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Sample records for herbal tonics stimulate

  1. Essiac? and Flor-Essence? herbal tonics stimulate the in vitro growth of human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K S; Montgomery, J L; McLimans, B; Latham, E R; Shattuck, D L; Klotz, D M; Bennett, L M

    2005-10-07

    People diagnosed with cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to supplement their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics are commercially available complex mixtures of herbal extracts sold as dietary supplements and used by cancer patients based on anecdotal evidence that they can treat or prevent disease. In this study, we evaluated Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} for their effects on the growth of human tumor cells in culture. The effect of Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics on cell proliferation was tested in MCF-7, MDA-MB-436, MDA-MB-231, and T47D cancer cells isolated from human breast tumors. Estrogen receptor (ER) dependent activation of a luciferase reporter construct was tested in MCF-7 cells. Specific binding to the ER was tested using an ICI 182,780 competition assay. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics at 1%, 2%, 4% and 8% stimulated cell proliferation relative to untreated controls and activated ER dependent luciferase activity in MCF-7 cells. A 10{sup -7} M concentration of ICI 870,780 inhibited the induction of ER dependent luciferase activity by Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, but did not affect cell proliferation. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} Herbal Tonics can stimulate the growth of human breast cancer cells through ER mediated as well as ER independent mechanisms of action. Cancer patients and health care providers can use this information to make informed decisions about the use of these CAMs.

  2. Flor-Essence? Herbal Tonic Promotes Mammary Tumor Development in Sprague Dawley Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, L; Montgomery, J; Steinberg, S; Kulp, K

    2004-01-28

    Background: Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer often self-administer complementary and alternative medicines to augment their conventional treatments, improve health, or prevent recurrence. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} Tonic is a complex mixture of herbal extracts used by cancer patients because of anecdotal evidence that it can treat or prevent disease. Methods: Female Sprague Dawley rats were given water or exposed to 3% or 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} beginning at one day of age. Mammary tumors were induced with a single oral 40 mg/kg/bw dose of dimethylbenz(a)anthracene at 50 days of age and sacrificed at 23 weeks. Rats were maintained on AIN-76A diet. Results: Control rats had palpable mammary tumor incidence of 51.0% at 19 weeks of age compared to 65.0% and 59.4% for the 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign} groups respectively. Overall, no significant difference in time until first palpable tumor was detected among any of the groups. At necropsy, mammary tumor incidence was 82.5% for controls compared to 90.0% and 97.3% for rats consuming 3% and 6% Flor-Essence{reg_sign}, respectively. Mean mammary tumor multiplicity ({+-}SES) for the controls was 2.8 ({+-} 0.5) and statistically different from the 3% or 6% Flor- Essence{reg_sign} groups with 5.2 ({+-} 0.7), and 4.8 ({+-} 0.6), respectively (p{<=}0.01). As expected, the majority of isolated tumors were diagnosed as adenocarcinomas. Conclusions: Flor-Essence{reg_sign} can promote mammary tumor development in the Sprague Dawley rat model. This observation is contrary to widely available anecdotal evidence as well as the desire of the consumer that this commercially available herbal tonic will suppress and/or inhibit tumor growth.

  3. Dynamic control of modeled tonic-clonic seizure states with closed-loop stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Beverlin II, Bryce; Netoff, Theoden I.

    2013-01-01

    Seizure control using deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides an alternative therapy to patients with intractable and drug resistant epilepsy. This paper presents novel DBS stimulus protocols to disrupt seizures. Two protocols are presented: open-loop stimulation and a closed-loop feedback system utilizing measured firing rates to adjust stimulus frequency. Stimulation suppression is demonstrated in a computational model using 3000 excitatory Morris–Lecar (M–L) model neurons connected with depressing synapses. Cells are connected using second order network topology (SONET) to simulate network topologies measured in cortical networks. The network spontaneously switches from tonic to clonic as synaptic strengths and tonic input to the neurons decreases. To this model we add periodic stimulation pulses to simulate DBS. Periodic forcing can synchronize or desynchronize an oscillating population of neurons, depending on the stimulus frequency and amplitude. Therefore, it is possible to either extend or truncate the tonic or clonic phases of the seizure. Stimuli applied at the firing rate of the neuron generally synchronize the population while stimuli slightly slower than the firing rate prevent synchronization. We present an adaptive stimulation algorithm that measures the firing rate of a neuron and adjusts the stimulus to maintain a relative stimulus frequency to firing frequency and demonstrate it in a computational model of a tonic-clonic seizure. This adaptive algorithm can affect the duration of the tonic phase using much smaller stimulus amplitudes than the open-loop control. PMID:23390413

  4. Dynamic control of modeled tonic-clonic seizure states with closed-loop stimulation.

    PubMed

    Beverlin Ii, Bryce; Netoff, Theoden I

    2012-01-01

    Seizure control using deep brain stimulation (DBS) provides an alternative therapy to patients with intractable and drug resistant epilepsy. This paper presents novel DBS stimulus protocols to disrupt seizures. Two protocols are presented: open-loop stimulation and a closed-loop feedback system utilizing measured firing rates to adjust stimulus frequency. Stimulation suppression is demonstrated in a computational model using 3000 excitatory Morris-Lecar (M-L) model neurons connected with depressing synapses. Cells are connected using second order network topology (SONET) to simulate network topologies measured in cortical networks. The network spontaneously switches from tonic to clonic as synaptic strengths and tonic input to the neurons decreases. To this model we add periodic stimulation pulses to simulate DBS. Periodic forcing can synchronize or desynchronize an oscillating population of neurons, depending on the stimulus frequency and amplitude. Therefore, it is possible to either extend or truncate the tonic or clonic phases of the seizure. Stimuli applied at the firing rate of the neuron generally synchronize the population while stimuli slightly slower than the firing rate prevent synchronization. We present an adaptive stimulation algorithm that measures the firing rate of a neuron and adjusts the stimulus to maintain a relative stimulus frequency to firing frequency and demonstrate it in a computational model of a tonic-clonic seizure. This adaptive algorithm can affect the duration of the tonic phase using much smaller stimulus amplitudes than the open-loop control. PMID:23390413

  5. The chemistry and biological activity of herbs used in Flor-Essence herbal tonic and Essiac.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, C; Richardson, M A; Diamond, S; Skoda, I

    2000-02-01

    The herbal mixtures, Essiac and Flor-Essence, are sold as nutritional supplements and used by patients to treat chronic conditions, particularly cancer. Evidence of anticancer activity for the herbal teas is limited to anecdotal reports recorded for some 40 years in Canada. Individual case reports suggest that the tea improves quality of life, alleviates pain, and in some cases, impacts cancer progression among cancer patients. Experimental studies with individual herbs have shown evidence of biological activity including antioxidant, antioestrogenic, immunostimulant, antitumour, and antiocholeretic actions. However, research that demonstrates these positive effects in the experimental setting has not been translated to the clinical arena. Currently, no clinical studies of Essiac or Flor-essence are published, but a clinical study is being planned at the British Columbia Cancer Agency by the University of Texas-Center for Alternative Medicine (UT-CAM) and Tzu-Chi Institute for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. PMID:10641040

  6. Modality-specific facilitation and adaptation to painful tonic stimulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Polianskis, Romanas; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The study assessed the influence of stimulus modality on adaptation or facilitation of pain during tonic cold and tourniquet pressure stimulation. Experimental set-up for the cold stimulation consisted of a thermo-tank with water, cooled to 3 degrees C, circulation pump, electronic thermometer and an electronic 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS). Experimental set-up for the tonic pressure stimulation consisted of a pneumatic tourniquet cuff, a computer-controlled air compressor, and an electronic VAS. The first experiment assessed temporal profiles of pain intensity and skin temperature during immersion of the non-dominant hand and lower arm into cold water for 3 min or until the pain tolerance limit was reached. The second experiment assessed temporal profile of cuff pain intensity during constant compressions for 10 min beginning at pain intensities of 2, 4, and 6 cm on the VAS ("VAS 2", "VAS 4" and "VAS 6" sessions). Subjects enduring cold stimulation for less than 3 min were defined as non-adapting to cold and vice versa. The intensity of cold pain in non-adapting subjects increased significantly faster than in adapting subjects and reached significantly higher magnitude. The course of pain intensity during constant compression, estimated by a linear regression line, was increasing or decreasing, representing facilitation or adaptation of pain, respectively. The typical profile of adaptation consisted of an "overshoot" in pain intensity, followed by a decrease in pain intensity. There was significant correlation in VAS slopes between sessions separated by 2-5 days, suggesting consistent pattern in pain responses to tonic pressure stimulation. Adaptation or facilitation rates and the overshoot magnitude were dependent on the initial pain intensity (2, 4, or 6 cm on the VAS). The facilitation rate was highest and the adaptation rate was lowest during the "VAS 2" session, while the facilitation rate was lowest and the adaptation rate was highest during the "VAS 6

  7. Tonic eye movements induced by bilateral and unilateral galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juno

    2013-01-01

    Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) stimulates primary vestibular afferents innervating the semicircular canals (SCCs) and otoliths found in the inner ear of humans and other mammals, including guinea pigs. To determine which pathways contribute to eye movements generated by this artificial vestibular stimulation in guinea pigs, low current intensities of GVS were passed either bilaterally between the tensor-tympani muscles of the two ears (up to 30 μA) or unilaterally between one tensor-tympani electrode and an indifferent on the back of the neck (up to 60 μA). Both forms of GVS were found to selectively generate tonic eye movements without nystagmus, characteristic of the otolith-ocular reflex; the axis of eye rotation did not align with any semicircular canal plane, but was oriented close to the expected axis of eye rotation that would occur in response to the net stimulation of otolith afferents. The induced eye rotation was predominantly vertical with a smaller horizontal deviation and very little torsion. Consistent with the results of previous human studies, the tonic eye movements were found to exhibit bilateral gain enhancement, whereby bilateral GVS generated twice the amplitude of eye rotation as unilateral anodal or cathodal stimulation alone. Eye movement responses to unilateral GVS were symmetrical in amplitude during equivalent intensities of anodal and cathodal stimulation, consistent with the known responses of more regularly and intermediately discharging primary vestibular afferents to GVS. These results together suggest that more regularly discharging otolith-ocular projections may mediate the tonic changes in eye position induced during maintained, low-intensity GVS in guinea pigs. PMID:23022577

  8. Influence of genioglossus tonic activity on upper airway dynamics assessed by phrenic nerve stimulation.

    PubMed

    Sériès, F; Marc, I

    2002-01-01

    Upper airway (UA) dynamics can be evaluated during wakefulness by using electrical phrenic nerve stimulation (EPNS) applied at end-expiration during exclusive nasal breathing by dissociating twitch flow and phasic activation of UA muscles. This technique can be used to quantify the influence of nonphasic electromyographic (EMG) activity on UA dynamics. UA dynamics was characterized by using EPNS when increasing tonic EMG activity with CO(2) stimulation in six normal awake subjects. Instantaneous flow, esophageal and nasopharyngeal pressures, and genioglossal EMG activity were recorded during EPNS at baseline and during CO(2) ventilatory stimulation. The proportion of twitches presenting an inspiratory-flow limitation pattern decreased from 100% at baseline to 78.7 +/- 21.4% (P = 10(-4)) during CO(2) rebreathing. During CO(2) stimuli, maximal inspiratory twitch flow (VI(max)) of flow-limited twitches significantly rose, with the driving pressure at which flow limitation occurred being more negative. For the group as a whole, the increase in VI(max) and the decrease in pressure were significantly correlated with the rise in end-expiratory EMG activity. UA stability assessed by EPNS is dramatically modified during CO(2) ventilatory stimulation. Changes in tonic genioglossus EMG activity significantly contribute to the improvement in UA stability. PMID:11744686

  9. Patterned, but not tonic, optogenetic stimulation in motor thalamus improves reaching in acute drug-induced Parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Seeger-Armbruster, Sonja; Bosch-Bouju, Clémentine; Little, Shane T C; Smither, Roseanna A; Hughes, Stephanie M; Hyland, Brian I; Parr-Brownlie, Louise C

    2015-01-21

    High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) in motor thalamus (Mthal) ameliorates tremor but not akinesia in Parkinson's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there are effective methods of Mthal stimulation to treat akinesia. Glutamatergic Mthal neurons, transduced with channelrhodopsin-2 by injection of lentiviral vector (Lenti.CaMKII.hChR2(H134R).mCherry), were selectively stimulated with blue light (473 nm) via a chronically implanted fiber-optic probe. Rats performed a reach-to-grasp task in either acute drug-induced parkinsonian akinesia (0.03-0.07 mg/kg haloperidol, s.c.) or control (vehicle injection) conditions, and the number of reaches was recorded for 5 min before, during, and after stimulation. We compared the effect of DBS using complex physiological patterns previously recorded in the Mthal of a control rat during reaching or exploring behavior, with tonic DBS delivering the same number of stimuli per second (rate-control 6.2 or 1.8 Hz, respectively) and with stimulation patterns commonly used in other brain regions to treat neurological conditions (tonic 130 Hz, theta burst (TBS), and tonic 15 Hz rate-control for TBS). Control rats typically executed >150 reaches per 5 min, which was unaffected by any of the stimulation patterns. Acute parkinsonian rats executed <20 reaches, displaying marked akinesia, which was significantly improved by stimulating with the physiological reaching pattern or TBS (both p < 0.05), whereas the exploring and all tonic patterns failed to improve reaching. Data indicate that the Mthal may be an effective site to treat akinesia, but the pattern of stimulation is critical for improving reaching in parkinsonian rats. PMID:25609635

  10. Effects of fast and slow patterns of tonic long-term stimulation on contractile properties of fast muscle in the cat.

    PubMed

    Eerbeek, O; Kernell, D; Verhey, B A

    1984-07-01

    Different physiological rates of 'tonic' long-term electrical stimulation (rates 5-40 Hz; activity greater than or equal to 50% total time) were delivered to the left-side common peroneal nerve of the cat hind limb. The duration of treatment was 8 weeks, and the animals had previously been subjected to a left-side hemispinalization and dorsal rhizotomy. In the absence of stimulation, these operations had no slowing or weakening effects on peroneal muscle contraction. The minimum two-pulse interval that gave a summation of tension (neuromuscular refractory period) was longer for stimulated than for non-stimulated muscles. Twitches of chronically stimulated muscles had become prolonged by more than 100%. Corresponding changes were found in the tension-frequency relation and in the 'sag'-behaviour of the stimulated muscles. There were no differences between the 'fast' (20 or 40 Hz pulse rates) and the 'slow' (5 or 10 Hz pulse rates) patterns of tonic stimulation with respect to their effects on speed-related muscle properties. Furthermore, during the period of chronic stimulation, the prolongation of twitch contraction time occurred along the same time course for the fast and slow patterns of tonic treatment. All chronically stimulated muscles had become weaker than normal. In comparison to the slow patterns, the present fast patterns of long-term activation caused (1) a smaller amount of decline in maximum muscle force, (2) a smaller twitch: tetanus ratio, and (3) the retention of a normal amount of post-tetanic potentiation of twitch size (decreased by the slow patterns). When tested by a series of 40 Hz bursts, force was better maintained in chronically stimulated muscles than in normal ones. These effects on fatigue resistance were the same for the fast and slow patterns of long-term activation. In peroneus longus muscles contralateral to the side of chronic activation, an evident impairment had commonly occurred in the capability to maintain force during tetani

  11. [General anesthesia during short operations in patients using the herbal psychogenic stimulant CAT (Catha edulis)].

    PubMed

    Nuzeĭli, M; Burov, N E; Marinchev, V N; Khureĭbi, Ia

    2009-01-01

    The specific features of general anesthesia during short inpatient operations were performed in 85 patients who were regular CAT users owing to their national habits. According to the herbal psychogenic stimulant CAT dependence, the patients were divided into 3 groups. The findings indicate that propofol (2 mg/kg) in combination with isoflurane and premedication as diatepam (0.1-0.15 mg/kg) and fentanyl (1 mg/kg) is the anesthesia of choice in all group patients. Ketamine in combination with isoflurane may be used in the controls and Group 1 patients with mild CAT dependence. In patients with moderate and severe CAT dependence, ketamine should be considered to be contraindicated due to the development of adverse psychomotor and somatic reactions requiring monitoring and drug correction in an intensive care unit. The results of the study have been introduced into practice on choosing the modes of anesthesia at the Revolution Hospital, Republic of Yemen. PMID:19824416

  12. Could EU herbal monographs contribute to Malta's treatment armamentarium?

    PubMed

    Micallef, B; Attard, E; Serracino-Inglott, A; Borg, J J

    2015-03-15

    Ten years have passed since Directive 2004/24/EC regulating herbal medicinal products across the EU were published. The directive created the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products within the European Medicines Agency whose remit includes the creation and publishing of official EU monographs on herbal medicinal products. These monographs include the official uses of the products and their evidence for efficacy and safety. To this effect, we are interested in analysing the potential impact herbal product EU monographs could have on the therapeutic treatment options available for prescribers in Malta. Therefore our aim was two-fold. First, to rationalise the spread of indications of the herbal substances listed in the community herbal monograph inventory and subsequently determine if these herbal substances could potentially contribute to the treatment options available in our local scenario (Malta). 128 EU monographs were analysed resulting in a total of 230 indications which subsequently codified into 42 unique ATC codes. The Malta Medicines List contains 1456 unique ATC codes. Comparative analysis of the Malta Medicines List revealed that the 21 therapeutic areas had 4 or less pharmaceutically used substances (5th level ATC codes) registered and therefore in our opinion are areas with limited therapeutic choice. The following 4 therapeutic areas, A05 bile and liver therapy, A13 tonics, A15 appetite stimulants and D03 preparations for treatment of wounds and ulcers, could potentially benefit from the registration of herbal medicinal products according to the EU herbal monographs. If such registration is effected the aforementioned areas would no longer be considered limited because more than 4 therapeutic choices would be available to prescribers. This study is the first study across the EU to analyse the potential impact of published EU herbal monographs on therapeutic coverage in an EU member state and confirms the notion that herbal products could potentially

  13. Parasympathetic tonic dilatory influences on cerebral vessels.

    PubMed

    Boysen, Nicholas C; Dragon, Deidre Nitschke; Talman, William T

    2009-05-11

    Parasympathetic nerves from the pterygopalatine ganglia may participate in development of cluster headaches, in vascular responses to hypertension and in modulation of damage due to stroke. Stimulation of the nerves elicits cerebral vasodilatation, but it is not known if the nerves tonically influence cerebrovascular tone. We hypothesized that parasympathetics provide a tonic vasodilator influence and tested that hypothesis by measuring cerebral blood flow in anesthetized rats before and after removal of a pterygopalatine ganglion. Ganglion removal led to reduced cerebral blood flow without changing blood pressure. Thus, parasympathetic nerves provide tonic vasodilatory input to cerebral blood vessels. PMID:19195933

  14. Traumatic events and tonic immobility.

    PubMed

    Bados, Arturo; Toribio, Lidia; García-Grau, Eugeni

    2008-11-01

    Tonic immobility is a basic defense strategy which has not been studied in depth in humans. Data suggest that it may be a relatively frequent phenomenon in victims of rape and sexual abuse, but its occurrence has not been systematically explored in other types of trauma. We carried out a retrospective study in a sample of 100 university students to establish whether tonic immobility varies depending on the nature of the worst trauma experienced, defined subjectively by each participant. Immobility was assessed using the Tonic Immobility Scale and traumas were assessed using the modified Traumatic Events Questionnaire. Seventy percent of the sample had experienced trauma of some kind. There were no significant differences in tonic immobility between different types of trauma (e.g., physical abuse, assault or aggression, serious accident), except that the mean tonic immobility score was significantly higher in the group with trauma due to physical/psychological or sexual abuse than in the group with trauma due to receiving news of the mutilation, serious injury, or violent or sudden death of a loved one. We conclude tentatively that tonic immobility may be typical not only of sexual traumas, but of other kinds of directly experienced traumas as well. PMID:18988436

  15. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  16. Chemical and biological assessment of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba)-containing herbal decoctions: Induction of erythropoietin expression in cultures.

    PubMed

    Lam, Candy T W; Chan, Pui H; Lee, Pinky S C; Lau, Kei M; Kong, Ava Y Y; Gong, Amy G W; Xu, Miranda L; Lam, Kelly Y C; Dong, Tina T X; Lin, Huangquan; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-07-15

    Jujubae Fructus, known as jujube or Chinese date, is the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba (Mill.), which not only serves as daily food, but acts as tonic medicine and health supplement for blood nourishment and sedation. According to Chinese medicine, jujube is commonly included in herbal mixtures, as to prolong, enhance and harmonize the efficiency of herbal decoction, as well as to minimize the toxicity. Here, we aim to compare the chemical and pharmacological properties of three commonly used jujube-containing decoctions, including Guizhi Tang (GZT), Neibu Dangguijianzhong Tang (NDT) and Zao Tang (ZOT). These decoctions share common herbs, i.e. Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma Praeparata cum Melle, Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens and Jujube, and they have the same proposed hematopoietic functions. The amount of twelve marker biomolecules deriving from different herbs in the decoctions were determined by LC-MS, and which served as parameters for chemical standardization. In general, three decoctions showed common chemical profiles but with variations in solubilities of known active ingredients. The chemical standardized decoctions were tested in cultured Hep3B cells. The herbal treatment stimulated the amount of mRNA and protein expressions of erythropoietin (EPO) via the activation of hypoxia response elements: the three herbal decoctions showed different activation. The results therefore demonstrated the hematopoietic function of decoctions and explained the enhancement of jujube function within a herbal mixture. PMID:26432380

  17. Transient tonic pupils in botulism type B.

    PubMed

    Monaco, S; Freddi, N; Francavilla, E; Meneghetti, F; Fenicia, L; Franciosa, G; Cadrobbi, P

    1998-01-01

    We report a 29-year-old woman who developed unilateral unreactive mydriasis and cycloplegia after 5 days of persistent constipation. During the next hours the patient complained of dry mouth and difficulties in swallowing food; iris and ciliary muscle palsies spread over the second eye. Ocular motility was normal and there were no clinical signs of neuromuscular involvement. Conventional electromyography and evoked muscle action potentials following repetitive nerve stimulation were normal; single-fiber electromyography showed normal jitter and absence of blocking. The diagnosis of botulism was considered as most likely, and the patient was given botulinum antitoxin. The post-treatment course was characterized by bilateral tonic pupillary reaction to near, sectoral iris contractions to light and pupillary constriction to 2 mm in 40 min following topical instillation of 0.1% pilocarpine. Ocular manifestations completely disappeared within 5 weeks. Botulism type B toxin was demonstrated in the pretreatment stool of the patient but not the serum. PMID:9559994

  18. The myth of brain tonics.

    PubMed

    Kabra, S G

    1993-04-01

    In India, vitamin tonics are promoted and sold as a means to improve the intelligence of children. 3 research studies in the UK have attempted to evaluate the influence of vitamin intake on nonverbal and verbal intelligence. The University of Dundee study by Dr. D. Benton and Dr. G. Roberts in 1988 followed 12-13 year old children who received vitamin supplementation for 8 months and compared the group with a matched group of 30 children who received placebos and a 3rd group who received nothing. The results of pretest and posttest scores showed improvement in nonverbal intelligence (solving problems not requiring vocabulary or information) among the group receiving vitamin and mineral supplementation. Another group of researchers from King College, London, evaluated intelligence scores of 11-12 year old children receiving vitamin and mineral supplementation and found no improvement in scores. This study did not exactly replicate the Benton study. A 3rd group of researchers from the University of Dundee did replicate the Benton and Roberts' study and found supplementation did not improve either verbal or nonverbal scores. Children are used in these research projects because nonverbal intelligence reaches its peak maximum by 18-21 years of age. Verbal intelligence continues to grow throughout life. In India, there is an emphasis in schools on development of verbal intelligence. Manufacturers of "brain tonics" claim that tonics improve children's performance in examinations. Not only are the research findings debatable, but there are other considerations that do not support use of supplementation to increase reasoning performance. The tonics, which contain an excess of vitamins in the daily requirement, are excreted in the urine rather than being stored in the body. Vitamins are also costly and are available to only 30% of the India's population. Production of vitamins such as B-12, B-1, or B-2 are in excess of the amount required if there were vitamin deficiencies

  19. Pharyngeal pumping in Caenorhabditis elegans depends on tonic and phasic signaling from the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, Nicholas F.; Raizen, David M.; Fang-Yen, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Rhythmic movements are ubiquitous in animal locomotion, feeding, and circulatory systems. In some systems, the muscle itself generates rhythmic contractions. In others, rhythms are generated by the nervous system or by interactions between the nervous system and muscles. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, feeding occurs via rhythmic contractions (pumping) of the pharynx, a neuromuscular feeding organ. Here, we use pharmacology, optogenetics, genetics, and electrophysiology to investigate the roles of the nervous system and muscle in generating pharyngeal pumping. Hyperpolarization of the nervous system using a histamine-gated chloride channel abolishes pumping, and optogenetic stimulation of pharyngeal muscle in these animals causes abnormal contractions, demonstrating that normal pumping requires nervous system function. In mutants that pump slowly due to defective nervous system function, tonic muscle stimulation causes rapid pumping, suggesting tonic neurotransmitter release may regulate pumping. However, tonic cholinergic motor neuron stimulation, but not tonic muscle stimulation, triggers pumps that electrophysiologically resemble typical rapid pumps. This suggests that pharyngeal cholinergic motor neurons are normally rhythmically, and not tonically active. These results demonstrate that the pharynx generates a myogenic rhythm in the presence of tonically released acetylcholine, and suggest that the pharyngeal nervous system entrains contraction rate and timing through phasic neurotransmitter release. PMID:26976078

  20. Herbal Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    An herb is a plant or plant part used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are ... go through the testing that drugs do. Some herbs, such as comfrey and ephedra, can cause serious ...

  1. Efficacy and safety of the Chinese herbal medicine shuganjieyu with and without adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for geriatric depression: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    XIE, Minmin; JIANG, Wenhai; YANG, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmacological treatment of geriatric depression is often ineffective because patients cannot tolerate adequate doses of antidepressant medications. Aim Examine the efficacy and safety of shuganjieyu – the first Chinese herbal medicine approved for the treatment of depression by China’s drug regulatory agency -- with and without adjunctive treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of geriatric depression. Methods Sixty-five inpatients 60 or older who met ICD-10 criteria for depression were randomly assigned to an experimental group (shuganjieyu + rTMS) (n=36) or a control group (shuganjieyu + sham rTMS)(n=29). All participants received 4 capsules of shuganjieyu daily for 6 weeks. rTMS (or sham rTMS) was administered 20 minutes daily, five days a week for 4 weeks. Blinded raters used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale to assess clinical efficacy and safety at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Over the six-week trial, there was only one dropout from the experimental group and two dropouts from the control group. Results None of the patients had serious side effects, but 40% in the experimental group and 50% in the control group experienced minor side effects that all resolved spontaneously. Both groups showed substantial stepwise improvement in depressive symptoms over the 6 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA found no differences between the two groups. After 6 weeks, 97% of the experimental group had experienced a 25% or greater drop in the level of depression, but only 20% had experience a 50% or greater drop in the level of depression; the corresponding values in the control group were 96% and 19%. There were some minor, non-significant differences in the onset of the treatment effect between the different types of depressive symptoms, but by the second week of treatment all five HAMD-17 subscale scores had improved significantly

  2. Indices of serum tonicity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rohrscheib, Mark; Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos; Glew, Robert H; Murata, Glen H; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2015-06-01

    Although disturbances of serum tonicity (effective osmolality) may have dire consequences, only surrogate indices of tonicity are available in practice. This report identifies the appropriate index for expressing clinical states of dystonicity. Serum sodium concentration ([Na]S) and osmolality ([Osm]S) may be incongruent. When the tonicity state shown by [Osm]S is higher than [Na]S and the difference between the 2 indices is caused by an excess of solute that distributes in total body water, tonicity is described by [Na]S. When this difference results from a gain of solute with extracellular distribution like mannitol or a decrease in serum water content, causing a falsely low measurement of [Na]S, [Osm]S accurately reflects tonicity. Two indices of tonicity are applicable during hyperglycemia: the tonicity formula (2 ·[Na]S + [Glucose]S/18) and the corrected [Na]S ([Na]S corrected to a normal [Glucose]S using an empirically derived coefficient). Clinicians should understand the uses and limitations of the tonicity indices. PMID:26002851

  3. Kai-xin-san, a chinese herbal decoction containing ginseng radix et rhizoma, polygalae radix, acori tatarinowii rhizoma, and poria, stimulates the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors in cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction. PMID:24222781

  4. Kai-Xin-San, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria, Stimulates the Expression and Secretion of Neurotrophic Factors in Cultured Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Xu, Sherry Li; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Yan, Artemis Lu; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. In China, KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric diseases with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness. Although animal study has supported the antidepression function of KXS, the mechanism in cellular level is still unknown. Here, a chemically standardized water extract of KXS was applied onto cultured astrocytes in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment, which significantly stimulated the expression and secretion of neurotrophic factors, including NGF, BDNF, and GDNF, in a dose-dependent manner: the stimulation was both in mRNA and protein levels. In addition, the water extracts of four individual herbs did not significantly stimulate the expression of neurotrophic factors, which could explain the optimized effect of KXS in a herbal decoction. The KXS-induced expression of neurotrophic factors did not depend on signaling mediated by estrogen receptor or protein kinase. The results suggested that the antidepressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of expression of neurotrophic factors in astrocytes, which fully supported the clinical usage of this decoction. PMID:24222781

  5. Cerebellar brain inhibition in the target and surround muscles during voluntary tonic activation.

    PubMed

    Panyakaew, Pattamon; Cho, Hyun Joo; Srivanitchapoom, Prachaya; Popa, Traian; Wu, Tianxia; Hallett, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Motor surround inhibition is the neural mechanism that selectively favours the contraction of target muscles and inhibits nearby muscles to prevent unwanted movements. This inhibition was previously reported at the onset of a movement, but not during a tonic contraction. Cerebellar brain inhibition (CBI) is reduced in active muscles during tonic activation; however, it has not been studied in the surround muscles. CBI was evaluated in the first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscle as the target muscle, and the abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi radialis and extensor carpi radialis muscles as surround muscles, during rest and tonic activation of the FDI muscle in 21 subjects. Cerebellar stimulation was performed under magnetic resonance imaging-guided neuronavigation targeting lobule VIII of the cerebellar hemisphere. Stimulus intensities for cerebellar stimulation were based on the resting motor cortex threshold (RMT) and adjusted for the depth difference between the cerebellar and motor cortices. We used 90-120% of the adjusted RMT as the conditioning stimulus intensity during rest. The intensity that generated the best CBI at rest in the FDI muscle was selected for use during tonic activation. During selective tonic activation of the FDI muscle, CBI was significantly reduced only for the FDI muscle, and not for the surround muscles. Unconditioned motor evoked potential sizes were increased in all muscles during FDI muscle tonic activation as compared with rest, despite background electromyography activity increasing only for the FDI muscle. Our study suggests that the cerebellum may play an important role in selective tonic finger movement by reducing its inhibition in the motor cortex only for the relevant agonist muscle. PMID:26900871

  6. Tianma modulates blood vessel tonicity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Manavalan, Arulmani; Mishra, Manisha; Sze, Siu Kwan; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Heese, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Tianma is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) often used for the treatment of hypertension and heart diseases. To elucidate the function of tianma at the molecular level, we investigated the effect of tianma on vascular functions and aortic protein metabolism. We found that long-term treatment with tianma (~2.5g/kg/day for three months) in one-year-old rats could enhance acetylcholine (ACh)-induced vasorelaxation in endothelium-intact thoracic aortic rings against both KCl (80 mM)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction. By using the iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification) technique, we confirmed from the functional data at the proteome level that tianma treatment down-regulated the expressions of contractile proteins (e.g. Acta2) and other related structural proteins (e.g. desmin), and up-regulated the expressions of extracellular matrix (ECM) glycoproteins (e.g. Fbln5) and anti-thrombotic proteins (e.g. Anxa2) in aortic tissue. By inductive reasoning, tianma could perform its vasodilatory effect not only by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction, but also by enhancing blood vessel elasticity and stabilizing the arterial structure. Thus, tianma might become a novel therapeutic herbal medicine for cardiovascular diseases by regulating the aortic proteome metabolism. PMID:22787517

  7. Herbal Energizers: Speed By Any Other Name.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Andrew P.

    This guide focuses on over-the-counter (OTC) stimulants sold to high school aged athletes and dieters as "herbal energizers," food supplements, and fatigue reducers. While advertising often makes them appear healthful and harmless, all of these stimulants belong in the class "sympathomimetic amines," so called because they mimic the sympathetic…

  8. Changes of spontaneous oscillatory activity to tonic heat pain.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weiwei; Hu, Li; Zhang, Zhiguo; Hu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Transient painful stimuli could induce suppression of alpha oscillatory activities and enhancement of gamma oscillatory activities that also could be greatly modulated by attention. Here, we attempted to characterize changes in cortical activities during tonic heat pain perception and investigated the influence of directed/distracted attention on these responses. We collected 5-minute long continuous Electroencephalography (EEG) data from 38 healthy volunteers during four conditions presented in a counterbalanced order: (A) resting condition; (B) innoxious-distracted condition; (C) noxious-distracted condition; (D) noxious-attended condition. The effects of tonic heat pain stimulation and selective attention on oscillatory activities were investigated by comparing the EEG power spectra among the four experimental conditions and assessing the relationship between spectral power difference and subjective pain intensity. The change of oscillatory activities in condition D was characterized by stable and persistent decrease of alpha oscillation power over contralateral-central electrodes and widespread increase of gamma oscillation power, which were even significantly correlated with subjective pain intensity. Since EEG responses in the alpha and gamma frequency band were affected by attention in different manners, they are likely related to different aspects of the multidimensional sensory experience of pain. The observed contralateral-central alpha suppression (conditions D vs. B and D vs. C) may reflect primarily a top-down cognitive process such as attention, while the widespread gamma enhancement (conditions D vs. A) may partly reflect tonic pain processing, representing the summary effects of bottom-up stimulus-related and top-down subject-driven cognitive processes. PMID:24603703

  9. Adie's Tonic Pupil in Systemic Sclerosis: A Rare Association

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Anusha; Panda, Bijnya Birajita; Sirka, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare association of Adie's tonic pupil in a patient with systemic sclerosis who was otherwise systemically stable. This paper is an effort to unravel whether the tonic pupil and systemic sclerosis are an association by chance (which may be the case) or systemic sclerosis is the source of the tonic pupil. PMID:26421204

  10. Tonicity-independent regulation of the osmosensitive transcription factor TonEBP (NFAT5).

    PubMed

    Halterman, Julia A; Kwon, H Moo; Wamhoff, Brian R

    2012-01-01

    Tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP/nuclear factor of activated T-cells 5 [NFAT5]) is a Rel homology transcription factor classically known for its osmosensitive role in regulating cellular homeostasis during states of hypo- and hypertonic stress. A recently growing body of research indicates that TonEBP is not solely regulated by tonicity, but that it can be stimulated by various tonicity-independent mechanisms in both hypertonic and isotonic tissues. Physiological and pathophysiological stimuli such as cytokines, growth factors, receptor and integrin activation, contractile agonists, ions, and reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the positive regulation of TonEBP expression and activity in diverse cell types. These new data demonstrate that tonicity-independent stimulation of TonEBP is critical for tissue-specific functions like enhanced cell survival, migration, proliferation, vascular remodeling, carcinoma invasion, and angiogenesis. Continuing research will provide a better understanding as to how these and other alternative TonEBP stimuli regulate gene expression in both health and disease. PMID:21998140

  11. Optogenetically-induced tonic dopamine release from VTA-nucleus accumbens projections inhibits reward consummatory behaviors.

    PubMed

    Mikhailova, Maria A; Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Chappell, Ann M; Deal, Alex L; Bonin, Keith D; Weiner, Jeff L; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2016-10-01

    Recent optogenetic studies demonstrated that phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens may play a causal role in multiple aspects of natural and drug reward-related behaviors. The role of tonic dopamine release in reward consummatory behavior remains unclear. The current study used a combinatorial viral-mediated gene delivery approach to express ChR2 on mesolimbic dopamine neurons in rats. We used optical activation of this dopamine circuit to mimic tonic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and to explore the causal relationship between this form of dopamine signaling within the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-nucleus accumbens projection and consumption of a natural reward. Using a two bottle choice paradigm (sucrose vs. water), the experiments revealed that tonic optogenetic stimulation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission significantly decreased reward consummatory behaviors. Specifically, there was a significant decrease in the number of bouts, licks and amount of sucrose obtained during the drinking session. Notably, activation of VTA dopamine cell bodies or dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens resulted in identical behavioral consequences. No changes in water intake were evident under the same experimental conditions. Collectively, these data demonstrate that tonic optogenetic stimulation of VTA-nucleus accumbens dopamine release is sufficient to inhibit reward consummatory behavior, possibly by preventing this circuit from engaging in phasic activity that is thought to be essential for reward-based behaviors. PMID:27421228

  12. Oxaliplatin-Induced Tonic-Clonic Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Rahal, Ahmad K.; Truong, Phu V.; Kallail, K. James

    2015-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a common chemotherapy drug used for colon and gastric cancers. Common side effects are peripheral neuropathy, hematological toxicity, and allergic reactions. A rare side effect is seizures which are usually associated with posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome (PRES). A 50-year-old male patient presented with severe abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen showed acute appendicitis. Appendectomy was done and pathology showed mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy was started with Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). During the third cycle of FOLFOX, the patient developed tonic-clonic seizures. Laboratory workup was within normal limits. EEG and MRI of the brain showed no acute abnormality. The patient was rechallenged with FOLFOX but he had tonic-clonic seizures for the second time. His chemotherapy regimen was switched to Folinic acid, Fluorouracil, and Irinotecan (FOLFIRI). After 5 cycles of FOLFIRI, the patient did not develop any seizures, making Oxaliplatin the most likely culprit for his seizures. Oxaliplatin-induced seizures rarely occur in the absence of PRES. One case report has been described in the literature. We present a rare case of tonic-clonic seizures in a patient receiving Oxaliplatin in the absence of PRES. PMID:26491586

  13. Tonic activity in inspiratory muscles during continuous negative airway pressure.

    PubMed

    Meessen, N E; van der Grinten, C P; Folgering, H T; Luijendijk, S C

    1993-05-01

    We studied tonic inspiratory activity (TIA) induced by continuous negative airway pressure (CNAP) in anaesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. TIA in the diaphragm and parasternal intercostal muscles (ICM) was quantified in response to tracheal pressure (PTR) = -0.3 to -1.2 kPa. To differentiate between reflexes from rapidly adapting receptors (RARs), slowly adapting receptors (SARs) and C-fiber endings different temperatures of the vagus nerves (TVG) were used between 4 and 37 degrees C. At PTR = -1.2 kPa mean TIA values were 41% and 62% of peak inspiratory EMG activity of control breaths for the diaphragm and ICM, respectively. After vagotomy and for TVG < 6 degrees C CNAP did not induce TIA anymore. Changes in inspiratory and expiratory time during vagal cooling down to 4 degrees C confirmed the selective block of conductance in vagal afferents of the three types of lung receptors. We conclude that CNAP-induced TIA results from stimulation of RARs. Our data strongly indicate that stimulation of SARs suppresses TIA, whereas C-fiber endings are not involved in TIA at all. The results suggest that part of the hyperinflation in bronchial asthma may be caused by TIA in response to mechanical stimulation of RARs. PMID:8327788

  14. Human cervical spinal cord circuitry activated by tonic input can generate rhythmic arm movements.

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvansky, D S; Gurfinkel, V S; Ivanenko, Y

    2016-02-01

    The coordination between arms and legs during human locomotion shares many features with that in quadrupeds, yet there is limited evidence for the central pattern generator for the upper limbs in humans. Here we investigated whether different types of tonic stimulation, previously used for eliciting stepping-like leg movements, may evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The subject was lying on the side, the trunk was fixed, and all four limbs were suspended in a gravity neutral position, allowing unrestricted low-friction limb movements in the horizontal plane. The results showed that peripheral sensory stimulation (continuous muscle vibration) and central tonic activation (postcontraction state of neuronal networks following a long-lasting isometric voluntary effort, Kohnstamm phenomenon) could evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements in most subjects. In ∼40% of subjects, tonic stimulation elicited nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements together with rhythmic movements of suspended legs. The fact that not all participants exhibited nonvoluntary limb oscillations may reflect interindividual differences in responsiveness of spinal pattern generation circuitry to its activation. The occurrence and the characteristics of induced movements highlight the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical neuronal circuitries, complementing the growing body of work on the quadrupedal nature of human gait. PMID:26683072

  15. Common herbal remedies.

    PubMed

    Turkoski, B B

    2000-01-01

    Herbal remedies are becoming increasingly popular as people seek more effective, natural, or safer methods for treating a variety of complaints. As a result, nurses in every setting may expect to see increased numbers of patients who are using herbal products. When patients assume that the nurses will be critical of their use of herbals, they may withhold such information to avoid unpleasantness. This could place patients at risk for adverse effects, drug interactions, and complications related to ineffective treatment. Nurses who are knowledgeable about herbal products and who are open to discussion about these products can provide information and advice about safe use. The discussion in this article addresses actions, possible benefits, and dangers of the most common herbal products. Guidelines for assessing and teaching clients about herbal use are included. PMID:11062629

  16. Tonic Dopamine Modulates Exploitation of Reward Learning

    PubMed Central

    Beeler, Jeff A.; Daw, Nathaniel; Frazier, Cristianne R. M.; Zhuang, Xiaoxi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of dopamine on adaptive behavior in a naturalistic environment is largely unexamined. Experimental work suggests that phasic dopamine is central to reinforcement learning whereas tonic dopamine may modulate performance without altering learning per se; however, this idea has not been developed formally or integrated with computational models of dopamine function. We quantitatively evaluate the role of tonic dopamine in these functions by studying the behavior of hyperdopaminergic DAT knockdown mice in an instrumental task in a semi-naturalistic homecage environment. In this “closed economy” paradigm, subjects earn all of their food by pressing either of two levers, but the relative cost for food on each lever shifts frequently. Compared to wild-type mice, hyperdopaminergic mice allocate more lever presses on high-cost levers, thus working harder to earn a given amount of food and maintain their body weight. However, both groups show a similarly quick reaction to shifts in lever cost, suggesting that the hyperdominergic mice are not slower at detecting changes, as with a learning deficit. We fit the lever choice data using reinforcement learning models to assess the distinction between acquisition and expression the models formalize. In these analyses, hyperdopaminergic mice displayed normal learning from recent reward history but diminished capacity to exploit this learning: a reduced coupling between choice and reward history. These data suggest that dopamine modulates the degree to which prior learning biases action selection and consequently alters the expression of learned, motivated behavior. PMID:21120145

  17. Conditional tonic stimulus control of nonspecific arousal.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, H D; Birbaumer, N; Elbert, T; Lutzenberger, W; Rockstroh, B

    1983-01-01

    Subjects performed a reaction time (RT) task in the presence of colored indirect lighting which had previously been associated with either sporadic electric shock (Unsafe context) or no shock (Safe context). Autonomic and cortical processes were influenced by the visual context in two ways. Nonspecific arousal was elevated in the Unsafe context as compared with the Safe context (larger SCR and more accelerative HR change elicited by the RT warning stimulus, and retarded habituation of the middle component of the slow cortical potential during the warning stimulus). In addition, information processing may have been impaired in the Unsafe as compared to the Safe context, since the earliest component of the SCR and the N100 component of the auditory evoked potential were both reduced. Higher frequency of unelicited SCR was observed following changes from a Safe to an Unsafe context than with reverse changes, during the association of these contexts with shock, but this was the only evidence of direct tonic conditioning. In general, the results demonstrate the degree to which psychophysiological processes may be influenced by tonic environmental conditions. PMID:6622070

  18. Influence of norepinephrine on the tonic and phasic depression of Vmax by nifedipine and verapamil in guinea pig ventricle.

    PubMed

    Woods, J P; West, T C

    1986-01-01

    Right ventricular strips from guinea pig hearts were used to study the interaction between norepinephrine (NE) and the Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil on maximal upstroke velocity (Vmax) of rapid depolarization in potassium-depolarized preparations. Barium ion (0.8 mM) was added to the bathing solution to restore excitability of the K+-depolarized tissue. Concentrations of verapamil (5 X 10(-7) M) and nifedipine (5 X 10(-8) M) were selected to produce optimal depression of Vmax under both tonic (rested) and phasic (pacing frequencies from 0.05 to 2.0 Hz) conditions. NE increased the tonic and phasic Vmax of control preparations in equal proportion at all stimulation frequencies. Thus, the physiological frequency dependence of Vmax was not altered by NE. NE (10(-6) M) produced an increase of 11.8 +/- 2.2% in the tonic Vmax of verapamil-treated preparations and an increase of 17.4 +/- 1.1% in the tonic Vmax of nifedipine-treated preparations. In each case the enhancement of Vmax by NE was proportional for both tonic and phasic conditions, thus showing no effect on the frequency-dependent action of either drug. In all cases, the NE-induced increase in Vmax was concentration dependent. Higher concentrations of NE thwarted the measurement of tonic Vmax due to the onset of spontaneous activity except in the presence of nifedipine (5 X 10(-8) M). The maximal concentration of NE that could be tolerated without the onset of spontaneous activity was directly related to the degree of tonic depression of Vmax induced by the Ca2+ channel blocking agent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2427818

  19. Conditioned place preference reveals tonic pain in an animal model of central pain

    PubMed Central

    Davoody, Leyla; Quiton, Raimi L.; Lucas, Jessica M.; Ji, Yadong; Keller, Asaf; Masri, Radi

    2011-01-01

    A limitation of animal models of central pain is their inability to recapitulate all clinical characteristics of the human condition. Specifically, many animal models rely on reflexive measures of hypersensitivity and ignore, or cannot assess spontaneous pain, the hallmark characteristic of central pain in humans. Here, we adopt a conditioned place preference paradigm to test if animals with lesions in the anterolateral quadrant of the spinal cord develop signs consistent with spontaneous pain. This paradigm relies on the fact that pain relief is rewarding to animals, and has been used previously to show that animals with peripheral nerve injury develop tonic pain. With the use of two analgesic treatments commonly used to treat patients with central pain (clonidine infusion and motor cortex stimulation), we demonstrate that analgesic treatments are rewarding to animals with spinal cord lesions but not sham operated controls. These findings are consistent with the conclusion that animals with spinal cord injury suffer from tonic pain. PMID:21515090

  20. Non-Segmental Phonology: Noun-Phrase Tonicity in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Edgar

    1977-01-01

    A study of tonic placement in various types of English noun phrases used as elements of clause structure. The notion of nominal compound is broadened; reflection of grammatical relationships by stress and tendencies concerning tonic placement in noun phrases as these are related to the Headword are noted. (AMH)

  1. Herbal treatment for osteoporosis: a current review.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ping-Chung; Siu, Wing-Sum

    2013-04-01

    Osteoporosis is an aging problem. The declining bone mineral density (BMD) enhances the chances of fractures during minor falls. Effective pharmaceuticals are available for a rapid improvement of BMD. However, hormonal treatment gives serious complications, and bisphosphonates may lead to odd fractures of long bones, resulting from excessive rigidity of the cortical components. Many medicinal herbs used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, known as kidney tonics, have been tested for their effects on bone metabolism in the laboratory and clinically. Three of these, viz. Herba epimedii (, Yín Yáng Huò), Fructus ligustri lucidi (, Nǚ Zhēn Zi), and Fructus psoraleae (, Bǔ Gǔ Zhī) were chosen to form a herbal formula, ELP. ELP was tested on in vitro platforms and was shown to have both osteoblastic and anti- osteoclastic action. ELP tested on ovariectomized rats also showed BMD protection. ELP was then put on a placebo- controlled randomized clinical trial. BMD protection was obvious among those women with the onset of menopause beyond 10 years (P < 0.05). A general protective trend was observed among all women under trial (P > 0.05). Although a thorough literature review on the herbal treatment effects did not give convincing answers to the use of Chinese herbs in osteoporosis, our study supports more research and trials in this area, while we are looking for safe and effective agents to keep the bone metabolism in a balanced state. PMID:24716161

  2. Paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood with co-existent absence epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Luat, Aimée F; Asano, Eishi; Chugani, Harry T

    2007-09-01

    Paroxysmal tonic upgaze (PTU) is a childhood oculomotor syndrome of unclear etiology characterized by episodic tonic upward eye deviation with neck flexion. Neuroimaging findings are often normal and the electroencephalography during episodes is typically normal. We describe a 2-year-old boy who presented with macrocephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay and episodes of eye fluttering, head nodding and unresponsiveness. Video-EEG captured absence seizures and he was treated with valproate, which led to improvement of his seizures. However, two weeks after treatment, he developed paroxysmal episodes of "eyes up and chin down" movements lasting for hours at a time which were captured by home video. The episodes were relieved by sleep and exacerbated by fever, stress and even tactile stimulation. Increasing the dose of valproate resulted in increased frequency of the episodes. A repeat video-EEG disclosed the non-epileptic nature of these events. Discontinuation of valproate dramatically decreased the episodes. This case illustrates that paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood may co-exist with early onset absence epilepsy. Furthermore, valproate treatment may be associated with the development or unmasking of PTU suggesting that the pathophysiology of PTU may involve abnormal GABA neurotransmission. [Published with videosequences]. PMID:17884759

  3. Tonic inhibition sets the state of excitability in olfactory bulb granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Labarrera, Christina; London, Michael; Angelo, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    GABAergic granule cells (GCs) regulate, via mitral cells, the final output from the olfactory bulb to piriform cortex and are central for the speed and accuracy of odour discrimination. However, little is known about the local circuits in which GCs are embedded and how GCs respond during functional network activity. We recorded inhibitory and excitatory currents evoked during a single sniff-like odour presentation in GCs in vivo. We found that synaptic excitation was extensively activated across cells, whereas phasic inhibition was rare. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that GCs are innervated by a persistent firing of deep short axon cells that mediated the inhibitory evoked responses. Blockade of GABAergic synaptic input onto GCs revealed a tonic inhibitory current mediated by furosemide-sensitive GABAA receptors. The average current associated with this tonic GABAergic conductance was 3-fold larger than that of phasic inhibitory postsynaptic currents. We show that the pharmacological blockage of tonic inhibition markedly increased the occurrence of supra-threshold responses during an odour-stimulated sniff. Our findings suggest that GCs mediate recurrent or lateral inhibition, depending on the ambient level of extracellular GABA. PMID:23318869

  4. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... and prescription medicines just because they come from nature. Although herbal health products and supplements are advertised as “natural,” their ingredients aren’t necessarily natural to the human body. They may have strong effects on your ...

  5. Benign paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood.

    PubMed

    Ouvrier, R A; Billson, F

    1988-07-01

    Four cases of an apparently benign ocular motor syndrome of childhood are reported. The features of the disorder are: (1) onset in early life; (2) periods of constant or variably sustained tonic conjugate upward deviation of the eyes; (3) down-beating saccades in attempted downgaze, which are difficult to sustain below the neutral positions; (4) apparently normal horizontal eye movements; (5) frequent relief by sleep; (6) otherwise normal neurological findings apart from mild ataxia, chronic in one boy and at times of illness in one of the other patients; (7) absence of deterioration during observation spanning up to 15 years; (8) eventual improvement but with some residual ocular movement problems in two cases; (9) normal metabolic, electroencephalographic, and neuroradiologic investigations; (10) normal brain examination findings in one patient who died accidentally; and (11) an apparently good response to levodopa therapy in one patient. To the authors' knowledge, this condition has not been described previously. It may be a new levodopa-responsive condition, secondary to a localized neurotransmitter deficiency. PMID:3209843

  6. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  7. Tonic central and sensory stimuli facilitate involuntary air-stepping in humans.

    PubMed

    Selionov, V A; Ivanenko, Y P; Solopova, I A; Gurfinkel, V S

    2009-06-01

    Air-stepping can be used as a model for investigating rhythmogenesis and its interaction with sensory input. Here we show that it is possible to entrain involuntary rhythmic movement patterns in healthy humans by using different kinds of stimulation techniques. The subjects lay on their sides with one or both legs suspended, allowing low-friction horizontal rotation of the limb joints. To evoke involuntary stepping of the suspended leg, either we used continuous muscle vibration, electrical stimulation of the superficial peroneal or sural nerves, the Jendrassik maneuver, or we exploited the postcontraction state of neuronal networks (Kohnstamm phenomenon). The common feature across all stimulations was that they were tonic. Air-stepping could be elicited by most techniques in about 50% of subjects and involved prominent movements at the hip and the knee joint (approximately 40-70 degrees). Typically, however, the ankle joint was not involved. Minimal loading forces (4-25 N) applied constantly to the sole (using a long elastic cord) induced noticeable (approximately 5-20 degrees) ankle-joint-angle movements. The aftereffect of a voluntary long-lasting (30-s) contraction in the leg muscles featured alternating rhythmic leg movements that lasted for about 20-40 s, corresponding roughly to a typical duration of the postcontraction activity in static conditions. The Jendrassik maneuver per se did not evoke air-stepping. Nevertheless, it significantly prolonged rhythmic leg movements initiated manually by an experimenter or by a short (5-s) period of muscle vibration. Air-stepping of one leg could be evoked in both forward and backward directions with frequent spontaneous transitions, whereas involuntary alternating two-legged movements were more stable (no transitions). The hypothetical role of tonic influences, contact forces, and bilateral coordination in rhythmogenesis is discussed. The results overall demonstrated that nonspecific tonic drive may cause air

  8. Context-Dependent Modulation of GABAAR-Mediated Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bijal; Bright, Damian P.; Mortensen, Martin; Frølund, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Tonic GABA currents mediated by high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, are increasingly recognized as important regulators of cell and neuronal network excitability. Dysfunctional GABAA receptor signaling that results in modified tonic GABA currents is associated with a number of neurological disorders. Consequently, developing compounds to selectively modulate the activity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors underlying tonic inhibition is likely to prove therapeutically useful. Here, we examine the GABAA receptor subtype selectivity of the weak partial agonist, 5-(4-piperidyl)isoxazol-3-ol (4-PIOL), as a potential mechanism for modulating extrasynaptic GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents. By using recombinant GABAA receptors expressed in HEK293 cells, and native GABAA receptors of cerebellar granule cells, hippocampal neurons, and thalamic relay neurons, 4-PIOL evidently displayed differential agonist and antagonist-type profiles, depending on the extrasynaptic GABAA receptor isoforms targeted. For neurons, this resulted in differential modulation of GABA tonic currents, depending on the cell type studied, their respective GABAA receptor subunit compositions, and critically, on the ambient GABA levels. Unexpectedly, 4-PIOL revealed a significant population of relatively low-affinity γ2 subunit-containing GABAA receptors in the thalamus, which can contribute to tonic inhibition under specific conditions when GABA levels are raised. Together, these data indicate that partial agonists, such as 4-PIOL, may be useful for modulating GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents, but the direction and extent of this modulation is strongly dependent on relative expression levels of different extrasynaptic GABAA receptor subtypes, and on the ambient GABA levels. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A background level of inhibition (tonic) is important in the brain for controlling neuronal excitability. Increased levels of tonic inhibition are associated with some neurological disorders

  9. Sensitivity of transformed (phasic to tonic) motor neurons to the neuromodulator 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Griffis, B; Bonner, P; Cooper, R L

    2000-12-01

    Long-term adaptation resulting in a 'tonic-like' state can be induced in phasic motor neurons of the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, by daily low-frequency stimulation [Lnenicka, G.A., Atwood, H.L., 1985b. Long-term facilitation and long-term adaptation at synapses of a crayfish phasic motoneuron. J. Neurobiol. 16, 97-110]. To test the hypothesis that motor neurons undergoing adaptation show increased responses to the neuromodulator serotonin (5-HT), phasic motor neurons innervating the deep abdominal extensor muscles of crayfish were stimulated at 2.5 Hz, 2 h/day, for 7 days. One day after cessation of conditioning, contralateral control and conditioned motor neurons of the same segment were stimulated at 1 Hz and the induced excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs) were recorded from DEL(1) muscle fibers innervated by each motor neuron type. Recordings were made in saline without and with 100 nM 5-HT. EPSP amplitudes were increased by 5-HT exposure in all cases. Conditioned muscles exposed to 5-HT showed a 2-fold higher percentage of increase in EPSP amplitude than did control muscles. Thus, the conditioned motor neurons behaved like intrinsically tonic motoneurons in their response to 5-HT. While these results show that long-term adaptation (LTA) extends to 5-HT neuromodulation, no phenotype switch could be detected in the postsynaptic muscle. Protein isoform profiles, including the myosin heavy chains, do not change after 1 week of conditioning their innervating motor neurons. PMID:11154946

  10. Itches-stimulating compounds from Colocasia esculenta (taro): bioactive-guided screening and LC-MS/MS identification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jin-Gao; Liu, Pei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Tang, Zong-Xiang; Yang, Yan

    2015-10-15

    Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schoot (taro) is one of the most common crops in the world. Its rhizome was a tonic medicine and accustomed to treat some gastrointestinal disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. Today, the taro was further developed as anticancer prescription in herbal therapy. However, the mucilage of the fresh taro has irritation, and causes itchy feeling. The components in the mucilage were not evident up to now. Two active compounds, uracil and glycol-protein taro lectin (Accession number: A5HMM7), were purified and identified from the fresh taro. The glycol-protein taro lectin showed nerve stimulation activity on dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from GCaMP transgenic mice at the concentration of 1mg/mL. PMID:26387442

  11. Khamiras, a natural cardiac tonic: An overview.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Sayeed; Rehman, Shabana; Ahmad, Aftab M; Siddiqui, Khalid M; Shaukat, Seemin; Khan, Masood Shah; Kamal, Y T; Jahangir, Tamanna

    2010-04-01

    used in the treatment of various complex and chronic disorders. In the light of the present knowledge, this review is a small effort to discuss the efficacious nature of 'Khamira', a semi-solid preparation, which is traditionally used for cardiac ailments, such as, palpitations, weakness of the heart, and so on. On the basis of their constituents these are named as, Khamira Aabresham, Khamira Gaozaban, Khamira Marwareed, and so on. Khameeras are also used as general tonics for other vital organs like the liver and brain. In view of the increasing number of cardiac diseases, a thorough evaluation of this ancient work on Khamira is of special significance. PMID:21814439

  12. Discharge pattern of single motor units in the tonic vibration reflex of human triceps surae.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D; Schiller, H H

    1976-01-01

    Using a single fibre EMG electrode the firing pattern of 46 motor units in the triceps surae has been studied during vibration of the Achilles tendon at frequencies of 25--200 Hz. Potentials activated in the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) were phase-locked to the vibration cycle but tended to become somewhat less so with continued vibration. The firing pattern of voluntarily activated motor units became locked to the waveform by the application of the vibrator. The discharges of 21 motor units were studied during low threshold (sub-M wave) tetanic stimulation of the tibial nerve at 25--100 Hz. No evidence was found of synchronization of potentials activated in the resulting tonic contraction. During weak voluntary contractions, stimulation also failed to regularize voluntarily activated motor units. The findings can be reconciled by postulating that, in normal man, vibration activates monosynaptic and polysynaptic pathways, the latter circuit being adequate to generate reflex contraction, while the former merely affects the temporal patterning of the motor outflow. PMID:956859

  13. GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601

  14. Constipation and herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Norio; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Constipation is characterized by a variety of bowel symptoms such as difficulty passing stool, hard stool, and a feeling of incomplete evacuation. The multifactorial causes of constipation limit the clinical efficacy of current conventional treatments that use a single drug that acts through only one pathway. To complement the shortcomings of the current Western medical model and provide a complete holistic approach, herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple organs and cellular sites may be used. In Japan, many herbs and herbal combinations have traditionally been used as foods and medicines. Currently, Japanese physicians use standardized herbal combinations that provide consistent and essential quality and quantity. This review highlights representative Japanese herbal medicines (JHMs), Rhei rhizoma-based JHMs including Daiokanzoto and Mashiningan, and Kenchuto-based JHMs including Keishikashakuyakuto and Daikenchuto, which coordinate the motility of the alimentary tract. This review provides a framework to better understand the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of JHMs on constipation according to the unique theory of Japanese traditional medicine, known as Kampo medicine. PMID:25904866

  15. Ectopic Expression of α6 and δ GABAA Receptor Subunits in Hilar Somatostatin Neurons Increases Tonic Inhibition and Alters Network Activity in the Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiaoping; Peng, Zechun; Zhang, Nianhui; Cetina, Yliana; Huang, Christine S.; Wallner, Martin; Otis, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated tonic inhibition in interneurons remains unclear and may vary among subgroups. Somatostatin (SOM) interneurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus show negligible expression of nonsynaptic GABAAR subunits and very low tonic inhibition. To determine the effects of ectopic expression of tonic GABAAR subtypes in these neurons, Cre-dependent viral vectors were used to express GFP-tagged GABAAR subunits (α6 and δ) selectively in hilar SOM neurons in SOM-Cre mice. In single-transfected animals, immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong expression of either the α6 or δ subunit; in cotransfected animals, both subunits were consistently expressed in the same neurons. Electrophysiology revealed a robust increase of tonic current, with progressively larger increases following transfection of δ, α6, and α6/δ subunits, respectively, indicating formation of functional receptors in all conditions and likely coassembly of the subunits in the same receptor following cotransfection. An in vitro model of repetitive bursting was used to determine the effects of increased tonic inhibition in hilar SOM interneurons on circuit activity in the dentate gyrus. Upon cotransfection, the frequency of GABAAR-mediated bursting in granule cells was reduced, consistent with a reduction in synchronous firing among hilar SOM interneurons. Moreover, in vivo studies of Fos expression demonstrated reduced activation of α6/δ-cotransfected neurons following acute seizure induction by pentylenetetrazole. The findings demonstrate that increasing tonic inhibition in hilar SOM interneurons can alter dentate gyrus circuit activity during strong stimulation and suggest that tonic inhibition of interneurons could play a role in regulating excessive synchrony within the network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In contrast to many hippocampal interneurons, somatostatin (SOM) neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus have very low levels of nonsynaptic GABAARs and exhibit

  16. Mediation by the same muscarinic receptor subtype of phasic and tonic contractile activities in the rat isolated portal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Pfaffendorf, M.; Van Zwieten, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of several agonists on the phasic and tonic contractile responses to muscarinic receptor stimulation have been investigated in the rat portal vein in vitro. 2. Neither chemical denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine nor the presence of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, influenced the spontaneous or the stimulated myogenic activity of the portal vein. 3. Indomethacin and NG-nitro-L-arginine were used to investigate the influence of vasoactive factors in this preparation. They slightly increased the frequency and the amplitude of the spontaneous myogenic activity of the portal vein, respectively. NG-nitro-L-arginine but not indomethacin enhanced the maximal phasic response to carbachol. Both indomethacin and NG-nitro-L-arginine failed to influence the tonic response to carbachol. 4. Muscarinic agonists increased phasic activity according to the rank order of potency: acetylcholine > muscarine > methacholine > carbachol > aceclidine > bethanechol. These effects were superimposed on a sustained contracture at higher concentrations. Oxotremorine was more potent than arecoline in increasing the mechanical phasic activity, without inducing a sustained contracture. Pilocarpine and McN A343 were weak agonists, producing submaximal effects only on phasic activity. 5. The muscarinic antagonists AF-DX116, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP), P-fluorohexahydrosiladiphenidol (pFHHSiD) and pirenzepine antagonized the phasic and tonic mechanical responses to carbachol. Although the tonic contracture was slightly more sensitive to all antagonists studied, the rank order of potency: 4-DAMP > pFHHSiD > pirenzepine > AF-DX 116 was the same for both types of responses, which is indicative of a M3-receptor subtype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8428203

  17. Paroxysmal tonic upgaze: physiopathological considerations in three additional cases.

    PubMed

    Spalice, A; Parisi, P; Iannetti, P

    2000-01-01

    Paroxysmal tonic upgaze of childhood has been described as a benign distinctive syndrome of abnormal ocular movement, with or without concomitant ataxia. After the first observation of four children, a further 29 patients have been reported with a wide spectrum of neurologic abnormalities such as ataxia, unsteady of gait, learning disabilities and mental retardation at follow-up. Electroencephalograms were normal in all the subjects and magnetic resonance imaging showed deficient myelination in only one patient. Recently it has been suggested that paroxysmal tonic upgaze could be a heterogeneous syndrome, ranging from a simply age-dependent manifestation to a clinical appearance of a variety of disorders affecting the corticomesencephalic loop of vertical eye movement. Moreover, it also could be an early sign of more widespread neurologic dysfunction. We describe three patients who presented paroxysmal tonic upgaze; in one, ataxia was present; in the second child, ataxia and language disorder also were observed; and in the third patient paroxysmal tonic upgaze was associated with loss of muscle tone (drop-attack-like events). On magnetic resonance imaging, a pinealoma compressing the dorsal mesencephalic region was detected. On the basis of our observations, we suggest that any insult with periaqueductal mesencephalic gray-matter involvement could be considered the basic condition for this peculiar clinical manifestation. PMID:10641603

  18. Chronic hyperammonemia induces tonic activation of NMDA receptors in cerebellum.

    PubMed

    ElMlili, Nisrin; Boix, Jordi; Ahabrach, Hanan; Rodrigo, Regina; Errami, Mohammed; Felipo, Vicente

    2010-02-01

    Reduced function of the glutamate--nitric oxide (NO)--cGMP pathway is responsible for some cognitive alterations in rats with hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. Hyperammonemia impairs the pathway in cerebellum by increasing neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) phosphorylation in Ser847 by calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), reducing nNOS activity, and by reducing nNOS amount in synaptic membranes, which reduces its activation following NMDA receptors activation. The reason for increased CaMKII activity in hyperammonemia remains unknown. We hypothesized that it would be as a result of increased tonic activation of NMDA receptors. The aims of this work were to assess: (i) whether tonic NMDA activation receptors is increased in cerebellum in chronic hyperammonemia in vivo; and (ii) whether this tonic activation is responsible for increased CaMKII activity and reduced activity of nNOS and of the glutamate--NO--cGMP pathway. Blocking NMDA receptors with MK-801 increases cGMP and NO metabolites in cerebellum in vivo and in slices from hyperammonemic rats. This is because of reduced phosphorylation and activity of CaMKII, leading to normalization of nNOS phosphorylation and activity. MK-801 also increases nNOS in synaptic membranes and reduces it in cytosol. This indicates that hyperammonemia increases tonic activation of NMDA receptors leading to reduced activity of nNOS and of the glutamate--NO--cGMP pathway. PMID:20002515

  19. Critical Thinking as Miracle Tonic: Selling Snake Oil in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.

    This paper proposes that the current interest in critical thinking is based on important conceptual, epistemological, and procedural confusions. It suggests that the attempt to identify a successful critical thinking construct mirrors the search for miracle tonics often peddled by snake oil salesmen as a medicinal cure-all. It goes to suggest that…

  20. Glial GABA, synthesized by monoamine oxidase B, mediates tonic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Bo-Eun; Woo, Junsung; Chun, Ye-Eun; Chun, Heejung; Jo, Seonmi; Bae, Jin Young; An, Heeyoung; Min, Joo Ok; Oh, Soo-Jin; Han, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Hye Yun; Kim, Taekeun; Kim, Young Soo; Bae, Yong Chul; Lee, C Justin

    2014-11-15

    GABA is the major inhibitory transmitter in the brain and is released not only from a subset of neurons but also from glia. Although neuronal GABA is well known to be synthesized by glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the source of glial GABA is unknown. After estimating the concentration of GABA in Bergmann glia to be around 5-10 mM by immunogold electron microscopy, we demonstrate that GABA production in glia requires MAOB, a key enzyme in the putrescine degradation pathway. In cultured cerebellar glia, both Ca(2+)-induced and tonic GABA release are significantly reduced by both gene silencing of MAOB and the MAOB inhibitor selegiline. In the cerebellum and striatum of adult mice, general gene silencing, knock out of MAOB or selegiline treatment resulted in elimination of tonic GABA currents recorded from granule neurons and medium spiny neurons. Glial-specific rescue of MAOB resulted in complete rescue of tonic GABA currents. Our results identify MAOB as a key synthesizing enzyme of glial GABA, which is released via bestrophin 1 (Best1) channel to mediate tonic inhibition in the brain. PMID:25239459

  1. Activity of phasic motor neurons partially transforms the neuronal and muscle phenotype to a tonic-like state.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R L; Warren, W M; Ashby, H E

    1998-07-01

    We present a model preparation, the crayfish, to investigate chronic stimulation effects in muscle fiber type and neuronal conversion from fast to slow. The results show a presynaptic alteration in transmitter release after 1 week of stimulation at 5 Hz for a 2-h daily regime. With the same stimulation paradigm, the muscle proteins displayed on a polyacrylamide gel only start to show changes after 3 weeks. The original phasic motoneurons within 1 week display an enhanced ability to resist synaptic depression, as do tonic motoneurons. The results show that identified phasic motoneurons and muscle fibers in the crayfish can be transformed to a toniclike state, and that the nerve terminals convert prior to the muscle fibers. Electrophysiological clinical measures indicating a change in transmitter release properties may not necessarily mean that the muscle fibers have fully adapted for long-lasting effects. This preparation allows stimulation conditions to be examined with ease. PMID:9626252

  2. Herbal materials used in dietary supplements: Comparison of luminescence methods for detection of irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortolin, E.; Boniglia, C.; Gargiulo, R.; Onori, S.

    2009-07-01

    In EU the treatment with ionising radiation is allowed for dried aromatic herbs, spices and seasonings, but not for herbal supplements and their ingredients. Nevertheless, controls carried out in EU at the product marketing stage, showed a large number of irradiated herbal supplements and herbal ingredients. Due to low sensitivity to radiation of this kind of products, the aim of this work was to test the efficacy of the luminescence-based methods in identifying irradiated herbal supplements. To this end, photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) and thermo-luminescence (TL) measurements were performed on 24 products, including 8 herbal raw materials (plants or parts of plants) and 16 herbal extracts. The PSL technique, provided intermediate results, with a low number of total counts near to the upper negative limit, for all irradiated herbal extracts, showing possible limits in the detection of these products, specially in view of their use in mixtures with non-irradiated components. The TL method, was successfully applied to all herbal materials; in the case of herbal extracts, however, particular attention at the mineral separation step was necessary.

  3. Adenosine A1 Receptor Suppresses Tonic GABAA Receptor Currents in Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells and in a Defined Subpopulation of Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Rombo, Diogo M; Dias, Raquel B; Duarte, Sofia T; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Lamsa, Karri P; Sebastião, Ana M

    2016-03-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator that decreases excitability of hippocampal circuits activating membrane-bound metabotropic A1 receptor (A1R). The presynaptic inhibitory action of adenosine A1R in glutamatergic synapses is well documented, but its influence on inhibitory GABAergic transmission is poorly known. We report that GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated tonic, but not phasic, transmission is suppressed by A1R in hippocampal neurons. Adenosine A1R activation strongly inhibits GABAAR agonist (muscimol)-evoked currents in Cornu Ammonis 1 (CA1) pyramidal neurons and in a specific subpopulation of interneurons expressing axonal cannabinoid receptor type 1. In addition, A1R suppresses tonic GABAAR currents measured in the presence of elevated ambient GABA as well as in naïve slices. The inhibition of GABAergic currents involves both protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathways and decreases GABAAR δ-subunit expression. On the contrary, no A1R-mediated modulation was detected in phasic inhibitory postsynaptic currents evoked either by afferent electrical stimulation or by spontaneous quantal release. The results show that A1R modulates extrasynaptic rather than synaptic GABAAR-mediated signaling, and that this modulation selectively occurs in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and in a specific subpopulation of inhibitory interneurons. We conclude that modulation of tonic GABAAR signaling by adenosine A1R in specific neuron types may regulate neuronal gain and excitability in the hippocampus. PMID:25452570

  4. Herbal toxicity in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyazema, N Z

    1986-01-01

    Indigenous natural drugs are in common use in Zimbabwe because modern life-saving drugs are beyond the reach of nearly 85% of the population. These natural drugs have caused a number of poisoning cases. In a study of the records of four hospitals from 1971 to 1982, carried out to see how many people had been poisoned with herbal remedies, it was found that the number had increased since 1971. 50 traditional healers were questioned about record-keeping and knowledge of toxicity and Health Assistants were also interviewed. PMID:3798540

  5. Prefrontal Gamma Oscillations Encode Tonic Pain in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Enrico; May, Elisabeth S.; Postorino, Martina; Tiemann, Laura; Nickel, Moritz M.; Witkovsky, Viktor; Schmidt, Paul; Gross, Joachim; Ploner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, momentary pain serves vital protective functions. Ongoing pain in chronic pain states, on the other hand, is a pathological condition that causes widespread suffering and whose treatment remains unsatisfactory. The brain mechanisms of ongoing pain are largely unknown. In this study, we applied tonic painful heat stimuli of varying degree to healthy human subjects, obtained continuous pain ratings, and recorded electroencephalograms to relate ongoing pain to brain activity. Our results reveal that the subjective perception of tonic pain is selectively encoded by gamma oscillations in the medial prefrontal cortex. We further observed that the encoding of subjective pain intensity experienced by the participants differs fundamentally from that of objective stimulus intensity and from that of brief pain stimuli. These observations point to a role for gamma oscillations in the medial prefrontal cortex in ongoing, tonic pain and thereby extend current concepts of the brain mechanisms of pain to the clinically relevant state of ongoing pain. Furthermore, our approach might help to identify a brain marker of ongoing pain, which may prove useful for the diagnosis and therapy of chronic pain. PMID:25754338

  6. Novel Nuclear Localization Signal Regulated by Ambient Tonicity in Vertebrates*

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min Seong; Lee, Sang Do; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Colla, Emanuela; Choi, Yu Jeong; Suh, Pann-Ghil; Kwon, H. Moo

    2008-01-01

    TonEBP is a Rel domain-containing transcription factor implicated in adaptive immunity, viral replication, and cancer. In the mammalian kidney, TonEBP is a central regulator of water homeostasis. Animals deficient in TonEBP suffer from life-threatening dehydration due to renal water loss. Ambient tonicity (effective osmolality) is the prominent signal for TonEBP in a bidirectional manner; TonEBP activity decreases in hypotonicity, whereas it increases in hypertonicity. Here we found that TonEBP displayed nuclear export in response to hypotonicity and nuclear import in response to hypertonicity. The nuclear export of TonEBP was not mediated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1 or discrete nuclear export signal. In contrast, a dominant nuclear localization signal (NLS) was found in a small region of 16 amino acid residues. When short peptides containing the NLS were fused to constitutively cytoplasmic proteins, the fusion proteins displayed tonicity-dependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking like TonEBP. Thus, tonicity-dependent activation of the NLS is crucial in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of TonEBP. The novel NLS is present only in the vertebrates, indicating that it developed late in evolution. PMID:18579527

  7. Herbal hepatotoxicity: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-01-01

    This review deals with herbal hepatotoxicity, identical to herb induced liver injury (HILI), and critically summarizes the pitfalls associated with the evaluation of assumed HILI cases. Analysis of the relevant publications reveals that several dozens of different herbs and herbal products have been implicated to cause toxic liver disease, but major quality issues limit the validity of causality attribution. In most of these reports, discussions around quality specifications regarding herbal products, case data presentations and causality assessment methods prevail. Though the production of herbal drugs is under regulatory surveillance and quality aspects are normally not a matter of concern, low quality of the less regulated herbal supplements may be a critical issue considering product batch variability, impurities, adulterants and herb misidentifications. Regarding case data presentation, essential diagnostic information is often lacking, as is the use of valid and liver specific causality assessment methods that also consider alternative diseases. At present, causality is best assessed by using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale ( CIOMS) in its original or updated form, which should primarily be applied prospectively by the treating physician when evaluating a patient rather than retrospectively by regulatory agencies. To cope with these problems, a common quality approach by manufacturers, physicians and regulatory agencies should strive for the best quality. We propose steps for improvements with impact on future cases of liver injury by herbs, herbal drugs and herbal supplements. PMID:22831551

  8. Advanced waveforms and frequency with spinal cord stimulation: burst and high-frequency energy delivery.

    PubMed

    Pope, Jason E; Falowski, Steven; Deer, Tim R

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, software development has been key to the next generation of neuromodulation devices. In this review, we will describe the new strategies for electrical waveform delivery for spinal cord stimulation. A systematic literature review was performed using bibliographic databases, limited to the English language and human data, between 2010 and 2014. The literature search yielded three articles on burst stimulation and four articles on high-frequency stimulation. High-frequency and burst stimulation may offer advantages over tonic stimulation, as data suggest improved patient tolerance, comparable increase in function and possible success with a subset of patients refractory to tonic spinal cord stimulation. High-frequency and burst stimulation are new ways to deliver energy to the spinal cord that may offer advantages over tonic stimulation. These may offer new salvage strategies to mitigate spinal cord stimulation failure and improve cost-effectiveness by reducing explant rate. PMID:25846152

  9. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  10. Herbal medicine-related hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Stournaras, Evangelos; Tziomalos, Konstantinos

    2015-09-01

    Herbal medicine products represent a common therapeutic approach in the East and are gaining increasing popularity in Western countries. They are unjustifiably considered to be side-effect free; on the contrary, severe toxicity, including catastrophic hepatic injury has been reported in association with their use. Vigilance is required from both physicians and the general public. Physicians should always suspect herbal medicines when evaluating a patient with unexplained liver injury. Regulation standards for herbal products need to be reconsidered, so that the efficacy and safety of these products have been clearly demonstrated before they enter the markets. PMID:26380043

  11. [Herbal drugs: from traditional use to regulation].

    PubMed

    Federici, Elena; Multari, Giuseppina; Gallo, Francesca Romana; Palazzino, Giovanna

    2005-01-01

    Herbal preparations have been used for centuries as the main therapeutic means. In Italy there is an ancient tradition of using herbal remedies, which became extremely important from the 16th to the 18th century. Nowadays multinational companies invest great resources on herbal drugs and preparations. This article focuses on herbal medicines, herbal products, and food supplements. Moreover the European legislation on traditional medicinal plants and food supplements is analysed and discussed. PMID:16037650

  12. [Artichoke--herbal drug].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Adamska, Katarzyna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Woźniak, Anna; Wachowiak, Anna; Miechowicz, Izabela; Horoszkiewicz, Malgorzata; Nowak, Gerard; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the gland most vulnerable to the toxic effects of xenobiotics, as responsible for their metabolism. Significant impact on the functioning of this gland has a style of life: alcohol consumption, diet with high fats ingredients and prooxidative substances and synthetic drugs. Very improtant aspect in herbal medicaments is protective properties on parenchymal organ-damaging. Concomitant intake of plant extracts containing cytoprotective compounds, may increase the efficacy of treatment and reduce side effects. One of the plants of the hepatoprotective action is artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). Artichoke with multiple therapeutic properties and practically no side effects is recommended not only in disorders of the liver, but also in the prevention of atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia or dyspeptic disorders. PMID:23421105

  13. Differences in corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii between arm cycling and tonic contraction are not evident at the immediate onset of movement.

    PubMed

    Forman, Davis A; Philpott, Devin T G; Button, Duane C; Power, Kevin E

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study to examine changes in corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii during the onset of arm cycling from a resting position to a point when steady-state arm cycling was obtained. Supraspinal and spinal excitability were assessed using motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited via transcranial magnetic stimulation and cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEPs) elicited via transmastoid electrical stimulation, respectively. Evoked responses were recorded from the biceps brachii during elbow flexion (6 o'clock relative to a clock face) for both arm cycling and an intensity-matched tonic contraction at three separate periods: (1) immediately at the onset of motor output and after completion of the (2) 4th revolution and (3) 9th revolution. There was no difference during initiation between tasks for MEP (P = 0.79) or CMEP amplitudes (P = 0.57). However, MEP amplitudes were significantly larger during arm cycling than an intensity-matched tonic contraction after the completion of the 4th (Cycling 76.48 ± 17.35 % of M max, Tonic 63.45 ± 18.45 % of M max, P < 0.05) and 9th revolutions (Cycling 72.37 ± 15.96 % of M max, Tonic 58.1 ± 24.23 % of M max, P < 0.05). There were no differences between conditions in CMEP amplitudes at the 4th (Cycling 49.6 ± 25.4 % of M max, Tonic 41.6 ± 11.2 % of M max, P = 0.31) or the 9th revolution (Cycling 47.2 ± 17.0 % of M max, Tonic 40.8 ± 13.6 % of M max, P = 0.29). These results demonstrate that corticospinal excitability is not different between arm cycling and a tonic contraction at motor output onset, but supraspinal excitability is enhanced during steady-state arm cycling. This suggests a similarity in the way the corticospinal tract initiates motor outputs in humans, regardless of the differences that present themselves in the later, steady-state stages. PMID:27038204

  14. [Traditional and ayurvedic herbalism, homeopathy--the alternative therapeutic methods in dentistry. Review].

    PubMed

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Herbalism is the oldest therapeutic system useful also ayurvedic medicine. Homepathy uses small doses of various substances to stimulate autoregulatory and self-healing processes. Medicines are prepared by serial dilution and shaking, which proponents claim imprints information into water. Ayurveda is a holistic form of therapy. In this meaning herbalism selects substances by matching a patient's symptoms with symptoms produced by these substances in healthy individuals. The some substances useful in dentistry were showed in this letter. PMID:23421114

  15. Herbal Products and Your Anesthestic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biloba, Ginseng, Hoodia, Kava, St. John’s Wort, and Valerian. Herbal products are available as tablets, liquids, granules, ... with other medications that prolong effects of anesthesia. Valerian Increased sedative effects.

  16. Decoding brain state transitions in the pedunculopontine nucleus: cooperative phasic and tonic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Anne; Valencia, Miguel; Pál, Balázs; Mena-Segovia, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) are most active during the waking state. Their activation is deemed to cause a switch in the global brain activity from sleep to wakefulness, while their sustained discharge may contribute to upholding the waking state and enhancing arousal. Similarly, non-cholinergic PPN neurons are responsive to brain state transitions and their activation may influence some of the same targets of cholinergic neurons, suggesting that they operate in coordination. Yet, it is not clear how the discharge of distinct classes of PPN neurons organize during brain states. Here, we monitored the in vivo network activity of PPN neurons in the anesthetized rat across two distinct levels of cortical dynamics and their transitions. We identified a highly structured configuration in PPN network activity during slow-wave activity that was replaced by decorrelated activity during the activated state (AS). During the transition, neurons were predominantly excited (phasically or tonically), but some were inhibited. Identified cholinergic neurons displayed phasic and short latency responses to sensory stimulation, whereas the majority of non-cholinergic showed tonic responses and remained at high discharge rates beyond the state transition. In vitro recordings demonstrate that cholinergic neurons exhibit fast adaptation that prevents them from discharging at high rates over prolonged time periods. Our data shows that PPN neurons have distinct but complementary roles during brain state transitions, where cholinergic neurons provide a fast and transient response to sensory events that drive state transitions, whereas non-cholinergic neurons maintain an elevated firing rate during global activation. PMID:26582977

  17. Antacid effects of Chinese herbal prescriptions assessed by a modified artificial stomach model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tsung-Hsiu; Chen, I-Chin; Chen, Lih-Chi

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the antacid effects of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions, Si-Jun-Zi-Tang (SJZT) and Shen-Ling-Bai-Zhu-San (SLBZS). METHODS: Decoctions of the tonic Chinese herbal prescriptions, SJZT and SLBZS, were prepared according to Chinese original documents. The pH of the prescription decoctions and their neutralizing effects on artificial gastric acids were determined and compared with water and the active controls, sodium bicarbonate and colloidal aluminum phosphate. A modified model of Vatier’s artificial stomach was used to determine the duration of consistent neutralization effect on artificial gastric acids. The neutralization capacity in vitro was determined with the titration method of Fordtran’s model. RESULTS: The results showed that both SJZT and SLBZS have antacid effects in vitro. Compared with the water group, SJZT and SLBZS were found to possess significant gastric acid neutralizing effects. The duration for consistent neutralization of SLBZS was significantly longer than that of water. Also, SLBZS and SJZT exhibited significant antacid capacities compared to water. CONCLUSION: SJZT and SLBZS were consistently active in the artificial stomach model and are suggested to have antacid effects similar to the active control drugs. PMID:20845514

  18. Tonic and stimulus-evoked nitric oxide production in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Graeme; Buerk, Donald G.; Ma, Jie; Gelperin, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been long assumed to play a key role in mammalian olfaction. This was based largely on circumstantial evidence, i.e. prominent staining for nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclic GMP or soluble guanylyl cyclase, an effector enzyme activated by NO, in local interneurons of the olfactory bulb. Here we employ innovative custom-fabricated NO micro-sensors to obtain the first direct, time-resolved measurements of NO signaling in the olfactory bulb. In 400 μm thick mouse olfactory bulb slices, we detected a steady average basal level of 87 nM NO in the extracellular space of mitral or granule cell layers. This NO ‘tone’ was sensitive to NOS substrate manipulation (200 μM L-arginine, 2 mM L-NAME) and Mg2+ modulation of NMDA receptor conductance. Electrical stimulation of olfactory nerve fibers evoked transient (peak at 10 s) increments in NO levels 90 – 100 nM above baseline. In the anesthetized mouse, NO micro-sensors inserted into the granule cell layer detected NO transients averaging 55 nM in amplitude and peaking at 3.4 sec after onset of a 5 sec odorant stimulation. These findings suggest dual roles for NO signaling in the olfactory bulb – tonic inhibitory control of principal neurons, and regulation of circuit dynamics during odor information processing. PMID:18407420

  19. Analysis of wavelet-filtered tonic-clonic electroencephalogram recordings.

    PubMed

    Rosso, O A; Figliola, A; Creso, J; Serrano, E

    2004-07-01

    EEG signals obtained during tonic-clonic epileptic seizures can be severely contaminated by muscle and physiological noise. Heavily contaminated EEG signals are hard to analyse quantitatively and also are usually rejected for visual inspection by physicians, resulting in a considerable loss of collected information. The aim of this work was to develop a computer-based method of time series analysis for such EEGs. A method is presented for filtering those frequencies associated with muscle activity using a wavelet transform. One of the advantages of this method over traditional filtering is that wavelet filtering of some frequency bands does not modify the pattern of the remaining ones. In consequence, the dynamics associated with them do not change. After generation of a 'noise free' signal by removal of the muscle artifacts using wavelets, a dynamic analysis was performed using non-linear dynamics metric tools. The characteristic parameters evaluated (correlation dimension D2 and largest Lyapunov exponent lambda1) were compatible with those obtained in previous works. The average values obtained were: D2=4.25 and lambda1=3.27 for the pre-ictal stage; D2=4.03 and lambda1=2.68 for the tonic seizure stage; D2=4.11 and lambda1=2.46 for the clonic seizure stage. PMID:15320461

  20. A Review of In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on the Efficacy of Herbal Medicines for Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoung-Sun; Lee, Jin-Moo; Jang, Jun-Bock; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological complaint among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. This study aims to review the findings of published articles on the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of herbal medicines for PD. Methods. In vitro and in vivo studies of herbal compounds, individual herbal extracts, or herbal formula decoctions published from their inception to April 2014 were included in this review. Results. A total of 18 studies involving herbal medicines exhibited their inhibitory effect on PD. The majority of in vitro studies investigated the inhibition of uterine contractions. In vivo studies suggest that herbal medicines exert a peripheral analgesic effect and a possible anti-inflammatory activity via the inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. The mechanisms of herbal medicines for PD are associated with PG level reduction, suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 expression, superoxide dismutase activation and malondialdehyde reduction, nitric oxide, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nuclear factor-kappa B reduction, stimulation of somatostatin receptor, intracellular Ca2+ reduction, and recovery of phospholipid metabolism. Conclusions. Herbal medicines are thought to be promising sources for the development of effective therapeutic agents for PD. Further investigations on the appropriate herbal formula and their constituents are recommended. PMID:25431607

  1. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  2. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  3. Effectiveness of Taiwanese traditional herbal diet for pain management in terminal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tsung-Hsiu; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun; Chen, Ching-Yu; Chen, Lih-Chi; Yang, Ling-Ling

    2008-01-01

    In addition to modern medicinal therapy, many cancer patients in Taiwan are treated regularly with herbal medicines or prescribed a traditional herbal diet. In this paper, the effect of a Taiwanese traditional herbal diet (TTHD) on pain in terminal cancer patients was investigated. A total of 2,466 patients diagnosed with a variety of cancers were included. The most common patient-reported symptoms included troublesome pain (79.2%), weakness (69.0%), anorexia (46.4%), fever (36.5%), dyspnea (31.1%), and leg edema (30.9%). The 2,466 terminal cancer patients included in the study were randomly divided into three groups. The TTHD group (n=1044; 42.3%) were given the TTHD consisting of analgesic herbs (paeony root: licorice root=1:1) and a Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup (Lilii bulbus, Nelumbo seed, and Jujube fruit). The remaining patients were divided into a reference group, given the regular hospital diet, (n=909, 36.9%) and a control group, given the Taiwanese tonic vegetable soup without analgesic herbs, (n=513, 20.8%). All patients maintained their assigned diets for one week. A verbal numerical scale was used to assess pain. Results revealed that the patients given TTHD reported enhanced pain relief (p<0.05) compared to the reference and control groups. We found that TTHD could alleviate the pain among terminal cancer patients thereby supporting the supposition that Eastern and Western medicines can be effectively co-administered to enhance terminal patient's quality of life. Further research is warranted. PMID:18364321

  4. Herbal medicine in healthcare--an overview.

    PubMed

    Mosihuzzaman, Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    It is generally accepted by all concerned that modern pharmaceuticals will remain out of reach of many people and 'health for all' may only be realized by the use of adequately assessed herbal products. Mankind has been using herbal medicine for healing right from the beginning of human civilization. With the advent of 'modern medicine' herbal products have been looked down upon, especially by western societies. Yet, in recent times, use of herbal medicine for heathcare has increased steadily all over the world. However, serious concerns are being realized regarding the safety, claimed efficacy and quality of herbal products used as herbal medicine, nutraceuticals, health food and cosmetics. Although herbal products are generally considered safe due to their age-old usage, significant side effects have been reported for many herbal products, including herbal medicine. Accidental contamination and intentional adulteration are considered as primary reasons for the side effects. The historical perspective and the philosophy of herbal medical practice along with its present status in the light of present day science have been reviewed and included in the present article. Assurance of safety by identification of contaminants and assessment of toxicity has been outlined. Assessment of claimed efficacy of herbal medicine is difficult due to its holistic approach. Practical ways of assessing efficacy of herbal medicine by adapting the methodologies used for modern pharmaceutical are described. The maintenance of standard of herbal medicine has been stressed and pragmatic approaches of assuring quality of herbal medicine by using modern tools of fingerprinting the chemical profile of herbal medicine are discussed. As much of the traditional herbal medical knowledge is scattered around the world at the family and community levels, and more so in the indigeneous people, the knowledge base is continuously being lost and so needs immediate documentation. Difficulties in

  5. Enhanced tonic GABAA inhibition in typical absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Cope, David W.; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Fyson, Sarah J.; Orbán, Gergely; Errington, Adam C.; Lőrincz, Magor L.; Gould, Timothy M.; Carter, David A.; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The cellular mechanisms underlying typical absence seizures, which characterize various idiopathic generalized epilepsies, are not fully understood, but impaired GABAergic inhibition remains an attractive hypothesis. In contrast, we show here that extrasynaptic GABAA receptor–dependent ‘tonic’ inhibition is increased in thalamocortical neurons from diverse genetic and pharmacological models of absence seizures. Increased tonic inhibition is due to compromised GABA uptake by the GABA transporter GAT–1 in the genetic models tested, and GAT–1 is critical in governing seizure genesis. Extrasynaptic GABAA receptors are a requirement for seizures in two of the best characterized models of absence epilepsy, and the selective activation of thalamic extrasynaptic GABAA receptors is sufficient to elicit both electrographic and behavioural correlates of seizures in normal animals. These results identify an apparently common cellular pathology in typical absence seizures that may have epileptogenic significance, and highlight novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of absence epilepsy. PMID:19966779

  6. Triphala herbal extract suppresses inflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and adjuvant-induced arthritic rats via inhibition of NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Kalaiselvan, Sowmiya; Rasool, Mahaboob Khan

    2016-07-01

    This study sought to explore the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect of triphala in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. In stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, triphala (100-300 μg/ml) significantly suppressed production of inflammatory mediators (e.g. TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, VEGF, NO, PGE2), intracellular free radicals and release of lysosomal enzymes (e.g. acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, N-acetyl glucosamindase and cathepsin D) in a dose-related manner. With triphala, mRNA levels of genes for pro-inflammatory TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1, inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 enzymes and NF-κBp65 were down-regulated in the stimulated cells; in contrast, there was up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Western blot analyses revealed that triphala suppressed the protein expression of NF-κB p65 and p-NF-κB p65 in the stimulated cells, which subsequently reduced over-expression of TNFα, IL-17, iNOS and COX-2 in a manner similar to that observed with BAY 11-7082, an IκB kinase inhibitor. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed inhibition of p-NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and COX-2 protein expression caused by triphala. Consistent with these findings, the animal studies presented confirmed that triphala exhibited anti-inflammatory effects in a rat adjuvant-induced arthritis model by reducing of inflammatory mediator (e.g. IL-17, COX-2 and RANKL) expression via inhibition of NF-κB activation. Taken together, the results here demonstrated that triphala has potential anti-inflammatory applications that could be used for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27438966

  7. Hepatotoxicity of herbal and dietary supplements: an update.

    PubMed

    Stickel, Felix; Shouval, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) have been used for health-related purposes since more than 5000 years, and their application is firmly anchored in all societies worldwide. Over last decades, a remarkable renaissance in the use of HDS can be noticed in affluent societies for manifold reasons. HDS are forms of complementary and alternative medicines commonly used to prevent or treat diseases, or simply as a health tonic. Another growing indication for HDS is their alleged benefit for weight loss or to increase physical fitness. Access is easy via internet and mail-order pharmacies, and their turnover reaches billions of dollars in the USA and Europe alone. However, HDS are generally not categorized as drugs and thus less strictly regulated in most countries. As a result, scientific evidence proving their beneficial effects is mostly lacking, although some HDS may have purported benefits. However, the majority lacks such proof of value, and their use is predominantly based on belief and hope. In addition to missing scientific evidence supporting their use, HDS are typically prone to batch-to-batch variability in composition and concentration, contamination, and purposeful adulteration. Moreover, numerous examples of preparations emerged which have been linked to significant liver injury. These include single ingredients, such as kava, germander, and several Chinese herbals. Other HDS products associated with liver toxicity consist of multiple, often ill-defined ingredients, such as Hydroxycut and Herbalife. Affirmative diagnostic tests are not available, and the assessment of liver injury ascribed to HDS depends on a thorough and proactive medical history, careful exclusion of other causes, and a search for available reports on similar events linked to the intake of the suspected preparation or ingredients contained therein. PMID:25680499

  8. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  9. Unique Aspects of Herbal Whole System Research

    PubMed Central

    Zick, Suzanna M.; Schwabl, Herbert; Flower, Andrew; Lac, Dip; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Hirschkorn, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Whole systems of healthcare offer unique methodological and theoretical challenges for researchers. Herbalism has its own set of methodological and philosophical research issues, which are beyond those presented for whole system research, in general. Methods An International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) workshop was presented on, “Challenges in Herbal Whole Systems Research”. Starting from a definition of herbalism the most important challenges to herbal whole system research (HWSR) were elicited with inputs from both the workshop presenters and the audience. Results Five major challenges unique to herbal whole systems research were identified: (1) Defining herbalists and herbalism; (2) role of natural products industry in herbal research; (3) designing placebos and delivering active herbal treatments as are given by herbalists; (4) researching the herb as a living entity; and (5) designing trials to investigate and develop multi-component herbal therapies. Conclusions To design studies of herbalism requires unique methods and theoretical frameworks. Solutions to these methodological challenges need to be addressed to conduct research that examines herbal systems of medicine versus conducting trials on individual herbs given out of their original therapeutic context. PMID:19272580

  10. Veterinary herbal medicines in India

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Shruti; Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Prakash, Jai; Sharma, Alok; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich and diversified flora. It is seen that synthetic drugs could pose serious problems, are toxic and costly. In contrast to this, herbal medicines are relatively nontoxic, cheaper and are eco-friendly. Moreover, the people have used them for generations. They have also been used in day-to-day problems of healthcare in animals. 25% of the drugs prescribed worldwide come from plants. Almost 75% of the medicinal plants grow naturally in different states of India. These plants are known to cure many ailments in animals like poisoning, cough, constipation, foot and mouth disease, dermatitis, cataract, burning, pneumonia, bone fractures, snake bites, abdominal pains, skin diseases etc. There is scarce review of such information (veterinary herbals) in the literature. The electronic and manual search was made using various key words such as veterinary herbal, ethno-veterinary medicines etc. and the content systematically arranged. This article deals with the comprehensive review of 45 medicinal plant species that are official in Indian Pharmacopoeia (IP) 2014. The botanical names, family, habitat, plant part used and pharmacological actions, status in British Pharmacopoeia 2014, USP 36 are mentioned. Also, a relationship between animal and human dose, standardization and regulatory aspects of these selected veterinary herbals are provided. PMID:26392714

  11. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2012-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Main results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects

  12. Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Zhi Jun; Liu, Jian Ping; Yang, Min; Kwong, Joey

    2011-01-01

    Background Herbal medicines are being used for treating viral diseases including viral myocarditis, and many controlled trials have been done to investigate their efficacy. Objectives To assess the effects of herbal medicines on clinical and indirect outcomes in patients with viral myocarditis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2009, MEDLINE (January 1966 - July 2009), EMBASE (January 1998 - July 2009), Chinese Biomedical Database (1979 - 2009), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1979 - 2009), Chinese VIP Information (1989 - 2009), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (1980 - 2009), AMED (1985 - 2009), LILACS accessed in July 2009 and the trials register of the Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field. We handsearched Chinese journals and conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials of herbal medicines (with a minimum of seven days treatment duration) compared with placebo, no intervention, or conventional interventions were included. Trials of herbal medicine plus conventional drug versus drug alone were also included. Only trials that reported adequate description of allocation sequence generation were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and evaluated trial quality. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Results Fourteen randomised trials involving 1463 people were included. All trials were conducted and published in China. Quality of the trials was assessed to be low. No trial had diagnosis of viral myocarditis confirmed histologically, and only a few trials attempted to establish viral aetiology. Nine different herbal medicines were tested in the included trials. The trials reported electrocardiogram results, level of myocardial enzymes, cardiac function, symptoms, and adverse effects. Astragalus

  13. EEG spectral power in phasic and tonic REM sleep: different patterns in young adults and children.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Gombos, Ferenc; Szakadát, Sára; Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2016-06-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep is composed of phasic and tonic periods, two distinguishable microstates in terms of arousal thresholds and sensory processing. Background electroencephalogram oscillations are also different between periods with (phasic state) and periods without (tonic state) eye movements. In Study 1, previous findings analysing electroencephalogram spectral power in phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep were replicated, and analyses extended to the high gamma range (52-90 Hz). In Study 2, phasic and tonic spectral power differences within a group of 4-8-year-old children were examined. Based on the polysomnographic data of 20 young adults, the phasic state yielded increased delta and theta power in anterior sites, as well as generally decreased high alpha and beta power in comparison to the tonic state. Moreover, phasic periods exhibited greater spectral power in the lower and the higher gamma band. Interestingly, children (n = 18) exhibited a different pattern, showing increased activity in the low alpha range during phasic periods. Moreover, during phasic in contrast to tonic rapid eye movement sleep, increased low and high gamma and enhanced low gamma band power emerged in anterior and posterior regions, respectively. The current findings show that spectral activity within the high gamma range substantially contributes to the differences between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement sleep, especially in adults. Moreover, the current data underscore the heterogeneity of rapid eye movement sleep, and point to marked differences between young adults and children regarding phasic/tonic electroencephalogram spectral power. These results suggest that the differentiation between phasic and tonic rapid eye movement periods undergoes maturation. PMID:26762188

  14. Chinese herbal medicines for hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Liu, Jian Ping; Zhang, Anthony Lin; Wu, Qiong; Ruan, Yao; Lewith, George; Visconte, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypercholesterolemia is an important key contributory factor for ischemic heart disease and is associated with age, high blood pressure, a family history of hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. Chinese herbal medicines have been used for a long time as lipid-lowering agents. Objectives To assess the effects of Chinese herbal medicines on hypercholesterolemia. Search strategy We searched the following databases: The Cochrane Library (issue 8, 2010), MEDLINE (until July 2010), EMBASE (until July 2010), Chinese BioMedical Database (until July 2010), Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (until July 2010), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (until July 2010), Chinese VIP Information (until July 2010), Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database (until July 2010), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (until July 2010). Selection criteria We considered randomized controlled clinical trials in hypercholesterolemic participants comparing Chinese herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, and pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. We resolved any disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved based by consensus. We assessed trials for the risk of bias against key criteria: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of participants, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting and other sources of bias. Main results We included 22 randomized trials (2130 participants). The mean treatment duration was 2.3 ± 1.3 months (ranging from one to six months). Twenty trials were conducted in China and 18 trials were published in Chinese. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was high or unclear. Five different herbal medicines were evaluated in the included trials, which compared herbs with conventional

  15. Remission of Unresectable Lung Metastases from Rectal Cancer After Herbal Medicine Treatment: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungsuk; Lee, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    Lung metastasis is frequent in rectal cancer patients and has a poor prognosis, with an expected three-year survival rate of about 10%. Though western medicine has made great strides in the curative resection of liver metastases, resection of lung metastases has lagged far behind. Many preclinical studies have suggested that herbal treatments block metastasis, but few clinical studies have addressed this topic. We present the case of a 57-year-old Asian male with lung metastases from rectal cancer. He first underwent resection of the primary lesion (stage IIA, T3N0M0) and six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Unfortunately, lung metastases were confirmed about one year later. Palliative chemotherapy was begun, but his disease continued to progress after three cycles and chemotherapy was halted. The patient was exclusively treated with herbal medicine-standardized allergen-removed Rhus verniciflua stokes extract combined with Dokhwaljihwang-tang (Sasang constitutional medicine in Korea). After seven weeks of herbal medicine treatment, the lung metastases were markedly improved. Regression of lung metastases has continued; also, the patient's rectal cancer has not returned. He has been receiving herbal medicine for over two years and very few side effects have been observed. We suggest that the herbal regimen used in our patient is a promising candidate for the treatment of lung metastases secondary to rectal cancer, and we hope that this case stimulates further investigation into the efficacy of herbal treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27198037

  16. Tonic PKA Activity Regulates SK Channel Nanoclustering and Somatodendritic Distribution.

    PubMed

    Abiraman, Krithika; Sah, Megha; Walikonis, Randall S; Lykotrafitis, George; Tzingounis, Anastasios V

    2016-06-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels mediate a potassium conductance in the brain and are involved in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. SK channels show a distinct subcellular localization that is crucial for their neuronal functions. However, the mechanisms that control this spatial distribution are unknown. We imaged SK channels labeled with fluorophore-tagged apamin and monitored SK channel nanoclustering at the single molecule level by combining atomic force microscopy and toxin (i.e., apamin) pharmacology. Using these two complementary approaches, we found that native SK channel distribution in pyramidal neurons, across the somatodendritic domain, depends on ongoing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) levels, strongly limiting SK channel expression at the pyramidal neuron soma. Furthermore, tonic cAMP-PKA levels also controlled whether SK channels were expressed in nanodomains as single entities or as a group of multiple channels. Our study reveals a new level of regulation of SK channels by cAMP-PKA and suggests that ion channel topography and nanoclustering might be under the control of second messenger cascades. PMID:27107637

  17. Tonic Hyper-Connectivity of Reward Neurocircuitry in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Black, William R.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Bruce, Amanda S.; Powell, Joshua N.; Bruce, Jared M.; Martin, Laura E.; Davis, Ann M.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.; Simmons, W. Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obese children demonstrate less activation in prefrontal regions associated with self-control and inhibition when presented with food cues and advertisements. The current study evaluates the differences between obese and healthy weight children in resting-state functional connectivity to these brain regions. Design and Methods Seed regions in bilateral middle frontal gyri were chosen based on previous task-based analysis showing differences between obese and healthy weight children’s responses to food-associated stimuli. Functional connectivity to these seed regions was measured in resting-state scans collected in obese and lean children undergoing fMRI. Results Obese children exhibited greater resting-state functional connectivity than healthy weight children between the left middle frontal gyrus and reward-related regions in the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex, as well as the left lateral OFC. Conclusion Previously published results demonstrate that obese children exhibit less activity in brain regions associated with self-control when viewing motivationally salient food advertisements. Here we show that obese children also have tonically greater input to these self-control regions from reward neurocircuitry. The greater functional connectivity between reward and self-control regions, in conjunction with weaker activation of self-control neurocircuitry, may render these children more susceptible to food advertisements, placing them at elevated risk for over-feeding and obesity. PMID:24634397

  18. Changes of gamma-band oscillatory activity to tonic muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Li, Linling; Liu, Xiaowu; Cai, Chuan; Yang, Yan; Li, Disen; Xiao, Lizu; Xiong, Donglin; Hu, Li; Qiu, Yunhai

    2016-08-01

    It is well know that phasic pain could induce suppression of alpha oscillations and enhancement of gamma oscillations. However, the cortical responses to tonic pain, especially tonic pain originating from deep tissue, which was proposed to better resemble the clinical pain, are not well understood. Here we aimed to investigate electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to tonic muscle pain. EEG signals and pain perceptions of three order-counterbalanced conditions: innocuous condition (A, infusion of isotonic saline), noxious conditions with low (B) and medium (C) intensities (infusion of hypertonic saline) were recorded from 43 subjects. We observed the enhancement of gamma oscillations in frontal-central region in condition C, as compared to either condition A or B. Positive relationship between the amplitude of gamma oscillations and pain intensity was also observed in frontal-central region. Therefore, we provide novel evidence for the encoding of frontal-central gamma oscillations in tonic pain processing. PMID:27250858

  19. Herbal Medicine Research in Taiwan*

    PubMed Central

    Kaphle, Krishna; Wu, Leang-Shin; Yang, Nai-Yen Jack; Lin, Jen-Hsou

    2006-01-01

    Of all the countries in the world, why did you choose Taiwan to pursue your study? It is a question that I (comments of the first author) have answered a thousand times. My first visit to a laboratory at National Taiwan University opened my eyes to the possibilities of herbal medicine research, especially in the area of veterinary medicine. It became my ambition to link the knowledge of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda from the Indian subcontinent and their integration with other systems of medicine, including Western medicine (WM), to achieve the concept of Sustainable Medicine, firstly for animals and then for humans. The Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA) has implemented a technology development program to quickly establish the key technologies, and this is a moment of opportunity for Taiwan's traditional herbal medicine industry to upgrade and transform itself. This paper, initially intended to be a student's narration, has evolved into a multi-author treatise on the present state and likely future scenario of herbal medicine research in Taiwan. PMID:16550238

  20. Anti-aging and health-promoting constituents derived from traditional oriental herbal remedies: information retrieval using the TradiMed 2000 DB.

    PubMed

    Chang, I M

    2001-04-01

    Asia, Korea, China, and Japan have legally adopted the traditional Oriental (Chinese) medical system along with the Western system. A number of traditional herbal drugs including the polypharmacy type of prescriptions (a combination of multiple herbs) are available and are widely dispensed. Herbal therapy used in traditional Oriental medicine appears to be quite different from its counterpart Western drug therapy. The polypharmacy type of herbal therapy generally exhibits holistic effectiveness by exerting activities to multitarget organs (organ systems) according to the principles of traditional Oriental medicine. The Traditional Oriental Medicine Database (TradiMed 2000 DB) is a unique database of traditional Oriental herbal therapy containing a variety of information such as formulae, chemical information on ingredients, botanical information on herbal materials, and a dictionary of disease classification (TOM and Western classification). A formula, namely, the Sip-Jeon-Dae-Bo-Tang consisting of 10 different herbs, was selected by retrieving information from the TradiMed 2000 DB. Then its tonic effects for elderly people were shown as an example. PMID:11795519

  1. Differences in recruitment order of motor units in phasic and tonic flexion reflex in `spinal man'

    PubMed Central

    Grimby, Lennart; Hannerz, Jan

    1970-01-01

    The recruitment order of motoneurones in muscle contractions has been held to be largely constant and determined by the size of the cell. However, as shown in a previous investigation using electromyographic techniques, the order in which different motor units are activated during voluntary muscle contractions changes in normal human subjects on shifts from phasic to tonic contraction. In order to investigate these two types of activity also in cases in which the cerebral influence on the motoneurone pool is blocked, an analysis was made of the recruitment order in phasic and tonic flexion reflexes in 10 patients with total interruption of the spinal cord. The following four principles were found to apply and presumed to be generally valid for the isolated human spinal cord: (1) in the phasic exteroceptive reflex, the order of recruitment varies despite application of a standardized stimulus; (2) in the tonic reflex, the first unit to be recruited is usually the same even with widely different types of stimuli; (3) a shift from phasic to tonic reflex activation may result in considerable changes in recruitment order; (4) after facilitation by a subliminal long-lasting stimulus, the first unit to be recruited in the phasic reflex is also the first to be recruited in the tonic reflex. It is suggested that a tonic influence on the motoneurone pool is required for the presupposed constancy of the recruitment order. Images PMID:5478941

  2. The endogenous peptide antisecretory factor promotes tonic GABAergic signaling in CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Strandberg, Joakim; Lindquist, Catarina; Lange, Stefan; Asztely, Fredrik; Hanse, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Tonic GABAergic inhibition regulates neuronal excitability and has been implicated to be involved in both neurological and psychiatric diseases. We have previously shown that the endogenous peptide antisecretory factor (AF) decreases phasic GABAergic inhibition onto pyramidal CA1 neurons. In the present study, using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we investigated the mechanisms behind this disinhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons by AF. We found that application of AF to acute rat hippocampal slices resulted in a reduction of the frequency, but not of the amplitude, of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX), were however not affected by AF, neither in CA1 pyramidal cells, nor in stratum radiatum interneurons. Instead, AF caused an increase of the tonic GABAA current in stratum radiatum interneurons, leaving the tonic GABAergic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells unaffected. These results show that the endogenous peptide AF enhances tonic, but not phasic, GABAergic signaling in CA1 stratum radiatum interneurons, without affecting tonic GABAergic signaling in CA1 pyramidal neurons. We suggest that this increased tonic GABAergic signaling in GABAergic interneurons could be a mechanism for the AF-mediated disinhibition of pyramidal neurons. PMID:24478633

  3. Increased cerebral oxygenation precedes generalized tonic clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Brian D; Britton, Jeffrey W; So, Elson

    2014-11-01

    Based on previous fMRI and SPECT studies, it has been suggested seizures may be preceded by increased cerebral blood flow. Recently, we demonstrated transcutaneous regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) sensors are feasible for use in patients undergoing video EEG monitoring. We reanalyzed our data to determine if seizures were consistently marked by increased cerebral oxygenation. Patients with histories of generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS) were recruited into our study. All subjects were evaluated with continuous 30-channel scalp EEG and 2 rSO2 sensors placed on each side of the forehead. We calculated the mean rSO2 value for the 1h epochs in the non-ictal (2h prior to seizure onset) and pre-ictal (1h prior to onset) periods. Seven primary/secondarily GTCS from 5 patients were captured. The mean rSO2 value in the non-ictal period was 75.6 ± 5.7%. This increased to 76.0 ± 6% in the pre-ictal period (p=0.032). Four of the 7GTCS (57.1%) were marked by ≥ 3 sequential rSO2 values in the pre-ictal period that were ≥ 3 SDs greater than the mean non-ictal rSO2 value. Three GTCS (42.9%) were marked by sustained cerebral hyperemia for ≥ 15 consecutive readings. Our results suggest increased cerebral blood flow could be non-invasively used to predict seizure occurrence. PMID:25277885

  4. Perampanel for tonic-clonic seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Gregory L.; Wechsler, Robert T.; Wang, Xue-Feng; DiVentura, Bree; Brandt, Christian; Trinka, Eugen; O'Brien, Terence J.; Laurenza, Antonio; Patten, Anna; Bibbiani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess efficacy and safety of adjunctive perampanel in patients with drug-resistant, primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Methods: In this multicenter, double-blind study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01393743; funded by Eisai Inc.), patients 12 years or older with PGTC seizures and IGE were randomized to placebo or perampanel during a 4-week titration period (perampanel uptitrated from 2 to 8 mg/d, or highest tolerated dose) and 13-week maintenance period. The primary endpoint was percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (titration plus maintenance vs baseline). The key secondary endpoint (primary endpoint for European Union registration) was 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (patients achieving ≥50% reduction in PGTC seizure frequency; maintenance vs baseline). Treatment-emergent adverse events were monitored. Results: Of 164 randomized patients, 162 comprised the full analysis set (placebo, 81; perampanel, 81). Compared with placebo, perampanel conferred a greater median percent change in PGTC seizure frequency per 28 days (−38.4% vs −76.5%; p < 0.0001) and greater 50% PGTC seizure responder rate (39.5% vs 64.2%; p = 0.0019). During maintenance, 12.3% of placebo-treated patients and 30.9% of perampanel-treated patients achieved PGTC seizure freedom. For the safety analysis (placebo, 82; perampanel, 81), the most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events with perampanel were dizziness (32.1%) and fatigue (14.8%). Conclusions: Adjunctive perampanel was well tolerated and improved control of drug-resistant PGTC seizures in patients with IGE. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that adjunctive perampanel reduces PGTC seizure frequency, compared with placebo, in patients with drug-resistant PGTC seizures in IGE. PMID:26296511

  5. Iron fertilization: A tonic, but no cure for the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1994-02-25

    One proposed solution to counteract greenhouse warming is the stimulation of phytoplankton growth in the oceans by the addition of iron. The excess phytoplankton would then absorb CO[sub 2] and sequester it in their bodies when they died. An experiment to test this hypothesis was carried out in the equatorial Pacific. Addition of Fe stimulated phytoplankton growth, but the technique may have limited value. The iron quickly forms particulates which sink and become unavailable to the phytoplankton.

  6. Exocytosis of ATP From Astrocytes Modulates Phasic and Tonic Inhibition in the Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Rasooli-Nejad, Seyed; Andrew, Jemma; Haydon, Philip G.; Pankratov, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for many brain functions. Astrocytes can modulate synaptic strength via Ca2+-stimulated release of various gliotransmitters, including glutamate and ATP. A physiological role of ATP release from astrocytes was suggested by its contribution to glial Ca2+-waves and purinergic modulation of neuronal activity and sleep homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying release of gliotransmitters remain uncertain, and exocytosis is the most intriguing and debated pathway. We investigated release of ATP from acutely dissociated cortical astrocytes using “sniff-cell” approach and demonstrated that release is vesicular in nature and can be triggered by elevation of intracellular Ca2+ via metabotropic and ionotropic receptors or direct UV-uncaging. The exocytosis of ATP from neocortical astrocytes occurred in the millisecond time scale contrasting with much slower nonvesicular release of gliotransmitters via Best1 and TREK-1 channels, reported recently in hippocampus. Furthermore, we discovered that elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ in cortical astrocytes triggered the release of ATP that directly activated quantal purinergic currents in the pyramidal neurons. The glia-driven burst of purinergic currents in neurons was followed by significant attenuation of both synaptic and tonic inhibition. The Ca2+-entry through the neuronal P2X purinoreceptors led to phosphorylation-dependent down-regulation of GABAA receptors. The negative purinergic modulation of postsynaptic GABA receptors was accompanied by small presynaptic enhancement of GABA release. Glia-driven purinergic modulation of inhibitory transmission was not observed in neurons when astrocytes expressed dn-SNARE to impair exocytosis. The astrocyte-driven purinergic currents and glia-driven modulation of GABA receptors were significantly reduced in the P2X4 KO mice. Our data provide a key evidence to support the physiological importance of exocytosis of ATP from astrocytes

  7. Experimental tonic hand pain modulates the corticospinal plasticity induced by a subsequent hand deafferentation.

    PubMed

    Mavromatis, N; Gagné, M; Voisin, J I A V; Reilly, K T; Mercier, C

    2016-08-25

    Sensorimotor reorganization is believed to play an important role in the development and maintenance of phantom limb pain, but pain itself might modulate sensorimotor plasticity induced by deafferentation. Clinical and basic research support this idea, as pain prior to amputation increases the risk of developing post-amputation pain. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of experimental tonic cutaneous hand pain on the plasticity induced by temporary ischemic hand deafferentation. Sixteen healthy subjects participated in two experimental sessions (Pain, No Pain) in which transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess corticospinal excitability in two forearm muscles (flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis) before (T0, T10, T20, and T40) and after (T60 and T75) inflation of a cuff around the wrist. The cuff was inflated at T45 in both sessions and in the Pain session capsaicin cream was applied on the dorsum of the hand at T5. Corticospinal excitability was significantly greater during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.002) and increased similarly in both muscles (p=0.861). Importantly, the excitability increase in the Post-inflation phase was greater for the Pain than the No-Pain condition (p=0.006). Post-hoc analyses revealed a significant difference between the two conditions during the Post-inflation phase (p=0.030) but no difference during the Pre-inflation phase (p=0.601). In other words, the corticospinal facilitation was greater when pain was present prior to cuff inflation. These results indicate that pain can modulate the plasticity induced by another event, and could partially explain the sensorimotor reorganization often reported in chronic pain populations. PMID:27291642

  8. How do kinases contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of the transcription factor NFAT5?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    NFAT5 plays a critical role in maintaining the renal functions. Its dis-regulation in the kidney leads to or is associated with certain renal diseases or disorders, most notably the urinary concentration defect. Hypertonicity, which the kidney medulla is normally exposed to, activates NFAT5 through phosphorylation of a signaling molecule or NFAT5 itself. Hypotonicity inhibits NFAT5 through a similar mechanism. More than a dozen of protein and lipid kinases have been identified to contribute to tonicity-dependent regulation of NFAT5. Hypertonicity activates NFAT5 by increasing its nuclear localization and transactivating activity in the early phase and protein abundance in the late phase. The known mechanism for inhibition of NFAT5 by hypotonicity is a decrease of nuclear NFAT5. The present article reviews the effect of each kinase on NFAT5 nuclear localization, transactivation and protein abundance, and the relationship among these kinases, if known. Cyclosporine A and tacrolimus suppress immune reactions by inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT1. It is hoped that this review would stimulate the interest to seek explanations from the NFAT5 regulatory pathways for certain clinical presentations and to explore novel therapeutic approaches based on the pathways. On the basic science front, this review raises two interesting questions. The first one is how these kinases can specifically signal to NFAT5 in the context of hypertonicity or hypotonicity, because they also regulate other cellular activities and even opposite activities in some cases. The second one is why these many kinases, some of which might have redundant functions, are needed to regulate NFAT5 activity. This review reiterates the concept of signaling through cooperation. Cells need these kinases working in a coordinated way to provide the signaling specificity that is lacking in the individual one. Redundancy in regulation of NFAT5 is a critical strategy for cells to

  9. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv; Mukerjee, Alok

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  10. Bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kesarwani, Kritika; Gupta, Rajiv

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the use of herbal medicines has been increased all over the world due to their therapeutic effects and fewer adverse effects as compared to the modern medicines. However, many herbal drugs and herbal extracts despite of their impressive in-vitro findings demonstrates less or negligible in-vivo activity due to their poor lipid solubility or improper molecular size, resulting in poor absorption and hence poor bioavailability. Nowadays with the advancement in the technology, novel drug delivery systems open the door towards the development of enhancing bioavailability of herbal drug delivery systems. For last one decade many novel carriers such as liposomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, transferosomes, ethosomes, lipid based systems etc. have been reported for successful modified delivery of various herbal drugs. Many herbal compounds including quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, piperine, glycyrrhizin and nitrile glycoside have demonstrated capability to enhance the bioavailability. The objective of this review is to summarize various available novel drug delivery technologies which have been developed for delivery of drugs (herbal), and to achieve better therapeutic response. An attempt has also been made to compile a profile on bioavailability enhancers of herbal origin with the mechanism of action (wherever reported) and studies on improvement in drug bioavailability, exhibited particularly by natural compounds. PMID:23620848

  11. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products. PMID:26076652

  12. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  13. Tonically Active Inhibition Selectively Controls Feedforward Circuits in Mouse Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Krook-Magnuson, Esther I.; Li, Peijun; Paluszkiewicz, Scott M.; Huntsman, Molly M.

    2008-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors is a powerful conductance that controls cell excitability. Throughout the CNS, tonic inhibition is expressed at varying degrees across different cell types. Despite a rich history of cortical interneuron diversity, little is known about tonic inhibition in the different classes of cells in the cerebral cortex. We therefore examined the cell-type specificity and functional significance of tonic inhibition in layer 4 of the mouse somatosensory barrel cortex. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry showed moderate δ-subunit expression across the barrel structures. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings additionally indicated that significant levels of tonic inhibition can be found across cell types, with differences in the magnitude of inhibition between cell types. To activate tonic currents, we used 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP, a superagonist at δ-subunit–containing GABAA receptors) at a concentration that did not affect synaptic decay kinetics. THIP produced greater shifts in baseline holding current in inhibitory cells (low-threshold spiking [LTS], 109 ± 17 pA; fast spiking [FS], 111 ± 15 pA) than in excitatory cells (39 ± 10 pA; P < 0.001). In addition to these differences across cell types, there was also variability within inhibitory cells. FS cells with faster action potentials had larger baseline shifts. Because FS cells are known mediators of feedforward inhibition, we tested whether THIP-induced tonic conductance selectively controls feedforward circuits. THIP application resulted in the abolishment of the inhibitory postsynaptic potential in thalamic-evoked disynaptic responses in a subset of excitatory neurons. These data suggest multiple feedforward circuits can be differentiated by the inhibitory control of the presynaptic inhibitory neuron. PMID:18509076

  14. Tonic immobility mediates the influence of peritraumatic fear and perceived inescapability on posttraumatic stress symptom severity among sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Bovin, Michelle J; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Gold, Sari D; Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M

    2008-08-01

    This study evaluated whether tonic immobility mediates the relations between perceived inescapability, peritraumatic fear, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity among sexual assault survivors. Female undergraduates (N = 176) completed questionnaires assessing assault history, perceived inescapability, peritraumatic fear, tonic immobility, and PTSD symptoms. Results indicated that tonic immobility fully mediated relations between perceived inescapability and overall PTSD symptom severity, as well as reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptom clusters. Tonic immobility also fully mediated the relation between fear and reexperiencing symptoms, and partially mediated relations between fear and overall PTSD symptom severity, and avoidance/numbing symptoms. Results suggest that tonic immobility could be one path through which trauma survivors develop PTSD symptoms. Further study of tonic immobility may inform our ability to treat trauma victims. PMID:18720396

  15. Indigenous Knowledge of Herbal Medicines among Adolescents in Amassoma, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Alade, Gideon O.; Okpako, Ese; Ajibesin, Kola’ K.; Omobuwajo, Olanrewaju R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbal medicines in Nigeria is on the increase. Documented Population based data on the use of herbal medicinal products and indigenous knowledge among the younger generations are lacking in Nigeria and Africa at large. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the extent of use and general knowledge of herbal medicines among adolescents in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Methods: The study covered a total of Two hundred and twenty-eight adolescents randomly selected in Senior Secondary Schools (SSS 1-3) in Amassoma using a semi structured questionnaire/Interview and informal conversation on the respondents. Findings: Nearly all (97%) the respondents have had contact with herbs. Less than 1% had contact with herbs through formal education (teachers/literatures). Stimulation of interest was majorly through parents (53%). Grandparents were the highest (46%) of custodian of indigenous knowledge. Parents were the next (39.7%). Only 39% of the respondents would prefer the use of herbal medicine to modern medicine. Fever was the main ailment mentioned followed by eye ailment and stomach ache. Vernonia amygdalina was the main plant for the treatment of fever. Conclusion: The study revealed that parents are the major custodians of knowledge being transferred to the younger generation and little or none is learnt from Schools. There is therefore the need to include the study of herbal medicines in School’s curricula especially at SS 2 and SS 3 since they are matured enough to appreciate the importance of Herbal medicine so as to prepare them for the promotion of herbal medicine in future and to preserve our indigenous knowledge. PMID:26234964

  16. Global herbal medicine: a critique.

    PubMed

    Jagtenberg, Tom; Evans, Sue

    2003-04-01

    Herbal medicine finds itself at a crossroads. If it continues to become mainstreamed in a commodity-driven health industry, its focus will change from craft-based tradition to globalized industry. On the other hand, if the fundamental importance of tradition to indigenous and nonindigenous medicine is respected, ecologic and cultural issues arise. Central here are the issues associated with control of both land and culture. Many indigenous cultures and their local ecologies are currently threatened by globalization. Historically, successful large corporations have neither respected the environment nor easily acknowledged indigenous claims to land and intellectual property, so no easy resolution of these conflicts seems likely. Our case study of Mapuche medicine allows us to explore the social and cultural conflicts that many practising herbalists experience. We argue that because of the basic contradictions involved, the protection of cultures and ecologies that underpin the discipline must be made a clear priority. We argue that local cultural traditions are clearly at odds with a globalizing herbal industry. PMID:12804085

  17. Potentiation of tonic GABAergic inhibition by activation of postsynaptic kainate receptors.

    PubMed

    Jiang, L; Kang, D; Kang, J

    2015-07-01

    Presynaptic kainate-type glutamate ionotropic receptors (KARs) that mediate either the depression or the facilitation of GABA release have been intensively studied. Little attention has been given to the modulation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) by postsynaptic KARs. Recent studies suggest that two GABAAR populations, synaptic (sGABAAR) and extrasynaptic (eGABAAR) GABAARs, mediate phasic and tonic forms of inhibition, respectively. Tonic inhibition plays an important role in the excitability of neuronal circuits and the occurrence of epileptic seizures. For this study, we are the first to report that the activation of postsynaptic KARs by the KAR agonist, Kainic acid (KA, 5 μM), enhanced tonic inhibition by potentiating eGABAARs. KA enhanced THIP-induced eGABAAR currents and prolonged the rise and decay time of muscimol-induced sGABAAR/eGABAAR currents, but also depressed the amplitude of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs), unitary IPSCs (uIPSCs), and muscimol-induced sGABAAR/eGABAAR currents. The PKC inhibitor, staurosporine (1 μM), in the patch pipette solution fully blocked the KA-induced potentiation of tonic inhibition, suggesting the involvement of an intracellular PKC pathway. Our study suggests that the activation of postsynaptic KARs potentiates eGABAARs but depresses sGABAARs. By activating postsynaptic KARs, synaptically released glutamate depresses phasic inhibition to facilitate neuronal plasticity, but potentiates tonic inhibition to protect neurons from over-excitation. PMID:25934031

  18. Tonic respiratory drive in the absence of rhythm generation in the conscious dog.

    PubMed

    Horner, R L; Kozar, L F; Phillipson, E A

    1994-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether a chemoreceptor-mediated tonic respiratory drive exists below the apneic threshold. Expiratory (triangularis sterni) and inspiratory (diaphragm and parasternal intercostal) electromyographic activities were recorded in three awake relaxed dogs breathing through an endotracheal tube inserted into a permanent tracheostomy. The cervical vagus nerves were cold blocked to avoid the complicating effects of vagal inputs on respiratory activity. During hypocapnia produced by mechanical hyperventilation, expiratory muscle activity converted from rhythmic to tonic discharge when inspiratory muscle activity and spontaneous breathing movements were abolished. In hypocapnia, changes in arterial PCO2 (in hyperoxia) were produced by changing the ventilator rate for steady-state (> 6 min) CO2 stimuli and by disconnecting the ventilator for transient CO2 stimuli. By use of either method, a CO2-mediated drive to the expiratory muscle was consistently observed during hypocapnic apnea. At a constant level of hypocapnia, inhalation of 5% O2 consistently caused the onset of spontaneous breathing; the onset of phasic inspiratory activity was associated with reciprocal inhibition of the tonic expiratory activity. However, inhalation of 10 and 15% O2 caused an inhibition of the tonic expiratory activity, even without the onset of breathing. These results suggest that the response threshold of the respiratory chemoreceptors is lower than the apneic threshold and that a chemoreceptor-mediated tonic respiratory drive persists during apnea. PMID:8175577

  19. Attenuated Tonic and Enhanced Phasic Release of Dopamine in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Sinha, Sampada; Sajjad, Munawwar; Wack, David S.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear whether attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a hypodopaminergic or hyperdopaminergic condition. Different sets of data suggest either hyperactive or hypoactive dopamine system. Since indirect methods used in earlier studies have arrived at contradictory conclusions, we directly measured the tonic and phasic release of dopamine in ADHD volunteers. The tonic release in ADHD and healthy control volunteers was measured and compared using dynamic molecular imaging technique. The phasic release during performance of Eriksen’s flanker task was measured in the two groups using single scan dynamic molecular imaging technique. In these experiments volunteers were positioned in a positron emission tomography (PET) camera and administered a dopamine receptor ligand 11C-raclopride intravenously. After the injection PET data were acquired dynamically while volunteers either stayed still (tonic release experiments) or performed the flanker task (phasic release experiments). PET data were analyzed to measure dynamic changes in ligand binding potential (BP) and other receptor kinetic parameters. The analysis revealed that at rest the ligand BP was significantly higher in the right caudate of ADHD volunteers suggesting reduced tonic release. During task performance significantly lower ligand BP was observed in the same area, indicating increased phasic release. In ADHD tonic release of dopamine is attenuated and the phasic release is enhanced in the right caudate. By characterizing the nature of dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission in ADHD, the results explain earlier findings of reduced or increased dopaminergic activity. PMID:26422146

  20. Is there tonic immobility in humans? Biological evidence from victims of traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Volchan, Eliane; Souza, Gabriela G; Franklin, Camila M; Norte, Carlos E; Rocha-Rego, Vanessa; Oliveira, Jose M; David, Isabel A; Mendlowicz, Mauro V; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Fiszman, Adriana; Berger, William; Marques-Portella, Carla; Figueira, Ivan

    2011-09-01

    Tonic immobility, characterized by profound motor inhibition, is elicited under inescapable threat in many species. To fully support the existence of tonic immobility in humans, our aim was to elicit this reaction in a laboratory setting and measure it objectively. To mimic exposure to life-threatening events in the lab, trauma-exposed participants with PTSD (n=18) and without PTSD (n=15) listened to the script of their autobiographical trauma. Posturography and electrocardiography were employed. Reports of script-induced immobility were associated with restricted area of body sway and were correlated with accelerated heart rate and diminished heart rate variability, implying that tonic immobility is preserved in humans as an involuntary defensive strategy. Immobility reports seemed more evident in PTSD, suggesting that, in some patients, tonic immobility may be elicited during re-experiencing episodes in daily life. This study provided a measure of tonic immobility, a peritraumatic reaction for which cumulative clinical evidence had linked to the severity of PTSD. PMID:21693167

  1. Tonic GABAA conductance bidirectionally controls interneuron firing pattern and synchronization in the CA3 hippocampal network

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Ivan; Savtchenko, Leonid P.; Song, Inseon; Koo, Jaeyeon; Pimashkin, Alexey; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Semyanov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    The spiking output of interneurons is key for rhythm generation in the brain. However, what controls interneuronal firing remains incompletely understood. Here we combine dynamic clamp experiments with neural network simulations to understand how tonic GABAA conductance regulates the firing pattern of CA3 interneurons. In baseline conditions, tonic GABAA depolarizes these cells, thus exerting an excitatory action while also reducing the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude through shunting. As a result, the emergence of weak tonic GABAA conductance transforms the interneuron firing pattern driven by individual EPSPs into a more regular spiking mode determined by the cell intrinsic properties. The increased regularity of spiking parallels stronger synchronization of the local network. With further increases in tonic GABAA conductance the shunting inhibition starts to dominate over excitatory actions and thus moderates interneuronal firing. The remaining spikes tend to follow the timing of suprathreshold EPSPs and thus become less regular again. The latter parallels a weakening in network synchronization. Thus, our observations suggest that tonic GABAA conductance can bidirectionally control brain rhythms through changes in the excitability of interneurons and in the temporal structure of their firing patterns. PMID:24344272

  2. A Review of Herbal Medicine in Iranian Traditional Manuscripts for Treatment of Participatory Gastric Headache

    PubMed Central

    Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Yousefi, Gholamhossein; Hamedi, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Participatory gastric headache is a type of headache described in Iranian traditional medicine. It is defined as a headache not originated from the head and neck disorders; rather the pain in the head is caused by gastric dysfunction and its disorders. Treatment of this type of headache is completely reliant on the treatment of the gastric complaint. Reviewing Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) literature, a broad spectrum of herbal medicines that could be useful in the treatment of this type of headache is described. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the therapeutic management of this disorder in ITM and evaluating related characteristics of each medicinal herb. Methods: In this study, medicinal plants prescribed for gastric headache from different ancient Iranian literature is documented. The botanical name, family name, part used, temperaments, rout of administration and dosage forms are provided in this article. Results: About 40 plants, mainly used orally, were prescribed for the treatment of participatory gastric headache. Most of them have the astringent effect, which is related to their dryness temperament. Therefore, they could strengthen the stomach and prevent ascending vapors into the brain that in turn helps to get relief from headache. In addition, they possess reinforcement effect on the brain. Conclusion: In general, herbal medicines with tonic characteristics could be effective in participatory gastric headache. PMID:27516651

  3. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the

  4. Assessment of sub-chronic, hematological and histopathological toxicities of a herbal combination.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shadab; Khan, Rafeeq Alam; Feroz, Zeeshan

    2015-11-01

    The herbal combination under study consists of Withania somnifera, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Argyria speciosa. Present study is mainly designed to investigate the gross physical, sub-chronic, hematological and histopathological effects of the combination widely used for its stimulating, revitalizing and fertility boosting effects in Pakistan. Sub-chronic, hematological and histopathological outcomes of herbal combination were assessed on 27 albino rabbits weighing from 1000 gm-1500 gm after giving herbal combination for 60 days in two doses 27 and 81 mg/kg against control. No significant toxicity was revealed during the entire period of study, however some biochemical changes were observed in kidney and liver but these changes did not coincide with histopathological findings. There was no mortality and evidence of systemic toxicity including hematological toxicity following 60 days administration of herbal combination. Results of present study suggest that further studies are required on large number of animals before reaching to a definite conclusion, more over clinical studies should also be conducted to confirm the possible toxic effects of the herbal combination. PMID:26639483

  5. Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies.

    PubMed

    Klepser, T B; Klepser, M E

    1999-01-15

    Unsafe and potentially safe herbal therapies are discussed. The use of herbal therapies is on the rise in the United States, but most pharmacists are not adequately prepared educationally to meet patients' requests for information on herbal products. Pharmacists must also cope with an environment in which there is relatively little regulation of herbal therapies by FDA. Many herbs have been identified as unsafe, including borage, calamus, coltsfoot, comfrey, life root, sassafras, chaparral, germander, licorice, and ma huang. Potentially safe herbs include feverfew, garlic, ginkgo, Asian ginseng, saw palmetto, St. John's wort, and valerian. Clinical trials have been used to evaluate feverfew for migraine prevention and rheumatoid arthritis; garlic for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and infections; ginkgo for circulatory disturbances and dementia; ginseng for fatigue and cancer prevention; and saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Also studied in formal trials have been St. John's wort for depression and valerian for insomnia. The clinical trial results are suggestive of efficacy of some herbal therapies for some conditions. German Commission E, a regulatory body that evaluates the safety and efficacy of herbs on the basis of clinical trials, cases, and other scientific literature, has established indications and dosage recommendations for many herbal therapies. Pharmacists have a responsibility to educate themselves about herbal therapies in order to help patients discern the facts from the fiction, avoid harm, and gain what benefits may be available. PMID:10030529

  6. Herbal medicines--what do clinicians know?

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    In 1986, DTB published an article called Herbal medicines - safe and effective?, which discussed some of the issues around the availability, safety and efficacy of such treatments.1 We highlighted how the failure of orthodox medicines to cure, and anxiety about their potentially serious unwanted effects, had led some people to turn to herbal medicines for treatment for chronic and disabling conditions often in the belief, that natural medicines must be intrinsically safe. The article concluded by discussing the potential problems associated with herbal medicines and the role that doctors should play in asking about patients' use of such products. Revisiting these themes, here we present an overview of the results of an online survey conducted among DTB readers to explore four key issues: What do healthcare professionals know about herbal medicines? What challenges (if any) does patients' use of herbal medicines raise for healthcare professionals? What awareness do healthcare professionals have about the regulatory arrangements for herbal medicines? What sources of information (if any) do healthcare professionals use to inform themselves about herbal medicines? PMID:20392781

  7. Emerging Trends of Herbal Care in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md.; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal ‘renaissance’ is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  8. Emerging trends of herbal care in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gunjan; Jalaluddin, Md; Rout, Purnendu; Mohanty, Rajat; Dileep, C L

    2013-08-01

    Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal 'renaissance' is happening all over the globe. The herbal products, today, symbolize safety, in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to humans and the environment. A herb, botanically speaking, is any plant that lacks the woody tissue which is characteristic of shrubs or trees. More specifically, herbs are plants which are used medicinally or for their flavour or scent. Herbs with medicinal properties are a useful and an effective source of treatment for various disease processes. Herbal extracts have been successfully used in dentistry as tooth cleaning and antimicrobial plaque agents. The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across the world. Many people take herbal medicines or herbal products now for their health care in different national healthcare settings. Herbal extracts have been used in dentistry for reducing inflammation, as antimicrobial plaque agents, for preventing release of histamine and as antiseptics, antioxidants, antimicrobials, antifungals, antibacterials, antivirals and analgesics. They also aid in healing and are effective in controlling microbial plaque in gingivitis and periodontitis, thereby improving immunity. PMID:24086929

  9. Insulation for Daydreams: A Role for Tonic Norepinephrine in the Facilitation of Internally Guided Thought

    PubMed Central

    Smallwood, Jonathan; Brown, Kevin S.; Baird, Benjamin; Mrazek, Michael D.; Franklin, Michael S.; Schooler, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Although consciousness can be brought to bear on both perceptual and internally generated information, little is known about how these different cognitive modes are coordinated. Here we show that between-participant variance in thoughts unrelated to the task being performed (known as task unrelated thought, TUT) is associated with longer response times (RT) when target presentation occurs during periods when baseline Pupil Diameter (PD) is increased. As behavioral interference due to high baseline PD can reflect increased tonic activity in the norepinephrine system (NE), these results might implicate high tonic NE activity in the facilitation of TUTs. Based on these findings, it is hypothesised that high tonic mode NE leads to a generalised de-amplification of task relevant information that prioritses internally generated thought and insulates it from the potentially disruptive events taking place in the external environment. PMID:22493672

  10. Neurosteroids increase tonic GABAergic inhibition in the lateral section of the central amygdala in mice

    PubMed Central

    Blaesse, P.; Sosulina, L.; Pape, H.-C.

    2015-01-01

    Neurosteroids are formed de novo in the brain and can modulate both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. Recent evidence suggests that the anxiolytic effects of neurosteroids are mediated by the amygdala, a key structure for emotional and cognitive behaviors. Tonic inhibitory signaling via extrasynaptic type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAARs) is known to be crucially involved in regulating network activity in various brain regions including subdivisions of the amygdala. Here we provide evidence for the existence of tonic GABAergic inhibition generated by the activation of δ-subunit-containing GABAARs in neurons of the lateral section of the mouse central amygdala (CeAl). Furthermore, we show that neurosteroids play an important role in the modulation of tonic GABAergic inhibition in the CeAl. Taken together, these findings provide new mechanistic insights into the effects of pharmacologically relevant neurosteroids in the amygdala and might be extrapolated to the regulation of anxiety. PMID:25787948

  11. Protein kinase C regulates tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition in the hippocampus and thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Bright, Damian P; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    Tonic inhibition mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) is an important regulator of neuronal excitability. Phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) provides a key mode of regulation for synaptic GABAARs underlying phasic inhibition; however, less attention has been focused on the plasticity of tonic inhibition and whether this can also be modulated by receptor phosphorylation. To address this issue, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording in acute murine brain slices at both room and physiological temperatures to examine the effects of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on tonic inhibition. Recordings from dentate gyrus granule cells in the hippocampus and dorsal lateral geniculate relay neurons in the thalamus demonstrated that PKC activation caused downregulation of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. Conversely, inhibition of PKC resulted in an increase in tonic GABAAR activity. These findings were corroborated by experiments on human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing recombinant α4β2δ GABAARs, which represent a key extrasynaptic GABAAR isoform in the hippocampus and thalamus. Using bath application of low GABA concentrations to mimic activation by ambient neurotransmitter, we demonstrated a similar inhibition of receptor function following PKC activation at physiological temperature. Live cell imaging revealed that this was correlated with a loss of cell surface GABAARs. The inhibitory effects of PKC activation on α4β2δ GABAAR activity appeared to be mediated by direct phosphorylation at a previously identified site on the β2 subunit, serine 410. These results indicate that PKC-mediated phosphorylation can be an important physiological regulator of tonic GABAAR-mediated inhibition. PMID:24102973

  12. Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Kosalec, Ivan; Cvek, Josipa; Tomić, Sinisa

    2009-12-01

    Medicinal plants have a long history of use in therapy throughout the world and still make an important part of traditional medicine. Thus, medicinal plants and herbal products must be safe for the patient (consumer). This review addresses biological contaminants (microbes and other organisms) and chemical contaminants (mycotoxins, toxic elements such as heavy metals, and pesticide residues) as major common contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. To prevent and screen for contamination and ensure safety and conformity to quality standards, medicinal herbs and herbal products should be included in appropriate regulatory framework. PMID:20061249

  13. Painful tonic spasms and brainstem involvement in a patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Roman-Filip, Corina; Ungureanu, Aurelian; Cernuşcă-Miţaru, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system classically characterized by optic neuritis and severe myelitis. New diagnostic criteria defined neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder as limited forms of NMO or diverse neurologic presentations in the presence of specific antiaquaporin-4 antibodies. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman admitted in our department for recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, tetraparesis with severe painful tonic spasms of the left limbs and brainstem involvement. Painful tonic spasms have been described as movement disorders associated with multiple sclerosis, but a growing number of reports describe them in cases of NMO. PMID:26851692

  14. Herbal haemorrhoidal cream for haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Gurel, Ebru; Ustunova, Savas; Ergin, Bulent; Tan, Nur; Caner, Metin; Tortum, Osman; Demirci-Tansel, Cihan

    2013-10-31

    Although hemorrhoids are one of the most common diseases in the world, the exact etiology underlying the development of hemorrhoids is not clear. Many different ointments are currently used to treat hemorrhoids; however, there is little evidence of the efficacy of these treatments to support their use. The aim of this study was to compare different herbal creams used for the treatment of hemorrhoids. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats, 6-8 weeks old and weighing 160-180 g, were used in this study as 1-control, 2-croton oil, 3-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks and 4-croton oil+fig leaves+artichoke leaves+walnut husks+horse chestnut fruit. After 3 days of croton oil application, rats were treated with 0.1 ml of cream or saline twice a day for 15 days by syringe. Tissue and blood samples were collected for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Statistical significance was determined using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's multiple comparison tests. Croton oil administration resulted in severe inflammation. The third group showed partial improvement in inflammation; however, the greatest degree of improvement was seen in the fourth group, and some recovered areas were observed. Myeloperoxidase immunoreactivity was found to be decreased in the third and fourth groups compared to the second group. Additionally, biochemical analyses (Myeloperoxidase, Malondyaldehyde, nitrate/nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels and Superoxide Dismutase activity) were in agreement with the histological and immunohistochemical results. In conclusion, croton oil causes inflammation in the anal area and results in hemorrhoids. Treatment with our herbal hemorrhoid creams demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects in this model. PMID:24032710

  15. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  16. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future. PMID:27570425

  17. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  18. Herbal Supplements and Hepatotoxicity: A Short Review.

    PubMed

    Haslan, Haszianaliza; Suhaimi, Farihah Haji; Das, Srijit

    2015-10-01

    Herbal products have gained popularity over the past few decades. The reasons attributed to the rise in popularity are cheaper costs, easy availability, patient compliance and fewer side effects. However, liver toxicity following consumption of herbal remedies is on the increase. Thus, there is an urgent need to understand the mechanism of action of the herbal supplements on the liver. Occasionally, herbal supplements may also interact with conventional drugs. The present review focusses on a few herbs such as Aloe barbadensis, Atractylis gummifera, Centella asiatica, Mitragyna speciosa, Morinda citrifolia, Larea tridentata, Symphytum officinale, Teucrium chamaedrys and Xanthium strumarium, which are reported to cause hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. Prior knowledge on hepatotoxicity caused by herbs may be beneficial for clinicians and medical practitioners. PMID:26669124

  19. The GABAA antagonist DPP-4-PIOL selectively antagonises tonic over phasic GABAergic currents in dentate gyrus granule cells.

    PubMed

    Boddum, Kim; Frølund, Bente; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2014-11-01

    GABAA receptors mediate two different types of inhibitory currents: phasic inhibitory currents when rapid and brief presynaptic GABA release activates postsynaptic GABAA receptors and tonic inhibitory currents generated by low extrasynaptic GABA levels, persistently activating extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. The two inhibitory current types are mediated by different subpopulations of GABAA receptors with diverse pharmacological profiles. Selective antagonism of tonic currents is of special interest as excessive tonic inhibition post-stroke has severe pathological consequences. Here we demonstrate that phasic and tonic GABAA receptor currents can be selectively inhibited by the antagonists SR 95531 and the 4-PIOL derivative, 4-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)-5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol hydrobromide (DPP-4-PIOL), respectively. In dentate gyrus granule cells, SR 95531 was found approximately 4 times as potent inhibiting phasic currents compared to tonic currents (IC50 values: 101 vs. 427 nM). Conversely, DPP-4-PIOL was estimated to be more than 20 times as potent inhibiting tonic current compared to phasic current (IC50 values: 0.87 vs. 21.3 nM). Consequently, we were able to impose a pronounced reduction in tonic GABA mediated current (>70 %) by concentrations of DPP-4-PIOL, at which no significant effect on the phasic current was seen. Our findings demonstrate that selective inhibition of GABA mediated tonic current is possible, when targeting a subpopulation of GABAA receptors located extrasynaptically using the antagonist, DPP-4-PIOL. PMID:25103229

  20. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Extemporaneously Prepared Herbal Mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Dua, Kamal; Sheshala, Ravi; Al-Waeli, Haider A; Gupta, Gauarv; Chellappan, Dinesh K

    2015-01-01

    Natural products like plants and its components have been in use for treatment and cure of diseases all around the globe from ancient times much before the discovery of the current modern drugs. These substances from the nature are well known to contain components which have therapeutic properties and can also behave as precursors for the synthesis of potential drugs. The beneficial results from herbal drugs are well reported where their popularity in usage has increased across the globe. Subsequently developing countries are now recognizing the many positive advantages from their use which has engaged the expansion of R & D from herbal research. The flow on effect from this expansion has increased the awareness to develop new herbal products and the processes, throughout the entire world. Mouth washes and mouth rinses which have plant oils, plant components or extracts have generated particular attention. High prevalence of gingival inflammation and periodontal diseases, suggests majority of the patients practice inadequate plaque control. Of the currently available mouthwashes in the market, Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) has been investigated on a larger scale with much detail. CHX is associated with side effects like staining of teeth when used daily as well as the bitter taste of the mouthwash which leads to patient incompliance. The present research encompasses the antibacterial activity of extemporaneously prepared herbal mouthwash using natural herbs and therefore allows for the potential commercialization with in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Also, the present research article reviewed details of various existing patents of herbal mouthwashes which shows the trend of existing market and significance of emerging mouthwashes in both pharmaceutical and herbal industries. The antimicrobial activity of prepared mouthwashes was found to be effective against various strains of bacteria. It also suggests that the prepared herbal mouthwashes may provide

  1. Herbal Medicine for Anxiety, Depression and Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Changhong; Wang, Yicun; Wang, Pu; Li, Yuxin; Li, Bingjin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety and insomnia are very common. These well-known forms of psychiatric disorders have been affecting many people from all around the world. Herb alone, as well as herbal formula, is commonly prescribed for the therapies of mental illnesses. Since various adverse events of western medication exist, the number of people who use herbs to benefit their health is increasing. Over the past decades, the exploration in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has received much attention. Literatures showed a variety of herbal mechanisms of action used for the therapy of depression, anxiety and insomnia, involving re-uptake of monoamines, affecting neuroreceptor binding and channel transporter activity, modulating neuronal communication or hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) etc. Nonetheless, a systematic review on herbal pharmacology in depression, anxiety and insomnia is still lacking. This review has been performed to further identify modes of action of different herbal medicine, and thus provides useful information for the application of herbal medicine. PMID:26412068

  2. Herbal Medicines: Malaysian Women's Knowledge and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim Sooi, Law

    2013-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study among Malay women admitted in the antenatal and postnatal ward to determine the prevalence and use of herbal medicines during pregnancy and elemental analysis in the most popular herbs. A total of 460 women were surveyed. Herbal medicine use during pregnancy was 34.3%, while 73% utilized herbal medicines during labor, because of a belief that it may shorten and ease labor. The most commonly used herbal medicines in pregnancy were Anastatica hierochuntica L. (60.1%) followed by coconut oil (35.4%). The majority of women (89.2%) used only one type of herbal medicines and took one capsule/glass (38%) per day. Herbal medicines use by pregnant women is largely unsupervised (81%), with most women getting information from their parents (60.7%) and buying the products directly from traditional midwives (32.2%) and 77% agreed upon its efficacy and safety. From the 460 respondents, 89.8% women were in the low end of the herbs knowledge. There was a significant difference found between knowledge score and income (P < 0.05). Microdiffraction analysis revealed significant presence of carbon, oxygen, silica, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, potassium, zinc, and iron that were found in Anastatica hierochuntica L. and proved to have good benefits for pregnancy. PMID:24093047

  3. Tonic Firing Rate Controls Dendritic Ca2+ Signaling and Synaptic Gain in Substantia Nigra Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Travis A.

    2015-01-01

    Substantia nigra dopamine neurons fire tonically resulting in action potential backpropagation and dendritic Ca2+ influx. Using Ca2+ imaging in acute mouse brain slices, we find a surprisingly steep relationship between tonic firing rate and dendritic Ca2+. Increasing the tonic rate from 1 to 6 Hz generated Ca2+ signals up to fivefold greater than predicted by linear summation of single spike-evoked Ca2+-transients. This “Ca2+ supralinearity” was produced largely by depolarization of the interspike voltage leading to activation of subthreshold Ca2+ channels and was present throughout the proximal and distal dendrites. Two-photon glutamate uncaging experiments show somatic depolarization enhances NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ signals >400 μm distal to the soma, due to unusually tight electrotonic coupling of the soma to distal dendrites. Consequently, we find that fast tonic firing intensifies synaptically driven burst firing output in dopamine neurons. These results show that modulation of background firing rate precisely tunes dendritic Ca2+ signaling and provides a simple yet powerful mechanism to dynamically regulate the gain of synaptic input. PMID:25855191

  4. Human high frequency somatosensory evoked potential components are refractory to circadian modulations of tonic alertness.

    PubMed

    Gobbelé, René; Waberski, Till D; Thyerlei, Dinah; Thissen, Melanie; Fimm, Bruno; Klostermann, Fabian; Curio, Gabriel; Buchner, Helmut

    2007-02-01

    The impact of vigilance states, such as sleep or arousal changes, on the high-frequency (600 Hz) components (HFOs) of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) is known. The present study sought to characterize the effects of circadian fluctuations of tonic alertness on HFOs in awake humans. Median nerve SEPs were recorded at four times during a 24-hour waking period. In parallel to the SEP recordings, a reaction-time (RT) task was performed to assess tonic alertness. Additionally, the spontaneous EEG was monitored. The low-frequency SEP component N20 and the early and late HFO parts did not change across the measurement sessions. In contrast, RTs were clearly prolonged at night and on the second morning. EEG also showed increased delta power at night. HFOs are sensitive to pronounced vigilance changes, such as sleep, but are refractory to fluctuations of tonic alertness. Tonic alertness is regarded to be the top-down cognitive control mechanism of wakefulness, whereas sleep is mediated by overwhelming bottom-up regulation, which seems apparently more relevant for, at least in part, subcortically triggered high-frequency burst generation in the ascending somatosensory system. PMID:17277574

  5. [Paroxysmal tonic seizures in 2 female black patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    de Sá, J; Coelho, M H

    1991-01-01

    We present the clinical cases of two black patients from the Cabo Verde Islands, in whom Painful Tonic Seizures have been witnessed. In both cases the diagnosis of multiple would be certainly established and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) disclosed the cervical spinal cord lesions that, hypothetically, were responsible for the paroxysmal attacks. PMID:1807096

  6. [Painful tonic seizures in multiple sclerosis. Clinical and electromyographic aspects (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Feijoo de Freixo, M; Jiménez García, M; Martínez Muerza, F; Lunar Domínguez, A

    1981-05-10

    This case report deals with a 29 year-old female patient with a prior history of a vestibular syndrome and elapsing optic neuritis that presented paroxystic episodes of painful tonic contractions affecting the right hemibody, especially the upper limb. In the hand the clinical picture was similar to that of the carpal spasm of tetany. When inducing a crisis with ischemia the electromyogram showed diplets, triplets, and multiplets following the appearance of an interference pattern syncronous with contraction of the hand. Occasionally an interference pattern was observed that was associated only to a subjective sensation of paresthesia. During the crisis and in the intercritical periods the following measurements gave normal results: serum calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, pH, and pCO2. The administration of calcium had no effect on the frequency and intensity of the crisis. The response to carbemazepine was dramatic, with complete cessation of the crisis and disappearance of the spontaneous activity in the electromyogram. Interruption of treatment one year later was followed by relapse of the painful tonic crisis. The importance of certain electromyographic features and the therapeutic response to carbemazepine in the differential diagnosis of painful tonic crisis and tetany are emphasized. The existence of two clinical-electromyographic patterns in painful tonic crisis is pointed out. PMID:7242168

  7. Tonic Immobility in Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors and Its Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Sauder, Colin L.; Martin, Elaine K.; Marx, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that 37% to 52% of sexual assault survivors report experiencing a set of peritraumatic responses, which include gross motor inhibition, analgesia, and fixed or unfocused staring. This response set closely resembles a set of unconditioned responses, collectively known as Tonic Immobility (TI). This study examined TI among…

  8. Disinhibition-induced transitions between absence and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Denggui; Wang, Qingyun; Perc, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological experiments have long revealed the existence of two-way transitions between absence and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures in the cerebral cortex. Based on a modified spatially-extended Taylor & Baier neural field model, we here propose a computational framework to mathematically describe the transition dynamics between these epileptic seizures. We first demonstrate the existence of various transition types that are induced by disinhibitory functions between two inhibitory variables in an isolated Taylor & Baier model. Moreover, we show that these disinhibition-induced transitions can lead to stable tonic-clonic oscillations as well as periodic spike with slow-wave discharges, which are the hallmark of absence seizures. We also observe fascinating dynamical states, such as periodic 2-spike with slow-wave discharges, tonic death, bursting oscillations, as well as saturated firing. Most importantly, we identify paths that represent physiologically plausible transitions between absence and tonic-clonic seizures in the modified spatially-extended Taylor & Baier model. PMID:26224066

  9. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  10. Tonic and phasic drive to medullary respiratory neurons during periodic breathing

    PubMed Central

    Lovering, Andrew T.; Fraigne, Jimmy J.; Dunin-Barkowski, Witali L.; Vidruk, Edward H.; Orem, John M.

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown how central neural activity produces the repetitive termination and restart of periodic breathing (PB). We hypothesized that inspiratory and expiratory neural activities would be greatest during the waxing phase and least during the waning phase. We analyzed diaphragmatic and medullary respiratory neural activities during PB in intact unanesthetized adult cats. Diaphragmatic activity was increased and phasic during the waxing phase and was decreased and tonic during the waning phase. Activity of expiratory (n=21) and inspiratory (n=40) neurons was generally increased and phasic during the waxing phase and was decreased and more tonic during the waning phase. During apneas associated with PB, diaphragmatic activity was silent and most, but not all, inspiratory cells were inactive whereas most expiratory cells decreased activity but remained tonically active. We suggest that reduced strength of reciprocal inhibition, secondary to reduced respiratory drive, allows for simultaneous tonic activity of inspiratory and expiratory neurons of the central pattern generator, ultimately resulting in central apnea. PMID:22484379

  11. Bestrophin1 Channels are Insensitive to Ethanol and Do not Mediate Tonic GABAergic Currents in Cerebellar Granule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Marvin R.; Wadleigh, Aya; Hughes, Benjamin A.; Woodward, John J.; Valenzuela, C. Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The granule cell layer of the cerebellum functions in spatio-temporal encoding of information. Granule cells (GCs) are tonically inhibited by spillover of GABA released from Golgi cells and this tonic inhibition is facilitated by acute ethanol. Recently, it was demonstrated that a specialized Ca2+-activated anion-channel, bestrophin1 (Best1), found on glial cells, can release GABA that contributes up to 50–75% of the tonic GABAergic current. However, it is unknown if ethanol has any actions on Best1 function. Using whole-cell electrophysiology, we found that recombinant Best1 channels expressed in HEK-293 cells were insensitive to 40 and 80 mM ethanol. We attempted to measure the Best1-mediated component of the tonic current in slices using 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB). We confirmed that this agent blocks recombinant Best1 channels. Unexpectedly, we found that NPPB significantly potentiated the tonic current and the area and decay of GABAA-mediated spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GCs in rodent slices under two different recording conditions. To better isolate the Best1-dependent tonic current component, we blocked the Golgi cell component of the tonic current with tetrodotoxin and found that NPPB similarly and significantly potentiated the tonic current amplitude and decay time of miniature IPSCs. Two other Cl−-channel blockers were also tested: 4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid disodium salt hydrate (DIDS) showed no effect on GABAergic transmission, while niflumic acid (NFA) significantly suppressed the tonic current noise, as well as the mIPSC frequency, amplitude, and area. These data suggest that acute ethanol exposure does not modulate Best1 channels and these findings serve to challenge recent data indicating that these channels participate in the generation of tonic GABAergic currents in cerebellar GCs. PMID:22275879

  12. Single-Point but Not Tonic Cuff Pressure Pain Sensitivity Is Associated with Level of Physical Fitness – A Study of Non-Athletic Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lemming, Dag; Börsbo, Björn; Sjörs, Anna; Lind, Eva-Britt; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Gerdle, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is often used for pain rehabilitation but the link between physical activity level and pain sensitivity is still not fully understood. Pressure pain sensitivity to cuff algometry and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated in highly active men (n=22), normally active men (n=26), highly active women (n=27) and normally active women (n=23) based on the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Cuff pressure pain sensitivity was assessed at the arm and lower leg. The subjects scored the pain intensity on an electronic Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) during ten minutes with 25 kPa constant cuff pressure and two minutes with zero pressure. The maximal VAS score and area under the VAS-curve were extracted. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were recorded by manual pressure algometry on the ipsilateral tibialis anterior muscle before, during and after the tonic arm stimulation. Tonic cuff stimulation of the arm and leg resulted in higher VAS peak scores in women compared with men (p<0.04). In all groups the PPTs were reduced during and after the cuff stimulation compared with baseline (p=0.001). PPT were higher in men compared with women (p=0.03) and higher in highly physical active compared with normal active (p=0.048). Besides the well-known gender difference in pressure pain sensitivity this study demonstrates that a high physical fitness degree in non-athletic subjects is associated with increased pressure pain thresholds but does not affect cuff pressure pain sensitivity in healthy people. PMID:25933412

  13. Enhanced GABAA-Mediated Tonic Inhibition in Auditory Thalamus of Rats with Behavioral Evidence of Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Sametsky, Evgeny A.; Turner, Jeremy G.; Larsen, Deb; Ling, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for inhibitory neurotransmitter dysfunction in the pathology of tinnitus. Opposing hypotheses proposed either a pathologic decrease or increase of GABAergic inhibition in medial geniculate body (MGB). In thalamus, GABA mediates fast synaptic inhibition via synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and persistent tonic inhibition via high-affinity extrasynaptic GABAARs. Given that extrasynaptic GABAARs control the firing mode of thalamocortical neurons, we examined tonic GABAAR currents in MGB neurons in vitro, using the following three groups of adult rats: unexposed control (Ctrl); sound exposed with behavioral evidence of tinnitus (Tin); and sound exposed with no behavioral evidence of tinnitus (Non-T). Tonic GABAAR currents were evoked using the selective agonist gaboxadol. Months after a tinnitus-inducing sound exposure, gaboxadol-evoked tonic GABAAR currents showed significant tinnitus-related increases contralateral to the sound exposure. In situ hybridization studies found increased mRNA levels for GABAAR δ-subunits contralateral to the sound exposure. Tin rats showed significant increases in the number of spikes per burst evoked using suprathreshold-injected current steps. In summary, we found little evidence of tinnitus-related decreases in GABAergic neurotransmission. Tinnitus and chronic pain may reflect thalamocortical dysrhythmia, which results from abnormal theta-range resonant interactions between thalamus and cortex, due to neuronal hyperpolarization and the initiation of low-threshold calcium spike bursts (Walton and Llinás, 2010). In agreement with this hypothesis, we found tinnitus-related increases in tonic extrasynaptic GABAAR currents, in action potentials/evoked bursts, and in GABAAR δ-subunit gene expression. These tinnitus-related changes in GABAergic function may be markers for tinnitus pathology in the MGB. PMID:26109660

  14. Tonic dopamine induces persistent changes in the transient potassium current through translational regulation.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Edmund W; Krenz, Wulf-Dieter C; Baro, Deborah J

    2011-09-14

    Neuromodulatory effects can vary with their mode of transmission. Phasic release produces local and transient increases in dopamine (DA) up to micromolar concentrations. Additionally, since DA is released from open synapses and reuptake mechanisms are not nearby, tonic nanomolar DA exists in the extracellular space. Do phasic and tonic transmissions similarly regulate voltage-dependent ionic conductances in a given neuron? It was previously shown that DA could immediately alter the transient potassium current (I(A)) of identified neurons in the stomatogastric ganglion of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. Here we show that DA can also persistently alter I(A), and that the immediate and persistent effects of DA oppose one another. The lateral pyloric (LP) neuron exclusively expresses type 1 DA receptors (D1Rs). Micromolar DA produces immediate depolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of LP I(A), whereas tonic nanomolar DA produces a persistent increase in LP I(A) maximal conductance (G(max)) through a translation-dependent mechanism involving target of rapamycin (TOR). The pyloric dilator (PD) neuron exclusively expresses D2Rs. Micromolar DA produces an immediate hyperpolarizing shift in PD I(A) voltage dependence of activation, whereas tonic DA persistently decreases PD I(A) G(max) through a translation-dependent mechanism not involving TOR. The persistent effects on I(A) G(max) do not depend on LP or PD activity. These data suggest a role for tonic modulators in the regulation of voltage-gated ion channel number; and furthermore, that dopaminergic systems may be organized to limit the amount of change they can impose on a circuit. PMID:21917788

  15. Tonic and phasic co-variation of peripheral arousal indices in infants

    PubMed Central

    Wass, S.V.; de Barbaro, K.; Clackson, K.

    2015-01-01

    Tonic and phasic differences in peripheral autonomic nervous system (ANS) indicators strongly predict differences in attention and emotion regulation in developmental populations. However, virtually all previous research has been based on individual ANS measures, which poses a variety of conceptual and methodlogical challenges to comparing results across studies. Here we recorded heart rate, electrodermal activity (EDA), pupil size, head movement velocity and peripheral accelerometry concurrently while a cohort of 37 typical 12-month-old infants completed a mixed assessment battery lasting approximately 20 min per participant. We analysed covariation of these autonomic indices in three ways: first, tonic (baseline) arousal; second, co-variation in spontaneous (phasic) changes during testing; third, phasic co-variation relative to an external stimulus event. We found that heart rate, head velocity and peripheral accelerometry showed strong positive co-variation across all three analyses. EDA showed no co-variation in tonic activity levels but did show phasic positive co-variation with other measures, that appeared limited to sections of high but not low general arousal. Tonic pupil size showed significant positive covariation, but phasic pupil changes were inconsistent. We conclude that: (i) there is high covariation between autonomic indices in infants, but that EDA may only be sensitive at extreme arousal levels, (ii) that tonic pupil size covaries with other indices, but does not show predicted patterns of phasic change and (iii) that motor activity appears to be a good proxy measure of ANS activity. The strongest patterns of covariation were observed using epoch durations of 40 s per epoch, although significant covariation between indices was also observed using shorter epochs (1 and 5 s). PMID:26316360

  16. Cortical oscillatory dynamics and benzodiazepine-site modulation of tonic inhibition in fast spiking interneurons.

    PubMed

    Prokic, Emma J; Weston, Cathryn; Yamawaki, Naoki; Hall, Stephen D; Jones, Roland S G; Stanford, Ian M; Ladds, Graham; Woodhall, Gavin L

    2015-08-01

    Tonic conductance mediated by extrasynaptic GABAA receptors has been implicated in the modulation of network oscillatory activity. Using an in vitro brain slice to produce oscillatory activity and a kinetic model of GABAA receptor dynamics, we show that changes in tonic inhibitory input to fast spiking interneurons underlie benzodiazepine-site mediated modulation of neuronal network synchrony in rat primary motor cortex. We found that low concentrations (10 nM) of the benzodiazepine site agonist, zolpidem, reduced the power of pharmacologically-induced beta-frequency (15-30 Hz) oscillatory activity. By contrast, higher doses augmented beta power. Application of the antagonist, flumazenil, also increased beta power suggesting endogenous modulation of the benzodiazepine binding site. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed that pharmacologically-induced rhythmic inhibitory postsynaptic currents were reduced by 10 nM zolpidem, suggesting an action on inhibitory interneurons. Further voltage-clamp studies of fast spiking cells showed that 10 nM zolpidem augmented a tonic inhibitory GABAA receptor mediated current in fast spiking cells whilst higher concentrations of zolpidem reduced the tonic current. A kinetic model of zolpidem-sensitive GABAA receptors suggested that incubation with 10 nM zolpidem resulted in a high proportion of GABAA receptors locked in a kinetically slow desensitized state whilst 30 nM zolpidem favoured rapid transition into and out of desensitized states. This was confirmed experimentally using a challenge with saturating concentrations of GABA. Selective modulation of an interneuron-specific tonic current may underlie the reversal of cognitive and motor deficits afforded by low-dose zolpidem in neuropathological states. PMID:25797493

  17. Herbal medicine, what physicians need to know.

    PubMed

    Simaan, Joseph A

    2009-01-01

    Herbal medicine, the most major component of traditional medicine, is as old as recorded history. Beginning in the early 1800s, with the development in the science of chemistry, a new era in pharmacotherapeutics was initiated whereby active chemical ingredients in plants, historically known to produce a favorable therapeutic effect, were extracted, purified and their structure disclosed. This ushered the modern era of therapy with drugs based on exploration of pure chemical products as to chemical identity, physicochemical properties, pharmacodynamic actions, pharmacokinetic behavior in the biological system, toxicological profile and effective and safe application in therapy. This relegated herbal medicine to a secondary role. More recently, a revival in the use of herbal medicine has been witnessed, even in culturally advanced societies, probably enhanced by the false belief that natural products are safe and also by vigorous promotion. Parallel to the increase in the use of herbal preparations as remedies for major diseases, there is currently a growing concern about their efficacy, safety and control. This prompted the World Health Organization to come out with recommendations for control in the document "Research Guidelines for Evaluating the Safety and Efficacy of Herbal Medicines" in 1993. The guidelines are equal in strictness to those applicable for drugs in general. A large number of member states have adopted these guidelines. The dangers in using herbal preparations for treatment include: * unproven therapeutic benefit * undisclosed toxicities * interaction of the chemicals in herbal preparations with each other and with concomitantly taken drugs, at the level of functionally important biological entities such as the plasma proteins, receptors, ion channels, transporters and others * incompatibilities with patient-related factors such as age, sex, genetic background and the function of the organs responsible for eliminating the effects of chemicals in

  18. Abatement of morphine-induced slowing in gastrointestinal transit by Dai-kenchu-to, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tomonori; Sakai, Akiko; Isogami, Issei; Noda, Kazuhiro; Ueno, Koichi; Yano, Shingo

    2002-02-01

    As a way of alleviating severe constipation in cancer patients taking morphine to relieve pain, effects of Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine (Kampo medicine), on gastrointestinal transit in mice or on the isolated guinea pig ileum were studied in special reference to morphine. Without altering the anti-nociceptive effect of morphine, DKT was significantly effective against morphine-induced disorder of gastrointestinal transit in mice as assessed by the charcoal meal test for the intestine and measurement of transit time for the colon tract. The results of in vitro studies with guinea pig ileum suggest that abatement of morphine-induced disorder of transit by DKT is caused by both moderate contraction of morphine-treated longitudinal muscle and relaxation of morphine-induced tonic contraction of circular muscle. PMID:11928724

  19. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  20. Peritraumatic Tonic Immobility and Trauma-Related Symptoms in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Posttrauma Cognitions.

    PubMed

    Van Buren, Brian R; Weierich, Mariann R

    2015-01-01

    Tonic immobility is a set of involuntary motor responses elicited under conditions of extreme fear and perceived inescapability, and it is one type of peritraumatic distress reported by survivors of child sexual abuse. Experiencing tonic immobility during child sexual abuse is associated with increased risk for developing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, although less is known about relations between tonic immobility and other established risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder. We investigated posttraumatic cognitions as a potential mediator of the relations between peritraumatic fear, perceptions of inescapability, tonic immobility, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Specifically, we tested posttraumatic negative beliefs about the self, the world, and self-blame as pathways that might increase risk for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in child sexual abuse survivors who had experienced tonic immobility. Forty-six women with a history of unwanted childhood sexual contact completed questionnaires measuring peritraumatic tonic immobility, posttraumatic cognitions, and current posttraumatic stress symptoms. Negative beliefs about the self independently mediated the relation between peritraumatic perceptions of inescapability and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but the data did not support similar path model for the physical symptoms of tonic immobility and post-traumatic stress disorder. We discuss ways in which treatment of survivors and future research on CSA can benefit from attention to the impact of peritraumatic distress on posttraumatic beliefs. PMID:26701284

  1. Spinal 5-HT-receptors and tonic modulation of transmission through a withdrawal reflex pathway in the decerebrated rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, R. W.; Harris, J.; Houghton, A. K.

    1996-01-01

    1. In decerebrated, non-spinalized rabbits, intrathecal administration of either of the selective 5-HT1A-receptor antagonists (S)WAY-100135 or WAY-100635 resulted in dose-dependent enhancement of the reflex responses of gastrocnemius motoneurones evoked by electrical stimulation of all myelinated afferents of the sural nerve. The approximate ED50 for WAY-100635 was 0.9 nmol and that for (S)WAY-100135 13 nmol. Intrathecal doses of the antagonists which caused maximal facilitation of reflexes in non-spinalized rabbits had no effect in spinalized preparations. 2. In non-spinalized animals, intravenous administration of (S)WAY-100135 was significantly less effective in enhancing reflexes than when it was given by the intrathecal route. 3. When given intrathecally, the selective 5-HT 2A/2C-receptor antagonist, ICI 170,809, produced a bellshaped dose-effect curve, augmenting reflexes at low doses (< or = 44 nmol), but reducing them at higher doses (982 nmol). Idazoxan, the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, was less effective in enhancing reflex responses when given intrathecally after ICI 170,809 compared to when it was given alone. Intravenous ICI 170,809 resulted only in enhancement of reflexes and the facilitatory effects of subsequent intrathecal administration of idazoxan were not compromised. 4. The selective 5-HT3-receptor blocker ondansetron faciliated gastrocnemius medialis reflex responses in a dose-related manner when given by either intrathecal or intravenous routes. This drug was slightly more potent when given i.v. and it did not alter the efficacy of subsequent intrathecal administration of idazoxan. 5. None of the antagonists had any consistent effects on arterial blood pressure or heart rate. 6. These data are consistent with the idea that, in the decrebrated rabbit, 5-HT released from descending axons has multiple roles in controlling transmission through the sural-gastrocnemius medialis reflex pathway. Thus, it appears 5-HT tonically inhibits

  2. Endogenous galectin-1 exerts tonic inhibition on experimental arthritis.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Asif J; Cooper, Dianne; Vugler, Alexander; Gittens, Beatrice R; Moore, Adrian; Perretti, Mauro

    2013-07-01

    Little is known about the role(s) of endogenous galectin-1 (Gal-1) in arthritis. In this study we queried whether antiarthritic functions for this effector of endogenous anti-inflammation could be unveiled by studying collagen-induced arthritis in Gal-1(-/-) mice. Gal-1(-/-) and C57BL/6J [wild-type (WT)] mice received an immunization of chicken type II collagen (CII) in CFA followed by a booster on day 21, which consisted of CII in IFA. Animals were monitored for signs of arthritis from day 14 onward. Clinical and histological signs of arthritis were recorded, and humoral and cellular immune responses against CII were analyzed. A distinct disease penetrance was apparent, with ~ 70% of Gal-1(-/-) mice developing arthritis compared with ~ 50% in WT animals. Gal-1(-/-) mice also exhibited an accelerated disease onset and more severe arthritis characterized by significantly elevated clinical scores. Postmortem analyses (day 42) revealed higher levels of IgG1 and IgG2b anti-CII Ig isotypes in the serum of Gal-1 null animals compared with WT. Finally, T cell responses following ex vivo stimulation with CII revealed a greater degree of proliferation in T cells of Gal-1(-/-) mice compared with WT, which was associated with increased production of IL-17 and IL-22. These data suggest the novel idea that endogenous Gal-1 is an inhibitory factor in the development of arthritis affecting disease severity. We have also highlighted the importance of endogenous Gal-1 in regulating T cell reactivity during experimental arthritis. PMID:23720814

  3. Herbal Medicines and Epilepsy: The Potential for Benefit and Adverse Effects.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Marcello

    2001-12-01

    The widespread availability and use of herbal medicines raise the potential for adverse effects in the epilepsy population. Herbal sedatives (kava, valerian, chamomile, passionflower) may potentiate the effects of antiepileptic medications, increasing their sedative and cognitive effects. Despite some antiseizure effects in animal models, they should not be used in place of standard seizure medications because efficacy has not been established. Anecdotal, uncontrolled observations suggest that herbal stimulants containing ephedrine (ephedra or ma huang) and caffeine (cocoa, coffee, tea, maté, guarana, cola or kola) can exacerbate seizures in people with epilepsy, especially when taken in combination. Ginkgo and ginseng may also exacerbate seizures although the evidence for this is similarly anecdotal and uncertain. St. John's wort has the potential to alter medication pharmacokinetics and the seizure threshold. The essential oils of many plants contain epileptogenic compounds. There is mixed evidence for evening primrose and borage lowering the seizure threshold. Education of both health care providers and patients is the best way to avoid unintentional and unnecessary adverse reactions to herbal medicines. PMID:12609386

  4. Peripheral chemoreceptors tune inspiratory drive via tonic expiratory neuron hubs in the medullary ventral respiratory column network.

    PubMed

    Segers, L S; Nuding, S C; Ott, M M; Dean, J B; Bolser, D C; O'Connor, R; Morris, K F; Lindsey, B G

    2015-01-01

    Models of brain stem ventral respiratory column (VRC) circuits typically emphasize populations of neurons, each active during a particular phase of the respiratory cycle. We have proposed that "tonic" pericolumnar expiratory (t-E) neurons tune breathing during baroreceptor-evoked reductions and central chemoreceptor-evoked enhancements of inspiratory (I) drive. The aims of this study were to further characterize the coordinated activity of t-E neurons and test the hypothesis that peripheral chemoreceptors also modulate drive via inhibition of t-E neurons and disinhibition of their inspiratory neuron targets. Spike trains of 828 VRC neurons were acquired by multielectrode arrays along with phrenic nerve signals from 22 decerebrate, vagotomized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated adult cats. Forty-eight of 191 t-E neurons fired synchronously with another t-E neuron as indicated by cross-correlogram central peaks; 32 of the 39 synchronous pairs were elements of groups with mutual pairwise correlations. Gravitational clustering identified fluctuations in t-E neuron synchrony. A network model supported the prediction that inhibitory populations with spike synchrony reduce target neuron firing probabilities, resulting in offset or central correlogram troughs. In five animals, stimulation of carotid chemoreceptors evoked changes in the firing rates of 179 of 240 neurons. Thirty-two neuron pairs had correlogram troughs consistent with convergent and divergent t-E inhibition of I cells and disinhibitory enhancement of drive. Four of 10 t-E neurons that responded to sequential stimulation of peripheral and central chemoreceptors triggered 25 cross-correlograms with offset features. The results support the hypothesis that multiple afferent systems dynamically tune inspiratory drive in part via coordinated t-E neurons. PMID:25343784

  5. The population firing rate in the presence of GABAergic tonic inhibition in single neurons and application to general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hutt, Axel

    2012-06-01

    Tonic inhibition has been found experimentally in single neurons and affects the activity of neural populations. This kind of inhibition is supposed to set the background or resting level of neural activity and plays a role in the brains arousal system, e.g. during general anaesthesia. The work shows how to involve tonic inhibition in population rate-coding models by deriving a novel transfer function. The analytical and numerical study of the novel transfer function reveals the impact of tonic inhibition on the population firing rate. Finally, a first application to a recent neural field model for general anaesthesia discusses the origin of the loss of consciousness during anaesthesia. PMID:23730354

  6. Relationship between the tonic elevator mandibular activity and the vertical dimension during the states of vigilance and hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Manns, A; Zuazola, R V; Sirhan, R M; Quiroz, M; Rocabado, M

    1990-04-01

    The variation of the tonic EMG elevator mandibular activity was studied as well as the consequent variation of the vertical dimension in two different experimental states: those of vigilance and hypnosis. In the state of vigilance, normal values of tonic EMG activity were recorded and a space of inocclusion (X = 2.22 mm) coincident with the postural mandibular position. Under hypnosis a significant reduction of the tonic EMG activity was observed (43 to 50%), together with a great increase of the inocclusion space (X = 8.90 mm). PMID:2073696

  7. Use of herbal supplements for overactive bladder.

    PubMed

    Chughtai, Bilal; Kavaler, Elizabeth; Lee, Richard; Te, Alexis; Kaplan, Steven A; Lowe, Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Anticholinergics, specifically antimuscarinic agents, are the most common medications prescribed for overactive bladder (OAB). The most common side effects of these agents are dry mouth and constipation, although other more concerning effects include changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, or heart rhythm when treatment is initiated. Herbal treatments are an increasingly popular alternative for treating OAB. A 2002 survey of US adults aged ≥ 18 years conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicated that 74.6% of those with OAB had used some form of complementary and alternative medicine. The World Health Organization estimates that 80% of the world's population presently uses herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Women were more likely than men to use complementary and alternative medicine. The authors review the most commonly used herbal medications for OAB. PMID:24223020

  8. Herbal remedies for dyspepsia: peppermint seems effective.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    (1) Functional dyspepsia is extremely common, yet few if any treatments have been shown to be effective. This review examines the potential benefits and risks of using herbal products in treating symptoms of dyspepsia. (2) About forty plants have been approved in France in the composition of products traditionally used for dyspepsia. (3) The clinical efficacy of most of these plants has not been assessed. Some essential oils can cause severe adverse effects, including seizures. Herbal teas appear to be safe when used appropriately. (4) A few randomised controlled clinical trials suggest that peppermint essential oil is effective in reducing abdominal pain, flatulence and diarrhea in patients with "irritable bowel syndrome". Peppermint tea, containing essential oil, has no known adverse effects. (5) There is no sound reason to discourage patients from using herbal teas made from plants such as lemon balm, German chamomile or star anise. PMID:18630390

  9. The politics of herbal drugs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, B H

    2000-08-01

    Hanbang, the Korean medical practice with origins in classical Chinese texts, is a prominent part of the Korean health care system. Hanbang physicians, called hanuisas, are looked down on by biomedical doctors, but their practice has enjoyed increasing popularity for several decades. As the market for herbal preparations has become more lucrative, biomedical pharmacists have begun to participate in it. The Pharmaceutical Act in 1993 explicitly allowed pharmacists to prescribe and dispense herbal drugs. This provoked a bitter public conflict between hanuisas and pharmacists, involving street demonstrations and strikes. The hanuisas asserted that the pharmacists were unqualified to assume their traditional practice. They also agitated for recognition in the state-sponsored system of health care and for the state's support for developing Hanbang medicine. This paper attributes the conflicts concerning Hanbang to the expanding market for herbal preparations, Korean nationalism, and to the oversupply of biomedical pharmacists. PMID:10868666

  10. Herbal medicine in the treatment of rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Edzard

    2011-02-01

    Herbal medicines are popular, self-prescribed treatments for rheumatic conditions. A recent US survey suggested that approximately 90% of arthritic patients use alternative therapies such as herbal medicines. This article provides a brief overview of the evidence on herbal medicines for 4 common rheumatic conditions: back pain, fibromyalgia, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21220089

  11. Generalized tonic-clonic seizure after a taser shot to the head

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Esther T.; Sourkes, Myra; Wennberg, Richard

    2009-01-01

    During a police chase on foot, a previously well police officer was hit mistakenly by a taser shot meant for the suspect. The taser gun had been fired once, sending 2 barbed darts into his upper back and occiput. Within seconds, the officer collapsed and experienced a generalized tonic-clonic seizure with loss of consciousness and postictal confusion. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head and electroencephalograms were normal. The patient has experienced no recurrence of seizure over more than a year of follow-up. This report shows that a taser shot to the head may result in a brain-specific complication such as generalized tonic-clonic seizure. It also suggests that seizure should be considered an adverse event related to taser use. PMID:19289806

  12. Tonic excitation or inhibition is set by GABAA conductance in hippocampal interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Song, Inseon; Savtchenko, Leonid; Semyanov, Alexey

    2011-01-01

    Inhibition is a physiological process that decreases the probability of a neuron generating an action potential. The two main mechanisms that have been proposed for inhibition are hyperpolarization and shunting. Shunting results from increased membrane conductance, and it reduces the neuron-firing probability. Here we show that ambient GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, can excite adult hippocampal interneurons. In these cells, the GABAA current reversal potential is depolarizing, making baseline tonic GABAA conductance excitatory. Increasing the tonic conductance enhances shunting-mediated inhibition, which eventually overpowers the excitation. Such a biphasic change in interneuron firing leads to corresponding changes in the GABAA-mediated synaptic signalling. The described phenomenon suggests that the excitatory or inhibitory actions of the current are set not only by the reversal potential, but also by the conductance. PMID:21730957

  13. Tonic synaptic inhibition modulates neuronal output pattern and spatiotemporal synaptic integration.

    PubMed

    Häusser, M; Clark, B A

    1997-09-01

    Irregular firing patterns are observed in most central neurons in vivo, but their origin is controversial. Here, we show that two types of inhibitory neurons in the cerebellar cortex fire spontaneously and regularly in the absence of synaptic input but generate an irregular firing pattern in the presence of tonic synaptic inhibition. Paired recordings between synaptically connected neurons revealed that single action potentials in inhibitory interneurons cause highly variable delays in action potential firing in their postsynaptic cells. Activity in single and multiple inhibitory interneurons also significantly reduces postsynaptic membrane time constant and input resistance. These findings suggest that the time window for synaptic integration is a dynamic variable modulated by the level of tonic inhibition, and that rate coding and temporal coding strategies may be used in parallel in the same cell type. PMID:9331356

  14. [Effects of electromagnetic fields on tonicity of cerebral vessels and arterial pressure].

    PubMed

    Razumov, A N; Bobrovnitskiĭ, I P; Kolesnikova, I V; Kasparov, E V; Anan'in, N N; El'chininov, N V; Gallinger, V E; Mineeva, E N

    2006-01-01

    Investigations performed by the authors show that normalization of the mechanisms of vegetative regulation of arterial pressure and cerebral vessels tonicity in young patients with sympathico-tonic vegetative dystonia can be achieved by combined use of constant magnetic field (magnetic induction 60 mTl, penetration 10 mm, area 1.5 cm2) and monochromatic electromagnetic wave (length 0.47 mcm, frequency 6 x 10(14) Hz, penetration 1.5 mm and light spot 7 mm) which are directed to a biologically active point C7 shen-men from both sides simultaneously for 3 min, at 11 a.m. to 13 p.m. once a day, for 10 days. PMID:16752814

  15. Dynamics of intrinsic dendritic calcium signaling during tonic firing of thalamic reticular neurons.

    PubMed

    Chausson, Patrick; Leresche, Nathalie; Lambert, Régis C

    2013-01-01

    The GABAergic neurons of the nucleus reticularis thalami that control the communication between thalamus and cortex are interconnected not only through axo-dendritic synapses but also through gap junctions and dendro-dendritic synapses. It is still unknown whether these dendritic communication processes may be triggered both by the tonic and the T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent high frequency burst firing of action potentials displayed by nucleus reticularis neurons during wakefulness and sleep, respectively. Indeed, while it is known that activation of T-type Ca(2+) channels actively propagates throughout the dendritic tree, it is still unclear whether tonic action potential firing can also invade the dendritic arborization. Here, using two-photon microscopy, we demonstrated that dendritic Ca(2+) responses following somatically evoked action potentials that mimic wake-related tonic firing are detected throughout the dendritic arborization. Calcium influx temporally summates to produce dendritic Ca(2+) accumulations that are linearly related to the duration of the action potential trains. Increasing the firing frequency facilitates Ca(2+) influx in the proximal but not in the distal dendritic compartments suggesting that the dendritic arborization acts as a low-pass filter in respect to the back-propagating action potentials. In the more distal compartment of the dendritic tree, T-type Ca(2+) channels play a crucial role in the action potential triggered Ca(2+) influx suggesting that this Ca(2+) influx may be controlled by slight changes in the local dendritic membrane potential that determine the T-type channels' availability. We conclude that by mediating Ca(2+) dynamic in the whole dendritic arborization, both tonic and burst firing of the nucleus reticularis thalami neurons might control their dendro-dendritic and electrical communications. PMID:23991078

  16. Enhanced tonic inhibition influences the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics etomidate and propofol

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmannova, Karla; Hines, Rochelle M.; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Terunuma, Miho; Tretter, Verena; Jurd, Rachel; Kelz, Max B.; Moss, Stephen J.; Davies, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous anesthetics exert a component of their actions via potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Phasic and tonic inhibition are mediated by distinct populations of GABAARs, with the majority of phasic inhibition by subtypes composed of α1-3βγ2 subunits, while tonic inhibition is dependent on subtypes assembled from α4-6βδ subunits. To explore the contribution that these distinct forms of inhibition play in mediating intravenous anesthesia we have used mice in which tyrosine residues 365/7 within the γ2 subunit are mutated to phenyalanines (Y365/7F). Here we demonstrate that this mutation leads to increased accumulation of the α4 subunit containing GABAARs in the thalamus and dentate gyrus of female Y365/7F but not male Y365/7F mice. Y365/7F mice exhibited a gender specific enhancement of tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus that was more sensitive to modulation by the anesthetic etomidate, together with a deficit in long-term potentiation. Consistent with this, female Y365/7F, but not male Y365/7F mice exhibited a dramatic increase in the duration of etomidate and propofol mediated hypnosis. Moreover, the amnestic actions of etomidate were selectively potentiated in female Y365/7F mice. Collectively these observations suggest potentiation of tonic inhibition mediated by α4 subunit containing GABAARs contributes to the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics, etomidate and propofol. PMID:23616535

  17. Enhanced tonic inhibition influences the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics etomidate and propofol.

    PubMed

    Kretschmannova, Karla; Hines, Rochelle M; Revilla-Sanchez, Raquel; Terunuma, Miho; Tretter, Verena; Jurd, Rachel; Kelz, Max B; Moss, Stephen J; Davies, Paul A

    2013-04-24

    Intravenous anesthetics exert a component of their actions via potentiating inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric type-A receptors (GABAARs). Phasic and tonic inhibition is mediated by distinct populations of GABAARs, with the majority of phasic inhibition by subtypes composed of α1-3βγ2 subunits, whereas tonic inhibition is dependent on subtypes assembled from α4-6βδ subunits. To explore the contribution that these distinct forms of inhibition play in mediating intravenous anesthesia, we have used mice in which tyrosine residues 365/7 within the γ2 subunit are mutated to phenyalanines (Y365/7F). Here we demonstrate that this mutation leads to increased accumulation of the α4 subunit containing GABAARs in the thalamus and dentate gyrus of female Y365/7F but not male Y365/7F mice. Y365/7F mice exhibited a gender-specific enhancement of tonic inhibition in the dentate gyrus that was more sensitive to modulation by the anesthetic etomidate, together with a deficit in long-term potentiation. Consistent with this, female Y365/7F, but not male Y365/7F, mice exhibited a dramatic increase in the duration of etomidate- and propofol-mediated hypnosis. Moreover, the amnestic actions of etomidate were selectively potentiated in female Y365/7F mice. Collectively, these observations suggest that potentiation of tonic inhibition mediated by α4 subunit containing GABAARs contributes to the hypnotic and amnestic actions of the intravenous anesthetics, etomidate and propofol. PMID:23616535

  18. [Toxicological-hygienic assessment of the low-alcohol tonic (energizing) carbonated drinks].

    PubMed

    Istomin, A V; Rumiantseva, L A; Mikhaĭlov, I G; Novichkova, N I; Ponomarenko, I I; Kutakova, N S

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the low-alcohol tonic (energizing) carbonated drinks on biochemical and hematological indices, on the functional state of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system was studied within the experiment over the outbred white male rats. The gained results were compared to indices of animals receiving the same concentrated solution of ethanol used for drinks preparation as well as to figures of intact group animals. The results gained from all compared animals groups had no significant differences. PMID:24000701

  19. Honeybee Kenyon cells are regulated by a tonic GABA receptor conductance.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Mary J; Harvey, Jenni

    2014-10-15

    The higher cognitive functions of insects are dependent on their mushroom bodies (MBs), which are particularly large in social insects such as honeybees. MB Kenyon cells (KCs) receive multisensory input and are involved in associative learning and memory. In addition to receiving sensory input via excitatory nicotinic synapses, KCs receive inhibitory GABAergic input from MB feedback neurons. Cultured honeybee KCs exhibit ionotropic GABA receptor currents, but the properties of GABA-mediated inhibition in intact MBs are currently unknown. Here, using whole cell recordings from KCs in acutely isolated honeybee brain, we show that KCs exhibit a tonic current that is inhibited by picrotoxin but not by bicuculline. Bath application of GABA (5 μM) and taurine (1 mM) activate a tonic current in KCs, but l-glutamate (0.1-0.5 mM) has no effect. The tonic current is strongly potentiated by the allosteric GABAA receptor modulator pentobarbital and is reduced by inhibition of Ca(2+) channels with Cd(2+) or nifedipine. Noise analysis of the GABA-evoked current gives a single-channel conductance value for the underlying receptors of 27 ± 3 pS, similar to that of resistant to dieldrin (RDL) receptors. The amount of injected current required to evoke action potential firing in KCs is significantly lower in the presence of picrotoxin. KCs recorded in an intact honeybee head preparation similarly exhibit a tonic GABA receptor conductance that reduces neuronal excitability, a property that is likely to contribute to the sparse coding of sensory information in insect MBs. PMID:25031259

  20. Deficient tonic GABAergic conductance and synaptic balance in the fragile X syndrome amygdala.

    PubMed

    Martin, Brandon S; Corbin, Joshua G; Huntsman, Molly M

    2014-08-15

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of inherited intellectual disability. Comorbidities of FXS such as autism are increasingly linked to imbalances in excitation and inhibition (E/I) as well as dysfunction in GABAergic transmission in a number of brain regions including the amygdala. However, the link between E/I imbalance and GABAergic transmission deficits in the FXS amygdala is poorly understood. Here we reveal that normal tonic GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission in principal neurons (PNs) of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is comprised of both δ- and α5-subunit-containing GABAA receptors. Furthermore, tonic GABAergic capacity is reduced in these neurons in the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS (1.5-fold total, 3-fold δ-subunit, and 2-fold α5-subunit mediated) as indicated by application of gabazine (50 μM), 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP, 1 μM), and α5ia (1.5 μM) in whole cell patch-clamp recordings. Moreover, α5-containing tonic GABAA receptors appear to preferentially modulate nonsomatic compartments of BLA PNs. Examination of evoked feedforward synaptic transmission in these cells surprisingly revealed no differences in overall synaptic conductance or E/I balance between wild-type (WT) and Fmr1 KO mice. Instead, we observed altered feedforward kinetics in Fmr1 KO PNs that supports a subtle yet significant decrease in E/I balance at the peak of excitatory conductance. Blockade of α5-subunit-containing GABAA receptors replicated this condition in WT PNs. Therefore, our data suggest that tonic GABAA receptor-mediated neurotransmission can modulate synaptic E/I balance and timing established by feedforward inhibition and thus may represent a therapeutic target to enhance amygdala function in FXS. PMID:24848467

  1. Clinical course of untreated tonic-clonic seizures in childhood: prospective, hospital based study.

    PubMed Central

    van Donselaar, C. A.; Brouwer, O. F.; Geerts, A. T.; Arts, W. F.; Stroink, H.; Peters, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess decleration and acceleration in the disease process in the initial phase of epilepsy in children with new onset tonic-clonic seizures. STUDY DESIGN: Hospital based follow up study. SETTING: Two university hospitals, a general hospital, and a children's hospital in the Netherlands. PATIENTS: 204 children aged 1 month to 16 years with idiopathic or remote symptomatic, newly diagnosed, tonic-clonic seizures, of whom 123 were enrolled at time of their first ever seizure; all children were followed until the start of drug treatment (78 children), the occurrence of the fourth untreated seizure (41 children), or the end of the follow up period of two years (85 untreated children). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Analysis of disease pattern from first ever seizure. The pattern was categorised as decelerating if the child became free of seizures despite treatment being withheld. In cases with four seizures, the pattern was categorised as decelerating if successive intervals increased or as accelerating if intervals decreased. Patterns in the remaining children were classified as uncertain. RESULTS: A decelerating pattern was found in 83 of 85 children who became free of seizures without treatment. Three of the 41 children with four or more untreated seizures showed a decelerating pattern and eight an accelerating pattern. In 110 children the disease process could not be classified, mostly because drug treatment was started after the first, second, or third seizure. The proportion of children with a decelerating pattern (42%, 95% confidence interval 35% to 49%) may be a minimum estimate because of the large number of patients with an uncertain disease pattern. CONCLUSIONS: Though untreated epilepsy is commonly considered to be a progressive disorder with decreasing intervals between seizures, a large proportion of children with newly diagnosed, unprovoked tonic-clonic seizures have a decelerating disease process. The fear that tonic-clonic seizures commonly

  2. Tonic vibration reflex in Holmes-Adie syndrome: an electrophysiological study

    PubMed Central

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Abbruzzese, Michele; Favale, Emilio; Ratto, Sandro

    1979-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying benign areflexia were studied in six patients with Holmes-Adie syndrome. No impairment of sensory conduction velocity of sural nerve was found. A normal tonic vibration reflex was obtained in all patients. H reflex was absent in five patients, but responses like F waves were recorded in three subjects. These findings suggest that muscle spindles are not affected and that spinal motoneurone excitability is normal. PMID:512669

  3. Reduced tonic inhibition after stroke promotes motor performance and epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Jaenisch, Nadine; Liebmann, Lutz; Guenther, Madlen; Hübner, Christian A; Frahm, Christiane; Witte, Otto W

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors often recover from motor deficits, either spontaneously or with the support of rehabilitative training. Since tonic GABAergic inhibition controls network excitability, it may be involved in recovery. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents reduces tonic GABAergic inhibition in the structurally intact motor cortex (M1). Transcript and protein abundance of the extrasynaptic GABAA-receptor complex α4β3δ are concurrently reduced (δ-GABAARs). In vivo and in vitro analyses show that stroke-induced glutamate release activates NMDA receptors, thereby reducing KCC2 transporters and down-regulates δ-GABAARs. Functionally, this is associated with improved motor performance on the RotaRod, a test in which mice are forced to move in a similar manner to rehabilitative training sessions. As an adverse side effect, decreased tonic inhibition facilitates post-stroke epileptic seizures. Our data imply that early and sometimes surprisingly fast recovery following stroke is supported by homeostatic, endogenous plasticity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. PMID:27188341

  4. Reduced tonic inhibition after stroke promotes motor performance and epileptic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Jaenisch, Nadine; Liebmann, Lutz; Guenther, Madlen; Hübner, Christian A.; Frahm, Christiane; Witte, Otto W.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke survivors often recover from motor deficits, either spontaneously or with the support of rehabilitative training. Since tonic GABAergic inhibition controls network excitability, it may be involved in recovery. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in rodents reduces tonic GABAergic inhibition in the structurally intact motor cortex (M1). Transcript and protein abundance of the extrasynaptic GABAA-receptor complex α4β3δ are concurrently reduced (δ-GABAARs). In vivo and in vitro analyses show that stroke-induced glutamate release activates NMDA receptors, thereby reducing KCC2 transporters and down-regulates δ-GABAARs. Functionally, this is associated with improved motor performance on the RotaRod, a test in which mice are forced to move in a similar manner to rehabilitative training sessions. As an adverse side effect, decreased tonic inhibition facilitates post-stroke epileptic seizures. Our data imply that early and sometimes surprisingly fast recovery following stroke is supported by homeostatic, endogenous plasticity of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors. PMID:27188341

  5. GABA and enkephalin tonically alter sympathetic outflows in the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Belinda R; Goodchild, Ann K

    2015-12-01

    GABA and enkephalin provide significant innervation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons. Despite some investigation as to the identity of premotor sources of these innervations no comprehensive analyses have been conducted. Similarly, although data describing the cardiovascular effects of blockade of GABAA receptors in the spinal cord is available, the effects at other sympathetic outflows are unknown. In contrast the sympathetic effects of opioid blockade in the spinal cord are unclear. The aims of this study were to identify potential sympathetic premotor sources of GABAergic and enkephalinergic input to the spinal cord and to describe the sympathetic and cardiovascular effects of spinal GABAA receptor and delta/mu opioid receptor blockade in urethane anaesthetised rats. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67) and preproenkephalin (PPE) mRNA were found in all regions containing sympathetic premotor neurons, with the medullary raphe and RVMM providing the major GABAergic projections, while the PVN, RVMM and medullary raphe provided the major enkephalinergic projections. Intrathecal injection of bicuculline, a GABAA antagonist, elicited large and prolonged increases in all outflows measured, confirming previous work describing a tonic GABAergic influence on vasomotor tone, and revealing a tonic GABAergic inhibition of interscapular brown adipose tissue temperature. Intrathecal naloxone elicited transient small inhibitory effects only on MAP and HR. Thus GABA acting in the spinal cord plays an important role in the tonic suppression of sympathetic outflows while enkephalin appears to play only a minor role. PMID:26329875

  6. p21-activated kinase 1 restricts tonic endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shuting; Zhou, Zikai; Leung, Celeste; Zhu, Yuehua; Pan, Xingxiu; Qi, Junxia; Morena, Maria; Hill, Matthew N; Xie, Wei; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    PAK1 inhibitors are known to markedly improve social and cognitive function in several animal models of brain disorders, including autism, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We show here that disruption of PAK1 in mice suppresses inhibitory neurotransmission through an increase in tonic, but not phasic, secretion of endocannabinoids (eCB). Consistently, we found elevated levels of anandamide (AEA), but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) following PAK1 disruption. This increased tonic AEA signaling is mediated by reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and COX-2 inhibitors recapitulate the effect of PAK1 deletion on GABAergic transmission in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner. These results establish a novel signaling process whereby PAK1 upregulates COX-2, reduces AEA and restricts tonic eCB-mediated processes. Because PAK1 and eCB are both critically involved in many other organ systems in addition to the brain, our findings may provide a unified mechanism by which PAK1 regulates these systems and their dysfunctions including cancers, inflammations and allergies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14653.001 PMID:27296803

  7. Epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia in infancy and childhood: tonic spasms as a seizure type.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Luciana R De; Seraphim, Evelyn A; Corso, Jeana T; Naves, Pedro Vf; Carvalho, Kelly Cristina de; Ramirez, Milton David H; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Guaranha, Mirian Sb; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2015-06-01

    Epileptic spasms were defined by the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force on Classification and Terminology in 2001 as a specific seizure type. Epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia have been described in some series of patients, occurring either in infancy or childhood. More prolonged epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia were previously defined as a different seizure type, and referred to as "tonic spasm seizures". Here, we present a 5-year-old boy who started having epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia at 8 months of age, effectively treated with oxcarbazepine. With the withdrawal of medication, epileptic spasms returned. Video-EEG monitoring revealed high-voltage slow waves superimposed by low-voltage fast activity, followed by an electrodecremental phase and a burst of asymmetric fast activity, time-locked to clinical tonic spasm seizures. Brain MRI showed left temporal atrophy with temporal pole grey/white matter junction blurring and ictal PET-CT showed left basal frontal hypermetabolism. Seizures were refractory to several AEDs and vigabatrin was introduced with seizure cessation. Despite efforts to classify epileptic spasms, these are still considered as part of the group of unknown seizure types. In some cases, a focal origin has been suggested, leading to the term "periodic spasms" and "focal spasms". In this case, epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia, associated with tonic spasms, may be a variant of focal spasms and might be considered as an epileptic syndrome. [Published with video sequence]. PMID:25895540

  8. p21-activated kinase 1 restricts tonic endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shuting; Zhou, Zikai; Leung, Celeste; Zhu, Yuehua; Pan, Xingxiu; Qi, Junxia; Morena, Maria; Hill, Matthew N; Xie, Wei; Jia, Zhengping

    2016-01-01

    PAK1 inhibitors are known to markedly improve social and cognitive function in several animal models of brain disorders, including autism, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We show here that disruption of PAK1 in mice suppresses inhibitory neurotransmission through an increase in tonic, but not phasic, secretion of endocannabinoids (eCB). Consistently, we found elevated levels of anandamide (AEA), but not 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) following PAK1 disruption. This increased tonic AEA signaling is mediated by reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and COX-2 inhibitors recapitulate the effect of PAK1 deletion on GABAergic transmission in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner. These results establish a novel signaling process whereby PAK1 upregulates COX-2, reduces AEA and restricts tonic eCB-mediated processes. Because PAK1 and eCB are both critically involved in many other organ systems in addition to the brain, our findings may provide a unified mechanism by which PAK1 regulates these systems and their dysfunctions including cancers, inflammations and allergies. PMID:27296803

  9. Classification of epileptic motor manifestations and detection of tonic-clonic seizures with acceleration norm entropy.

    PubMed

    Becq, Guillaume; Kahane, Philippe; Minotti, Lorella; Bonnet, Stephane; Guillemaud, Regis

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, three triaxis accelerometers positioned on the wrists and the head of epileptic patients submitted to long-term video electroencephalographic monitoring as part of presurgical investigation are evaluated to characterize the different classes of motor manifestations observed during seizures. Quadratic discriminant classifiers are trained on features extracted from 1 or 4 s windows. It is shown that a simple rule applied to the acceleration norm entropy HnA produces the best performances compared to other classifiers trained on other feature sets. The simple rule is as follows with values given in bits: (0 HnA 1.34), no movement; (1.34 HnA 3.87), tonic manifestations; (3.87 HnA), tonic-clonic manifestations. For this classifier, features are extracted from 1 s windows and the misclassification rate is 11% evaluated on 5,607 s of epileptic motor manifestations obtained from 58 seizures in 30 patients. A quantile normalization can improve the results with features based on absolute power spectral density but performances are not as good as the ones obtained with HnA. Based on the classifier using only HnA, a simple tonic-clonic seizure detector is proposed and produces a 80% sensitivity with a 95% specificity. PMID:23392333

  10. Role of tonic GABAergic currents during pre- and early postnatal rodent development

    PubMed Central

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J.

    2013-01-01

    In the last three decades it became evident that the GABAergic system plays an essential role for the development of the central nervous system, by influencing the proliferation of neuronal precursors, neuronal migration and differentiation, as well as by controlling early activity patterns and thus formation of neuronal networks. GABA controls neuronal development via depolarizing membrane responses upon activation of ionotropic GABA receptors. However, many of these effects occur before the onset of synaptic GABAergic activity and thus require the presence of extrasynaptic tonic currents in neuronal precursors and immature neurons. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the role of tonic GABAergic currents during early brain development. In this review we compare the temporal sequence of the expression and functional relevance of different GABA receptor subunits, GABA synthesizing enzymes and GABA transporters. We also refer to other possible endogenous agonists of GABAA receptors. In addition, we describe functional consequences mediated by the GABAergic system during early developmental periods and discuss current models about the origin of extrasynaptic GABA and/or other endogenous GABAergic agonists during early developmental states. Finally, we present evidence that tonic GABAergic activity is also critically involved in the generation of physiological as well as pathophysiological activity patterns before and after the establishment of functional GABAergic synaptic connections. PMID:24027498

  11. Mechanism of bistability: Tonic spiking and bursting in a neuron model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilnikov, Andrey; Calabrese, Ronald L.; Cymbalyuk, Gennady

    2005-05-01

    Neurons can demonstrate various types of activity; tonically spiking, bursting as well as silent neurons are frequently observed in electrophysiological experiments. The methods of qualitative theory of slow-fast systems applied to biophysically realistic neuron models can describe basic scenarios of how these regimes of activity can be generated and transitions between them can be made. Here we demonstrate that a bifurcation of a codimension one can explain a transition between tonic spiking behavior and bursting behavior. Namely, we argue that the Lukyanov-Shilnikov bifurcation of a saddle-node periodic orbit with noncentral homoclinics may initiate a bistability observed in a model of a leech heart interneuron under defined pharmacological conditions. This model can exhibit two coexisting types of oscillations: tonic spiking and bursting, depending on the initial state of the neuron model. Moreover, the neuron model also generates weakly chaotic bursts when a control parameter is close to the bifurcation values that correspond to homoclinic bifurcations of a saddle or a saddle-node periodic orbit.

  12. Herbal medicine use among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over three-quarter of the world's population is using herbal medicines with an increasing trend globally. Herbal medicines may be beneficial but are not completely harmless. This study aimed to assess the extent of use and the general knowledge of the benefits and safety of herbal medicines among urban residents in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods The study involved 388 participants recruited by cluster and random sampling techniques. Participants were interviewed with a structured open- and close-ended questionnaire. The information obtained comprises the demography and types of herbal medicines used by the respondents; indications for their use; the sources, benefits and adverse effects of the herbal medicines they used. Results A total of 12 herbal medicines (crude or refined) were used by the respondents, either alone or in combination with other herbal medicines. Herbal medicines were reportedly used by 259 (66.8%) respondents. 'Agbo jedi-jedi' (35%) was the most frequently used herbal medicine preparation, followed by 'agbo-iba' (27.5%) and Oroki herbal mixture® (9%). Family and friends had a marked influence on 78.4% of the respondents who used herbal medicine preparations. Herbal medicines were considered safe by half of the respondents despite 20.8% of those who experienced mild to moderate adverse effects. Conclusions Herbal medicine is popular among the respondents but they appear to be ignorant of its potential toxicities. It may be necessary to evaluate the safety, efficacy and quality of herbal medicines and their products through randomised clinical trial studies. Public enlightenment programme about safe use of herbal medicines may be necessary as a means of minimizing the potential adverse effects. PMID:22117933

  13. Affinity for MgADP and force of unbinding from actin of myosin purified from tonic and phasic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Léguillette, Renaud; Zitouni, Nedjma B; Govindaraju, Karuthapillai; Fong, Laura M; Lauzon, Anne-Marie

    2008-09-01

    Smooth muscle is unique in its ability to maintain force at low MgATP consumption. This property, called the latch state, is more prominent in tonic than phasic smooth muscle. Studies performed at the muscle strip level have suggested that myosin from tonic muscle has a greater affinity for MgADP and therefore remains attached to actin longer than myosin from phasic muscle, allowing for cross-bridge dephosphorylation and latch-bridge formation. An alternative hypothesis is that after dephosphorylation, myosin reattaches to actin and maintains force. We investigated these fundamental properties of smooth muscle at the molecular level. We used an in vitro motility assay to measure actin filament velocity (nu(max)) when propelled by myosin purified from phasic or tonic muscle at increasing [MgADP]. Myosin was 25% thiophosphorylated and 75% unphosphorylated to approximate in vivo conditions. The slope of nu(max) versus [MgADP] was significantly greater for tonic (-0.51+/-0.04) than phasic muscle myosin (-0.15+/-0.04), demonstrating the greater MgADP affinity of myosin from tonic muscle. We then used a laser trap assay to measure the unbinding force from actin of populations of unphosphorylated tonic and phasic muscle myosin. Both myosin types attached to actin, and their unbinding force (0.092+/-0.022 pN for phasic muscle and 0.084+/-0.017 pN for tonic muscle) was not statistically different. We conclude that the greater affinity for MgADP of tonic muscle myosin and the reattachment of dephosphorylated myosin to actin may both contribute to the latch state. PMID:18614813

  14. Recipes and general herbal formulae in books: causes of herbal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Chong, Y K; Ching, C K; Ng, S W; Tse, M L; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine is commonly used locally, not only for disease treatment but also for improving health. Many people prepare soups containing herbs or herbal decoctions according to recipes and general herbal formulae commonly available in books, magazines, and newspapers without consulting Chinese medicine practitioners. However, such practice can be dangerous. We report five cases of poisoning from 2007 to 2012 occurring as a result of inappropriate use of herbs in recipes or general herbal formulae acquired from books. Aconite poisoning due to overdose or inadequate processing accounted for three cases. The other two cases involved the use of herbs containing Strychnos alkaloids and Sophora alkaloids. These cases demonstrated that inappropriate use of Chinese medicine can result in major morbidity, and herbal formulae and recipes containing herbs available in general publications are not always safe. PMID:25104008

  15. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...

  16. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: Dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...

  17. Intellectual property protection in the natural product drug discovery, traditional herbal medicine and herbal medicinal products.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Murat

    2007-02-01

    Traditional medicine is an important part of human health care in many developing countries and also in developed countries, increasing their commercial value. Although the use of medicinal plants in therapy has been known for centuries in all parts of the world, the demand for herbal medicines has grown dramatically in recent years. The world market for such medicines has reached US $ 60 billion, with annual growth rates of between 5% and 15%. Researchers or companies may also claim intellectual property rights over biological resources and/or traditional knowledge, after slightly modifying them. The fast growth of patent applications related to herbal medicine shows this trend clearly. This review presents the patent applications in the field of natural products, traditional herbal medicine and herbal medicinal products. Medicinal plants and related plant products are important targets of patent claims since they have become of great interest to the international drug and cosmetic industry. PMID:17117452

  18. Herbal products in Canada. How safe are they?

    PubMed Central

    Kozyrskyj, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine existing evidence and inform family physicians about issues concerning herbal product use in Canada. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The Canadian Food and Drug Act and findings of an Expert Advisory Committee on Herbs and Botanical Preparations were consulted to provide an overview of the issues regarding herbal product regulation in Canada. Case reports of herbal toxicity were identified to illustrate some of the hazards of herbal products, and references provided to guide health professional in searching the literature for clinical trials that evaluate these drugs' efficacy. MAIN FINDINGS: Herbal products not registered as drugs in Canada are sold as foods and are exempt from the drug review process that evaluates product efficacy and safety. This places the public at risk of unwanted effects from the use of herbal products that are adulterated with other substances and of forgoing effective conventional therapy. Moreover, consumers are exposed to a plethora of information portraying herbal products as harmless. Some progress has been made to address these concerns by facilitating the registration of herbal products as drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Most herbal products that were evaluated were unsafe or ineffective, or no information was available to evaluate their efficacy. Despite the perception that herbal products are innocuous, family physicians need to be aware that herbal therapy can be harmful in order to help their patients make informed choices. Images p699-a PMID:9111986

  19. [Pain management with herbal antirheumatic drugs].

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, Sigrun; Pollak, S

    2002-01-01

    Herbal antirheumatics are indicated in painful inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases. Their mechanism of action is broader than that of synthetic antirheumatics. Particular preparations from Devils's Claw with 50 to 100 mg of harpagoside in the daily dosage as well as a particular willow bark extract with 120 to 240 mg salicin in the daily dosage proved efficacy in a number of clinical studies including confirmatory ones. Exploratory studies indicate that these herbal antirheumatics were not inferior to the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib when treating acute exacerbations of chronic low back pain. For the proprietary nettle root extract IDS23 promising in vitro/in vivo results indicate an anti-inflammatory effect, however there are only 2 open uncontrolled clinical studies available and the proof of efficacy is still missing. Safety data in order to recommend use during pregnancy and lactation are only available for the herbal combination product Phytodolor prepared from aspen, ash and goldenrod. In principle, blackcurrent leaf with not less than 1.5% flavonoids may be an appropriate antirheumatic. Likewise, the seed oils of blackcurrent, evening primrose and borage offering at least 1 to 3 g gammalinolenic acid/day are recommendable. In case superiority versus placebo has been established, proprietary herbal antirheumatics should be administered before the conventional analgesics due to the lower incidence of adverse events. PMID:12017748

  20. Assessing herbal products with health claims.

    PubMed

    Lapenna, Silvia; Gemen, Raymond; Wollgast, Jan; Worth, Andrew; Maragkoudakis, Petros; Caldeira, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Herbs, herbal extracts, or phytochemicals are broadly used as foods, drugs, and as traditional medicines. These are well regulated in Europe, with thorough controls on both safety and efficacy or validity of health claims. However, the distinction between medicines and foods with health claims is not always clear. In addition, there are several cases of herbal products that claim benefits that are not scientifically demonstrated. This review details the European Union (EU) legislative framework that regulates the approval and marketing of herbal products bearing health claims as well as the scientific evidence that is needed to support such claims. To illustrate the latter, we focus on phytoecdysteroid (PE)-containing preparations, generally sold to sportsmen and bodybuilders. We review the limited published scientific evidence that supports claims for these products in humans. In addition, we model the in silico binding between different PEs and human nuclear receptors and discuss the implications of these putative bindings in terms of the mechanism of action of this family of compounds. We call for additional research to validate the safety and health-promoting properties of PEs and other herbal compounds, for the benefit of all consumers. PMID:24915414

  1. Online sources of herbal product information.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Baergen, Ralph; Puckett, Derek

    2014-02-01

    Herbal products are commonly used to treat clinical conditions and are often purchased online without the supervision of a healthcare provider. The use of herbals remains controversial because of widespread exaggerated claims of clinical efficacy and safety. We conducted an online search of 13 common herbals (including black cohosh, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, green tea, kava, saw palmetto, and St John's wort) and reviewed the top 50 Web sites for each using a Google search. We analyzed clinical claims, warnings, and other safety information. A total of 1179 Web sites were examined. Less than 8% of retail sites provided information regarding potential adverse effects, drug interactions, and other safety information; only 10.5% recommended consultation with a healthcare professional. Less than 3% cited scientific literature to accompany their claims. Key safety information is still lacking from many online sources of herbal information. Certain nonretail site types may be more reliable, but physicians and other healthcare professionals should be aware of the variable quality of these sites to help patients make more informed decisions. PMID:24290486

  2. Herbal Medicine Along the Trail of Tears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Melinda B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an assignment that allows students to explore the life of the Cherokee Indians during a tragic period in history when the U.S. Government removed the Cherokees from their ancestral homeland. Students demonstrate learning by creating skits that incorporate Cherokee history, culture, and herbal remedies. (ZWH)

  3. A Prairie Pharmacy: An Introduction to Herbalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Susan A.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a laboratory activity to teach medical biology to undergraduate nonmajor business students. Uses herbalism as the theme concept to integrate subjects, such as anatomy, physiology, medical theory, and terminology. Includes topics, such as herb collection, medicine preparation, and herb storage. (SOE)

  4. Multiple Forms of Endocannabinoid and Endovanilloid Signaling Regulate the Tonic Control of GABA Release

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hun; Ledri, Marco; Tóth, Blanka; Marchionni, Ivan; Henstridge, Christopher M.; Dudok, Barna; Kenesei, Kata; Barna, László; Szabó, Szilárd I.; Renkecz, Tibor; Oberoi, Michelle; Watanabe, Masahiko; Limoli, Charles L.; Horvai, George; Soltesz, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Persistent CB1 cannabinoid receptor activity limits neurotransmitter release at various synapses throughout the brain. However, it is not fully understood how constitutively active CB1 receptors, tonic endocannabinoid signaling, and its regulation by multiple serine hydrolases contribute to the synapse-specific calibration of neurotransmitter release probability. To address this question at perisomatic and dendritic GABAergic synapses in the mouse hippocampus, we used a combination of paired whole-cell patch-clamp recording, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy super-resolution imaging, and immunogold electron microscopy. Unexpectedly, application of the CB1 antagonist and inverse agonist AM251 [N-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-1-piperidinyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide], but not the neutral antagonist NESS0327 [8-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-N-piperidin-1-yl-5,6-dihydro-4H-benzo[2,3]cyclohepta[2,4-b]pyrazole-3-carboxamine], significantly increased synaptic transmission between CB1-positive perisomatic interneurons and CA1 pyramidal neurons. JZL184 (4-nitrophenyl 4-[bis(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)(hydroxy)methyl]piperidine-1-carboxylate), a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL), the presynaptic degrading enzyme of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), elicited a robust increase in 2-AG levels and concomitantly decreased GABAergic transmission. In contrast, inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) by PF3845 (N-pyridin-3-yl-4-[[3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]oxyphenyl]methyl]piperidine-1-carboxamide) elevated endocannabinoid/endovanilloid anandamide levels but did not change GABAergic synaptic activity. However, FAAH inhibitors attenuated tonic 2-AG increase and also decreased its synaptic effects. This antagonistic interaction required the activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor TRPV1, which was concentrated on postsynaptic

  5. Introducing herbal medicine into conventional health care settings.

    PubMed

    Lee, L

    1999-01-01

    Herbal therapy is one of several holistic therapies gaining recognition within the health care community in the United States. As a discipline, herbal medicine is in its infancy regarding educational standards for credentialling, standardization, and regulation of products and clinical applications within this health care system. This article discusses professional considerations for midwives who are interested in integrating herbal healing into their clinical practices, and offers examples of how to incorporate herbal medicine into midwifery care. Resources for practitioners including books, newsletters, journals, courses, computer sites, and databases are presented. The author offers guidance for creating an herbal practice manual for the midwifery office as well as the hospital setting and for documenting herbal healing in the medical record. Collegial support, barriers to practice, liability, and insurance issues are discussed. A clinical applications section includes specific herbal formulas for preconception health, pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, and postdates pregnancy. PMID:10380444

  6. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  7. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: Clinical Characteristics and Listing Compilation

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, Christian; Teschke, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Herb induced liver injury (HILI) and drug induced liver injury (DILI) share the common characteristic of chemical compounds as their causative agents, which were either produced by the plant or synthetic processes. Both, natural and synthetic chemicals are foreign products to the body and need metabolic degradation to be eliminated. During this process, hepatotoxic metabolites may be generated causing liver injury in susceptible patients. There is uncertainty, whether risk factors such as high lipophilicity or high daily and cumulative doses play a pathogenetic role for HILI, as these are under discussion for DILI. It is also often unclear, whether a HILI case has an idiosyncratic or an intrinsic background. Treatment with herbs of Western medicine or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) rarely causes elevated liver tests (LT). However, HILI can develop to acute liver failure requiring liver transplantation in single cases. HILI is a diagnosis of exclusion, because clinical features of HILI are not specific as they are also found in many other liver diseases unrelated to herbal use. In strikingly increased liver tests signifying severe liver injury, herbal use has to be stopped. To establish HILI as the cause of liver damage, RUCAM (Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method) is a useful tool. Diagnostic problems may emerge when alternative causes were not carefully excluded and the correct therapy is withheld. Future strategies should focus on RUCAM based causality assessment in suspected HILI cases and more regulatory efforts to provide all herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements used as medicine with strict regulatory surveillance, considering them as herbal drugs and ascertaining an appropriate risk benefit balance. PMID:27128912

  8. Phosphorylation by Casein Kinase 1 Regulates Tonicity-induced Osmotic Response Element-binding Protein/Tonicity Enhancer-binding Protein Nucleocytoplasmic Trafficking*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, SongXiao; Wong, Catherine C. L.; Tong, Edith H. Y.; Chung, Stephen S. M.; Yates, John R.; Yin, YiBing; Ko, Ben C. B.

    2008-01-01

    The osmotic response element-binding protein (OREBP), also known as tonicity enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) or NFAT5, is the only known osmo-sensitive transcription factor that mediates cellular adaptations to extracellular hypertonic stress. Although it is well documented that the subcellular localization and transactivation activity of OREBP/TonEBP are tightly regulated by extracellular tonicity, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we show that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated by the dual phosphorylation of Ser-155 and Ser-158. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that Ser-155 is an essential residue that regulates OREBP/TonEBP nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that Ser-155 and Ser-158 of OREBP/TonEBP are both phosphorylated in living cells under hypotonic conditions. In vitro phosphorylation assays further suggest that phosphorylation of the two serine residues proceeds in a hierarchical manner with phosphorylation of Ser-155 priming the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and that these phosphorylations are essential for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the transcription factor. Finally, we have shown that the pharmacological inhibition of casein kinase 1 (CK1) abolishes the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and impedes OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export and that recombinant CK1 phosphorylates Ser-158. Knockdown of CK1α1L, a novel isoform of CK1, inhibits hypotonicity-induced OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export. Together these data highlight the importance of Ser-155 and Ser-158 in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP and indicate that CK1 plays a major role in regulating this process. PMID:18411282

  9. Phosphorylation by casein kinase 1 regulates tonicity-induced osmotic response element-binding protein/tonicity enhancer-binding protein nucleocytoplasmic trafficking.

    PubMed

    Xu, SongXiao; Wong, Catherine C L; Tong, Edith H Y; Chung, Stephen S M; Yates, John R; Yin, YiBing; Ko, Ben C B

    2008-06-20

    The osmotic response element-binding protein (OREBP), also known as tonicity enhancer-binding protein (TonEBP) or NFAT5, is the only known osmo-sensitive transcription factor that mediates cellular adaptations to extracellular hypertonic stress. Although it is well documented that the subcellular localization and transactivation activity of OREBP/TonEBP are tightly regulated by extracellular tonicity, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we show that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP is regulated by the dual phosphorylation of Ser-155 and Ser-158. Alanine scanning mutagenesis revealed that Ser-155 is an essential residue that regulates OREBP/TonEBP nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that Ser-155 and Ser-158 of OREBP/TonEBP are both phosphorylated in living cells under hypotonic conditions. In vitro phosphorylation assays further suggest that phosphorylation of the two serine residues proceeds in a hierarchical manner with phosphorylation of Ser-155 priming the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and that these phosphorylations are essential for nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of the transcription factor. Finally, we have shown that the pharmacological inhibition of casein kinase 1 (CK1) abolishes the phosphorylation of Ser-158 and impedes OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export and that recombinant CK1 phosphorylates Ser-158. Knockdown of CK1alpha1L, a novel isoform of CK1, inhibits hypotonicity-induced OREBP/TonEBP nuclear export. Together these data highlight the importance of Ser-155 and Ser-158 in the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of OREBP/TonEBP and indicate that CK1 plays a major role in regulating this process. PMID:18411282

  10. A Systems-Pharmacology Analysis of Herbal Medicines Used in Health Improvement Treatment: Predicting Potential New Drugs and Targets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianling; Pei, Mengjie; Zheng, Chunli; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Lu, Aiping; Yang, Ling

    2013-01-01

    For thousands of years, tonic herbs have been successfully used all around the world to improve health, energy, and vitality. However, their underlying mechanisms of action in molecular/systems levels are still a mystery. In this work, two sets of tonic herbs, so called Qi-enriching herbs (QEH) and Blood-tonifying herbs (BTH) in TCM, were selected to elucidate why they can restore proper balance and harmony inside body, organ and energy system. Firstly, a pattern recognition model based on artificial neural network and discriminant analysis for assessing the molecular difference between QEH and BTH was developed. It is indicated that QEH compounds have high lipophilicity while BTH compounds possess high chemical reactivity. Secondly, a systematic investigation integrating ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) prediction, target fishing and network analysis was performed and validated on these herbs to obtain the compound-target associations for reconstructing the biologically-meaningful networks. The results suggest QEH enhance physical strength, immune system and normal well-being, acting as adjuvant therapy for chronic disorders while BTH stimulate hematopoiesis function in body. As an emerging approach, the systems pharmacology model might facilitate to understand the mechanisms of action of the tonic herbs, which brings about new development for complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:24369484

  11. Does acetylcholine released within the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVL) tonically maintain arterial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Arneric, S.P.; Giuliano, R.; Ernsberger, P.; Underwood, M.D.; Reis, D.J.

    1986-03-05

    The RVL, which contains C1 epinephrine neurons (C1 area), plays a major role in the maintenance and reflex control of arterial pressure (AP). Muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the C1 area is sympathoexcitatory. They sought to determine whether the C1 area of rat: (1) contains choline acetyltransferase (ChAT); (2) releases acetylcholine (ACh); and (3) has ACh receptors. ChAT was immunocytochemically localized to neurons in the C1 area. ChAT activity (pmol/mg prot./40 min; N=5) varied 10-fold over 19 regions microdissected from medulla; it was highest in the hypoglossal and vagal nuclei (203 +/- 63), lowest in the pyramidal tract (19 +/- 4) and moderate in the C1 area (96 +/- 12). Muscarinic binding sites labeled by /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzylate (2 nM) and identified autoradiographically had a similar distribution. Release of /sup 3/H-ACh from (1.0 x 0.5 mm) punches of the C1 area was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent and graded with respect to the depolarization stimulus (5-55 mM K/sup +/). Bilateral microinjection of atropine sulfate (5.0 nmol/100nl) into the C1 area of urethane anesthetized rats, but not adjacent raphen., lowered MAP (mmHg: - 38 +/- 7; N=7). They conclude that the C1 area contains muscarinic cholinergic receptors and that local neurons synthesize, store and release substantial amounts of ACh. ACh released within the C1 area may participate in the tonic maintenance of resting AP.

  12. Isolation Rearing Reduces Neuronal Excitability in Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells of Adolescent C57BL/6J Mice: Role of GABAergic Tonic Currents and Neurosteroids.

    PubMed

    Talani, Giuseppe; Biggio, Francesca; Licheri, Valentina; Locci, Valentina; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Early-life exposure to stress, by impacting on a brain still under development, is considered a critical factor for the increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders and abuse of psychotropic substances during adulthood. As previously reported, rearing C57BL/6J weanling mice in social isolation (SI) from their peers for several weeks, a model of prolonged stress, is associated with a decreased plasma and brain levels of neuroactive steroids such as 3α,5α-THP, with a parallel up-regulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR) in dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells compared to group-housed (GH) mice. In the present study, together with the SI-induced decrease in plasma concentration of both progesterone and 3α,5α-THP, and an increase in THIP-stimulated GABAergic tonic currents, patch-clamp analysis of DG granule cells revealed a significant decrease in membrane input resistance and action potential (AP) firing rate, in SI compared to GH mice, suggesting that SI exerts an inhibitory action on neuronal excitability of these neurons. Voltage-clamp recordings of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) revealed a SI-associated decrease in frequency as well as a shift from paired-pulse (PP) depression to PP facilitation (PPF) of evoked EPSCs, indicative of a reduced probability of glutamate release. Daily administration of progesterone during isolation reverted the changes in plasma 3α,5α-THP as well as in GABAergic tonic currents and neuronal excitability caused by SI, but it had only a limited effect on the changes in the probability of presynaptic glutamate release. Overall, the results obtained in this work, together with those previously published, indicate that exposure of mice to SI during adolescence reduces neuronal excitability of DG granule cells, an effect that may be linked to the increased GABAergic tonic currents as a consequence of the sustained decrease in plasma and hippocampal levels of neurosteroids. All these

  13. Isolation Rearing Reduces Neuronal Excitability in Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells of Adolescent C57BL/6J Mice: Role of GABAergic Tonic Currents and Neurosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Talani, Giuseppe; Biggio, Francesca; Licheri, Valentina; Locci, Valentina; Biggio, Giovanni; Sanna, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Early-life exposure to stress, by impacting on a brain still under development, is considered a critical factor for the increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders and abuse of psychotropic substances during adulthood. As previously reported, rearing C57BL/6J weanling mice in social isolation (SI) from their peers for several weeks, a model of prolonged stress, is associated with a decreased plasma and brain levels of neuroactive steroids such as 3α,5α-THP, with a parallel up-regulation of extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAAR) in dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells compared to group-housed (GH) mice. In the present study, together with the SI-induced decrease in plasma concentration of both progesterone and 3α,5α-THP, and an increase in THIP-stimulated GABAergic tonic currents, patch-clamp analysis of DG granule cells revealed a significant decrease in membrane input resistance and action potential (AP) firing rate, in SI compared to GH mice, suggesting that SI exerts an inhibitory action on neuronal excitability of these neurons. Voltage-clamp recordings of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) revealed a SI-associated decrease in frequency as well as a shift from paired-pulse (PP) depression to PP facilitation (PPF) of evoked EPSCs, indicative of a reduced probability of glutamate release. Daily administration of progesterone during isolation reverted the changes in plasma 3α,5α-THP as well as in GABAergic tonic currents and neuronal excitability caused by SI, but it had only a limited effect on the changes in the probability of presynaptic glutamate release. Overall, the results obtained in this work, together with those previously published, indicate that exposure of mice to SI during adolescence reduces neuronal excitability of DG granule cells, an effect that may be linked to the increased GABAergic tonic currents as a consequence of the sustained decrease in plasma and hippocampal levels of neurosteroids. All these

  14. Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children: TONIC Trial Design

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in children can lead to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and end-stage liver disease. The cause of NAFLD is unknown, but it is commonly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Objectives TONIC is conducted to test whether treatment with metformin, an insulin sensitizer, or vitamin E, a naturally available antioxidant, will lead to improvements in biochemical and histological features of nondiabetic children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Design TONIC is a randomized, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial of 96 weeks of treatment with metformin or vitamin E. The primary outcome measure chosen for the trial is improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels with treatment as compared to placebo. An improvement in ALT is defined as reduction in serum ALT levels to below 50% of the baseline values or into the normal range (40 U/L or less) during the last 48 weeks of treatment. Histological improvement is defined by changes in liver histology between a baseline and end-of-treatment liver biopsy in regards to (1) steatohepatitis, (2) NAFLD Activity Score, consisting of scores for steatosis, lobular inflammation, and hepatocellular injury (ballooning), and (3) fibrosis score. Methods Between September 2005 and September 2007, 173 children were enrolled into TONIC at 10 clinical centers in the United States. Participants were randomized to receive either metformin (500 mg b.i.d.), vitamin E (400 IU b.i.d.), or placebo for 96 weeks. This protocol was approved by all participating center Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00063635.) PMID:19761871

  15. Sex differences in hypothalamic-mediated tonic norepinephrine release for thermal hyperalgesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Wagner, M; Banerjee, T; Jeong, Y; Holden, J E

    2016-06-01

    Neuropathic pain is treated using serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors with mixed results. Pain facilitation mediated by α1-adrenoceptors may be involved, but whether norepinephrine (NE) is tonically released is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether NE is tonically released from A7 cells following chronic constriction injury (CCI), and if the lateral hypothalamus (LH) plays a role in this release in male and female rats with nociceptive and neuropathic pain types. Neuropathic groups received left CCI while nociceptive groups remained naïve to injury. Fourteen days later, rats were given intrathecal infusion of either the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (74μg), or normal saline for control. Paw withdrawal latency (PWL) from a thermal stimulus was measured. The generalized estimated equation method was used for statistical analysis. Nociceptive rats given WB4101 had a PWL significantly longer than saline control (7.89±0.63 vs. 5.87±0.52s), while the PWL of neuropathic rats given WB4101 was 13.20±0.52s compared to 6.78±0.52s for the saline control rats. Yohimbine had no significant effect. Microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl) in the A7 catecholamine cell group to prevent synaptic transmission blocked the effect of WB4101 in all groups, supporting the notion that spinally descending A7 cells tonically release NE that contributes to α1-mediated nociceptive facilitation. Microinjection of CoCl into the left LH blocked the effect of WB4101 in nociceptive and neuropathic male rats, but had no effect in female rats of either pain type, suggesting differential innervation. These findings indicate that tonic release of NE acts at pronociceptive α1-adrenoceptors, that this effect is greater in rats with nerve damage, and that, while NE comes primarily from the A7 cell group, LH innervation of the A7 cell group is different between the sexes. PMID:27001177

  16. Herbal treatment of the urinary system diseases based on 16(th) and 17(th) century herbals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Janusz; Rutkowski, Boleslaw

    2016-02-01

    The medicinal use of herbs is a principal achievement of human ingenuity. The most renowned doctors of antiquity: Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder and Galen mentioned herbs in their works. The first printed herbal was published in Mainz in 1485. Outstanding scientists e.g. Otto Brunfels, Hieronymus Bock, Leonard Fuchs and Andreo Mattiola published herbals in the 16th century. Polish doctors also contributed to the development of herbal treatment. The first work: Of Herbs and their Potency by Stefan Falimirz, published in 1534, triggered other publications in the 16th century, the age of herbals. In 1542, Hieronymus Spiczynski published a herbal: Of Local and Overseas Herbs and their Potency. Then, in 1568, Marcin Siennik published his: Herbal, which is the Description of Local and Overseas Herbs, their Potency and Application. In 1595, Marcin of Urzedow published: The Polish Herbal, the Books of Herbs. Completed in mid-16th century, it was only published 22 years after his death. The last work discussed is Herbal Known in Latin as published in 1613 by Simon Syrenius a graduate of Ingolstadt and Padua universities and lecturer at the Academy of Krakow. The work was Europes most complete elaboration on herbal treatment. The herbs described in the herbals worked as diuretics, demulcents, analgesics, relaxants and preventives of kidney stones. Published in Polish, they are still to be found in Poland. All the works presented herein are held by the Library of the Seminary of Wloclawek, and the Ossolinski National Institute in Wroclaw. PMID:26913886

  17. Safety of Traditional Arab Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Bashar; Azaizeh, Hassan; Abu-Hijleh, Ghassan; Said, Omar

    2006-01-01

    Herbal remedies are widely used for the treatment and prevention of various diseases and often contain highly active pharmacological compounds. Many medicinal herbs and pharmaceutical drugs are therapeutic at one dose and toxic at another. Toxicity related to traditional medicines is becoming more widely recognized as these remedies become popular in the Mediterranean region as well as worldwide. Most reports concerning the toxic effects of herbal medicines are associated with hepatotoxicity although reports of other toxic effects including kidney, nervous system, blood, cardiovascular and dermatologic effects, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity have also been published in the medical literature. This article presents a systematic review on safety of traditional Arab medicine and the contribution of Arab scholars to toxicology. Use of modern cell biological, biochemical, in vitro and in vivo techniques for the evaluation of medicinal plants safety is also discussed. PMID:17173106

  18. Herbal Compounds and Toxins Modulating TRP Channels

    PubMed Central

    Vriens, Joris; Nilius, Bernd; Vennekens, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    Although the benefits are sometimes obvious, traditional or herbal medicine is regarded with skepticism, because the mechanism through which plant compounds exert their powers are largely elusive. Recent studies have shown however that many of these plant compounds interact with specific ion channels and thereby modulate the sensing mechanism of the human body. Especially members of the Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels have drawn large attention lately as the receptors for plant-derived compounds such as capsaicin and menthol. TRP channels constitute a large and diverse family of channel proteins that can serve as versatile sensors that allow individual cells and entire organisms to detect changes in their environment. For this family, a striking number of empirical views have turned into mechanism-based actions of natural compounds. In this review we will give an overview of herbal compounds and toxins, which modulate TRP channels. PMID:19305789

  19. Age- and Sex-Related Characteristics of Tonic Gaba Currents in the Rat Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, H.; Bojar, M.; Moshé, S. L.; Galanopoulou, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age-and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  20. Tonic inhibition in spinal ventral horn interneurons mediated by α5 subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Castro, Alberto; Aguilar, Justo; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Loeza-Alcocer, Emanuel; Canto-Bustos, Martha; Felix, Ricardo; Delgado-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2011-08-19

    GABA(A) receptors mediate synaptic and tonic inhibition in many neurons of the central nervous system. These receptors can be constructed from a range of different subunits deriving from seven identified families. Among these subunits, α(5) has been shown to mediate GABAergic tonic inhibitory currents in neurons from supraspinal nuclei. Likewise, immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization studies have shown the presence of the α(5) subunit in spinal cord neurons, though almost nothing is known about its function. In the present report, using slices of the adult turtle spinal cord as a model system we have recorded a tonic inhibitory current in ventral horn interneurons (VHIs) and determined the functional contribution of the α(5) subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors to this current. Patch clamp studies show that the GABAergic tonic inhibitory current in VHIs is not affected by the application of antagonists of the α(4/6) subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors, but is sensitive to L-655708, an antagonist of the GABA(A) receptors containing α(5) subunits. Last, by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry we confirmed the expression of the α(5) subunit in the turtle spinal cord. Together, these results suggest that GABA(A) receptors containing the α(5) subunit mediate the tonic inhibitory currents observed in VHIs. PMID:21798246

  1. Age- and sex-related characteristics of tonic GABA currents in the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    PubMed

    Chudomel, O; Hasson, H; Bojar, M; Moshé, S L; Galanopoulou, A S

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that the pharmacologic effects of GABAergic drugs and the postsynaptic phasic GABAAergic inhibitory responses in the anterior part of the rat substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNRA) are age- and sex-specific. Here, we investigate whether there are age- and sex-related differences in the expression of the δ GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunit and GABAAR mediated tonic currents. We have used δ-specific immunochemistry and whole cell patch clamp to study GABAAR mediated tonic currents in the SNRA of male and female postnatal day (PN) PN5-9, PN11-16, and PN25-32 rats. We observed age-related decline, but no sex-specific changes, in bicuculline (BIM) sensitive GABAAR tonic current density, which correlated with the decline in δ subunit in the SNRA between PN15 and 30. Furthermore, we show that the GABAAR tonic currents can be modified by muscimol (GABAAR agonist; partial GABACR agonist), THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo (5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol: α4β3δ GABAARs agonist and GABACR antagonist), and zolpidem (α1-subunit selective GABAAR agonist) in age- and sex-dependent manner specific for each drug. We propose that the emergence of the GABAAR-sensitive anticonvulsant effects of the rat SNRA during development may depend upon the developmental decline in tonic GABAergic inhibition of the activity of rat SNRA neurons, although other sex-specific factors are also involved. PMID:25645446

  2. The quest for a herbal contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, R R

    1993-01-01

    An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a

  3. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2012-09-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  4. Distribution of Herbal Remedy Knowledge in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Allison; Stepp, John Richard

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of herbal remedy knowledge among a group of people is studied for two main reasons: (1) to identify plants that are promising for pharmacological analysis, and (2) to examine the factors that lead to herbal remedy knowledge erosion as opposed to dynamism in the acquisition of knowledge. The goal of this particular study, which is aligned with the second reason, is to establish the variation in herbal remedy knowledge among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, Yucatan, Mexico. Free listing and cultural consensus analysis revealed that knowledge about a few medicinal plants and herbal remedies was distributed widely among the Yucatec Maya in Tabi, whereas the majority of knowledge was idiosyncratic. This finding was consistent with other studies of herbal remedy knowledge distribution among indigenous groups in Latin America and Africa. Assessing patterns in the distribution of herbal remedy knowledge is an important next step in determining the degree of dynamism or erosion in knowledge acquisition and transmission in Tabi. PMID:23539665

  5. [Herbal medicines alternative to synthetical medicines].

    PubMed

    Beer, A M; Schilcher, H; Loew, D

    2013-12-16

    Herbal pharmaceuticals in medical practice are similarly used as chemically well defined drugs. Like other synthetical drugs, they are subject to pharmaceutical legislature (AMG) and EU directives. It is to differentiate between phytopharmaceuticals with effectiveness of proven indications and traditional registered herbal medicine. Through the Health Reform Act January 2004 and the policy of the Common Federal Committee (G-BA)on the contractual medical care from March 2009--with four exceptions--Non-prescription Phytopharmaka of the legal Health insurance is no longer (SHI) refundable and must be paid by the patients. The result is that more and more well-established preparations disappear from the market. This article gives an overview of practical relevant indications for herbal medicines, which according to its licensing status, the scientific assessment by the Cochrane Collaboration and the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) and evidence-based Medicine (EBM)/ meta-analyzes as an alternative to synthetics can be used. PMID:24934061

  6. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  7. Safety concerns of herbal products and traditional Chinese herbal medicines: dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acid.

    PubMed

    Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D

    2015-12-01

    In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. PMID:26152912

  8. Estrogenic effects of herbal medicines from Costa Rica used for the management of menopausal symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Brian J.; Frasor, Jonna; Bellows, Lauren E.; Locklear, Tracie D.; Perez, Alice; Gomez- Laurito, Jorge; Mahady, Gail. B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Outcomes from the Women's Health Initiative have demonstrated adverse effects associated with hormone therapy (HT), and have prioritized the need to develop new alternative treatments for the management of menopause and osteoporosis. To this end, we have been investigating natural herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to manage menopausal symptoms. Design Seventeen plant species were collected and extracted in Costa Rica. To establish possible mechanisms of action, and determine their potential future use for menopause or osteoporosis, the estrogenic activities of the herbal extracts were investigated in an estrogen reporter gene ERβ-CALUX® assay in U2-OS cells, and in reporter and endogenous gene assays in MCF-7 cells. Results Six of the plant extracts bound to the estrogen receptors. Four of the six extracts stimulated reporter gene expression in the ERβ-CALUX® assay. All six extracts modulated expression of endogenous genes in MCF-7 cells, with four extracts acting as estrogen agonists and two extracts, Pimenta dioica and Smilax domingensis, acting as partial agonist/antagonists by enhancing E2-stimulated pS2 mRNA expression, but reducing E2-stimulated PR and PTGES mRNA expression. Both P. dioica and S. domingensis induced a 2ERE-luciferase reporter gene in transient transfected MCF-7 cells, which was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182780. Conclusions This work presents a plausible mechanism of action for many of the herbal medicines used by Costa Rican women to treat menopausal symptoms. However, it further suggests that studies of safety and efficacy are needed before these herbs should be used as alternative therapies to HT. PMID:19424091

  9. Reduced tonicity stimulates an inflammatory response in nucleus pulposus tissue that can be limited by a COX-2-specific inhibitor.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Bart; Potier, Esther; van DIjk, Maarten; Langelaan, Marloes; Papen-Botterhuis, Nicole; Ito, Keita

    2015-11-01

    In intervertebral disc herniation with nucleus pulposus (NP) extrusion, the elicited inflammatory response is considered a key pain mechanism. However, inflammatory cytokines are reported in extruded herniated tissue, even before monocyte infiltration, suggesting that the tissue itself initiates the inflammation. Since herniated tissue swells, we investigated whether this simple mechanobiological stimulus alone could provoke an inflammatory response that could cause pain. Furthermore, we investigated whether sustained-release cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor would be beneficial in such conditions. Healthy bovine NP explants were allowed to swell freely or confined. The swelling explants were treated with Celecoxib, applied either as a bolus or in sustained-release. Swelling explants produced elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) for 28 days, while confined explants did not. Both a high concentration bolus and 10 times lower concentration in sustained release completely inhibited PGE2 production, but did not affect IL-6 production. Swelling of NP tissue, without the inflammatory system response, can trigger cytokine production and Celecoxib, even in bolus form, may be useful for pain control in extruded disc herniation. PMID:25991050

  10. Herbal therapy: A review of emerging pharmacological tools in the management of diabetes mellitus in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kibiti, Cromwell Mwiti; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic physiological glucose metabolic disorder. It has affected millions of people all over the world thereby having a significant impact on quality of life. The management of diabetes includes both nonpharmacological and conventional interventions. Drawbacks in conventional therapy have led to seeking alternative therapy in herbal medicine. Therefore, the need to review, elucidate and classify their mode of action in therapy for diabetes disease arises. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive literature reports were used to review all conventional agents and herbal therapy used in the management of diabetes. An online database search was conducted for medicinal plants of African origin that have been investigated for their antidiabetic therapeutic potentials. Results: The results showed that of the documented sixty five plants used, fourteen inhibit intestinal absorption of glucose, three exhibit insulin-mimetic properties, seventeen stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, twelve enhance peripheral glucose uptake, one promotes regeneration of beta-cell of islets of Langerhans, thirteen ameliorate oxidative stress and twenty induces hypoglycemic effect (mode of action is still obscure). Thirteen of these plants have a duplicate mode of actions while one of them has three modes of actions. These agents have a similar mechanism of action as the conventional drugs. Conclusion: In conclusion, antidiabetic activities of these plants are well established; however, the molecular modulation remains unknown. It is envisaged that the use of herbal therapy will promote good health and improve the status of diabetic patients. PMID:26664014

  11. Systematic changes in tonic physiological activities during the Concealed Information Test.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tokihiro; Matsuda, Izumi; Hirota, Akihisa; Takasawa, Noriyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Many studies on the Concealed Information Test have focused on phasic physiological changes that are temporally locked to stimulus presentation. However, little is known about changes in tonic, basal physiological levels throughout a stimulus series. This study focused on changes in tonic physiological activities during the CIT. Thirty-nine participants carried out a mock theft and subsequently received a CIT. Skin conductance, heart rate, and normalized pulse volume (NPV) were recorded. The pre-stimulus physiological level of these measures throughout the CIT series was compared across a question series with different serial positions of the relevant item. Results showed that changes in the pre-stimulus level differed depending on the serial position of the relevant item. Skin conductance declined throughout the series, but showed a transient increase after relevant item presentation. Heart rate was relatively constant throughout the series, but decreased after relevant item presentation. NPV continued to decrease until the relevant item, but increased thereafter, indicating a pattern similar to the classic Peak of Tension concept. In addition, the pre-stimulus NPV showed a significant relevant-irrelevant difference. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25152172

  12. Obesity attenuates formalin-induced tonic pain in British Angora rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Dhungel, S; Sinha, M; Paudel, B H; Bhattacharya, N; Mandal, M B

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is known to alter various physiological parameters including the pain sensitivity. There are conflicting reports on the pain sensitivity in obesity. In this context, the present study was aimed to investigate the tonic pain response in obese rabbit model. To achieve this aim, two groups of adult male British Angora rabbits were used. One of the groups was fed with standard rabbit chow and served as control. The other group was fed high fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks to produce obesity. The standard formalin test was performed at the start and after 10 weeks of dietary regimen in both the groups. Timed behavioral responses (limping, elevation of paw, licking, biting, grooming etc.) were categorized and quantified with the help of standard pain rating scale. The total average pain rating score decreased significantly from 2.01 +/- 0.02 to 1.47 +/- 0.08 (P < 0.05) in HFD group after 10 weeks of dietary regimen, whereas there was no change in the control group. A significant negative correlation was observed between body weight and pain rating score in HFD group of rabbits (P < 0.05, r = -0.62). Results suggest that obesity attenuates the tonic pain responses induced by formalin in British Angora rabbits. PMID:19810581

  13. The 'tonic' pain-related behaviour seen in mononeuropathic rats is modulated by morphine and naloxone.

    PubMed

    Jazat, F; Guilbaud, G

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity to pharmacological manipulations of a rating method, adapted from the formalin test, to measure the tonic component of the pain-related behaviour induced by creating a peripheral mononeuropathy with 4 loose ligatures around the common sciatic nerve. Although the adequacy of opioid substances in alleviating neuropathic pain is highly controversial, the effects of morphine (1 mg/kg i.v.) and naloxone (1 mg/and 3 micrograms/kg i.v.) were tested 1-2 weeks after the nerve ligatures were established, when pain-related behaviours were well developed. Morphine (1 mg/kg i.v.) induced a potent and prolonged decrease in the pain-rating score at week 2 after surgery. Either at week 1 or week 2, naloxone elicited a bidirectional dose-dependent action: a further increase in the pain-rating score with the high dose (1 mg/kg i.v.), and a paradoxical decrease in the score with the low dose of 3 micrograms/kg i.v. These effects are comparable to those already described in several rat models of inflammatory pain and, in the same model of neuropathy, using a phasic nociceptive test, the measure of the vocalization to paw pressure. A few differences in the effects of naloxone on tonic and phasic pain are noted and discussed. PMID:2038495

  14. Mechanism of bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the porcine lower esophageal sphincter

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Chang, Li-Ching; Lin, Kai-Jen; Tey, Shu-Leei; Su, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Huang, Shih-Che

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder that is related to an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Previous studies showed that bombesin could increase LES pressure in humans and opossums. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of bombesin on porcine LES contraction. We used the selective agonists, neuromedin B (NMB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and [D-Tyr6,Apa-4Cl11,Phe13,Nle14]bombesin-(6-14) (DTACPN-BN), as well as receptor antagonists of bombesin receptor subtype 2 (BB2), and 3 (BB3) for ex vivo contraction studies. Atropine, nifedipine, tetrodotoxin, and ω-conotoxin GVIA were used to explore the agonist-induced LES contraction mechanism. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect bombesin receptor expression. Our results indicate that GRP and DTACPN-BN, but not NMB, induced tonic contractions of the porcine LES in a dose-dependent manner, and the contractions were inhibited with selective BB2 and BB3 antagonists. The GRP-induced contraction is mainly caused by L-type Ca2+ channel-mediated Ca2+ influx. However, DTACPN-BN-induced contractions are associated with neuronal conduction. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that BB2 and BB3 were expressed in the porcine LES. Bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the LES is mediated through BB2 and BB3. Bombesin, BB2, and BB3 agonists might have the potential to treat GERD. PMID:26522854

  15. The leak channel NALCN controls tonic firing and glycolytic sensitivity of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lutas, Andrew; Lahmann, Carolina; Soumillon, Magali; Yellen, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Certain neuron types fire spontaneously at high rates, an ability that is crucial for their function in brain circuits. The spontaneously active GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), a major output of the basal ganglia, provide tonic inhibition of downstream brain areas. A depolarizing 'leak' current supports this firing pattern, but its molecular basis remains poorly understood. To understand how SNr neurons maintain tonic activity, we used single-cell RNA sequencing to determine the transcriptome of individual mouse SNr neurons. We discovered that SNr neurons express the sodium leak channel, NALCN, and that SNr neurons lacking NALCN have impaired spontaneous firing. In addition, NALCN is involved in the modulation of excitability by changes in glycolysis and by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our findings suggest that disruption of NALCN could impair the basal ganglia circuit, which may underlie the severe motor deficits in humans carrying mutations in NALCN. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15271.001 PMID:27177420

  16. Mechanism of bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the porcine lower esophageal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Chang, Li-Ching; Lin, Kai-Jen; Tey, Shu-Leei; Su, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Ching-Wen; Tsai, Tong-Rong; Huang, Shih-Che

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a disorder that is related to an incompetent lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Previous studies showed that bombesin could increase LES pressure in humans and opossums. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of bombesin on porcine LES contraction. We used the selective agonists, neuromedin B (NMB), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), and [D-Tyr(6),Apa-4Cl(11),Phe(13),Nle(14)]bombesin-(6-14) (DTACPN-BN), as well as receptor antagonists of bombesin receptor subtype 2 (BB2), and 3 (BB3) for ex vivo contraction studies. Atropine, nifedipine, tetrodotoxin, and ω-conotoxin GVIA were used to explore the agonist-induced LES contraction mechanism. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect bombesin receptor expression. Our results indicate that GRP and DTACPN-BN, but not NMB, induced tonic contractions of the porcine LES in a dose-dependent manner, and the contractions were inhibited with selective BB2 and BB3 antagonists. The GRP-induced contraction is mainly caused by L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx. However, DTACPN-BN-induced contractions are associated with neuronal conduction. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that BB2 and BB3 were expressed in the porcine LES. Bombesin-induced tonic contraction of the LES is mediated through BB2 and BB3. Bombesin, BB2, and BB3 agonists might have the potential to treat GERD. PMID:26522854

  17. Tonic inhibition and ponto-geniculo-occipital-related activities shape abducens motoneuron discharge during REM sleep

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Miguel; Márquez-Ruiz, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Eye movements, ponto-geniculo-occipital (PGO) waves, muscular atonia and desynchronized cortical activity are the main characteristics of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Although eye movements designate this phase, little is known about the activity of the oculomotor system during REM sleep. In this work, we recorded binocular eye movements by the scleral search-coil technique and the activity of identified abducens (ABD) motoneurons along the sleep–wake cycle in behaving cats. The activity of ABD motoneurons during REM sleep was characterized by a tonic decrease of their mean firing rate throughout this period, and short bursts and pauses coinciding with the occurrence of PGO waves. We demonstrate that the decrease in the mean firing discharge was due to an active inhibition of ABD motoneurons, and that the occurrence of primary and secondary PGO waves induced a pattern of simultaneous but opposed phasic activation and inhibition on each ABD nucleus. With regard to eye movements, during REM sleep ABD motoneurons failed to codify eye position as during alertness, but continued to codify eye velocity. The pattern of tonic inhibition and the phasic activations and inhibitions shown by ABD motoneurons coincide with those reported in other non-oculomotor motoneurons, indicating that the oculomotor system – contrary to what has been accepted until now – is not different from other motor systems during REM sleep, and that all motor systems are receiving similar command signals during this period. PMID:18499728

  18. Aberrant long-range functional connectivity density in generalized tonic-clonic seizures.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling; Li, Yibo; Wang, Yifeng; Li, Rong; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2016-06-01

    Studies in generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) have reported both structural and functional alterations in the brain. However, changes in spontaneous neuronal functional organization in GTCS remain largely unknown.In this study, 70 patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy characterized by tonic-clonic seizures and 70 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. Here, functional connectivity density (FCD) mapping, an ultrafast data-driven method based on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), was applied for the first time to investigate the changes of spontaneous functional brain activity caused by epilepsy.The results showed significantly decreased long-range FCD in the middle and inferior temporal, prefrontal, and inferior parietal cortices as well as increased long-range FCD in the cerebellum anterior lobe and sensorimotor areas. Negative correlation between duration of disease and reduced long-range FCD was found. In addition, most regions with reduced long-range FCD showed decreased resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) within default mode network.Negative correlation between duration of disease and long-range FCD may reflect an adverse consequence eventually from original. Furthermore, the observed FCD and rsFC alterations have been speculated to be associated with the social-cognitive impairments as well as motor control. Our study provided novel evidences to look into neuro-pathophysiological mechanisms underlying GTCS. PMID:27310985

  19. To Take Risk is to Face Loss: A Tonic Pupillometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Yechiam, Eldad; Telpaz, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    The construct of risk taking is studied through the prism of the relation between tonic arousal and risk taking behavior. Several theories have proposed that high aroused individuals tend to exhibit risk aversion. We posit that this arousal–behavior association is activated much more strongly in risks with losses, as losses increase arousal and trigger relevant traits associated with the sensitivity to risk. In three studies we examined risk taking in experience-based decision tasks, with either token losses or relative-losses (in the gain domain). In Study 1 we found a negative correlation between pre-task pupil diameter and risk taking in the loss domain but not in the gain domain. In Study 2 we re-analyzed a previous pupillometry dataset involving symmetric mixed gains and losses. We found that the negative correlation in this mixed condition emerged even while the participants did not show loss aversion. This finding was replicated in Study 3. Thus, the effect of losses on arousal provides sufficient conditions for the moderation of the tonic arousal–behavior association. The findings suggest an important role for losses in the psychological and physiological experience of risk. PMID:22125546

  20. [Arthur Simons on tonic neck reflexes in persons with hemiplegia. From the years 1916 to 1919].

    PubMed

    Holdorff, B

    2012-04-01

    Tonic neck reflexes described in 1921 by Magnus and deKlejn in animals and men were studied in hemiplegic patients who were mainly victims of WWI by Arthur Simons, a neurologist in Berlin and coworker of Hermann Oppenheim. The effect of the asymmetric neck reflexes after head rotation was restricted to the paralyzed side: tonus (spasms) of extension and adduction during mid-position of the head or head version to the paralyzed side; flexion tonus and abduction during head version to the non-paralyzed side; and flexion tonus (spasms) of the paralyzed limbs during flexion of the head and extension spasms by head extension. More than this, hemiplegic "Mitbewegungen" or associated reactions (Walshe) were observed. They are elicited by conscious innervations of the unaffected side, e.g. by fist closure, and are increased or varied by head rotation, the tonic neck reflexes. They occurred in 25%. A film with Arthur Simons as examiner from the years 1916-1919 shows these nearly forgotten phenomena. Their everyday significance was already stressed in 1920, long before the rules of antispastic positions were defined by Bobath. PMID:21845452

  1. Challenges and patenting strategies for Chinese herbal medicine

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Patents for Chinese herbal medicines can be difficult to obtain. When the active ingredients of an herbal formula are known, danfang (single herb prescriptions) is better protected with quantified composition claims. When the active ingredients are unknown, 'product by processing', 'method of processing', 'method of administration' and 'new use claims' are often powerful tools to distinguish a traditional danfang from 'the prior art'. Additional patents may also be filed continuously in the product development process. Existing patents for fufang (composite prescriptions) are primarily drafted to protect traditional herbal formulations. More efforts are needed to protect various herbal combinations and their multiple applications. PMID:20637103

  2. Herbal Drug Regulation and Commercialization: An Indian Industry Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Padmavati

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess the constraints for Indian herbal drug industry with respect to manufacturing and commercialization of herbal medicines. Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to obtain primary data on challenges faced during production, commercialization, and marketing approval for traditional or herbal drugs in India and abroad. Responses were collected from 150 companies by email, telephone, and in-person interviews from June 2009 to August 2010 and were analyzed to draw appropriate conclusions. Results: The survey result showed that differing regulatory requirements and the limited market in foreign countries are the major hindrances for exporting. Standardization and quality control of raw materials and herbal formulations emerged as the major challenge for Indian herbal drug manufacturing firms. Insufficient regulatory guidelines, particularly guidelines for good manufacturing practices; nonimplementation of good agricultural and collection practices; and weak implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940 are considered major drawbacks for the Indian herbal industry. Conclusions: Proper implementation of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act of 1940, development of more elaborate guidelines on quality control aspects, and development of marker-based standards are needed to produce safe and effective herbal medicines in India. Because evidence-based studies are becoming increasingly essential for establishing the safety and efficacy of herbal products in the domestic and export market, more focus should be placed on scientific and technological advancement in the field of herbal medicine. Regulatory harmonization becomes essential to mitigate the delays in commercialization across countries. PMID:23829812

  3. Elucidation of tonic and activated B-cell receptor signaling in Burkitt's lymphoma provides insights into regulation of cell survival.

    PubMed

    Corso, Jasmin; Pan, Kuan-Ting; Walter, Roland; Doebele, Carmen; Mohr, Sebastian; Bohnenberger, Hanibal; Ströbel, Philipp; Lenz, Christof; Slabicki, Mikolaj; Hüllein, Jennifer; Comoglio, Federico; Rieger, Michael A; Zenz, Thorsten; Wienands, Jürgen; Engelke, Michael; Serve, Hubert; Urlaub, Henning; Oellerich, Thomas

    2016-05-17

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a highly proliferative B-cell neoplasm and is treated with intensive chemotherapy that, because of its toxicity, is often not suitable for the elderly or for patients with endemic BL in developing countries. BL cell survival relies on signals transduced by B-cell antigen receptors (BCRs). However, tonic as well as activated BCR signaling networks and their relevance for targeted therapies in BL remain elusive. We have systematically characterized and compared tonic and activated BCR signaling in BL by quantitative phosphoproteomics to identify novel BCR effectors and potential drug targets. We identified and quantified ∼16,000 phospho-sites in BL cells. Among these sites, 909 were related to tonic BCR signaling, whereas 984 phospho-sites were regulated upon BCR engagement. The majority of the identified BCR signaling effectors have not been described in the context of B cells or lymphomas yet. Most of these newly identified BCR effectors are predicted to be involved in the regulation of kinases, transcription, and cytoskeleton dynamics. Although tonic and activated BCR signaling shared a considerable number of effector proteins, we identified distinct phosphorylation events in tonic BCR signaling. We investigated the functional relevance of some newly identified BCR effectors and show that ACTN4 and ARFGEF2, which have been described as regulators of membrane-trafficking and cytoskeleton-related processes, respectively, are crucial for BL cell survival. Thus, this study provides a comprehensive dataset for tonic and activated BCR signaling and identifies effector proteins that may be relevant for BL cell survival and thus may help to develop new BL treatments. PMID:27155012

  4. Tonic Inhibition of Accumbal Spiny Neurons by Extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA Receptors Modulates the Actions of Psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Edward P.; Macpherson, Tom; Swinny, Jerome D.; Dixon, Claire I.; Herd, Murray B.; Belelli, Delia; Stephens, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), synaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) mediate phasic inhibition of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and influence behavioral responses to cocaine. We demonstrate that both dopamine D1- and D2-receptor-expressing MSNs (D-MSNs) additionally harbor extrasynaptic GABAARs incorporating α4, β, and δ subunits that mediate tonic inhibition, thereby influencing neuronal excitability. Both the selective δ-GABAAR agonist THIP and DS2, a selective positive allosteric modulator, greatly increased the tonic current of all MSNs from wild-type (WT), but not from δ−/− or α4−/− mice. Coupling dopamine and tonic inhibition, the acute activation of D1 receptors (by a selective agonist or indirectly by amphetamine) greatly enhanced tonic inhibition in D1-MSNs but not D2-MSNs. In contrast, prolonged D2 receptor activation modestly reduced the tonic conductance of D2-MSNs. Behaviorally, WT and constitutive α4−/− mice did not differ in their expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP). Importantly, however, mice with the α4 deletion specific to D1-expressing neurons (α4D1−/−) showed increased CPP. Furthermore, THIP administered systemically or directly into the NAc of WT, but not α4−/− or α4D1−/− mice, blocked cocaine enhancement of CPP. In comparison, α4D2−/− mice exhibited normal CPP, but no cocaine enhancement. In conclusion, dopamine modulation of GABAergic tonic inhibition of D1- and D2-MSNs provides an intrinsic mechanism to differentially affect their excitability in response to psychostimulants and thereby influence their ability to potentiate conditioned reward. Therefore, α4βδ GABAARs may represent a viable target for the development of novel therapeutics to better understand and influence addictive behaviors. PMID:24431441

  5. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  6. Legal requirements for the quality of herbal substances and herbal preparations for the manufacturing of herbal medicinal products in the European union.

    PubMed

    Vlietinck, Arnold; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2009-06-01

    In the European Union (EU) herbal medicinal products have become increasingly important. This is, for instance, underlined by the recent introduction of a simplified procedure in the Member States of the EU allowing the registration of herbal medicinal products which fulfill the criteria of a traditional herbal medicinal product, i.e., sufficient evidence of its medicinal use throughout a period of at least 30 years for products in the EU and at least 15 years within the EU and 15 years elsewhere for products outside the EU. With regard to the manufacturing of these products and their quality, applications of traditional herbal medicinal products have to fulfil the same requirements as applications for a marketing authorization. The quality of herbal substances as well as herbal preparations will be determined by the availability of modern science-based public monographs in the European Pharmacopoeia and their equivalents developed by the pharmaceutical industry. The standards put forward in these monographs must allow us not only to define the quality of these products, but also to eliminate dangerous counterfeit, substandard, adulterated and contaminated (traditional) herbal medicinal products. The usefulness of these monographs to implement the criteria on quality and specifications put forward for these products in the different guidelines of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) is discussed. PMID:19204891

  7. Introducing Experimental Design by Evaluating Efficacy of Herbal Remedies (Do Herbal Remedies Really Work?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert A.; Pontiggia, Laura; Waterman, Carrie; Lichtenwalner, Meghan

    2010-01-01

    This paper is based upon experiments developed as part of a Directed Research course designed to provide undergraduate biology students experience in the principles and processes of the scientific method used in biological research. The project involved the evaluation of herbal remedies used in many parts of the world in the treatment of diseases…

  8. Effects of herbal and non-herbal toothpastes on plaque and gingivitis: A clinical comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Tatikonda, Aravind; Debnath, Surangama; Chauhan, Vivek Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap; Taranath, M; Sharma, Akanksha Manmohan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Presence of plaque may be the culprit for dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal problems, and halitosis. Many mechanical aids are practiced worldwide to remove or control plaque, including tooth brushes, dental floss, mouth rinses, and dentifrices. The objective of this clinical study was to investigate the effectiveness of herbal toothpaste (Dabur Red) in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as compared to conventional (non-herbal) dentifrice (Pepsodent). Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 subjects aged 35–43 years with established gingivitis and at least 20 natural teeth, and having a probing depth <3 mm were investigated. After the washout period, plaque and gingival index (PI and GI, respectively) scores were assessed at days 0 and 30. Differences between groups were compared with Mann–Whitney U test and the mean scores of PI and GI by Wilcoxon test. Statistical difference between the weights of dentifrices tubes on days 0 and 30 was evaluated by Student's t-test. Results: At the end of 30 days of the study, there was statistically significant difference between both the groups for plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: After 30 days of trial, both test and control groups showed effective reduction of plaque and gingivitis, which was statistically significant. No adverse reactions to dentifrices products were observed during the trial. It was concluded that herbal dentifrice was as effective as non-herbal dentifrices in the control of plaque and gingivitis. PMID:25558453

  9. A Review on Hepatoprotective and Immunomodulatory Herbal Plants.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, Uorakkottil; Katare, Deepshikha P; Aeri, Vidhu; Naseef, Punnooth Poonguzi

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. There are five main viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E. These five types are of the greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the drug regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of liver disease for a long time. The immune system is the part of body that diagnoses the pathogen by using a specific receptor to reveal immediate response by the activation of immune components cells, chemokines, and cytokines, and also the release of the inflammatory mediator. They potentiate and modulate the immune system. The plant-derived phytoconstituents (polysaccharides, proteins and flavanoids, lignans, rotenoids, etc.) stimulate the immune system and maintained hepatic diseases. There are a number of hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs that have been reported. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs. PMID:27041876

  10. A Review on Hepatoprotective and Immunomodulatory Herbal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, Uorakkottil; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu; Naseef, Punnooth Poonguzi

    2016-01-01

    The liver is the most important organ that plays an important role in maintaining various physiological processes in the body. Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver and is characterized by the presence of inflammatory cells in the tissue of the organ. There are five main viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D, and E. These five types are of the greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death. Liver injury or liver dysfunction is a major health problem that challenges not only health care professionals but also the drug regulatory agencies and the pharmaceutical industry. Herbal medicines have been used in the treatment of liver disease for a long time. The immune system is the part of body that diagnoses the pathogen by using a specific receptor to reveal immediate response by the activation of immune components cells, chemokines, and cytokines, and also the release of the inflammatory mediator. They potentiate and modulate the immune system. The plant-derived phytoconstituents (polysaccharides, proteins and flavanoids, lignans, rotenoids, etc.) stimulate the immune system and maintained hepatic diseases. There are a number of hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs that have been reported. The present review is aimed at compiling data on promising phytochemicals from hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory herbs. PMID:27041876