insufficient growth time and the excessive harmful substances. The purchasers and the accepters lack of professional knowledge and professional ethics. The mechanism of processing is not clear, the standards can not be uniformed, and lack of qualified person in processing, etc. So we suggest: intensify the basic research of key scientific issues. Improve the quality of persons who work in herbal decoction pieces; Establish an "integration" mode of operation in herbal decoction pieces enterprise; Breeding high quality plant resources, establish the large-scale planting basement; Make the packing of herbal decoction pieces standard; Establish the modernization traditional Chinese medicine logistics enterprise. PMID:26790314

  8. Short- and long-term acclimation patterns of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae) along a depth gradient.

    PubMed

    Koch, Kristina; Thiel, Martin; Hagen, Wilhelm; Graeve, Martin; Gómez, Iván; Jofre, David; Hofmann, Laurie C; Tala, Fadia; Bischof, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The giant kelp, Macrocystis pyrifera, is exposed to highly variable irradiance and temperature regimes across its geographic and vertical depth gradients. The objective of this study was to extend our understanding of algal acclimation strategies on different temporal scales to those varying abiotic conditions at various water depths. Different acclimation strategies to various water depths (0.2 and 4 m) between different sampling times (Jan/Feb and Aug/Sept 2012; long-term acclimation) and more rapid adjustments to different depths (0.2, 2 and 4 m; short-term acclimation) during 14 d of transplantation were found. Adjustments of variable Chl a fluorescence, pigment composition (Chl c, fucoxanthin), and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments were responsible for the development of different physiological states with respect to various solar radiation and temperature climates. Interestingly, the results indicated that phlorotannins are important during long-term acclimation while antioxidants have a crucial role during short-term acclimation. Furthermore, the results suggested that modifications in total lipids and fatty acid compositions apparently also might play a role in depth acclimation. In Aug/Sept (austral winter), M. pyrifera responded to the transplantation from 4 m to 0.2 m depth with a rise in the degree of saturation and a switch from shorter- to longer-chain fatty acids. These changes seem to be essential for the readjustment of thylakoid membranes and might, thus, facilitate efficient photosynthesis under changing irradiances and temperatures. Further experiments are needed to disentangle the relative contribution of solar radiation, temperature and also other abiotic parameters in the observed physiological changes. PMID:27037591

  9. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii (Audouin and Milne-Edwards) (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1985-02-01

    Platynereis dumerilii is found in large numbers in parchment-like tubes attached to sublittoral accumulations of detached maroalgae (principally Laminaria saccharina) in Kames Bay, Isle of Cumbrae and Lochranza, Isle of Arran. Its rôle in weed decomposition has been examined by comparing its responses (behavioural choice, growth rates, absorption efficiencies of both carbon and protein, gut retention times and rate of faecal output) to fresh and rotting weed. Worms grew significantly on either diet, with older individuals gaining more weight than small individuals. Animals of a standard size (derived from measurements of maximum bite size) feeding on fresh weed, however, grew significantly faster than those feeding on rotting weed. The former had a significantly higher protein absorption efficiency which was linearly related to protein content of ingested weed. This was not so on rotting weed. Organic carbon absorption efficiencies did not differ significantly between the two groups, neither did gut retention times nor rates of faecal output. Given a choice, Platynereis chooses to build its tube, and to feed, on fresh kelp—a strategem which ensures both maximum scope for occupancy before fronds decay and a superabundance of preferred food. Platynereis feeds around its tube entrance, recropping small areas for 2-3 days, prior to switching to another area nearby. Ciliate population densities on Platynereis faeces are much lower than on either homogenized or intact weed, associated with their lower, nutritional value (at first). Platynereis bubes act to bind kelp fronds together stabilizing the faecal input to infaunal detritivores. Platynereis is an example of a detritivore which exploits the detrital substratum directly.

  10. In vivo speciation studies and antioxidant properties of bromine in Laminaria digitata reinforce the significance of iodine accumulation for kelps

    PubMed Central

    Küpper, Frithjof C.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Leblanc, Catherine; Toyama, Chiaki; Uchida, Yuka; Maskrey, Benjamin H.; Robinson, Joanne; Verhaeghe, Elodie F.; Malin, Gill; Luther, George W.; Kroneck, Peter M. H.; Kloareg, Bernard; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Megson, Ian L.; Potin, Philippe; Feiters, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolism of bromine in marine brown algae remains poorly understood. This contrasts with the recent finding that the accumulation of iodide in the brown alga Laminaria serves the provision of an inorganic antioxidant – the first case documented from a living system. The aim of this study was to use an interdisciplinary array of techniques to study the chemical speciation, transformation, and function of bromine in Laminaria and to investigate the link between bromine and iodine metabolism, in particular in the antioxidant context. First, bromine and iodine levels in different Laminaria tissues were compared by inductively coupled plasma MS. Using in vivo X-ray absorption spectroscopy, it was found that, similarly to iodine, bromine is predominantly present in this alga in the form of bromide, albeit at lower concentrations, and that it shows similar behaviour upon oxidative stress. However, from a thermodynamic and kinetic standpoint, supported by in vitro and reconstituted in vivo assays, bromide is less suitable than iodide as an antioxidant against most reactive oxygen species except superoxide, possibly explaining why kelps prefer to accumulate iodide. This constitutes the first-ever study exploring the potential antioxidant function of bromide in a living system and other potential physiological roles. Given the tissue-specific differences observed in the content and speciation of bromine, it is concluded that the bromide uptake mechanism is different from the vanadium iodoperoxidase-mediated uptake of iodide in L. digitata and that its function is likely to be complementary to the iodide antioxidant system for detoxifying superoxide. PMID:23606364

  11. Effects of seven antifouling compounds on photosynthesis and inorganic carbon use in sugar kelp Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus).

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Axelsson, Lennart; Blanck, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Macroalgae depend on carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to maintain a high photosynthetic activity under conditions of low carbon dioxide (CO(2)) availability. Because such conditions are prevalent in marine environments, CCMs are important for upholding the macroalgal primary productivity in coastal zones. This study evaluated the effects of seven antifouling compounds-chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, diuron, irgarol, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione (ZnTP)-on the photosynthesis and CCM of sugar kelp (Saccharina latissima (L.)). Concentration-response curves of these toxicants were established using inhibition of carbon incorporation, whereas their effects over time and their inhibition of the CCM were studied using inhibition of O(2) evolution. We demonstrate that exposure to all compounds except ZnTP (< 1000 nM) resulted in toxicity to photosynthesis of S. latissima. However, carbon incorporation and O(2) evolution differed in their ability to detect toxicity from some of the compounds. Diuron, irgarol, DCOIT, tolylfluanid, and, to some extent, dichlofluanid inhibited carbon incorporation. Chlorothalonil did not inhibit carbon incorporation but clearly inhibited oxygen (O(2)) evolution. Photosynthesis showed only little recovery during the 2-h postexposure period. Inhibition of photosynthesis even increased after the end of exposure to chlorothalonil and tolylfluanid. Through changes in pH of the medium, toxic effects on the CCM could be studied isolated from photosynthesis effects. The CCM of S. latissima was inhibited by chlorothalonil, DCOIT, dichlofluanid, and tolylfluanid. Such inhibition of the CCM, or the absence thereof, deepens the understanding the mechanism of action of the studied compounds. PMID:22743627

  12. Environmental influences on kelp performance across the reproductive period: an ecological trade-off between gametophyte survival and growth?

    PubMed

    Mohring, Margaret B; Kendrick, Gary A; Wernberg, Thomas; Rule, Michael J; Vanderklift, Mathew A

    2013-01-01

    Most kelps (order Laminariales) exhibit distinct temporal patterns in zoospore production, gametogenesis and gametophyte reproduction. Natural fluctuations in ambient environmental conditions influence the intrinsic characteristics of gametes, which define their ability to tolerate varied conditions. The aim of this work was to document seasonal patterns in reproduction and gametophyte growth and survival of Ecklonia radiata (C. Agardh) J. Agardh in south-western Australia. These results were related to patterns in local environmental conditions in an attempt to ascertain which factors explain variation throughout the season. E. radiata was fertile (produced zoospores) for three and a half months over summer and autumn. Every two weeks during this time, gametophytes were grown in a range of temperatures (16-22 °C) in the laboratory. Zoospore densities were highly variable among sample periods; however, zoospores released early in the season produced gametophytes which had greater rates of growth and survival, and these rates declined towards the end of the reproductive season. Growth rates of gametophytes were positively related to day length, with the fastest growing recruits released when the days were longest. Gametophytes consistently survived best in the lowest temperature (16 °C), yet exhibited optimum growth in higher culture temperatures (20-22 °C). These results suggest that E. radiata releases gametes when conditions are favourable for growth, and E. radiata gametophytes are tolerant of the range of temperatures observed at this location. E. radiata releases the healthiest gametophytes when day length and temperature conditions are optimal for better germination, growth, and sporophyte production, perhaps as a mechanism to help compete against other species for space and other resources. PMID:23755217

  13. Herbal Medicine in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Fei; Yadav, Praveen Kumar; Ju, Liu Zhan

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a refractory, chronic, and nonspecific disease occurred usually in the rectum and the entire colon. The etiopathology is probably related to dysregulation of the mucosal immune response toward the resident bacterial flora together with genetic and environmental factors. Several types of medications are used to control the inflammation or reduce symptoms. Herbal medicine includes a wide range of practices and therapies outside the realms of conventional Western medicine. However, there are limited controlled evidences indicating the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines, such as aloe vera gel, wheat grass juice, Boswellia serrata, and bovine colostrum enemas in the treatment of UC. Although herbal medicines are not devoid of risk, they could still be safer than synthetic drugs. The potential benefits of herbal medicine could lie in their high acceptance by patients, efficacy, relative safety, and relatively low cost. Patients worldwide seem to have adopted herbal medicine in a major way, and the efficacy of herbal medicine has been tested in hundreds of clinical trials in the management of UC. The evidences on herbal medicine are incomplete, complex, and confusing, and certainly associated with both risks and benefits. There is a need for further controlled clinical trials of the potential efficacy of herbal medicine approaches in the treatment of UC, together with enhanced legislation to maximize their quality and safety. PMID:22249085

  14. A controlled trial of Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chou, Patsy B; Morse, Carol A; Xu, Hong

    2008-09-01

    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder troubling many women during their reproductive years. The Chinese have been using herbal medicines to treat menstrual cycle related symptoms for centuries. The present study examined the effectiveness of Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of PMS among Australian women within the theoretical framework of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Sixty-one women were assigned randomly into two groups within different TCM patterns. Herbal medicine and placebo were provided sequentially for a period of three months. There were significant differences (p < 0.01) in scores after three months of treatment between Chinese herbal medicine and placebo in premenstrual physical and psychological symptoms, depression, anxiety and anger favoring herbal medicine, but with no difference in perceived stress (p > 0.05). There were highly significant reductions (p < 0.001) between baseline and the end of the third herbal treatment month in all assessments in both groups except that a significant result (p < 0.05) was recorded on perceived stress only in the herbs-first group. No adverse effects were reported by any participant. The results support the hypothesis that the symptoms occurrence and severity of PMS can be effectively reduced by the use of Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:18608825

  15. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Devi, V Kusum; Jain, Nimisha; Valli, Kusum S

    2010-01-01

    Novel drug delivery system is a novel approach to drug delivery that addresses the limitations of the traditional drug delivery systems. Our country has a vast knowledge base of Ayurveda whose potential is only being realized in the recent years. However, the drug delivery system used for administering the herbal medicine to the patient is traditional and out-of-date, resulting in reduced efficacy of the drug. If the novel drug delivery technology is applied in herbal medicine, it may help in increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects of various herbal compounds and herbs. This is the basic idea behind incorporating novel method of drug delivery in herbal medicines. Thus it is important to integrate novel drug delivery system and Indian Ayurvedic medicines to combat more serious diseases. For a long time herbal medicines were not considered for development as novel formulations owing to lack of scientific justification and processing difficulties, such as standardization, extraction and identification of individual drug components in complex polyherbal systems. However, modern phytopharmaceutical research can solve the scientific needs (such as determination of pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, site of action, accurate dose required etc.) of herbal medicines to be incorporated in novel drug delivery system, such as nanoparticles, microemulsions, matrix systems, solid dispersions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and so on. This article summarizes various drug delivery technologies, which can be used for herbal actives together with some examples. PMID:22228938

  16. Chemical Adulterants in Herbal Medicinal Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Calahan, Jacob; Howard, Dylan; Almalki, Ahmad J; Gupta, Mahabir P; Calderón, Angela I

    2016-04-01

    Many herbal medicinal products have been found to contain synthetic prescription drugs as chemical adulterants. This has become evident by the number of toxicity cases and adverse reactions reported in which casualties were reported via analytical techniques that detected the presence of chemical adulterants in them, which could be responsible for their toxicity. The adulteration of herbal medicinal products with synthetic drugs continues to be a serious problem for regulatory agencies. This review provides up to date information on cases of toxicity, major chemical adulterants in herbal medicinal products, and current analytical techniques used for their detection. PMID:27054916

  17. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  18. Challenges and guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Abida; Parveen, Bushra; Parveen, Rabea; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) has defined herbal medicines as finished labeled medicinal product that contain an active ingredient, aerial, or underground parts of the plant or other plant material or combinations. According to a report of WHO, about 80% of the world population is reported to rely on traditional medicine for their primary health care needs. Even in the developed countries, complementary or alternative medicine is gaining popularity. A report of a global survey on national policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicines indicated that about 50 countries including China, Japan, and Germany already have their national policy and laws on regulations of traditional medicines. Herbal drugs possess a long history of its use and better patient tolerance. These are cheaper and easily available in countries like India due to rich agro culture conditions. However, reckless utilization of resources threatens the sustainability of several plant species. Traditional medicines are governed by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 and the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules of 1945. In 1959, the Government of India amended the Drugs and Cosmetics Act to include drugs that are derived from traditional Indian medicine. In 1993, the guidelines for the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines developed by an expert committee directed that the procedures laid down by the office of the Drug Controller General of India for allopathic drugs should be followed for all traditional and herbal products to enter into clinical trials for any therapeutic condition. However, there are certain loop holes in the clinical trials of herbal drugs as the lack of stringent bylaws and regulations. Hence, a deep insight of important challenges and major regulatory guidelines for clinical trial of herbal drugs and botanicals is discussed in the present communication. There is lack of scientific evidence to evaluate safety and efficacy of herbal drugs. The quality of the trial drug

  19. Study on beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of herbal yogurt.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Banani Ray; Chakraborty, Runu; Raychaudhuri, Utpal

    2008-03-01

    Different types of herbal yogurts were developed by mixing standardized milk with pretreated herbs, namely tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum), pudina leaf (Mentha arvensis) and coriander leaf (Coriandrum sativum), with leaves separately and a 1:1 (v/v) mixture of the strains of lactic starter cultures---Lactobacillus acidophilus (NCIM 2903) and Lactobacillus plantarum (NCIM 2083)-followed by incubation at 40 degrees C for 6 h. The beta-galactosidase enzymatic activity of the abovementioned herbal yogurts was determined and interestingly noted to exhibit higher enzymatic activity compared with the control yogurt (without any herbs). Among all herbal yogurts, tulsi yogurt had the maximum beta-galactosidase activity. PMID:17852503

  20. "One-shot" analysis of PDE-5 inhibitors and analogues in counterfeit herbal natural products using an LC-DAD-QTOF system.

    PubMed

    Bortolini, Claudio; Pivato, Antonio; Bogialli, Sara; Pastore, Paolo

    2015-08-01

    A highly selective and robust method for simultaneous screening and confirmation of target and non-target phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitor analogues within a single chromatographic run in counterfeit herbal products was developed. The protocol, based on an easy and rapid extraction with a water/acetonitrile 1 % formic acid solution, followed by sonication and centrifugation, exploits an LC-diode array detector-quadrupole-time-of-flight (DAD-QTOF) system. The extraction method was optimized both at high concentrations and at trace levels. These two situations are typically encountered in pharmaceutical formulations and herbal food supplements. Carryover effects, never reported before and occurring mainly for vardenafil, were overcome using a polymer-based column. An in-house validation was carried out using five blanks of different bulk matrices spiked with seven standard analytes, namely yohimbine, sildenafil, vardenafil, tadalafil, homosildenafil, pseudovardenafil and hydroxyhomovardenafil. Reliable quantitation was possible using a conventional standard solution for all the pharmaceutical and herbal samples considered, as matrix effects were eliminated. Accuracy ranged from 80.9 to 108.1 % with overall relative standard deviation (RSD) <11 % (N = 15), measured at 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/g. Limits of detection (LODs) obtained ensured the determination of cross contaminations at nanogram per gram levels. A database with 82 PDE-5 inhibitor analogues was implemented for automatic non-target analysis. Among the 26 samples of dietary supplements and herbal remedies bulk marketed for erectile dysfunctions, three samples were found to be contaminated with both registered and unregistered synthetic PDE-5 inhibitors, i.e. yohimbine, sildenafil, dimethylsildenafil and thiodimethylsildenafil or thiomethisosildenafil. The occurrence of such contaminations, both at trace levels and at pharmaceutical dosage, indicates the illicit use of synthetic PDE-5 analogues

  1. Inhibitory effects of commonly used herbal extracts on UGT1A1 enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed-Eslam F; Tseng, Tiffany; Frye, Reginald F

    2010-10-01

    Commonly used herbal supplements were screened for their potential to inhibit UGT1A1 activity using human liver microsomes. Extracts screened included ginseng, echinacea, black cohosh, milk thistle, garlic, valerian, saw palmetto, and green tea epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Estradiol-3-O-glucuronide (E-3-G) formation was used as the index of UGT1A1 activity. All herbal extracts except garlic showed inhibition of UGT1A1 activity at one or more of the three concentrations tested. A volume per dose index (VDI) was calculated to estimate the volume in which the daily dose should be diluted to obtain an IC(50)-equivalent concentration. EGCG, echinacea, saw palmetto, and milk thistle had VDI values >2.0 L per dose unit, suggesting a higher potential for interaction. Inhibition curves were constructed for EGCG, echinacea, saw palmetto, and milk thistle. IC(50) values were (mean ± SE) 7.8 ± 0.9, 211.7 ± 43.5, 55.2 ± 9.2, and 30.4 ± 6.9 µg/ml for EGCG, echinacea, saw palmetto, and milk thistle extracts, respectively. Based on our findings, inhibition of UGT1A1 by milk thistle and EGCG and to a lesser extent by echinacea and saw palmetto is plausible, particularly in the intestine where higher extract concentrations are anticipated. Further clinical studies are warranted. PMID:20666626

  2. Mediators of Inflammation-Induced Bone Damage in Arthritis and Their Control by Herbal Products

    PubMed Central

    Nanjundaiah, Siddaraju M.; Astry, Brian; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints leading to bone and cartilage damage. Untreated inflammatory arthritis can result in severe deformities and disability. The use of anti-inflammatory agents and biologics has been the mainstay of treatment of RA. However, the prolonged use of such agents may lead to severe adverse reactions. In addition, many of these drugs are quite expensive. These limitations have necessitated the search for newer therapeutic agents for RA. Natural plant products offer a promising resource for potential antiarthritic agents. We describe here the cellular and soluble mediators of inflammation-induced bone damage (osteoimmunology) in arthritis. We also elaborate upon various herbal products that possess antiarthritic activity, particularly mentioning the specific target molecules. As the use of natural product supplements by RA patients is increasing, this paper presents timely and useful information about the mechanism of action of promising herbal products that can inhibit the progression of inflammation and bone damage in the course of arthritis. PMID:23476694

  3. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies. PMID:26561063

  4. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Mona; Owlia, Sina; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil's claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle. PMID:27247570

  5. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    Ghasemian, Mona; Owlia, Sina; Owlia, Mohammad Bagher

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil's claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle. PMID:27247570

  6. Herbal medicine, Chaplin, and "The Kid".

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Maurizio; Zilletti, Lucilla

    2012-06-01

    At variance with other largely safe complementary alternative medicines like homeopathy and acupuncture, which only carry the risk of inducing patients to shun effective treatment, herbal remedies are real, albeit impure, drugs and therefore fully capable of producing undesirable consequences if misused. The advantages they offer are uncertain since genuine evidence of efficacy and effectiveness is present in only a few cases. A result of this imbalance is that studies in this field are considerably more meaningful when they deal with untoward effects than with therapeutic uses. This disproportion has suggested to us the curious similarity with the situation portrayed in the film "The Kid" where the essential task of the protagonist (Chaplin) is to repair the windows his stone-throwing child has just broken. PMID:22560379

  7. Counseling cancer patients about herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, M; Boon, H S

    1999-10-01

    More than half of all cancer patients now use some form of complementary/alternative medicine, yet the majority of these patients do not disclose this use to their physicians. Health care practitioners need to educate themselves about the complementary/alternative medicine products their patients are using. Eight herbal products (astragalus, essiac, Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, green tea, garlic, Hoxsey formula and iscador) commonly used by cancer patients are reviewed here and a list of recommended reference texts is provided. In addition, health care providers are encouraged to initiate discussions about complementary/alternative products and therapies with their patients so that they may help them make safe and informed decisions about these products. Not knowing what patients are taking is definitely a less desirable option. PMID:14528703

  8. Inhibitory effects of herbal extracts on breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and structure-inhibitory potency relationship of isoflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Hirofumi; Satoh, Hiroki; Hori, Satoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2010-01-01

    The inhibition of intestinal breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), which restricts the absorption of xenobiotics, may increase the systemic availability of its substrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of herbal extracts and their constituents on BCRP-mediated transport. The inhibitory effects of 9 herbal extracts and 23 isoflavonoids, including soybean-derived isoflavones, on BCRP-mediated methotrexate (MTX) transport were evaluated using BCRP-expressing membrane vesicles. The structure-inhibitory potency relationship was investigated by multiple factor analysis. Extracts of soybean, Gymnema sylvestre, black cohosh and passion flower and rutin strongly inhibited BCRP-mediated transport of MTX at 1 mg/ml, while inhibition by chlorella, milk thistle and Siberian ginseng extracts was weak. Among the 23 isoflavonoids examined, all of which inhibited BCRP-mediated transport, coumestrol showed the most potent inhibition (IC(50)=63 nM). The inhibitory potencies of 6 isoflavonoid glucosides were 10- to 100-fold lower than those of the corresponding aglycones. The addition of a 5-hydroxyl or 6-methoxyl moiety tended to potentiate the inhibition. The inhibitory potency of daidzein was decreased 100-fold by 7-glucuronidation, but was virtually unaffected by 4'-sulfation. Thus, some herbal and dietary supplements and isoflavonoids may increase the systemic availability of BCRP substrates when concomitantly given orally. PMID:20460823

  9. Inhibitory effect of six herbal extracts on CYP2C8 enzyme activity in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Albassam, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Mohamed-Eslam F; Frye, Reginald F

    2015-05-01

    1. Herbal supplements widely used in the US were screened for the potential to inhibit CYP2C8 activity in human liver microsomes. The herbal extracts screened were garlic, echinacea, saw palmetto, valerian, black cohosh and cranberry. N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ) and hydroxypioglitazone metabolite formation were used as indices of CYP2C8 activity. 2. All herbal extracts showed inhibition of CYP2C8 activity for at least one of three concentrations tested. A volume per dose index (VDI) was calculated to determine the volume in which a dose should be diluted to obtain IC50 equivalent concentration. Cranberry and saw palmetto had a VDI value > 5.0 l per dose unit, suggesting a potential for interaction. 3. Inhibition curves were constructed and the IC50 (mean ± SE) values were 24.7 ± 2.7 μg/ml for cranberry and 15.4 ± 1.7 μg/ml for saw palmetto. 4. The results suggest a potential for cranberry or saw palmetto extracts to inhibit CYP2C8 activity. Clinical studies are needed to evaluate the significance of this interaction. PMID:25430798

  10. In Vitro Effects of Concomitant Use of Herbal Preparations on Cytochrome P450s Involved in Clozapine Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tian, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Herbal supplements are increasingly used in psychiatric practice. Our epidemiological study has identified several herbal preparations associated with adverse outcomes of antipsychotic therapy. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of four herbal preparations-Radix Rehmanniae (RR), Fructus Schisandrae (FS), Radix Bupleuri (RB) and Fructus Gardeniae (FG)-on cytochrome P450s (CYPs) involved in the metabolism of clozapine in human liver microsomes (HLMs) and recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes (rCYPs). N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine N-oxide, two major metabolites of clozapine, were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). FG, RR and RB showed negligible inhibitory effects in both in vitro systems, with estimated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) and apparent inhibitory constant values (Ki) greater than 1 mg/mL (raw material), suggesting that minimal metabolic interaction occurs when these preparations are used concomitantly with clozapine. The FS extract affected CYP activity with varying potency; its effect on CYP 3A4-catalyzed clozapine oxidation was relatively strong (Ki: 0.11 mg/mL). Overall, the weak-to-moderate inhibitory effect of FS on in vitro clozapine metabolism indicated its potential role in herb-drug interaction in practice. PMID:27164071

  11. A vitamin, mineral, herb dietary supplement effect on blood glucose in uncontrolled type II diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    González, Michael J; Ricart, Carlos M; Miranda-Massari, Jorge

    2004-06-01

    We tested a dietary supplement formulated with a synergistic combination of vitamins, minerals, herbals in a group of 15 patients with uncontrolled diabetes type II. The supplement was given for 30 days. Fasting blood glucose was measured prior to the supplementation and at the end of the 30 days treatment period. Blood glucose was significantly reduced in all patients with no adverse effects. This orthomolecular correction of faulty glucose metabolism with a combination of nontoxic, safe and fairly inexpensive nutraceuticals needs to be further substantiated. Nervertheless the idea of correcting metabolism with micronutrients is a new concept of genetic nutritioneering that seems appealing and cost effective. PMID:15377060

  12. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  13. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  14. Vitamin and Supplement Use in the Old Order Amish: Gender-specific prevalence and associations with use

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Robert M.; Reed, Anna W.; McArdle, Patrick F.; Miller, Michael; Pollin, Toni I.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Mitchell, Braxton D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the form of vitamin and supplement use is increasingly prevalent in the United States. The interplay between CAM use and use of conventional medications is not well studied. We examined this issue in the Old Order Amish (OOA), a population lacking several factors known to influence supplement use, whose culture and barriers to conventional medications may result in high rates of supplement use. Objective We characterized the patterns of supplement use in the OOA, including the extent to which CAM use aggregates in families, and assessed whether higher use of supplements is associated with lower medication use. Design We conducted a cross-sectional study of conventional medications and supplements in 2,372 adult Amish from the Lancaster County, PA area. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. Supplements were subcategorized as herbal versus vitamin/mineral supplements. Results Seventy-seven percent of all Amish adults reported current supplement use, whereas 22% reported medication use. Women used supplements more often and used more supplements than men, and familial aggregation of supplement use was stronger in family pairs involving women. Supplement use was associated with lower medication use after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and self-reported histories of hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia (adjusted OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.00, p=0.047). This association was driven primarily by use of herbal supplements (adjusted OR 0.94, 05% CI 0.89 to 0.99, p=0.025) as vitamin/mineral supplements were not associated with different use of medication (adjusted OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.09, p=0.8). In analyses limited to cardiovascular medications and cardiovascular supplements in participants with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, or diabetes, supplement use was not associated with conventional medication use. Conclusions The Old Order Amish take dietary supplements much more frequently than they

  15. Acute liver injury associated with the use of herbal preparations containing glucosamine: three case studies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aileen; Dillon, John

    2009-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines is becoming increasingly popular in Western society. As a result the number of reported adverse reactions is increasing. Glucosamine is a herbal remedy commonly used to ease joint pain in osteoarthritis, and only two previous reports of hepatotoxicity have been published in the scientific literature. The present report describes three patients who developed acute liver injury following exposure to glucosamine; one patient made a complete recovery on cessation of ingestion, the second developed chronic hepatitis and the third died following progression to fulminant hepatic failure. A diagnosis of glucosamine-induced hepatotoxicity was made based on the temporal relationship between onset of liver injury and glucosamine ingestion, exclusion of all other potential aetiologies and, in the two surviving cases, improvement in condition on withdrawal of the supplement. PMID:21887162

  16. [Liu Yue-heng and Shengcaoyaoxingfangpu (Guidebook of Chinese medicinal herbal properties)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu-Li

    2010-09-01

    Liu Yue-heng, a famous doctor in Hunan province during Qing dynasty is the author of Shengcaoyaoxingfangpu (Guidebook of Chinese medicinal herbs) which systematically summed up the properties, flavors and channel tropism of the local herbal medicines and supplemented a lack knowledge of those. The book collected broadly folk and proved prescriptions and, combined with the author's clinical experiences. He collected and classified them as chapters, reflected geographical environment and folk custom culture with the distinctive regional characteristics of Huxiang. Its achievement is mainly embodied in the following aspects: it attached importance to herbs, highlighted Huxiang characteristics, the skilful use of folk and proved prescriptions and comprehensively differentiated etiology and pathogenesis, and proposed for doctors' professional ethics. PMID:21163083

  17. [Advance in herbal medicine applied to intracanal antisepsis].

    PubMed

    Zhongpeng, Yang; Ling, Zou

    2014-12-01

    Intracanal antisepsis acts as one of the fundamental steps in root canal therapy. Intracanal medication is very common among the multitudinous root canal disinfection methods so far. However, as the most frequently-used intracanal medication, calcium hydroxide exists some problems, such as insufficient antimicrobial power and antibiogram. Thus exploring new root canal disinfectant is necessary. Herbal medicine is gaining favor for its wide varieties, broad efficacy and affordable prices. The current researches revealed that many kinds of herbs or compound herbal preparations possess good ability of antimicrobial and other properties that superior to those of traditional root canal disinfectants. However, herbal medicine itself and the studies have shortcomings. This paper will provide a review of various herbal alternatives that are being studied of late years. PMID:25665435

  18. POTENTIAL OF HERBAL MEDICINES IN MODERN MEDICAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Said, Hakim Mohammed

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses in this paper the potentialities of Herbal medicine in modern therapy. Also he throws some light on the importance of natural drugs which bring about cure without generation side-effects. PMID:22557447

  19. [Research on the citation of Herbal in Dongeuibogam].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongzhi; Dang, Zhizheng

    2014-07-01

    Dongeuibogam is the most prestigious traditional medical book in Korea, written by Heo Joon, who codified it by picking the essence of Chinese traditional medical books before the Ming Dynasty and some other ancient Chinese books and sorted them out. Among the citations of this book, those marked as"Herbal" is more complicated. We made a preliminary research on the citations of such Herbal, from their distribution, sources, citation manners, pharmacological features, to find that 23 rolls of main text to include citations of Herbal in each roll. We also found that most Herbal referred by Heo Joon come from Zheng lei ben cao (Classified Materia Medica), and a few of the contents are mixed with the contents of other medical books. Heo Joon abstracted and modified the citations from the source literature, embodying his ideas of pursuing conciseness and practicability. PMID:25429883

  20. Tea not Tincture: Hepatotoxicity Associated with Rooibos Herbal Tea

    PubMed Central

    Engels, Michael; Matoso, Andres; Maidan, Eyal; Wands, Jack

    2013-01-01

    A 52-year-old male presented with signs of acute hepatitis and liver failure. Laboratory investigations for common etiologies were unrevealing, but history suggested liver injury secondary to ingestion of a traditional South African herbal tea made with rooibos and buchu. Livery biopsy confirmed a toxin-mediated liver injury. The patient recovered liver function after stopping the herbal tea. Although hepatotoxicity associated with rooibos and buchu has rarely been reported, anecdotal correspondence with South African physicians confirmed suspected cases. Hepatotoxicity may be due to the heterogeneous composition of herbal teas due to small-batch manufacturing. Our case clearly outlines the need to suspect herbal causes of idiopathic liver injury. PMID:26157822

  1. Use of herbal remedies among patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Roozbeh, Jamshid; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2013-11-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence, types, and associated factors for the use of herbal remedies in hemodialysis patients. Two hundred participants were selected by stratified sampling and were systematically interviewed. One hundred and twenty-six patients (63%) had used herbal remedies some time since their initiation of dialysis treatment. The users of herbal remedies had a significantly older age than nonusers, but no other significant differences were observed. The most prevalent complaints that led to herbal remedies use were gastroenterological complaints, flushing, and excessive thirst. Cichorium intybus, Borage officinalis, Mentha longifolia, and Matricaria recutita were the most prevalently used herbs in our patients. More study should be done on safety and efficacy of these herbs for hemodialysis patients. PMID:24241097

  2. [Research progress on current pharmacokinetic evaluation of Chinese herbal medicines].

    PubMed

    Li, Guofu; Zhao, Haoru; Yang, Jin

    2011-03-01

    In order to prove safety and efficacy, herbal medicines must undergo the rigorous scientific researches such as pharmacokinetic and bioavailability, before they are put on the market in the foreign countries. Botanical Drug Products promulgated by the US FDA could guide industry sponsors to develop herbal drugs, which was also an important reference for investigating Chinese herbal medicines. This paper reviews and discusses novel approaches for how to assess systemic exposure and pharmacokinetic of Chinese herbal medicines, which were in line with FDA guidance. This mainly focus on identifying pharmacokinetic markers of botanical products, integral pharmacokinetic study of multiple components, Biopharmaceutics drug disposition classification system, and population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic study in herb-drug interaction. PMID:21657088

  3. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  4. Investigation of iodine deficient state and iodine supplementation in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities on long-term total enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Takako; Kamasaki, Hotaka; Yoto, Yuko; Honjo, Takashi; Tsugawa, Satoshi; Hotsubo, Tomoyuki; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Iodine concentrations of enteral nutrition (EN) formulae available in Japan are very low and long-term total EN (TEN) might result in hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency (HID). Our aim of this study was to determine the degree of iodine deficiency (ID) and need for iodine supplementation (IS) in patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities (SMID) on long-term TEN. Thyroid function including urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was monitored, and powdered kelp was provided as a source of iodine supplement. Thirty-five SMID on TEN participated in our study. UIC less than 100 μg /L, representing ID, were detected in 97 % of them. Their TSH ranged from 0.5 to 90 μIU/mL. IS using powdered kelp raised their UIC to the normal range. Thyroid function also recovered in the five hypothyroidism cases, which were diagnosed as HID, was also detected. In Japan, there must be many cases with ID associated with long term TEN. We also discuss the regulation of thyroid function in the iodine deficient state. PMID:22673532

  5. Effects of Chinese herbal medicine on plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of antibiotics in animal diets is facing negative feedback due to the hidden danger of drug residues to human health. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine has been used to replace antibiotics in the past two decades and played an increasingly important role in livestock production. The present study was carried out to assess the feeding effects of a traditional nourishing Chinese herbal medicine mixture on kinetics of plasma glucose, protein and energy metabolism in sheep. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were also determined. Methods Four sheep were fed on either mixed hay (MH-diet) or MH-diet supplemented with 2% of Chinese herbal medicine (mixture of Astragalus root, Angelica root and Atractylodes rhizome; CHM-diet) over two 35-day periods using a crossover design. The turnover rate of plasma glucose was measured with an isotope dilution method using [U-13C]glucose. The rates of plasma leucine turnover and leucine oxidation, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and metabolic heat production were measured using the [1-13C]leucine dilution and open circuit calorimetry. Results Body weight gain of sheep was higher (P = 0.03) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Rumen pH was lower (P = 0.02), concentration of rumen total volatile fatty acid tended to be higher (P = 0.05) and acetate was higher (P = 0.04) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Turnover rates of plasma glucose and leucine did not differ between diets. Oxidation rate of leucine tended to be higher (P = 0.06) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet, but the WBPS did not differ between diets. Metabolic heat production tended to be greater (P = 0.05) for CHM-diet than for MH-diet. Conclusions The sheep fed on CHM-diet had a higher body weight gain and showed positive impacts on rumen fermentation and energy metabolism without resulting in any adverse response. Therefore, these results suggested that the Chinese herbal medicine mixture should be considered as a potential feed additive

  6. [Mechanism of Chinese herbal medicine delaying glomerulosclerosis in diabetic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Wan, Yigang; Bian, Rongwen; Gu, Liubao; Wang, Chaojun; Zhang, Huilan; Yao, Jian

    2010-02-01

    The pathomechanisms of glomerulosclerosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN) are considered to be related with glycometabolism disorder, podocyte injury, intra-renal hemodynamics abnormality, fibrogenic cytokines over-expression, oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. Chinese herbal medicine could delay the progression of glomerulosclerosis in DN by ameliorating the harmful factors of these pathological changes. Therefore, it is possible to postpone the progress of DN to end-stage renal disease through the treatment with Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:20450059

  7. Inappropriate Usage of Dietary Supplements in Patients by Miscommunication with Physicians in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Yokotani, Kaori; Suzuki, Sachina; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, people have used dietary supplements not only for nutritional supplementation, but also for treatment of their diseases. However, use of dietary supplements to treat diseases, especially with medications, may cause health problems in patients. In this study, we investigated use of dietary supplements in patients in Japan. This survey was conducted from January to December 2012, and was completed by 2732 people, including 599 admitted patients, 1154 ambulatory patients, and 979 healthy subjects who attended a seminar about dietary supplements. At the time of the questionnaire, 20.4% of admitted patients, 39.1% of ambulatory patients, and 30.7% of healthy subjects were using dietary supplements, which including vitamin/mineral supplements, herbal extracts, its ingredients, or food for specified health uses. The primary purpose for use in all groups was health maintenance, whereas 3.7% of healthy subjects, 10.0% of ambulatory patients, and 13.2% of admitted patients used dietary supplements to treat diseases. In addition, 17.7% of admitted patients and 36.8% of ambulatory patients were using dietary supplements concomitantly with their medications. However, among both admitted patients and ambulatory patients, almost 70% did not mention dietary supplement use to their physicians. Overall, 3.3% of all subjects realized adverse effects associated with dietary supplements. Communication between patients and physicians is important to avoid health problems associated with the use of dietary supplements. PMID:25431879

  8. Commonly Used Dietary Supplements on Coagulation Function during Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Zhi; Moss, Jonathan; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients who undergo surgery appear to use dietary supplements significantly more frequently than the general population. Because they contain pharmacologically active compounds, dietary supplements may affect coagulation and platelet function during the perioperative period through direct effects, pharmacodynamic interactions, and pharmacokinetic interactions. However, in this regard, limited studies have been conducted that address the pharmacological interactions of dietary supplements. To avoid possible bleeding risks during surgery, information of potential complications of dietary supplements during perioperative management is important for physicians. Methods Through a systematic database search of all available years, articles were identified in this review if they included dietary supplements and coagulation/platelet function, while special attention was paid to studies published after 1990. Results Safety concerns are reported in commercially available dietary supplements. Effects of the most commonly used natural products on blood coagulation and platelet function are systematically reviewed, including 11 herbal medicines (echinacea, ephedra, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and valerian) and 4 other dietary supplements (coenzyme Q10, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, fish oil, and vitamins). Bleeding risks of garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, saw palmetto, St John’s wort, and fish oil are reported. Cardiovascular instability was observed with ephedra, ginseng, and kava. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary supplements and drugs used in the perioperative period are discussed. Conclusions To prevent potential problems associated with the use of dietary supplements, physicians should be familiar with the perioperative effects of commonly used dietary supplements. Since the effects of dietary supplements on coagulation and platelet function are difficult to

  9. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the “Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae” and the “Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances.” These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  10. Herbal medicine revisited: science looks anew at ancient Chinese pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Griffin, R J

    1979-09-01

    There is now increasing evidence that significant advances have been made in herbal medicine during the past 20-25 years since the official policy of China was established that encouraged a blend of Western and Chinese traditional medicine. Scientific studies in China and the United States, as well as other countries, are directed at collecting and cataloguing a great variety of the herbs listed in the folk pharmacopias. 1 of the most significant single agents identified recently is isodamine, an alkaloid isolated from the solancea plant. Its formula, pharmacological action, and clinical effects are very similar to those of atropine. On the basis of experimental and clinical studies, Chinese scientists report that anisodamine is a better spasmolytic agent than atropine by virtue of its milder activity on the salivary glands, the pupils, and the central nervous system. Several herbal drugs have recently been developed and subjected to successful clinical trials. These drugs tend to be combinations of herbs. The Chinese have made progress recently in the treatment of burns with herbal medicine. 1 of the reasons given for past failures of Western investigators to identify the medicinal properties of Chinese medications is that the research usually began with the isolation of individual chemical compounds. New studies in the U.S. are focusing on single ingredients, entire herbal concoctions, and the use of herbal medicines in conjunction with Western drug products. Virtually every city in the U.S. with a sizable Chinese ethnic community has 1 or more herbal "pharmacies." PMID:539531

  11. Approaching the problem of bioequivalence of herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Loew, D; Kaszkin, M

    2002-12-01

    Herbal medicinal products (HMP) contain exclusively herbal drugs or herbal drug preparations (HDP) and are a complex mixture of different compounds, which may act in an agonistic, synergistic, complementary, antagonistic or toxic way. A specific scientific challenge is for methods to prone the bioequivalence of herbal drug preparations (HDP). Depending on the type of herbal drug preparations, different approaches are possible. If the constituents responsible for therapeutic activity are known, the concept of essential similarity used with chemically defined substances can be fully applied. For extracts with unknown active markers, data on defined chemical constituents are useful for control purposes (charge conformity), but not sufficient to prove bioequivalence. In this case bioassays or pharmacological studies, which measure therapeutically relevant activity, should be used. A phytogeneric is only comparable to the innovator preparation under the following conditions: (i) pharmaceutical equivalence (standardization), (ii) biopharmaceutical equivalence (in vitro dissolution), (iii) bioequivalence with different endpoints (in vitro model, animal model) or (iv) clinical study. An uncritical substitution of herbal drug preparations without considering these scientific criteria should be avoided. PMID:12458470

  12. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes; Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W; Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified. PMID:18037151

  13. Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2012-01-01

    Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using “microarray” and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine. PMID:24716122

  14. Synergism of Chinese Herbal Medicine: Illustrated by Danshen Compound.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuefeng; Yao, Zhuoting; Li, Shengting; Sun, He

    2016-01-01

    The primary therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) are based on the properties of each herb and the strategic combination of herbs in formulae. The herbal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory: the "Traditional Principles for Constructing Chinese Herbal Medicinal Formulae" and the "Principles of Combining Medicinal Substances." These principles of formulation detail how and why multiple medicinal herbs with different properties are combined together into a single formula. However, the concept of herbal synergism in CHM still remains a mystery due to lack of scientific data and modern assessment methods. The Compound Danshen Formula (CDF) is a validated formula that has been used to treat a variety of diseases for hundreds of years in China and other countries. The CDF will be employed to illustrate the theory and principle of Chinese herbal medicine formulation. The aim of this review is to describe how Chinese herbal medicinal formulae are constructed according to Chinese medicine theory and to illustrate with scientific evidence how Chinese herbs work synergistically within a formula, thereby supporting Chinese medicine theory and practice. PMID:27190537

  15. Risks and benefits of commonly used herbal medicines in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Fragoso, Lourdes Reyes-Esparza, Jorge; Burchiel, Scott W. Herrera-Ruiz, Dea; Torres, Eliseo

    2008-02-15

    In Mexico, local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. It is generally accepted by many people in Mexico and elsewhere in the world that beneficial medicinal effects can be obtained by ingesting plant products. In this review, we focus on the potential pharmacologic bases for herbal plant efficacy, but we also raise concerns about the safety of these agents, which have not been fully assessed. Although numerous randomized clinical trials of herbal medicines have been published and systematic reviews and meta-analyses of these studies are available, generalizations about the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines are clearly not possible. Recent publications have also highlighted the unintended consequences of herbal product use, including morbidity and mortality. It has been found that many phytochemicals have pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic interactions with drugs. The present review is limited to some herbal medicines that are native or cultivated in Mexico and that have significant use. We discuss the cultural uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological, and toxicological properties of the following plant species: nopal (Opuntia ficus), peppermint (Mentha piperita), chaparral (Larrea divaricata), dandlion (Taraxacum officinale), mullein (Verbascum densiflorum), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), nettle or stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), passionflower (Passiflora incarnata), linden flower (Tilia europea), and aloe (Aloe vera). We conclude that our knowledge of the therapeutic benefits and risks of some herbal medicines used in Mexico is still limited and efforts to elucidate them should be intensified.

  16. Macrofaunal involvement in the sublittoral decay of kelp debris: The sea urchin Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedford, A. P.; Moore, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    Psammechinus miliaris occurs in the Clyde Sea area in large numbers (<18 individuals per 100 g -1 weed dry wt) on sublittoral beds of detached Laminaria saccharina. Its rôle in weed decomposition has been examined by comparing its responses (behavioural choice, growth rate, absorption efficiencies of both carbon and protein, gut retention times and rate of faecal output) to fresh and rotting weed. Younger urchins grew faster than older individuals on a diet of rotting weed but not on fresh weed. Large seasonal variation existed, however, with fast growth occurring in June-August and little, or no, growth in December-February, irrespective of diet. Starved controls did not grow. Correcting for seasonality, rotting kelp still promoted faster growth of young urchins than did fresh weed. Larger (older) individuals showed no difference. Urchins fed fresh weed had significantly longer gut retention times. Protein absorption efficiency was higher on fresh than rotting weed, varying with weed protein content and size of urchin. Very young individuals can only digest high protein weed efficiently, eg. material derived from near the frond meristem. Organic carbon content of rotting weed was significantly lower than fresh weed. Carbon absorption efficiencies were significantly higher on fresh weed which related to organic carbon content. Standard-sized urchins fed rotting weed produced larger dry weights of faeces per day, reflecting increased ingestion rate. In closed-system choice experiments urchins preferred rotting weed kinetically. Size-frequency analysis of field populations suggested that weed beds are principally colonized by larval settlement from the plankton. Mature Psammechinus have evolved different 'strategies' for exploiting fresh and rotting weed. Fresh weed is relatively difficult to digest and long gut retention times allow high protein absorption efficiencies to be attained. Rotting weed has microbial protein in quantities and a lower organic carbon

  17. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  18. Elemental and structural analysis of silicon forms in herbal drugs using silicon-29 MAS NMR and WD-XRF spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Pajchel, L; Nykiel, P; Kolodziejski, W

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study concentration of silicon and its structural forms present in herbal drugs. Equisetum arvense and Urtica dioica L. from teapot bags, dietary supplements (tablets and capsules) containing those herbs, dry extract obtained from a teapot bag of E. arvense, and samples of the latter herb harvested in wild habitat over four months were studied using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WD-XRF) and high-resolution solid-state (29)Si NMR. The highest concentration of Si, ca. 27mg/g, was found in the herbal material from the teapot bags containing E. arvense. The Si content in natural E. arvense (whole plants) increased from May to August by ca. 7mg/g, reaching value 26mg/g. Three different silicon forms were detected in the studied herbal samples: Si(OSi)4 (Q(4)), Si(OH)(OSi)3 (Q(3)) and Si(OH)2(OSi)2 (Q(2)). Those sites were populated in E. arvense in the following order: Q(4)≫Q(3)>Q(2). A dramatic, ca. 50-fold decrease of the Si concentration during the infusion process was observed. The infusion process and the subsequent drying procedure augmented population of the Q(4) sites at the cost of the Q(2) sites. The WD-XRF and (29)Si NMR methods occurred useful and complementary in the study of herbal materials. PMID:21813258

  19. Compilation of a herbal medicine formulary for herbal substances in Malta and its usefulness amongst healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Spiteri, Maria; Attard, Everaldo; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Azzopardi, Lilian M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Today, the use of herbal medicine for primary healthcare has increased considerably. Since local pharmacists graduate with little knowledge on herbal medicine, the majority are ill-equipped to provide pharmaceutical advice. Aims To develop and evaluate a herbal medicine formulary to aid healthcare professionals (HCPs) in the prescribing, dispensing and counselling responsibilities. Settings and Design Community pharmacies. Methods and Material Monographs on all herbal substances available locally were compiled into a formulary. The formulary was then distributed to all, 216, local pharmacies. Subsequently, a questionnaire was distributed to 55 pharmacists and 10 general practitioners (GPs). Statistical analysis used Descriptive statistical analysis. Results A total of 177 herbal monographs have been compiled and 612 herbal products listed. Thirty HCPs participated in the questionnaire. The formulary was found to be useful by all participants with 19 claiming to use it frequently and 7 quite frequently. Participants (n = 30) agree that the information contained within the formulary was found to be useful (26), the formulary helped them learn which HMPs are present in the local market (29), the formulary is user friendly (27), information included is up-to-date and well referenced (29) and that there is the need for a formulary of this kind in Malta (28). Conclusions The formulary was found to be a useful tool for HCPs leading to high quality, evidence-based prescribing together with enhanced monitoring and improved patient care. PMID:24023448

  20. Dietary supplements and related products: a brief summary.

    PubMed

    Rapaka, Rao S; Coates, Paul M

    2006-03-27

    We were gratified by the interest expressed in publishing a large number of presentations from the NIDA organized Workshop on "Natureceuticals (Natural Products), Nutraceuticals, Herbal Botanicals, Psychoactives: Drug Discovery and Drug-Drug Interactions". The number of manuscripts received necessitated two volumes of proceedings. In this brief summary of the second volume, we present an introduction to the roles of organizations such as National Center for Complementary and Alternate Medicine and Office of Dietary Supplements, both at the National Institutes of Health, and the Food and Drug Administration. These agencies are involved in research and regulation of dietary supplements and related products. Next, a brief summary of each of the fifteen articles is provided. The first four articles are related to regulatory and standardization aspects: issues related to botanicals (Khan); USP and dietary supplements (Srinivasan); dietary supplement reference materials (Sander et al.); and proposed cGMPs and the scientific basis behind the proposed regulations by FDA (Melethil). The next three articles relate to the methodologies employed in research: LC/MS for the pharmacokinetic analysis polyphenols from dietary supplements (Barnes et al.); proteomic analysis of grape seed extract (Kim et al.); and a nematode model, C. elegans, in Alzheimer's and ginkgo biloba extract for mechanistic studies; another model, a hepatocyte tissue culture model for drug herbal interaction, is reviewed later and presented by Venkataramanan. The next four chapters are on specific dietary supplements: green tea and the polyphenolic catechins (Zaveri); curcumin (Maheswari et al.); tocotrienols (alpha-tocotrienol, Sen and Roy), gamma-tocotrienol (Sree Kumar et al.). This topic is followed by drug interaction studies: in vitro and in vivo assessment methodologies (Venkataramanan); flavonoid-drug interactions (Morris); MDR and CYP3A4-mediated drug-herb interaction (Pal and Mitra); and evidence

  1. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

  2. Herbal extract targets in Leishmania tropica.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Bassim I; Al Shammary, Maani N; Abdul Mageed, Roaa H; Yousif, Nasser Ghaly

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of some herbal extract such as phenolic compounds on the viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. Four tested chemical agents (caffeic acid (CA), ferulic acid (FA), syringic acid (SA) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA)) were used in this study. The viability of Leishmania tropica promastigotes was investigated under five different concentrations (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg/ml) of each agent after (72 h). CA was the most active agent on the promastigotes viability after 72 h exposure to 30 mg/ml concentration so that the parasiticidal effect reach (53 × 10(4)) promastigote/ml. FA is the second agent in parasiticidal effect that parasiticidal effect reach to (50 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), 4-HBA is the third agent in parasiticidal effect that reach to (48 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml), SA is the weakest agent in parasiticidal activity that reach to (44 × 10(4) promastigote/ml) at a concentration (30 mg/ml). It can be concluded that (CA, FA, SA and 4-HBA) possess acidal effect on the Leishmania tropica promastigotes in vitro. PMID:26688631

  3. Evaluation of aqueous preparations from herbal drugs.

    PubMed

    Vitková, Zuzana; Brázdovicová, Bronislava; Ralbovská, Katarína; Halenárová, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results obtained within analysis of aqueous preparations obtained from the herbal drugs, (APHD) which are available in pharmacy as mass produced drugs. In particular, the following drugs were analyzed: CYNAROFIT, L'ALIAFIT, Tinctura belladonnae, Tinctura gentianae, Tinctura chinae a Tinctura valerianae made by Calendula, j.s.c.--Slovakia and Tinctura valerianae made by IVAX-Czech republic. Tictura valerianae magistraliter was prepared in a laboratory. The APHDs were analyzed under the following aspects: amount of dry matter, density, index of refraction, pH value, content of ethanol, influence of the light on these parameters as well as the global appearance of samples. In parallel to that, the stability of samples Tinctura valerianae prepared by two different manufacturers and the samples of magistraliter preparations were compared. It was found that storing samples delivered by Calendula j.s.c. does not significantly influenced their stability neither in the light nor in the dark, kept at the temperature of 20-25 degrees C over the time interval of 6 months. All samples were in agreement with the norms of companies as well as with both Czechoslovak (CSL 4) and Slovak (SL 1) pharmacopoeias. Besides, the results obtained show that a kind of extraction methods (percolation, maceration) does not influence neither quality nor stability of the samples Tinctura valerianae. PMID:20210084

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine-induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Peng, Jing-Hua; Hu, Yi-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) and the associated adverse reactions has attracted the attention of researchers and physicians. Reports have shown that several types of CHM can cause liver injury, with increasing numbers of cases reported every year. The difficulty in characterizing CHM-induced liver injury stems from clinical manifestations, diagnosis and pathogenesis. The clinical manifestations are varied, but gastrointestinal symptoms are the majority. The Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale is currently the most commonly used method for assessing causality in cases of medicine-induced liver injury with excellent sensitivity, specificity and predictive validity. However, the pathogenesis of CHM-induced liver injury is not well understood. The classic view encompasses a contribution from “toxic metabolites” that either elicit an immune response or directly affect cellular biochemical processes or functions. In addition, poor quality and inappropriate clinical use of CHMs contribute to safety concerns. To ensure the safe use of CHMs and decrease the number of hepatotoxic cases, clinicians, researchers and pharmaceutical companies should share responsibility by regulating clinical use, strengthening basic toxicology research and establishing a strict quality control system. PMID:26355537

  5. Antifertility effect of Jamu (traditional herbal medicine).

    PubMed

    Azimahtol Hawariah Lope Pihie; Embun Naim

    1983-12-01

    Rahwana and Kursani, 2 brands of jamu, a traditional Malay herbal medicine, were investigated for antifertility properties in rats and mice. The findings suggest that jamu has an antifertility effect in both these rodents. This effect appears to be dose dependent and in addition the stage at which it was fed also appears to be crucial for the effect to manifest. Rahwana is effective when fed on day 4 of gestation. However jamu Kursani does not appear to be dose dependent and is effective when fed on days 1 and 4 of gestation. Jamu Rahwana does not alter the LH or estrogen levels in rats. Therefore, the induction of the antifertility effect is suggested to be by means other than hormonal. It is felt that jamu either inhibits the implantation of the zygote or causes resorption of the fetus. Whether any antifertility effect exists in women using jamu remain to be clarified. The mechanism of action, its reliability and effectiveness as a contraceptive, the side effects, if any, pharmacology of the active ingredient and other relevant investigations need to be carried out before it can be recommended for human use. The study does indicate that jamu has potential as an antifertility agent and could be effectively used in fertility regulation. PMID:12313336

  6. Phytotoxicity of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry wastes.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Surindra; Singh, Deepika

    2011-08-01

    This work demonstrates the phytotoxicity screening of composted herbal pharmaceutical industry waste (HPIW) using seed bioassay method. The composted industrial waste should be tested at lab scale prior to recommendation for land application. HPIW was mixed with soil to produce four treatments: T(1) (1:1), T(2) (1:2), T(3) (1:3), and T(4) (1:0) for toxicity screening using Pisum sativum seeds. After 72 h relative seed germination (RSG), relative root growth (RRG) and germination index (GI) were recorded. Seedlings were observed for further plant growth and tissue biochemistry (chlorophyll, soluble sugar, starch, carotenoid, and protein) estimation. RSG, RRG, and GI values were better in T(1) and T(2) than others. GI was in the ranges of 36.62 % (T(4)) to 170.38 % (T(2)). The seedling growth and biochemical parameters were better in seedling obtained from potting media containing low proportion of HPIW (i.e., T(1) and T(2)). Results clearly suggested that composted HPIW may be utilized effectively for crop production after dilution under sustainable farming system program. PMID:22648349

  7. Topical herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2014-01-01

    Background Before extraction and synthetic chemistry were invented, musculoskeletal complaints were treated with preparations from medicinal plants. They were either administered orally or topically. In contrast to the oral medicinal plant products, topicals act in part as counterirritants or are toxic when given orally. Objectives To update the previous Cochrane review of herbal therapy for osteoarthritis from 2000 by evaluating the evidence on effectiveness for topical medicinal plant products. Search methods Databases for mainstream and complementary medicine were searched using terms to include all forms of arthritis combined with medicinal plant products. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to February 2013, unrestricted by language. We also searched the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal interventions used topically, compared with inert (placebo) or active controls, in people with osteoarthritis were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. Main results Seven studies (seven different medicinal plant interventions; 785 participants) were included. Single studies (five studies, six interventions) and non-comparable studies (two studies, one intervention) precluded pooling of results. Moderate evidence from a single study of 174 people with hand osteoarthritis indicated that treatment with Arnica extract gel probably results in similar benefits as treatment with ibuprofen (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) with a similar number of adverse events. Mean pain in the ibuprofen group was 44.2 points on a 100 point scale; treatment with Arnica gel reduced the pain by 4 points after three weeks: mean difference (MD

  8. Evaluation of quality control strategies in Scutellaria herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Susanne P; Doolan, Paul J; Andrews, Clare E; Reid, Raymond G

    2011-04-01

    The statutory regulation of herbal medicines is under review within the United Kingdom (UK) and by 2011 all herbal medicines will require either a Product Licence or a Traditional Herbal Registration. The species Scutellaria baicalensis has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-tumor properties and is one of the most widely used Chinese herbal extracts in Eastern and Western medicines. The bioactivity of this herbal medicine is due to the radical scavenging activities of the flavone components of which there are more than 60. This research has characterised 5 key flavones in 18 extracts of Scutellaria using a combination of HPLC with DAD and MS detection. Employing an internal standard approach, the validated HPLC method afforded good sensitivity and excellent assay precision. Assays for the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total phenol determinations enabled determination of the antioxidant coefficient (PAC) of each Scutellaria extract. The potential usefulness of employing multivariate statistical analysis using a combination of the key parameters collected namely, FRAP activity, total phenol content, levels of 5 flavone biomarkers and the PAC as a means of quality evaluation of the Scutellaria herbal extracts was investigated. The PAC value was predicted by soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) as being the most discriminatory parameter and applying this ranking the herbal extracts were grouped into 3 clusters. The second most influential parameter in determining the clustering of the samples was the level of baicalin in each extract. It is proposed that the PAC value alone or in combination with a chromatographic fingerprint of key biomarkers [e.g. baicalin or (baicalin+baicalein)] may be useful indicators to adopt for the quality control of S. baicalensis. PMID:21163602

  9. Moxibustion with Chinese herbal has good effect on allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Cunyun; Peng, Congjian; Wei, Guojian; Huang, Xuhui; Fu, Tingting; Du, Yu; Wang, Changjun

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a chronic inflammatory disease of rhino-ocular mucosa, affecting up to 40% of population worldwide. Chinese herbal medicines and Acupuncture, adopted thousands of years in China, has good effect on allergic rhinitis. This study evaluates the effects of Moxibustion with Chinese herbal in treating patients with allergic rhinitis over a 1-year follow-up. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a sample of 355 participants recruited from Guangdong general hospital of China. After baseline measurements, participants were randomly assigned to treatment-group or control group. Treatment group received Moxibustion with Chinese herbal. Control group received Loratadine. The main outcomes, including symptom severity and quality of life were measured using the Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ). Both moxibustion with Chinese herbal and Loratadine improve nose symptoms such as stuffy/blocked, sneezing, runny nose, itchy nose, sore nose and post-nasal drip in patients with AR. Symptoms fatigue, loss of taste, afraid of cold/wind and cold limb were improved significantly in moxibustion with Chinese herbal group. The mean quality of life scores decreased in both groups after treatment. Compare to control group, moxibustion with Chinese herbal is more effective than Loratadine in improving the quality of life in patients with AR. The results show moxibustion with Chinese herbal was effective to reduce symptoms and enhance quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis. It is a simple, convenient and economic therapy for patients with AR. Further controlled trials of its effects in patients with allergic rhinitis are recommended. PMID:26629174

  10. Traditional remedies and food supplements. A 5-year toxicological study (1991-1995).

    PubMed

    Shaw, D; Leon, C; Kolev, S; Murray, V

    1997-11-01

    Since 1991, the Medical Toxicology Unit (MTU) at Guys' Hospital, London, has been assessing the toxicological problems associated with the use of traditional and herbal remedies and dietary supplements. This assessment was carried out by evaluating reports to the National Poisons Information Service (London) [NPIS(L)] which provides emergency information to medical professionals. Relevant telephone enquiries to NPIS(L) were identified. Further case details were obtained by follow-up questionnaire, clinical consultation, toxicological analysis of samples from patients and/or products and botanical identification of plant material. Of 1297 symptomatic enquiries evaluated there was a possible/confirmed association in 785 cases. Case series have been identified which substantiate previous reports, including liver problems following the use of Chinese herbal medicine for skin disorders, allergic reactions to royal jelly and propolis and heavy metal poisoning caused by remedies from the Indian subcontinent. Although the overall risk to public health appears to be low, certain groups of traditional remedies have been associated with a number of potentially serious adverse effects. Considering the extent of use of herbal remedies and food supplements a comprehensive surveillance system for monitoring the adverse health effects of these products is essential. Surveillance of a large population is needed for the complex task of identifying the uncommon and unpredictable adverse effects which are potentially serious. In the UK, the Medicines Control Agency responded to the MTU report by recognising the need for vigilance and by incorporating adverse reactions reporting on unlicensed herbal remedies into their drug reaction monitoring function. As a further step to safeguard the patients/consumers an effective single regulatory system is required which would ensure the safety and quality of all herbal remedies and food supplements available in the UK. PMID:9391777

  11. UHPLC/HRMS Analysis of African Mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Seeds, Extract and Related Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-01-01

    Dietary Supplements based on an extract from Irvingia gabonensis (African Mango, AM for abbreviation) seeds are one of the popular herbal weight loss dietary supplements in the US market. The extract is believed to be a natural and healthy way to lose weight and improve overall health. However, the chemical composition of African mango based-dietary supplements (AMDS) has never been reported. In this study, the chemical constituents of African mango seeds, African mango seeds extract (AMSE), and different kinds of commercially available African mango based dietary supplements (AMDS) have been investigated using an ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method. Ellagic acid, mono, di, tri-O methyl-ellagic acids and their glycosides were found as major components in African Mango seeds. These compounds may be used for quality control of African Mango extract and related dietary supplements. PMID:22880691

  12. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllidi, Aikaterini; Xanthos, Theodoros; Papalois, Apostolos; Triantafillidis, John K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal therapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing worldwide. The aim of this study was to review the literature on the efficacy of herbal therapy in IBD patients. Studies on herbal therapy for IBD published in Medline and Embase were reviewed, and response to treatment and remission rates were recorded. Although the number of the relevant clinical studies is relatively small, it can be assumed that the efficacy of herbal therapies in IBD is promising. The most important clinical trials conducted so far refer to the use of mastic gum, tormentil extracts, wormwood herb, aloe vera, triticum aestivum, germinated barley foodstuff, and boswellia serrata. In ulcerative colitis, aloe vera gel, triticum aestivum, andrographis paniculata extract and topical Xilei-san were superior to placebo in inducing remission or clinical response, and curcumin was superior to placebo in maintaining remission; boswellia serrata gum resin and plantago ovata seeds were as effective as mesalazine, whereas oenothera biennis had similar relapse rates as ω-3 fatty acids in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. In Crohn’s disease, mastic gum, Artemisia absinthium, and Tripterygium wilfordii were superior to placebo in inducing remission and preventing clinical postoperative recurrence, respectively. Herbal therapies exert their therapeutic benefit by different mechanisms including immune regulation, antioxidant activity, inhibition of leukotriene B4 and nuclear factor-kappa B, and antiplatelet activity. Large, double-blind clinical studies assessing the most commonly used natural substances should urgently be conducted. PMID:25830661

  13. [Studies and safety evaluation of aflatoxins in herbal plants].

    PubMed

    Ledzion, Ewa; Rybińska, Krystyna; Postupolski, Jacek; Kurpińska-Jaworska, Jolanta; Szczesna, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    Herbs and herbal products are commonly used in food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to test herbal plants for contamination with aflatoxins (AF), genotoxic, cancerogenic and hepatotoxic compounds which can cause immunotoxic and allergic effects as well as growth disorders. Aflatoxins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with post column derivatization involving bromination with pyridinium hydrobromide perbromide (PBPB). Extracts was cleaned-up by immunoaffinity columns (IAC). The contents of aflatoxins B, B, G, and G, in more than 500 herbal plants samples mainly from Eastern Poland were investigated. Samples were supplied by manufacturers (herbal facilities) in 2006-2010 years. In all the evaluated samples the levels of aflatoxins above the detection limits of methods applied were not observed: for AF B1--0.2 microg/kg; AF B2--0.03 microg/kg; AF G1--0.3 microg/kg; AF G2--0.03 microg/kg (PN-EN 14123) and for AF B1--0.15 microg/kg (Ph. Eur.6, 2008:2.8.18). All the herbal plants tested for contamination with aflatoxins should be considered safe, which indicates that manufacturers used good manufacturing practices during drying and storage of raw materials. PMID:22435291

  14. Use of herbal therapies among midlife Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Zenk, S N; Shaver, J L; Peragallo, N; Fox, P; Chávez, N

    2001-09-01

    The cultural traditions of Mexican women living in the United States make it likely that some women promote their health and manage their symptoms using various herbal therapies, yet we know little about this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare midlife Mexican women living in the U.S. who were or were not using herbal therapies with regard to the extent of their acculturation, beliefs about herbs, and factors associated with their utilization of health services. A convenience sample of 30 Mexican women between the ages of 40 and 56 years completed face-to-face interviews in either English or Spanish. Nearly half reported using herbal therapies. With the exception of positive beliefs about herbs, we found few differences between herbal users and nonusers on acculturation or access to, and satisfaction with, health services. Although acculturation did not appear to influence whether the women used herbal therapies, it did relate to the types of herbs selected. Women most commonly reported using herbs popular in traditional Mexican culture, including manzanilla (chamomile), savila (aloe vera), ajo (garlic), uña de gato (cat's claw), and yerba buena (spearmint). PMID:12141849

  15. A review of herbal medicines in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Maver, Tina; Maver, Uroš; Stana Kleinschek, Karin; Smrke, Dragica M; Kreft, Samo

    2015-07-01

    Herbs have been integral to both traditional and non-traditional forms of medicine dating back at least 5000 years. The enduring popularity of herbal medicines may be explained by the perception that herbs cause minimal unwanted side effects. More recently, scientists increasingly rely on modern scientific methods and evidence-based medicine to prove efficacy of herbal medicines and focus on better understanding of mechanisms of their action. However, information concerning quantitative human health benefits of herbal medicines is still rare or dispersed, limiting their proper valuation. Preparations from traditional medicinal plants are often used for wound healing purposes covering a broad area of different skin-related diseases. Herbal medicines in wound management involve disinfection, debridement, and provision of a suitable environment for aiding the natural course of healing. Here we report on 22 plants used as wound healing agents in traditional medicine around the world. The aim of this review is therefore to review herbal medicines, which pose great potential for effective treatment of minor wounds. PMID:25808157

  16. PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect on human diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenshu; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2016-09-01

    The pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) are two members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulate a broad range of genes involved in drug metabolism and transport. A variety of naturally occurring compounds present in herbal medicines were identified as ligands of PXR and CAR. Recently, accumulative evidences have revealed the PXR- and CAR-mediated herbal effect against multiple human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholestatic liver disease, and jaundice. The current review summarized the recent progress in identifying the expanding libraries of herbal medicine as ligands for PXR and CAR. Moreover, the potential for herbal medicines as promising therapeutic agents which were mainly regulated through PXR/CAR signaling pathways was also discussed. The discovery of herbal medicines as modulators of PXR and CAR, and their PXR- and CAR-mediated effect on human diseases will provide a basis for rational drug design, and eventually be explored as a novel therapeutic approach against human diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Xenobiotic nuclear receptors: New Tricks for An Old Dog, edited by Dr. Wen Xie. PMID:26906544

  17. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  18. A bio-inspired herbal tea flavour assessment technique.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  19. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marón, Carina F; Beltramino, Lucas; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Seger, Jon; Uhart, Marcela; Sironi, Mariano; Rowntree, Victoria J

    2015-01-01

    At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales' backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974-2011 (n = 2680) and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192) in 2003-2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five), but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more) covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000. PMID:26488493

  20. Increased Wounding of Southern Right Whale (Eubalaena australis) Calves by Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) at Península Valdés, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Marón, Carina F.; Beltramino, Lucas; Di Martino, Matías; Chirife, Andrea; Seger, Jon; Uhart, Marcela; Sironi, Mariano; Rowntree, Victoria J.

    2015-01-01

    At least 626 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground, Argentina, between 2003 and 2014. Intense gull harassment may have contributed to these deaths. In the 1970s, Kelp Gulls (Larus dominicanus) began feeding on skin and blubber pecked from the backs of living right whales at Valdés. The frequency of gull attacks has increased dramatically over the last three decades and mother-calf pairs are the primary targets. Pairs attacked by gulls spend less time nursing, resting and playing than pairs not under attack. In successive attacks, gulls open new lesions on the whales’ backs or enlarge preexisting ones. Increased wounding could potentially lead to dehydration, impaired thermoregulation, and energy loss to wound healing. The presence, number and total area of gull-inflicted lesions were assessed using aerial survey photographs of living mother-calf pairs in 1974–2011 (n = 2680) and stranding photographs of dead calves (n = 192) in 2003–2011. The percentage of living mothers and calves with gull lesions increased from an average of 2% in the 1970s to 99% in the 2000s. In the 1980s and 1990s, mothers and calves had roughly equal numbers of lesions (one to five), but by the 2000s, calves had more lesions (nine or more) covering a greater area of their backs compared to their mothers. Living mother-calf pairs and dead calves in Golfo Nuevo had more lesions than those in Golfo San José in the 2000s. The number and area of lesions increased with calf age during the calving season. Intensified Kelp Gull harassment at Península Valdés could be compromising calf health and thereby contributing to the high average rate of calf mortality observed in recent years, but it cannot explain the large year-to-year variance in calf deaths since 2000. PMID:26488493

  1. Kelp Fly Virus: a Novel Group of Insect Picorna-Like Viruses as Defined by Genome Sequence Analysis and a Distinctive Virion Structure

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, C. J.; Greenwood, D. R.; Gilbert, R. J. C.; Masoumi, A.; Gordon, K. H. J.; Hanzlik, T. N.; Fry, E. E.; Stuart, D. I.; Scotti, P. D.

    2005-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of kelp fly virus (KFV), originally isolated from the kelp fly, Chaetocoelopa sydneyensis, has been determined. Analyses of its genomic and structural organization and phylogeny show that it belongs to a hitherto undescribed group within the picorna-like virus superfamily. The single-stranded genomic RNA of KFV is 11,035 nucleotides in length and contains a single large open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 3,436 amino acids with 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions of 384 and 343 nucleotides, respectively. The predicted amino acid sequence of the polypeptide shows that it has three regions. The N-terminal region contains sequences homologous to the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat domain, an inhibitor of apoptosis commonly found in animals and in viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes. The second region contains at least two capsid proteins. The third region has three sequence motifs characteristic of replicase proteins of many plant and animal viruses, including a helicase, a 3C chymotrypsin-like protease, and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Phylogenetic analysis of the replicase motifs shows that KFV forms a distinct and distant taxon within the picorna-like virus superfamily. Cryoelectron microscopy and image reconstruction of KFV to a resolution of 15 Å reveals an icosahedral structure, with each of its 12 fivefold vertices forming a turret from the otherwise smooth surface of the 20-Å-thick capsid. The architecture of the KFV capsid is unique among the members of the picornavirus superfamily for which structures have previously been determined. PMID:16227260

  2. Infralittoral mapping around an oceanic archipelago using MERIS FR satellite imagery and deep kelp observations: A new tool for assessing MPA coverage targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Patrícia; Atchoi, Elizabeth; Berecibar, Estibaliz; Tempera, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    This work presents the first climatologic maps of diffuse attenuation of down-welling solar radiation (KdPAR and Kd490 coefficients) for the Azores derived from full resolution (FR) MERIS satellite imagery. Associating this information with a new mesoscale bathymetry compilation permits estimating the percentage of surface light reaching the seabed. A video annotation dataset derived from a deep kelp survey conducted on the Formigas Bank is subsequently used to estimate the light levels experienced by these bionomically-crucial frondose algae. Empirical light-based thresholds for the lower infralittoral boundary in the Azores are derived from the deepest kelp occurrences. This information is eventually used to map the geographical extent of this major marine biological zone in the archipelago, yielding an area estimate of 894.7 km2. The average depth of the infralittoral limit in the Azores is established at 69 m. It is determined that the present Azores marine protected area (MPA) network already covers 28.9% of the region's infralittoral grounds. However, island-specific values highlight that MPA percentage coverage varies between islands with values ranging from a marginal coverage of 7.3% (on Terceira Island) to 100% coverage around the island of Corvo and the Formigas Bank. These results suggest that conservation managers may make use of the current spatially-based protection framework of the archipelago to, on the whole and for this specific major habitat, surpass the goals suggested by international conventions and conservation fora for MPA coverage. However, an analysis of the statutory MPA regulations further reveals that measures in place are insufficient to provide a no-take and no-disturbance protection of infralittoral biotopes. In order to achieve the recommended strict protection of the currently protected infralittoral zones, conservation measures ought to be enhanced.

  3. Chinese Herbal Products for Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Hung, I-Ling; Hung, Yu-Chiang; Wang, Lin-Yi; Hsu, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Tseng, Ying-Jung; Kuo, Chun-En; Hu, Wen-Long; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal products (CHPs) have been described in ancient medicine systems as treatments for various stroke-associated ailments. This study is aimed to investigate the prescription patterns and combinations of CHPs for ischemic stroke in Taiwan. Prescriptions of CHPs for ischemic stroke were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. Every prescription with a leading diagnosis of ischemic stroke made during 2000-2010 was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were applied to the pattern of co-prescriptions. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess demographic and risk factors that are correlated with CHP use. The dataset of inpatient claims data contained information on 15,896 subjects who experienced ischemic stroke from 2000 to 2010. There was an average of 5.82 CHPs in a single prescription for subjects with ischemic stroke. Bu-yang-huan-wu-tang (BYHWT) (40.32%) was by far the most frequently prescribed formula CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two-formula-CHP was BYHWT with Shu-jin-huo-xue-tang (SJHXT) (4.40%). Dan Shen (16.50%) was the most commonly used single CHP for ischemic stroke, and the most commonly used combination of two single CHPs was Shi Chang Pua with Yuan Zhi (4.79%). We found that BYHWT and Dan Shen were the most frequently prescribed formula and single CHP for ischemic stroke, respectively. These results provide information about individualized therapy and may contribute to further pharmacologic experiments and clinical trials. PMID:26477801

  4. Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2015-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant products are used orally for treating osteoarthritis. Although their mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated in full detail, interactions with common inflammatory mediators provide a rationale for using them to treat osteoarthritic complaints. Objectives To update a previous Cochrane review to assess the benefits and harms of oral medicinal plant products in treating osteoarthritis. Search methods We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINAHL, ISI Web of Science, World Health Organization Clinical Trials Registry Platform) to 29 August 2013, unrestricted by language, and the reference lists from retrieved trials. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of orally consumed herbal interventions compared with placebo or active controls in people with osteoarthritis were included. Herbal interventions included any plant preparation but excluded homeopathy or aromatherapy products, or any preparation of synthetic origin. Data collection and analysis Two authors used standard methods for trial selection and data extraction, and assessed the quality of the body of evidence using the GRADE approach for major outcomes (pain, function, radiographic joint changes, quality of life, withdrawals due to adverse events, total adverse events, and serious adverse events). Main results Forty-nine randomised controlled studies (33 interventions, 5980 participants) were included. Seventeen studies of confirmatory design (sample and effect sizes pre-specified) were mostly at moderate risk of bias. The remaining 32 studies of exploratory design were at higher risk of bias. Due to differing interventions, meta-analyses were restricted to Boswellia serrata (monoherbal) and avocado-soyabean unsaponifiables (ASU) (two herb combination) products. Five studies of three different extracts from Boswellia serrata were included. High-quality evidence from two studies (85 participants) indicated that 90 days treatment with 100

  5. The effect of clove-based herbal mouthwash on radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a single-blind randomized preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Moonkyoo; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Yoon, Seong Woo; Kim, Jinsung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clove-based herbal mouthwash in ameliorating radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods Fourteen patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and randomized to either an experimental group or a control group. The patients of the experimental group swished their mouths with a clove-based herbal mouthwash during radiotherapy (RT), while the patients of the control group swished with clear water. The primary end point of this study was incidence of radiation-induced oral mucositis. The secondary end points were time to onset of radiation-induced oral mucositis, duration of radiation-induced oral mucositis, incidence of supplemental nutrition through feeding tube, maximum pain score, body weight loss, incidence of RT interruption, and duration of RT interruption. Results The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash shortened the duration of grade ≥2 mucositis (24.3 days vs 37.1 days, P=0.044) and reduced body weight loss during RT (3.1% vs 7.4%, P=0.023) compared with clear water. The use of clove-based herbal mouthwash also reduced the incidence of grade 3 mucositis (28.6% vs 57.1%), supplemental nutrition (0% vs 28.6%), and RT interruption (14.3% vs 28.6%), and reduced the duration of grade 3 mucositis (5.1 days vs 17.7 days) and RT interruption (1 days vs 8.5 days). In addition, clove-based herbal mouthwash delayed the time to onset of mucositis (26.6 days vs 24.5 days) and reduced the maximum pain score (4.1 vs 4.9). However, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion Although we could not find significant differences in some end points, this single-blind randomized study showed that a clove-based herbal mouthwash can have a potentially beneficial effect on minimizing or preventing radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer. To confirm the results of our study, well-designed randomized studies with large

  6. Herbal remedies for psoriasis: what are our patients taking?

    PubMed

    Steele, Tace; Rogers, Cindy J; Jacob, Sharon E

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to review and explore the top 15 currently used and the historically used herbal remedies in the treatment of psoriasis. Articles, press releases, message boards, product marketing sites, and patient education lines through the National Library of Medicine (www.pubmed.gov), National Psoriasis Foundation (www.psoriasis.org), Google (www.google. com), and Yahoo (www.yahoo.com) were reviewed. Despite widespread use of complementary and alternative medications, specifically herbals, there is limited scientific data regarding their benefits and interactions. Studies on the efficacy and side effect profiles of these remedies are needed. Additionally, both providers and patients need to be cognizant of both potential benefit distortion and adulteration of the herbal products. PMID:18286859

  7. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    PubMed

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes. PMID:25272514

  8. Influence of nanotechnology on herbal drugs: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, S. H.; Islam, Farha; Sameem, Mohd.

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicines have been widely used all over the world since ancient times and have been recognized by physicians and patients for their better therapeutic value as they have fewer adverse effects as compared with modern medicines. Phytotherapeutics need a scientific approach to deliver the components in a sustained manner to increase patient compliance and avoid repeated administration. This can be achieved by designing novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for herbal constituents. NDDSs not only reduce the repeated administration to overcome non-compliance, but also help to increase the therapeutic value by reducing toxicity and increasing the bioavailability. One such novel approach is nanotechnology. Nano-sized drug delivery systems of herbal drugs have a potential future for enhancing the activity and overcoming problems associated with plant medicines. Hence, integration of the nanocarriers as a NDDS in the traditional medicine system is essential to conflict more chronic diseases like asthma, diabetes, cancer, and others. PMID:23057000

  9. Properties of herbal extracts against Propionibacterium acnes for biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Youn-Mook; Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Yong Soo; Shin, Young Min; Jeong, Sung In; Jo, Sun-Young; Gwon, Hui-Jeong; Park, Jong-seok; Nho, Young-Chang; Kim, Jong-Cheol; Kim, Seong-Jang; Shin, HeungSoo

    2012-10-01

    Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), one of the anaerobic bacterium, causes inflammatory acne. To find a novel medication for treating the inflammation caused by P. acnes, we investigated the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of several herbal extracts against P. acnes. The aqueous extracts from five dried herbs, Phellodendron amurense Rupr., Paeonia lactiflora Pallas., Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch., were prepared and mixed. In this experiment, 1 mg/ml of the herbal extract mixture caused a decrease in the growth of P. acnes and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β and IL-6, in human monocytic THP-1 cells treated with heat-killed P. acnes. Therefore, this herbal extract mixture may possess both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities against P. acnes and can be a novel therapeutic agent for treating inflammatory acne.

  10. Rise of herbal and traditional medicine in erectile dysfunction management.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher C K; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-12-01

    Herbal medicine long has been used in the management of sexual dysfunction, including erectile dysfunction. Many patients have attested to the efficacy of this treatment. However, is it evidence-based medicine? Studies have been done on animal models, mainly in the laboratory. However, randomized controlled trials on humans are scarce. The only herbal medications that have been studied for erectile dysfunction are Panax ginseng, Butea superba, Epimedium herbs (icariin), Tribulus terrestris, Securidaca longipedunculata, Piper guineense, and yohimbine. Of these, only Panax ginseng, B. superb, and yohimbine have published studies done on humans. Unfortunately, these published trials on humans were not robust. Many herbal therapies appear to have potential benefits, and similarly, the health risks of various phytotherapeutic compounds need to be elucidated. Properly designed human trials should be worked out and encouraged to determine the efficacy and safety of potential phytotherapies. PMID:21948222

  11. [Herbal remedies in depression--state of the art].

    PubMed

    Szafrański, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Recent decades have seen development of research and an increased interest in the psychopharmacology of natural remedies. More than 20 herbal remedies have been identified that may potentially be applied in medicine as antidepressive, anxiety relieving or sleep-inducing agents. Patients often prefer to take herbal remedies and often take them on their own, without consulting a physician. The aim of the study is to present the state of the art concerning the use of natural remedies in the treatment of depression. Following a literature review, 7 herbal remedies for which preclinical and clinical trials suggest their antidepressive influence have been identified: hypericum, lavender, borage, roseroot, chamomile, saffron and ginseng. For two of these, i.e. hypericum and saffron extracts, antidepressive effect in subjects with mild or moderate depression has been confirmed in controlled randomized clinical trials. PMID:24946435

  12. Hepatitis after the use of germander, a herbal remedy.

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, L; Villeneuve, J P

    1996-01-01

    The authors report two cases of hepatic injury associated with the ingestion of germander, a herbal medicine used to facilitate weight loss. In both patients, hepatitis characterized by asthenia, jaundice and a marked increase in serum amino-transferase levels occurred after 5 to 6 months of germander use. The jaundice disappeared within 8 weeks after germander use was stopped, and the overall outcome was favourable. The subsequent resumption of germander therapy by one patient was soon followed by the recurrence of hepatitis. Similar reports from France have led to the banning of germander in that country. Like several other herbal remedies, germander may be hepatotoxic, and many herbal medicines may not be as safe as the public generally assumes. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8646656

  13. A systematic review on the herbal extract Tribulus terrestris and the roots of its putative aphrodisiac and performance enhancing effect.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Ahmed; Naughton, Declan P; Petroczi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris (TT) is a dicotyledonous herbal plant of the Zygophyllaceae family. In ancient medicine, extracts of the aerial parts and fruits have been used for its diuretic, tonic, and aphrodisiac properties. Today, TT is widely used by athletes and bodybuilders based on the belief, fueled by claims in marketing information, that it can enhance testosterone concentrations. To assess TT's effect on testosterone levels in human and animals, an electronic literature search out using seven databases and the patent database up to August 2013 was carried out. Randomized control trials, which included healthy human subjects ingesting TT as sole or combined supplement, along with animal studies with TT as a sole treatment across a number of species were included. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including one patent application. The results showed that trials varied in duration, dosage and supplementation with TT as sole or combined treatment, rendering meta-analysis impossible. A limited number of animal studies displayed a significant increase in serum testosterone levels after TT administration, but this effect was only noted in humans when TT was part of a combined supplement administration. Literature available for the effectiveness of TT on enhancing testosterone concentrations is limited. Evidence to date suggests that TT is ineffective for increasing testosterone levels in humans, thus marketing claims are unsubstantiated. The nitric oxide release effect of TT may offer a plausible explanation for the observed physiological responses to TT supplementation, independent of the testosterone level. PMID:24559105

  14. Herbal Medicines Induced Anticholinergic Poisoning in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989–2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989–1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994–1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000–June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008–2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures. PMID:26999208

  15. Co-ingestion of herbal medicines and warfarin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsay; Ernst, Edzard; Ewings, Paul; Myers, Patrick; Smith, Calli

    2004-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of patients use herbal remedies with a potential to interact with prescribed drugs. Such interactions can be dangerous, particularly if the therapeutic window of the prescribed drug is small, as with warfarin. Aims: Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of the use of herbal medicines by patients taking warfarin (co-ingestion). Design of study: Postal questionnaire. Setting: General practices in the South West of England. Method: Thirty-five general practices in Devon and Somerset identified 2600 patients taking warfarin and sent postal questionnaires to them. Results: One thousand, three hundred and sixty usable responses were received (response rate = 54.2%). One or more of the specified herbal remedies thought to interact with warfarin were taken by 8.8% of all patients. Complementary or homeopathic treatments not specified in the survey questionnaire were taken by 14.3% of responders. Overall, 19.2% of responders were taking one or more such medicines. The use of herbal medicines had not been discussed with a conventional healthcare professional by 92.2% of patients. Twenty-eight point three per cent of responders thought that herbal medicines might or definitely could interfere with other drugs prescribed by their doctor, however, patients taking any non-prescribed medication were less likely to believe this (χ2 = 20, degrees of freedom = 1, P<0.001). Conclusion: A substantial proportion of patients taking warfarin in southwest England self-medicate with both herbal medicines that are thought to interact with warfarin and with others of unknown effect, usually without informing their healthcare team. Patients have a responsibility to mention such non-prescribed medication to their general practitioners, and general practitioners also have a responsibility to ask whether such co-ingestion is occurring. PMID:15186565

  16. Herbal Medicines Induced Anticholinergic Poisoning in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2016-01-01

    In the present review, the main objective was to report the incidence and causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning in Hong Kong during 1989-2012 and to emphasize the importance of pharmacovigilance, investigations and preventive measures. Relevant papers, official figures and unpublished data were obtained from Medline search, the Department of Health and the Drug and Poisons Information Bureau. In the New Territories East (where ~20% of the Hong Kong population lived), the incidence of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning during 1989-1993 was 0.09 per 100,000 population. There were no confirmed cases during 1994-1996. In the whole of Hong Kong, the incidence during 2000-June 2005 was 0.03 per 100,000 population. Contamination of Rhizoma Atractylodis (50%) and erroneous substitution (42%) were the main causes. The incidence during 2008-2012 was 0.06 per 100,000 population. Contamination of non-toxic herbs (50%) and erroneous substitution (41%) were the main causes. In Hong Kong, contamination of non-toxic herbs by tropane alkaloids and substitution of Flos Campsis by toxic Flos Daturae Metelis were the predominant causes of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning. Systematic studies along the supply chain are necessary to identify the likely sources of contamination. If erroneous substitution of Flos Campsis by Flos Daturae Metelis could be prevented, 40% of herbal medicines induced anticholinergic poisoning would not have occurred. Regular inspection of the retailer, continuing education for the staff in the herbal trade and repeated publicity measures will also be required. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines should help determine the incidence and causes of adverse reactions and monitor the effectiveness of preventive measures. PMID:26999208

  17. Toxic hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine: Tinospora crispa.

    PubMed

    Langrand, J; Regnault, H; Cachet, X; Bouzidi, C; Villa, A F; Serfaty, L; Garnier, R; Michel, S

    2014-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular in many countries. Tinospora species (Menispermaceae) is commonly used as a herbal medicine in South Asia, but very few toxic effects have been described. We report a case of acute hepatitis associated with chronic use of high doses of Tinospora crispa. A 49-year-old male with chronic low back pain bought a herbal medicine at a market in Vietnam that was supposed to be Tinospora crispa, and started to take 10 pellets per day. He had no medical history and did not take any other drugs or toxins. Four weeks later; he developed dark urine and pale stools, associated with asthenia and right hypochondrial pain. Two months after starting treatment, he was referred to the hepatology department with jaundice. Blood tests showed aspartate aminotransferase: 1.169 IU/l, alanine aminotransferase: 2.029 IU/l, total bilirubin: 20.47 mg/dl, direct bilirubin: 13.29 mg/dl, and γ-glutamyltransferase: 243 IU/l. Viral and autoimmune hepatitis were eliminated. Upper abdominal ultrasound was normal. Histopathological findings were consistent with a toxic reaction. The herbal medicine was stopped on admission and the patient fully recovered without treatment, with normal liver function 2 months after the acute episode. Tinospora crispa was clearly identified in the pellets by microscopic analysis of the botanical characters combined with chromatographic fingerprints. The use of herbal medicines containing Tinospora crispa can induce toxic hepatitis. Recovery can be complete after discontinuation. This case highlights the risk associated with traditional herbal remedies. PMID:24867504

  18. Ayurveda, malaria and the indigenous herbal tradition in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, K T

    1991-01-01

    Using key informants and available records, the way in which inhabitants of purana villages in Nuwarakalaviya, Sri Lanka coped with malaria during the pre-DDT era is examined. This study found that the Nuwarakalaviya peasants responded to endemic malaria through a localized herbal tradition, which was to some extent independent of the scholarly ayurveda system common to the whole of South Asia. The relevant herbal tradition, consisting of a combination of antiparasite and antivector strategies using locally available natural resources, represented an effective adaptation to the local ecosystem. PMID:1887278

  19. Cryogenic grinding technology for traditional Chinese herbal medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shimo; Ge, Shuangyan; Huang, Zhongping; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Haoping; Pan, Huaiyu

    The fundamental principle of cryogenic grinding (cryogrinding) for Chinese herbal medicine is similar to that of grinding methods for conventional materials, but the compositions are very complex, containing aromatics of high volatility, oils and fats, which are easily oxidized. Using liquid nitrogen or liquid air as the cryogen, all of these thermosensitive Chinese herbal medicines can be ground below their brittle temperature. The colour and other properties of the products of cryo-grinding will not be changed and the flavour and nutrition of the medicines will not be lost.

  20. Oral treatment with herbal formula B401 alleviates penile toxicity in aging mice with manganism

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Ching-Lung; Wang, Sheue-Er; Sheu, Shuenn-Jyi; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Wu, Chung-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to elucidate the roles of nitric oxide synthase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile toxicity of aging mice associated with excess manganese (Mn) treatment and to investigate the effect of oral treatment with the herbal formula B401 in this respect. ICR strain mice were divided into two groups: the vehicle (sham group) and the B401 (50 mg/kg) group. The mice were orally treated for 5 days; then a high single dose of MnCl2 (100 mg/kg) was given by intraperitoneal injection to the mice. One day after MnCl2 treatment, corpora cavernosal tissues of both Mn-treated mice and their controls were simultaneously sampled to examine their immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Nitric oxide (NO) production, levels of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), expression levels of factors governing angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor), oxidative stress (catalase, superoxide dismutase 2,4-hydroxynonenal), inflammation (tumor necrosis factor alpha), apoptosis (B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2], Bcl-2-associated X protein [Bax], cleaved poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase [c-PARP], cytochrome C, caspase-12, and caspase-3) were evaluated in penile corpus cavernosum of the mice. We found that penile toxicity in the mice was enhanced under excess Mn treatment through reduction of NOS activity and increase in oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in the penile cavernous tissue. Furthermore, the penile toxicity in mice with manganism was alleviated by oral B401 treatment through enhancement of both nitric oxide synthesis and angiogenesis, with simultaneous reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in penile corpus cavernosum. We suggest that the herbal formula B401 may serve as a potential dietotherapeutic supplement for penile toxicity or dysfunction in aging males. PMID:26064043

  1. [Three case reports of the use of herbal combinations resulted in stent thrombosis: herbal combinations; friend or foe?].

    PubMed

    Vatankulu, Mehmet Akif; Tasal, Abdurrahman; Erdoğan, Ercan; Göktekin, Ömer

    2012-04-01

    Nowadays, herbal combinations are commonly used in Turkey and around the world. In particular, an herbal combination including Tribulus terrestris (TT), Avena sativa (AS), and Panax Ginseng (PG), which may be effective in treatment of atherosclerosis and thrombosis, is used by patients with coronary artery disease. In this paper, we will report three cases with coronary stents who were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome while using this herbal combination of TT, AS and PG together with anti-aggregant medications. A 45-year-old man presented with chest pain and coronary angiography confirmed a total occluded stent in left anterior descending artery which was implanted a year ago. Balloon dialation was performed to dilate the stent, resulting in full opening of the vessel. The second case, a 53-year-old woman, was admitted to the hospital with chest pain. Coronary angiography confirmed a total occluded stent, which had been implanted three months ago. A balloon was performed to dilate the stent and it was fully opened. The third case, a 62-year-old man, presented with chest pain. Coronary angiography was performed and there was a 98% stenosis of the circumflex stent, which was implanted three months ago. A balloon was performed to dilate the stent and it was fully opened. It was learnt that all three patients had used the same herbal combination (TT, AS and PG) with dual anti-aggregant therapy for three months ago to presentation in the clinic. Patients were discharged with the suggestion not to use this herbal combination with dual anti-aggregant therapy. There were no problems during the four month follow-up period. Stent thrombosis may be caused by interactions between herbal combination (TT, AS and PG) and clopidogrel in these patients under dual antiaggregant therapy. PMID:22864325

  2. Prescription Drugs, Over-the-Counter Drugs, Supplements and Herbal Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain if they follow the directions on the product label. But taking too much can lead to liver ... pain if they follow the directions on the product label. But taking too much can lead to liver ...

  3. [Exploration of influencing factors of price of herbal based on VAR model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nuo; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-01

    Based on vector auto-regression (VAR) model, this paper takes advantage of Granger causality test, variance decomposition and impulse response analysis techniques to carry out a comprehensive study of the factors influencing the price of Chinese herbal, including herbal cultivation costs, acreage, natural disasters, the residents' needs and inflation. The study found that there is Granger causality relationship between inflation and herbal prices, cultivation costs and herbal prices. And in the total variance analysis of Chinese herbal and medicine price index, the largest contribution to it is from its own fluctuations, followed by the cultivation costs and inflation. PMID:25751965

  4. Multivitamin/Mineral Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrient recommendations: Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) Online DRI tool Daily Value (DV) tables For more advice on buying dietary supplements: Office of Dietary Supplements Frequently Asked Questions: Which brand(s) ...

  5. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  6. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  7. The toxicity and pathology of selected dietary herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Dunnick, June K; Nyska, Abraham

    2013-02-01

    Toxicity studies were conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to provide information on the potential for toxicity from long-term use of commonly used herbal medicines. Here, we review the findings from these NTP toxicology/carcinogenesis 2-year rodent studies of 7 commonly used herbs. In these studies, the individual herb or herbal product was administered to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice by oral administration for up to 2 years. The spectrum of carcinogenic responses ranged from no or equivocal evidence for carcinogenic activity (ginseng, milk thistle, and turmeric oleoresin) to a liver tumor response (ginkgo, goldenseal, kava), thyroid tumor response (ginkgo), or an intestinal tumor response (Aloe vera whole leaf nondecolorized extract). Different mechanisms may be involved in the occurrence of liver (ginkgo, goldenseal, and kava kava) and gastrointestinal toxicity (turmeric oleoresin and Aloe vera whole leaf nondecolorized extract), while the toxic lesion is the same. The results from these hazard identification toxicity/carcinogenesis studies along with those from ongoing National Institute of Health clinical trials of herbal medicines provide more complete information on the risks and benefits from herbal medicine use in the general population. PMID:23262639

  8. Anti-hygroscopic effect of dextrans in herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Tong, Henry H Y; Wong, Sammas Y S; Law, Marcus W L; Chu, Kevin K W; Chow, Albert H L

    2008-11-01

    Equilibrium moisture sorptions of two dried aqueous herbal extracts and their mixtures with dextrans of various molecular weights were investigated as a function of relative humidity at ambient temperature, and the data were analyzed by both the Guggenheim-Anderson-deBoer (GAB) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) equations. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of the samples were measured by differential scanning calorimetry, and their dependence on the moisture contents of the extracts was analyzed by the linear, Fox and expanded Gordon-Taylor mathematical models. All dextran-extract mixtures exhibited single T(g) values, indicating that they existed as single homogeneous phases. The BET equation was found adequate for description of the moisture sorption isotherms for all samples. The dextrans appeared to reduce the hygroscopicity of the herbal extracts solely by a dilution effect. The observed increase in T(g) and accompanying decrease in tackiness of the herbal extracts in the presence of dextrans may be explained by the ability of dextrans to restrict the molecular mobility of simple sugars and to counteract the plasticizing effect of water in the extracts. The expanded Gordon-Taylor equation has proved useful in predicting the T(g) of hygroscopic amorphous herbal mixtures. PMID:18706495

  9. Hepatotoxicity effect of some Iranian medicinal herbal formulation on rats

    PubMed Central

    Movahedian, Ahmad; Asgary, Sedigheh; Mansoorkhani, Hossein Sadeghi; keshvari, Mahtab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The public conviction that ‘herbal remedies are safe’ has led to an increased consumption of these products. This study was performed in view of the wide distribution of herbal remedies, the risks posed by self-treatment with these products, and the existing reports about the toxic effects of some medicinal herbs. Materials and Methods: In this study the effect of some of the most used herbal drops of A, B, C, and D on the liver function of rats was examined at different doses, namely minimum dose, maximum dose, and 2.5 times the maximum dose indicated in the brochures. The rats were administered the said doses via a feeding tube for 50 days. The liver function parameters including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total serum protein, albumin, and urea were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: The animals’ liver tissues were examined pathologically. The A drop did not change the liver function parameters significantly. The B drop increased the LDH by 34% compared to the controls, at the maximum administered dose. The C and D drops increased the ALT, AST, and LDH significantly compared to the controls. The histological findings suggest the possible effect of C and D drops on the function of hepatocytes. Conclusions: We recommend that the herbal formulations available in pharmaceutical markets be more closely controlled in terms of quality, as well as toxicity, especially with regard to the possible effects on the hepatic function. PMID:24592365

  10. The use of Chinese herbal drugs in Islamic medicine.

    PubMed

    Heyadri, Mojtaba; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Ayati, Mohammad Hosein; Quintern, Detlev; Nimrouzi, Majid; Heyadri, Mojtaba

    2015-11-01

    This paper investigates some of the ways that Chinese medicine has been transferred to the Western world and to Islamic territories. During the Golden Age of Islam (8th to 13th century CE), the herbal drug trade promoted significant commercial and scientific exchange between China and the Muslim world. Chinese herbal drugs have been described by medieval Muslim medical scholars such as Tabari (870 CE), Rhazes (925 CE), Haly Abbas (982 CE), Avicenna (1037 CE) and Jurjani (1137 CE). The term al-sin (the Arabic word for China) is used 46 times in Avicenna's Canon of Medicine in reference to herbal drugs imported from China. Cinnamon (dar sini; "Chinese herb"), wild ginger (asaron), rhubarb (rivand-e sini), nutmeg (basbasa), incense tree wood (ood), cubeb (kababe) and sandalwood (sandal) were the most frequently mentioned Chinese herbs in Islamic medical books. There are also multiple similarities between the clinical uses of these herbs in both medical systems. It appears that Chinese herbal drugs were a major component of the exchange of goods and knowledge between China and the Islamic and later to the Western world amid this era. PMID:26559361

  11. Antitumor effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicines against lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuezhou; Zhu, Jianping; Zhang, Wenpeng

    2014-10-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM) is used widely alone or in combination with chemotherapy to treat lung cancer in China. Meta-analysis of clinical trials of TCHM against lung cancer suggested the potential, but not confirmed therapeutic effect. To gain detailed insight into the antilung cancer effects of TCHM, we searched for preclinical studies of TCHM against lung cancer published from 1995 to 2012 and systematically analyzed published articles focusing on the antitumor effect of individual TCHM in lung cancer cell lines or animal models. Among 93 herbal components isolated from 73 Chinese herbs, we found 10 herbal compounds that showed the strongest cytotoxicity in lung cancer cell lines through apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, and agents isolated from seven Chinese herbs that inhibited the primary tumor growth more than 35% in A549 xenografted mice models. In addition, three herbal components suppressed lung cancer cell migration in vitro at the concentration without cytotoxicity. Polyphyllin I, tanshinone IIA, isochaihulactone, 25-OCH3-PPD, and andrographolide were the five TCHM compounds that showed strong antilung cancer effects both in cells and in animal models, and studies of their analogs showed their structure-activity relationships. This review summarizes and analyzes contemporary studies on the antitumor effect of individual TCHM against lung cancer and animal models, providing perspectives to better understand the TCHM effect in lung cancer treatment and develop new antilung cancer drugs from TCHM. PMID:24892722

  12. Acute Renal Failure Induced by Chinese Herbal Medication in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akpan, Effiong Ekong; Ekrikpo, Udeme E

    2015-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicine is a global phenomenon especially in the resource poor economy where only the very rich can access orthodox care. These herbal products are associated with complications such as acute renal failure and liver damage with a high incidence of mortalities and morbidities. Acute renal failure from the use of herbal remedies is said to account for about 30-35% of all cases of acute renal failure in Africa. Most of the herbal medications are not usually identified, but some common preparation often used in Nigeria includes "holy water" green water leaves, bark of Mangifera indica (mango), shoot of Anacardium occidentale (cashew), Carica papaya (paw-paw) leaves, lime water, Solanum erianthum (Potato tree), and Azadirachta indica (Neem) trees. We report a rare case of a young man who developed acute renal failure two days after ingestion of Chinese herb for "body cleansing" and general wellbeing. He had 4 sessions of haemodialysis and recovered kidney function fully after 18 days of admission. PMID:26199625

  13. Antimicrobial effect of herbal dentifrices: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sunitha, J.; Ananthalakshmi, R.; Jeeva, J. Sathiya; Jeddy, Nadeem; Dhakshininamoorthy, Subhashini; Muthu Meenakshi, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was taken up to compare the antimicrobial effect of few herbal dentifrices against cariogenic organism such as Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: This study was an in vitro model using the well method of microbial culture. Colgate total was used as the positive control and distilled water as the negative control. Dentifrices were prepared in 1:1 dilution using sterile distilled water. The standard strains were inoculated and incubated for 4 h. They were then lawn cultured. Wells were made using a standard template, and the dentifrices were placed in these wells Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis. Results: In case of S. mutans, the maximum antimicrobial effect among the six dentifrices was shown by Babool followed by Colgate Herbal. For L. acidophilus, the antimicrobial zone exhibited by all the six dentifrices were similar to the positive control. Conclusions: Babool and Colgate Herbal have more inhibitory effect against S. mutans than the other dentifrices of the group. Dabur Red, Colgate Herbal, and Himalaya are efficient against L. acidophilus. PMID:26538932

  14. Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-01-01

    Abstract An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already been completed. Of these, only five had been published, and only one had resulted in a licensed product. Fifty-four (54) of the researchers were planning to conduct a clinical trial of an herbal medicine in the future, and gave information about 54 possible trials. Respondents outlined the following most commonly encountered difficulties when conducting clinical trials: resource constraints (including lack of funding, equipment, staff, and infrastructure); social acceptance of the clinical trial (including difficulty recruiting enough patients, poor rapport with traditional healers, and willingness of biomedical staff to be involved); herbal medicine supply (including insufficient cultivation, production, and quality control); lack of trained staff; and logistical issues in conducting trials. The topics in which researchers were least confident were Intellectual Property Rights issues, statistical issues, and issues related to Good Clinical Practice guidelines. PMID:22784350

  15. Herbal Remedies: The Design of a New Course in Pharmacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouzi, Samir A.

    1996-01-01

    A new pharmacy course developed at Northeast Louisiana University School of Pharmacy trains pharmacy students in use of herbs as self-selected over-the-counter products. Emphases are on use of herbal preparations by the general public as alternative therapies, safety and efficacy of herbs and other phytomedicinals, and the pharmacist's role in…

  16. Radical scavenging potentials of single and combinatorial herbal formulations in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ojiako, Okey A.; Chikezie, Paul C.; Ogbuji, Agomuo C.

    2015-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are involved in deleterious/beneficial biological processes. The present study sought to investigate the capacity of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of Acanthus montanus, Emilia coccinea, Hibiscus rosasinensis, and Asystasia gangetica to act as superoxide radicals (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (HP), nitric oxide radical (NOR), hydroxyl radical (HR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antagonists using in vitro models. The herbal extracts were single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), triple herbal formulations (THfs), and a quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The phytochemical composition and radical scavenging capacity index (SCI) of the herbal formulations were measured using standard methods. The flavonoids were the most abundant phytochemicals present in the herbal extracts. The SCI50 defined the concentration (μg/mL) of herbal formulation required to scavenge 50% of the investigated radicals. The SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf SCI50 against the radicals followed the order HR > SOR > DPPH radical > HP > NOR. Although the various herbal formulations exhibited ambivalent antioxidant activities in terms of their radical scavenging capabilities, a broad survey of the results of the present study showed that combinatorial herbal formulations (DHfs, THfs, and QHf) appeared to exhibit lower radical scavenging capacities than those of the SHfs in vitro. PMID:27114938

  17. Radical scavenging potentials of single and combinatorial herbal formulations in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ojiako, Okey A; Chikezie, Paul C; Ogbuji, Agomuo C

    2016-04-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are involved in deleterious/beneficial biological processes. The present study sought to investigate the capacity of single and combinatorial herbal formulations of Acanthus montanus, Emilia coccinea, Hibiscus rosasinensis, and Asystasia gangetica to act as superoxide radicals (SOR), hydrogen peroxide (HP), nitric oxide radical (NOR), hydroxyl radical (HR), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antagonists using in vitro models. The herbal extracts were single herbal formulations (SHfs), double herbal formulations (DHfs), triple herbal formulations (THfs), and a quadruple herbal formulation (QHf). The phytochemical composition and radical scavenging capacity index (SCI) of the herbal formulations were measured using standard methods. The flavonoids were the most abundant phytochemicals present in the herbal extracts. The SCI50 defined the concentration (μg/mL) of herbal formulation required to scavenge 50% of the investigated radicals. The SHfs, DHfs, THfs, and QHf SCI50 against the radicals followed the order HR > SOR > DPPH radical > HP > NOR. Although the various herbal formulations exhibited ambivalent antioxidant activities in terms of their radical scavenging capabilities, a broad survey of the results of the present study showed that combinatorial herbal formulations (DHfs, THfs, and QHf) appeared to exhibit lower radical scavenging capacities than those of the SHfs in vitro. PMID:27114938

  18. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  19. Efficacy of an herbal formulation LI10903F containing Dolichos biflorus and Piper betle extracts on weight management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A novel herbal formulation LI10903F, alternatively known as LOWAT was developed based on its ability to inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes model. The clinical efficacy and tolerability of LI10903F were evaluated in an eight-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial in 50 human subjects with body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m2 (clinical trial registration number: ISRCTN37381706). Participants were randomly assigned to either a placebo or LI10903F group. Subjects in the LI10903F group received 300 mg of herbal formulation thrice daily, while subjects in the placebo group received 300 mg of placebo capsules thrice daily. All subjects were provided a standard diet (2,000 kcal daily) and participated in a moderate exercise of 30 min walk for five days a week. Additionally, the safety of this herbal formulation was evaluated by a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies in animals and cellular models. Results After eight weeks of supplementation, statistically significant net reductions in body weight (2.49 kg; p=0.00005) and BMI (0.96 kg/m2; p=0.00004) were observed in the LI10903F group versus placebo group. Additionally, significant increase in serum adiponectin concentration (p=0.0076) and significant decrease in serum ghrelin concentration (p=0.0066) were found in LI10903F group compared to placebo group. Adverse events were mild and were equally distributed between the two groups. Interestingly, LI10903F showed broad spectrum safety in a series of acute, sub-acute toxicity and genotoxicity studies. Conclusions Results from the current research suggest that LI10903F or LOWAT is well-tolerated, safe and effective for weight management. PMID:23270333

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of cooling herbal drinks from southern China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Liáng chá (“cooling tea”, “herbal tea” or “cool tisane” in Chinese) are herbal drinks widely produced in southern China and consumed by billions of people worldwide to prevent and treat internal heat as well as a range of associated health conditions. Globalization and renewed interest in botanical remedies has attracted growing attention in cooling herbal drinks by industry, scientists and consumers. However, there is a knowledge gap on the plant species used and commercialized for cooling herbal drinks in southern China and their associated ethnobotanical use, habitat and conservation status. This is the first study to document plant species used and commercialized as liáng chá in southern China’s Lingnan region and associated ethnomedical function, preparation methods, habitat and conservation status. Methods Three hundred market surveys were conducted between 2010-2012 in the largest herbal drink producing region of China to record plants used for liáng chá and to document knowledge on their medicinal function, habitat and conservation status. Product samples and voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. Results All informants harvest and cultivate plants for preparing herbal drinks for their medicinal, cultural and economic values. A total of 222 ethnotaxa corresponded to 238 botanical taxa (species, varieties or subspecies) belonging to 86 families and 209 genera were recorded as liáng chá to treat health conditions in the study area. Recorded remedies consisted of one or several plant species to treat conditions classified into 27 major health conditions with clearing internal heat being the most common medicinal function. The habitat types of plants documented for use as liáng chá include 112 wild harvested species, 51 species that are either wild harvested or cultivated, 57 cultivated species, and 2 naturalized species. According to China’s Red List and CITES on conservation status, one of these

  1. Do Cinnamon Supplements Cause Acute Hepatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Brancheau, Daniel; Patel, Brijesh; Zughaib, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 73 Final Diagnosis: Drug induced acute hepatitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • diarrhea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: The use of herbal medications to treat various diseases is on the rise. Cinnamon has been reported to improve glycolated hemoglobin and serum glucose levels. When patients consider the benefit of such substances, they are often not aware of potential adverse effects and drug interactions. Cinnamon, via coumarin, can cause liver toxicity. Therefore, its concomitant use with hepatotoxic drugs should be avoided. Case Report: A 73-year-old woman was seen in the Emergency Department complaining of abdominal pain associated with vomiting and diarrhea after she started taking cinnamon supplements for about 1 week. The patient had been taking statin for coronary artery disease for many months. The laboratory workup and imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of hepatitis. The detail workup did not reveal any specific cause. Cinnamon and statin were held. A few weeks after discharge, the statin was resumed without any further complications. This led to a diagnosis of cinnamon-statin combination-induced hepatitis. Conclusions: A combination of cinnamon supplement and statin can cause hepatitis, and it should be discouraged. PMID:25923145

  2. Review of Tumor Dormancy Therapy Using Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Koung, Fan-Pei; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to evaluate the efficacy of dormancy therapy with traditional oriental herbal medicine. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using Scientific and Technical Information Integration Services (NDSL), PubMed, and RISS. We searched for clinical reports, papers, and books related to tumor metastasis, recurrence, immunotherapy, tumor dormancy, and traditional oriental herbal medicine with anticancer effects. Seventy-nine (79) experimental and clinical articles in both Korean and English were reviewed. This study was conducted from March 1, 2012 to May 31, 2012. Results: This approach, Tumor dormancy therapy, rather than seeking to remove the tumor, includes combination of low-dose chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunosurveillance, and other methods to stabilize tumor growth and to enhance the host is immunity against disseminated tumor cells and thus to manage cancer as a chronic disease while maintaining quality of life. In particular, integrative use of Oriental herbal medicine has been shown to induce or maintain tumor dormancy, increase the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Conclusion: Tumor dormancy therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach that may be especially effective with Oriental herbal medicine. Further research is needed to determine its potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications. PMID:25780657

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of an herbal formulation for weight management.

    PubMed

    Stern, Judith S; Peerson, Jan; Mishra, Artatrana T; Mathukumalli, Venkata Sadasiva Rao; Konda, Poorna Rajeswari

    2013-06-01

    The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40 kg/m². Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400 mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000 kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30 min. The primary outcome was reduction in body weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2 kg; P<.0001), BMI (2.2 kg/m²; P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9 cm; P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3 cm; P=.0001) were observed in the herbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal group versus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%, P=.01), cholesterol (13.8%, P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%, P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels, multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management. PMID:23767862

  4. Breastfeeding and supplemental feeding for neonates in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    al-Mazroui, M J; Oyejide, C O; Bener, A; Cheema, M Y

    1997-10-01

    A prospective cohort study was carried out to determine the factors affecting initiation of breastfeeding, and describe patterns of breastfeeding and supplemental feeding in the multiethnically and culturally diverse population of Al Ain, UAE. Two-hundred-and-twenty-one infants completed the 4 weeks of follow up. None of the mothers opted not to breastfeed, but only 4 per cent of them practiced exclusive breastfeeding during the first month of the infants' life; 51 per cent of them initiated breastfeeding on the first day of life. Factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding beyond the first day of life included low birth weight, complicated delivery, ignorance of the advantages of colostrum, and young maternal age. Non-milk supplements fed to babies included water, tea, juice, yansun, and babunj (local herbal drinks). The preferred method of feeding the supplements was the feeding bottle. There were significant associations between the use of these supplements and the mother's nationality and education. PMID:9364130

  5. Recent progress of research on medicinal mushrooms, foods, and other herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Yang, Xiaoming; Huang, Rong; Zhou, Ting; Wu, Shou-Fang; Shi, Qian; Itokawa, Hideji

    2012-04-01

    This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms ( bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus), Cordyceps ( dōng chóng xià cǎo), pomegranate ( shí liú; Granati Fructus), green tea ( lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum), garlic ( dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus), turmeric ( jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma), and Artemisiae Annuae Herba ( qīng hāo; sweet wormwood). Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011. PMID:24716120

  6. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

  7. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Nayebi, Neda; Larijani, Bagher; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of effective herbal medicines in the management of obesity in humans and animals. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex databases were searched up to December 30, 2008. The search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search elements. All of the human and animal studies on the effects of herbs with the key outcome of change in anthropometric measures such as body weight and waist-hip circumference, body fat, amount of food intake, and appetite were included. In vitro studies, reviews, and letters to editors were excluded. Of the publications identified in the initial database, 915 results were identified and reviewed, and a total of 77 studies were included (19 human and 58 animal studies). Studies with Cissus quadrangularis (CQ), Sambucus nigra, Asparagus officinalis, Garcinia atroviridis, ephedra and caffeine, Slimax (extract of several plants including Zingiber officinale and Bofutsushosan) showed a significant decrease in body weight. In 41 animal studies, significant weight loss or inhibition of weight gain was found. No significant adverse effects or mortality were observed except in studies with supplements containing ephedra, caffeine and Bofutsushosan. In conclusion, compounds containing ephedra, CQ, ginseng, bitter melon, and zingiber were found to be effective in the management of obesity. Attention to these natural compounds would open a new approach for novel therapeutic and more effective agents. PMID:19575486

  8. Adjunctive care with nutritional, herbal, and homeopathic complementary and alternative medicine modalities in stroke treatment and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Bell, Iris R

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of nutritional, herbal, and homeopathic treatment options from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as adjuncts in stroke prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. Despite many promising leads, the evidence does not favor recommendation of most of these treatments from a public health policy perspective. However, simple preventive interventions such as use of a high-quality multivitamin/multimineral supplement in patients with undernutrition may improve outcomes with minimal long-term risk. Natural agents such as the antioxidant alphalipoic acid, certain traditional Asian herbal mixtures, and some homeopathically prepared remedies show promise for reducing infarct size and associated impairments. A number of nutrients and herbs may assist in treatment of stroke-related complications such as pressure sores, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia. Individualized homeopathy may even play a helpful adjunctive role in treatment of sepsis. However, a great deal of systematic research effort lies ahead before most of the options discussed would meet mainstream medical standards for introduction into routine treatment regimens. PMID:17698456

  9. Herbal medicine: women's views, knowledge and interaction with doctors: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Kathryn A; Jolly, Kate B; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2006-01-01

    Background There is growing concern that serious interactions are occurring between prescribed/over the counter and herbal medicines and that there is a lack of disclosure of herbal use by patients to doctors. This study explores women's perspectives about the safety of herbal remedies, herb-drug interactions and communication with doctors about herbal medicines. Methods Qualitative, cross-sectional study, with purposive sampling which took place in Cheshire, UK. Eighteen in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with female herbal medicine users aged 18 years and above. Results The large majority did not inform their GPs of their use of herbal medicines. This was due to lack of physician enquiry, perception of importance and fear of a negative response. Several women were not aware that herbal remedies could interact with prescribed or over the counter medicines. Of the women who had experienced adverse effects none had reported them, believing them of low importance. Conclusion The women had little knowledge about herb-drug interactions and rarely disclosed use of herbal medicines to their doctor. Doctors' communication and openness regarding herbal medicines needs to improve and there should be increased access to accurate information on herbal medicines in the public and health care domain. PMID:17156416

  10. Anti Cariogenic Efficacy of Herbal and Conventional Tooth Pastes - A Comparative In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    K P, Mohankumar; N K, Priya; G S, Madhushankari

    2013-01-01

    Background: An upsurge of herbal products in various catalogues of fast moving consumer goods is evident. Dental creams or pastes which have numerous brands since years, have addition of many more herbal tooth pastes. Main claim of these herbal tooth pastes being effective reduction in cavities and plaque control. Proven fact is that proper brushing with a tooth brush and tooth paste brings down the caries incidence, and there is a substantial amount of contribution made by indispensable ingredient i.e, tooth pastes and their antibacterial component. Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of various herbal tooth pastes available in the market and compare it with a conventional tooth paste with known antibacterial effect. Materials & Methods: The antibacterial efficacy of five herbal tooth pastes and two conventional tooth pastes with different ingredients was evaluated by the zone of inhibition created around the disc on the culture plates against streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus acidophilus. Results: The herbal tooth pastes showed similar efficacy as that of the conventional tooth pastes. One herbal tooth paste with multiple herbal ingredients had greater zone of inhibition compared to the conventional tooth pastes and other herbal tooth pastes. Conclusion: Herbal tooth pastes have similar antibacterial effect as conventional tooth pastes. Tooth paste with multiple herbal ingredients is more efficient than the tooth pastes with fewer herbal ingredients in an anticariogenic property. How to cite this article: Mohan Kumar K P, Priya N K, Madhushankari G S. Anti Cariogenic Efficacy of Herbal and Conventional Tooth Pastes - A Comparative In-Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):8-13. PMID:24155585

  11. Adjuvant activity of Chinese herbal polysaccharides in inactivated veterinary rabies vaccines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2012-04-01

    Four botanical polysaccharide preparations (from Astragalus, Echinacea, wolfberry, and kelp) were evaluated as immunopotentiators/adjuvants of a veterinary rabies vaccine. Results showed that lymphocyte proliferation and some cytokines were significantly elevated, with cellular immune responses skewed towards Th1 and Tc1. All four polysaccharides produced accelerated and enhanced effects on rabies-neutralizing antibody responses in mice and dogs. The results also indicated that certain botanical polysaccharides could be used in rabies vaccine formulations for early and persistent prophylaxis. PMID:22326819

  12. Trophic ecology in a Northern Brittany (Batz Island, France) kelp ( Laminaria digitata) forest, as investigated through stable isotopes and chemical assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaal, Gauthier; Riera, Pascal; Leroux, Cédric

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at characterizing the relationships between the food web's structure and the nutritive value of basal food sources in a Northern Brittany (France) Laminaria digitata bed. Stable isotopes were used to identify the food sources consumed by benthic invertebrates, and the nutritive value of primary producers was assessed according to four descriptors (total organic matter, C/N ratio, proteins content, lipids content). Although the food web appeared to be based on a wide diversity of food sources, only Rhodophyta (red algae) and biofilms (epilithic and epiphytic) were heavily consumed by grazers. In contrast, Phaeophyta (brown algae), which are dominant in this habitat, have no specialized grazer (with the exception of Helcion pellucidum, specialized grazer of Laminaria digitata). This selective consumption may be related to the higher protein content and lower C/N ratio of Rhodophyta and biofilms, in comparison with Phaeophyta. Fresh brown algae are thus of poor nutritive value, but processes associated with their degradation are likely to improve this nutritive value, leading in the assimilation of detritus by filter-feeders, revealed by high δ13C in these consumers. Our results thus suggest that the nutritive value of basal food sources may be an important factor involved in the structuration of kelp-associated food webs.

  13. A New Method to Quantify and Compare the Multiple Components of Fitness—A Study Case with Kelp Niche Partition by Divergent Microstage Adaptations to Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Vasco M. N. C. S.; Oppliger, Luz Valeria; Engelen, Aschwin H.; Correa, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Point 1 Management of crops, commercialized or protected species, plagues or life-cycle evolution are subjects requiring comparisons among different demographic strategies. The simpler methods fail in relating changes in vital rates with changes in population viability whereas more complex methods lack accuracy by neglecting interactions among vital rates. Point 2 The difference between the fitness (evaluated by the population growth rate λ) of two alternative demographies is decomposed into the contributions of the differences between the pair-wised vital rates and their interactions. This is achieved through a full Taylor expansion (i.e. remainder = 0) of the demographic model. The significance of each term is determined by permutation tests under the null hypothesis that all demographies come from the same pool. Point 3 An example is given with periodic demographic matrices of the microscopic haploid phase of two kelp cryptic species observed to partition their niche occupation along the Chilean coast. The method provided clear and synthetic results showing conditional differentiation of reproduction is an important driver for their differences in fitness along the latitudinal temperature gradient. But it also demonstrated that interactions among vital rates cannot be neglected as they compose a significant part of the differences between demographies. Point 4 This method allows researchers to access the effects of multiple effective changes in a life-cycle from only two experiments. Evolutionists can determine with confidence the effective causes for changes in fitness whereas population managers can determine best strategies from simpler experimental designs. PMID:25821954

  14. Epizootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in Pacific herring from the spawn-on-kelp fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Kocan, R.M.; Elder, N.E.; Meyers, T.R.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Both the prevalence and tissue titer of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) increased in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi following their introduction into net pens (pounds) used in the closed pound spawn-on-kelp (SOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska. VHSV was also found in water samples from inside and outside the SOK pounds after herring had been confined for several days; however, water samples taken near wild free-ranging, spawning herring either failed to test positive or tested weakly positive for virus. Little or no virus was found in tissue samples from free-ranging, spawning herring captured from the vicinity of the pounds, nor did the prevalence of VHSV increase following spawning as it did in impounded herring. The data indicated that increased prevalences of VHSV were correlated with confinement of herring for the closed pound SOK fishery and that infection was spread within the pounds through waterborne exposure to virus particles originating from impounded fish. In addition, pounds containing predominantly young fish had higher prevalences of VHSV, suggesting that older fish may be partially immune, perhaps as a result of previous infection with the virus. Operation of SOK pounds during spawning seasons in which young herring predominate may amplify the disease and possibly exacerbate the population fluctuations observed in wild herring stocks.

  15. Episootiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in Pacific herring from the spawn-on-kelp fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, P.K.; Kocan, R.M.; Elder, N.E.; Meyers, T.R.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Both the prevalence and tissue titer of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) increased in Pacific herring Clupea pallasi following their introduction into net pens (pounds) used in the closed pound spawn-on-kelp (SOK) fishery in Prince William Sound, Alaska. VHSV was also found in water samples from inside and outside the SOK pounds after herring had been confined for several days; however, water samples taken near wild free-ranging, spawning herring either failed to test positive or tested weakly positive for virus. Little or no virus was found in tissue samples from free-ranging, spawning herring captured from the vicinity of the pounds, nor did the prevalence of VHSV increase following spawning as it did in impounded herring. The data indicated that increased prevalences of VHSV were correlated with confinement of herring for the closed pound SOK fishery and that infection was spread within the pounds through waterborne exposure to virus particles originating from impounded fish. In addition, pounds containing predominantly young fish had higher prevalences of VHSV, suggesting that older fish may be partially immune, perhaps as a result of previous infection with the virus. Operation of SOK pounds during spawning seasons in which young herring predominate may amplify the disease and possibly exacerbate the population fluctuations observed in wild herring stocks.

  16. Development of a Kelp-type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Taiping; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Long, Wen; Gill, Gary A.

    2014-02-07

    In recent years, with the rapid growth of global energy demand, the interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially unlimited supply of uranium resource. With recent advances in seawater uranium extraction technology, extracting uranium from seawater could be economically feasible when the extraction devices are deployed at a large scale (e.g., several hundred km2). There is concern however that the large scale deployment of adsorbent farms could result in potential impacts to the hydrodynamic flow field in an oceanic setting. In this study, a kelp-type structure module was incorporated into a coastal ocean model to simulate the blockage effect of uranium extraction devices on the flow field. The module was quantitatively validated against laboratory flume experiments for both velocity and turbulence profiles. The model-data comparison showed an overall good agreement and validated the approach of applying the model to assess the potential hydrodynamic impact of uranium extraction devices or other underwater structures in coastal oceans.

  17. The legal framework governing the quality of (traditional) herbal medicinal products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Kroes, Burt H

    2014-12-01

    In the European Union a complex regulatory framework is in place for the regulation of (traditional) herbal medicinal products. It is based on the principle that a marketing authorisation granted by the competent authorities is required for placing medicinal products on the market. The requirements and procedures for acquiring such a marketing authorisation are laid down in regulations, directives and scientific guidelines. This paper gives an overview of the quality requirements for (traditional) herbal medicinal products that are contained in European pharmaceutical legislation. Pharmaceutical quality of medicinal product is the basis for ensuring safe and effective medicines. The basic principles governing the assurance of the quality of medicinal products in the European Union are primarily defined in the amended Directive 2001/83/EC and Directive 2003/63/EC. Quality requirements of herbal medicinal products are also laid down in scientific guidelines. Scientific guidelines provide a basis for practical harmonisation of how the competent authorities of EU Member States interpret and apply the detailed requirements for the demonstration of quality laid down in regulations and directives. Detailed quality requirements for herbal medicinal products on the European market are contained in European Union (EU) pharmaceutical legislation. They include a system of manufacturing authorisations which ensures that all herbal medicinal products on the European market are manufactured/imported only by authorised manufacturers, whose activities are regularly inspected by the competent authorities. Additionally, as starting materials only active substances are allowed which have been manufactured in accordance with the GMP for starting materials as adopted by the Community. The European regulatory framework encompasses specific requirements for herbal medicinal products. These requirements are independent from the legal status. Thus, the same quality standards equally apply

  18. Functional herbal food ingredients used in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pathirage Kamal; Li, Yunman

    2012-01-01

    From many reports it is clear that diabetes will be one of the major diseases in the coming years. As a result there is a rapidly increasing interest in searching new medicines, or even better searching prophylactic methods. Based on a large number of chemical and pharmacological research work, numerous bioactive compounds have been found in functional herbal food ingredients for diabetes. The present paper reviews functional herbal food ingredients with regards to their anti-diabetic active principles and pharmacological test results, which are commonly used in Asian culinary system and medical system and have demonstrated clinical or/and experimental anti-diabetic effectiveness. Our idea of reviewing this article is to give more attention to these functional food ingredients as targets medicinal foods in order to prevent or slow down the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:22654403

  19. Applications of novel drug delivery system for herbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Ajazuddin; Saraf, S

    2010-10-01

    Over the past several years, great advances have been made on development of novel drug delivery systems (NDDS) for plant actives and extracts. The variety of novel herbal formulations like polymeric nanoparticles, nanocapsules, liposomes, phytosomes, nanoemulsions, microsphere, transferosomes, and ethosomes has been reported using bioactive and plant extracts. The novel formulations are reported to have remarkable advantages over conventional formulations of plant actives and extracts which include enhancement of solubility, bioavailability, protection from toxicity, enhancement of pharmacological activity, enhancement of stability, improved tissue macrophages distribution, sustained delivery, and protection from physical and chemical degradation. The present review highlights the current status of the development of novel herbal formulations and summarizes their method of preparation, type of active ingredients, size, entrapment efficiency, route of administration, biological activity and applications of novel formulations. PMID:20471457

  20. Phytomedicine in Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology: Clinical Trials with Herbal Remedies

    PubMed Central

    Moghadam, Koosha Ghazi; Inançlı, Hasan Mete; Bazazy, Nazanin; Plinkert, Peter K.; Efferth, Thomas; Sertel, Serkan

    2012-01-01

    Phytomedicine has become an important alternative treatment option for patients in the Western world, as they seek to be treated in a holistic and natural way after an unsatisfactory response to conventional drugs. Ever since herbal remedies have been introduced in the Western world, clinicians have raised concerns over their efficacy and possible side-effects. A PubMed (Medline) search was performed covering the last five years (01/07–04/12) and including 55 prospective clinical randomized control trials in the medical specialities Otorhinolaryngology and Pulmonology. In this review, we present evidence-based clinical data with herbal remedies and try to enlighten the question of efficacy and reliability of phytomedicine. PMID:24280678

  1. Best Available Evidence in Cochrane Reviews on Herbal Medicine?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Elyad; Vlachojannis, Julia; Cameron, Melainie; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-01-01

    Cochrane reviews are considered by many to be the “gold standard” or the final word in medical conversation on a topic. We explored the eleven most relevant Cochrane reviews on herbal medicine and identified that frequently herbal medicines in the included studies had not been sufficiently well characterised. If data on the effects of the plant parts are unavailable, effects of co-active ingredients need to be considered and the plausibility of the study medications for the specific indications discussed. Effect sizes calculated from exploratory studies would be best used to determine the sample sizes required for future confirmatory studies, rather than as definitive reports of intervention effects. Reviews should be comprehensive, including discussion of putative adverse events and possible drug interactions. We suggest that the guidelines for preparing Cochrane reviews be revised and offer assistance in this task. PMID:23840246

  2. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves. PMID:25222912

  3. [The medicines of herbal and animal origin in ancient Greece].

    PubMed

    Skaltsa, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The present study concerns an effort to present historic data on the evolution of the medicines used by the ancient Greeks from the prehippocratic period until the greco-roman times. In addition, information is given for the influence of this accumulated knowledge based on the greek traditional herbal medicines in the first editions of the Hellenic Pharmacopoeia (19th century) through the byzantin manuscripts. PMID:25668914

  4. Acute Demyelinating Disease after Oral Therapy with Herbal Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Kostianovsky, Alex; Maskin, Patricio; Noriega, María M.; Soler, Cristina; Bonelli, Ignacio; Riley, Claire S.; O'Connor, Kevin C.; Saubidet, Cristi´n López; Alvarez, Paulino A.

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system demyelinating processes such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis constitute a group of diseases not completely understood in their physiopathology. Environmental and toxic insults are thought to play a role in priming autoimmunity. The aim of the present report is to describe a case of acute demyelinating disease with fatal outcome occurring 15 days after oral exposure to herbal extracts. PMID:21738505

  5. Transporter modulation by Chinese herbal medicines and its mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xu; Ma, Jiang; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge

    2016-07-15

    The increasing use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) as complementary therapy and dietary supplement has been greatly raising the concerns about potential herb-drug interactions (HDIs). HDIs may cause the augmented or antagonized effects of prescription drugs, resulting in unexpected clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is of significance to identify or predict potential HDIs, and to delineate the underlying mechanisms. Drug transporters play key roles in transmembrane passage of a large number of drugs, affecting their absorption, distribution and elimination. Modulation of drug transporters has been recognized as one of the main causes of HDIs. In the last decade, a growing number of Chinese medicinal herbs and their derived phytochemicals have been identified to have modulatory effect toward transporter proteins, leading to pharmacokinetic HDIs when concomitantly used with conventional drugs. Some of these transporter-mediated interactions have already shown clinical significance. This review article focuses on two major transporter superfamilies, the solute carrier (SLC) and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, to provide the recent advanced knowledge on CHMs and their inherent phytochemicals that interact with these transporters, and their induced pharmacokinetic HDIs from both preclinical and clinical aspects. In addition, the challenges and strategy for studying HDIs are also discussed. PMID:26675080

  6. Towards Polypharmacokinetics: Pharmacokinetics of Multicomponent Drugs and Herbal Medicines Using a Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ke; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Determination of pharmacokinetics (PKs) of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and/or nutraceuticals (polypharmacokinetics, poly-PKs) is difficult due to the vast number of compounds present in natural products, their various concentrations across a wide range, complexity of their interactions, as well as their complex degradation dynamics in vivo. Metabolomics coupled with multivariate statistical tools that focus on the comprehensive analysis of small molecules in biofluids is a viable approach to address the challenges of poly-PK. This paper discusses recent advances in the characterization of poly-PK and the metabolism of multicomponent xenobiotic agents, such as compound drugs, dietary supplements, and herbal medicines, using metabolomics strategy. We propose a research framework that integrates the dynamic concentration profile of bioavailable xenobiotic molecules that result from in vivo absorption and hepatic and gut bacterial metabolism, as well as the human metabolic response profile. This framework will address the bottleneck problem in the pharmacological evaluation of multicomponent pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals, leading to the direct elucidation of the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms of these compounds. PMID:23573155

  7. Hormones, herbal preparations and nutriceuticals for a better life after the menopause: part II.

    PubMed

    Comhaire, F H; Depypere, H T

    2015-06-01

    Long-term estrogen replacement therapy with estrogen has benefits for many postmenopausal women. However, some women prefer non-steroidal substitution with herbal preparations. The effectivity against vasomotor symptoms has been evidenced for the extracts of pine bark, of linseed and of Lepidium meyenii (Maca), whereas there is controversy about the effectiveness of genistein-rich soy extract. The extracts of cruciferous vegetables such as Broccoli and of linseed induce changes in the metabolism of estrogens, and antioxidants may reverse altered epigenetic DNA methylation, possibly reducing the risk of breast cancer or its recurrence. Indirect evidence from the literature and from clinical trials supports that a nutriceutical composed of plant extracts, low-dose vitamins and minerals may improve the quality of life by delaying certain age-related diseases. On the basis of epidemiologic studies, physiopathological considerations and controlled prospectieve trials, it is suggested that transdermal substitution therapy with estradiol together with nutriceutical food supplementation may increase the number of quality-adjusted life years of postmenopausal women, but complementary, large-scale, prospective trials are still needed. PMID:25668332

  8. Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J.; Moran, Carmen C.

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners. PMID:26680418

  9. Herbal medicine use in adults who experience anxiety: A qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Moran, Carmen C

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine use is widespread and has been reported to be as high as 21% in people with anxiety disorders. Critical thematic analysis was used to explore beliefs and attitudes towards herbal medicines in adults experiencing anxiety. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight adults who experienced anxiety and used herbal medicines. Three major themes were found: Herbal medicines being different from pharmaceuticals, evidence and effectiveness, and barriers to herbal medicine use. Within these themes people held beliefs about the safety of natural treatments, valued anecdotes from friends and family as a form of evidence for self-prescribing, and described confusion about herbal medicines and their cost as barriers to using them as a treatment option. The findings will inform future research and provide guidance for health practitioners. PMID:26680418

  10. Interactions between herbal remedies and medicinal drugs--considerations about Cuba.

    PubMed

    Remirez, Diadelis; Avila Pérez, Jenny; Jiménez López, Giset; Jacobo, Olga L; O'Brien, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    The use of herbal products to treat a wide range of conditions is rapidly leading to increased intake of phytochemicals. This is one of the main reasons for reinforcing the surveillance of the safety, efficacy and quality control of traditional and complementary medicines. Herbal preparations can interact with a drug at pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic levels. In this article interactions between herbal products and conventional medicines are reviewed. Reports about side effects of traditional medicines and main interactions between herbal medicines and conventional drugs in Cuba are also included. Herbal products are currently not subject to the rigorous testing indispensable for conventional drugs. However, if potential drug interactions are to be predicted, it is essential that the ability of herbal products to interfere with drug-metabolizing enzyme systems is fully established. PMID:20408499

  11. Antidiarrheal efficacy and cellular mechanisms of a Thai herbal remedy.

    PubMed

    Tradtrantip, Lukmanee; Ko, Eun-A; Verkman, Alan S

    2014-02-01

    Screening of herbal remedies for Cl(-) channel inhibition identified Krisanaklan, a herbal extract used in Thailand for treatment of diarrhea, as an effective antidiarrheal in mouse models of secretory diarrheas with inhibition activity against three Cl(-) channel targets. Krisanaklan fully inhibited cholera toxin-induced intestinal fluid secretion in a closed-loop mouse model with ∼50% inhibition at a 1 ∶ 50 dilution of the extract. Orally administered Krisanaklan (5 µL/g) prevented rotavirus-induced diarrhea in neonatal mice. Short-circuit current measurements showed full inhibition of cAMP and Ca(2+) agonist-induced Cl(-) conductance in human colonic epithelial T84 cells, with ∼ 50% inhibition at a 1 ∶ 5,000 dilution of the extract. Krisanaklan also strongly inhibited intestinal smooth muscle contraction in an ex vivo preparation. Together with measurements using specific inhibitors, we conclude that the antidiarrheal actions of Krisanaklan include inhibition of luminal CFTR and Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels in enterocytes. HPLC fractionation indicated that the three Cl(-) inhibition actions of Krisanaklan are produced by different components in the herbal extract. Testing of individual herbs comprising Krisanaklan indicated that agarwood and clove extracts as primarily responsible for Cl(-) channel inhibition. The low cost, broad antidiarrheal efficacy, and defined cellular mechanisms of Krisanaklan suggests its potential application for antisecretory therapy of cholera and other enterotoxin-mediated secretory diarrheas in developing countries. PMID:24551253

  12. Differentiation of tannin-containing herbal drugs by HPLC fingerprints.

    PubMed

    He, Yu; Wu, Qiaofeng; Hansen, S H; Cornett, C; Møller, C; Lai, Pingfan

    2013-03-01

    A new HPLC system coupled with multiple detectors - Diode array detector (DAD), fluorescence detector (FLD), electrochemical amperometric detector (ADC) and mass spectrometry detector (MSD) was developed for the characterization and differentiation of tannin-containing herbal drugs included in The European Pharmacopoeia. The HPLC separation system consisted of an Agilent ZORBAX Eclipse XDB C18 column and a gradient water and methanol as the mobile phase which was kept at a flow rate of 0.3 mL x min(-1). Four kinds of detectors were connected by a micro-splitter valve and simultaneously recorded the response of each analytical sample. Thirty-one samples from eight kinds of tannin-containing drugs were measured using this HPLC system and their signals from all detectors were comprehensively processed via principal component analysis (PCA). The statistic result demonstrates that thirty-one batches from different herbal drugs can be reasonably identified and systematically classified by their chemical fingerprints. The proposed multi-detector HPLC method aided by chemometrics not only offers a new pattern for the study of tannin-containing herbs, but also provides a useful foundation for quality control of herbal medicines. PMID:23556331

  13. Herbal panacea: The need for today in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Mukut; Rishi, Rahul; Satish, G.; Divya, K. T.; Talukdar, Pratim; Maniyar, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Among ancient civilizations, India has been known to be a rich repository of medicinal plants. Herbal extracts have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. Some plants contain phytochemicals that have effects on the body. The use of phytotherapy is staging a comeback and an era of herbal renaissance is being revolutionized all over the globe. Herbs are a class of plants that are devoid of the woody tissue characteristic of shrubs or trees and have been known for their aromatic, flavoring, and medicinal values over the past centuries. Since the birth of contemporary practices, many have turned away from herbal therapies in favor of synthetic drugs. But these synthetic medicines can alter microbiota and have several side effects. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with the hope of safety and security. Hence, the search for alternative natural products continue. This review includes a few herbs, which can be used in dentistry as alternatives to allopathic medicines. PMID:27114947

  14. Herbal panacea: The need for today in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Seal, Mukut; Rishi, Rahul; Satish, G; Divya, K T; Talukdar, Pratim; Maniyar, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Among ancient civilizations, India has been known to be a rich repository of medicinal plants. Herbal extracts have been used in traditional medicine for several thousand years. Some plants contain phytochemicals that have effects on the body. The use of phytotherapy is staging a comeback and an era of herbal renaissance is being revolutionized all over the globe. Herbs are a class of plants that are devoid of the woody tissue characteristic of shrubs or trees and have been known for their aromatic, flavoring, and medicinal values over the past centuries. Since the birth of contemporary practices, many have turned away from herbal therapies in favor of synthetic drugs. But these synthetic medicines can alter microbiota and have several side effects. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with the hope of safety and security. Hence, the search for alternative natural products continue. This review includes a few herbs, which can be used in dentistry as alternatives to allopathic medicines. PMID:27114947

  15. Anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic Chinese herbal medicines: A mechanistic overview.

    PubMed

    Boye, Alex; Yang, Yan; Asenso, James; Wei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is an integral component of complementary/alternative medicine and it is increasingly becoming the preferred therapeutic modality for the treatment of liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide. Accordingly, the World Health Organization (WHO) has attested to the popularity and efficacy of indigenous herbal therapies including CHM as a first line of treatment for some diseases including liver disorders. However, the WHO and drug discovery experts have always recommended that use of indigenous herbal remedies must go hand-in-hand with the requisite mechanistic elucidation so as to constitute a system of verification of efficacy within the ethnobotanical context of use. Although many CHM experts have advanced knowledge on CHM, nonetheless, more enlightenment is needed, particularly mechanisms of action of CHMs on fibro-hepato-carcinogenesis. We, herein, provide in-depth mechanisms of the action of CHMs which have demonstrated anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic effects, in pre-clinical and clinical studies as published in PubMed and other major scientific databases. Specifically, the review brings out the important signaling pathways, and their downstream targets which are modulated at multi-level by various anti-fibro-hepatocarcinogenic CHMs. PMID:27366355

  16. Traditional Herbal Management of Sickle Cell Anemia: Lessons from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Sunday J.; Tarfa, Florence D.; Ebeshi, Benjamin U.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Patients in West Africa where sickle cell anemia (SCA) is endemic have for ages been treated with natural products, especially herbs, as, is still the case in rural communities. Objective. In this paper we look closely at some of these herbs to see if there are any lessons to be learnt or clues to be found for optimizing the treatments based on them, as had been done in the case of NIPRISAN, which was developed from herbs in Nigeria based on Yoruba Medicine. Methods. Select publications on SCA, its molecular biology and pathology, and actual and experimental cases of herbal treatment were perused in search of molecular clues that can be linked to chemical constituents of the herbs involved. Results. The study revealed that during the last 2-3 decades, much progress was made in several aspects of SCA pharmacology, especially the approval of hydroxyurea. As for SCA herbalism, this paper revealed that antisickling herbs abound in West Africa and that the most promising may yet be found. Three new antisickling herbs (Entandrophragma utile, Chenopodium ambrosioides, and Petiveria alliacea) were reported in May 2011. At NIPRD, where NIPRISAN was developed, three other recipes are currently awaiting development. Conclusion. The study raised the hope that the search in the Tropics for more effective herbal recipes for managing sickle cell anaemia will be more fruitful with time and effort. PMID:23198140

  17. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  18. Forensic problems with the composition and content of herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Blacksell, Lauren; Byard, Roger W; Musgrave, Ian F

    2014-03-01

    A survey of herbal medicines available for internet and over-the-counter purchase in South Australia, Australia, was conducted looking specifically at those used for 'arthritis', 'cold and flu', 'gastrointestinal', 'stress' and 'premenstrual syndrome'. 121 products consisted of 29 in the 'arthritis' category, 33 in 'cold and flu', 19 in 'gastrointestinal' 30 in 'stress' and 10 in 'premenstrual syndrome'. Twenty two (18%) of 121 products were not registered with the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods (ARTG), despite this being a legal requirement for their sale. Of the registered products 59 (60%) of 99 had differing ingredient concentrations on the website compared to their ARTG listing. Only three of the 15 purchased products had ingredient concentrations which were consistent between the website, ARTG listing and product packaging. These findings demonstrate that it may not be possible to determine what herbal substance an individual has been exposed to prior to death and in what concentration, based on packaging from medications seized at the scene, or from examination of website data and the ARTG listing. These discrepancies may increase the problems that exist in attempting to determine what role herbal medicines may play in the mechanism of death in certain forensic cases. PMID:24661699

  19. Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and herbal medicines: the risk of drug interaction.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A; Di Carlo, Giulia; Borrelli, Francesca; Ernst, Edzard

    2005-01-01

    Use of herbal medicines among patients under cardiovascular pharmacotherapy is widespread. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature to determine the possible interactions between herbal medicines and cardiovascular drugs. The Medline database was searched for clinical articles published between January 1996 and February 2003. Forty-three case reports and eight clinical trials were identified. Warfarin was the most common cardiovascular drug involved. It was found to interact with boldo, curbicin, fenugreek, garlic, danshen, devil's claw, don quai, ginkgo, papaya, lycium, mango, PC-SPES (resulting in over-anticoagulation) and with ginseng, green tea, soy and St. John's wort (causing decreased anticoagulant effect). Gum guar, St. John's wort, Siberian ginseng and wheat bran were found to decrease plasma digoxin concentration; aspirin interactions include spontaneous hyphema when associated with ginkgo and increased bioavailability if combined with tamarind. Decreased plasma concentration of simvastatin or lovastatin was observed after co-administration with St. John's wort and wheat bran, respectively. Other adverse events include hypertension after co-administration of ginkgo and a diuretic thiazide, hypokalemia after liquorice and antihypertensives and anticoagulation after phenprocoumon and St. John's wort. Interaction between herbal medicine and cardiovascular drugs is a potentially important safety issue. Patients taking anticoagulants are at the highest risk. PMID:15676159

  20. Traditional herbal management of sickle cell anemia: lessons from Nigeria.