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Sample records for herd level reducing

  1. Dynamic changes in antibody levels as an early warning of Salmonella Dublin in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, A; Bødker, R; Nielsen, L R

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Dublin is a bacterium that causes disease and production losses in cattle herds. In Denmark, a surveillance and control program was initiated in 2002 to monitor and reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin. In dairy herds, the surveillance includes herd classification based on bulk tank milk measurements of antibodies directed against Salmonella Dublin at 3-mo intervals. In this study, an "alarm herd" concept, based on the dynamic progression of these repeated measurements, was formulated such that it contains predictive power for Salmonella Dublin herd classification change from "likely free of infection" to "likely infected" in the following quarter of the year, thus warning the farmer 3 mo earlier than the present system. The alarm herd concept was defined through aberrations from a stable development over time of antibody levels. For suitable parameter choices, alarm herd status was a positive predictor for Salmonella Dublin status change in dairy herds, in that alarm herds had a higher risk of changing status in the following quarter compared with nonalarm herds. This was despite the fact that both alarm and nonalarm herds had antibody levels that did not indicate the herds being "likely infected" according to the existing classification system in the present quarter. The alarm herd concept can be used as a new early warning element in the existing surveillance program. Additionally, to improve accuracy of herd classification, the alarm herd concept could be incorporated into a model including other known risk factors for change in herd classification. Furthermore, the model could be extended to other diseases monitored in similar ways. PMID:24140322

  2. Bayesian modeling of animal- and herd-level prevalences.

    PubMed

    Branscum, A J; Gardner, I A; Johnson, W O

    2004-12-15

    We reviewed Bayesian approaches for animal-level and herd-level prevalence estimation based on cross-sectional sampling designs and demonstrated fitting of these models using the WinBUGS software. We considered estimation of infection prevalence based on use of a single diagnostic test applied to a single herd with binomial and hypergeometric sampling. We then considered multiple herds under binomial sampling with the primary goal of estimating the prevalence distribution and the proportion of infected herds. A new model is presented that can be used to estimate the herd-level prevalence in a region, including the posterior probability that all herds are non-infected. Using this model, inferences for the distribution of prevalences, mean prevalence in the region, and predicted prevalence of herds in the region (including the predicted probability of zero prevalence) are also available. In the models presented, both animal- and herd-level prevalences are modeled as mixture distributions to allow for zero infection prevalences. (If mixture models for the prevalences were not used, prevalence estimates might be artificially inflated, especially in herds and regions with low or zero prevalence.) Finally, we considered estimation of animal-level prevalence based on pooled samples. PMID:15579338

  3. Eradication of bovine tuberculosis at a herd-level in Madrid, Spain: study of within-herd transmission dynamics over a 12 year period

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eradication of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) through the application of test-and-cull programs is a declared goal of developed countries in which the disease is still endemic. Here, longitudinal data from more than 1,700 cattle herds tested during a 12 year-period in the eradication program in the region of Madrid, Spain, were analyzed to quantify the within-herd transmission coefficient (β) depending on the herd-type (beef/dairy/bullfighting). In addition, the probability to recover the officially bTB free (OTF) status in infected herds depending on the type of herd and the diagnostic strategy implemented was assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Overall, dairy herds showed higher β (median 4.7) than beef or bullfighting herds (2.3 and 2.2 respectively). Introduction of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) as an ancillary test produced an apparent increase in the β coefficient regardless of production type, likely due to an increase in diagnostic sensitivity. Time to recover OTF status was also significantly lower in dairy herds, and length of bTB episodes was significantly reduced when the IFN-γ was implemented to manage the outbreak. Conclusions Our results suggest that bTB spreads more rapidly in dairy herds compared to other herd types, a likely cause being management and demographic-related factors. However, outbreaks in dairy herds can be controlled more rapidly than in typically extensive herd types. Finally, IFN-γ proved its usefulness to rapidly eradicate bTB at a herd-level. PMID:22748007

  4. Herd-level risk factors for Campylobacter fetus infection, Brucella seropositivity and within-herd seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mai, H M; Irons, P C; Kabir, J; Thompson, P N

    2013-09-01

    Brucellosis and campylobacteriosis are economically important diseases affecting bovine reproductive efficiency in Nigeria. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in 271 cattle herds in Adamawa, Kaduna and Kano states of northern Nigeria using multistage cluster sampling. Serum from 4745 mature animals was tested for Brucella antibodies using the Rose-Bengal plate test and positives were confirmed in series-testing protocol using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Preputial scrapings from 602 bulls were tested using culture and identification for Campylobacter fetus. For each disease, a herd was classified as positive if one or more animals tested positive. For each herd, information on potential managemental and environmental risk factors was collected through a questionnaire administered during an interview with the manager, owner or herdsman. Multiple logistic regression models were used to model the odds of herd infection for each disease. A zero-inflated Poisson model was used to model the count of Brucella-positive animals within herds, with the number tested as an exposure variable. The presence of small ruminants (sheep and/or goats) on the same farm, and buying-in of >3 new animals in the previous year or failure to practice quarantine were associated with increased odds of herd-level campylobacteriosis and brucellosis, as well as increased within-herd counts of Brucella-positive animals. In addition, high rainfall, initial acquisition of animals from markets, practice of gynaecological examination and failure to practice herd prophylactic measures were positively associated with the odds of C. fetus infection in the herd. Herd size of >15, pastoral management system and presence of handling facility on the farm were associated with increased odds, and gynaecological examination with reduced odds of herd-level Brucella seropositivity. Furthermore, the zero-inflated Poisson model showed that borrowing or sharing of bulls was associated with

  5. Herd-level determinants of bovine leukaemia virus prevalence in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Erskine, Ronald J; Bartlett, Paul C; Byrem, Todd M; Render, Chelsea L; Febvay, Catherine; Houseman, Jessica T

    2012-11-01

    The prevalence of bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) was determined in 113 Michigan dairy herds by ELISA testing for anti-BLV antibodies in milk. Additionally, an interview regarding management practices with cooperating herd managers identified farm-level variables thought to be associated with prevalence of BLV. Twenty-three risk factors (P ≤ 0·1) were identified on one-way ANOVA or simple linear regression. Multivariate analysis identified several management practices whose predictive value for increased prevalence of BLV may relate to transmission among herd mates, e.g. reuse of hypodermic needles, lack of fly control, gouge dehorning and increased use of injections in dry cows. Additionally, exclusive breeding of heifers with artificial insemination was associated with decreased BLV prevalence, as compared with at least some use of natural service by a bull. Although intervention studies are needed before causal relationships can be concluded, and unaccounted variables related to transmission exist among dairy herds, these findings suggest management practices that may help dairy producers reduce the transmission of BLV within their herds. PMID:22963749

  6. Cow- and herd-level risk factors for on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Shahid, M Q; Reneau, J K; Chester-Jones, H; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe on-farm mortality and to investigate cow- and herd-level risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds using lactation survival analysis. We analyzed a total of approximately 5.9 million DHIA lactation records from 10 Midwest US states from January 2006 to December 2010. The cow-level independent variables used in the models were first test-day milk yield, milk fat percent, milk protein percent, fat-to-protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen, somatic cell score, previous dry period, previous calving interval, stillbirth, calf sex, twinning, calving difficulty, season of calving, parity, and breed. The herd-level variables included herd size, calving interval, somatic cell score, 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield, and herd stillbirth percentage. Descriptive analysis showed that overall cow-level mortality rate was 6.4 per 100 cow-years and it increased from 5.9 in 2006 to 6.8 in 2010. Mortality was the primary reason of leaving the herd (19.4% of total culls) followed by reproduction (14.6%), injuries and other (14.0%), low production (12.3%), and mastitis (10.5%). Risk factor analysis showed that increased hazard for mortality was associated with higher fat-to-protein ratio (>1.6 vs. 1 to 1.6), higher milk fat percent, lower milk protein percent, cows with male calves, cows carrying multiple calves, higher milk urea nitrogen, increasing parity, longer previous calving interval, higher first test-day somatic cell score, increased calving difficulty score, and breed (Holstein vs. others). Decreased hazard for mortality was associated with higher first test-day milk yield, higher milk protein, and shorter dry period. For herd-level factors, increased hazard for mortality was associated with increased herd size, increased percentage of stillbirths, higher somatic cell score, and increased herd calving interval. Cows in herds with higher milk yield had lower mortality hazard. Results of the study

  7. Factors associated with herd-level PRRSV infection and age-time to seroconversion in farrow-to-finish herds.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Marois-Créhan, C; Grasland, B; Simon, G; Rose, N

    2016-08-30

    Factors associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection were investigated in 109 herds. Serums from four batches of pigs (4, 10, 16 and 22 weeks, 15 pigs/batch) were tested by ELISA for PRRSV antibodies. Infection by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, H1N1 and H1N2 swine influenza A viruses (swIAV) and PCV2 were detected by specific serological or PCR tests. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management housing and climatic conditions were collected during a herd visit. Factors associated with the herd's PRRSV seropositive status were identified by logistic regression. Large herd size, the lack of disinsectisation in the gestation facilities, on-farm semen collection, a short time-period for gilt quarantine and a low temperature setpoint for the ventilation controller in the fattening room significantly increased the odds of a herd being seropositive for PRRSV. Infection by Mhp and H1N2 swIAV were associated with a PRRSV seropositive status. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify the factors associated with the age-time to seroconversion in infected herds. Joint housing for the gilts and sows when lactating, a large nursery pen, a small number of pens per fattening room and lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening section significantly reduced the age-time to seroconversion. A small range of temperatures controlling ventilation rate in the nursery room was also associated with time to PRRSV seroconversion. Infection by Mhp and a high PCV2 infection pressure were associated with a shorter time to seroconversion. Biosecurity measures minimising the risk of introducing PRRSV into the herd, management practices reducing contacts between animals from different batches and within batches and favourable climatic conditions should be implemented to better control PRRSV infection. PMID:27527759

  8. The relationship between herd level disease incidence and a return over feed index in Ontario dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Chris J.; Lissemore, Kerry D.; Duffield, Todd F.; Leslie, Ken E.; Kelton, David F.; Grexton, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the current research was to examine the association of herd level disease incidence with the return over feed (ROF) (milk income minus feed cost) herd profit index offered through Canwest Dairy Herd Improvement. The lactational incidence risks (LIR) for displaced abomasum, retained placenta, clinical mastitis, milk fever, clinical ketosis, and lameness submitted by producers (n = 48) were similar to previous reports. However, there was no negative association of clinical disease LIR’s with ROF. Subclinical ketosis and subclinical mastitis cumulative incidence were determined during the early postpartum period by using a cow-side test for betahydroxybutyrate in milk and the California Mastitis Test, respectively. Subclinical mastitis was not associated with ROF. However, a unit increase in the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis was associated with a decrease of $0.015/cow/day in the ROF. The results highlight the economic significance that subclinical ketosis may have in Ontario dairy herds. PMID:16933554

  9. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in French cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Marsot, Maud; Béral, Marina; Scoizec, Axelle; Mathevon, Yoann; Durand, Benoit; Courcoul, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    Although officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), France has been experiencing a slight increase in the incidence and geographical spread of the infection. Eradication of bTB requires determining the infection risk factors. Although several studies identifying bTB risk factors have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Spain, no information is currently available regarding bTB risk factors in French cattle. The objective of this work was thus to study the factors associated with the risk of bTB in cattle herds in three French administrative divisions (départements of Ardennes, Côte d'Or and Dordogne). A case-control study was conducted to compare herds having experienced a bTB outbreak between 2012 and early 2014 with randomly selected control herds of the three study départements. A questionnaire of farming practices, inter-herd contacts (e.g. at pasture or via vehicles or materials), and the presence of other domestic species was carried out in the selected herds. Data on other variables of interest included animal movements between farms and potential contacts between cattle and wildlife (e.g. badger and wild boar abundances) were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression and multimodel inference methods were used to assess risk factors related to bTB. A total of 216 herds (72 cases and 144 controls) were analyzed. The two main risk factors were the presence of a recent neighboring outbreak, being defined as a neighboring herd at pasture reported as infected in the past two years (odds ratio (OR)=3.6; population attributable fraction (PAF)=30.7%) and the presence of a farm building for cattle housing or for feed storage located at more than 300-m from inhabited areas (OR=2.3; PAF=27.6%). Another risk factor was related to sharing water points at pasture with a recent neighboring outbreak. Results illustrated the multifactorial nature of bTB dynamics. The risk factors related to recently infected neighboring herds could be attributable to

  10. Evaluating results of the Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation model for classification of dairy cattle welfare at the herd level.

    PubMed

    de Vries, M; Bokkers, E A M; van Schaik, G; Botreau, R; Engel, B; Dijkstra, T; de Boer, I J M

    2013-10-01

    The Welfare Quality multi-criteria evaluation (WQ-ME) model aggregates scores of single welfare measures into an overall assessment for the level of animal welfare in dairy herds. It assigns herds to 4 welfare classes: unacceptable, acceptable, enhanced, or excellent. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the relative importance of single welfare measures for WQ-ME classification of a selected sample of Dutch dairy herds. Seven trained observers quantified 63 welfare measures of the Welfare Quality protocol in 183 loose housed- and 13 tethered Dutch dairy herds (herd size: 10 to 211 cows). First, values of welfare measures were compared among the 4 welfare classes, using Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-squared tests. Second, observed values of single welfare measures were replaced with a fictitious value, which was the median value of herds classified in the next highest class, to see if improvement of a single measure would enable a herd to reach a higher class. Sixteen herds were classified as unacceptable, 85 as acceptable, 78 as enhanced, and none as excellent. Classification could not be calculated for 17 herds because data were missing (15 herds) or data were deemed invalid because the stockperson disturbed behavioral observations (2 herds). Herds classified as unacceptable showed significantly more very lean cows, more severely lame cows, and more often an insufficient number of drinkers than herds classified as acceptable. Herds classified as acceptable showed significantly more cows with high somatic cell count, with lesions, that could not be approached closer than 1m, colliding with components of the stall while lying down, and lying outside the lying area, and showed fewer cows with diarrhea, more often had an insufficient number of drinkers, and scored lower for the descriptors "relaxed" and "happy" than herds classified as enhanced. Increasing the number of drinkers and reducing the percentage of cows colliding with components of the stall while lying down

  11. Association between bovine-leukosis virus seroprevalence and herd-level productivity on US dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ott, S L; Johnson, R; Wells, S J

    2003-12-12

    Bovine-leukosis virus (BLV; also termed 'bovine-leukemia virus') is a retrovirus that primarily affects lymphoid tissue of dairy and beef cattle. Our objective was to investigate the association between BLV infection and annual value of production (AVP) on dairy herds within the United States, as part of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's 1996 dairy study. 1006 herds (in 20 states) with at least 30 dairy cows were interviewed during 1996. The agar-gel immunodiffusion test was used to detect serum antibodies to BLV. 10-40 cows from each herd were tested and each tested cow was classified as negative or positive based on results of a single test. A multivariable regression model was used with the 976 herds with complete data for analysis. When compared to herds with no test-positive cows, herds with test-positive cows produced 218 kg per cow (i.e. 3%) less milk. The average reduction in AVP was $59 per cow for test-positive herds relative to test-negative herds. For the dairy industry as a whole, BLV seropositivity was associated with loss to producers of $285 million and $240 million for consumers. Most of this $525 million industry loss was due to reduced milk production in test-positive herds. PMID:14623410

  12. Molecular epidemiology and strain-specific characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae at the herd and cow level.

    PubMed

    Mahmmod, Y S; Klaas, I C; Katholm, J; Lutton, M; Zadoks, R N

    2015-10-01

    Host-adaptation of Streptococcus agalactiae subpopulations has been described whereby strains that are commonly associated with asymptomatic carriage or disease in people differ phenotypically and genotypically from those causing mastitis in dairy cattle. Based on multilocus sequence typing (MLST), the most common strains in dairy herds in Denmark belong to sequence types (ST) that are also frequently found in people. The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological and diagnostic characteristics of such strains in relation to bovine mastitis. Among 1,199 cattle from 6 herds, cow-level prevalence of S. agalactiae was estimated to be 27.4% based on PCR and 7.8% based on bacteriological culture. Quarter-level prevalence was estimated at 2.8% based on bacteriological culture. Per herd, between 2 and 26 isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLST. Within each herd, a single PFGE type and ST predominated, consistent with a contagious mode of transmission or point source infection within herds. Evidence of within-herd evolution of S. agalactiae was detected with both typing methods, although ST belonged to a single clonal complex (CC) per herd. Detection of CC23 (3 herds) was associated with significantly lower approximate count (colony-forming units) at the quarter level and significantly lower cycle threshold value at the cow level than detection of CC1 (2 herds) or CC19 (1 herd), indicating a lower bacterial load in CC23 infections. Median values for the number of infected quarters and somatic cell count (SCC) were numerically but not significantly lower for cows infected with CC23 than for cows with CC1 or CC19. For all CC, an SCC threshold of 200,000 cells/mL was an unreliable indicator of infection status, and prescreening of animals based on SCC as part of S. agalactiae detection and eradication campaigns should be discouraged. PMID:26233443

  13. Herd-level bovine tuberculosis risk factors: assessing the role of low-level badger population disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David M.; Reid, Neil; Ian Montgomery, W.; Allen, Adrian R.; Skuce, Robin A.; Kao, Rowland R.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine TB (bTB) is endemic in Irish cattle and has eluded eradication despite considerable expenditure, amid debate over the relative roles of badgers and cattle in disease transmission. Using a comprehensive dataset from Northern Ireland (>10,000 km2; 29,513 cattle herds), we investigated interactions between host populations in one of the first large-scale risk factor analyses for new herd breakdowns to combine data on both species. Cattle risk factors (movements, international imports, bTB history, neighbours with bTB) were more strongly associated with herd risk than area-level measures of badger social group density, habitat suitability or persecution (sett disturbance). Highest risks were in areas of high badger social group density and high rates of persecution, potentially representing both responsive persecution of badgers in high cattle risk areas and effects of persecution on cattle bTB risk through badger social group disruption. Average badger persecution was associated with reduced cattle bTB risk (compared with high persecution areas), so persecution may contribute towards sustaining bTB hotspots; findings with important implications for existing and planned disease control programmes. PMID:26279310

  14. Risk factors for herd-level bovine-tuberculosis seropositivity in transhumant cattle in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Oloya, J; Muma, J B; Opuda-Asibo, J; Djønne, B; Kazwala, R; Skjerve, E

    2007-08-16

    We investigated the prevalence and risk factors to positive herd-level tuberculin reactivity between October 2003 to May 2004 to bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in the four transhumant districts of Uganda: three districts (Karamoja region) of nomadic transhumance cattle rearing (30 superherds and 1522 cattle), and one district (Nakasongola) of fixed-transhumance (7 herds and 342 cattle). We used the comparative intradermal skin-test, sampled 50 animals per superherd/herd, and considered herd positive if there was at least one reactor. Of the 30 superherds under nomadic transhumance, 60% (95% CI 41.4, 79) were tuberculin-test positive; of the 7 fixed herds, 14.3% (95% CI -20.7, 49.2) were tuberculin test positive. The true herd prevalence was estimated at 46.6%. Many risk factors were collinear. The final multivariable logistic-regression model included: recent introductions from market (OR=3.4; 95% CI 1.1, 10.3), drinking water form mud holes during dry season (OR=49; 95% CI 9.1, 262), and the presence of monkeys (OR=0.08; 95% CI 0.0, 0.6) or warthogs (OR=0.1; 95% CI 0.0, 0.3). No association was found between herd size or number of herd contacts with reactors; it was probably masked by the effect of high between-herd interactions. Provision of water from mud holes in dry river beds and introductions of new animals are risk factors that might be targeted to control BTB in transhumance areas. PMID:17482694

  15. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors for intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, O C; Barkema, H W; Berends, I M G A; Sol, J; Lam, T J G M

    2009-02-16

    In this study, the prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in The Netherlands was estimated on 49 randomly selected herds with at least 40 lactating cows. In total, 4220 quarter milk samples were collected. The prevalence of CNS IMI in The Netherlands was estimated at 10.8% at quarter level and 34.4% at cow level, making it the most frequently isolated group of pathogens. Fourteen species of CNS were identified; the most frequently isolated species was Staphylococcus chromogenes (30.3%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (12.9%) and Staphylococcus capitis (11.0%). Prevalence of CNS IMI was higher in heifers compared to older cows. Geometric mean quarter SCC of CNS-positive quarters was 109,000 cells/ml, which was approximately twice as high as culture-negative quarters. Quarters infected with S. chromogenes, S. capitis and Staphylococcus xylosus had a higher SCC (P<0.05) than culture-negative quarters, while quarters that were culture-positive for S. epidermidis and Staphylococcus hyicus tended to have a higher SCC than culture-negative quarters. An increased prevalence of CNS IMI was associated with the herd-level variables source of drinking water not being tap water, housing of dry cows in one group instead of multiple groups, measurement of cow SCC every month, udder health monitoring by the veterinarian, pasturing during outdoor season, percentage of stalls contaminated with milk, and BMSCC>250,000 cells/ml. Although a causal relation between these factors and prevalence of CNS is not proven and for some factors not even likely, knowledge of the associations found may be helpful when approaching CNS problems on dairy farms. PMID:18977613

  16. Evaluation of two herd-level diagnostic tests for Streptococcus agalactiae using a latent class approach.

    PubMed

    Mweu, Marshal M; Toft, Nils; Katholm, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren S

    2012-09-14

    Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis persists as a significant economic problem for the dairy industry in many countries. In Denmark, the annual surveillance programme for this mastitis pathogen initially based only on bacteriological culture of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, has recently incorporated the use of the real-time PathoProof Mastitis PCR assay with the goal of improving detection of infected herds. The objective of our study was to estimate the herd sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of both tests of BTM samples using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis while evaluating the effect of herd-level covariates on the Se and Sp of the tests. BTM samples were collected from all 4258 Danish dairy herds in 2009 and screened for the presence of S. agalactiae using both tests. The highest Se of PCR was realized at a cycle threshold (Ct) cut-off value of 40. At this cut-off, the Se of the PCR was significantly higher (95.2; 95% posterior credibility interval [PCI] [88.2; 99.8]) than that of bacteriological culture (68.0; 95% PCI [55.1; 90.0]). However, culture had higher Sp (99.7; 95% PCI [99.3; 100.0]) compared to PCR (98.8; 95% PCI [97.2; 99.9]). The accuracy of the tests was unaffected by the herd-level covariates. We propose that screenings of BTM samples for S. agalactiae be based on the PCR assay with Ct readings of <40 considered as positive. However, for higher Ct values, confirmation of PCR test positive herds by bacteriological culture is advisable especially when the between-herd prevalence of S. agalactiae is low. PMID:22542270

  17. Agent-based model with multi-level herding for complex financial systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In complex financial systems, the sector structure and volatility clustering are respectively important features of the spatial and temporal correlations. However, the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure is not yet understood. Especially, how to produce these two features in one model remains challenging. We introduce a novel interaction mechanism, i.e., the multi-level herding, in constructing an agent-based model to investigate the sector structure combined with volatility clustering. According to the previous market performance, agents trade in groups, and their herding behavior comprises the herding at stock, sector and market levels. Further, we propose methods to determine the key model parameters from historical market data, rather than from statistical fitting of the results. From the simulation, we obtain the sector structure and volatility clustering, as well as the eigenvalue distribution of the cross-correlation matrix, for the New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges. These properties are in agreement with the empirical ones. Our results quantitatively reveal that the multi-level herding is the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure, and provide new insight into the spatio-temporal interactions in financial systems at the microscopic level. PMID:25669427

  18. Agent-based model with multi-level herding for complex financial systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo

    2015-01-01

    In complex financial systems, the sector structure and volatility clustering are respectively important features of the spatial and temporal correlations. However, the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure is not yet understood. Especially, how to produce these two features in one model remains challenging. We introduce a novel interaction mechanism, i.e., the multi-level herding, in constructing an agent-based model to investigate the sector structure combined with volatility clustering. According to the previous market performance, agents trade in groups, and their herding behavior comprises the herding at stock, sector and market levels. Further, we propose methods to determine the key model parameters from historical market data, rather than from statistical fitting of the results. From the simulation, we obtain the sector structure and volatility clustering, as well as the eigenvalue distribution of the cross-correlation matrix, for the New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges. These properties are in agreement with the empirical ones. Our results quantitatively reveal that the multi-level herding is the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure, and provide new insight into the spatio-temporal interactions in financial systems at the microscopic level. PMID:25669427

  19. Agent-based model with multi-level herding for complex financial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Tan, Lei; Zheng, Bo

    2015-02-01

    In complex financial systems, the sector structure and volatility clustering are respectively important features of the spatial and temporal correlations. However, the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure is not yet understood. Especially, how to produce these two features in one model remains challenging. We introduce a novel interaction mechanism, i.e., the multi-level herding, in constructing an agent-based model to investigate the sector structure combined with volatility clustering. According to the previous market performance, agents trade in groups, and their herding behavior comprises the herding at stock, sector and market levels. Further, we propose methods to determine the key model parameters from historical market data, rather than from statistical fitting of the results. From the simulation, we obtain the sector structure and volatility clustering, as well as the eigenvalue distribution of the cross-correlation matrix, for the New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges. These properties are in agreement with the empirical ones. Our results quantitatively reveal that the multi-level herding is the microscopic generation mechanism of the sector structure, and provide new insight into the spatio-temporal interactions in financial systems at the microscopic level.

  20. Short communication: Herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis is not associated with participation in a voluntary Alberta Johne's disease control program.

    PubMed

    Ritter, C; Wolf, R; Adams, C L; Kelton, D F; Pickel, C; Mason, S; Orsel, K; De Buck, J; Barkema, H W

    2016-03-01

    Johne's disease (JD) control programs for dairy farms have the general objective of reducing both cow- and herd-level prevalence of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). An important aspect of many programs is herd testing for MAP to determine the infection status of participating farms. However, it is uncertain whether MAP herd-level prevalence on farms voluntarily participating in a JD control program is different from that on nonparticipating farms. Therefore, the aim was to compare MAP infection status of participants and nonparticipants in the Alberta Johne's Disease Initiative (AJDI), a voluntary JD control program initiated in 2010 in Alberta, Canada. Between September 2012 and August 2013, environmental fecal samples were collected from 93 randomly selected farms not enrolled in the AJDI. Additionally, 81 farms that initially enrolled in the AJDI during the same time interval were also sampled. Samples were collected from 6 defined locations on each farm and cultured for MAP. Results were confirmed using conventional IS900 PCR and F 0285 quantitative PCR. Overall, 51% of participating and 51% of nonparticipating farms were identified as being MAP-infected. Furthermore, based on multivariable logistic regression, the number of MAP-positive samples was not associated with AJDI participation (taking herd size into account as a potentially modifying or confounding variable). In conclusion, there was no indication that voluntary participation in the AJDI was associated with herd-level MAP prevalence. PMID:26778309

  1. The Application of Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Counts to Monitoring Mastitis Levels in Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Meek, A.H.; Barnum, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of developing a system whereby measurements taken on bulk tank milk samples could be used to monitor the level of subclinical mastitis in dairy herds. The variables that were examined were the logarithmically transformed total somatic cell counts and percentages of cell volume in channel 8 (volumes from 89.2 to 178.3 µm3), the presence or absence of Streptococcus agalactiae and various husbandry/management factors including herdsize and the use of teat dips. Each of the use of actual monthly and rolling average bulk tank cell count determinations was investigated. It was found that the inclusion of all variables resulted in a correct classification of approximately 85% of herds and that no improvement was achieved by the use of rolling as opposed to actual monthly values. The inclusion of various husbandry/management practices improved the percentage correct classification to some extent over that achieved by the sole use of total somatic cell counts and percentages of cell volume in channel 8 when the herds were grouped on the basis of quarter infection rate (<10%, >10%) but not in the case of the cow infection rate categories (<20%, >20%). The use of both total cell counts and percentages of cell volume in channel 8 did not improve the overall predictive value over that achieved by the sole use of percentage of cell volume in channel 8 in the case of the quarter infection rate groupings but did to some extent in the case of the cow infection rate groupings. When the classification functions were applied prospectively and considering combinations of the two cell count determinations only, it was found that they were able to correctly classify, on the basis of the quarter infection rate groupings, approximately 75% of the study herds. It is concluded that the system described herein has limited application as a basis for selecting problem herds. PMID:7042053

  2. Effect of calf purchase and other herd-level risk factors on mortality, unwanted early slaughter, and use of antimicrobial group treatments in Swiss veal calf operations.

    PubMed

    Lava, M; Pardon, B; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Keckeis, K; Deprez, P; Steiner, A; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this survey was to determine herd level risk factors for mortality, unwanted early slaughter, and metaphylactic application of antimicrobial group therapy in Swiss veal calves in 2013. A questionnaire regarding farm structure, farm management, mortality and antimicrobial use was sent to all farmers registered in a Swiss label program setting requirements for improved animal welfare and sustainability. Risk factors were determined by multivariable logistic regression. A total of 619 veal producers returned a useable questionnaire (response rate=28.5%), of which 40.9% only fattened their own calves (group O), 56.9% their own calves and additional purchased calves (group O&P), and 2.3% only purchased calves for fattening (group P). A total number of 19,077 calves entered the fattening units in 2013, of which 21.7%, 66.7%, and 11.6% belonged to groups O, O&P, and P, respectively. Mortality was 0% in 322 herds (52.0%), between 0% and 3% in 47 herds (7.6%), and ≥3% in 250 herds (40.4%). Significant risk factors for mortality were purchasing calves, herd size, higher incidence of BRD, and access to an outside pen. Metaphylaxis was used on 13.4% of the farms (7.9% only upon arrival, 4.4% only later in the fattening period, 1.1% upon arrival and later), in 3.2% of the herds of group O, 17.9% of those in group O&P, and 92.9% of those of group P. Application of metaphylaxis upon arrival was positively associated with purchase (OR=8.9) and herd size (OR=1.2 per 10 calves). Metaphylaxis later in the production cycle was positively associated with group size (OR=2.9) and risk of respiratory disease (OR=1.2 per 10% higher risk) and negatively with the use of individual antimicrobial treatment (OR=0.3). In many countries, purchase and a large herd size are inherently connected to veal production. The Swiss situation with large commercial but also smaller herds with little or no purchase of calves made it possible to investigate the effect of these factors on

  3. Polioencephalomalacia in cattle consuming water with elevated sodium sulfate levels: A herd investigation

    PubMed Central

    Hamlen, Heidi; Clark, Edward; Janzen, Eugene

    1993-01-01

    Polioencephalomalacia (PEM), hereafter used to refer to the specific lesion of cerebrocortical necrosis, developed in 11 of 110 mature cattle on pasture in central Saskatchewan. The primary water source contained a markedly elevated level of sodium sulfate (7200 ppm). The significant clinical findings of the herd investigation included depression, ataxia, cortical blindness, dysphagia, and death. Diagnosis of PEM was confirmed by histopathological evidence of cerebrocortical and subcortical necrosis with microvascular fibrinoid necrosis predominantly in the thalamic region of three affected cattle. The histopathology of sulfate-associated PEM observed in this herd appears to be unique and its features are presented and discussed. Mean levels for serum transketolase, copper, red blood cell transketolase activity, and thiamine (vitamin B1) in all exposed young (n = 100) and mature (n = 99) animals did not reveal evidence of deficiencies. Although the blood thiamine status of the seven surviving, affected animals was not evaluated before treatment with exogenous thiamine, 199 members of the herd had blood thiamine levels within the reference range at the time of the outbreak. The outbreak resolved after cattle were moved to a water source containing acceptable levels of sodium sulfate. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:17424182

  4. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Ståhl, Marie; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces. PMID:26114765

  5. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mellerup, Anders; Ståhl, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces. PMID:26114765

  6. Latent class analysis of bulk tank milk PCR and ELISA testing for herd level diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Per Kantsø; Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2015-10-01

    The bacterium Mycoplasma bovis causes disease in cattle of all ages. An apparent increase in the occurrence of M. bovis associated outbreaks among Danish dairy cattle herds since 2011 has prompted a need for knowledge regarding herd-level diagnostic performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the herd-level diagnostic performance of an indirect ELISA test by comparison to a real-time PCR test when diagnosing M. bovis in cattle herds of bulk tank milk. Bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds (N=3437) were analysed with both the antibody detecting BIO K 302 M. bovis ELISA kit and the antigen detecting PathoProof Mastitis Major-3 kit. As none of these are considered a gold standard test for herd-level diagnostics we applied a series of Bayesian latent class analyses for a range of ELISA cut-off values. The negative and positive predictive values were calculated for hypothetical true national prevalences (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of infected herds. We estimated that the ELISA test had a median sensitivity and specificity of 60.4 [37.5-96.2 95% Posterior Credibility Interval] and 97.3 [94.0-99.8 95% PCI] at the currently recommended cut-off (37% Optical density Coefficient). These changed to 43.5 [21.1-92.5 95% PCI] and 99.6 [98.8-100 95% PCI] if the cut-off was increased to 50 ODC%. In addition, herd-level diagnosis by ELISA would result in fewer false positives at a cut-off value of 50 ODC% compared to 37 ODC% without compromising the negative predictive value. PMID:26342789

  7. Evaluation of a protocol to reduce the incidence of neonatal calf diarrhoea on dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Meganck, V; Hoflack, G; Piepers, S; Opsomer, G

    2015-01-01

    Calf diarrhoea causes substantial economic losses in cattle herds worldwide. Neonatal calves are particularly sensitive to infections with enteropathogens. The present study focused on prevention against the main infectious causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea i.e. Escherichia coli, rota- and coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium parvum. Dairy herds (n=24) with a high percentage of neonatal calves scouring (>10%) were included and calves were sampled for the presence of these four enteropathogens. To decrease diarrhoea problems among neonatal calves, a standard protocol was tested on 13 herds (treatment group) where both C. parvum and either E. coli or rota- or coronavirus were identified as being involved, the other 11 herds served as control group. The protocol consisted of 2 points of action: preventive vaccination of dams against E. coli, rota- and coronavirus, and preventive administration of halofuginone lactate to newborn calves. The average percentage of calves suffering from neonatal diarrhoea (39.7% versus 14.3%, P<0.01) and the average percentage of faecal samples positive for C. parvum (34% versus 11%, P<0.05) differed significantly between control herds and treatment herds after implementation of the protocol. No significant differences between control and treatment group were observed in the percentage of calves excreting E. coli, rotavirus and coronavirus, both before and at the end of the trial. Furthermore, risk factors potentially associated with the development of neonatal calf scours were determined. Non-significant results were obtained for the effect of the protocol on duration of diarrhoea and the effect of the colostral IgG quantity on the risk of diarrhoea. Passive immunity transfer status of the calves, measured both before the onset and at the end of the study, were non-significant between groups. PMID:25475689

  8. A knowledge-based system for diagnosis of mastitis problems at the herd level. 1. Concepts.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, H; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; Tepp, D M; Kremer, W D; van Vliet, J H; Brand, A

    1995-07-01

    Much specialized knowledge is involved in the diagnosis of a mastitis problem at the herd level. Because of their problem-solving capacities, knowledge-based systems can be very useful to support the diagnosis of mastitis problems in the herd. Conditional causal models with multiple layers are used as a representation scheme for the development of a knowledge-based system for diagnosing mastitis problems. Construction of models requires extensive cooperation between the knowledge engineer and the domain expert. The first layer consists of three overview models: the general overview conditional causal model, the contagious overview conditional causal model, and the environmental overview conditional causal model, giving a causal description of the pathways through which mastitis problems can occur. The conditional causal model for primary udder defense and the conditional causal model for host defense are attached to the overview models at the second layer, and the conditional causal model for deep primary udder defense is attached to the conditional causal model for the primary udder defense at the third layer. Based on quantitative user input, the system determines the qualitative values of the nodes that are used for reasoning. The developed models showed that conditional causal models are a good method for modeling the mechanisms involved in a mastitis problem. The system needs to be extended in order to be useful in practical circumstances. PMID:7593836

  9. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  10. Associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of freestall-housed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the associations between herd-level factors and lying behavior of high-producing dairy cows housed in freestall barns. Lying behavior of approximately 40 focal cows in one high-producing pen was monitored on each of 40 farms in the northeastern United States (NE) and 39 farms in California (CA). All cows within the pen were gait scored using a 1-to-5 scale to calculate the prevalence of clinical lameness (score ≥3) and severe lameness (score ≥4). Facility and management measures, including stall design, bedding, and flooring type within the pen, were collected. Herd-level factors associated with daily lying time, standard deviation (SD) of daily lying time, frequency of lying bouts, and lying bout duration at the univariate level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In the NE, daily lying time increased with the use of deep bedding (estimate = 0.80±0.31h/d) and as average days in milk (DIM) of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.04h/d for a 10-d increase in DIM). The SD of daily lying time decreased as stall stocking density increased (estimate = -0.08±0.03h/d for a 10% increase), and increased with the presence of rubber flooring in the pen (estimate = 0.16±0.08h/d) and percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (estimate = 0.04±0.01h/d for a 10% increase). Frequency of lying bouts decreased (estimate = -1.90±0.63 bouts/d) and average bout duration increased (estimate = 15.44±3.02 min) with the use of deep bedding. In CA, where all farms used deep bedding, daily lying time increased as average DIM of the focal cows increased (estimate = 0.08±0.03h/d for a 10-d increase). The SD of daily lying time decreased when feed was delivered more than once per day (estimate = -0.24±0.08h/d). The percentage of lame cows was correlated with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (r=0.45), which in turn was associated with fewer (estimate = -0.25±0.06 bouts/d) and longer lying bouts (estimate

  11. Cow level sampling factors affecting analysis and interpretation of milk urea concentrations in 2 dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, R; Bouchard, E; Tremblay, A

    1999-01-01

    The goals of this study were to determine the influence of the variations among udder quarters, the somatic cell count, the time of sampling during the day, sample conservation, and centrifugation on milk urea (UREA) concentrations, and to propose a sample collection procedure for herds that are not on a Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) program. Forty cows from 2 herds with different feeding practices were randomly selected. The quarter sampled and the somatic cell count did not significantly influence UREA concentrations. Milk urea concentrations were highest in the morning. The diurnal pattern was not influenced by intrinsic factors like parity, days postpartum, or daily milk yield. The UREA concentrations were significantly higher after refrigeration for one week (mean UREA change = +0.41 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001) and freezing for one month (mean UREA change = +1.52 +/- 1.25 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Urea concentrations were slightly higher in lactoserum than in whole milk (mean UREA difference = +0.17 +/- 0.24 mmol/L, P = 0.0001). Although this study included only 2 herds and does not allow extrapolation, differences were found in the diurnal pattern of UREA in these 2 herds, which possibly reflect differences in feeding strategy. With consideration of these results, a 6-point sampling procedure for herds that are not on a DHI program is proposed. PMID:10416068

  12. [Possible causes of unspecific reduced productivity in dairy herds in SchIeswig-Holstein: an explorative case-control study].

    PubMed

    Campe, Amely; Hohmeier, Stefan; Koesters, Sarah; Hartmann, Maria; Ruddat, Inga; Mahlkow-Nerge, Katrin; Heilemann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Recently unspecific productivity losses were observed in dairy herds in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. This case-control study on cattle health investigated the possible association between a multifactorial event and the occurrence of unspecific productivity losses. 35 dairy farms were defined as cases and 65 farms as controls, when they met two out of three eligibility criteria, respectively (cell count, mortality and life production of cows). Case farms had relevantly more often problems with forage collection (too low cutting height), feed storage (no foil used), and energy supply of dairy cattle (insufficient feeding of corn silage and lowered energy content of grass silage). Case farms had relevantly more often dirty lying areas, feeding and walking alleys, feed bunks and watering places as well as more cows with dirty udders, flanks and legs than control farms. Farm individual self-control as well as veterinarian and agricultural consultancy should focus on these management areas. Furthermore, the health situation should be checked regularly on an individual animal level for diseases of the locomotor (especially by intensifying claw care), metabolic and reproductive systems. Additionally, 22 so-called intermediate farms with considerable herd health problem during the study period were investigated for possible exogenous influences on the farm performance. There were no indications for influences by the soil type, weather conditions at harvesting or wild bird occurrence on cropland, which might be as well due to the explorative nature of the study. However, herd health problems were apparent in case and intermediate farms more often and more diversely than in control farms. PMID:27169149

  13. Salmonella species in piglets and weaners from Uganda: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and herd-level risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ikwap, Kokas; Erume, Joseph; Owiny, David Okello; Nasinyama, George William; Melin, Lennart; Bengtsson, Björn; Lundeheim, Nils; Fellström, Claes; Jacobson, Magdalena

    2014-07-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is of concern in humans in sub-Saharan Africa, and this is partly due to the high number of immunocompromised persons. Pork and pork products could be among the sources of these non-typhi Salmonella spp. The aim of this study was to identify Salmonella spp. in piglets and weaners in northern and eastern Uganda, characterize their antimicrobial resistance patterns and determine herd-level risk factors. Fecal samples were collected from 465 piglets and weaners from 93 herds (49 and 44 from northern and eastern Uganda, respectively). In addition, information about the herd management and potential risk factors were collected. The fecal samples were cultured for the identification of Salmonella spp. The Salmonella spp. confirmed by serotyping were further characterized by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to 12 antimicrobials by broth microdilution. At individual level, the total prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 12% (12.2% in northern and 11.9% in eastern Uganda). At herd level, the total prevalence was 39% (43% in northern and 34% in eastern Uganda). From 56 samples with Salmonella spp., 20 serovars were identified including two serovars identified only by their antigenic formulae. The predominant serovars were S. Zanzibar, S. Heidelberg, S. Infantis, S. Typhimurium, S. Stanleyville, S. Aberdeen and S. Kampala. In total, 57% of the 53 Salmonella spp. analyzed, originating from 27% of the herds, were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. The majority of drug-resistant isolates (60%) were from northern Uganda. Eight multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates were from northern Uganda and three MDR isolates were from eastern Uganda. Increased prevalence of Salmonella spp. was associated with feeding the young and adults separately as compared to feeding the young and adults together (p=0.043, OR=4.3; 95% CI 1.1, 17.38). Protective factors were "intensive" method of keeping the pigs versus "tethering and roaming" (p=0

  14. Herd level approach to high bulk milk somatic cell count problems in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Barkema, Herman W; De Vliegher, Sarne; Piepers, Sofie; Zadoks, Ruth N

    2013-06-01

    Since the introduction of the standard mastitis prevention program in the late 1960s, enormous progress has been made in decreasing the average bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). In many countries, reduction of BMSCC has been encouraged through premium payments or penalty systems. However, the success of the program depends heavily on consistent implementation of management practices. The approach to problem solving in a herd with high BMSCC must include the following elements: (1) problem definition using primary udder health parameters; (2) detection of cows causing the problem; (3) definition of short- and long-term goals; (4) formulation and implementation of a herd management plan; and (5) evaluation of the results. Findings and plans are recorded for use at follow-up visits. Every high BMSCC problem can be solved if farmers are sufficiently motivated, if farm advisors are sufficiently knowledgeable, and if farmer and advisors work together according to a jointly determined plan. PMID:23706026

  15. Relationship between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, general risk factors and claw lesions in individual dairy cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Laminitis and energy-related postpartum diseases share several risk factors, indicating a common etiology. Thus, a herd’s incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, such as displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, might reflect the likelihood of cows to suffer from laminitis-related claw lesions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis, general risk factors, and claw lesions in individual cows recorded at maintenance claw trimming. Methods The dataset consisted of 6773 trimmings, performed between 2004 and 2006 by professional trimmers, from 3607 Swedish Red and Swedish Holstein cows in 26 herds. The herds were classified as having a high, inconsistent-high or low incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, based on the number of recorded cases of veterinary-diagnosed displaced abomasum and clinical ketosis in the Swedish national animal disease recording system during 2002 to 2006, and observations and interviews in connections with herd visits. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the association between herd-level incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases and laminitis-related lesions including sole ulcer and sole hemorrhage; and hygiene-related lesions including interdigital dermatitis, digital dermatitis, heel-horn erosion, verrucose dermatitis, and interdigital hyperplasia; and absence of any claw lesion. Systematic effects, including first-order interactions, with P < 0.05 were included in the models. Herd classification was forced into the models, and a random effect of herd was included. Results In comparison to herds with a high incidence rate of energy-related postpartum diseases, low-incidence herds showed a lower odds ratio (OR; 0.2) for laminitis-related lesions in cows trimmed during the summer months. Low-incidence herds also showed numerically lower OR estimates for laminitis

  16. Pig and herd level prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario finisher pigs in 2001, 2003, and 2004.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Catherine E; Friendship, Robert M; Martin, S Wayne; Christensen, Jette; Ojkic, Davor; Wu, John; Chow, Eva

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the apparent and true prevalence of exposure to Toxoplasma gondii in Ontario finisher pigs. During the study period (2001 to 2004), sera from 6048 pigs were tested with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); 103 farms were included 1 to 3 times in the study. True prevalence was estimated using a Bayesian approach. Apparent prevalence at the pig level was 1.59% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.45, 2.99] in 2001, 0.06% (95% CI: 0.00, 0.46) in 2003, and 0.26% (95% CI: 0.00, 0.82) in 2004. Apparent prevalence at the herd-level was 13.7% (95% CI: 7.5, 22.3) in 2001; 1.25% (95% CI: 0.03, 6.77) in 2003, and 3.75% (95% CI: 0.78, 10.6) in 2004. Similarly, posterior Bayesian estimates of true prevalence at the pig level were 1.7% [95% probability interval (PI): 1.2, 2.2] in 2001, 0.2% (95% PI: 0.04, 0.4) in 2003, and 0.3% (95% PI: 0.1, 0.7) in 2004. At the herd level, posterior estimates of prevalence were 11.6% (95% PI: 7.4, 16.8) in 2001, 0% (95% PI: 0.0, 2.5) in 2003, and 1.2% (95% PI: 0.0, 5.0) in 2004 when a herd cut-point > or = 1 was used. Exposure to T. gondii in finishing pig farms in Ontario appears to be infrequent. PMID:18783018

  17. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Ana L T; Santos, Carolina S A B; Pimenta, Carla L R M; Freitas, Theonys D; Brasil, Arthur W L; Clementino, Inácio J; Alves, Clebert J; Bezerra, Camila S; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Oliveira, Taynara S; Azevedo, Sérgio S

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional study based on a planned sampling was carried out to determine herd-level and animal-level prevalences, and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level prevalence for bovine paratuberculosis in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. The state was divided into three sampling groups: sampling stratum 1 (mesoregion of Sertão), sampling stratum 2 (mesoregion of Borborema), and sampling stratum 3 (mesoregions of Zona da Mata and Agreste). For each sampling stratum, herd-level and animal-level prevalences were estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In the first stage, a pre-established number of herds (primary sampling units) were randomly selected; in the second stage, a pre-established number of cows aged ≥24 months were randomly selected (secondary sampling units). Ten animals were sampled in herds with up to 99 cows aged over 24 months; 15 animals were sampled in herds with 100 or more cows aged over 24 months; and all animals were sampled in those with up to 10 cows aged over 24 months. In total, 2504 animals were sampled from 480 herds. Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) test kits were used for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) antibody detection. A herd was deemed positive for the presence of MAP if it included at least one positive animal in herds of up to 24 females, and two positive animals in herds with more than 24 females. The herd-level prevalence in the State of Paraíba was 34.5% (95% CI=30.2-39.1%), 26.6% (95% CI=20.2-34.2%) in the region of Borborema, 30.5% (95% CI=23.9-38.0%) in Agreste/Mata, and 41.4% (95% CI=34.0-49.1%) in Sertão. The animal-level prevalence was 10.7% (95% CI=7.3-15.4%) in the State of Paraíba, 7.9% (95% CI=5.2-11.7%) in the region of Borborema, 9.4% (95% CI=7.3-12.1%) in Sertão, and 13.9% (95% CI=6.2--28.3%) in Agreste/Mata. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 6.7% to 100% (median of 20%). The risk factors identified were as follows: Sertão region

  18. Herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria on dairy farms in Minnesota, USA

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seongbeom; Fossler, Charles P.; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Wells, Scott J.; Hedberg, Craig W.; Kaneene, John B.; Ruegg, Pamela L.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Bender, Jeffrey B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify herd-level risk factors associated with fecal shedding of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteria (STB) on dairy cattle farms in Minnesota, USA. After adjustment for farm size, risk factors included: use of total mixed ration (TMR) for lactating dairy cows [odds ratio (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8 to 5.1], no use of monensin for weaned calves (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.5, 9.3), and no use of decoquinate for preweaned calves (OR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.6). Fecal shedding of STB was more common in small herds (< 100 cows, OR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 6.2) than in large herds (≥ 100 cows). Herd management factors related to cattle feeding practices were associated with fecal shedding of STB. PMID:24155466

  19. Herd-level risk factors for infectious diseases in Swedish dairy calves aged 0-90 days.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G K; Svensson, E C; Oltenacu, P A

    2005-05-10

    The effect of environmental factors and management routines on the risk of diarrhoea, respiratory disease and other infectious diseases was investigated in 3081 heifer calves 0-90 days old in 122 Swedish dairy herds. The farmers kept records on cases of diseases in their heifer calves and in addition, project veterinarians clinically examined all calves every 2-3 months. At each visit, the veterinarians also measured the ammonia concentration and relative air humidity in the housing facilities for the calves. The cleanliness of the animals and their environment was recorded as a measure of the hygienic status of the farm. The presence or absence of draught (i.e. wind velocity>0.5 m/s) was recorded twice during the study period. The effect of these factors, as well as the placing of the calf pens, the nature of the pen walls, air volume per animal, management factors (such as the status of the caretaker and feeding routines) and presence or absence of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in the herd, was evaluated by means of a two-level variance component logistic model. The placing of calf pens along an outer wall was significantly associated with the risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR): 1.92, P<0.01). The risk for respiratory disease was significantly associated with an ammonia concentration below 6 ppm (OR: 0.42, P<0.05) while the odds ratio for moderately to severely increased respiratory sounds was significantly associated with a BVDV infection in the herd (OR: 2.39, P<0.05) and draught (OR: 3.7, P<0.02). Absence of draught was significantly associated with the risk for infectious diseases other than diarrhoea and respiratory disease (OR: 0.42, P<0.01). PMID:15820112

  20. Evaluation of milk yield losses associated with Salmonella antibodies in bulk tank milk in bovine dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Green, L E; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2012-09-01

    The effect of Salmonella on milk production is not well established in cattle. The objective of this study was to investigate whether introduction of Salmonella into dairy cattle herds was associated with reduced milk yield and determine the duration of any such effect. Longitudinal data from 2005 through 2009 were used, with data from 12 mo before until 18 mo after the estimated date of infection. Twenty-eight case herds were selected based on an increase in the level of Salmonella-specific antibodies in bulk-tank milk from <10 corrected optical density percentage (ODC%) to ≥70 ODC% between 2 consecutive three-monthly measurements in the Danish Salmonella surveillance program. All selected case herds were conventional Danish Holstein herds. Control herds (n=40) were selected randomly from Danish Holstein herds with Salmonella antibody levels consistently <10 ODC%. A date of herd infection was randomly allocated to the control herds. Hierarchical mixed effect models with the outcome test-day yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/cow were used to investigate daily milk yield before and after the estimated herd infection date for cows in parities 1, 2, and 3+. Control herds were used to evaluate whether the effects in the case herds could be reproduced in herds without Salmonella infection. Herd size, days in milk, somatic cell count, season, and year were included in the models. Yield in first-parity cows was reduced by a mean of 1.4 kg (95% confidence interval: 0.5 to 2.3) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after the estimated herd infection date, compared with that of first-parity cows in the same herds in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection date. Yield for parity 3+ cows was reduced by a mean of 3.0 kg (95% confidence interval: 1.3 to 4.8) of ECM/cow per day from 7 to 15 mo after herd infection compared with that of parity 3+ cows in the 12 mo before the estimated herd infection. We observed minor differences in yield in second-parity cows before and

  1. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Peeters, K; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; Frankena, K; De Vliegher, S

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected farms in Flanders (Belgium) were sampled. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 days in milk and between 5 and 8 days in milk for bacteriological culture. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analysis. Higher average herd milk somatic cell count (>200,000 cells/mL), not having an effective fly control strategy, contact with lactating cows prior to calving and moderate to severe udder edema prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infections caused by contagious major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene and lack of mineral/vitamin supplementation prior to calving were risk factors for intramammary infection caused by environmental major pathogens. Teat apex colonization with coagulase-negative staphylococci prior to calving seemed to protect quarters against intramammary infections caused by major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene before calving, a non-clipped udder and not practicing of teat dipping prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Although management is important in the prevention and control of intramammary infections in early lactating heifers, most variation in the prevalence of intramammary infections resided at the heifer and quarter levels, indicating that the susceptibility for intramammary infections around calving is mainly determined by heifer and quarter characteristics. PMID:21411160

  2. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds. PMID:26498460

  3. Association between the proportion of sampled transition cows with increased nonesterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate and disease incidence, pregnancy rate, and milk production at the herd level.

    PubMed

    Ospina, P A; Nydam, D V; Stokol, T; Overton, T R

    2010-08-01

    In this study the herd alarm level was defined as the proportion of sampled transition cows per herd with increased prepartum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), postpartum beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), or NEFA concentrations that were associated with herd-level incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis (CK), pregnancy rate (PR), and milk production. The objectives were to 1) identify the herd alarm level for excessive negative energy balance and 2) describe the herd-level prevalence of this proportion. This was a prospective cohort study of 60 free-stall herds fed total mixed rations in the northeast United States. Two cohorts of approximately 15 animals were assessed for prepartum NEFA and postpartum BHBA and NEFA. The herd alarm level (i.e., the proportion of sampled animals above a certain metabolite threshold) was as follows: 15% had prepartum NEFA of 0.27 mEq/L; 15 and 20% had BHBA of 10 and 12 mg/dL, respectively; and 15% had postpartum NEFA of 0.60 and 0.70 mEq/L. The different herd alarm levels correspond to differences between the metabolites and respective herd-level effect. The herd-level effects for herds above the herd alarm level for prepartum NEFA were 3.6% increase in DA and CK incidence, 1.2% decrease in PR, and 282 kg decrease in average mature equivalent 305-d (ME 305) milk. For BHBA, the herd-level effects were a 1.8% increase in DA and CK, 0.8% decrease in PR, and 534 and 358 kg decrease in projected ME 305 milk yield for heifers and cows, respectively. For postpartum NEFA, the herd-level effects were 1.7% increase in DA and CK, 0.9% decrease in PR, and 288 and 593 kg decrease in projected ME 305 milk yield for heifers and cows, respectively. The prevalence of herds in which more than 15% of animals sampled had prepartum NEFA concentration >or=0.30 mEq/L was 75%, BHBA >or=12 mg/dL was 40%, and postpartum NEFA >or=0.70 mEq/L was 65%. This study showed that there were detrimental herd-level effects if a large enough proportion of cows

  4. Prevalence and distribution of paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in cattle herds in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A simple random survey was conducted in Ireland during 2005 to estimate the ELISA-prevalence of paratuberculosis, commonly called Johne's disease (JD), in the cattle population. Serum samples were collected from all 20,322 females/breeding bulls over 12 months-of-age in 639 herds. All samples were tested using a commercially available absorbed ELISA. The overall prevalence of infected herds, based on the presence of at least one ELISA-positive animal, was 21.4% (95% CI 18.4%-24.9%). Herd prevalence levels amongst dairy herds (mean 31.5%; 95% CI: 24.6%, 39.3%) was higher than among beef herds (mean 17.9%; 95% CI: 14.6%-21.8%). However, the animal level prevalence was similar. The true prevalence among all animals tested, was calculated to be 2.86% (95%CI: 2.76, 2.97) and for animals >= 2 yrs, it was 3.30% (95%CI: 3.17, 3.43). For animals in beef herds, true prevalence was 3.09% (95%CI: 2.93, 3.24), and for those in dairy herds, 2.74% (95%CI: 2.59, 2.90). The majority of herds had only one ELISA-positive infected animal. Only 6.4% (95% CI 4.7%-8.7%) of all herds had more than one ELISA-positive infected animal; 13.3% (CI 8.7%-19.7%) of dairy herds ranging from two to eight ELISA-positive infected animals; and, 3.9% beef herds (CI 2.4%-6.2%) ranging from two to five ELISA-positive infected animals. The true prevalence of herds infected and shedding Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is estimated to be 9.5% for all herd types; 20.6% for dairy herds; and 7.6% for beef herds. If ELISA positive animals <2-years-of-age are excluded, the true herd prevalene reduces to: 9.3% for all herd types; 19.6% for dairy herds; and 6.3% for beef herds based on a test specificity (Sp) of 99.8% and test sensitivity (Se) (i.e., ability to detect culture-positive, infected animals shedding at any level) of 27.8-28.9%. PMID:21851740

  5. Induced Parturition in Swine Herds

    PubMed Central

    King, G. J.; Robertson, H. A.; Elliot, J. I.

    1979-01-01

    Intramuscular injections of various levels of prostaglandin F2α were administered to 116 pregnant swine in three commercial herds and the University research unit on Day 111, 112 or 113 of gestation. Sixty-three percent of the treated animals farrowed during the working day immediately following treatment. The parturition time, birth weight, litter size, number of piglets weaned, growth of the piglets to weaning and subsequent rebreeding of the dams were comparable with the expected performance in the herds. The results indicated that prostaglandin F2α in doses ranging from 5 to 12.5 mg per animal were effective for induction of parturition in a substantial proportion of the treated animals. Successful induction of parturition could reduce the farrowing interval for batches, allow more supervision of farrowing, facilitate transfer of piglets from large to small litters and generally increase efficiency in the farrowing unit. This technique could have practical application in intensive swine production units. PMID:466637

  6. Dairy Herd Management Program.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W

    1987-11-01

    The Dairy Herd Management Program has served both dairymen and veterinarians very well over the past several years under a variety of conditions. A number of veterinarians have used the Dairy Herd Management Program to provide computerized dairy record service to their clients. In many of these situations, clients have decided to purchase a computer system of their own after discovering the value of having improved, computerized dairy records. The Dairy Herd Management Program is able to efficiently handle data from large dairies without disrupting daily record-keeping routines. With this data, useful reports are generated that measure actual reproductive performance against target levels or goals. Because the Dairy Herd Management Program focuses on specific time intervals and includes data from culled cows, trends or drops in reproductive performance are more quickly detected so that corrective action can be taken to minimize economic losses. The Dairy Herd Management Program's strong points include batch entry of data, an inclusive yet flexible Vet Check List of cows to be examined, and a detailed, comprehensive Reproductive Summary report. Its major weakness is the lack of a custom report generator for specific situations or conditions. This problem is being addressed in the new version. With the improvements scheduled for the new version, the Dairy Herd Management Program should be able to meet all of the needs of dairy managers and veterinarians alike, as well as become a powerful tool for conducting dairy reproductive field trials and research. PMID:3319081

  7. A knowledge-based system for diagnosis of mastitis problems at the herd level. 2. Machine milking.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, H; van Vliet, J H; Noordhuizen-Stassen, E N; De Koning, C; Tepp, D M; Brand, A

    1995-07-01

    A knowledge-based system for the diagnosis of mastitis problems at the herd level must search for possible causes, including malfunctioning milking machines or incorrect milking technique. A knowledge-based system on general mechanisms of mastitis infection, using hierarchical conditional causal models, was extended. Model building entailed extensive cooperation between the knowledge engineer and a domain expert. The extended knowledge-based system contains 12 submodels underlying the overview models. Nine submodels were concerned with mastitis problems arising from machine milking. These models are briefly described. The knowledge-based system has been validated by other experts after which the models were adjusted slightly. The final knowledge-based system was validated to data collected at 17 commercial dairy farms with high SCC in the bulk milk. Reports containing the farm data were accompanied by recommendations made by a dairy farm advisor. This validation showed good agreement between the knowledge-based system and the dairy farm advisors. The described knowledge-based system is a good tool for dairy farm advisors to solve herd mastitis problems caused by a malfunctioning milking machine or incorrect milking technique. PMID:7593837

  8. A cross sectional observational study to estimate herd level risk factors for Leptospira spp. serovars in small holder dairy cattle farms in southern Chile

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The south of Chile constitutes the main cattle milk producing area of the country. Regarding leptospirosis control in Chile, there is neither an official program nor an epidemiological characterization of smallholder dairy farms. This study was carried out to determine Leptospira seroprevalence and to evaluate risk factors associated with seropositivity at herd level in smallholder bovine dairy herds in southern Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and a convenient sample of 1,537 apparently healthy dairy cows was included in the study. Individual blood samples were taken and examined for six selected reference Leptospira serovars by the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). Results Of the included herds 75% (52/69) showed serological titers against one or more Leptospira serovar. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo was the serovar most frequently (81%) reported from animals with positive results. The variables considered risk factors for Leptospira seropositivity were calve natural breeding system, using a specific calving area and vaccination against Leptospira. Adult cows in contact with calves weaned, proved to be a protective factor against infection. Conclusions Herds neglecting the management practices mentioned in this study could represent an important source of Leptospira infection for other herds in the same geographic area, as well as for other animal species. PMID:24906684

  9. Bayesian zero-inflated predictive modelling of herd-level Salmonella prevalence for risk-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Benschop, J; Spencer, S; Alban, L; Stevenson, M; French, N

    2010-11-01

    The national control programme for Salmonella in Danish swine herds introduced in 1993 has led to a large decrease in pork-associated human cases of salmonellosis. The pork industry is increasingly focused on the cost-effectiveness of surveillance while maintaining consumer confidence in the pork food supply. Using national control programme data from 2003 and 2004, we developed a zero-inflated binomial model to predict which farms were most at risk of Salmonella. We preferentially sampled these high-risk farms using two sampling schemes based on model predictions resulting from a farm's covariate pattern and its random effect. Zero-inflated binomial modelling allows assessment of similarities and differences between factors that affect herd infection status (introduction), and those that affect the seroprevalence in infected herds (persistence and spread). Both large (producing greater than 5000 pigs per annum), and small herds (producing less than 2000 pigs per annum) were at significantly higher risk for infection and subsequent seroprevalence, when compared with medium sized herds (producing between 2000 and 5000 pigs per annum). When compared with herds being located elsewhere, being located in the south of Jutland significantly decreased the risk of herd infection, but increased the risk of a pig from an infected herd being seropositive. The model suggested that many of the herds where Salmonella was not detected were infected, but at a low prevalence. Using cost and sensitivity, we compared the results of our model based sampling schemes with those under the standard sampling scheme, based on herd size, and the recently introduced risk-based approach. Model-based results were less sensitive but show significant cost savings. Further model refinements, sampling schemes and the methods to evaluate their performance are important areas for future work, and these should continue to occur in direct consultation with Danish authorities. PMID:21083819

  10. Herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus in commercial dairy and beef cattle in eastern, northern and northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wu-Wen; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cong, Wei; Shan, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Chun-Feng; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2015-11-01

    Although the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum, Chlamydia abortus and bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle have been reported in some areas in China, most of them were conducted with small number of cattle samples and very limited districts and neglected the assessment of herd management factors associated with herd-level prevalence of these pathogen infections. Thus, from September 2013 to December 2014, a large-scale seroprevalence study was conducted to determine the animal-level and herd-level seroprevalence and identify herd-level risk factors associated with these pathogen infections in 4487 cattle from 134 herds in five provinces (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Shandong, Hebei) and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. At animal level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was 10.48, 17.14, 11.92 and 50.10%, respectively. At herd level, the true prevalence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV was 27.16, 29.10, 37.31 and 40.30%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of these characteristics showed that source of water and presence of felids were significantly associated with T. gondii infection in the studied cattle herds. Source of water was significantly associated with N. caninum infection in the studied cattle herds. While herd size and management system were significantly associated with BVDV infection in the studied cattle herds, this is the first report of herd-level prevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, N. caninum, C. abortus and BVDV infection in cattle in China. PMID:26231838

  11. Determining the optimal number of individual samples to pool for quantification of average herd levels of antimicrobial resistance genes in Danish pig herds using high-throughput qPCR.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Julie; Mellerup, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein; Folkesson, Anders; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Birkegård, Anna Camilla

    2016-06-30

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of individual fecal samples to pool together in order to obtain a representative sample for herd level quantification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in a Danish pig herd, using a novel high-throughput qPCR assay. The secondary objective was to assess the agreement between different methods of sample pooling. Quantification of AMR was achieved using a high-throughput qPCR method to quantify the levels of seven AMR genes (ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O) and tet(W)). A large variation in the levels of AMR genes was found between individual samples. As the number of samples in a pool increased, a decrease in sample variation was observed. It was concluded that the optimal pooling size is five samples, as an almost steady state in the variation was observed when pooling this number of samples. Good agreement between different pooling methods was found and the least time-consuming method of pooling, by transferring feces from each individual sample to a tube using a 10μl inoculation loop and adding 3.5ml of PBS, approximating a 10% solution, can therefore be used in future studies. PMID:27259826

  12. Herd- and cow-level risk factors associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy farms from the High Plains of the northern Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, N F; Keefe, G; Dohoo, I; Sánchez, J; Arroyave, O; Cerón, J; Jaramillo, M; Palacio, L G

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is the main disease entity affecting dairy farms in the Colombian High Plains of northern Antioquia, Colombia. However, no previous epidemiologic studies have determined the characteristics that increase the risk of infection in this region, where manual milking is still the prevailing system of milking. A 24-mo longitudinal study was designed to identify the predominant mastitis pathogens and important herd- and cow-level risk factors. Monthly visits were made to 37 commercial dairy farms to collect herd- and cow-level data and milk samples. Herd size varied from 6 to 136 cows (mean 37.0, median 29). Herd-level factors included type of milking system (manual or mechanical) and a range of management practices recommended by the National Mastitis Council (Madison, WI) to prevent mastitis. Individual cow-level risk factors included parity, stage of lactation, breed, udder hygiene, and lameness. A logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between herd- and cow-level risk factors with the presence of subclinical mastitis and infection caused by Streptococcus agalactiae at the quarter level. A quarter was considered to have subclinical mastitis if it had a positive California Mastitis Test and was subsequently confirmed to have a somatic cell count of ≥200,000 cells/mL. Any cow with one or more quarters with subclinical mastitis was considered to have subclinical mastitis at the cow level. Using 17,622 cow observations, the mean prevalence of subclinical mastitis at the cow level was 37.2% (95% confidence interval: 31.2, 43.3) for the first month and did not substantially change throughout the study. The predominant microorganisms isolated from quarters meeting the subclinical mastitis definition were contagious pathogens, including Strep. agalactiae (34.4%), Corynebacterium spp. (13.2%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8.0%). Significant variables associated with subclinical mastitis risk at the quarter level included being a purebred

  13. Using nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations during the transition period for herd-level monitoring of increased risk of disease and decreased reproductive and milking performance.

    PubMed

    Ospina, Paula A; McArt, Jessica A; Overton, Thomas R; Stokol, Tracy; Nydam, Daryl V

    2013-07-01

    Dairy cows visit a state of negative energy balance (NEB) as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. At the individual level, there are several metabolic adaptations to manage NEB, including mobilization of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) from body fat reserves and glucose sparing for lactogenesis. Based on current pen-level feeding and management practices, strategies to minimize excessive NEB in both the individual and herd should focus on herd-level testing and management. This article reviews strategies for testing and monitoring of excessive NEB at the herd level through individual testing of 2 energy markers: NEFA and β-hydroxybutyrate. PMID:23809897

  14. Survival analysis of factors affecting incidence risk of Salmonella Dublin in Danish dairy herds during a 7-year surveillance period.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2012-12-01

    A national surveillance programme for Salmonella Dublin, based on regular bulk-tank milk antibody screening and movements of cattle, was initiated in Denmark in 2002. From 2002 to end of 2009 the prevalence of test-positive dairy herds was reduced from 26% to 10%. However, new infections and spread of S. Dublin between herds continued to occur. The objective of this study was to investigate factors affecting incidence risk of S. Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2003 and 2009. Herds were considered at risk when they had been test-negative for at least four consecutive year-quarters (YQs), either at the start of the study period or after recovery from infection. Survival analysis was performed on a dataset including 6931 dairy herds with 118,969 YQs at risk, in which 1523 failures (new infection events) occurred. Predictors obtained from register data were tested in a multivariable, proportional hazard model allowing for recurrence within herds. During October to December the hazard of failures was higher (hazard ratio HR=3.4, P=0.0005) than the rest of the year. Accounting for the delay in bulk-tank milk antibody responses to S. Dublin infection, this indicates that introduction of bacteria was most frequent between July and October. Purchase from test-positive cattle herds within the previous 6 months was associated with higher hazard of failures (HR=2.5, P<0.0001) compared to no purchase and purchase from test-negative herds. Increasing local prevalence, herd size and bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts were also associated with increasing hazard of failures. The effect of prior infection was time-dependent; the hazard of failures was reduced following a logarithmic decline with increasing time at risk. The hazard was markedly higher in herds with prior infections the first year after becoming at risk again, and then approached the hazard in herds without known prior infections 2-3 years after becoming test-negative. This showed that herds with prior

  15. Suboptimal Herd Performance Amplifies the Spread of Infectious Disease in the Cattle Industry

    PubMed Central

    Gates, M. Carolyn; Woolhouse, Mark E. J.

    2014-01-01

    Farms that purchase replacement breeding cattle are at increased risk of introducing many economically important diseases. The objectives of this analysis were to determine whether the total number of replacement breeding cattle purchased by individual farms could be reduced by improving herd performance and to quantify the effects of such reductions on the industry-level transmission dynamics of infectious cattle diseases. Detailed information on the performance and contact patterns of British cattle herds was extracted from the national cattle movement database as a case example. Approximately 69% of beef herds and 59% of dairy herds with an average of at least 20 recorded calvings per year purchased at least one replacement breeding animal. Results from zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed that herds with high average ages at first calving, prolonged calving intervals, abnormally high or low culling rates, and high calf mortality rates were generally more likely to be open herds and to purchase greater numbers of replacement breeding cattle. If all herds achieved the same level of performance as the top 20% of herds, the total number of replacement beef and dairy cattle purchased could be reduced by an estimated 34% and 51%, respectively. Although these purchases accounted for only 13% of between-herd contacts in the industry trade network, they were found to have a disproportionately strong influence on disease transmission dynamics. These findings suggest that targeting extension services at herds with suboptimal performance may be an effective strategy for controlling endemic cattle diseases while simultaneously improving industry productivity. PMID:24671129

  16. Different herd level factors associated with H1N1 or H1N2 influenza virus infections in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Simon, G; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Gorin, S; Quéguiner, S; Madec, F; Rose, N

    2013-11-01

    Herd-level factors associated with European H1N1 or H1N2 swine influenza virus (SIV) infections were assessed by mean of a cross-sectional study carried out in 125 herds in France. Serum samples from 15 fattening pigs in each herd were tested by haemagglutination inhibition. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management and housing conditions were collected by questionnaire during the farm visit. Climatic conditions in the post-weaning and fattening rooms, where the sampled pigs were housed, were measured over 20 h. Factors associated with H1N1 or H1N2 sero-positive status of the herd were identified by logistic regressions for binary outcome. For both subtypes, the odds for a herd to be SIV sero-positive increased if there were more than two pig herds in the vicinity (OR=3.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.4-7.6, p<0.01 and OR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.5-8.1 p<0.01 for H1N1 and H1N2 respectively). Different factors were specifically associated with either H1N1 or H1N2 SIV infections. The odds for a herd to be H1N1 sero-positive were significantly increased by having a large number of pigs per pen in the post-weaning room (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-8.6, p=0.02), temperature setpoints below 25 °C (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.4, p=0.03) and below 24 °C (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.1, p=0.03) for the heating device in the farrowing room and the ventilation controller, respectively, and moving the pigs to the fattening facility via a room housing older pigs (OR=3.3, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6, p=0.03). A H1N2 sero-positive status was associated with a brief down period in the farrowing room (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.1-6.3, p=0.03), small floor area per pig in the post-weaning pen (OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-7.0, p=0.02), large-sized fattening room (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.1-5.9, p=0.03), lack of all-in all-out management in the fattening room (OR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.0-5.8, p=0.04) and a temperature range of less than 5 °C controlling ventilation in the fattening facilities (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.4-7.4, p<0

  17. Pathogen group specific risk factors for clinical mastitis, intramammary infection and blind quarters at the herd, cow and quarter level in smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Ayana, Z; Piepers, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2015-07-01

    A cross-sectional study on clinical mastitis, intramammary infection (IMI) and blind quarters was conducted on 50 smallholder dairy farms in Jimma, Ethiopia. A questionnaire was performed, and quarters of 211 cows were sampled and bacteriologically cultured. Risk factors at the herd, cow, and quarter level for clinical mastitis and (pathogen-specific) intramammary infection were studied using multilevel modeling. As well, factors associated with quarters being blind were studied. Eleven percent of the cows and 4% of the quarters had clinical mastitis whereas 85% of the cows and 51% of the quarters were infected. Eighteen percent of the cows had one or more blind quarter(s), whereas 6% of the quarters was blind. Non-aureus staphylococci were the most frequently isolated pathogens in both clinical mastitis cases and IMI. The odds of clinical mastitis was lower in herds where heifers were purchased in the last year [odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval: 0.11 (0.01-0.90)], old cows (>4 years) [OR: 0.45 (0.18-1.14)], and quarters not showing teat injury [OR: 0.23 (0.07-0.77)]. The odds of IMI caused by any pathogen was higher in herds not practicing teat drying before milking (opposed to drying teats with 1 towel per cow) [OR: 1.68 (1.05-2.69)], cows in later lactation (>180 DIM opposed to ≤90 DIM) [OR: 1.81 (1.14-2.88)], cows with a high (>3) body condition score (BCS) [OR: 1.57 (1.06-2.31)], right quarters (opposed to a left quarter position) [OR: 1.47 (1.10-1.98)], and quarters showing teat injury [OR: 2.30 (0.97-5.43)]. Quarters of cows in herds practicing bucket-fed calf feeding (opposed to suckling) had higher odds of IMI caused by Staphylococcus aureus [OR: 6.05 (1.31-27.90)]. Except for BCS, IMI caused by non-aureus staphylococci was associated with the same risk factors as IMI caused by any pathogen. No access to feed and water immediately after milking [OR: 2.41 (1.26-4.60)], higher parity [OR: 3.60 (1.20-10.82)] and tick infestation [OR: 2.42 (1

  18. Factors associated with the occurrence and level of Isospora suis oocyst excretion in nursing piglets of Greek farrow-to-finish herds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Piglet isosporosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases in modern pig production. To prevent clinical disease, prophylactic treatment of piglets with toltrazuril (BAYCOX® 5%, Bayer HealthCare, Animal Health, Monheim, Germany) is widely practiced in the past 20 years. There are only very few reports documenting the likely effect of managerial practices, such as hygiene measures, all-in-all-out management of farrowing facilities and piglet manipulations, and/or farm-specific environment - i.e. design and materials of the farrowing pen and room - in the risk of disease occurrence and transmission. Therefore, in this cross-sectional study, we identified litter- and herd-level factors associated with the odds and the level of Isospora suis oocyst excretion in nursing piglets of Greek farrow-to-finish pig herds. Faecal samples were collected from 314 liters of 55 randomly selected herds. Oocyst counts were determined by a modified McMaster technique and possible risk-factor data were collected through a questionnaire. In the analysis, we employed a two-part model that simultaneously assessed the odds and the level of oocyst excretion. Results Factors associated with lower odds of oocyst excretion were: use of toltrazuril treatment, all-in all-out management of the farrowing rooms, no cross-fostering or fostering during the first 24 hours after farrowing, plastic flooring in the farrowing pens, farrowing rooms with more than fourteen farrowing pens and employment of more than two caretakers in the farrowing section. Factors associated with lower oocyst excretion level were: use of toltrazuril treatment and caretakers averting from entering into farrowing pens. Conclusion Apart from prophylactic treatment with toltrazuril, the risk and the level of I. suis oocyst excretion from piglets in their second week of life, was associated with managerial and environmental factors. Changes in these factors, which may enhance prevention of piglet isosporosis

  19. Pre-Calving and Calving Management Practices in Dairy Herds with a History of High or Low Bovine Perinatal Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Mee, John F.; Grant, Jim; Sánchez-Miguel, Cosme; Doherty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Mortality of full-term calves at calving is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. Multiple herd management factors contribute to such losses. This case-control study identified factors which differed between herds with high and low calf mortality. These included breeding, dietary, health and calving factors. It was concluded that calving, not pre-calving, management appears to be the most important area of concern in herds with high perinatal mortality. This indicates that farmers and their veterinarians need to focus on calving management when investigating such problems and when attempting to reduce losses in herds with high rates of bovine perinatal mortality. Abstract Bovine perinatal mortality is an increasing problem in dairy industries internationally. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with high and low herd-level calf mortality. Thirty herds with a history of either high (case) or low (control) calf mortality were recruited. A herd-level questionnaire was used to gather information on management practices likely to impact bovine perinatal mortality. The questionnaire was divided into four subsections dealing with pre-calving (breeding, diet and body condition score, endemic infectious diseases) and calving factors. Most of the significant differences between case and control herds were found in calving management. For example, in case herds, pregnant cattle were less likely to be moved to the calving unit two or more days and more likely to be moved less than 12 hours pre-calving, they were also less likely to calve in group-calving facilities and their calves were more likely to receive intranasal or hypothermal resuscitation. These management procedures may cause social isolation and periparturient psychogenic uterine atony leading to dystocia, more weak calves requiring resuscitation and high perinatal calf mortality. The key finding is that calving, not pre-calving, management

  20. Reduced plasma pyrophosphate levels in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lomashvili, Koba A; Khawandi, Wassim; O'Neill, W Charles

    2005-08-01

    Pyrophosphate (PPi) is a known inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation and has been shown to inhibit medial vascular calcification in vitamin D-toxic rats. It was demonstrated recently that endogenous production of PPi prevents calcification of rat aorta that are cultured in high concentrations of calcium and phosphate. For determining whether PPi metabolism is altered in hemodialysis patients, plasma levels and dialytic clearance of PPi were measured in stable hemodialysis patients. Predialysis plasma [PPi] was 2.26 +/- 0.19 microM in 38 clinically stable hemodialysis patients compared with 3.26 +/- 0.17 in 36 normal subjects (P < 0.01). Approximately 30% of plasma PPi was protein bound, and this was not altered in dialysis patients. There was a weak inverse correlation with age in normal individuals but not in dialysis patients. Plasma [PPi] in dialysis patients was correlated with plasma [PO4(3-)] (r = 0.56) but not with [Ca2+], parathyroid hormone, or the dose of dialysis, and levels did not vary between interdialytic periods of 2 and 3 d. Plasma [PPi] decreased 32 +/- 5% after standard hemodialysis in 17 patients. In vitro clearance of PPi by a 2.1-m2 cellulose acetate dialyzer was 36%, and the mean PPi removal in five patients was 43 +/- 5 micromol, consistent with a similar in vivo clearance. Cleared PPi was greater than the plasma pool but less than the estimated extracellular fluid pool. Erythrocyte PPi content decreased 24 +/- 4%, indicating that intracellular PPi is removed as well. It is concluded that plasma [PPi] is reduced in hemodialysis patients and that PPi is cleared by dialysis. Plasma levels in some patients were below those that have previously been shown to prevent calcification of vessels in culture, suggesting that altered PPi metabolism could contribute to vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. PMID:15958726

  1. A Bivariate Mixture Model for Natural Antibody Levels to Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18: Baseline Estimates for Monitoring the Herd Effects of Immunization.

    PubMed

    Vink, Margaretha A; Berkhof, Johannes; van de Kassteele, Jan; van Boven, Michiel; Bogaards, Johannes A

    2016-01-01

    Post-vaccine monitoring programs for human papillomavirus (HPV) have been introduced in many countries, but HPV serology is still an underutilized tool, partly owing to the weak antibody response to HPV infection. Changes in antibody levels among non-vaccinated individuals could be employed to monitor herd effects of immunization against HPV vaccine types 16 and 18, but inference requires an appropriate statistical model. The authors developed a four-component bivariate mixture model for jointly estimating vaccine-type seroprevalence from correlated antibody responses against HPV16 and -18 infections. This model takes account of the correlation between HPV16 and -18 antibody concentrations within subjects, caused e.g. by heterogeneity in exposure level and immune response. The model was fitted to HPV16 and -18 antibody concentrations as measured by a multiplex immunoassay in a large serological survey (3,875 females) carried out in the Netherlands in 2006/2007, before the introduction of mass immunization. Parameters were estimated by Bayesian analysis. We used the deviance information criterion for model selection; performance of the preferred model was assessed through simulation. Our analysis uncovered elevated antibody concentrations in doubly as compared to singly seropositive individuals, and a strong clustering of HPV16 and -18 seropositivity, particularly around the age of sexual debut. The bivariate model resulted in a more reliable classification of singly and doubly seropositive individuals than achieved by a combination of two univariate models, and suggested a higher pre-vaccine HPV16 seroprevalence than previously estimated. The bivariate mixture model provides valuable baseline estimates of vaccine-type seroprevalence and may prove useful in seroepidemiologic assessment of the herd effects of HPV vaccination. PMID:27537200

  2. A Bivariate Mixture Model for Natural Antibody Levels to Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18: Baseline Estimates for Monitoring the Herd Effects of Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Vink, Margaretha A.; Berkhof, Johannes; van de Kassteele, Jan; van Boven, Michiel; Bogaards, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    Post-vaccine monitoring programs for human papillomavirus (HPV) have been introduced in many countries, but HPV serology is still an underutilized tool, partly owing to the weak antibody response to HPV infection. Changes in antibody levels among non-vaccinated individuals could be employed to monitor herd effects of immunization against HPV vaccine types 16 and 18, but inference requires an appropriate statistical model. The authors developed a four-component bivariate mixture model for jointly estimating vaccine-type seroprevalence from correlated antibody responses against HPV16 and -18 infections. This model takes account of the correlation between HPV16 and -18 antibody concentrations within subjects, caused e.g. by heterogeneity in exposure level and immune response. The model was fitted to HPV16 and -18 antibody concentrations as measured by a multiplex immunoassay in a large serological survey (3,875 females) carried out in the Netherlands in 2006/2007, before the introduction of mass immunization. Parameters were estimated by Bayesian analysis. We used the deviance information criterion for model selection; performance of the preferred model was assessed through simulation. Our analysis uncovered elevated antibody concentrations in doubly as compared to singly seropositive individuals, and a strong clustering of HPV16 and -18 seropositivity, particularly around the age of sexual debut. The bivariate model resulted in a more reliable classification of singly and doubly seropositive individuals than achieved by a combination of two univariate models, and suggested a higher pre-vaccine HPV16 seroprevalence than previously estimated. The bivariate mixture model provides valuable baseline estimates of vaccine-type seroprevalence and may prove useful in seroepidemiologic assessment of the herd effects of HPV vaccination. PMID:27537200

  3. Paratuberculosis sero-status and milk production, SCC and calving interval in Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of paratuberculosis sero-status on milk yield, fat, protein, somatic cell count and calving interval in Irish dairy herds. Serum from all animals over 12 months of age (n = 2,602) in 34 dairy herds was tested for antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis using an ELISA. Herds were categorised by sero-status into positive, non-negative and negative, where a positive herd contained two or more positive cows, a non-negative herd contained only one positive cow and a negative herd contained no positive cows. Data at animal, parity and herd-level were analysed by multiple regression using general linear models. Positive herds (mean herd size = 129 cows) and non-negative herds (81 cows) were larger than negative herds (72 cows) (P < 0.01). Negative herds had the highest economic breeding index (EBI), while positive herds had the highest estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield. There was no significant effect of paratuberculosis sero-status at animal, parity or herd-level on milk yield, milk fat or protein production, somatic cell count score (SCCS) or calving interval. Negative herds tended to have a lower SCCS than positive and nonnegative herds (P = 0.087). This study only examined the effects of paratuberculosis sero-status but did not examine the clinical effects of Johne's disease at the farm or dairy industry levels. PMID:21851733

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns, annual baseline and movement-related incidence of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in Danish dairy herds: 2000-2009.

    PubMed

    Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2014-02-01

    Several decades after the inception of the five-point plan for the control of contagious mastitis pathogens, Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) persists as a fundamental threat to the dairy industry in many countries. A better understanding of the relative importance of within- and between-herd sources of new herd infections coupled with the spatiotemporal distribution of the infection, may aid in effective targeting of control efforts. Thus, the objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the spatiotemporal patterns of infection with S. agalactiae in the population of Danish dairy herds from 2000 to 2009 and (2) to estimate the annual herd-level baseline and movement-related incidence risks of S. agalactiae infection over the 10-year period. The analysis involved registry data on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme as well as live cattle movements into dairy herds during the specified 10-year period. The results indicated that the predicted risk of a herd becoming infected with S. agalactiae varied spatiotemporally; the risk being more homogeneous and higher in the period after 2005. Additionally, the annual baseline risks yielded significant yet distinctive patterns before and after 2005 - the risk of infection being higher in the latter phase. On the contrary, the annual movement-related risks revealed a non-significant pattern over the 10-year period. There was neither evidence for spatial clustering of cases relative to the population of herds at risk nor spatial dependency between herds. Nevertheless, the results signal a need to beef up within-herd biosecurity in order to reduce the risk of new herd infections. PMID:24269038

  5. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    PubMed

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  6. Herd-level risk factors for hock injuries in freestall-housed dairy cows in the northeastern United States and California.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, A K; Chapinal, N; Weary, D M; Galo, E; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between management and facility design factors and the prevalence of hock injuries in high-producing dairy cows in 76 freestall herds in the northeastern United States (NE-US; Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania) and California (CA). One group of high-production multiparous cows was monitored on each farm, and data on management, facility and stall design, and the conditions of the hocks were collected. Focal cows [n=38 ± 3 (mean ± standard deviation)] were evaluated for hock injuries using a 3-point scale (where 1=healthy and 3=evidently swollen or severe injury). Measures associated with the proportion (logit-transformed) of cows having injuries (score ≥ 2) or severe injuries (score=3) at the univariable level were submitted to multivariable general linear models. In NE-US, overall hock injuries increased with the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination [odds ratio (OR)=1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02-1.54, for a 10% increase], and with the use of sawdust as bedding (OR=3.47; CI=1.14-10.62), and decreased with deep bedding (i.e., at least 10 cm depth of any type of bedding; OR=0.05; CI=0.02-0.14), use of sand as bedding (OR=0.06; CI=0.02-0.15), bedding dry matter (DM) ≥ 83.9% (OR=0.08; CI=0.03-0.20), and access to pasture during the dry period (OR=0.17; CI=0.05-0.53). When these variables were submitted to a multivariable model, the presence of deep bedding was the only factor that remained significant, explaining 54% of the variation in overall injuries. Severe hock injuries increased with the use of automatic scrapers (OR=2.29; CI=1.11-4.71) and the percentage of stalls with fecal contamination (OR=1.14; CI=1.00-1.31, for a 10% increase), and decreased with sand bedding (OR=0.22; CI=0.10-0.49), deep bedding (OR=0.24; CI=0.11-0.52), bedding DM ≥ 83.9% (OR=0.28; CI=0.14-0.58), and access to pasture during the dry period (OR=0.42; CI=0.18-0.97). The final multivariable model, which

  7. Management of the calving pen is a crucial factor for paratuberculosis control in large dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Donat, Karsten; Schmidt, Mandy; Köhler, Heike; Sauter-Louis, Carola

    2016-05-01

    Improvement of hygiene and herd management to reduce the contact of calves with adult cow feces to prevent new infections is one of the basic strategies to manage paratuberculosis-affected dairy herds. Control programs should recommend an evidence-based selection of factors that demonstrably reduce the transmission of the infectious agent and decrease the prevalence of infected cattle to improve acceptance and implementation of the recommended measures among farmers. This study aimed to assess the influence of several management measures on control success in a longitudinal study in 28 large dairy herds with a median size of 415 cows in Thuringia, Germany. The cumulative incidence of cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) per year was determined by individual fecal culture of all cows during 5 consecutive years. Relevant management practices as well as herd size, milk yield, and purchase of cattle were recorded by on-farm risk assessment. Mean holding time of MAP shedders within the herd was calculated from individual data of each shedding cow. Using multiple regression models, separate calving pens for shedders and disinfection of the pen after use were identified as significant risk factors that reduced the cumulative incidence of MAP shedders per year on the herd level. The results provide evidence that, in addition to other factors, calving hygiene and management of the calving pens are crucial for paratuberculosis control, particularly in large dairy herds. Considered together with the outcome from other studies, these results might be important to weight various risk factors and to avoid overburdening and overwhelming farmers and keeping them committed. PMID:26947285

  8. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" Immunity) Vaccines can prevent outbreaks of disease and save ... disease is contained. This is known as "community immunity." In the illustration below, the top box depicts ...

  9. Local Cattle and Badger Populations Affect the Risk of Confirmed Tuberculosis in British Cattle Herds

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Flavie; Johnston, W. Thomas; Donnelly, Christl A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a priority on the public health agenda in Great Britain, after launching in 1998 the Randomised Badger Culling Trial (RBCT) to evaluate the effectiveness of badger (Meles meles) culling as a control strategy. Our study complements previous analyses of the RBCT data (focusing on treatment effects) by presenting analyses of herd-level risks factors associated with the probability of a confirmed bTB breakdown in herds within each treatment: repeated widespread proactive culling, localized reactive culling and no culling (survey-only). Methodology/Principal Findings New cases of bTB breakdowns were monitored inside the RBCT areas from the end of the first proactive badger cull to one year after the last proactive cull. The risk of a herd bTB breakdown was modeled using logistic regression and proportional hazard models adjusting for local farm-level risk factors. Inside survey-only and reactive areas, increased numbers of active badger setts and cattle herds within 1500 m of a farm were associated with an increased bTB risk. Inside proactive areas, the number of M. bovis positive badgers initially culled within 1500 m of a farm was the strongest predictor of the risk of a confirmed bTB breakdown. Conclusions/Significance The use of herd-based models provide insights into how local cattle and badger populations affect the bTB breakdown risks of individual cattle herds in the absence of and in the presence of badger culling. These measures of local bTB risks could be integrated into a risk-based herd testing programme to improve the targeting of interventions aimed at reducing the risks of bTB transmission. PMID:21464920

  10. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: The Impact of Large Herd on Milk Yield and Economics

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. R.; Clark, C. E. F.; Garcia, S. C.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the effect of large herd size (and land areas) on walking distances and milking interval (MI), and their impact on milk yield and economic penalties when 50% of the total diets were provided from home grown feed either as pasture or grazeable complementary forage rotation (CFR) in an automatic milking system (AMS). Twelve scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as ‘moderate’; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as ‘high’) and 2 rates of incorporation of grazeable complementary forage system (CFS: 0, 30%; CFS = 65% farm is CFR and 35% of farm is pasture) were investigated. Walking distances, energy loss due to walking, MI, reduction in milk yield and income loss were calculated for each treatment based on information available in the literature. With moderate pasture utilisation and 0% CFR, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in an increase in total walking distances between the parlour and the paddock from 3.5 to 6.3 km. Consequently, MI increased from 15.2 to 16.4 h with increased herd size from 400 to 800 cows. High pasture utilisation (allowing for an increased stocking density) reduced the total walking distances up to 1 km, thus reduced the MI by up to 0.5 h compared to the moderate pasture, 800 cow herd combination. The high pasture utilisation combined with 30% of the farm in CFR in the farm reduced the total walking distances by up to 1.7 km and MI by up to 0.8 h compared to the moderate pasture and 800 cow herd combination. For moderate pasture utilisation, increasing the herd size from 400 to 800 cows resulted in more dramatic milk yield penalty as yield increasing from c.f. 2.6 and 5.1 kg/cow/d respectively, which incurred a loss of up to $AU 1.9/cow/d. Milk yield losses of 0.61 kg and 0.25 kg for every km increase in total walking distance (voluntary

  11. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, T D; Kudahl, A B; Østergaard, S; Nielsen, L R

    2013-08-01

    Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious heifer were estimated through 1000 simulation iterations for 12 scenarios. These 12 scenarios were combinations of three herd sizes (85, 200 and 400 cows) and four management levels (very good, good, poor and very poor). Input parameters for effects of S. Dublin on production and animal health were based on literature and calibrations to mimic real life observations. Mean annual GMs per cow stall were compared between herds experiencing within-herd spread of S. Dublin and non-infected reference herds over a 10-year period. The estimated GM losses were largest in the first year after infection, and increased with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd with very poor management lost on average 326 euros per stall during the first year, and 188 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10-year period following introduction of infection. The GM losses arose from both direct losses such as reduced milk yield, dead animals, treatment costs and abortions as well as indirect losses such as reduced income from sold heifers and calves, and lower milk yield of replacement animals. Through sensitivity analyses it was found that the

  12. Management of Wisconsin dairy herds enrolled in milk quality teams.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A C O; Caraviello, D Z; Ruegg, P L

    2005-07-01

    A study was conducted to characterize Wisconsin dairy herds that enrolled in a team-based milk quality improvement program and to assess association of specific management practices with milking efficiency and milk quality. Management and financial data were obtained from dairy farms (n = 180) that participated in the program. Upon enrollment, herds reported a median bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC) of 333,500 cells/mL, an average of 125 lactating cows, and a mean rolling-herd average of 10,100 kg. Many management practices and bulk milk SCC were strongly associated with herd size and facility type. Managers of herds housed in freestall barns adopted more standardized procedures and recommended management practices compared with managers of herds housed in stall barns. Those managers also reported less bulk milk SCC and greater milk yields, and had a tendency for lower prevalence of subclinical mastitis and reduced estimates of the incidence of clinical mastitis. Managers of freestall herds received more quality premiums for milk shipped, estimated that they had fewer financial losses related to mastitis, and reported more efficient milking performance. A more efficient milking performance did not increase estimates of clinical mastitis or bulk milk SCC. In herds having freestalls, frequent training of employees seemed to be the fundamental factor that increased milking efficiency. Bulk milk SCC was positively associated with standard plate count, estimated rate of clinical mastitis, prevalence of subclinical mastitis, numbers of cows culled for mastitis, and estimated financial losses attributable to mastitis. Herds reporting high bulk milk SCC had an increased prevalence of subclinical mastitis, but incidence did not differ among bulk milk SCC categories. Overall, herds did not discuss milk quality frequently with dairy professionals, and herds having greater bulk milk SCC reported less consultation with their herd veterinarian. PMID:15956328

  13. Relationship between leukocyte population and nutritive conditions in dairy herds with frequently appearing mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Hayashi, Tomohito; Katsuda, Ken; Matsuda, Kei-ichi; Masui, Machiko; Abe, Ryo; Kawamura, Sei-ichi

    2006-02-01

    To clarify the relationship between cellular immune status and nutritive condition, feeding program, blood profiles, and leukocyte populations were analyzed in two dairy herds experiencing frequent mastitis. Fourteen of the 35 lactating cows in herd A, and 18 of the 50 lactating cows in herd B scored positive on the California Mastitis Test (CMT), and 3 of the 73 lactating cows were CMT positive in herd C, which was the control. All herds were evaluated during five different milking stages, and blood was collected from five cows at each stage. With regard to feed content, the percentages of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) were found to be lower in herds A and B than in herd C. Levels of serum total cholesterol and blood urea nitrogen were lower in herds A and B than those in herd C. Neutrophil counts in herds A and B were increased compared to the neutrophil counts in herd C. On the other hand, the numbers of CD3(+) T cells and CD14-MHC class(+) cells were lower in herd A and B than in herd C. A decrease in peripheral lymphocytes and undernourishment were observed in the herds with frequent occurring mastitis. PMID:16520531

  14. Concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone in dairy heifers is positively associated with productive herd life.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Krassel, F; Scheetz, D M; Neuder, L M; Ireland, J L H; Pursley, J R; Smith, G W; Tempelman, R J; Ferris, T; Roudebush, W E; Mossa, F; Lonergan, P; Evans, A C O; Ireland, J J

    2015-05-01

    Reliable biomarkers predictive of productive herd life (time in herd after birth of first calf) have heretofore not been discovered in dairy cattle. However, circulating concentrations of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) are positively associated with number of follicles or antral follicle count (AFC), ovarian function, and fertility, and approximately 25% of cows have a relatively low AFC and low AMH concentrations. The present study tested the hypothesis that heifers with the lowest AMH concentrations have suboptimal fertility and are removed from a herd for poor reproductive performance at a greater rate, and therefore have a shorter productive herd life compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. To test this hypothesis, 11- to 15-mo-old Holstein heifers (n=281) were subjected to a single measurement of AMH. All heifers not removed from the herd had the opportunity to complete 2 lactations and start their third lactation after calving. During this time, performance and health parameters for each individual were recorded daily by herd managers. Results showed that the quartile of heifers with the lowest AMH concentration also had, on average, a shorter productive herd life (by 196 d), a reduced survival rate after birth of the first calf, the lowest level of milk production (first lactation), the lowest total percentage of cows pregnant (across all lactations), the highest culling rates (first and second lactations and overall), and the highest culling rate for poor reproduction (first lactation) compared with age-matched herdmates with higher AMH. We concluded that a single determination of AMH concentration in young adult dairy heifers may be a simple diagnostic method to predict herd longevity, and AMH may be a useful phenotypic marker to improve longevity of dairy cows. PMID:25726106

  15. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis and adoption of related biosecurity measures in Northern Ireland: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, M J H; Matthews, D I; Laird, C; McDowell, S W J

    2016-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease which is endemic in Northern Ireland. As it has proven difficult to eradicate this disease, partly due to a wildlife reservoir being present in the European badger (Meles meles), a case-control study was conducted in a high incidence area in 2010-2011. The aim was to identify risk factors for bTB breakdown relating to cattle and badgers, and to assess the adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures on farms. Face-to-face questionnaires with farmers and surveys of badger setts and farm boundaries were conducted on 117 farms with a recent bTB breakdown (cases) and 75 farms without a recent breakdown (controls). On logistic regression at univariable and multivariable levels, significant risk factors associated with being a case herd included having an accessible badger sett within the farm boundaries in a field grazed in the last year (odds ratio, OR, 4.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.79, 9.55), observation of live badgers (OR 4.14; 95% CI 1.79, 9.55), purchase of beef cattle (OR 4.60; 95% CI 1.61, 13.13), use of contractors to spread slurry (OR 2.83; 95% CI 1.24, 6.49), feeding meal on top of silage (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.53, 8.23) and feeding magnesium supplement (OR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.39, 10.17). The majority of setts within the farm boundary were stated to be accessible by cattle (77.1%; 95% CI 71.2, 83.0%) and 66.8% (95% CI 63.8, 69.7%) of farm boundaries provided opportunities for nose-to-nose contact between cattle. Adoption of bTB related biosecurity measures, especially with regards to purchasing cattle and badger-related measures, was lower than measures related to disinfection and washing. PMID:27240911

  16. A screening sampling plan to detect Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis-positive dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Serraino, A; Arrigoni, N; Ostanello, F; Ricchi, M; Marchetti, G; Bonilauri, P; Bonfante, E; Giacometti, F

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic contagious bacterial disease primarily affecting dairy cattle. Paratuberculosis represents a dual problem for the milk production chain: in addition to economic losses to affected herds, MAP may have zoonotic potential. Infected herds must be identified in order to implement programs designed to reduce the incidence of disease within and between herds and to prevent MAP from entering the food chain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a screening sampling plan (SSP) to detect MAP-positive dairy herds by repetitive analysis of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples by ELISA and in-line milk filter (ILMF) samples by PCR. Samples from BTM and ILMF were collected twice from 569 dairy herds in southern Italy. Additionally, 12,016 individual milk samples were collected: 9,509 from 102 SSP-positive herds (SSP MAP-positive) and 2,507 from 21 randomly selected SSP-negative herds (SSP MAP-negative). There was a total of 126 SSP MAP-positive herds (i.e., 21.3% SSP MAP-positive herds; 95% confidence interval=18.0-24.9); the within-herd apparent prevalence (AP) ranged between 0.00 and 22.73% (mean 6.07%). A significant difference in within-herd AP was shown between SSP MAP-positive herds and SSP MAP-negative herds. A highly significant association was shown between the median AP herd status (>5%) and positivity to at least one ILMF or BTM sample. The SSP detected a minimum of 56.25% of low AP herds (AP ≤ 2.0%) up to a maximum of 100% of herds with a within-herd AP ≥ 8.0%. Overall, the SSP detected 85.57% of herds in which at least one individual milk sample was positive by ELISA. The proposed SSP was an inexpensive and useful tool to detect MAP-positive herds with a higher risk of infection diffusion and milk contamination. Although the SSP cannot be used for MAP-free certification of herds, it could be useful to prioritize appropriate

  17. A case-control study to identify risk factors for acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, M A; Morgan, P L; Sanhueza, J; Oakley, G E; Bateman, R S; McFADDEN, A; MacPHERSON, N; Owen, K L; Burton, L; Walsh, S; Weston, J; Marchant, R

    2016-07-01

    In late 2011 the New Zealand Ministry for Primary Industries reported an increase in confirmed laboratory diagnoses of salmonellosis in dairy herds. To identify risk factors for herd-level outbreaks of salmonellosis we conducted a case-control study of New Zealand dairy herds in 2011-2012. In a multivariable analysis, use of continuous feed troughs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6·2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·0-20], use of pelletized magnesium supplements (aOR 10, 95% CI 3·3-33) and use of palm kernel meal as a supplementary feed (aOR 8·7, 95% CI 2·5-30) were positively associated with a herd-level outbreak of salmonellosis between 1 July 2011 and 31 January 2012. We conclude that supplementary feeds used on dairy farms (regardless of type) need to be stored and handled appropriately to reduce the likelihood of bacterial contamination, particularly from birds and rodents. Magnesium supplementation in the pelletized form played a role in triggering outbreaks of acute salmonellosis in New Zealand dairy herds in 2011-2012. PMID:26956947

  18. The average culling rate of Dutch dairy herds over the years 2007 to 2010 and its association with herd reproduction, performance and health.

    PubMed

    Nor, Norhariani Mohd; Steeneveld, Wilma; Hogeveen, Henk

    2014-02-01

    Optimising the number of replacement heifers needed will have positive economic and environmental consequences on herds that rear their own young stock. The number of heifers needed to be kept is closely related with the number of culled dairy cows in the herd. This study therefore looked at the variation that exists in culling rate and herd level factors associated with it. A dataset from 1903 dairy herds available included information at animal level (dates of culling, slaughter/death) and herd level (characteristics of reproduction, performance, health) over the years 2007 to 2010. The average culling rate for slaughter/death was used and was defined for each year as percentage of the herd size that died within 30 d after they were culled. The analysis of the association between average culling rate for slaughter/death and the characteristics of the herd was performed using a mixed model. The results showed that the average culling rate for slaughter/death was 25·4% and varied between 23% (2007) and 28% (2010). More than 70% of the herds have an average culling rate for slaughter/death of less than 30%, showing that there is room for lowering the average culling rate for slaughter/death. A higher average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with a longer average calving interval, a higher average 305-d protein production, a higher average somatic cell count (SCC), a higher percentage of new high SCC, a more than 5% decrease in herd size, and herds that bought more than 1% of animals per year. A lower average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with a longer average age, herds that bought less than 1% of animals per year and a more than 5% increase in herd size. In conclusion, the average culling rate for slaughter/death is associated with fertility, udder health and openness of the herd. PMID:24107585

  19. Short communication: Bulk milk somatic cell penalties in herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement programs.

    PubMed

    Hand, K J; Godkin, M A; Kelton, D F

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of somatic cell count (SCC) monitoring at the cow level through Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) programs on the risk of bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) penalties. For the year 2009, BTSCC for all producers in Ontario were examined, for a total of 2,898 DHI herds, 1,186 non-DHI herds, and 48,250 BTSCC records. Two penalty levels were examined, where BTSCC exceeded 499,000 (P500) and 399,000 (P400) cells/mL. Data were modeled first to determine the odds of a BTSCC exceeding a set penalty threshold and second to determine the odds of incurring a penalty under the Ontario Milk Act. All data were modeled as a generalized mixed model with a binary link function. Random effects included herd, fixed effects included season of BTSCC (summer, May to September, and winter, October to April), total milk shipped per month (L), fat paid per month (kg), protein paid per month (kg), and participation or not in the DHI program. The likelihood of a BTSCC exceeding a penalty threshold in a non-DHI herd compared with a DHI herd was significantly greater than 1 at both penalty levels, where the odds ratios were estimated to be 1.42 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19 to 1.69] and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.25 to 1.54) for P500 and P400, respectively. The likelihood of incurring a BTSCC penalty (where 3 out of 4 consecutive BTSCC exceeded penalty thresholds) was not significantly different at P500; however, it was significantly different for P400, where the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.42 (95% CI: 1.12 to 1.81). PMID:22192202

  20. Specific pathogen-free pig herds also free from Campylobacter?

    PubMed

    Kolstoe, E M; Iversen, T; Østensvik, Ø; Abdelghani, A; Secic, I; Nesbakken, T

    2015-03-01

    As Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) pig herds are designed and managed to prevent specific pig diseases, it might be feasible to expand the list of micro-organisms also including zoonotic pathogens such as Campylobacter coli as this agent has its origin in pigs. In a previous survey, 15 of 16 of SPF herds were found free from human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. Accordingly, three nucleus and seven multiplying herds were surveyed for Campylobacter to investigate whether the Norwegian SPF pig pyramid also might be free from this agent. In conclusion, the intervention of Campylobacter at the herd level might be possible as four of 10 SPF herds tested negative in two sets of samples from both autumn 2008 and summer/early autumn 2010. The four negative herds were all located in remote areas several kilometres away from conventional pig farming while the positive SPF farms were all situated in neighbourhoods with conventional pig production. It seems more difficult to control Campylobacter than some specific animal disease agents and another significant zoonotic agent, Y. enterocolitica, in pig herds. PMID:24798507

  1. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    PubMed

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  2. Future risk of bovine tuberculosis recurrence among higher risk herds in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Clegg, T A; Good, M; More, S J

    2015-01-01

    Within the Irish national bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme, controls are tighter on higher risk herds, known as H-herds. These H-herds are defined as herds that have previously had a bTB restriction (also known as a bTB episode), with at least 2 animals positive to the single intradermal comparative tuberculin test (SICTT) or with a bTB lesion detected at slaughter. Such herds are considered at higher risk of recurrence following the end of the bTB episode. In this study, we examined if, and when, the future bTB risk of H-herds returned to a similar level comparable to herds with no history of bTB. In addition, the proportion of bTB episodes in 2012 that could be attributed to the recent introduction of an infected animal was also estimated, providing an update of earlier work. The study population consisted of all Irish herds that were not bTB restricted at the start of 2012 and with at least one whole-herd SICTT in 2012, with the herd being the unit of interest. The outcome measure was a bTB restriction, defined as any herd where at least 1 standard SICTT reactor or an animal with a bTB lesion at slaughter in 2012 was identified. A logistic regression model was used to model the probability of a herd being restricted in 2012. Herds that were previously restricted had significantly higher odds of being restricted in 2012 compared to herds that had not. Similarly, the odds of being restricted in 2012 decreased as the time since the previous restriction increased, but increased as the severity of the previous restriction increased. Odds of being restricted also increased with an increase (although not linear) in herd size, the number of animals greater than 1 year of age purchased in 2011, the county incidence rate and the proportion of cows in the herd. The recent introduction of an infected animal accounted for 7.4% (6.7-8.2) of herd restrictions. This study confirms the key role of past bTB history in determining the future risk of Irish herds

  3. Cost-benefit analysis model of badger (Meles meles) culling to reduce cattle herd tuberculosis breakdowns in Britain, with particular reference to badger perturbation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D; Bennett, R; McFarlane, I; Rushton, S; Shirley, M; Smith, G C

    2009-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is an important economic disease. Badgers (Meles meles) are the wildlife source implicated in many cattle outbreaks of TB in Britain, and extensive badger control is a controversial option to reduce the disease. A badger and cattle population model was developed, simulating TB epidemiology; badger ecology, including postcull social perturbation; and TB-related farm management. An economic cost-benefit module was integrated into the model to assess whether badger control offers economic benefits. Model results strongly indicate that although, if perturbation were restricted, extensive badger culling could reduce rates in cattle, overall an economic loss would be more likely than a benefit. Perturbation of the badger population was a key factor determining success or failure of control. The model highlighted some important knowledge gaps regarding both the spatial and temporal characteristics of perturbation that warrant further research. PMID:19901382

  4. Copper toxicity in a New Zealand dairy herd

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Chronic copper toxicity was diagnosed in a Jersey herd in the Waikato region of New Zealand following an investigation into the deaths of six cattle from a herd of 250 dry cows. Clinical signs and post-mortem examination results were consistent with a hepatopathy, and high concentrations of copper in liver and blood samples of clinically affected animals confirmed copper toxicity. Liver copper concentrations and serum gamma-glutamyl transferase activities were both raised in a group of healthy animals sampled at random from the affected herd, indicating an ongoing risk to the remaining cattle; these animals all had serum copper concentrations within normal limits. Serum samples and liver biopsies were also collected and assayed for copper from animals within two other dairy herds on the same farm; combined results from all three herds showed poor correlation between serum and liver copper concentrations. To reduce liver copper concentrations the affected herd was drenched with 0.5 g ammonium molybdate and 1 g sodium sulphate per cow for five days, and the herd was given no supplementary feed or mineral supplements. Liver biopsies were repeated 44 days after the initial biopsies (approximately 1 month after the end of the drenching program); these showed a significant 37.3% decrease in liver copper concentrations (P <0.02). Also there were no further deaths after the start of the drenching program. Since there was no control group it is impossible to quantify the effect of the drenching program in this case, and dietary changes were also made that would have depleted liver copper stores. Historical analysis of the diet was difficult due to poor record keeping, but multiple sources of copper contributed to a long term copper over supplementation of the herd; the biggest source of copper was a mineral supplement. The farmer perceived this herd to have problems with copper deficiency prior to the diagnosis of copper toxicity, so this case demonstrates the importance of

  5. Like herding cats.

    PubMed

    Muller-Smith, P

    1997-12-01

    In an effort to be a good manager, it is easy to lose sight of the fact that knowledge workers require a unique approach from their manager. Because nurses are independent and capable individuals that prosper in an environment that recognizes them as knowledge workers, nurse managers often find that traditional management techniques are not sufficient. Trying to manage all of the nurses on a unit as a single group is much like trying to herd cats. It might be less frustrating for the nurse manager to lead gently rather than manage with a firm hand. Warren Bennis suggests that this approach may provide a valuable key to successfully managing in a world of constant change. PMID:9464034

  6. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  7. Time-to-event analysis of predictors for recovery from Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy herds between 2002 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dohoo, Ian

    2013-07-01

    Salmonella Dublin infections reduce gross margins and compromise animal health and welfare in dairy cattle herds. Despite on-going control efforts in several countries the duration and risk factors of a persistent infection have been difficult to study due to a lack of suitable data. This study utilised the unique opportunity to extract systematically collected repeated bulk-tank milk antibody measurements from all the Danish dairy herds during a 10-year period to perform a time-to-event analysis of the factors that affect the duration of test-positivity and the hazards of recovery from S. Dublin at herd level. Recovery was defined as a shift from test-positive to test-negative between two year-quarters followed by at least three more test-negative year-quarters. The average duration of infection was approximately 2 years. Predictors of recovery were tested in a multivariable Cox proportional hazard model allowing herds to recover from infection multiple times over the 10-year surveillance period. The model results were based on 36,429 observations with data on all the predictors, representing 3563 herds with a total of 3246 recoveries. Sixty-seven herds (2.4%) remained test-positive throughout the study period. The rest of the 317 herds that did not have any recoveries were censored, mainly due to a cessation of milk production. Prior recovery from test-positivity turned out not to be a significant predictor of recovery in the model. The effect of the duration of infection on the conditional probability of recovery (i.e. the hazard) was time-dependent: early in the study period, long durations of infection were predictive of a low hazard of recovery. Later in the control programme the effect of duration of infection was reduced indicating a desired effect of an intensified control programme. There was an increasing tendency towards longer durations and lower hazard of recovery with: (i) increasing herd sizes, (ii) increasing bulk-tank milk somatic cell counts

  8. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES CONTROL OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program § 55.24 Herd status. (a) Initial and subsequent status... provided animals for the new herd. If the herd continues to meet the requirements of the CWD...

  9. Low stimulus environments: reducing noise levels in continuing care

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; Shah, Amar; Joyce, Margaret; Holt, Genevieve; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Marange, Rosca; Shakes, Joy; Solomon-Ayeh, Kwesi

    2016-01-01

    In the low stimulus environment project, we aimed to reduce the levels of intrusive background noise on an older adult mental health ward, combining a very straightforward measure on decibel levels with a downstream measure of reduced distress and agitation as expressed in incidents of violence. This project on reducing background noise levels on older adult wards stemmed from work the team had done on reducing levels of violence and aggression. We approached the problem using quality improvement methods. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust and in our efforts we were supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training and support provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the trust's own Quality Improvement team. Prior to the project we were running a weekly multi-disciplinary quality improvement group on the ward. We established from this a sub-group to address the specific problem of noise levels and invited carers of people with dementia on our ward to the group. The project was led by nursing staff. We used a noise meter app readily downloadable from the internet to monitor background noise levels on the ward and establish a baseline measure. As a group we used a driver diagram to identify an overall aim and a clear understanding of the major factors that would drive improvements. We also used a staff and carer survey to identify further areas to work on. Change ideas that came from staff and carers included the use of the noise meter to track and report back on noise levels, the use of posters to remind staff about noise levels, the introduction of a visual indication of current noise levels (the Yacker Tracker), the addition of relaxing background music, and adaptations to furniture and environment. We tested many of these over the course of nine months in 2015, using the iterative learning gained from multiple PDSA cycles. The specific aim was a decrease from above 60dB to

  10. Low stimulus environments: reducing noise levels in continuing care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; Shah, Amar; Joyce, Margaret; Holt, Genevieve; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Marange, Rosca; Shakes, Joy; Solomon-Ayeh, Kwesi

    2016-01-01

    In the low stimulus environment project, we aimed to reduce the levels of intrusive background noise on an older adult mental health ward, combining a very straightforward measure on decibel levels with a downstream measure of reduced distress and agitation as expressed in incidents of violence. This project on reducing background noise levels on older adult wards stemmed from work the team had done on reducing levels of violence and aggression. We approached the problem using quality improvement methods. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust and in our efforts we were supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training and support provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the trust's own Quality Improvement team. Prior to the project we were running a weekly multi-disciplinary quality improvement group on the ward. We established from this a sub-group to address the specific problem of noise levels and invited carers of people with dementia on our ward to the group. The project was led by nursing staff. We used a noise meter app readily downloadable from the internet to monitor background noise levels on the ward and establish a baseline measure. As a group we used a driver diagram to identify an overall aim and a clear understanding of the major factors that would drive improvements. We also used a staff and carer survey to identify further areas to work on. Change ideas that came from staff and carers included the use of the noise meter to track and report back on noise levels, the use of posters to remind staff about noise levels, the introduction of a visual indication of current noise levels (the Yacker Tracker), the addition of relaxing background music, and adaptations to furniture and environment. We tested many of these over the course of nine months in 2015, using the iterative learning gained from multiple PDSA cycles. The specific aim was a decrease from above 60dB to

  11. Prevalence of antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in bulk tank milk from unvaccinated irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Bulk tank milk samples, collected from 347 herds throughout the Republic of Ireland using a sampling frame based on seven milk-recording organisations, were tested by ELISA for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo. These herds, which had not been vaccinated against leptospirosis within the previous five years, were categorised according to their province, milk-recording organisation and size. Two-hundred-and-seventy-three herds (79%) had a positive ELISA titre. Both the probability of a herd being seropositive and the antibody level in the herd milk sample were affected by the province (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and the herd size category (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). Larger herds were significantly more likely to have positive reactions and higher mean concentrations of antibody. It was concluded that a high proportion of unvaccinated Irish dairy herds have been exposed to infection with Leptospira hardjo. PMID:21851657

  12. Unsaturated fatty acids supplementation reduces blood lead level in rats.

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: "super lecithin" (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  13. Unsaturated Fatty Acids Supplementation Reduces Blood Lead Level in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Skoczyńska, Anna; Wojakowska, Anna; Nowacki, Dorian; Bobak, Łukasz; Turczyn, Barbara; Smyk, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Some dietary factors could inhibit lead toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary compounds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (FA) on blood lead level, lipid metabolism, and vascular reactivity in rats. Serum metallothionein and organs' lead level were evaluated with the aim of assessing the possible mechanism of unsaturated FA impact on blood lead level. For three months, male Wistar rats that were receiving drinking water with (100 ppm Pb) or without lead acetate were supplemented per os daily with virgin olive oil or linseed oil (0.2 mL/kg b.w.) or egg derived lecithin fraction: “super lecithin” (50 g/kg b.w.). Mesenteric artery was stimulated ex vivo by norepinephrine (NE) administered at six different doses. Lecithin supplementation slightly reduced pressor responses of artery to NE. Lead administered to rats attenuated the beneficial effect of unsaturated FA on lipid metabolism and vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, the super lecithin and linseed oil that were characterized by low omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (about 1) reduced the blood lead concentration. This effect was observed in lead poisoned rats (p < 0.0001) and also in rats nonpoisoned with lead (p < 0.05). PMID:26075218

  14. Bovine besnoitiosis (Besnoitia besnoiti) in an Irish dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E G; Lee, A; Carty, C; O'Shaughnessy, J; Kelly, P; Cassidy, J P; Sheehan, M; Johnson, A; de Waal, T

    2016-06-11

    Bovine besnoitiosis, caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti, was diagnosed in an Irish dairy herd. This is the first diagnosis of besnoitiosis in Ireland or the UK and the most northerly European outbreak yet described. The diagnosis occurred following a farm investigation in June 2015 into an unusual dermatological problem that had been ongoing since 2010. On an annual basis, 1-2 per cent of cows in the herd exhibited clinical signs, including skin thickening, alopecia, weight loss and poor performance. Others displayed pyrexia, limb oedema, respiratory distress and reduced milk yield. Histopathological examination of skin revealed granulomatous and eosinophilic dermatitis, with characteristic intradermal protozoal cysts, consistent with cutaneous besnoitiosis. Follow-up serological testing and clinical examination of cattle (n=228) on the farm found that 68 per cent (144/212) were seropositive for B. besnoiti In addition, 51 per cent (117/228) had characteristic scleral conjunctival cysts and 68 per cent (134/198) had vulval cysts. Postmortem examination of a severely affected animal revealed typical gross and histopathological lesions of B. besnoiti infection. These results confirmed endemic infection with B. besnoiti The identification of this exotic disease highlights the importance of veterinary surveillance at both local and national level, particularly in relation to emerging diseases. PMID:27122500

  15. Herd-level risk factors for the seropositivity to Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia among fattening pigs in areas of endemic infection and high pig density.

    PubMed

    Nathues, H; Chang, Y M; Wieland, B; Rechter, G; Spergser, J; Rosengarten, R; Kreienbrock, L; Grosse Beilage, E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify potential risk factors for the occurrence of enzootic pneumonia (EP) in herds situated in a region of high pig density, where a majority of herds is endemically infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Between 2006 and 2010, overall 100 herds were enrolled in a case-control study. Data were collected through personal interview with the farmers, clinical examination of pigs and their environments, and serological testing for M. hyopneumoniae, swine influenza virus and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. There were 40 case herds (coughing index high, seroprevalence high) with a mean coughing index of 4.3 and a seroprevalence of 86.6%. There were two control groups. Control group I consisted of 25 herds (coughing index low, seroprevalence low) with mean values of 0.7 and 11.2%, and 35 herds were allocated to control group II (coughing index low, seroprevalence high) where the mean coughing index was 0.9 and seroprevalence 86.3%. Case herds and control II herds had an increased age of piglets at weaning compared to control I herds. Any contact between fattening pigs of different age during restocking of compartments increased the risk for the occurrence of EP in a herd. Finally, farms that use living animals for the exposure to gilts during the acclimatization and farms that had increased number of weaned piglets per sow and year were less likely to test positive for M. hyopneumoniae and less likely to develop clinical symptoms of EP in fattening pigs. PMID:23199301

  16. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianmei; Ahmedna, Mohamed; Goktepe, Ipek; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Maleki, Soheila

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernels as affected by processing conditions. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicators of process effectiveness. Enzymatic treatment effectively reduced Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in roasted peanut kernels by up to 100% under optimal conditions. For instance, treatment of roasted peanut kernels with α-chymotrypsin and trypsin for 1-3h significantly increased the solubility of peanut protein while reducing Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 in peanut kernel extracts by 100% and 98%, respectively, based on ELISA readings. Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 levels in peanut protein extracts were inversely correlated with protein solubility in roasted peanut. Blanching of kernels enhanced the effectiveness of enzyme treatment in roasted peanuts but not in raw peanuts. The optimal concentration of enzyme was determined by response surface to be in the range of 0.1-0.2%. No consistent results were obtained for raw peanut kernels since Ara h 1 and Ara h 2 increased in peanut protein extracts under some treatment conditions and decreased in others. PMID:25214091

  17. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Levecke, B; Devleesschauwer, B; Vercruysse, J; Hogeveen, H

    2012-06-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to individual animals instead of the whole herd. However, such selective treatment strategies come with additional costs for labor and diagnostics and, so far, no studies have addressed whether they could be economically sustainable. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the economic effects at farm level of whole-herd versus more selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in adult dairy cows, and (2) determine how these economic effects depend on level of infection and herd size. A Monte Carlo simulation, fed by current epidemiological and economical knowledge, was used to estimate the expected economic effects and possible variation of different control strategies under Belgian conditions. Four treatment strategies were compared with a baseline situation in which no treatments were applied: whole herd at calving (S1), selective at calving with (S2) or without (S3) treatment of the first-calf cows, and whole-herd when animals are moved from grazing to the barn in the fall (housing treatment, S4). The benefit per lactation for an average dairy herd varied between -$2 and $131 (average $64) for S1, between -$2 and $127 (average $62) for S2, between -$17 and $104 (average $43) for S3, and between -$41 and $72 (average $15) for S4. The farmer's risk associated with any treatment strategy, as indicated by the width of the 95% credible intervals of economic benefit of anthelmintic treatment, decreased with increasing level of exposure, as assessed by bulk tank milk ELISA. The order of the different strategies when sorted by expected benefit was robust to changes in economic input parameters. We conclude that, on average, strategies applying anthelmintic

  18. The Successful Management of Leptospirosa hardjo Infection in a Beef Herd in Northern Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Kingscote, Barbara F.; Proulx, Julien

    1986-01-01

    Abortion, premature calving, hemolytic anemia and fatal hematuria were associated with high levels (titer > 10−4) of antibody to Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo and with isolation of hardjo in a herd of 265 beef cattle in the Great Clay Belt of northern Ontario. This herd was bred by artificial insemination, after heat detection by vasectomized bulls. The antibody prevalence rate in the herd was 54 to 60% over a five year period. The rate tended to reach 100% by age three years and to be below 5% in yearlings, which were raised in isolation from older cattle. Hardjo was isolated from the urine of a cow that aborted in the eighth month of pregnancy, and from kidneys of yearling steers which had been exposed to an older cow. Maternal antibody levels in calves paralleled those in their dams, protecting calves while they were being naturally exposed to infection, thus contributing to the achievement of balance between host and parasite. A controlled vaccination trial was conducted in 50 initially seronegative yearling steers and heifers. Serological response to vaccine was limited to a maximum agglutinin titer of 10−2 in 8% of vaccinated cattle. Vaccination reduced the infection rate from 86% in the controls to 46% in the treated group, indirectly reducing the number of calves for which colostral antibody against hardjo would be available. A vaccination program was not implemented in the herd. Hardjo infection appeared to die out over a period of six years following the initial five year study period, with antibody prevalence falling from 60% to 0.7% and reactors persisting only in two eight year old cows. Decline in infection was coincident with changes in management which protected heifers from exposure to infection until their third pregnancy, and which probably lowered the reservoir of infection by increased culling from older age classes. PMID:17422716

  19. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    PubMed

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients. PMID:14637240

  20. Johne's disease: reliability of environmental sampling to characterize Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in beef cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, W; Einax, E; Pützschel, R; Schmidt, M; Donat, K

    2016-08-01

    Environmental samples are considered to be a cost-effective method of identifying Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive dairy herds, but evidence for beef cow-calf herds is weak. This study aims at evaluating this approach in a total of 20 German herds that were characterized by individual faecal samples (n = 2545) of all cows. For 14 MAP-positive herds having at least one MAP-positive animal, the within-herd prevalence was calculated from concurrent individual faecal culture-based testing. Six herds certified as 'MAP free' based on the negative results of previous years served as MAP-negative controls. On average, six environmental samples were taken at the end of winter from areas with high cow traffic and tested for MAP by faecal culture. According to the environmental samples, nine (64·3%) out of the 14 MAP-positive cow-calf herds were infected. The percentage of positive environmental samples and the apparent within-herd prevalence (Spearman's P = 0·73, P < 0·001) as well as the herd-level test results (positive and negative) and the herd's status based on individual testing (Fisher's exact test, P = 0·014) showed a positive association. Considering limitations in low-prevalence herds, MAP-positive beef cow-calf herds are detectable by environmental samples in temperate climate zones. PMID:27094619

  1. Evaluation of udder health parameters and risk factors for clinical mastitis in Dutch dairy herds in the context of a restricted antimicrobial usage policy.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Swinkels, J M; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2016-04-01

    Recently, many changes have been implemented in Dutch dairy herds. Herd sizes have increased and antimicrobial use has been reduced. Certain types of antimicrobials can only be used in specific circumstances, and the preventive use of antimicrobials in dry cows is prohibited. The aim of this study was to quantify clinical mastitis (CM), subclinical mastitis (SCM), and risk factors associated with CM in Dutch dairy herds in 2013, in the context of these changes. For this study, 240 dairy herds were randomly selected from farms that participated in test-day milk recording, used a conventional milking system, and agreed to participate in the study. Eventually, 233 Dutch dairy farmers had complete records of CM in their herds in 2013 and 224 of these farmers completed a questionnaire on management factors potentially associated with CM. All participating farmers gave consent to use their routinely collected herd data such as test-day records and cow identification and registration data. Clinical and subclinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI and SCMI, respectively) per 100 cows per year, subclinical mastitis prevalence, and average bulk tank milk somatic cell count were obtained for 2013. The risk factor analysis was conducted using a generalized linear model with a log link function and a negative binomial distribution on herd level in Stata 13.1. A median CMI of 28.6 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCMI of 70.1 per 100 cows at risk per year, SCM prevalence of 15.8%, and bulk tank milk somatic cell count of 171 × 10(3) cells/mL were observed in 2013. Factors that were significantly associated with a higher CMI were cleaning slatted floors only once per day compared with more than 4 times a day (i.e., mechanical), a higher percentage of Holstein Friesian cows present in the herd, treating less than 50% of the cows with CM with antimicrobials, postmilking teat disinfection, and treatment of cows with elevated somatic cell count with antimicrobials. The results of this

  2. An estimation of the clinical mastitis incidence per 100 cows per year based on routinely collected herd data.

    PubMed

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Lam, T J G M; Keurentjes, J; van Schaik, G

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether it was possible to (1) estimate the clinical mastitis incidence rate (CMI) for all Dutch dairy herds and (2) to detect farms with a high CMI based on routinely collected herd data. For this study, 240 dairy farms with a conventional milking system that participated in the milk recording program every 4 to 6 wk were randomly selected and agreed to participate. From the initial 240 herds, data of clinical mastitis (CM) registrations and routinely collected herd data of 227 herds were complete and could be used for analysis. Routinely collected herd data consisted of identification and registration records, antimicrobial usage, test-day records from the milk recording program, bulk tank milk (BTM) somatic cell count data and results of diagnostic tests on BTM samples. For each of the 227 herds, the CMI per 100 cows per year was calculated per quarter of the year and was combined with the available herd data. Two models were developed to predict the CMI for all dairy herds and to detect individual herds that belonged to the 25% herds with the highest CMI. Records of 156 (67%) herds were used for development of the models and the remaining 71 (33%) were used for validation. The model that estimated the CMI in all herds consisted of 11 explanatory variables. The observed and predicted averages of the validation herds were not significantly different. The model estimated a CMI per 100 cows per year of 32.5 cases (95% confidence interval=30.2-34.8), whereas the farmers registered 33.4 cases (95% confidence interval=29.5-37.4). The model that aimed at detecting individual herds with a high CMI contained 6 explanatory variables and could correctly classify 77% of all validation herds at the quarter-year level. The most important variables in the model were antibiotic usage for treating CM and BTM somatic cell count. In conclusion, models based on routinely collected herd data gave an accurate prediction of CMI for all Dutch dairy

  3. Calcium Deficiency Reduces Circulating Levels of FGF23

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Ortiz, María E.; Lopez, Ignacio; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M.; Ramírez, Alan Peralta; Pineda, Carmen; Canalejo, Antonio; Jaeger, Philippe; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Felsenfeld, Arnold; Almaden, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23 inhibits calcitriol production, which could exacerbate calcium deficiency or hypocalcemia unless calcium itself modulates FGF23 in this setting. In Wistar rats with normal renal function fed a diet low in both calcium and vitamin D, the resulting hypocalcemia was associated with low FGF23 despite high parathyroid hormone (PTH) and high calcitriol levels. FGF23 correlated positively with calcium and negatively with PTH. Addition of high dietary phosphorus to this diet increased FGF23 except in rats with hypocalcemia despite high PTH levels. In parathyroidectomized rats, an increase in dietary calcium for 10 days increased serum calcium, with an associated increase in FGF23, decrease in calcitriol, and no change in phosphorus. Also in parathyroidectomized rats, FGF23 increased significantly 6 hours after administration of calcium gluconate. Taken together, these results suggest that hypocalcemia reduces the circulating concentrations of FGF23. This decrease in FGF23 could be a response to avoid a subsequent reduction in calcitriol, which could exacerbate hypocalcemia. PMID:22581996

  4. Population Characteristics May Reduce the Levels of Individual Call Identity

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, María del Mar; Caferri, Eleonora; Méndez, Maria; Godoy, José A.; Campioni, Letizia; Penteriani, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Individual variability influences the demographic and evolutionary dynamics of spatially structured populations, and conversely ecological and evolutionary dynamics provide the context under which variations at the individual level occur. Therefore, it is essential to identify and characterize the importance of the different factors that may promote or hinder individual variability. Animal signaling is a prime example of a type of behavior that is largely dependent on both the features of individuals and the characteristics of the population to which they belong. After 10 years studying the dynamics of a population of a long-lived species, the eagle owl (Bubo bubo), we investigated the emergence and maintenance of traits that reveal individual identity by focusing on vocal features. We found that individuals inhabiting a high density population characterized by a relative lack of heterogeneity (in terms of prey availability and breeding success) among breeding sites might be selected for reducing the levels of identity. Two non-mutually exclusive hypotheses may explain the structural call patterns we detected: (1) similarity in calls may be principally a consequence of the particular characteristics of the population; and (2) high density may encourage individuals to mimic each other’s vocalizations in a cascade effect, leading to a widespread and unique communication network. PMID:24204869

  5. Optimizing productivity, herd structure, environmental performance, and profitability of dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Liang, D; Cabrera, V E

    2015-04-01

    This study used the Integrated Farm System Model to simulate the whole farm performance of a representative Wisconsin dairy farm and predict its economic and environmental outputs based on 25 yr of daily local weather data (1986 to 2010). The studied farm, located in southern Wisconsin, had 100 milking cows and 100 ha of cropland with no replacement heifers kept on the farm. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the effect of management strategies on energy-corrected milk production (ECM; 4.0% fat and 3.5% protein), net return to management, and greenhouse gas (GHG; including biogenic CO2) emission. The management strategies included (1) target milk production, for which the model optimized available resources to attain, and (2) herd structure, represented by the percentage of first-lactation cows. Weather conditions affected the outputs by changing the farm quantity and the quality of produced feed resources. As expected, when target milk production increased, the ECM increased positively and linearly to a certain level, and then it increased nonlinearly at a decreasing rate, constrained by available feed nutrients. Thereafter, the ECM reached the maximum potential milk production and remained flat regardless of higher target milk production input. Greenhouse gas emissions decreased between 3.4 and 7.3% at different first-lactation cow percentages. As the first-lactation cow percent increased from 15 to 45% in 5% intervals, GHG increased between 9.4 and 11.3% at different levels of target milk production. A high percentage of first-lactation cows reduced the maximum potential milk production. Net return to management had a similar changing trend as ECM. As the target milk production increased from 9,979 to 11,793 kg, the net return to management increased between 31 and 46% at different first-lactation cow percentages. Results revealed a win-win situation when increasing milk production or improving herd structure, which concurrently increased farm net

  6. Modeling Tuberculosis Dynamics, Detection and Control in Cattle Herds

    PubMed Central

    Bekara, Mohammed El Amine; Courcoul, Aurélie; Bénet, Jean-Jacques; Durand, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological models are key tools for designing and evaluating detection and control strategies against animal infectious diseases. In France, after decades of decrease of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) incidence, the disease keeps circulating. Increasing prevalence levels are observed in several areas, where the detection and control strategy could be adapted. The objective of this work was to design and calibrate a model of the within-herd transmission of bTB. The proposed model is a stochastic model operating in discrete-time. Three health states were distinguished: susceptible, latent and infected. Dairy and beef herd dynamics and bTB detection and control programs were explicitly represented. Approximate Bayesian computation was used to estimate three model parameters from field data: the transmission parameter when animals are inside (βinside) and outside (βoutside) buildings, and the duration of the latent phase. An independent dataset was used for model validation. The estimated median was 0.43 [0.16–0.84] month−1 for βinside and 0.08 [0.01–0.32] month−1 for βoutside. The median duration of the latent period was estimated 3.5 [2]–[8] months. The sensitivity analysis showed only minor influences of fixed parameter values on these posterior estimates. Validation based on an independent dataset showed that in more than 80% of herds, the observed proportion of animals with detected lesions was between the 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles of the simulated distribution. In the absence of control program and once bTB has become enzootic within a herd, the median effective reproductive ratio was estimated to be 2.2 in beef herds and 1.7 in dairy herds. These low estimates are consistent with field observations of a low prevalence level in French bTB-infected herds. PMID:25254369

  7. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste?

    PubMed

    Blanke, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  8. Prevalence of and risk factors for influenza in southern Ontario swine herds in 2001 and 2003

    PubMed Central

    Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Catherine E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Christensen, Jette; Carman, Susy; Friendship, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    This research included 2 prevalence studies and a risk-factor investigation conducted in 2001 at 93 sites with sows only, finishers only, or both. In 2001, 1300 serum samples from sows in 65 herds and 720 serum samples from finisher pigs in 72 herds were tested for antibodies to swine influenzavirus (SIV) of H1N1 subtype with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In 2003, 1140 serum samples from sows in 76 herds were tested for antibodies to SIV of H3N2 subtype with a hemagglutination-inhibition assay based on A/Swine/Colorado/1/77 and A/Swine/Texas/4199-2/98 isolates. The apparent pig-level H1N1 seroprevalence in 2001 was 61.1% and 24.3% in sows and finishers, respectively. The apparent pig-level seroprevalence in 2003 for H3N2 A/Sw/CO/1/77 and A/Sw/TX/4199-2/98 in sows was 0.6% and 0.7%, respectively. The factors associated with sow-herd H1N1 positivity included pig or farm density at different geographic levels, an external source of breeding pigs, number of animals on site, and decreasing proximity to other barns. Higher-parity sows had higher odds of seropositivity, but there was significant random variability in this association among herds. The odds of finisher-herd SIV positivity were higher with large herd size, high pig farm density, and farrow-to-finish type of farm. Finisher herds were SIV-positive only if source sow herds were positive. Simultaneously, 45% of finisher herds were SIV-negative although sow source herds were positive. PMID:18214156

  9. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... available for testing (i.e., a trace animal from a known positive herd died and was not tested) or for other... with program requirements for animal identification, animal testing, and recordkeeping, the herd will... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Herd status. 55.24 Section...

  10. 9 CFR 55.24 - Herd status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required, but other requirements of the program will remain in force. (b) Loss or suspension of herd status... loss or suspension of herd status by writing to the Administrator within 10 days after being informed... adopted by the Administrator. However, cancellation of enrollment or loss or suspension of herd...

  11. Reduced cadmium levels in human kidney cortex in sweden.

    PubMed Central

    Friis, L; Petersson, L; Edling, C

    1998-01-01

    Environmental pollution with the nephrotoxic metal cadmium is considered a potential health risk for the general population. In 1976 it was reported that the cadmium concentration in human kidney cortex in Sweden had increased in parallel with increasing levels in soil and grain during the twentieth century. Since the cadmium concentration in farming lands is still increasing, the present study was undertaken to further elucidate whether the cadmium concentration in the kidney is still increasing. Kidney cortex biopsies were collected at 171 autopsies of victims to sudden and accidental death during 1995 and 1996, and the cadmium concentrations were determined and compared with previously published Swedish data obtained from forensic autopsies. The geometric mean cadmium concentration in kidney cortex in subjects 40 years of age and younger was about 40% of the concentration found in the 1970s, while the reduction was less pronounced among older people. The highest individual concentration of cadmium was 41.5 microg/g wet weight (ww). The geometric mean concentration was less than 14 microg/g ww at ages around 50 years of age, when the cadmium concentration in kidney cortex is highest, as compared with approximately 20 microg/g ww in the 1970s. There was also a reduction in cadmium concentrations among nonsmokers; thus, a decrease in tobacco smoking in Sweden during the last decades is not the only explanation for the reduction of cadmium in the kidney cortex. Other reasons for this reduction could be changes in dietary habits and reduced cadmium contamination from Swedish industries. Images Figure 1 PMID:9485480

  12. The art in getting flocks and herds to flerds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flerds (small ruminants that consistently stay near cattle under free-ranging conditions) offer four distinct advantages over stocking simply flocks and herds to carry out mixed species stocking. One of the main advantages flerds offer is added protection from canine predation, reduced time in loca...

  13. Seropositive bucks and within-herd prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Witkowski, Lucjan; Bagnicka, Emilia; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis is an economically important disease of goats. It is evident that horizontal transmission through respiratory secretions and milk plays an important part in the disease spread whereas the role of sexual transmission remains questionable. The cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the relationship between presence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRL V)-seropositive bucks and seroprevalence of SRL V infection in does in herds. The analysis included 76 goat herds seropositive for SRL V infection. A sample of adult female goats from each herd was selected in a simple random fashion. All males present in a herd were also enrolled in the study. The animals were screened with commercial serological immunoenzymatic tests. Standardized questionnaires were used to gather knowledge of 3 hypothesized herd-level confounding factors: number of years for which a herd had existed until testing, goat replacement from other herds in Poland and use of machine milking. Three-level hierarchical linear regression model was developed to evaluate the relationship (α = 0.05). Median (interquartile range) within-herd seroprevalence of SRL V was 60.1% (35.7% to 87.9%) and 35.8% (10.1% to 49.6%) in herds where seropositive males were present and absent, respectively. Controlling for possible confounders presence of SRL V-seropositive bucks proved to be an independent factor linked to the higher within-herd seroprevalence of SRL V (p = 0.001). The study indicates that seropositive bucks may facilitate the spread of SRL V infection in goat herds and therefore their presence should be considered as a risk factor. PMID:26648770

  14. Seropositive bucks and within-herd prevalence of small ruminant lentivirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Szaluś-Jordanow, Olga; Witkowski, Lucjan; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    Caprine arthritis-encephalitis is an economically important disease of goats. It is evident that horizontal transmission through respiratory secretions and milk plays an important part in the disease spread whereas the role of sexual transmission remains questionable. The cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the relationship between presence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRL V)-seropositive bucks and seroprevalence of SRL V infection in does in herds. The analysis included 76 goat herds seropositive for SRL V infection. A sample of adult female goats from each herd was selected in a simple random fashion. All males present in a herd were also enrolled in the study. The animals were screened with commercial serological immunoenzymatic tests. Standardized questionnaires were used to gather knowledge of 3 hypothesized herd-level confounding factors: number of years for which a herd had existed until testing, goat replacement from other herds in Poland and use of machine milking. Three-level hierarchical linear regression model was developed to evaluate the relationship (α = 0.05). Median (interquartile range) within-herd seroprevalence of SRL V was 60.1% (35.7% to 87.9%) and 35.8% (10.1% to 49.6%) in herds where seropositive males were present and absent, respectively. Controlling for possible confounders presence of SRL V-seropositive bucks proved to be an independent factor linked to the higher within-herd seroprevalence of SRL V (p = 0.001). The study indicates that seropositive bucks may facilitate the spread of SRL V infection in goat herds and therefore their presence should be considered as a risk factor. PMID:26648770

  15. Synergy between selection for production and longevity and the use of extended lactation: insights from a resource allocation model in a dairy goat herd.

    PubMed

    Douhard, F; Tichit, M; Amer, P R; Friggens, N C

    2014-11-01

    Although most of the genetic progress in production efficiency is achieved through selection at a global scale, locally, farm managers can also influence the selection process to better match genotypes and their varying herd environment. This study focused on the influence of a particular management decision--the use of extended lactation (EL) in dairy goat production systems--as it affects the survival and reproduction rates at the herd level, which may then shape different long-term selection responses. The objective was to understand and quantify the influences of EL and variability in achieved intake level on the responses to selection for production, reproduction, and longevity. An animal model of resource allocation between life functions was applied to the dairy goat. It predicts the trajectory of change in the herd genetic composition as affected by the feeding level and the selection pressure applied by the manager. During 40 yr, goats were selected for milk yield, reproduction, and, with a different selection weight for age (WAGE), for longevity. Under varying achieved intake levels, increasing WAGE improved the survival rate but a nonlinear effect was observed for the average milk yield and BCS. When moderately increasing WAGE from 0, resources were reallocated from lactation towards body reserves and survival, which led to a trade-off at the herd level between improving survival and BCS and increasing milk yield. When further increasing WAGE, old females became systematically preferred regardless of their reproductive status and the proportion of EL in the herd increased. Females undergoing EL had reduced energetic costs of reproduction, which improved their probability of survival. Across generations, an increased herd incidence of EL led to a relaxation of the selection pressure on the resource allocation to body reserves, which is normally imposed by the manager's priority to achieve successful reproduction at each mating. As selection for longevity

  16. Association between cattle herd Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection and infection of a hare population.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Monti, Gustavo; Sevilla, Iker; Manning, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    Paratuberculosis has long been considered a disease of domestic and wild ruminants only. The known host range of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was recently extended to include non-ruminant wildlife species believed to be exposed to spillover of MAP from infected domestic cattle herds. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between cattle herd MAP infection pressure level and the infection level of a hare population in two dairy farms of southern Chile. Fifty hares from a herd A and 42 hares from herd B were captured and sampled for MAP culture. The results showed a statistically significant association between the cattle herds' infection prevalence and the hare infection prevalence. PMID:25030465

  17. Short communication: Relationship between the level of bovine leukemia virus antibody and provirus in blood and milk of cows from a naturally infected herd.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Juan P; Porta, Natalia G; Gutierrez, Geronimo; Politzki, Romina P; Álvarez, Irene; Galarza, Roxana; Abdala, Alejandro; Calvinho, Luis; Trono, Karina G

    2016-07-01

    We explored the relationship between the level of bovine leukemia virus antibodies and provirus load during natural infection. For that purpose, a set of 50 blood and milk paired samples were analyzed for the presence of bovine leukemia virus provirus and antibodies. Additionally, provirus load and antibody titers were measured and the relationship between these variables was investigated. Bovine leukemia provirus was detected in 59% of milk samples and a negative correlation was observed between the level of milk provirus load and milk antibody titers. By the consumption of raw milk, calves might be exposed to bovine leukemia virus favoring the perinatal transmission of this disease. PMID:27132093

  18. A descriptive epidemiological study of mastitis in 12 Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Factors relating to the occurrence of mastitis were studied on 12 Irish dairy herds with histories of elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and/or increased incidence of clinical mastitis cases. Milk recording data were analysed, housing conditions and calving areas were examined; dry cow therapy, clinical mastitis records, milking technique and aspects of milking machine function were assessed. Herds with a ratio of less than 110 cubicles per 100 cows were more likely to experience environmental mastitis. Herds with inadequate calving facilities, where cows spent prolonged periods on straw bedding, were likely to acquire environmental mastitis. In the majority of the herds, the selection of dry cow therapy lacked adequate planning. The majority of farmers took no action to reduce pain experienced by cows suffering mastitis. Deficiencies in parlour hygiene were evident in all herds experiencing elevation in SCC. PMID:21851663

  19. Prevalence and risk factors for Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. in finishing pigs in Polish farrow-to-finish swine herds.

    PubMed

    Dors, A; Pomorska-Mól, M; Czyżewska, E; Wasyl, D; Pejsak, Z

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the herd-level, within-herd prevalence, the frequency of mixed infections and risk factors for L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. in selected farrow-to-finish Polish pig herds. A total of 254 pooled fecal samples were collected from 9 to 24 week-old pigs in 70 herds. Real time PCR for detection of L. intracellularis and B. hyodysenteriae was performed. For Salmonella spp. bacteriological examination was performed. The herd-level prevalences of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. among examined herds were 65.7%, 1.4% and 8.6%, respectively. The within-herd prevalences (in positive herds) for L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were 51.5%, 75.0% and 30.4%, respectively. All herds with diarrhea observed during sampling were infected with L. intracellularis and 60% of herds with no diarrhea at the moment of sampling were infected with L. intracellularis (p=0.035). In herds with more than 200 sows the prevalence of Salmonella spp. was significantly higher compared to herds with less than 200 sows (p=0.027). In herds where all-in/all-out (AIAO) was respected, prevalence of L. intracellularis was significantly lower than in herds where this rule was not kept (p=0.024). Obtained results confirm that L. intracellularis is the major cause of bacterial diarrhea in finishing pigs. The present study identified AIAO and herd size as a risk factor, at the herd level, for L. intracellularis and Salmonella spp., respectively. PMID:26812826

  20. Self-boosting vaccines and their implications for herd immunity

    PubMed Central

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Lavine, Jennie S.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in vaccine technology over the past two centuries have facilitated far-reaching impact in the control of many infections, and today’s emerging vaccines could likewise open new opportunities in the control of several diseases. Here we consider the potential, population-level effects of a particular class of emerging vaccines that use specific viral vectors to establish long-term, intermittent antigen presentation within a vaccinated host: in essence, “self-boosting” vaccines. In particular, we use mathematical models to explore the potential role of such vaccines in situations where current immunization raises only relatively short-lived protection. Vaccination programs in such cases are generally limited in their ability to raise lasting herd immunity. Moreover, in certain cases mass vaccination can have the counterproductive effect of allowing an increase in severe disease, through reducing opportunities for immunity to be boosted through natural exposure to infection. Such dynamics have been proposed, for example, in relation to pertussis and varicella-zoster virus. In this context we show how self-boosting vaccines could open qualitatively new opportunities, for example by broadening the effective duration of herd immunity that can be achieved with currently used immunogens. At intermediate rates of self-boosting, these vaccines also alleviate the potential counterproductive effects of mass vaccination, through compensating for losses in natural boosting. Importantly, however, we also show how sufficiently high boosting rates may introduce a new regime of unintended consequences, wherein the unvaccinated bear an increased disease burden. Finally, we discuss important caveats and data needs arising from this work. PMID:23169630

  1. Premilking teat disinfection: is it worthwhile in pasture-grazed dairy herds?

    PubMed

    Morton, John M; Penry, John F; Malmo, Jakob; Mein, Graeme A

    2014-12-01

    A controlled trial was conducted in 5 pasture-grazed commercial dairy herds in Australia in 2012 to determine whether premilking teat disinfection and drying of teats reduces clinical mastitis incidence during early lactation by at least 50%. A 50% reduction was estimated to be the minimum required to justify additional costs of labor, disinfectants, and other resources if premilking teat disinfection was implemented in a 500-cow herd averaging 8 clinical cases per 100 cow-months. A secondary aim was to determine whether this premilking teat disinfection routine reduces incidence of new udder infections. Treatment was applied in each herd for approximately 60 d (range of 59.5 to 61 d), commencing in each herd soon after the start of the herd's main or only calving period. Within each herd, cows were allocated to either the treatment (premilking disinfection) or the control (no premilking disinfection) group based on their herd identity number. During the trial period, any cow having a new case of clinical mastitis or an individual cow cell count greater than 250,000 cells/mL of milk (when preceded by individual cow cell counts of 250,000 cells/mL of milk or below) was deemed to have had a new infection. Overall, neither clinical mastitis incidence nor new infection rate differed significantly between treatment and control groups. Over the whole study period, 98 of the 1,029 cows in the premilking disinfection group and 97 of the 1,025 cows in the control group had clinical mastitis. Total cow-days at risk of clinical mastitis were similar in each group. However, clinical incidence rates were markedly lower in treatment cows in one herd (herd 3; incidence rate ratio=0.34) and there was some evidence that new infection incidence rates were lower in treated cows in this herd (incidence rate ratio=0.42). Rainfall during the study period was below long-term district average in all 5 study herds. Cows' teats were less dirty than in previous, wetter years for the 4 herds

  2. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    PubMed Central

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

    2008-01-01

    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  3. Enzymatic treatment of peanut kernels to reduce allergen levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the use of enzymatic treatment to reduce peanut allergens in peanut kernel by processing conditions, such as, pretreatment with heat and proteolysis at different enzyme concentrations and treatment times. Two major peanut allergens, Ara h 1 and Ara h 2, were used as indicator...

  4. Use of herd management programmes to improve the reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Heuer, C; Morton, J; Brownlie, T

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of herd health and production management programmes in many dairy industries around the world, but evidence for the efficacy of such programmes is limited. In response to a perceived decline in fertility of dairy cows, a herd reproductive management programme (InCalf) was introduced in New Zealand in 2007. This programme uses a management cycle approach that includes an assessment of the current herd status, identification of areas for improvement, development of a plan, implementation of this plan and finally a review process. The programme uses facilitators who work with farmers either in a one-to-one manner or in a formalised group setting that involves a series of meetings over a 12-month period (the farmer action group). The hypothesis that involvement in a reproductive management programme would improve herd reproductive performance was tested using a herd-level controlled randomised study (the National Herd Fertility Study) involving herds in four geographic regions of New Zealand over 2 years. Within each region, herds were ranked on the basis of the 6-week in-calf rate (i.e. the proportion of the herd pregnant in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal breeding programme) in the year preceding commencement of the study and then randomly assigned to be involved in a farmer action group or left as untreated controls. The key outcome variable of the study was the 6-week in-calf rate. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken at 12 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding programme, which allowed determination of conception dates and hence calculation of the 6-week in-calf rate. Additional measurements including heifer live weight and body condition score (pre-calving and pre-mating) were undertaken to test whether treatment resulted in measurable changes in some of the key determinants of herd reproductive performance. Involvement in the farmer action group of InCalf resulted in a 2 percentage point increase in the 6-week in-calf rate

  5. Stochastic modeling of imperfect Salmonella vaccines in an adult dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhao; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Smith, Rebecca L; Karns, Jeffrey S; Hovingh, Ernest; Schukken, Ynte H

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of bacterial foodborne disease. Human salmonellosis results in significant public health concerns and a considerable economic burden. Dairy cattle are recognized as a key source of several Salmonella serovars that are a threat to human health. To lower the risk of Salmonella infection, reduction of Salmonella prevalence in dairy cattle is important. Vaccination as a control measure has been applied for reduction of preharvest Salmonella prevalence on dairy farms. Salmonella vaccines are usually imperfect (i.e., vaccines may provide a partial protection for susceptible animals, reduce the infectiousness and shedding level, shorten the infectious period of infected animals, and/or curb the number of clinical cases), and evaluation of the potential impacts of imperfect Salmonella vaccines at the farm level is valuable to design effective intervention strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of imperfect Salmonella vaccines on the stochastic transmission dynamics in an adult dairy herd. To this end, we developed a semi-stochastic and individual-based continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) vaccination model with both direct and indirect transmission, and applied the CTMC vaccination model to Salmonella Cerro transmission in an adult dairy herd. Our results show that vaccines shortening the infectious period are most effective in reducing prevalence, and vaccines decreasing host susceptibility are most effective in reducing the outbreak size. Vaccines with multiple moderate efficacies may have the same effectiveness as vaccines with a single high efficacy in reducing prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size. Although the environment component has negligible contributions to the prevalence, time to extinction, and outbreak size for Salmonella Cerro in the herd, the relative importance of environment component was not assessed. This study indicates that an effective vaccination program against Salmonella Cerro

  6. Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2006-01-01

    A document poses, and suggests a program of research for answering, questions of how to achieve autonomous operation of herds of cooperative robots to be used in exploration and/or colonization of remote planets. In a typical scenario, a flock of mobile sensory robots would be deployed in a previously unexplored region, one of the robots would be designated the leader, and the leader would issue commands to move the robots to different locations or aim sensors at different targets to maximize scientific return. It would be necessary to provide for this hierarchical, cooperative behavior even in the face of such unpredictable factors as terrain obstacles. A potential-fields approach is proposed as a theoretical basis for developing methods of autonomous command and guidance of a herd. A survival-of-the-fittest approach is suggested as a theoretical basis for selection, mutation, and adaptation of a description of (1) the body, joints, sensors, actuators, and control computer of each robot, and (2) the connectivity of each robot with the rest of the herd, such that the herd could be regarded as consisting of a set of artificial creatures that evolve to adapt to a previously unknown environment. A distributed simulation environment has been developed to test the proposed approaches in the Titan environment. One blimp guides three surface sondes via a potential field approach. The results of the simulation demonstrate that the method used for control is feasible, even if significant uncertainty exists in the dynamics and environmental models, and that the control architecture provides the autonomy needed to enable surface science data collection.

  7. Health Promotion to Reduce Blood Pressure Level among Older Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    1986-01-01

    Low-income Black elders completed a 10-week health promotion program for the purpose of lowering or stabilizing blood pressure levels. Comparisons were made between classes that met weekly versus three times a week, and between yoga and aerobics formats. A peer-led program was developed that continued for 10 months after the professionally-led…

  8. Genotype-specific risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, B; Bodmer, M; van den Borne, B H P; Reist, M; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; Boss, R; Wohlfender, F

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a frequent problem in Swiss dairy herds. One of the main pathogens causing significant economic loss is Staphylococcus aureus. Various Staph. aureus genotypes with different biological properties have been described. Genotype B (GTB) of Staph. aureus was identified as the most contagious and one of the most prevalent strains in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count (YCHSCC). One hundred dairy herds with a mean YCHSCC between 200,000 and 300,000cells/mL in 2010 were recruited and each farm was visited once during milking. A standardized protocol investigating demography, mastitis management, cow husbandry, milking system, and milking routine was completed during the visit. A bulk tank milk (BTM) sample was analyzed by real-time PCR for the presence of Staph. aureus GTB to classify the herds into 2 groups: Staph. aureus GTB-positive and Staph. aureus GTB-negative. Moreover, quarter milk samples were aseptically collected for bacteriological culture from cows with a somatic cell count ≥150,000cells/mL on the last test-day before the visit. The culture results allowed us to allocate the Staph. aureus GTB-negative farms to Staph. aureus non-GTB and Staph. aureus-free groups. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression models were built to identify risk factors associated with the herd-level presence of Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB. The prevalence of Staph. aureus GTB herds was 16% (n=16), whereas that of Staph. aureus non-GTB herds was 38% (n=38). Herds that sent lactating cows to seasonal communal pastures had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (odds ratio: 10.2, 95% CI: 1.9-56.6), compared with herds without communal pasturing. Herds that purchased heifers had significantly higher odds of being infected with

  9. Relationship between biosecurity and production/antimicrobial treatment characteristics in pig herds.

    PubMed

    Laanen, M; Persoons, D; Ribbens, S; de Jong, E; Callens, B; Strubbe, M; Maes, D; Dewulf, J

    2013-11-01

    The biosecurity status of 95 breeder-finisher pig herds was quantified using a risk-based weighted scoring system. Data relating to herd-, farmer- and production-characteristics and to the prophylactic use of antimicrobials were also collected. The average external biosecurity score (measures to prevent pathogens from entering a herd) was 65 (range, 45-89) and the average internal score (measures to reduce the within-herd spread of pathogens) was 52 (range, 18-87). External scores were positively associated with herd size, while internal scores were negatively associated with both 'age of buildings' and 'years of experience of the farmer', indicating that biosecurity is generally better implemented in larger herds, in more modern facilities and by younger farmers. External and internal biosecurity scores were positively associated with daily weight gain and negatively associated with feed conversion ratio of fattening pigs. Internal scores were negatively associated with disease treatment incidence, suggesting that improved biosecurity might help in reducing the amount of antimicrobials used prophylactically. This study demonstrates and quantifies a clear link between biosecurity and both production- and antimicrobial treatment-related criteria in pig herds. PMID:24268483

  10. Longitudinal study of the distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in the environment of dairy herds in the Michigan Johne’s disease control demonstration herd project

    PubMed Central

    Pillars, Roxanne B.; Grooms, Daniel L.; Kaneene, John B.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in the environment of infected dairy farms over time. Johne’s disease (JD) prevalence was monitored annually in 7 Michigan dairy herds. Environmental samples were collected bi-annually and cultured for MAP. Of 731 environmental samples that were cultured, 81 (11%) were positive. The lactating cow floor and manure storage areas were the areas most commonly contaminated, representing 30% and 33% of positive samples, respectively. When herd prevalence was > 2%, MAP was cultured from the lactating cow floor and/or manure storage area 75% of the time. When herd prevalence was ≤ 2%, MAP was never cultured from samples collected. For every 1 unit increase in number of positive environmental samples, within herd JD prevalence increased 1.62%. Environmental contamination with MAP is consistent over time on infected dairy farms, and management practices to reduce environmental contamination are warranted. PMID:20046602

  11. Evaluation of an O antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening of milk samples for Salmonella dublin infection in dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Hoorfar, J; Lind, P; Bitsch, V

    1995-01-01

    Levels of antibodies to the O antigens (O:1,9,12) of Salmonella dublin were tested in 1355 serum, 1143 cow milk and 160 bulk milk samples from dairy herds using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to define the background reaction, milk samples from all lactating cows and serum samples from 9 animals were collected in each of 20 salmonellosis-free herds located on the island of Bornholm, where cattle salmonellosis has not been reported. Similar samples were collected from all stalled animals in 10 herds with recent (< 6 months) outbreaks of salmonellosis located in Jutland, where salmonella infection is enzootic. Using herd history of salmonellosis, herd location and clinical status of the herds as criteria, the optimal cutoff in the milk ELISA was determined as being at least 5% of the samples having optical density > 0.5, resulting in herd sensitivity of 1.0 and herd specificity of 0.95. While none of the sera in the herds from Bornholm was ELISA positive, 2 herds had a few reactors in the milk ELISA. Using the same cutoff, all but 1 bulk milk sample from 150 herds on Bornholm was ELISA-negative, and all 10 salmonellosis-positive herds from Jutland were ELISA-positive. A significant correlation was found between ELISA reactions in milk and in serum of cows (34% and 32% respectively, rs = 0.69, P < 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7648527

  12. Reducing nursing students' anxiety level and increasing retention of materials.

    PubMed

    Phillips, A P

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the effects active learning, collaboration and modified group testing have on reducing students' anxiety and increasing learning and retention of material. Subjects consist of 34 associate degree nursing students enrolled in the Advanced Adult Health nursing class at North Georgia College. Most of the students are married, have children and work part time. A self-reporting questionnaire suggests a reduction of the students' anxiety during the quarter. The attitudinal questionnaire reveals an atmosphere of collaboration among peers. Data evaluating learning and retention of material were analyzed using the parametric (T-test) and nonparametric (Wiley Rank Sum test) methods. Examination of the Null Hypotheses I and II suggests there were increased learning and retention of material as evidenced by higher grades on the comprehensive final examination than on the quizzes given after presentation of content. Principles of andragogy as defined by Knowles (1980) and cooperation with peers as described by Johnson, Johnson, Holabec, and Roy (1984), Johnson, Johnson, and Maruyama (1983), and Johnson and Johnson (1975) form the theoretical foundation. PMID:2828575

  13. Pathogenic VCP Mutations Induce Mitochondrial Uncoupling and Reduced ATP Levels

    PubMed Central

    Bartolome, Fernando; Wu, Hsiu-Chuan; Burchell, Victoria S.; Preza, Elisavet; Wray, Selina; Mahoney, Colin J.; Fox, Nick C.; Calvo, Andrea; Canosa, Antonio; Moglia, Cristina; Mandrioli, Jessica; Chiò, Adriano; Orrell, Richard W.; Houlden, Henry; Hardy, John; Abramov, Andrey Y.; Plun-Favreau, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Summary Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a highly expressed member of the type II AAA+ ATPase family. VCP mutations are the cause of inclusion body myopathy, Paget’s disease of the bone, and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) and they account for 1%–2% of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Using fibroblasts from patients carrying three independent pathogenic mutations in the VCP gene, we show that VCP deficiency causes profound mitochondrial uncoupling leading to decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption. This mitochondrial uncoupling results in a significant reduction of cellular ATP production. Decreased ATP levels in VCP-deficient cells lower their energy capacity, making them more vulnerable to high energy-demanding processes such as ischemia. Our findings propose a mechanism by which pathogenic VCP mutations lead to cell death. PMID:23498975

  14. Gut Microbial Fatty Acid Metabolites Reduce Triacylglycerol Levels in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Nanthirudjanar, Tharnath; Furumoto, Hidehiro; Zheng, Jiawen; Kim, Young-Il; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo; Park, Si-Bum; Hirata, Akiko; Kitamura, Nahoko; Kishino, Shigenobu; Ogawa, Jun; Hirata, Takashi; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2015-11-01

    Hydroxy and oxo fatty acids were recently found to be produced as intermediates during gut microbial fatty acid metabolism. Lactobacillus plantarum produces these fatty acids from unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid. In this study, we investigated the effects of these gut microbial fatty acid metabolites on the lipogenesis in liver cells. We screened their effect on sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells treated with a synthetic liver X receptor α (LXRα) agonist (T0901317). The results showed that 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecenoic acid (18:1) (HYA), 10-hydroxy-6(Z),12(Z)-octadecadienoic acid (18:2) (γHYA), 10-oxo-12(Z)-18:1 (KetoA), and 10-oxo-6(Z),12(Z)-18:2 (γKetoA) significantly decreased SREBP-1c mRNA expression induced by T0901317. These fatty acids also downregulated the mRNA expression of lipogenic genes by suppressing LXRα activity and inhibiting SREBP-1 maturation. Oral administration of KetoA, which effectively reduced triacylglycerol accumulation and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2 (ACC2) expression in HepG2 cells, for 2 weeks significantly decreased Srebp-1c, Scd-1, and Acc2 expression in the liver of mice fed a high-sucrose diet. Our findings suggest that the hypolipidemic effect of the fatty acid metabolites produced by L. plantarum can be exploited in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases or dyslipidemia. PMID:26399511

  15. Factors affecting death rate of lactating cows in Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequencies of deaths of lactating cows of all breeds during 2001 to 2005 were estimated from an approximate 10% sample of national DHI herds (based on units position of herd code). Herds with <400 lactations across years were excluded. Because the trait is binomially distributed, PROC GENMOD of SAS...

  16. Consequence of changing standards for somatic cell count on US Dairy Herd Improvement herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consequence of noncompliance with European Union (EU) and current US standards for somatic cell count (SCC) as well as SCC standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation was examined for US herds. Somatic cell scores (SCS) from 14,854 Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds were analyzed. H...

  17. Trends in noncompliance with milk quality standards for Dairy Herd Improvement herds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequency of herd noncompliance for somatic cell count (SCC) based on current US and European Union (EU) standards as well as for standards proposed by the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF) was examined for US Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) herds. For current US standards, regulatory action is...

  18. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2010 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to somatic cell count (SCC) for calculating herd and State averages. The ...

  19. Short Communication: Variance estimates among herds stratified by individual herd heritability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare genetic parameter estimates among herds stratified by high, medium and low individual herd heritability estimates. A regression model was applied to milk yield, fat yield, protein yield and somatic cell score (SCS) records from 20,902 herds to generate indi...

  20. Death Losses for Lactating Cows in Herds Enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement Test Plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Factors that affect frequency of death were investigated for lactating cows in 45,032 herds for lactations from 1995 through 2005. Analyses included effects of herd, year, month, and stage of lactation in which lactation ended, parity, breed, and milk yield. A sample of 1,645 herds was employed to ...

  1. Evaluation of a contract breeding management program in Ohio dairy herds: test day summary and economic measures.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Cheyney; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Frazer, Grant S; Meiring, Richard W; Hoblet, Kent H

    2008-03-01

    A field study was conducted to assess the impact of a contract breeding program that was offered by a breeding co-operative and featured tail chalking and daily evaluation of cows for insemination by co-operative technicians; dairy employees no longer handled estrous detection and insemination activities. From early 2002 until mid-2004, herd-level test day summary records related to production and reproduction were obtained for 32 herds identified as well-managed client herds of the breeding co-operative. Using analyses that controlled for other predictors and random herd-level effects, average days to first service were less by 13 days (P=0.0037) and estrous detection rate was greater by 12% (P=0.0011) for program than for non-program herds. Although first service conception rate was slightly less and the program herds used 0.34 more services per conception (P=0.1488) than non-program herds, the program herds averaged 16 fewer days before pregnancy (P=0.028). Test day summary information and representative estimates of feed, milk, and semen prices were used in a spreadsheet-based model to estimate a partial budget annuity value for an average cow in each herd on each test day. Value of an average cow from a contract herd did not significantly differ from a non-contract herd, even though the analyses suggested an economic benefit for the program herds; the modeling did not, however, account for costs of the program implementation. Additional analyses did not find any significant associations between technician and on days to first service, first service conception rate, estrous detection rate, services per conception, or days open. PMID:17391874

  2. Population Characteristics and Seasonal Movement Patterns of the Rattlesnake Hills Elk Herd - Status Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Tiller, B.L.; Zufelt, R.K.; Turner, S.; Cadwell, L.L.; Bender, L.; Turner, G.K.

    2000-10-10

    Population characteristics of the Rattlesnake Hills elk herd indicate reduced herd growth rates from the 1980s compared to the 1990s (McCorquodale 1988; Eberhardt 1996). However, the population continued to grow approximately 25% annually through the 1990s, reaching a high of 838 animals in summer 1999. Calf recruitment rates appear to be cyclic and are likely related to reduced calf survival during the first weeks of life; however, late-term abortions may also have occurred. The cause(s) could be predator-related and/or a function of shifts in nutritional condition (age-class distributions, assuming older-age cows are less likely to recruit calves, major climate shifts) or changes in the human-related disturbances during gestation, and/or calf rearing periods. In fall 1999 and spring 2000, the population was reduced from 838 individuals to 660 individuals. The primary controlling factors were modified hunting seasons on private and state lands and the large-scale roundup conducted in spring 2000. Continued removal of animals (particularly females) within the population will be pivotal to maintain the population at a level that minimizes land damage complaints, animal-vehicle collisions, use of central Hanford areas, and deterioration of natural resources.

  3. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd management areas shall be established for the maintenance of wild horse and burro herds. In delineating...

  4. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd.

    PubMed

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Dobson, Lauren K; du Toit, Johan T; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range. PMID:26673758

  5. Genetic Analysis of the Henry Mountains Bison Herd

    PubMed Central

    du Toit, Johan T.; Derr, James

    2015-01-01

    Wild American plains bison (Bison bison) populations virtually disappeared in the late 1800s, with some remnant animals retained in what would become Yellowstone National Park and on private ranches. Some of these private bison were intentionally crossbred with cattle for commercial purposes. This forced hybridization resulted in both mitochondrial and nuclear introgression of cattle genes into some of the extant bison genome. As the private populations grew, excess animals, along with their history of cattle genetics, provided founders for newly established public bison populations. Of the US public bison herds, only those in Yellowstone and Wind Cave National Parks (YNP and WCNP) appear to be free of detectable levels of cattle introgression. However, a small free-ranging population (~350 animals) exists on public land, along with domestic cattle, in the Henry Mountains (HM) of southern Utah. This isolated bison herd originated from a founder group translocated from YNP in the 1940s. Using genetic samples from 129 individuals, we examined the genetic status of the HM population and found no evidence of mitochondrial or nuclear introgression of cattle genes. This new information confirms it is highly unlikely for free-living bison to crossbreed with cattle, and this disease-free HM bison herd is valuable for the long-term conservation of the species. This bison herd is a subpopulation of the YNP/WCNP/HM metapopulation, within which it can contribute significantly to national efforts to restore the American plains bison to more of its native range. PMID:26673758

  6. Reproductive efficiency and calf survival in Ontario beef cow-calf herds: a cross-sectional mail survey.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, R W; Martin, S W; Meek, A H

    1985-01-01

    A survey of the efficiency of production of Ontario beef cow-calf herds was conducted using a stratified systematic random sample of Ontario producers. In general, about 87% of females exposed to breeding produced a live calf and 6% of these died before reaching four weeks of age. The herd to herd variation in these rates was quite large, the coefficient of variation being about 17%. The stillbirth rate was 1.7% and the abortion rate 1.2%. In general, herds in northern Ontario and herds whose owners kept breeding and calving records, had reduced livebirth rates, the latter probably reflecting accuracy of data. Herds with a restricted (less than three months) breeding season had increased livebirth rates. Herds using injectable vitamins ADE, and prophylactic antibiotics, had increased neonatal losses. Herds with a restricted calving season (less than or equal to 3 months) and/or feeding free choice salt to cows had decreased neonatal losses. Herdsize and calf mortality rate were directly related, but this did not appear to be due to increased density of cows at calving time. In herds, where calving occurred during the spring, using scour vaccines in calves was associated with increased calf mortality. PMID:3986678

  7. Post-milking teat dip use in dairy herds with high or low somatic cell counts.

    PubMed

    Erskine, R J; Eberhart, R J

    1991-12-15

    Milk samples for bacteriologic culture were submitted from 71 dairy herds, 24 with low somatic cell count (SCC) and 47 with high SCC and high prevalence of subclinical mastitis. At the time of sample submission to the Mastitis Diagnostic Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University, information regarding the herd mastitis control practices was collected. A combined program of post-milking teat dipping (PMTD) and antibiotic treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period was practiced more frequently for herds with low SCC, (P less than 0.001) than for herds with high SCC. Among all herds for which PMTD was practiced, a higher proportion (P less than 0.001) of those for which chlorhexidine-based products were used had low SCC than high SCC. Conversely, a higher proportion of herds for which a dip with an acrylic latex barrier was used had high SCC rather than low SCC (P = 0.002). For herds with high prevalence of subclinical mastitis, and despite a program of PMTD and treatment of all cows at the start of the nonlactating period, a change to a different germicidal teat dip product may be indicated to help reduce prevalence of infection. PMID:1813466

  8. Prevalence of trichomoniasis among California beef herds.

    PubMed

    BonDurant, R H; Anderson, M L; Blanchard, P; Hird, D; Danaye-Elmi, C; Palmer, C; Sischo, W M; Suther, D; Utterback, W; Weigler, B J

    1990-05-15

    Sixty cow-half herds of more than 50 cows each were randomly selected for a prevalence survey of bovine trichomoniasis in California. Herd size, as judged by the number of bulls, ranged from 1 to 210 bulls (median = 8; mean = 59 +/- 15.8). Preputial smegma was collected from 729 bulls (median = 6 bulls/herd) and cultured for Tritrichomonas foetus. Of 57 herds from which samples were collected, 9 (15.8%) had at least one infected bull. Of the 729 bulls from which samples were cultured, 30 (4.1%) were infected. Correcting for sensitivity of the diagnostic test yielded a prevalence of 5.0%. Infection rates for bulls greater than 3 years old and less than or equal to 3 years old were 6.7% and 2.0%, respectively (P less than 0.025). Median herd sizes were 14 bulls (range, 6 to 114) for infected herds and 7 (range, 1 to 210) for uninfected herds. These findings suggest that trichomoniasis is common in California beef herds. Because several bulls less than 4 years old were infected, we suggest that control measures stressing replacement of older bulls with younger ones should be combined with diagnostic procedures in those younger replacements, to ensure that they are not already infected. PMID:2347750

  9. The biosecurity status and its associations with production and management characteristics in farrow-to-finish pig herds.

    PubMed

    Postma, M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Loesken, S; Sjölund, M; Belloc, C; Emanuelson, U; Grosse Beilage, E; Stärk, K D C; Dewulf, J

    2016-03-01

    Disease prevention through biosecurity measures is believed to be an important factor for improvement of the overall health status in animal production. This study aimed at assessing the levels of implementation of biosecurity measures in pig production in four European Union (EU) countries and to describe possible associations between the biosecurity level and farm and production characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 232 farrow-to-finish pig herds in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden between December 2012 and December 2013. The biosecurity status in each of these herds was described and quantified by using the risk-based scoring tool Biocheck.UGentTM (www.biocheck.ugent.be). Production and management characteristics, obtained from the herd management system and by interviewing the farmer, were analysed for their association with the biosecurity level. A causal path was designed to study statistical associations. The results showed that there was substantial room for improvement in the biosecurity status on many pig farms. Significant differences (P<0.01) both in internal and external biosecurity levels were observed between countries. The external biosecurity status, combining all measures taken to prevent disease introduction into the herd, was highest in Germany and lowest in France. The internal biosecurity status, combining all measures taken to prevent within herd disease transmission, was highest in Sweden and lowest, with a large variation, in Belgium. External biosecurity scores were in general higher compared to internal biosecurity scores. The number of pathogens vaccinated against was significantly associated with internal biosecurity status, suggesting an overall more preventive approach towards the risk of disease transmission. A higher external biosecurity was associated with more weaned piglets per sow per year. Furthermore also the weaning age and the mortality till weaning were highly associated with the number of weaned

  10. Antibiotic use in dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, A; Koops, W J; Wemmenhove, H

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the variation in antibiotic use and the effects of external factors on trends in antibiotic use at the herd level by using the number of daily dosages as an indicator for antibiotic use. For this purpose, antibiotic use was analyzed in 94 dairy herds in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012. The herds were divided into 3 groups of farmers: one group was guided in their antibiotic use from 2008 to 2010 as part of the project, whereas the other 2 groups were not actively guided. The farms were located in 10 of the 12 provinces and were clients of 32 of the 300 veterinary practices that treat cattle. Sales invoices from the veterinary practices provided the antibiotic and cost data for the participating farmers. The number of animal-defined daily dosages (ADDD) indicates the number of days per year that the average cow in a herd is given antibiotic treatment. The average ADDD for all farms from 2005 to 2012 was 5.86 (standard deviation=2.14); 68% of ADDD were used for udder health, 24% for clinical mastitis and 44% for dry-cow therapy. Variation in ADDD among herds decreased during the study period. The trend in ADDD can be described as having 3 phases: (1) a period of increasing use coinciding with little public concern about antibiotic use (2005-2007), (2) a period of growing awareness and stabilization of use (2007-2010), and (3) a period of decreasing use coinciding with increasing societal concerns (2010-2012). The greatest reduction in use was for drugs other than those used to treat the udder. Drug use for mastitis treatment fell considerably in the final year of the study period, whereas farmers were reluctant to reduce use for dry-cow therapy. Almost 40% of the herds were given less than 2.5 ADDD for dry-cow therapy, which is equivalent to 2.5 tubes per average cow in the herd, and 20% used more than 3 tubes per cow. Use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones dropped from 18% of ADDD during 2005 to

  11. [The seroprevalence of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in Swiss pig breeding herds--a study with the ApxIV ELISA].

    PubMed

    Nussbaumer, I; Miserez, R; Hüssy, D; Doherr, M G; Frey, J; Zimmermann, W

    2008-03-01

    At the end of the national eradication program for Enzootic Pneumonia (EP) and Porcine Actinobacillosis (APP) in Switzerland (2003), A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 is considered to have been eradicated. There is no current information about the distribution of the other serotypes available. The ApxIV ELISA detects antibodies against all serotypes of A. pleuropneumoniae, without cross-reaction with other bacterial species. The aim of this study was to achieve actual data concerning the seroprevalence of A. pleuropneumoniae in breeding-herds and to validate the ApxIV ELISA under field conditions, especially for the diagnosis of latently infected breeding-herds without clinical signs, and to achieve more information about the role of herd book farms for the spread of the infectious agent. A total of 2068 serum samples from 96 pig herds in Switzerland were examinated. Over half of the examinated herd book farms showed positive results in this ELISA. 93% of the breeding herds were positive. On single animal level sensitivity was 96% and specifity 100%. Herd sensitivity ranged between 67% and 99%. Herd specifity was 100%. The results show that the ApxIV ELISA is a valuable tool for the detection of latently infected herds. PMID:18429500

  12. Cluster analysis of Dairy Herd Improvement data to discover trends in performance characteristics in large Upper Midwest dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Brotzman, R L; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K; Bennett, T B; Gomez Rivas, A; Döpfer, D

    2015-05-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a variable reduction method used on over-parameterized data sets with a vast number of variables and a limited number of observations, such as Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data, to select subsets of variables that describe the largest amount of variance. Cluster analysis (CA) segregates objects, in this case dairy herds, into groups based upon similarity in multiple characteristics simultaneously. This project aimed to apply PCA to discover the subset of most meaningful DHI variables and to discover groupings of dairy herds with similar performance characteristics. Year 2011 DHI data was obtained for 557 Upper Midwest herds with test-day mean ≥200 cows (assumed mostly freestall housed), that remained on test for the entire year. The PCA reduced an initial list of 22 variables to 16. The average distance method of CA grouped farms based on best goodness of fit determined by the minimum cophenetic distance. Six groupings provided the optimal fitting number of clusters. Descriptive statistics for the 16 variables were computed per group. On observations of means, groups 1, 2, and 6 demonstrated the best performances in most variables, including energy-corrected milk, linear somatic cell score (log of somatic cell count), dry period intramammary infection cure rate, new intramammary infection risk, risk of subclinical intramammary infection at first test, age at first calving, days in milk, and Transition Cow Index. Groups 3, 4, and 5 demonstrated the worst mean performances in most the PCA-selected variables, including DIM, age at first calving, risk of subclinical intramammary infection at first test, and dry period intramammary infection cure rate. Groups 4 and 5 also had the worst mean herd performances in energy-corrected milk, Transition Cow Index, linear somatic cell score, and new intramammary infection risk. Further investigation will be conducted to reveal patterns of management associated with herd categorization. The

  13. Prevalence of intramammary infection in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Sampimon, Otlis; Barkema, Herman W; Berends, Inge; Sol, Jan; Lam, Theo

    2009-05-01

    A survey was carried out in 2003 in 49 dairy herds to determine the overall and pathogen-specific prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in Dutch dairy herds, and to compare the distribution with four studies performed from 1973 to 1985 in The Netherlands. Herds were randomly selected stratified over the 12 Dutch provinces, had at least 40 lactating cows and participated in the Dutch milk recording system. Quarter milk samples were collected from all 408 cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >or=250,000 cells/ml and 145 heifers with SCC >or=150,000 cells/ml at the last milk test before the farm visit. Additionally, samples were collected from 519 (approximately 25%) of the remaining low-SCC cows and heifers with a SCC at the last milk test before the farm visit of <250 000 and <150 000 cells/ml, respectively. Bacterial growth occurred in 37.3% of milk samples of high-SCC cows and in 21.1% of low-SCC cows. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently isolated group of bacteria (10.8% of quarters) and were found in all herds. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus IMI was lower in 2003 than in 1973, respectively 1.8% and 6.2% of quarters. Prevalence of Streptococcus uberis and Str. dysgalactiae IMI was almost the same in the five samplings during the 30-year period, at 1.1-1.7 and 0.9-1.5%, respectively. Str. agalactiae was not found in this study. Prevalence of CNS IMI was higher in lactating heifers, while prevalence of Str. uberis, Str. dysgalactiae and penicillin-resistant Staph. aureus IMI was higher in older cows. Because distribution of pathogens changes over time, herd-level samples for bacteriological culturing must be taken regularly to monitor udder health. Additionally, national mastitis prevalence studies give important information through monitoring the national udder health status. PMID:19121233

  14. Ecological implications of bovine tuberculosis in African Buffalo herds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caron, Alex; Cross, Paul C.; Du Toit, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    Following the recent invasion of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) into the Kruger National Park, South Africa, we conducted a study on the maintenance host, African buffalo, to investigate associations between BTB prevalence and calf:cow ratio, age structure, body condition, and endoparasite load. Statistical analyses compared herds of zero, medium (1–40%), and high (>40%) BTB prevalence. To control for ecological variation across the park we collected data in northern, central, and southern regions and restricted some analyses to particular regions of the park. Body condition declined over the course of the 2001 dry season, and buffaloes in the southern region of the park, with the highest BTB prevalence, were in worse condition than buffaloes in the northern region (which receives less annual rainfall but is still virtually BTB-free). Herd-level analyses of the entire park, the south and central regions, and just the southern region all indicated that herds of higher BTB prevalence were in worse condition and lost condition faster through the dry season than herds of lower BTB prevalence. Fecal endoparasite egg counts increased during the dry season and were associated with both decreased body condition and increased BTB prevalence. Although we did not detect any obvious effect of BTB on the age structure of the buffalo population, our findings indicate early symptoms of wider scale BTB-related ecological disturbances: buffalo herds with high BTB prevalence appear more vulnerable to drought (because of a decrease in body condition and an increase in endoparasite load), and because lions selectively kill weak buffaloes their prey base is accumulating a disproportionately high prevalence of BTB, to which lions are susceptible.Rea10.1890/02-5266d More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs

  15. The cost of a case of subclinical ketosis in Canadian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gohary, Khaled; Overton, Michael W; Von Massow, Michael; LeBlanc, Stephen J; Lissemore, Kerry D; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a model to estimate the cost of a case of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in Canadian dairy herds. Costs were derived from the default inputs, and included increased clinical disease incidence attributable to SCK, $76; longer time to pregnancy, $57; culling and death in early lactation attributable to SCK, $26; milk production loss, $44. Given these figures, the cost of 1 case of SCK was estimated to be $203. Sensitivity analysis showed that the estimated cost of a case of SCK was most sensitive to the herd-level incidence of SCK and the cost of 1 day open. In conclusion, SCK negatively impacts dairy herds and losses are dependent on the herd-level incidence and factors included in the calculation. PMID:27429460

  16. Observed management practices in relation to the risk of infection with paratuberculosis and to the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Swiss dairy and beef herds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have been conducted to define risk factors for the transmission of bovine paratuberculosis, mostly in countries with large herds. Little is known about the epidemiology in infected Swiss herds and risk factors important for transmission in smaller herds. Therefore, the presence of known factors which might favor the spread of paratuberculosis and could be related to the prevalence at animal level of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis were assessed in 17 infected herds (10 dairy, 7 beef). Additionally, the level of knowledge of herd managers about the disease was assessed. In a case–control study with 4 matched negative control herds per infected herd, the association of potential risk factors with the infection status of the herd was investigated. Results Exposure of the young stock to feces of older animals was frequently observed in infected and in control herds. The farmers’ knowledge about paratuberculosis was very limited, even in infected herds. An overall prevalence at animal level of fecal shedding of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis of 6.1% was found in infected herds, whereby shedders younger than 2 years of age were found in 46.2% of the herds where the young stock was available for testing. Several factors related to contamination of the heifer area with cows’ feces and the management of the calving area were found to be significantly associated with the within-herd prevalence. Animal purchase was associated with a positive herd infection status (OR = 7.25, p = 0.004). Conclusions Numerous risk factors favoring the spread of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from adult animals to the young stock were observed in infected Swiss dairy and beef herds, which may be amenable to improvement in order to control the disease. Important factors were contamination of the heifer and the calving area, which were associated with higher within-herd prevalence of fecal shedding. The

  17. Factors associated with variation in bulk tank milk Mycoplasma bovis antibody-ELISA results in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Mette B; Krogh, Kaspar; Nielsen, Liza R

    2016-05-01

    The relevance and limitations for using measurements of antibodies against Mycoplasma bovis in bulk tank milk (BTM) as a potentially cost-effective diagnostic tool for herd classification has not been evaluated before. Assuming that an increasing or high seroprevalence is a result of on-going or recent spread of M. bovis in a dairy herd, we tested the hypothesis that increasing prevalence of antibody-positive cows and young stock are associated with increasing BTM antibody ELISA values against M. bovis in Danish dairy herds with different courses of M. bovis infection. Furthermore, we tested whether herd size was associated with variations in the BTM responses. Thirty-nine Danish dairy herds selected to represent 4 different herd-level infection groups [8 control herds, 14 acute outbreak herds, 7 herds with previous outbreaks, and 10 herds with elevated BTM ELISA-values directed against M. bovis (>64% optical density measurement)] were visited 4 to 5 times, approximately 3mo apart. At each visit, 65 young stock were blood sampled. At the milk recording date closest to the herd visit date, 50 milk recording samples from individual lactating cows were randomly selected. In addition, a BTM sample was collected as a representative sample directly from the bulk tank by the dairies' milk truck drivers as part of the mandatory milk quality-control scheme. Blood and milk samples were tested for antibodies against M. bovis with a commercially available ELISA test (Bio-X BIO K 302, Bio-X Diagnostics, Rochefort, Belgium). A linear mixed effects model was used to analyze the effects of the prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows and young stock and herd size on the BTM M. bovis ELISA results. Herd was included as a random effect to account for clustering of BTM samples originating from the same herd. Increasing prevalence of antibody-positive lactating cows was the only variable associated with increasing M. bovis BTM ELISA optical density measurement. In contrast, the

  18. The effect of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on Johne's disease risk in test-negative herds.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Sergeant, E S G; Strain, S; Cashman, W; Kenny, Kevin; Graham, D

    2013-03-01

    Herd classification is a key component of national Johne's disease (JD) control programs. Herds are categorized on the basis of test results, and separate sub-programs are followed for test-positive and test-negative herds. However, a test-negative herd result does not necessarily equate to JD freedom for reasons relating to disease pathogenesis and available diagnostic tests. Thus, in several countries, JD control programs define test-negative herds as having a "low risk" of infection below a specified prevalence. However, the approach is qualitative, and little quantitative work is available on herd-level estimates of probability of freedom in test-negative herds. This paper examines the effect over time of alternative testing strategies and bio-exclusion practices on JD risk in test-negative herds. A simulation model was developed in the programming language R. Key model inputs included sensitivity and specificity estimates for 3 individual animal diagnostic tests (serum ELISA, milk ELISA, and fecal culture), design prevalence, testing options, and testing costs. Key model outputs included the probability that infection will be detected if present at the design prevalence or greater (herd sensitivity; SeH), the probability that infection in the herd is either absent or at very low prevalence (i.e., less than the design prevalence; ProbF), the probability of an uninfected herd producing a false-positive result [P(False+)], and mean testing cost (HerdCost) for different testing strategies. The output ProbF can be updated periodically, incorporating data from additional herd testing and information on cattle purchases, and could form the basis for an output-based approach to herd classification. A high ProbF is very difficult to achieve, reflecting the low sensitivity of the evaluated tests. Moreover, ProbF is greatly affected by any risk of introduction of infection, decreasing in herds with poor bio-exclusion practices despite ongoing negative test results. The

  19. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in southwest Germany.

    PubMed

    Spohr, M; Rau, J; Friedrich, A; Klittich, G; Fetsch, A; Guerra, B; Hammerl, J A; Tenhagen, B-A

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in three dairy herds in the southwest of Germany that had experienced individual cases of clinical and subclinical mastitis associated with MRSA. The herds were identified by the detection of MRSA during routine resistance testing of mastitis pathogens. All quarters of all cows in the herds that were positive on California Mastitis Test were sampled for bacteriological analysis on two occasions. Bulk tank milk samples were also tested. Furthermore, nasal swabs were collected from people working on the farms and from cattle. Environmental samples were collected from associated pig holdings. Isolates were characterized using spa-typing and testing for antimicrobial resistance. Our results revealed a substantial spread of MRSA in the three dairy herds. In the first of the two investigations carried out on all cows in the three herds, milk samples of 5.1-16.7% of dairy cows were found positive for MRSA. The respective proportions in the second herd level investigation were 1.4-10.0%. Quarters harbouring MRSA had higher somatic cell counts than quarters that were negative on culture. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were also detected in nasal swabs of staff (7/9), cows (7/15) and calves (4/7), bulk tank milk samples (3/3) and environmental samples from pig premises (4/5) on the farm. Herds B and C had no contact to herd A. However, in all three herds MRSA of spa-type t011 were detected in milk samples. Results show that MRSA of spa-type t011 is a problem in dairy farms that needs urgent attention. PMID:20630047

  20. Herd specific risk factors for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in suckling pigs at the age of weaning

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    character of enzootic pneumonia into account, the results of this study substantiate that a comprehensive herd specific prevention programme is a prerequisite to reduce transmission of and disease caused by M. hyopneumoniae. PMID:23587271

  1. Use of partial budgeting to determine the economic outcome of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection reduction strategies in three Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Hoblet, K H; Miller, G Y

    1991-09-15

    Efforts to reduce the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infection were monitored in 3 Ohio dairy herds. Bacteriologic culturing of milk from all lactating cows in each herd was completed multiple times to identify infected cows and monitor reduction. Partial budgeting techniques were used to determine the economic outcome of the reduction program. Of particular emphasis was the economic impact of culling to maintain or achieve milk quality premium payments on the basis of bulk tank somatic cell counts. The prevalence of S aureusinfected cows was reduced in each herd. Culturing of milk from all lactating cows appeared to be an effective method to identify infected cows. Although numbers were limited, it also appeared that culturing of composite quarter samples was effective as a herd screening test to identify S aureus-infected cows. Bacteriologic culturing had a negative financial impact in all 3 herds. Using partial budgeting to assess the economic impact of the programs, it was determined that 2 herds experienced negative financial impacts as a result of an excess culling rate when compared with a 12-month baseline period prior to the initiation of the project. All herds had increased milk production per cow during the study as measured by the mature-equivalent method. However, when actual production was considered, increased milk production in each herd was not as great as that of other Ohio herds enrolled on Dairy Herd Improvement Association testing programs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1955362

  2. Time budgets of lactating dairy cattle in commercial freestall herds.

    PubMed

    Gomez, A; Cook, N B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time budgets of 205 lactating dairy cows housed in 16 freestall barns in Wisconsin and to determine the relationships between components of the time budget and herd- and cow-level fixed effects using mixed models. Using continuous video surveillance, time lying in the stall, time standing in the stall, time standing in the alleys (including drinking), time feeding, and time milking (time out of the pen for milking and transit) during a 24-h period were measured for each cow. In addition, the number of lying bouts and the mean duration of each lying bout per 24-h period were determined. Time milking varied between cows from 0.5 to 6.0 h/d, with a mean ± standard deviation of 2.7 ± 1.1h/d. Time milking was influenced significantly by pen stocking density, and time milking negatively affected time feeding, time lying, and time in the alley, but not time standing in the stall. Locomotion score, either directly or through an interaction with stall base type (a rubber crumb-filled mattress, MAT, or sand bedding, SAND), influenced pen activity. Lame cows spent less time feeding, less time in the alleys, and more time standing in the stalls in MAT herds, but not in SAND herds. The effect of lameness on lying time is complex and dependent on the time available for rest and differences in resting behavior observed between cows in MAT and SAND herds. In MAT herds, rest was characterized by a larger number of lying bouts of shorter duration than in SAND herds (mean = 14.4; confidence interval, CI: 12.4 to 16.5 vs. mean = 10.2; CI: 8.2 to 12.2 bouts per d, and mean = 1.0; CI: 0.9 to 1.1 vs. mean = 1.3, CI: 1.2 to 1.4h bout duration for MAT and SAND herds, respectively). Lameness was associated with an increase in time standing in the stall and a reduction in the mean (CI) number of lying bouts per day from 13.2 (CI: 12.3 to 14.1) bouts/d for nonlame cows to 10.9 (CI: 9.30 to 12.8) bouts/d for moderately lame cows, and an overall

  3. Evaluation of clustering of new intramammary infections in the bovine udder, including the impact of previous infections, herd prevalence, and somatic cell count on their development.

    PubMed

    Reyher, K K; Dohoo, I R; Muckle, C A

    2013-01-01

    Evidence in the literature exists to support the theory that mastitis and intramammary infection (IMI) tend to cluster within herds, within cows, and within quarters, facts which may have overarching ramifications on mastitis management in modern dairy herds. Most previous studies, however, have been carried out on prevalent IMI instead of new IMI (NIMI), although reducing incidence of NIMI is a major step toward controlling mastitis. The Canadian Bovine Mastitis Research Network (Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada) has a large mastitis database derived from a 2-yr data collection on a national cohort of dairy farms, and data from this initiative were used to investigate the effect of clustering on the acquisition of NIMI. Longitudinal milk samplings of clinically normal udders taken over several 6-wk periods as well as samples from cows pre-dry-off and postcalving were used (n=73,772 quarter milk samples). Multilevel logistic models were used to evaluate the effect of location of IMI in quarters of the bovine udder previous to occurrence of an NIMI with Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and Corynebacterium spp. Several factors were investigated, including the number and location of quarters infected with the pathogen of interest before occurrence of an NIMI, the number of quarters infected with any other pathogen before occurrence of an NIMI (a measure of susceptibility), somatic cell count of the quarter before occurrence of an NIMI, somatic cell count of the other 3 quarters before occurrence of an NIMI, prevalence of the specific pathogen in the herd, and the average somatic cell count of the herd. The amount of variation occurring at different levels (herd, cow, and quarter) for the various pathogens was also calculated. The presence of an IMI in the ipsilateral quarter was associated with an elevated risk of an NIMI occurring for all pathogens investigated. Risk of an NIMI increased considerably as herd prevalence of the pathogen rose

  4. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in environmental samples by faecal culture and real-time PCR in relation to apparent within-herd prevalence as determined by individual faecal culture.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Kube, J; Dressel, J; Einax, E; Pfeffer, M; Failing, K

    2015-04-01

    SUMMARY Environmental samples are a cost-saving and easy-to-use approach to diagnose paratuberculosis at the herd level. Detailed knowledge concerning its uncertainties in herds with a low prevalence of Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is required to design sampling strategies in control programmes. This study aimed to calculate a threshold level of the apparent within-herd prevalence (WHPapp) as determined by individual mycobacterial cultivation (faecal culture; FC) of all cows thus allowing the detection of a herd as MAP-positive at a certain probability level (P d). Out of 200 environmental samples taken twice from five predefined locations in a barn, 25 were positive by FC and 60 were positive by a quantitative real-time PCR method (qPCR). A logistic regression model was used to calculate the WHPapp threshold of detection. For 50% P d, a WHPapp threshold of 2.9% was calculated for the combination of three samples (milking area, main cow alleyways, holding pen) tested simultaneously both by FC and qPCR. The threshold increased to 6.2% for 90% P d. Repeated environmental sampling did not reduce the WHPapp threshold. Depending on the particular needs for prevalence estimation or in control programmes (single or repeated sampling) the provided WHPapp thresholds at different P d will enable decisions to be made about various sampling strategies. PMID:25274140

  5. Management practices associated with presence of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk from Ohio dairy herds.

    PubMed

    da Costa, L B; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Schuenemann, G M

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common contagious mastitis pathogen affecting cows worldwide. Practices to control this organism have been advocated for decades, and identification of risk factors in individual herds is crucial in prevention and control of Staph. aureus. The objectives of this paper were to estimate prevalence of Staph. aureus in Ohio dairies and to determine a potential association of herd characteristics and management practices with isolation of Staph. aureus in bulk tank milk. A questionnaire about herd characteristics, milking procedures, udder health, mastitis control, and biosecurity practices was mailed to 780 dairy producers; the response rate for the survey was 49%. Staphylococcus aureus prevalence was 48, 64, and 69% when 1, 2, or 3 samples of bulk tank milk from each herd were considered, respectively. Herds practicing prestrip, pre- and postmilking teat dip, and using a single towel per cow as part of the milking routine as well as herds where owners were involved in milking were at significantly reduced odds for detection of Staph. aureus in their bulk tank milk. PMID:26686713

  6. Update on Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Chang, Johnny

    2007-01-01

    A document presents further information on the subject matter of "Controlling Herds of Cooperative Robots". The document describes the results of the computational simulations of a one-blimp, three-surface-sonde herd in various operational scenarios, including sensitivity studies as a function of distributed communication and processing delays between the sondes and the blimp. From results of the simulations, it is concluded that the methodology is feasible, even if there are significant uncertainties in the dynamical models.

  7. A multiarm randomized field trial evaluating strategies for udder health improvement in Swiss dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Tschopp, A; Reist, M; Kaufmann, T; Bodmer, M; Kretzschmar, L; Heiniger, D; Berchtold, B; Wohlfender, F; Harisberger, M; Boss, R; Strabel, D; Cousin, M-E; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; van den Borne, B H P

    2015-02-01

    study arms with intervention (positive control, the veterinarian, and the study groups) prevented an increase in the within-herd prevalence of cows that had a high somatic cell count in herds with a low YCBMSCC at the start of the intervention compared with the negative control study arm. In the year after sending the report, herds assigned to the study group study arm had a reduced incidence rate of treated mastitis cases in comparison with the year before sending the report. PMID:25434343

  8. Salmonella Muenster infection in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Radke, Brian R; McFall, Margaret; Radostits, Steve M

    2002-06-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to provide information on animal and occupational health associated with the infection of a diary herd with Salmonella Muenster that would be useful in the management of dairy herds so infected. This retrospective, longitudinal report records a 2-year infection of a 140-cow dairy herd with S. Muenster, which was likely introduced by additions to the herd. Six cows aborted or had diarrhea due to salmonellosis in the last trimester of pregnancy. Additions to the herd and the presence of animals that had not received an Escherichia coli bacterin-toxoid were risk factors for salmonellosis. One neonate died, and 24 of 36 calves born between November 1998 and May 1999 had diarrhea by 1 mo of age. Initially, over 60% of the cows were fecal positive; within 6 months, all cows but I had become infected. The intermittent shedding of the organism and the eventual zero prevalence highlight the inappropriateness of extensive culling as an eradication strategy. Cultures of the bulk-tank milk filters were more sensitive than cultures of the bulk-tank milk samples at detecting S. Muenster. Two months after the index case, S. Muenster was cultured from the milk of 7.8% of the cows. Positive fecal or milk cultures were not associated with impaired health or production. The herd's milk was a zoonotic risk, but contact with infected animals was not. The organism spread easily between operations, likely via manure-contaminated clothing and footwear. PMID:12058570

  9. [Lactational incidences of common diseases in dairy herds in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany): effect of first test-day milk yield, herd milk yield and number of lactation].

    PubMed

    Gundling, Natascha; Ruddat, Inga; Prien, Kristin; Hellerich, Birte; Hoedemaker, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to record common diseases in dairy cows in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and to describe associations between lactation number (LN: 1, 2, > 2), first test-day milk yield (TD1: < 30 kg, ≥ 30 kg) and herd milk yield (HM: ≤ 7500 kg, > 7500 kg), the latter parameter serving as a proxy for herd management (extensive vs. intensive). Data of 98 dairy herds (6439 lactations) were processed on cow level using mixed logistic regression models with LN< TD1, HM and calving season as fixed effects and herd as random effect. Lactational incidences were as follows: hypocalcaemia (5.0%), dystocia (13.2%), retained placental membranes (7.2%), clinical metritis/endometritis (4.9%), clinical mastitis (15.3%), subclinical mastitis (61.9%), ketosis (1.6%), displaced abomasum (0.4%), lameness (15.4%). Number of lactation (2, > 2 vs. 1) was a risk factor for hypocalcaemia (OR 3.715, 23.047), retained placental membranes (OR 1.764, 2.479), clinical mastitis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 2.118), subclinical mastitis (OR 1.668,4.397), ketosis (> 2 vs. 1 OR 3.936) and lameness (OR 1.275, 2.070). Older cows had a lower risk for dystocia (OR 0.373, 0.357). TD1 (≥ 30 kg) was not a risk factor of disease except for subclinical mastitis in first parity animals (OR 1.319). Herd milk yield (> 7500 kg) was a risk factor for clinical metritis/endometritis (OR 1.971), displaced abomasum (OR 7.764), lameness (OR 1.618) and hypocalcaemia (cows with high TD1 [OR 2.273]). In conclusion, not individual milk yield, but herd milk yield as an indicator of differences in intensity of herd management as well as number of lactation seemed to influence the frequency of common diseases in dairy cows. PMID:26054229

  10. Exploring the characteristics and dynamics of Ontario dairy herds experiencing increases in bulk milk somatic cell count during the summer.

    PubMed

    Shock, D A; LeBlanc, S J; Leslie, K E; Hand, K; Godkin, M A; Coe, J B; Kelton, D F

    2015-06-01

    Regionally aggregated bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) data from around the world shows a repeatable cyclicity, with the highest levels experienced during warm, humid seasons. No studies have evaluated this seasonal phenomenon at the herd level. The objectives of this study were to define summer seasonality in BMSCC on an individual herd basis, and subsequently to describe the characteristics and dynamics of herds with increased BMSCC in the summer. The data used for this analysis were from all dairy farms in Ontario, Canada, between January 2000 and December 2011 (n≈4,000 to 6,000 herds/yr). Bulk milk data were obtained from the milk marketing board and consisted of bulk milk production, components (fat, protein, lactose, other solids), and quality (BMSCC, bacterial count, inhibitor presence, freezing point), total milk quota of the farm, and milk quota and incentive fill percentage. A time-series linear mixed model, with random slopes and intercepts, was constructed using sine and cosine terms as predictors to describe seasonality, with herd as a random effect. For each herd, seasonality was described with reference to 1 cosine function of variable amplitude and phase shift. The predicted months of maximal and minimal BMSCC were then calculated. Herds were assigned as low, medium, and high summer increase (LSI, MSI, and HSI, respectively) based on percentiles of amplitude in BMSCC change for each of the 4 seasons. Using these seasonality classifications, 2 transitional repeated measures logistic regression models were built to assess the characteristics of MSI and HSI herds, using LSI herds as controls. Based on the analyses performed, a history of summer BMSCC increases increased the odds of experiencing a subsequent increase. As herd size decreased, the odds of experiencing HSI to MSI in BMSCC increased. Herds with more variability in daily BMSCC were at higher odds of experiencing MSI and HSI in BMSCC, as were herds with lower annual mean BMSCC. Finally

  11. Management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    O' Doherty, E; Berry, D P; O' Grady, L; Sayers, R

    2014-06-01

    A survey of management practices in 309 Irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella, Neospora caninum and Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. A previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for Salmonella, Neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. Association analyses in the present study were carried out using multiple logistic regression models. Herds where cattle were purchased or introduced had a greater likelihood of being positive to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.01) and Salmonella (P<0.01). Larger herds had a greater likelihood of recording a positive bulk milk antibody result to leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo (P<0.05). Herds that practiced year round calving were more likely to be positive to Neospora caninum (P<0.05) compared to herds with a spring-calving season, with no difference in risk between herds that practiced split calving compared to herds that practiced spring calving. No association was found between presence of dogs on farms and prevalence of Neospora caninum possibly due to limited access of dogs to infected materials including afterbirths. The information from this study will assist in the design of suitable control programmes for the diseases under investigation in pasture-based livestock systems. PMID:24661904

  12. The effect of lactation length on greenhouse gas emissions from the national dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wall, E; Coffey, M P; Pollott, G E

    2012-11-01

    Many governments have signed up to greenhouse gas emission (GHGE) reduction programmes under their national climate change obligations. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of extended lactations in dairy herds could result in reduced GHGE. Dairy GHGE were modelled on a national basis and the model was used to compare emissions from lactations of three different lengths (305, 370 and 440 days), and a current 'base' scenario on the basis of maintaining current milk production levels. In addition to comparing GHGE from the average 'National Herd' under these scenarios, results were used to investigate how accounting for lactations of different lengths might alter the estimation of emissions calculated from the National Inventory methodology currently recommended by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Data for the three lactation length scenarios were derived from nationally recorded dairy performance information and used in the GHGE model. Long lactations required fewer milking cows and replacements to maintain current milk yield levels than short ones, but GHGEs were found to rise from 1214 t of CO2 equivalent (CE)/farm per year for lactations of 305 days to 1371 t CE/farm per year for 440-day lactations. This apparent anomaly can be explained by the less efficient milk production (kg milk produced per kg cow weight) found in later lactation, a more pronounced effect in longer lactations. The sensitivity of the model to changes in replacement rate, persistency and level of milk yield was investigated. Changes in the replacement rate from 25% to 20% and in persistency by −10% to +20% resulted in very small changes in GHGE. Differences in GHGE due to the level of milk yield were much more dramatic with animals in the top 10% for yield, producing about 25% less GHGE/year than the average animal. National Inventory results were investigated using a more realistic spread of lactation lengths than recommended for such calculations using emissions

  13. Herd behavior in designer genes.

    PubMed

    Huang, P H

    1999-01-01

    The ability of individuals to choose their children's genes has increased over time and may ultimately culminate in a world involving free market reprogenetic technologies. Reprogenetic technologies combine advances in reproductive biology and genetics to provide humans increased control over their children's genes. This Article offers economic perspectives that are helpful in understanding the possibly unexpected ethical, legal, and social issues at stake in using reprogenetic technologies for trait enhancement selection. The Appendix analyzes two competitive games that might arise in such a biotechnological society. Specifically, the Article focuses on herd behavior, caused by either a popularity contest or positional competition, in the choice of genetic traits. The analytical game-theoretic models in the Appendix can have several equilibrium outcomes in terms of individual reprogenetic technological choices and corresponding beliefs about such choices by others. This multiplicity of potential social outcomes suggests that a society can attain efficiency if the state or some private organization transforms individual parents' beliefs over the choices of other parents regarding their children's traits and, thus, coordinates parental reprogenetic decisions by selecting, as focal, certain beliefs over parents' reprogenetic decisions. PMID:12664907

  14. Bovine tuberculosis in Northern Ireland: risk factors associated with time from post-outbreak test to subsequent herd breakdown.

    PubMed

    Doyle, L P; Gordon, A W; Abernethy, D A; Stevens, K

    2014-09-01

    Compulsory bovine tuberculosis testing has been implemented since 1959 in Northern Ireland. Initial rapid progress in the eradication of the disease was followed by a situation where disease levels tended to fluctuate around a low level. This study explores recrudescence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in Northern Ireland herds by assessing risk factors associated with time from the six-month post-outbreak skin test until a further herd breakdown. Bovine herds (n=3377) were recruited in 2002 and 2003 and their survival analysed using Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and a Cox proportional hazards model, with follow-up extending to August 2008. Exclusion criteria applied for study entry were bTB infection in a contiguous herd, changing of post restriction test to one of a higher risk status or chronic infection. Chronic infection was defined as any situation where disclosure preceded the post-outbreak test by two years or more. The application of these exclusion criteria meant that herds recruited to the study were largely cleared of infection and not directly contiguous to other infected herds. Of the 3377 herds, 1402 (41.5%) suffered a further herd breakdown before the end of follow-up. Median survival time was 582 days (interquartile range=336-1002 days). Breakdown severity (defined as the number of Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin Test (SICTT) reactors at disclosure test), local bTB prevalence, herd size and type were identified as significant risk factors (p<0.05), as was the purchase of higher numbers (n>27.38 per year) of cattle. Consistent with other studies this work shows bTB confirmation to not be predictive of a future herd breakdown. This work shows bTB history as not being a risk factor for a future breakdown. This result could be reflective of the exclusion criteria used in the study, which may have selected for incidents where historical status was of less importance. PMID:25023906

  15. A School-Level Proxy Measure for Individual-level Poverty Using School-Level Eligibility for Free and Reduced-Price Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Sophia E.; Hinterland, Kinjia; Myers, Christa; Gupta, Leena; Harris, Tiffany G.; Konty, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts health outcomes. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), like many school-based data sources, lacks individual-level poverty information. We propose using school-level percentages of student eligibility for free/reduced-price meals (%FRPM) as a proxy for individual-level poverty. Methods: Using the New…

  16. Reduced progesterone levels explain the reduced risk of breast cancer in obese premenopausal women: a new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dowsett, Mitch; Folkerd, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the complex relationship between obesity and breast cancer is fundamental to our knowledge of the etiology of this malignancy; changes in the composition of the hormonal milieu are implicit in this process. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by aromatase in the gonads and in peripheral tissues, principally, adipose tissue. Obesity in women, regardless of their age, leads to more aromatase and more extra-glandular estrogen production. In postmenopausal women, in whom ovarian estrogen production is absent, the increased incidence of breast cancer in women with high body mass index has been attributed to the relatively high plasma levels of estradiol from subcutaneous fat. In contrast, obesity in premenopausal women is associated with a previously unexplained reduced incidence of breast cancer. In obese premenopausal women, the cumulative effect of higher levels of estrogens synthesized in the peripheral tissues, together with ovarian estrogen production, results in a negative feedback on the hypothalamic pituitary controlled release of gonadotrophins and a resultant diminution in ovarian steroid production. As a consequence, the normal balance of estrogen and progesterone levels is disrupted: while estrogen levels are normalized, progesterone production is markedly decreased. Progesterone is a promoter of proliferation in the breast. The low levels of progesterone in obese premenopausal women are consistent with, and we propose, are responsible for, the reduction in breast cancer incidence in these women. PMID:25414027

  17. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2009 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  18. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2006 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  19. Somatic Cell Counts of Milk from Dairy Herd Improvement Herds during 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2007 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  20. Somatic cell counts of milk from Dairy Herd Improvement herds during 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Test-day data from all herds enrolled in Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) somatic cell testing during 2008 were examined to assess the status of national milk quality. Cows with records failing some AIPL editing procedures were excluded. Somatic cell score (SCS) is reported to AIPL and was converted to ...

  1. Reasons That Cows in Dairy Herd Improvement Programs Exit the Herd

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This new Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory Research Report was initiated to provide the US industry more comprehensive information on a routine basis on why dairy cows leave Dairy Herd Improvement herds. AIPL had previously published some information on culling rate, but the method used did not...

  2. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L R

    2013-10-01

    In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used to calculate the age and temporal dynamics of seroprevalence and prevalence of positive faecal cultures. Faecal culture-positive prevalence was generally low. It was highest (5.4%) in calves during December to February. Seroprevalence varied from 0% to 70% between herds, but was generally more stable in young stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds. PMID:23328264

  3. Paratuberculosis: decrease in milk production of German Holstein dairy cows shedding Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis depends on within-herd prevalence.

    PubMed

    Donat, K; Soschinka, A; Erhardt, G; Brandt, H R

    2014-05-01

    Paratuberculosis impairs productivity of infected dairy cows because of reduced milk production and fertility and enhanced risk of culling. The magnitude of the milk yield depression in individual cows is influenced by factors such as parity, the stage of the disease and the choice of test used. The objectives of this case-control study were to substantiate the influence of the different levels of the within-herd prevalence (WHP) on individual milk yield of fecal culture (FC)-positive cows (FC+) compared with FC-negative herd-mates (FC-), and to estimate the magnitude of the deviation of the milk yield, milk components and somatic cell count (SCC) in an FC-based study. Of a total of 31 420 cows from 26 Thuringian dairy herds tested for paratuberculosis by FC, a subset of 1382 FC+ and 3245 FC- with milk recording data were selected as cases and controls, respectively. The FC- cows were matched for the same number and stage of lactation (±10 days in milk) as one FC+ from the same herd. Within a mixed model analysis using the fixed effects of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) status, lactation number, days in milk, prevalence class of farm and the random effect of farm on milk yield per day (kg), the amount of fat and protein (mg/dl) and lactose (mg/dl) as well as the SCC (1000/ml) were measured. On the basis of least square means, FC+ cows had a lower test-day milk yield (27.7±0.6 kg) compared with FC- (29.0±0.6 kg), as well as a lower milk protein content and a slightly diminished lactose concentration. FC status was not associated with milk fat percentage or milk SCC. In FC+ cows, reduction in milk yield increased with increasing WHP. An interaction of FC status and farm was found for the test-day milk yield, and milk protein percentage, respectively. We conclude that the reduction in milk yield of FC+ cows compared with FC- herd-mates is significantly influenced by farm effects and depends on WHP class. Owners of MAP-positive dairy herds may

  4. Comparison of bovine tuberculosis recurrence in Irish herds between 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, M J; Higgins, I M; Clegg, T A; Williams, D H; More, S J

    2013-09-01

    During the last several decades in Ireland, there has been substantial scientific progress in our understanding and related policy changes in the bovine tuberculosis (bTB) eradication programme. A range of performance measurements are routinely available, each highlighting a steadily improving situation in Ireland. However, recent research has highlighted an on-going problem of residual infection, contributing to recurrent breakdowns. In light of this general improvement, but also cognisant of residual infection, a critical evaluation of changes in effectiveness of managing recurrence is particularly valuable. Therefore, the objective of the study was to compare the herd-level risk of recurrence of bTB in Ireland between 1998 and 2008. A retrospective cohort study was carried out, using a Cox proportional-hazards model, to compare the risk of restriction recurrence in herds derestricted during 1998 and 2008. These herds were observed for up to 3 years from the end of the 'index restriction'. At the univariable level, 46.4% and 34.8% of study herds derestricted in 1998 and 2008, respectively, had a subsequent breakdown during the study period (χ(2)=70.6, P<0.001). In the multivariable analysis, there has been a significant reduction in bTB recurrence in Ireland, with 2008-derestricted herds being 0.74 times (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.81) as likely to be restricted during the subsequent study period compared with 1998-derestricted herds. In the final Cox model, the rate of a future breakdown increased with increasing herd size, increasing number of standard reactors in the index restriction, increasing percentage of newly restricted herds within the District Electoral Division (DED) and if the herd had a previous bTB episode in the previous 5 years. The risk varied across herd type. The results from the current study provide further reassurance of an improved national situation, both in terms of limiting the establishment of new infection (bTB incidence) and

  5. New alleles of FATB-1A to reduce palmitic acid levels in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wild-type soybeans, palmitic acid typically constitutes 10% of the total seed oil. Palmitic acid is a saturated fat linked to increased cholesterol levels, and reducing levels of saturated fats in soybean oil has been a breeding target. To identify novel and useful variation that could help in re...

  6. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances.

    PubMed

    Islam, M R; Garcia, S C; Clark, C E F; Kerrisk, K L

    2015-06-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially 'concentrating' feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  7. Modelling Pasture-based Automatic Milking System Herds: System Fitness of Grazeable Home-grown Forages, Land Areas and Walking Distances

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M. R.; Garcia, S. C.; Clark, C. E. F.; Kerrisk, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    To maintain a predominantly pasture-based system, the large herd milked by automatic milking rotary would be required to walk significant distances. Walking distances of greater than 1-km are associated with an increased incidence of undesirably long milking intervals and reduced milk yield. Complementary forages can be incorporated into pasture-based systems to lift total home grown feed in a given area, thus potentially ‘concentrating’ feed closer to the dairy. The aim of this modelling study was to investigate the total land area required and associated walking distance for large automatic milking system (AMS) herds when incorporating complementary forage rotations (CFR) into the system. Thirty-six scenarios consisting of 3 AMS herds (400, 600, 800 cows), 2 levels of pasture utilisation (current AMS utilisation of 15.0 t dry matter [DM]/ha, termed as moderate; optimum pasture utilisation of 19.7 t DM/ha, termed as high) and 6 rates of replacement of each of these pastures by grazeable CFR (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%) were investigated. Results showed that AMS cows were required to walk greater than 1-km when the farm area was greater than 86 ha. Insufficient pasture could be produced within a 1 km distance (i.e. 86 ha land) with home-grown feed (HGF) providing 43%, 29%, and 22% of the metabolisable energy (ME) required by 400, 600, and 800 cows, respectively from pastures. Introduction of pasture (moderate): CFR in AMS at a ratio of 80:20 can feed a 400 cow AMS herd, and can supply 42% and 31% of the ME requirements for 600 and 800 cows, respectively with pasture (moderate): CFR at 50:50 levels. In contrast to moderate pasture, 400 cows can be managed on high pasture utilisation (provided 57% of the total ME requirements). However, similar to the scenarios conducted with moderate pasture, there was insufficient feed produced within 1-km distance of the dairy for 600 or 800 cows. An 800 cow herd required 140 and 130 ha on moderate and high pasture-based AMS

  8. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    PubMed

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). A significant 20% reduction in hepatic LDL receptor protein expression was also observed with empagliflozin. Importantly, none of these parameters were changed by empagliflozin in fed conditions. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). These data suggest that empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion. PMID:27207551

  9. Tension between reducing sea-level rise and global warming through solar-radiation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Sriver, R. L.; Keller, K.

    2012-02-01

    Geoengineering using solar-radiation management (SRM) is gaining interest as a potential strategy to reduce future climate change impacts. Basic physics and past observations suggest that reducing insolation will, on average, cool the Earth. It is uncertain, however, whether SRM can reduce climate change stressors such as sea-level rise or rates of surface air temperature change. Here we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantify the possible response of sea levels and surface air temperatures to projected climate forcings and SRM strategies. We find that SRM strategies introduce a potentially strong tension between the objectives to reduce (1) the rate of temperature change and (2) sea-level rise. This tension arises primarily because surface air temperatures respond faster to radiative forcings than sea levels. Our results show that the forcing required to stop sea-level rise could cause a rapid cooling with a rate similar to the peak business-as-usual warming rate. Furthermore, termination of SRM was found to produce warming rates up to five times greater than the maximum rates under the business-as-usual CO2 scenario, whereas sea-level rise rates were only 30% higher. Reducing these risks requires a slow phase-out of many decades and thus commits future generations.

  10. Parasite diversity and anthelmintic resistance in two herds of horses.

    PubMed

    Young, K E; Garza, V; Snowden, K; Dobson, R J; Powell, D; Craig, T M

    1999-08-31

    Diversity of parasite populations was compared between two herds of horses, one a regularly treated herd the other a feral herd which has bad no anthelmintic treatment for at least 25 years. Eggs obtained from fecal samples of both herds were tested for anthelmintic resistance by use of an in-vitro larval hatch/development assay (LDA), DrenchRite. A fecal egg reduction test was also performed with the domesticated herd using fenbendazole, pyrantel pamoate and ivermectin. Cyathostomes were the predominant group of worms present in both herds. Trichostrongylus axei was seen in both herds, but Strongylus equinus, Strongylus vulgaris, Gyalocephalus capitatus, Poteriostomum spp. and Strongyloides westeri were only found in the feral horses. Larvae of Strongylus edentatus were found in a single domesticated horse. Fecal egg reduction tests with the domesticated herd showed a 32% egg count reduction for fenbendazole, a 93% reduction with pyrantel, and a 99% reduction with ivermectin. From the LDA, anthelmintic resistance was evaluated by determining the resistance ratio of the domesticated herd compared with the feral herd. For benzimidazoles in the domesticated herd, 45% of the cyathostome population was 9.4 times more tolerant than the feral herd's parasite population. The parasite population in the domesticated herd was 1.5 times more tolerant to Levamisole, and 1.7 times more tolerant to the benzimidazole/levamisole combination than the parasite population within the feral herd. 9% of the parasite population in the domesticated herd was 90 times more tolerant to avermectins than the feral herd's parasite population, even though a subpopulation of worms in the feral herd were tolerant to low concentrations of avermectins despite never being previously exposed to this class of anthelmintic. PMID:10485366

  11. Evaluation of effects of metritis management in a complex dairy herd health management program.

    PubMed

    Krogh, M A; Enevoldsen, C

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the effects of all interventions in a dairy herd, including the effects of various herd health management programs (HHMP), is highly relevant. A traditional randomized controlled trial is the gold standard but is likely practically impossible or prohibitively expensive to use for a general evaluation of a HHMP. Generalizability may also be poor because of the dynamics of the production contexts. In this study, we demonstrate an approach for evaluating the effects of an HHMP in the field, specifying an intervention theory for an ongoing HHMP in the context of the Danish dairy industry. As an example, we suggest one coherent analytical approach for studying the possible effects on milk production of systematic postpartum examinations of vaginal discharge, which is supposed to improve detection and treatment of metritis or endometritis. This routine is one component of the HHMP. The data consisted of 121 herds and 76,953 lactations over a 15-yr period. For parity group 1, the negative effects of metritis (despite treatment) on 305-d milk production after a normal calving were reduced by 116 kg of energy-corrected milk after enrollment in the HHMP. For parity group 2 and parity group >2, enrollment in the HHMP resulted in a 129-kg and an 80-kg energy-corrected milk yield increase in milk production, respectively. The results indicate that effects of the HHMP existed, which were mediated through improved metritis detection. This study demonstrates the importance of a clear-cut intervention theory, although even with a theory, the research question can be too herd and context specific. In such a case, a within-herd randomized controlled trial study design seems to be the only way to achieve a valid result for a given herd, and acquiring valid results from an observational multi-herd study will be very difficult. PMID:24239087

  12. High glucose levels reduce fatty acid oxidation and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Visiedo, Francisco; Bugatto, Fernando; Sánchez, Viviana; Cózar-Castellano, Irene; Bartha, Jose L; Perdomo, Germán

    2013-07-15

    Placentas of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) exhibit an altered lipid metabolism. The mechanism by which GDM is linked to alterations in placental lipid metabolism remains obscure. We hypothesized that high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and increase triglyceride accumulation in human placenta. To test this hypothesis, we measured FAO, fatty acid esterification, de novo fatty acid synthesis, triglyceride levels, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase activities (CPT) in placental explants of women with GDM or no pregnancy complication. In women with GDM, FAO was reduced by ~30% without change in mitochondrial content, and triglyceride content was threefold higher than in the control group. Likewise, in placental explants of women with no complications, high glucose levels reduced FAO by ~20%, and esterification increased linearly with increasing fatty acid concentrations. However, de novo fatty acid synthesis remained unchanged between high and low glucose levels. In addition, high glucose levels increased triglyceride content approximately twofold compared with low glucose levels. Furthermore, etomoxir-mediated inhibition of FAO enhanced esterification capacity by ~40% and elevated triglyceride content 1.5-fold in placental explants of women, with no complications. Finally, high glucose levels reduced CPT I activity by ~70% and phosphorylation levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase by ~25% in placental explants of women, with no complications. We reveal an unrecognized regulatory mechanism on placental fatty acid metabolism by which high glucose levels reduce mitochondrial FAO through inhibition of CPT I, shifting flux of fatty acids away from oxidation toward the esterification pathway, leading to accumulation of placental triglycerides. PMID:23673156

  13. [Food safety achieved through herd management].

    PubMed

    Stärk, K D

    2000-12-01

    Most animal-derived food products originate from production chains consisting of a series of well-defined, separate production steps. Undesired events affecting food safety can principally occur at any point within the production chain. The principle of integrated food safety assurance from stable to table has therefore been established. The livestock holding has thus to be understood as a fix element of the production chain, and the producer has to accept a part of the responsibility for food safety. On a farm, food safety can be negatively affected by animal feed (microbiological or toxicological contamination), management (hygiene, stocking density, cleaning and disinfecting), veterinary treatments (use of antibiotics) and recycling of slurry. Most relevant practices can be summarised under the standard of "good farming practice". HACCP programmes as they are applied in the processing industries could in principle also be used at the farm level. Influential management steps would need to be identified and controlled. This approach is, however, still in its infancy at present. Using the current monitoring systems, microbiological and toxicological problems in food are difficult to be identified before the end of the production chain. As the cause of a problem can be found at the farm level, traceability of products through the production chain is essential. In Switzerland, traceability of animals is realised using compulsory animal identification and the animal movement database. Using this link, information on the health status of a herd could be made available to the slaughterhouse in order to classify animals into food-safety risk categories. This principle is a key element in the ongoing discussion about visual meat inspection in Europe and elsewhere. PMID:11189835

  14. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  15. Serratia marcescens mastitis in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D J; Kirk, J H; Walker, R D; Bosworth, Q W

    1990-04-01

    Serratia marcescens caused clinical mastitis in 5 cows and nonclinical mastitis in 21 cows of a 190-cow herd. Repeated bacteriologic culture of specimens from the cows, postmilking teat dip, environment, and equipment was performed. Serratia marcescens was not isolated from the dip, environment, or equipment. Progress of the infection in cows was monitored for 10 months. Some cows remained infected with S marcescens for at least 10 months. Economic loss estimates were based on Dairy Herd Improvement Association linear score reports. The average nonclinical loss was about $22/cow. PMID:2184155

  16. First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel.

    PubMed

    Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael

    2014-09-17

    Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531

  17. A model of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus within a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Viet, Anne-France; Fourichon, Christine; Seegers, Henri; Jacob, Christine; Guihenneuc-Jouyaux, Chantal

    2004-05-14

    Wet BVDSim (a stochastic simulation model) was developed to study the dynamics of the spread of the bovine viral-diarrhoea virus (BVDV) within a dairy herd. This model took into account herd-management factors (common in several countries), which influence BVDV spread. BVDSim was designed as a discrete-entity and discrete-event simulation model. It relied on two processes defined at the individual-animal level, with interactions. The first process was a semi-Markov process and modelled the herd structure and dynamics (demography, herd management). The second process was a Markov process and modelled horizontal and vertical virus transmission. Because the horizontal transmission occurs by contacts (nose-to-nose) and indirectly, transmission varied with the separation of animals into subgroups. Vertical transmission resulted in birth of persistently infected (PI) calves. Other possible consequences of a BVDV infection during the pregnancy period were considered (pregnancy loss, immunity of calves). The outcomes of infection were modelled according to the stage of pregnancy at time of infection. BVDV pregnancy loss was followed either by culling or by a new artificial insemination depending on the modelled farmer's decision. Consistency of the herd dynamics in the absence of any BVDV infection was verified. To explore the model behaviour, the virus spread was simulated over 10 years after the introduction of a near-calving PI heifer into a susceptible 38 cow herd. Different dynamics of the virus spread were simulated, from early clearance to persistence of the virus 10 years after its introduction. Sensitivity of the model to the uncertainty on transmission coefficient was analysed. Qualitative validation consisted in comparing the bulk-milk ELISA results over time in a sample of herds detected with a new infection with the ones derived from simulations. PMID:15158572

  18. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with the risk of nonpregnancy in cow-calf herds in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L; García Guerra, A

    2013-04-15

    To identify herd management and cow characteristics associated with the reproductive success of cow-calf herds in Western Canada, 33,391 beef cows were followed from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through pregnancy testing in 2002. Breeding management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score (BCS), and previous reproductive history, were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was measured in 205 herds in the fall of 2001 and again in 200 herds in the fall of 2002. Cows least likely to be pregnant in the fall of the year were 10 years old or older, exposed to a bull less than 84 days, had a BCS ≤5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, <5 of 9 before calving, and lost condition between calving and the start of the breeding season, or had a prebreeding BCS <5 of 9 with a loss of condition between breeding and pregnancy testing. Other factors identified that decreased the likelihood of pregnancy in at least one of the 2 years included being a heifer or being a cow exposed to breeding after her first calf, and using a single bull on breeding pasture. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were more likely to be pregnant than cows that were not vaccinated and bred on community pastures. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also less likely to be pregnant than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Calving-associated events such as twin birth, Cesarean section or malpresentation, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour after birth, or calving late after the start of the breeding season, were also associated with fewer pregnancies after accounting for all other factors. PMID:23473871

  19. Range overlap and individual movements during breeding season influence genetic relationships of caribou herds in south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffler, Gretchen H.; Adams, Layne G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K.; Dale, Bruce W.

    2012-01-01

    North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds commonly exhibit little nuclear genetic differentiation among adjacent herds, although available evidence supports strong demographic separation, even for herds with seasonal range overlap. During 1997–2003, we studied the Mentasta and Nelchina caribou herds in south-central Alaska using radiotelemetry to determine individual movements and range overlap during the breeding season, and nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers to assess levels of genetic differentiation. Although the herds were considered discrete because females calved in separate regions, individual movements and breeding-range overlap in some years provided opportunity for male-mediated gene flow, even without demographic interchange. Telemetry results revealed strong female philopatry, and little evidence of female emigration despite overlapping seasonal distributions. Analyses of 13 microsatellites indicated the Mentasta and Nelchina herds were not significantly differentiated using both traditional population-based analyses and individual-based Bayesian clustering analyses. However, we observed mtDNA differentiation between the 2 herds (FSTM = 0.041, P

  20. A structural equation model to evaluate direct and indirect factors associated with a latent measure of mastitis in Belgian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Detilleux, J; Theron, L; Beduin, J-M; Hanzen, C

    2012-12-01

    In dairy cattle, many farming practices have been associated with occurrence of mastitis but it is often difficult to disentangle the causal threads. Structural equation models may reduce the complexity of such situations. Here, we applied the method to examine the links between mastitis (subclinical and clinical) and risk factors such as herd demographics, housing conditions, feeding procedures, milking practices, and strategies of mastitis prevention and treatment in 345 dairy herds from the Walloon region of Belgium. During the period January 2006 to October 2007, up to 110 different herd management variables were recorded by two surveyors using a questionnaire for the farm managers and during a farm visit. Monthly somatic cell counts of all lactating cows were collected by the local dairy herd improvement association. Structural equation models were created to obtain a latent measure of mastitis and to reduce the complexity of the relationships between farming practices, between indicators of herd mastitis and between both. Robust maximum likelihood estimates were obtained for the effects of the herd management variables on the latent measure of herd mastitis. Variables associated directly (p<0.05) with the latent measure of herd mastitis were the addition of urea in the rations; the practices of machine stripping, of pre-and post-milking teat disinfection; the presence of cows with hyperkeratotic teats, of cubicles for housing and of dirty liners before milking; the treatment of subclinical cases of mastitis; and the age of the herd (latent variable for average age and parity of cows, and percentage of heifers in the herd). Treatment of subclinical mastitis was also an intermediate in the association between herd mastitis and post-milking teat disinfection. The study illustrates how structural equation model provides information regarding the linear relationships between risk factors and a latent measure of mastitis, distinguishes between direct relationships

  1. Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in endemically infected dairy herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental contamination with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is thought to be the primary source of infection for dairy cattle. The exact link between fecal shedding of MAP by individual cows and environmental contamination levels at the herd level was explored with a cross-se...

  2. An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis in selected Ontario dairy herds.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B W; Barnum, D A; Meek, A H

    1983-01-01

    An observational study of Corynebacterium bovis was conducted in 74 Ontario dairy herds. The levels of infection with C. bovis were 19.9, 36.2 and 85.6% at the quarter, cow and herd level, respectively. Teat disinfection was found to be the variable best able to distinguish between herds with a high or low C. bovis quarter infection rate. Mean total milk somatic cell counts for 1103 quarters and 107 cows infected with only C. bovis ranged between 150,000 and 200,000/mL and were significantly higher than for uninfected quarters or cows. The rate of infection with mastitis pathogens was not significantly different in quarters previously colonized with only C. bovis compared to previously uninfected quarters. PMID:6831308

  3. A Survey of Mastitis in Selected Ontario Dairy Herds

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, B. W.; Barnum, D. A.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    A mastitis survey involving 74 Ontario dairy herds was conducted. The prevalence of infection at the quarter level was found to be 4.1% with Streptococcus agalactiae, 4.5% with other streptococcal species and 8.0% with Staphylococcus aureus. Regardless of the infection status, the geometric mean somatic cell count was found to increase with age of the cow but no increase was observed with increasing stage of lactation. The percentage of cows from which a bacterial pathogen was isolated increased with age but not with stage of lactation. PMID:17422140

  4. 43 CFR 4710.3-1 - Herd management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Management Considerations § 4710.3-1 Herd management areas. Herd... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Herd management areas. 4710.3-1...

  5. Relationship between periparturient management, prevalence of MAP and preventable economic losses in UK dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Radia, D; Bond, K; Limon, G; van Winden, S; Guitian, J

    2013-10-12

    Johne's disease (JD) is an infectious, progressive, gastrointestinal disease affecting ruminants. Calves are mostly infected in their first six months of life, or in utero. We investigated the impact of specific periparturient management practices on within-herd JD prevalence and economic losses foregone in UK dairy herds by means of data synthesis (systematic appraisal of published evidence and expert elicitation) and use of a pre-existing simulation model. Our results show the scarcity of accurate estimates of the impact of specific periparturient management practices on within-herd JD prevalence, which could, in part, be explained by challenges associated with the chronic nature of JD. Management practices aiming to limit the faecal-oral transmission route of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) were found to be most effective at reducing within-herd prevalence of JD. Practices aiming to limit MAP transmission via colostrum and milk were found to be less effective. Losses foregone for a hypothetical herd of 200 milking cows were considerable; based on the assumptions, it is reasonable to expect between £7000 and £11,000 of losses foregone when management practices are implemented as a package of measures. The findings of this study are envisaged to enable farmers and veterinarians to make more informed decisions on changes to periparturient management to control JD. PMID:23897995

  6. Identifying risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, S; Rabiee, A R; Gunn, A; House, J K

    2016-09-01

    Lameness is a significant welfare concern for dairy farmers and a major contributing economic loss to the dairy industry. Information is limited on environmental and managerial risk factors associated with lameness in Australian dairy herds. The objective of this study was to explore and quantify the environmental and management risk factors associated with lameness in pasture-based dairy herds. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 63 pasture-based dairy herds between 2011 and 2014, where all lactating cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-4) during a single visit. Environmental and management variables, such as length of main track and animal handling practices, were recorded during the visit. The prevalence of lameness was measured for each farm and associated risk factors were analyzed using a Generalized Linear Model, where farm was the unit of analysis. Estimated average prevalence of lameness was 18.9% (range 5 to 44.5%). The prevalence of lameness was associated with the amount of rainfall during the 30 d before the farm assessment, smoothness of concrete surface and available space per cow in the holding yard, and length of feed-pad available per cow. Inappropriate handling of cows on the track (e.g., causing sideways pushing among cows) was also a contributing risk factor to high prevalence of lameness in these dairy herds. The findings of this study suggest that by managing several environmental and farming practices, producers can reduce the prevalence of lameness, leading to improved productivity of their herds. PMID:27394954

  7. Improving cow herd production through early weaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early weaning, in spring calving production systems, has intrigued many producers to consider this alternative management practice especially during extended droughts and as a tool to promote stayability within a cow herd for young developing cows. The first objective of this study was to evaluate ...

  8. PROLONGED FASTING AND CORTISOL REDUCE MYOSTATIN MRNA LEVELS IN TILAPIA LARVAE, SHORT-TERM FASTING ELEVATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Myostatin negatively regulates muscle growth and development and has recently been characterized in several fishes. We measured fasting myostatin mRNA levels in adult tilapia skeletal muscle and in whole larvae. Although fasting reduced some growth indices in adults, skeletal muscle myostatin mRNA...

  9. Schoolwide Intervention to Reduce Chronic Tardiness at the Middle and High School Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyre, Ashli; Feuerborn, Laura; Pierce, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    When many students are tardy at the secondary level, teachers must continually restart instruction or delay beginning instructional periods throughout the school day. To address the considerable amount of instructional time lost caused by high rates of tardiness, the authors investigated the results of schoolwide intervention to reduce student…

  10. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  11. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to identify risk factors associated with Coxiella burnetii antibody positivity in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from 100 randomly selected Danish dairy cattle herds. Antibody levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay. Before testing the herds, the farm managers were interviewed about hired labour, biosecurity, housing and herd health during the 12 months prior to the study. Variables considered important for C. burnetii antibody positivity in multivariable logistic regression analysis included the sharing of machines between farms (OR = 3.6), human contacts (OR = 4.2), artificial insemination by other people than artificial insemination technicians (OR = 7.7), routine herd health contract with the veterinarian (OR = 4.3) and hygiene precautions taken by veterinarians (OR = 5). In addition, herd size, hired labour, trading of cattle between farms, quarantine and use of calving and disease pens also showed significant association in univariable analysis. This study demonstrates that strict biosecurity is important for the prevention of infections with C. burnetii. PMID:24228845

  12. A review of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Ostergaard, S; Sørensen, J T

    1998-08-01

    Diseases may be an important link in the relationship between feeding and production in a dairy herd. The low frequency of relevant disorders calls for studies on survey data on a large population. However, this approach suffers from lack of detailed herd feeding data and consequently only few have studied feeding as a risk factor for disease. Therefore, we reviewed information from various studies to integrate what is known of the feeding-health-production complex in a dairy herd. The need for putting together information from different sources, the herd effects, and the fact that the effect of one factor cannot be kept constant for investigation in a real-life dynamic herd call for a conceptual model as a framework for the review. The complexity is minimized to allow the representation of important elements. Within-cow relationships (such as feeding-disease relationships, disease interrelationships, and disease-production relationships) are reviewed specifically for: ketosis, milk fever, displaced abomasum, acidosis, sole ulcers and laminitis, and bloat. The major feeding management factors involved are concentrate feeding (level and how it is provided) and overconditioned cows. Disease interrelationships are important. Generalization of production loss from diseases is complicated due to the variety of estimates and measures used. PMID:9762733

  13. Single versus double testing of meat-juice samples for Salmonella antibodies, in the Danish pig-herd surveillance programme.

    PubMed

    Ekeroth, Lars; Alban, Lis; Feld, Niels

    2003-08-01

    In Denmark, a national serological surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in operation since 1995. The programme is based on the Danish mix-ELISA and uses double testing (two ELISA-wells used per sample) of meat-juice samples taken in relation to slaughter. All herds are classified monthly into one of the three levels; the classification is based on the percentage of positive serological results in the previous 3 months. In connection with evaluation of the programme in 2001, we investigated whether single testing (testing in one well only) could be expected to be sufficiently precise compared to double testing. Data from the year 2000 were used, and mathematical modelling. Single testing was simulated by randomised selection of one of the two results in the double testing. A slight increase in the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples (1.02-1.09 times more through the four quarters of the year 2000) was found in the simulated single testing, as compared to the double testing. Around 0.5% of the herds would be allocated to another herd level in single testing-almost equal numbers one level up and one level down. No herd being seronegative in double testing would be allocated to levels 2 or 3 (herds with >40 or >70%, respectively, serological reactors) in single testing. The prevalence of "false-positive" diagnoses (positive in single testing and negative in double testing) and inversely defined "false-negative" diagnoses varied from 4.2 to 8.7% and from 3.2 to 4.5%, respectively, through the four quarters of the year 2000. The probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to sampling error was on the average 6.2 (varying from 1.66 to over 100) times higher than the probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to the test inaccuracy introduced by going from double to single testing. This is, however, an average; a herd with a true prevalence close to one of the level border cut-offs (40 and 70% weighted seroprevalence

  14. Reduced serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D during long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Klein, G L; Horst, R L; Norman, A W; Ament, M E; Slatopolsky, E; Coburn, J W

    1981-05-01

    Painful bone disease, characterized by patchy osteomalacia and inactive bone, can develop in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition for more than 3 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1 alpha, 25(OH)2D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in seven adults and five children treated with parenteral nutrition for 9 to 60 months. Serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D were markedly reduced, while levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were normal. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were normal or slightly increased, and immunoreactive parathyroid hormone levels were normal or low. Renal function was normal or minimally reduced. Skeletal symptoms disappeared and serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D levels rose to normal in one patient when nutrient infusions were discontinued for 6 weeks. Removal of calcium from the nutrient solution for 2 to 4 days was associated with no change in serum 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D in two patients. The cause of the reduction in serum levels of 1 alpha, 25(OH)2D and its role in the pathogenesis of bone disease in these patients remain uncertain. PMID:6786151

  15. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  16. Exploring relationships between Dairy Herd Improvement monitors of performance and the Transition Cow Index in Wisconsin dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Schultz, K K; Bennett, T B; Nordlund, K V; Döpfer, D; Cook, N B

    2016-09-01

    Transition cow management has been tracked via the Transition Cow Index (TCI; AgSource Cooperative Services, Verona, WI) since 2006. Transition Cow Index was developed to measure the difference between actual and predicted milk yield at first test day to evaluate the relative success of the transition period program. This project aimed to assess TCI in relation to all commonly used Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) metrics available through AgSource Cooperative Services. Regression analysis was used to isolate variables that were relevant to TCI, and then principal components analysis and network analysis were used to determine the relative strength and relatedness among variables. Finally, cluster analysis was used to segregate herds based on similarity of relevant variables. The DHI data were obtained from 2,131 Wisconsin dairy herds with test-day mean ≥30 cows, which were tested ≥10 times throughout the 2014 calendar year. The original list of 940 DHI variables was reduced through expert-driven selection and regression analysis to 23 variables. The K-means cluster analysis produced 5 distinct clusters. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the 23 variables per cluster grouping. Using principal components analysis, cluster analysis, and network analysis, 4 parameters were isolated as most relevant to TCI; these were energy-corrected milk, 3 measures of intramammary infection (dry cow cure rate, linear somatic cell count score in primiparous cows, and new infection rate), peak ratio, and days in milk at peak milk production. These variables together with cow and newborn calf survival measures form a group of metrics that can be used to assist in the evaluation of overall transition period performance. PMID:27320672

  17. Veterinary dairy herd health management in Europe: constraints and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cannas da Silva, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Vagneur, M; Bexiga, R; Gelfert, C C; Baumgartner, W

    2006-03-01

    The nature of veterinary work in dairy health management in Europe has changed over the past years and will change even more dramatically in the near future. The consumers and the media show increasing concern about animal welfare, safety of products of animal origin and traceability of animal products. Farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and laborious regulations, while still commercially competing with farmers outside the EU and not subject to the same rules. Veterinarians should adapt their knowledge and skills to the new challenges and developments of the dairy sector. Dairy farmers nowadays ask for support in areas that go beyond clinical activities: environmental protection, welfare, nutrition, grassland management, economics and business management. Bovine practitioners should be able to advise in many different areas and subjects--that is the challenge to our profession. Veterinary education with regards to cattle health management should start with individual animal clinical work, which constitutes the basis of herd health advisory programmes. The bovine practitioner should then look beyond that and regard the herd as the unit. Each diseased cow or group of cows should be detected early enough to avoid financial losses or such losses should be prevented altogether by detecting and managing risk factors contributing to disease occurrence. Herd health and production management programmes represent the first level to optimise dairy farm performance. Expansions to that should further be considered, comprising both animal health and welfare issues, as well as food safety and public health issues. The latter could be addressed by quality risk management programmes following the HACCP-principles. Cattle veterinarians should follow recent developments and invest in new skills and knowledge in order to maintain their usefulness to the modern dairy farmer. Finally we are convinced that the cattle practitioner should evolve into this

  18. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  19. Serum C-reactive protein in dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wen-Chuan; Hsiao, Huo-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Ling; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Lee, Yen-Pai; Fung, Hang-Poung; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactation and health status. Blood samples were collected every 2 wk for 12 mo from 29 randomly selected dairy cattle on 3 farms. At the time the blood samples were collected, the stage of pregnancy, lactation status, breeding records, general health condition, reproductive status, and body condition score were recorded for each cow. Serum CRP was detected with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western immunoblotting. C-reactive protein levels were measured with a densitometer and expressed as an optimal dose value. C-reactive protein levels were correlated with the body condition score, lactation status, and animal health (P < 0.05), but not with ambient temperature, animal age, or parity. C-reactive protein levels increased with milk production, peaking during high lactation (2 to 4 mo of pregnancy), and decreased when lactation ceased. In addition, the CRP level was highest during naturally occurring infections, such as mastitis and other tissue inflammation. Thus, the CRP level can confirm the presence of inflammation. The stress effect of taking blood samples as measured by the CRP level, was also examined. The CRP level became rapidly elevated 12 h after the blood samples were taken but returned to normal 36 h later. In conclusion, the stresses resulting from overall poor health, heavy lactation, and blood sampling caused the elevation of serum CRP. C-reactive protein is a marker or tool for evaluating the health status of a herd. C-reactive protein should also be considered as a useful criteria to assess the stress levels and may be useful in early surveillance of disease conditions in a dairy herd. PMID:12760474

  20. Effect of exposure to Neospora caninum, Salmonella, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo on the economic performance of Irish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    O' Doherty, E; Sayers, R; O' Grady, L; Shalloo, L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of the current study was to quantify the effects of exposure to Salmonella, Neospora caninum, and Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo (L. hardjo) on dairy farm profitability and to simulate the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on dairy farm profitability. The production effects associated with exposure to each of these pathogens in study herds were defined under 3 categories: (1) milk production effects, (2) reproduction effects (including culling), and (3) mortality effects. The production effects associated with exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were incorporated into the Moorepark Dairy Systems Model. In the analysis, herds negative for exposure to Salmonella, N. caninum, and L. hardjo were assumed baseline herds, with all results presented relative to this base. In simulations examining the effect of vaccination for Salmonella and L. hardjo on farm profitability, vaccinated herds (vaccination costs included) were considered as baseline herds and results were presented relative to this base. Total annual profits in unvaccinated herds were reduced by €77.31, €94.71, and €112.11 per cow at milk prices of €0.24, €0.29, and €0.34/L, respectively, as a result of exposure to Salmonella. In the current study, herds positive for exposure to Salmonella recorded a 316-kg reduction in milk yield, whereas no association was detected between exposure to N. caninum or L. hardjo and milk production. Exposure to both N. caninum and L. hardjo was associated with compromised reproductive performance. Herds positive for exposure to N. caninum and Salmonella had greater rates of adult cow mortality and calf mortality, respectively. Vaccination for both Salmonella and L. hardjo was associated with improved performance in study herds. Exposure to N. caninum resulted in a reduction in annual farm profits of €11.55, €12, and €12.44 per cow at each milk price, whereas exposure to L. hardjo resulted in a reduction in

  1. Oxidative stress reduces levels of dysbindin-1A via its PEST domain.

    PubMed

    Yap, Mei-Yi Alicia; Lo, Yew-Long; Talbot, Konrad; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from the generation of reactive oxygen species has been proposed as an etiological factor in schizophrenia. The present study tests the hypothesis that oxidative stress can affect levels of dysbindin-1A, encoded by Dtnbp1, a genetic risk factor for schizophrenia, via its PEST domain. In vitro studies on SH-SY5Y cells indicate that oxidative stress triggers proteasomal degradation of dysbindin-1A, and that this requires interactions with its PEST domain, which may be a TRIM32 target. We specifically found (a) that oxidative stress induced in SH-SY5Y cells by 500 µM hydrogen peroxide reduced levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but did not reduce levels of that protein lacking its PEST domain and (b) that levels of full-length dysbindin-1, but not dysbindin-1 lacking its PEST domain, were higher in cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Oxidative stress thus emerges as the first known cellular factor regulating dysbindin-1 isoforms with PEST domains. These findings are consistent with the previously noted fact that phosphorylation of PEST domains often marks proteins for proteasomal degradation, and raises the possibility that treatments reducing oxidative stress in the brain, especially during development, may lower schizophrenia risk. PMID:25445987

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Obesity are Associated With Reduced GPR 120 Plasma Levels in Children

    PubMed Central

    Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Carreras, Alba; Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Peris, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common health problem, particularly in obese children, in whom a vicious cycle of obesity and OSA interdependencies promotes increased food intake. G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR 120) is a long-chain free fatty acid (FFA) receptor that plays an important role in energy homeostasis, and protects against insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that GPR 120 levels would be reduced in children with OSA, particularly among obese children. Study Design: Cross-sectional prospectively recruited cohort. Setting: Academic pediatric sleep program. Methods: Two hundred twenty-six children (mean age: 7.0 ± 2.1 y) underwent overnight polysomnographic evaluation and a fasting blood draw the morning after the sleep study. In addition to lipid profile, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) assays, monocyte GPR 120 expression, and plasma GPR 120 levels were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results: Obese children and those with OSA had significantly lower GPR 120 monocyte expression and plasma GPR 120 levels. Furthermore, when both obesity and OSA were present, GPR 120 levels were lowest. Linear associations emerged between GPR 120 plasma levels and body mass index (BMI) z score, as well as with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2) nadir, and respiratory arousal index (RAI), with RAI remaining statistically significant when controlling for age, ethnicity, sex, and BMI z score (P < 0.001). Similarly, HOMA-IR was significantly associated with GPR 120 levels, but neither low density lipoprotein nor high density lipoprotein cholesterol or hsCRP levels exhibited significant correlations. Conclusions: G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR 120) levels are reduced in pediatric OSA and obesity (particularly when both are present) and may play a role in

  3. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men.

    PubMed

    Berge, Kjetil; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Hoem, Nils; Silvestri, Cristoforo; Meyer, Ingo; Banni, Sebastiano; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m², age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  4. Chronic treatment with krill powder reduces plasma triglyceride and anandamide levels in mildly obese men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that treatment of Zucker rats and mice with diet-induced obesity with dietary docosahexaenoic (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic (EPA) acids in the form of krill oil reduces peripheral levels of endocannabinoids, ectopic fat formation and hyperglycemia. We reported that such treatment reduces plasma endocannabinoid levels also in overweight and obese human individuals, in whom high triglycerides may correlate with high circulating endocannabinoid levels. In this study, we report the effects of krill powder, which contains proteins (34%) in addition to krill oil (61.8%), on these two parameters. We submitted 11 obese men (average BMI of 32.3 kg/m2, age of 42.6 years and plasma triglycerides of 192.5 ± 96.3 mg/dl) to a 24 week dietary supplementation with krill powder (4 g/day per os) and measured anthropometric and metabolic parameters, as well as blood endocannabinoid (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and esterified DHA and EPA levels. Six subjects were included as control subjects and not given any supplements. The treatment produced, after 12 and 24 weeks, a significant increase in DHA and EPA in total plasma, a 59 and 84% decrease in anandamide plasma levels, and a 22.5 and 20.6% decrease in triglyceride levels, respectively. There was also a significant decrease in waist/hip ratio and visceral fat/skeletal muscle mass ratio at 24 weeks, but no change in body weight. These data confirm that dietary krill powder reduces peripheral endocannabinoid overactivity in obese subjects, and might ameliorate some parameters of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23706001

  5. Bayesian estimation of prevalence of paratuberculosis in dairy herds enrolled in a voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McAloon, Conor G; Doherty, Michael L; Whyte, Paul; O'Grady, Luke; More, Simon J; Messam, Locksley L McV; Good, Margaret; Mullowney, Peter; Strain, Sam; Green, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some evidence exists to suggest a possible zoonotic link and a national voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme was initiated by Animal Health Ireland in 2013. The objective of this study was to estimate herd-level true prevalence (HTP) and animal-level true prevalence (ATP) of paratuberculosis in Irish herds enrolled in the national voluntary JD control programme during 2013-14. Two datasets were used in this study. The first dataset had been collected in Ireland during 2005 (5822 animals from 119 herds), and was used to construct model priors. Model priors were updated with a primary (2013-14) dataset which included test records from 99,101 animals in 1039 dairy herds and was generated as part of the national voluntary JD control programme. The posterior estimate of HTP from the final Bayesian model was 0.23-0.34 with a 95% probability. Across all herds, the median ATP was found to be 0.032 (0.009, 0.145). This study represents the first use of Bayesian methodology to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in Irish dairy herds. The HTP estimate was higher than previous Irish estimates but still lower than estimates from other major dairy producing countries. PMID:27237395

  6. High intensity and reduced volume training attenuates stress and recovery levels in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Rasmussen, Camilla P; Nielsen, Glen; Nordsborg, Nikolai B

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of increased high-intensity interval training (HIT) at the expense of total training volume on the stress and recovery levels of elite swimmers. Forty-one elite swimmers participated in the study and were randomly assigned to either a HIT or a control group (CON). Eleven swimmers did not complete the questionnaires. For 12 weeks both groups trained ~12 h per week. The amount of HIT was ~5 h vs. 1 h, and total distance was ~17 km vs. ~35 km per week for HIT and CON, respectively. HIT was performed as 6-10 × 10-30 s maximal effort interspersed by 2-4 min of rest. The Recovery Stress Questionnaire - Sport was used to measure the swimmers' stress and recovery levels. After the 12 week intervention, the general stress level was 16.6% (2.6-30.7%; mean and 95% CI) lower and the general recovery level was 6.5% (0.7-12.4%) higher in HIT compared to the CON, after adjusting for baseline values. No significant effects could be observed in sports-specific stress or sports-specific recovery. The results indicate that increasing training intensity and reducing training volume for 12 weeks can reduce general stress and increase general recovery levels in competitive swimmers. PMID:25867005

  7. Reducing bullying and victimization: student- and classroom-level mechanisms of change.

    PubMed

    Saarento, Silja; Boulton, Aaron J; Salmivalli, Christina

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines the mediating mechanisms by which the KiVa antibullying program, based on the Participant Role approach, reduces bullying and victimization among elementary school students. Both student-level mechanisms leading to reduced perpetration of bullying and classroom-level mechanisms leading to reductions in bullying and victimization are considered. Analyses are based on a sample of 7,491 students (49.5% boys) nested within 421 classrooms within 77 schools. At the beginning of program implementation, the children were in Grades 4, 5, and 6 (mean age 11.3 years). Multilevel structural equation modeling was used to analyze whether changes in the hypothesized mediators accounted for later reductions in the outcomes. At the student level, antibullying attitudes and perceptions regarding peers' defending behaviors and teacher attitudes toward bullying mediated the effects of KiVa on self-reported bullying perpetration. The effects on peer-reported bullying were only mediated by antibullying attitudes. At the classroom level, the program effects on both self- and peer-reported bullying were mediated by students' collective perceptions of teacher attitudes toward bullying. Also, perceived reinforcing behaviors predicted bullying but did not emerge as a significant mediator. Finally, bullying mediated the effects of the classroom-level factors on victimization. These findings enhance knowledge of the psychosocial developmental processes contributing to bullying and victimization and shed light on the key mechanisms by which school bullying can successfully be counteracted. PMID:24390403

  8. Disruption of adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate kinase in Arabidopsis reduces levels of sulfated secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sarah G; Yoshimoto, Naoko; Reichelt, Michael; Wirtz, Markus; Hill, Lionel; Mugford, Sam T; Nakazato, Yoshimi; Noji, Masaaki; Takahashi, Hideki; Kramell, Robert; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Flügge, Ulf-Ingo; Wasternack, Claus; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hell, Rüdiger; Saito, Kazuki; Kopriva, Stanislav

    2009-03-01

    Plants can metabolize sulfate by two pathways, which branch at the level of adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS). APS can be reduced to sulfide and incorporated into Cys in the primary sulfate assimilation pathway or phosphorylated by APS kinase to 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate, which is the activated sulfate form for sulfation reactions. To assess to what extent APS kinase regulates accumulation of sulfated compounds, we analyzed the corresponding gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analysis of T-DNA insertion knockout lines for each of the four isoforms did not reveal any phenotypical alterations. However, when all six combinations of double mutants were compared, the apk1 apk2 plants were significantly smaller than wild-type plants. The levels of glucosinolates, a major class of sulfated secondary metabolites, and the sulfated 12-hydroxyjasmonate were reduced approximately fivefold in apk1 apk2 plants. Although auxin levels were increased in the apk1 apk2 mutants, as is the case for most plants with compromised glucosinolate synthesis, typical high auxin phenotypes were not observed. The reduction in glucosinolates resulted in increased transcript levels for genes involved in glucosinolate biosynthesis and accumulation of desulfated precursors. It also led to great alterations in sulfur metabolism: the levels of sulfate and thiols increased in the apk1 apk2 plants. The data indicate that the APK1 and APK2 isoforms of APS kinase play a major role in the synthesis of secondary sulfated metabolites and are required for normal growth rates. PMID:19304933

  9. Ascorbic acid serum levels are reduced in patients with hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Huijskens, Mirelle J.A.J.; Wodzig, Will K.W.H.; Walczak, Mateusz; Germeraad, Wilfred T.V.; Bos, Gerard M.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that patients treated with chemotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have highly significant reduced serum ascorbic acid (AA) levels compared to healthy controls. We recently observed in in vitro experiments that growth of both T and NK cells from hematopoietic stem cells is positively influenced by AA. It might be of clinical relevance to study the function and recovery of immune cells after intensive treatment, its correlation to AA serum levels and the possible effect of AA supplementation. PMID:27014565

  10. [Juvenile goiter in a goat herd in northwest Germany].

    PubMed

    Simon, C; Bostedt, H; Adams, W

    2000-06-01

    A continuous increase in the circumference of the thyroid gland was observed in four goat kids (44.4%) of the breed of White German Goat between the third and fourth month in a herd comprising White German Goats and Coloured German Goats. Clinical, laboratory diagnostic and chemically analytical results have been obtained, illustrated and compared with the equivalent parameters from healthy control herds without pathological findings. The thyroidal secretion rate and the milk iodine content were highly significant reduced in the affected flock in comparison with the control group. The feed which was given to the affected group did not cover the nutritional requirement of pregnant, lactating and growing goats. At 40-50 mg/l, the nitrate content of the water was close to the tolerance of 50 mg/l. It can be deduced from the findings available that the case described above is a synergetic combination of a primary iodine deficiency, based on an inefficient iodine supply and of a secondary iodine deficiency resulting from a super elevated nitrate content of the drinking water. PMID:10892301

  11. Haematological investigation of a multiple case leucosis herd.

    PubMed

    Dimmock, C K; Waugh, P D; Rogers, R J

    1979-06-01

    Adult cattle in a Queensland dairy herd with a history of deaths from lymphosarcoma were sampled regularly over a 4 year period for the identification of animals with persistent lymphocytosis (PL). Twenty-one of 94 animals that were sampled at least 6 times had PL. At the initial sampling 27% of the animals had lymphocytosis. Culling of haematologically positive animals in the first 18 months of the investigation reduced this to 5.3%, but cessation of the culling programme resulted in a gradual increase in the percentage of animals with lymphocytosis. Four deaths from lymphosarcoma occurred in adult animals, but only in the first 18 months of the investigation. Two of these animals had lymphocytosis and two lymphoblastic leukaemia. The calf of one of the latter cows developed lymphoblastic leukaemia and lymphosarcoma by the time it was 6 months of age. Although histological evidence of lymphosarcoma was lacking in a number of clinically normal animals with lymphocytosis, haematological investigation identified a group of animals within the herd that may develop lymphosarcoma. PMID:293162

  12. The view from above: The potential of aerial surveillance in identifying CWD infected herds.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Introduction. Large mammals such as domestic cattle and red deer have been reported to align themselves with the magnetic North Pole. Since chronic wasting disease (CWD) affects the behavior of infected cervids, it may be possible to estimate the infection rate, at a herd level, by det...

  13. Membrane of Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoplates with Angstrom-Level Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byeongho; Li, Kunzhou; Yoon, Hong Sik; Yoon, Jeyong; Mok, Yeongbong; Lee, Yan; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Membranes with atomic level pores or constrictions are valuable for separation and catalysis. We report a graphene-based membrane with an interlayer spacing of 3.7 angstrom (Å). When graphene oxide nanoplates are functionalized and then reduced, the laminated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates or functionalized rGO membrane is little affected by an intercalated fluid, and the interlayer spacing of 3.7 Å increases only to 4.4 Å in wetted state, in contrast to the graphene oxide (GO) membrane whose interlayer spacing increases from 9 Å to 13 Å in wetted state. When applied to ion separation, this membrane reduced the permeation rate of small ions such as K+ and Na+ by three orders of magnitude compared to the GO membrane. PMID:27306853

  14. Membrane of Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoplates with Angstrom-Level Channels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeongho; Li, Kunzhou; Yoon, Hong Sik; Yoon, Jeyong; Mok, Yeongbong; Lee, Yan; Lee, Hong H; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-01-01

    Membranes with atomic level pores or constrictions are valuable for separation and catalysis. We report a graphene-based membrane with an interlayer spacing of 3.7 angstrom (Å). When graphene oxide nanoplates are functionalized and then reduced, the laminated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates or functionalized rGO membrane is little affected by an intercalated fluid, and the interlayer spacing of 3.7 Å increases only to 4.4 Å in wetted state, in contrast to the graphene oxide (GO) membrane whose interlayer spacing increases from 9 Å to 13 Å in wetted state. When applied to ion separation, this membrane reduced the permeation rate of small ions such as K(+) and Na(+) by three orders of magnitude compared to the GO membrane. PMID:27306853

  15. Membrane of Functionalized Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoplates with Angstrom-Level Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeongho; Li, Kunzhou; Yoon, Hong Sik; Yoon, Jeyong; Mok, Yeongbong; Lee, Yan; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2016-06-01

    Membranes with atomic level pores or constrictions are valuable for separation and catalysis. We report a graphene-based membrane with an interlayer spacing of 3.7 angstrom (Å). When graphene oxide nanoplates are functionalized and then reduced, the laminated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoplates or functionalized rGO membrane is little affected by an intercalated fluid, and the interlayer spacing of 3.7 Å increases only to 4.4 Å in wetted state, in contrast to the graphene oxide (GO) membrane whose interlayer spacing increases from 9 Å to 13 Å in wetted state. When applied to ion separation, this membrane reduced the permeation rate of small ions such as K+ and Na+ by three orders of magnitude compared to the GO membrane.

  16. A retrospective examination of in-home educational visits to reduce childhood lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, B. |; Pawel, D.; Murphy, A.

    1999-05-01

    A number of human health effects from lead are well known. However, the means for reducing lead exposure in children has been a subject of uncertainty. This paper presents results of a retrospective study of educational lead reduction interventions in Milwaukee, Wisconsin for children who had elevated blood lead levels between 20 and 24 {micro}g/dl. The study examined Milwaukee Health Department (MHD) records of baseline and follow-up blood lead measurements. A study group of children received an in-home educational visit by an MHD paraprofessional. The educational visits last about an hour and the importance of reducing lead exposure, nutritional suggestions, and dust clean-up practices and behavioral changes that can reduce lead exposure are discussed. After the intervention, the average observed blood lead level declined by 4.2 {micro}g/dl or by about 21%. A decline of 1.2 {micro}g/dl (6%) was also observed in a reference group of 226 children who did not receive an MHD in-home visit. The decline in the reference group may be partially due to education at the clinics taking the blood samples. The study group had a decline in blood lead levels 3.1 {micro}g/dl (15%) greater than the reference group, with the difference between groups being statistically significant with a P value of less than 0.001. Although significant exposures remained in most of the children studied, important lead reductions were observed with this relatively inexpensive and simple intervention. Education in the homes of families at risk for lead poisoning may be an effective component of programs to reduce blood lead levels.

  17. Low Level Laser Therapy Reduces the Development of Lung Inflammation Induced by Formaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Miranda da Silva, Cristiane; Peres Leal, Mayara; Brochetti, Robson Alexandre; Braga, Tárcio; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Saraiva Câmara, Niels Olsen; Damazo, Amílcar Sabino; Ligeiro-de-Oliveira, Ana Paula; Chavantes, Maria Cristina; Lino-dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Lung diseases constitute an important public health problem and its growing level of concern has led to efforts for the development of new therapies, particularly for the control of lung inflammation. Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been highlighted as a non-invasive therapy with few side effects, but its mechanisms need to be better understood and explored. Considering that pollution causes several harmful effects on human health, including lung inflammation, in this study, we have used formaldehyde (FA), an environmental and occupational pollutant, for the induction of neutrophilic lung inflammation. Our objective was to investigate the local and systemic effects of LLLT after FA exposure. Male Wistar rats were exposed to FA (1%) or vehicle (distillated water) during 3 consecutive days and treated or not with LLLT (1 and 5 hours after each FA exposure). Non-manipulated rats were used as control. 24 h after the last FA exposure, we analyzed the local and systemic effects of LLLT. The treatment with LLLT reduced the development of neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by FA, as observed by the reduced number of leukocytes, mast cells degranulated, and a decreased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. Moreover, LLLT also reduced the microvascular lung permeability in the parenchyma and the intrapulmonary bronchi. Alterations on the profile of inflammatory cytokines were evidenced by the reduced levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and the elevated levels of IL-10 in the lung. Together, our results showed that LLLT abolishes FA-induced neutrophilic lung inflammation by a reduction of the inflammatory cytokines and mast cell degranulation. This study may provide important information about the mechanisms of LLLT in lung inflammation induced by a pollutant. PMID:26569396

  18. Reducing Benzene and Cresol Levels in National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Pilot-Scale Biorefinergy Scrubber Water

    SciTech Connect

    Buzek, M.L.; Phillips, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory converts biomass into energy by gasification or pyrolysis. The aqueous effluent generated in these processes must be disposed of as hazardous waste according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act because certain components exceed the regulatory concentration limit. Gas stripping of the scrubber water was investigated as a method of reducing benzene and cresol levels. A custom-designed packed-bed column was built and a half-factorial experimental design was implemented to determine the effects of gas flow rate, liquid flow rate, and column packing height on the final benzene concentration in the liquid. The experimental results show that packing height had a significant effect on final benzene concentration; gas flow rate and liquid flow rate had little effect. The effects of each design variable on final cresol concentration were not determined. Although the current column design did significantly reduce the benzene and cresol levels in the scrubber water, it did not reduce the concentrations below the regulatory limits. A full-factorial experimental design will be implemented with an increased packing height. Other variables, including column diameter and packing type, will be investigated to determine their effects on final benzene and cresol concentrations. Once the packed-bed column is determined to be effective in reducing contaminant concentrations below the regulatory limit, photocatalytic oxidation will be explored for remediating the benzene and cresol from the gas stream.

  19. Hepcidin bound to α2-macroglobulin reduces ferroportin-1 expression and enhances its activity at reducing serum iron levels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Michael Li-Hsuan; Austin, Christopher J D; Sari, Marie-Agnès; Rahmanto, Yohan Suryo; Ponka, Prem; Vyoral, Daniel; Richardson, Des R

    2013-08-30

    Hepcidin regulates iron metabolism by down-regulating ferroportin-1 (Fpn1). We demonstrated that hepcidin is complexed to the blood transport protein, α2-macroglobulin (α2M) (Peslova, G., Petrak, J., Kuzelova, K., Hrdy, I., Halada, P., Kuchel, P. W., Soe-Lin, S., Ponka, P., Sutak, R., Becker, E., Huang, M. L., Suryo Rahmanto, Y., Richardson, D. R., and Vyoral, D. (2009) Blood 113, 6225-6236). However, nothing is known about the mechanism of hepcidin binding to α2M or the effects of the α2M·hepcidin complex in vivo. We show that decreased Fpn1 expression can be mediated by hepcidin bound to native α2M and also, for the first time, hepcidin bound to methylamine-activated α2M (α2M-MA). Passage of high molecular weight α2M·hepcidin or α2M-MA·hepcidin complexes (≈725 kDa) through a Sephadex G-25 size exclusion column retained their ability to decrease Fpn1 expression. Further studies using ultrafiltration indicated that hepcidin binding to α2M and α2M-MA was labile, resulting in some release from the protein, and this may explain its urinary excretion. To determine whether α2M-MA·hepcidin is delivered to cells via the α2M receptor (Lrp1), we assessed α2M uptake and Fpn1 expression in Lrp1(-/-) and Lrp1(+/+) cells. Interestingly, α2M·hepcidin or α2M-MA·hepcidin demonstrated similar activities at decreasing Fpn1 expression in Lrp1(-/-) and Lrp1(+/+) cells, indicating that Lrp1 is not essential for Fpn1 regulation. In vivo, hepcidin bound to α2M or α2M-MA did not affect plasma clearance of α2M/α2M-MA. However, serum iron levels were reduced to a significantly greater extent in mice treated with α2M·hepcidin or α2M-MA·hepcidin relative to unbound hepcidin. This effect could be mediated by the ability of α2M or α2M-MA to retard kidney filtration of bound hepcidin, increasing its half-life. A model is proposed that suggests that unlike proteases, which are irreversibly bound to activated α2M, hepcidin remains labile and available to down

  20. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  1. Tinnitus is associated with reduced sound level tolerance in adolescents with normal audiograms and otoacoustic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Tanit Ganz; Moraes, Fernanda; Casseb, Juliana; Cota, Jaci; Freire, Katya; Roberts, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroscience research suggests that tinnitus may reflect synaptic loss in the cochlea that does not express in the audiogram but leads to neural changes in auditory pathways that reduce sound level tolerance (SLT). Adolescents (N = 170) completed a questionnaire addressing their prior experience with tinnitus, potentially risky listening habits, and sensitivity to ordinary sounds, followed by psychoacoustic measurements in a sound booth. Among all adolescents 54.7% reported by questionnaire that they had previously experienced tinnitus, while 28.8% heard tinnitus in the booth. Psychoacoustic properties of tinnitus measured in the sound booth corresponded with those of chronic adult tinnitus sufferers. Neither hearing thresholds (≤15 dB HL to 16 kHz) nor otoacoustic emissions discriminated between adolescents reporting or not reporting tinnitus in the sound booth, but loudness discomfort levels (a psychoacoustic measure of SLT) did so, averaging 11.3 dB lower in adolescents experiencing tinnitus in the acoustic chamber. Although risky listening habits were near universal, the teenagers experiencing tinnitus and reduced SLT tended to be more protective of their hearing. Tinnitus and reduced SLT could be early indications of a vulnerability to hidden synaptic injury that is prevalent among adolescents and expressed following exposure to high level environmental sounds. PMID:27265722

  2. Reduced activity-dependent protein levels in a mouse model of the fragile X premutation.

    PubMed

    von Leden, Ramona E; Curley, Lindsey C; Greenberg, Gian D; Hunsaker, Michael R; Willemsen, Rob; Berman, Robert F

    2014-03-01

    Environmental enrichment results in increased levels of Fmrp in brain and increased dendritic complexity. The present experiment evaluated activity-dependent increases in Fmrp levels in the motor cortex in response to training on a skilled forelimb reaching task in the CGG KI mouse model of the fragile X premutation. Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels were quantified by Western blot in the contralateral motor cortex of mice following training to reach for sucrose pellets with a non-preferred paw and compared to levels in the ipsilateral motor cortex. After training, all mice showed increases in Fmrp, Arc, and c-Fos protein levels in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral hemisphere; however, the increase in CGG KI mice was less than wildtype mice. Increases in Fmrp and Arc proteins scaled with learning, whereas this relationship was not observed with the c-Fos levels. These data suggest the possibility that reduced levels of activity-dependent proteins associated with synaptic plasticity such as Fmrp and Arc may contribute to the neurocognitive phenotype reported in the CGG KI mice and the fragile X premutation. PMID:24462720

  3. Reduced striatal adenosine A2A receptor levels define a molecular subgroup in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Villar-Menéndez, Izaskun; Díaz-Sánchez, Sara; Blanch, Marta; Albasanz, José Luis; Pereira-Veiga, Thais; Monje, Alfonso; Planchat, Luis Maria; Ferrer, Isidre; Martín, Mairena; Barrachina, Marta

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a mental disorder of unknown origin. Some scientific evidence seems to indicate that SZ is not a single disease entity, since there are patient groups with clear symptomatic, course and biomarker differences. SZ is characterized by a hyperdopaminergic state related to high dopamine D2 receptor activity. It has also been proposed that there is a hypoadenosynergic state. Adenosine is a nucleoside widely distributed in the organism with neuromodulative and neuroprotective activity in the central nervous system. In the brain, the most abundant adenosine receptors are A1R and A2AR. In the present report, we characterize the presence of both receptors in human postmortem putamens of patients suffering SZ with real time TaqMan PCR, western blotting and radioligand binding assay. We show that A1R levels remain unchanged with respect to age-matched controls, whereas nearly fifty percent of patients have reduced A2AR, at the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, we describe how DNA methylation plays a role in the pathological A2AR levels with the bisulfite-sequencing technique. In fact, an increase in 5-methylcytosine percentage in the 5' UTR region of ADORA2A was found in those SZ patients with reduced A2AR levels. Interestingly, there was a relationship between the A2A/β-actin ratio and motor disturbances as assessed with some items of the PANSS, AIMS and SAS scales. Therefore, there may be a subgroup of SZ patients with reduced striatal A2AR levels accompanied by an altered motor phenotype. PMID:24433848

  4. High plasma levels of vitamin E forms and reduced Alzheimer's disease risk in advanced age.

    PubMed

    Mangialasche, Francesca; Kivipelto, Miia; Mecocci, Patrizia; Rizzuto, Debora; Palmer, Katie; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between plasma levels of eight forms of vitamin E and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among oldest-old individuals in a population-based setting. A dementia-free sample of 232 subjects aged 80+ years, derived from the Kungsholmen Project, was followed-up to 6 years to detect incident AD. Plasma levels of vitamin E (alpha-, beta-, gamma, and delta-tocopherol; alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienol) were measured at baseline. Vitamin E forms-AD association was analyzed with Cox proportional hazard model after adjustment for several potential confounders. Subjects with plasma levels of total tocopherols, total tocotrienols, or total vitamin E in the highest tertile had a reduced risk of developing AD in comparison to persons in the lowest tertile. Multi-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total tocopherols, 0.46 (0.23-0.92) for total tocotrienols, and 0.55 (0.32-0.94) for total vitamin E. When considering each vitamin E form, the risk of developing AD was reduced only in association with high plasma levels of beta-tocopherol (HR: 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99), whereas alpha-tocopherol, alpha- tocotrienol, and beta-tocotrienol showed only a marginally significant effect in the multiadjusted model [HR (95% CI): alpha-tocopherol: 0.72 (0.48-1.09); alpha-tocotrienol: 0.70 (0.44-1.11); beta-tocotrienol: 0.69 (0.45-1.06)]. In conclusion, high plasma levels of vitamin E are associated with a reduced risk of AD in advanced age. The neuroprotective effect of vitamin E seems to be related to the combination of different forms, rather than to alpha-tocopherol alone, whose efficacy in interventions against AD is currently debated. PMID:20413888

  5. QMix® irrigant reduces lipopolysacharide (LPS) levels in an in vitro model

    PubMed Central

    GRÜNDLING, Grasiela Longhi; de MELO, Tiago André Fontoura; MONTAGNER, Francisco; SCARPARO, Roberta Kochenborger; VIER-PELISSER, Fabiana Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endotoxin inside the root canal has been associated with periapical inflammation, bone resorption and symptomatic conditions. Objectives To determine, in vitro, the effect of QMix® and other three root canal irrigants in reducing the endotoxin content in root canals. Material and Methods Root canals of single-rooted teeth were prepared. Samples were detoxified with Co-60 irradiation and inoculated with E. coli LPS (24 h, at 37°C). After that period, samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the irrigation solution tested: QMix®, 17% EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX), and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). LPS quantification was determined by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. The initial counting of endotoxins for all samples, and the determination of LPS levels in non-contaminated teeth and in contaminated teeth exposed only to non-pyrogenic water, were used as controls. Results QMix® reduced LPS levels, with a median value of 1.11 endotoxins units (EU)/mL (p<0.001). NaOCl (25.50 EU/mL), chlorhexidine (44.10 EU/mL) and positive control group (26.80 EU/mL) samples had similar results. Higher levels were found with EDTA (176.00 EU/mL) when compared to positive control (p<0.001). There was no significant difference among EDTA, NaOCl and CHX groups. Negative control group (0.005 EU/mL) had statistically significant lower levels of endotoxins when compared to all test groups (p<0.001). Conclusion QMix® decreased LPS levels when compared to the other groups (p<0.001). 3% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 17% EDTA were not able to significantly reduce the root canal endotoxins load. PMID:26398517

  6. QMix® irrigant reduces lipopolysacharide (LPS) levels in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Gründling, Grasiela Longhi; Melo, Tiago André Fontoura de; Montagner, Francisco; Scarparo, Roberta Kochenborger; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endotoxin inside the root canal has been associated with periapical inflammation, bone resorption and symptomatic conditions.Objectives To determine, in vitro, the effect of QMix® and other three root canal irrigants in reducing the endotoxin content in root canals.Material and Methods Root canals of single-rooted teeth were prepared. Samples were detoxified with Co-60 irradiation and inoculated with E. coli LPS (24 h, at 37°C). After that period, samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the irrigation solution tested: QMix®, 17% EDTA, 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX), and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). LPS quantification was determined by Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. The initial counting of endotoxins for all samples, and the determination of LPS levels in non-contaminated teeth and in contaminated teeth exposed only to non-pyrogenic water, were used as controls.Results QMix® reduced LPS levels, with a median value of 1.11 endotoxins units (EU)/mL (p<0.001). NaOCl (25.50 EU/mL), chlorhexidine (44.10 EU/mL) and positive control group (26.80 EU/mL) samples had similar results. Higher levels were found with EDTA (176.00 EU/mL) when compared to positive control (p<0.001). There was no significant difference among EDTA, NaOCl and CHX groups. Negative control group (0.005 EU/mL) had statistically significant lower levels of endotoxins when compared to all test groups (p<0.001).Conclusion QMix® decreased LPS levels when compared to the other groups (p<0.001). 3% NaOCl, 2% CHX and 17% EDTA were not able to significantly reduce the root canal endotoxins load. PMID:26398517

  7. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    PubMed

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  8. Preventing and reducing violence against women: innovation in community-level studies.

    PubMed

    Taft, Angela; Small, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious global problem that damages the health and prosperity of individuals, their families, community, and society. WHO endorses an 'ecological model,' which states that there are multi-level intersecting factors enabling perpetration and victimization of violence. Intervention science to prevent or reduce the problem is in its infancy, and the few existing intervention studies have been targeted at the individual level. In a recent study published in BMC Medicine, Abramsky et al. bring innovation to the field, targeting their intervention trial "SASA!" in Kampala Uganda at all ecological levels, but particularly at the community level. Recruiting and training both male and female community leaders and activists who enabled group and media discussions, the authors focused on the beneficial and abusive detrimental uses of power rather than commencing with the central issue of gender inequality. SASA! successfully reduced community attitudes to tolerance of violence and inequality, men's sexual risk behaviors, and women's experience of physical violence. The study also improved the communities' response to victimized women. SASA! has promise for adaptation and replication in low, middle and high income countries. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/12/122. PMID:25286152

  9. APATHY AND APOE4 ARE ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCED BDNF LEVELS IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez, Antón; Aleixandre, Manuel; Linares, Carlos; Masliah, Eliezer; Moessler, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling is considered as a pathogenic event in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the influence of apathy and apolipoprotein E epsilon-4 allele (APOE4) on serum BDNF values was not previously investigated in AD. We evaluated serum BDNF levels in AD, amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and control subjects. Baseline BDNF levels were similar in AD, MCI and controls. AD patients having apathy showed lower BDNF values than patients without apathy (p<0.05). After correction for the influence of apathy, APOE4 carriers showed lower BDNF levels (p<0.01) and MMSE scores (p<0.01) than non-APOE4 carriers in the subgroup of AD females, but not in males. Significant (p<0.05) positive correlations between BDNF values and MMSE scores were only observed in subgroups of AD males and of AD patients without apathy. These results are showing the association of apathy and APOE4 with reduced serum BDNF levels in AD, and are suggesting that BDNF reductions might contribute to the worse cognitive performance exhibited by AD apathetic patients and female APOE4 carriers. PMID:25024337

  10. Helicopter far-field acoustic levels as a function of reduced rotor speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Arnold W.; Lemasurier, Philip; Smith, Charles D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will present far-field measured noise levels relative to tests conducted with a model S-76A helicopter. The project was designed to provide supplemental experimental flight data which may be used to further study reduced helicopter rotor speeds (and thus, advancing blade-tip Mach number) effects on far-field acoustic levels. The aircraft was flown in straight and level flight while operating with both the rotor speed and flight speed as test variables. The rotor speed was varied over the range of 107 percent of the main-rotor speed (NR) to 90 percent NR and with the forward flight speed varied over the range of 155 to 35 knots indicated air speed. These conditions produced a wide range of advancing blade-tip Mach numbers to which the noise data are related.