Hereditary sensory radicular neuropathy exhibits autosomal dominant inheritance with complete penetrance in males and incomplete penetrance in females. Newer tests of small sensory nerve function were used in screening 8 family members aged between 14 and 66 years. All exhibited some frequent features of the disorder with an onset in the 2nd or 3rd decade, foot ulceration, foot callus, loss of pin prick, thermal and light touch sensation, and some reduction in vibration acuity and proprioception in the lower limbs. The hands were involved in 3 of 8, muscle involvement was present in 5 of 8, but deafness was not detected by audiometry. Nerve conduction velocity, sensory action potentials, latency and amplitude, thermal acuity, vibration acuity and axon reflex flares were measured in all patients. One sural nerve biopsy confirmed the presence of peripheral fibre loss in this predominantly sensory neuropathy. Chemically evoked axon reflex tests were used to evaluate the extent of primary sensory nerve fibre involvement. All patients were tested using a Moor MBF 3-D dual channel laser Doppler velocimeter. Acetylcholine or phenylephrine iontophoretically applied as 16 mC doses evoked absent or tiny axon reflexes in areas of impaired pin prick sensation. By contrast, direct microvascular dilator responses to nitroprusside (smooth muscle dependent) and acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent) were present but somewhat reduced in areas with defective neurogenic inflammation. These results differ significantly from the responses obtained in age-matched healthy controls (P < 0.05). Foot pressure analysis was performed for orthoses in 2 affected members with foot ulceration using the Musgrave Footprint system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1343862
Westerman, R A; Block, A; Nunn, A; Delaney, C A; Hahn, A; Dennett, X; Carr, R W
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies have different phenotypes. We report 2 cousins with differing clinical courses of a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy. The progressive disease in case 1 is dominated by loss of sensation, autonomic crises, and pain. Case 2 shows loss of sensation, mental retardation, and deafness, clinically similar to patients with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II. Detailed molecular studies in case 1 for all known genes that are associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies were negative. However, the occurrence of the 2 cases within 1 kindred makes a common genetic background likely. We, therefore, propose a Turkish variant of familial dysautonomia in these 2 patients. PMID:22140130
Koy, Anne; Freynhagen, Rainer; Mayatepek, Ertan; Tibussek, Daniel
... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... cell ; congenital ; gene ; growth factor ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...
Videler AJ, Beelen A, Aufdemkampe G, de Groot IJ, Van Leemputte M. Hand strength and fatigue in patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (types I and II). Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1274-8. Objectives: To compare maximal isometric hand strength and fatigue between subjects with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) and healthy controls and to test the reproducibility of
Annemieke J. Videler; Anita Beelen; Geert Aufdemkampe; Imelda J. de Groot; Marc Van Leemputte
Thirty-nine patients from six families with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I and control subjects were included in this study. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was derived from a neurological examination and compared with neurophysiological test findings. Further, sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCV) were compared with the motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV). Five patients whom peaks of N11\\/N13 complex
M. Aramideh; J. E. Hoogendijk; C. M. Aalfs; F. E. Posthumus Meyjes; M. Visser; B. W. Ongerboer De Visser
Conduction of the central motor pathways (CMCT) by magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (TMS) was performed in 17 patients with hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (HMSN) and 2 siblings with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). CMCT was prolonged in two patients with HMSN I with associated pyramidal features and in two subjects with HMSN II without clinical pyramidal signs. CMCT may be abnormal in HMSN due to central motor pathways involvement or altered spinal excitability with increased synaptic delay. CMCT was normal in the upper limbs in patients with HSP but increased in the legs. Diagnostic yield of TMS increased in less disabled cases with HSP when selective conduction at the spinal level (C7-S1) was calculated. Abnormal spinal conduction in HSP is consistent with degeneration of the crossed corticospinal tracts at the thoracic level found in neuropathologic observations. PMID:10499202
Cruz Martínez, A; Tejada, J
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant ("SPTLC1"…
Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent
Hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV is a rare disorder with an autosomal recessive transmission and characterized by self-mutilation due to a lack in pain and heat sensation. Recurrent hyperpyrexia and anhydrosis are seen in patients as a result of a lack of sweat gland innervation. Self-mutilation and insensitivity to pain result in orthopedic complications and patients undergone recurrent surgical interventions with anesthesia. However, these patients are prone to perioperative complications such as hyperthermia, hypothermia, and cardiac complications like bradycardia and hypotension. We report a 5-year-old boy with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type IV, developing hyperpyrexia and cardiac arrest after anesthesia.
Ergul, Yakup; Ekici, Baris; Keskin, Sabiha
Autosomal dominant inheritance of a syndrome comprising palmoplantar keratoderma, nail dystrophy, and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) was observed in three generations of one family. Nail dystrophy affected the toe and fingernails; it was present at birth or developed during early childhood. Palmoplantar keratoderma became apparent in later childhood. Each subject with nail dystrophy and keratoderma also had clinical or electrophysiological evidence of axonal neuropathy. Images
Tolmie, J L; Wilcox, D E; McWilliam, R; Assindi, A; Stephenson, J B
We describe a form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) affecting four siblings in an Italian family of Gypsy ethnic origin with both clinical and pathological findings very reminiscent of the HMSN Lom type (HMSNL), recently described in a group of Bulgarian Gypsies. Genetic analysis demonstrated linkage to chromosome 8q24 and conserved haplotypes in the HMSNL region, thus confirming
L Merlini; M Villanova; P Sabatelli; A Trogu; A Malandrini; P Yanakiev; N. M Maraldi; L Kalaydjieva
The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are genetic disorders characterized by the loss of sensation including pain, tactile and temperature. Its clinical and molecular features vary widely; the symptoms may begin from birth or be noticed in the first or second decade, with different types of complications of trauma to the extremities such as ulcers, mutilations and acral amputations. They are classified into six groups from I to VI, determined by the abnormality in eleven genes leading to phenotypic variations in the age of onset and the presence or absence of dysautonomia signs. With the exception of type I, all are autosomal recessive. The type II of these neuropathies is characterized by insensitivity to pain, heat and proprioception. We describe three members of a Mexican family with WNK1 gene mutation that caused hereditary neuropathy IIA. PMID:23831200
Esmer, C; Díaz Zambrano, S; Santos Díaz, M A; González Huerta, L M; Cuevas Covarrubias, S A; Bravo Oro, A
A 6-year-old boy with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), congenital cataract and mental retardation was reported. The condition commenced with distal weakness and wasting of lower limbs. Subsequently marked right pes cavus and equinovarus deformity appeared. Motor and sensory conduction velocities in the limbs were slowed. Pathological examination of biopsied sural nerve showed significant loss of large myelinated fibers. Neither demyelination nor onion bulbs were observed. For clinical and neuropathological findings, the present case did not fit in with previously reported cases of HMSN. The case was classified as a new variant of HMSN type II. PMID:7612292
Matsui, M; Shimoizumi, H; Kobayashi, S
In 2002, Spring et al reported a family with an autosomal dominant form of hereditary sensory neuropathy; patients also presented adult onset of gastroesophageal reflux and cough. Since then, no further families have been described. Objective: To study a new Portuguese family with these characteristics. Method: To describe the clinical and neurophysiologic characteristics of one family with features of sensory neuropathy associated with cough and gastroesophageal erflux. Results: Three of five siblings presented a similar history of paroxysmal cough (5th decade). About a decade later they experienced numbness and paraesthesia in the feets and in all cases there was evidence of an axonal sensory neuropathy. A history of gastroesophageal reflux of variable severity and age of onset was also present. Discussion: Molecular genetic studies have demonstrated genetic heterogeneity between the hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 subtypes. The identification of these families is of major importance because further work is required to identify the underlying genetic defect. PMID:24760089
Barros, Pedro; Morais, Hugo; Santos, Catarina; Roriz, José; Coutinho, Paula
Summary A previously unrecognized neuropathy was identified in Bulgarian gypsies, and was designated hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL) after the town where the initial cases were found. It was subsequently identified in other gypsy communities. The disorder, which is of autosomal recessive inheritance, was mapped to chromosome 8q24. It begins consistently in the first decade of life with gait
Luba Kalaydjieva; Amelia Nikolova; Ivo Turnev; Julia Petrova; Anna Hristova; Boryana Ishpekova; Iva Petkova; Alexander Shmarov; Stella Stancheva; L. Middleton; Luciano Merlini; A. Trogu; J. R. Muddle; R. H. M. King; P. K. Thomas
Recently point mutations in the SPTLC1 subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase have been shown to cause the common form of dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN1). Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) is a heterodimeric molecule made up of two subunits, SPTLC1 and SPTLC2. Twelve index patients from families with presumed genetic sensory neuropathies were screened for SPTLC2 mutations. These families comprised six multigenerational families,
Jennifer L Dawkins; Sonal Brahmbhatt; Michaela Auer-Grumbach; Klaus Wagner; Hans-Peter Hartung; Kristien Verhoeven; Vincent Timmerman; Peter De Jonghe; Marina Kennerson; Eric LeGuern; Garth A Nicholson
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant (SPTLC1 and RAB7) and five genes for autosomal recessive forms of HSAN (WNK1/HSN2, NTRK1, NGFB, CCT5 and IKBKAP). We performed a systematic mutation screening of the coding sequences of six of these genes on a cohort of 100 familial and isolated patients diagnosed with HSAN. In addition, we screened the functional candidate gene NGFR (p75/NTR) encoding the nerve growth factor receptor. We identified disease-causing mutations in SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2 and NTRK1 in 19 patients, of which three mutations have not previously been reported. The phenotypes associated with mutations in NTRK1 and WNK1/HSN2 typically consisted of congenital insensitivity to pain and anhidrosis, and early-onset ulcero-mutilating sensory neuropathy, respectively. RAB7 mutations were only found in patients with a Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) phenotype, an axonal sensory-motor neuropathy with pronounced ulcero-mutilations. In SPTLC1, we detected a novel mutation (S331F) corresponding to a previously unknown severe and early-onset HSAN phenotype. No mutations were found in NGFB, CCT5 and NGFR. Overall disease-associated mutations were found in 19% of the studied patient group, suggesting that additional genes are associated with HSAN. Our genotype–phenotype correlation study broadens the spectrum of HSAN and provides additional insights for molecular and clinical diagnosis.
Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; Vriendt, Els De; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter
Summary Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) or hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN-IV) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent episodic fevers, anhidrosis (inability to sweat), absence of reaction to noxious (or painful) stimuli, self-mutilating behavior and mental retardation. The anomalous pain and temperature sensation and anhidrosis in CIPA are due to the absence of
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V (HSAN V) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the loss of deep pain perception. The anomalous pain and temperature sensations are due to the absence of nociceptive sensory innervation. The neurotrophin nerve growth factor (NGF), by binding to tropomyosin receptor A (TrkA) and p75NTR receptors, is essential for the development and survival of sensory neurons, and for pain perception during adulthood. Recently a homozygous missense mutation (R100W) in the NGF gene has been identified in HSAN V patients. Interestingly, alterations in NGF signalling, due to mutations in the NGF TRKA gene, have also been involved in another congenital insensitivity to pain, HSAN IV, characterized not only by absence of reaction to painful stimuli, but also anhidrosis and mental retardation. These symptoms are absent in HSAN V patients. Unravelling the mechanisms that underlie the differences between HSAN IV and V could assist in better understanding NGF biology. This review highlights the recent key findings in the understanding of HSAN V, including insights into the molecular mechanisms of the disease, derived from genetic studies of patients with this disorder. PMID:24494679
The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, also known as the hereditary sensory neuropathies) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, characterised by a progressive sensory neuropathy often complicated by ulcers and amputations, with variable motor and autonomic involvement. To date, mutations in twelve genes have been identified as causing HSAN. To study the frequency of mutations in these genes and the associated phenotypes, we screened 140 index patients in our inherited neuropathy cohort with a clinical diagnosis of HSAN for mutations in the coding regions of SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2, FAM134B, NTRK1 (TRKA) and NGFB. We identified 25 index patients with mutations in six genes associated with HSAN (SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2, FAM134B, NTRK1 and NGFB); 20 of which appear to be pathogenic giving an overall mutation frequency of 14.3%. Mutations in the known genes for HSAN are rare suggesting that further HSAN genes are yet to be identified. The p.Cys133Trp mutation in SPTLC1 is the most common cause of HSAN in the UK population and should be screened first in all patients with sporadic or autosomal dominant HSAN. PMID:22302274
Davidson, G L; Murphy, S M; Polke, J M; Laura, M; Salih, M A M; Muntoni, F; Blake, J; Brandner, S; Davies, N; Horvath, R; Price, S; Donaghy, M; Roberts, M; Foulds, N; Ramdharry, G; Soler, D; Lunn, M P; Manji, H; Davis, M B; Houlden, H; Reilly, M M
Turkish twin brothers affected with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) are reported. Their clinical findings were generally typical for HSAN IV. Interestingly they both had preserved periodontal sensation. Mutation analysis of the NTRK1 gene showed a homozygous c.2001C>T substitution in exon 15 in both twins. This base substitution is predicted to change a polar, positively charged amino acid arginine to the highly active amino acid cystein at position 654 (p.Arg654Cys). The parents were heterozygous for the mutation. This mutation has been reported previously in one Japanese and one Arab patients. The preserved periodontal sensation has not previously been reported in patients affected with HSAN IV. This preserved sensation in our patients might have been through Ruffini endings, the periodontal mechanoreceptors which have been reported to be present in TrkA knockout mice. Here we report the first twins affected with HSAN IV and the observation that periodontal sensation is not affected by mutation in NTRK1. PMID:24631696
Guven, Yeliz; Altunoglu, Umut; Aktoren, Oya; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Kayserili, Hulya; Kaewkahya, Massupa; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III, Riley–Day syndrome, Familial Dysautomia) is characterised by elevated thermal thresholds and an indifference to pain. Using microelectrode recordings we recently showed that these patients possess no functional stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in their muscles (muscle spindles), a feature that may explain their lack of stretch reflexes and ataxic gait, yet patients have apparently normal low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The density of C-fibres in the skin is markedly reduced in patients with HSAN III, but it is not known whether the C-tactile afferents, a distinct type of low-threshold C fibre present in hairy skin that is sensitive to gentle stroking and has been implicated in the coding of pleasant touch are specifically affected in HSAN III patients. We addressed the relationship between C-tactile afferent function and pleasant touch perception in 15 patients with HSAN III and 15 age-matched control subjects. A soft make-up brush was used to apply stroking stimuli to the forearm and lateral aspect of the leg at five velocities: 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 cm/s. As demonstrated previously, the control subjects rated the slowest and highest velocities as less pleasant than those applied at 1–10 cm/s, which fits with the optimal velocities for exciting C-tactile afferents. Conversely, for the patients, ratings of pleasantness did not fit the profile for C-tactile afferents. Patients either rated the higher velocities as more pleasant than the slow velocities, with the slowest velocities being rated unpleasant, or rated all velocities equally pleasant. We interpret this to reflect absent or reduced C-tactile afferent density in the skin of patients with HSAN III, who are likely using tactile cues (i.e. myelinated afferents) to rate pleasantness of stroking or are attributing pleasantness to this type of stimulus irrespective of velocity.
Macefield, Vaughan G.; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Loken, Line; Axelrod, Felicia B.; Kaufmann, Horacio
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III, Riley-Day syndrome, Familial Dysautomia) is characterised by elevated thermal thresholds and an indifference to pain. Using microelectrode recordings we recently showed that these patients possess no functional stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in their muscles (muscle spindles), a feature that may explain their lack of stretch reflexes and ataxic gait, yet patients have apparently normal low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The density of C-fibres in the skin is markedly reduced in patients with HSAN III, but it is not known whether the C-tactile afferents, a distinct type of low-threshold C fibre present in hairy skin that is sensitive to gentle stroking and has been implicated in the coding of pleasant touch are specifically affected in HSAN III patients. We addressed the relationship between C-tactile afferent function and pleasant touch perception in 15 patients with HSAN III and 15 age-matched control subjects. A soft make-up brush was used to apply stroking stimuli to the forearm and lateral aspect of the leg at five velocities: 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30cm/s. As demonstrated previously, the control subjects rated the slowest and highest velocities as less pleasant than those applied at 1-10cm/s, which fits with the optimal velocities for exciting C-tactile afferents. Conversely, for the patients, ratings of pleasantness did not fit the profile for C-tactile afferents. Patients either rated the higher velocities as more pleasant than the slow velocities, with the slowest velocities being rated unpleasant, or rated all velocities equally pleasant. We interpret this to reflect absent or reduced C-tactile afferent density in the skin of patients with HSAN III, who are likely using tactile cues (i.e. myelinated afferents) to rate pleasantness of stroking or are attributing pleasantness to this type of stimulus irrespective of velocity. PMID:24726998
Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Löken, Line; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio
We present the case of an adult patient with growth hormone (GH) insufficiency and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1. Stopping GH replacement at the attainment of final height was associated with a marked reduction in power and mobility, resulting in the patient becoming wheelchair bound. GH replacement was assessed in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. During the GH replacement
Catherine A. Lissett; Andrew A. Toogood; Mohammed Didi; Stephen M. Shalet
We present expression of Po protein and Po mRNA on the sural nerve of a patient with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type III. This patient was identified with a point mutation in Po gene, which resulted in the substitution of glycine for arginine in transmembrane domain of P0 protein. An electron microscopic examination revealed very thin myelinated fibers surrounded by multilamellated onion bulbs composed with greatly proliferated Schwann cells. An immunocytochemical and immunoblot analysis is showed P0 protein normally expressed in myelin on the sural nerve. By in situ hybridization, mRNA of P0 protein was detected at normal levels in Schwann cell cytoplasm. Those observations indicated that there was no truncated myelin P0 protein in peripheral nerve of this patient. PMID:7523605
Tachi, N; Kasai, K; Chiba, S; Naganuma, M; Uyemura, K; Hayasaka, K
Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease characterized by subacute severe visual loss in both eyes, which usually manifests in young adulthood. The disease has maternal inheritance due to mitochondrial DNA mutation. The final diagnosis is genetic. There is still no proven treatment, but there is significant progress in developments on the genetics of the disease to reach gene therapy. In this article we review the latest literature relevant to this disease. PMID:24167936
Hilo, Wasseem; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen; Modi, Naftali; Briscoe, Daniel
Clinical findings: Onset was in early childhood with gait difficulty related to progressive lower limb weakness. Upper limb weakness developed later. Bulbar involvement was present in one third of the patients, and deafness appeared during the second or third decades. Electrophysiological findings: Electromyographic evidence of denervation was progressive, more severe distally, and greater in the legs, being total in distal lower limb muscles in most patients. Sensory action potentials were absent and motor nerve conduction was severely slowed. This included proximal upper limb (musculocutaneous and axillary), hypoglossal, and facial nerves. The severity of slowing increased during childhood. M waves, often multiple, were recorded in all affected individuals. The blink reflex showed an unusual three component response. The latencies of all three components were prolonged. Conclusions: HMSN-L is shown to be a demyelinating neuropathy involving severe and early axonal loss. The progressive slowing of nerve conduction during childhood differs from the static reduction seen in type I HMSN.
Ishpekova, B; Christova, L; Alexandrov, A; Thomas, P
The segregation patterns of DNA markers from the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes 1 and 17 were studied in seven pedigrees segregating an autosomal dominant gene for Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type I (CMT I; hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy I). A multilocus analysis with four markers (pMCR-3, pMUC10, FY, and pMLAJ1) spanning the pericentromeric region of chromosome 1 excluded the CMT I gene from this region in six pedigrees but gave some evidence for linkage to the region of Duffy in one pedigree. Linkage of the CMT I gene to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17 (markers pA10-41, pEW301, p3.6, and pTH17.19) was established; however, in these seven pedigrees homogeneity analysis with chromosome 17 markers detected significant genetic heterogeneity. This analysis suggested that three of the seven pedigrees are not linked to this same region. Overall, two of the seven CMT I pedigrees were not linked to markers tested from chromosomes 1 or 17. These results confirm genetic heterogeneity in CMT I and implicate the existence of a third autosomal locus, in addition to a locus on chromosome 17, and a probable locus on chromosome 1. This evidence of etiological heterogeneity, supported by statistical tests, will have to be taken into consideration when fine-structure genetic maps of the regions around CMT I are constructed.
Chance, P F; Bird, T D; O'Connell, P; Lipe, H; Lalouel, J M; Leppert, M
The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunction of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III, known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, was first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include dental trauma; dental and soft tissue self-mutilation; normal dental age; normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth; smaller tooth size; different and disproportional tooth components; normal alveolar bone height; small jaws, mild crowding, and malocclusions. These persons have craniofacial morphology that is different from accepted norms but they resemble norms of their ethnic origin. The subjects can have gray, pale, shiny faces with an asymmetric suffering expression; frontal bossing, with eventual hypertelorism and narrow lips; a low-caries rate; drooling, and hypersalivation. They can have changes in salivary composition and content, which influences plaque and calculus and increases the risk of gingival and periodontal diseases. They also have difficulty in controlling oral muscles; a progressive decrease in number of tongue fungiform papillae, accompanied by lack of taste buds; and specific dysgeusia, but a normal sense of smell. PMID:22229594
The oro-dento-facial features and dysfunction of children with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type Ill, known as familial dysautonomia or Riley-Day syndrome, was first described in the scientific literature in 1949. They include dental trauma; dental and soft tissue self-mutilation; normal dental age; normal sequence and timing of eruption and exfoliation of teeth; smaller tooth size; different and disproportional tooth components; normal alveolar bone height; small jaws, mild crowding, and malocclusions. These persons have craniofacial morphology that is different from accepted norms but they resemble norms of their ethnic origin. The subjects can have gray, pale, shiny faces with an asymmetric suffering expression; frontal bossing, with eventual hypertelorism and narrow lips; a low caries rate; drooling, and hypersalivation. They can have changes in salivary composition and content, which influences plaque and calculus and increases the risk of gingival and periodontal diseases. They also have difficulty in controlling oral muscles; a progressive decrease in number of tongue fungiform papillae, accompanied by lack of taste buds; and specific dysgeusia, but a normal sense of smell. PMID:23697298
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare disease primarily affecting the retinal ganglion cells. In most cases patients with LHON develop permanent visual loss with a large central scotoma in the visual field of both eyes. The optic disc becomes partially or completely pale. At the onset of the disease many patients are considered to suffer from an optic neuritis and are treated under the diagnostic and therapeutic regimen of optic neuritis. LHON is mostly only considered when high dose cortisone therapy fails to be effective or the second eye is affected. Thereafter, molecular genetic analysis will prove LHON in these cases. Detailed anamnesis including pedigree analysis in combination with observance of the peripapillary microangiopathic alterations at the fundus will help to speed up the diagnosis of LHON, but even after exact clinical and molecular genetic diagnosis of LHON some aspects of the disease still remain a mystery today. PMID:22130685
Leo-Kottler, B; Wissinger, B
A newly identified lethal form of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN), designated HSAN-VI, is caused by a homozygous mutation in the bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1)/dystonin gene (DST). The HSAN-VI mutation impacts all major neuronal BPAG1/dystonin protein isoforms: dystonin-a1, -a2 and -a3. Homozygous mutations in the murine Dst gene cause a severe sensory neuropathy termed dystonia musculorum (dt). Phenotypically, dt mice are similar to HSAN-VI patients, manifesting progressive limb contractures, dystonia, dysautonomia and early postnatal death. To obtain a better molecular understanding of disease pathogenesis in HSAN-VI patients and the dt disorder, we generated transgenic mice expressing a myc-tagged dystonin-a2 protein under the regulation of the neuronal prion protein promoter on the dt(Tg4/Tg4) background, which is devoid of endogenous dystonin-a1 and -a2, but does express dystonin-a3. Restoring dystonin-a2 expression in the nervous system, particularly within sensory neurons, prevented the disorganization of organelle membranes and microtubule networks, attenuated the degeneration of sensory neuron subtypes and ameliorated the phenotype and increased life span in these mice. Despite these improvements, complete rescue was not observed likely because of inadequate expression of the transgene. Taken together, this study provides needed insight into the molecular basis of the dt disorder and other peripheral neuropathies including HSAN-VI. PMID:24381311
Ferrier, Andrew; Sato, Tadasu; De Repentigny, Yves; Gibeault, Sabrina; Bhanot, Kunal; O'Meara, Ryan W; Lynch-Godrei, Anisha; Kornfeld, Samantha F; Young, Kevin G; Kothary, Rashmi
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1) causes sensory loss that predominantly affects the lower limbs, often preceded by hyperpathia and spontaneous shooting or lancinating pain. It is caused by several missense mutations in the genes encoding 2 of the 3 subunits of the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The mutant forms of the enzyme show a shift from their canonical substrate L-serine to the alternative substrate L-alanine. This shift leads to increased formation of neurotoxic deoxysphingolipids (dSLs). Our initial analysis showed that in HEK cells transfected with SPTLC1 mutants, dSL generation was modulated in vitro in the presence of various amino acids. We therefore examined whether in vivo specific amino acid substrate supplementation influenced dSL levels and disease severity in HSAN1. In mice bearing a transgene expressing the C133W SPTLC1 mutant linked to HSAN1, a 10% L-serine–enriched diet reduced dSL levels. L-serine supplementation also improved measures of motor and sensory performance as well as measures of male fertility. In contrast, a 10% L-alanine–enriched diet increased dSL levels and led to severe peripheral neuropathy. In a pilot study with 14 HSAN1 patients, L-serine supplementation similarly reduced dSL levels. These observations support the hypothesis that an altered substrate selectivity of the mutant SPT is key to the pathophysiology of HSAN1 and raise the prospect of l-serine supplementation as a first treatment option for this disorder. PMID:22045570
Garofalo, Kevin; Penno, Anke; Schmidt, Brian P; Lee, Ho-Joon; Frosch, Matthew P; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Brown, Robert H; Hornemann, Thorsten; Eichler, Florian S
The axonal type of Charcot?Marie?Tooth (CMT) disorders is genetically heterogeneous, therefore the causal mutation is unlikely to be observed, even in clinically well characterized patients. Mitofusin?2 (MFN2) gene mutations are the most frequent cause of axonal CMT disorders in a number of populations. There are two phenotypes; early onset, which is severe and late onset, which is a milder phenotype. A cohort of 139 unrelated Czech patients with axonal neuropathy was selected for sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis (MLPA) testing of the MFN2 gene. A total of 11 MFN2 mutations were detected, with eight pathogenic mutations and three potentially rare benign polymorphisms. MLPA testing in 64 unrelated patients did not detect any exon duplication or deletion. The frequency of the pathogenic mutations detected in Czech hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type II (HMSN II) patients was 7.2%. Early onset was more frequent among pathogenic mutation cases. Therefore we propose to examine the MFN2 gene mainly in patients with early and severe axonal CMT. PMID:24126688
Brožková, Dana Šafka; Posádka, Jan; Laššuthová, Petra; Mazanec, Radim; Haberlová, Jana; Sišková, Dana; Sakmaryová, Iva; Neupauerová, Jana; Seeman, Pavel
Introduction Fractures of the lower extremity are a common type of childhood injury and many can be treated without surgery. Dislocated and open fractures are an indication for fracture stabilization via either intramedullary nailing or, in the case of complicated fractures, external fixation. But if complications are likely because of diseases and disabilities (for example, a neuropathy) that can complicate the post-operative procedure and rehabilitation, what options does one have? Case presentation We report a nine-year-old Caucasian girl who had hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I and who was admitted with a grade I open tibia fracture after a fall from a small height. Plain radiographs showed a dislocated tibia and fibula fracture. An open reduction with internal fixation with a compression plate osteosynthesis was performed, and soft tissue debridement combined with an external fixateur was undertaken. Three months later, she was re-admitted with localized swelling and signs of a local soft tissue infection in the middle of her tibia. Plain radiographs showed a non-union of the tibia fracture, and microbiological analysis confirmed a wound infection with cefuroxime-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Because of the non-union, the osteosynthesis was replaced with an Ilizarov external fixateur, and appropriate antibiotic therapy was initiated. Four months after the initial accident, the fracture was consolidated and we removed the external fixateur. Conclusions If there is a pre-existing neuropathy and if disease makes it difficult for a child to follow all post-operative instructions, salvage procedures should be kept in mind in case of complications. There are multiple therapeutic options, including osteosynthesis, intramedullary nailing systems, cast therapy, or an external fixateur like the Ilizarov or Taylor spatial frame system. The initial use of an external fixateur such as an Ilizarov or Taylor spatial frame in patients with pre-existing neuropathies should be kept in mind as a possible treatment option in complicated fractures, especially in a child with pre-existing neurological or endocrine pathologies.
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about ...
The proband was a 22-year-old man with a complaint of progressive weakness in his lower limbs. His clinical diagnosis of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) type 1 was made based on the neurological findings and the results of peripheral nerve conduction studies and of histological studies of the sural nerve obtained on biopsy. The molecular genetic studies revealed arginine-to-histidine substitution at amino acid 98 of the Po protein in the proband. Therefore, the final diagnosis of HMSN type 1B was made. The same mutation was found in his mother and his two sisters. The neurological disability score of the proband was 69. It was 24 for his affected mother. The scores were 16 and 20 for the two affected sisters. The reason why the proband showed the highest score was considered to be the presence of the marked muscle weakness in the lower limbs found only in the proband. Therefore, it was concluded that the neurological disability score differs greatly among the affected members even with the same genetic abnormality in the same generation of the same family with HMSN type 1B. The affected family member with a low neurological disability score may be clinically undiagnosed. PMID:10434362
Ohnishi, A; Yamamoto, T; Kikuchi, K
The article presents a review of literature on hereditary optic neuropathies: Leber mitochondrial hereditary optic neuropathy, autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive optic neuropathies, X-linked optic atrophy. Clinical and molecular genetic characteristics are covered. Isolated optic neuropathies, as well as hereditary optic disorders, being a part of a complex syndromic disease are described. PMID:24624809
Khanakova, N A; Sheremet, N L; Loginova, A N; Chukhrova, A L; Poliakov, A V
Background Mutations of myelin protein zero (MPZ) may cause inherited neuropathy with variable expression. Objective To report phenotypic variability in a large American kindred with MPZ mutation His39Pro. Patients Genetic testing was performed on 77 family members and 200 controls. Clinical and electrophysiological field study assessments were available for review in 47 family members. Results His39Pro was found in all 10 individuals prospectively identified with neuropathy. 200 normal controls were without mutation. Symptoms of neuropathy began in adulthood and were slowly progressive except for one acute-onset painful sensory neuropathy. Associated features included premature hearing loss (n ?=? 7), nocturnal restless leg symptoms (n = 8) and multiple sclerosis in one. Conclusions MPZ mutation His39Pro may be associated with acute-onset neuropathy, early?onset hearing loss and restless legs. The relationship with multiple sclerosis in the proband remains uncertain.
Kilfoyle, D H; Dyck, P J; Wu, Y; Litchy, W J; Klein, D M; Dyck, P J B; Kumar, N; Cunningham, J M; Klein, C J
In 3 young male patients, aged 10, 19 and 21 years respectively, sequential, severe, painless bilateral visual loss occurred. Ophthalmological examination revealed no other abnormalities and this delayed the diagnosis Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). LHON is a mitochondrial genetic disease characterised by bilateral acute or subacute painless loss of central vision. LHON causes blindness, predominantly in young adult males
J. H. Schieving; L. B. A. de Vries; F. A. Hol; H. Stroink
This article addresses the proximal sensory neuropathies of the leg, concentrating on those nerves that are purely sensory or have a predominately sensory onset. These include the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, the ilioinguinal nerve, the genitofemoral nerve, and the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve. The obturator and femoral nerves are also summarily mentioned with respect to their sensory symptoms. PMID:10393758
Reid, V; Cros, D
Idiopathic trigeminal sensory neuropathy is a rare clinical condition characterized by sensory disturbances on the face. Its symptoms may be permanent or temporary and a wide variety of diagnostic procedures is usually required to establish the diagnosis. Frequently, it is the first manifestation of a systemic disorder. In the majority of cases causal treatment is not possible, even though patients with trigeminal sensory neuropathy should be carefully monitored by physicians. PMID:24166572
Szczudlik, P; Kierdaszuk, B; Bako?, L; Maj, E; Kami?ska, A
OBJECTIVES—Poisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after repeated unquantified exposures to chlorpyrifos, which did not cause clear-cut cholinergic toxicity. The objective was to assess whether an exclusively sensory neuropathy develops in patients severely poisoned by various OPs.?METHODS—Toxicological studies and electrophysiological measurements were performed in peripheral motor and sensory nerves in 11 patients after acute organophosphate poisoning among which two subjects were poisoned with chlorpyrifos.?RESULTS—Three patients developed OPIDP, including one poisoned by chlorpyrifos. Exclusively sensory neuropathy was never seen after either single or repeated acute organophosphate poisoning. A mild sensory component was associated with a severe motor component in two of the three cases of OPIDP, the other was an exclusively motor polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSION—A sensory-motor polyneuropathy caused by organophosphate insecticides might occur after a severe poisoning and the sensory component, if present, is milder than the motor one. Bearing in mind the toxicological characteristics of these organophosphate insecticides, other causes should be sought for sensory peripheral neuropathies in patients who did not display severe cholinergic toxicity a few weeks before the onset of symptoms and signs.??
Moretto, A.; Lotti, M.
Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm3, with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm3. The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population.
Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T.
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON; MIM 535000) is one of the most common mitochondrial diseases, with a clinical manifestation of painless, acute or sub-acute bilateral visual loss in young adults leading to blindness and central scotoma. Over 95% of LHON patients were caused by one of three primary mtDNA mutations (m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C). Incomplete penetrance and gender bias are two riddles of this disease. Here we summarized recent research progress of LHON, with a focus on the molecular pathogenic mechanisms, clinical features, in vitro experiments and animal models, and prevention and treatment of LHON. In particular, we presented the main findings and challenges in our recent efforts to decipher genetic susceptibility and mechanism of LHON in Chinese patients. PMID:23448924
Zhang, A-Mei; Yao, Yong-Gang
OBJECTIVESPoisoning by organophosphate insecticides causes cholinergic toxicity. Organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP) is a sensory-motor distal axonopathy which usually occurs after ingestion of large doses of certain organophosphate insecticides and has so far only been reported in patients with preceding cholinergic toxicity. Surprisingly, it was recently reported by other authors that an exclusively sensory neuropathy developed in eight patients after
Angelo Moretto; Marcello Lotti
We describe 10 patients from a large family with early onset motor and sensory neuropathy. Six were still living at the time of the study. In all cases, early motor milestones had been achieved. Mean age at onset of symptoms was 34 months; these included progressive distal and proximal muscle weakness of lower limbs. Pes equinovarus developed in all patients during childhood. Slight facial weakness was present in four patients, and one of them also had bilateral facial synkinesia. Intellectual function was normal in all cases. There was no evidence of thickened peripheral nerves. All three adult patients (mean age, 27 years) were seriously handicapped and wheelchair-bound. Death occurred in the fourth to fifth decade of life and the duration of the illness varied from 27 to 39 years. Motor nerve conduction velocities ranged from 15 to 17 m/sec in the upper limbs of the youngest patients, and were undetectable in the adult patients. Sensitive action potentials were almost always absent. In all patients, auditory evoked potentials showed abnormally delayed interpeak I-III latencies. The most prominent pathologic finding was a highly unusual myelin abnormality consisting of irregular redundant loops and folding of the myelin sheath. The genealogic study gave strong evidence of autosomal-recessive inheritance. The molecular analysis failed to demonstrate either duplication in the chromosome 17p11.2-12, point mutations in the four exons of the PMP-22 (17p11.2) and the six exons of the Po (1q21-q25) genes, or linkage to chromosome 8q13-21.1. PMID:8628474
Quattrone, A; Gambardella, A; Bono, F; Aguglia, U; Bolino, A; Bruni, A C; Montesi, M P; Oliveri, R L; Sabatelli, M; Tamburrini, O; Valentino, P; Van Broeckhoven, C; Zappia, M
An epidemic of bilateral optic neuropathy and painful sensory neuropathy occurred in Cuba in 1991–1993. Over 45 000 individuals were stated to have been affected. We report a clinical study on 25 patients seen in Cuba in 1993–1994. Affected patients showed either bilateral optic neuropathy with caecocentral scotomata or a distal predominantly sensory neuropathy sometimes associated with deafness, or a
P. K. Thomas; G. T. Plant; P. Baxter; C. Bates; R. Santiago Luis
Small-fiber neuropathy was induced in young adult mice by intraperitoneal injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist. At day 7, RTX induced significant thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia. At day 28, mechanical and thermal nociception were restored. No nerve degeneration in skin was observed and unmyelinated nerve fiber morphology and density in sciatic nerve were unchanged. At day 7, substance P (SP) was largely depleted in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was only moderately depleted. Three weeks after, SP and CGRP expression was restored in DRG neurons. At the same time, CGRP expression remained low in intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) whereas SP expression had improved. In summary, RTX induced in our model a transient neuropeptide depletion in sensory neurons without nerve degeneration. We think this model is valuable as it brings the opportunity to study functional nerve changes in the very early phase of small fiber neuropathy. Moreover, it may represent a useful tool to study the mechanisms of action of therapeutic strategies to prevent sensory neuropathy of various origins. PMID:24792390
Danigo, Aurore; Magy, Laurent; Richard, Laurence; Sturtz, Franck; Funalot, Benoît; Demiot, Claire
Two patients, aged 51 and 70 years, had indolent ulcerations at the sole of the foot with destructive osteolysis in the bones of the feet, lesions characteristic of mutilating ulcerative acro-osteopathy. Patient 1, who had pes cavus, developed ulcerations on the balls of the feet along the second metatarsal bones, and patient 2 with pes equinovarus developed ulcers in the area of the calcaneus. Sock-like hypesthesia/hypalgesia from the toes to the ankles was present in both patients, and electrophysiological tests confirmed the presence of axonal sensory-motor neuropathy. Diabetes mellitus and alcohol abuse was excluded in both patient. Clinical findings, history and neurological disturbances in both patients identified the disease as hereditary sensory neuropathy (type I). PMID:2707130
Garbe, C; Vogel, H P; Tebbe, B; Nüssel, F; Marx, P; Orfanos, C E
A 16-year-old school boy suffered from an insidious foot deformity. Slight degrees of symmetrical muscular weakness of the distal lower limb muscles were observed. In addition, slight degrees of atrophy of the anterior tibial muscles with moderate degrees of pes cavus deformity and flexion contracture of the toes of both feet were observed. In the upper and lower limbs muscle stretch reflexes were decreased and absent, respectively. Vibratory and touch sensations were moderately and slightly decreased, respectively, in the toes. The median and ulnar motor conduction velocities (m/sec) were 21.1 and 13.2, respectively, with markedly prolonged distal latencies. The median and ulnar sensory conduction velocities (m/sec) were 21.5 and 10.1, respectively. No M-waves were recorded by stimulation of the tibial and peroneal nerves. Also no nerve action potential was elicited by stimulation of the sural nerve. A fascicular biopsy of the sural nerve was performed. The myelinated fibers showing segmental de- and re-myelination were frequently found in teased fiber preparations. The density of myelinated fibers was markedly decreased, and both demyelinated axons and onion-bulbs were also observed by light and electron microscopy in the Epon-embedded sections. Based on the neurological examination and nerve conduction studies, although other family members were not examined, a diagnosis of HMSN type I was made. To clarify the genetic abnormality, a systematic study of the genomic DNA was made. A DNA duplication in the chromosome 17p11.2-12 was not observed. The single-strand conformational polymorphism method showed an abnormal extra band in the exon 3 encoding peripheral myelin protein (PMP)-22 gene of the patient compared with the control. The direct sequencing analysis of the exon 3 revealed a guanine to cytosine substitution that caused a substitution of arginine for glycine at amino acid position 93 of PMP-22. The digestion of the exon 3 with Sty I showed the presence of a mutant and normal allele of the PMP-22 gene indicating autosomal dominant heredity. This type of PMP-22 gene mutation is different from any type of PMP-22 mutations reported in the literature. The mutation is located in the intracellular domain of PMP-22. The mechanism by which the mutation induce demyelination of the peripheral myelin remains to be elucidated. Reports of patients with a point mutation of amino acids of PMP-22 are rare in the literature. This is the first Japanese patient with a new type of mutation of the PMP-22 gene. PMID:8777804
Ohnishi, A; Yoshimura, T; Kanehisa, Y; Fukushima, Y
A 46-year-old housewife had complaints of insidiously progressive muscle weakness and paresthesia in the distal lower limbs. On neurological examination, a slight to moderate degree of muscle weakness with slight atrophy was observed in the bilateral intrinsic hand muscles. A severe degree of muscle weakness with moderate atrophy was observed in tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Muscle stretch reflexes were decreased in the upper limbs and absent in the lower limbs, without pathologic reflexes. She had a steppage gait. Vibratory sensation was slightly decreased in the hands and moderately decreased in the feet. Touch, pain and temperature sensations were also moderately decreased only in the feet. On laboratory examination, glycosuria (5.6g/dl) was noted. Fasting blood sugar was 226mg/dl with an elevated hemoglobin A1C level (12.7%). The right median motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities were 14.8 and 20.3 m/sec, respectively, with a markedly prolonged distal latency. No muscle action potential was obtained from stimulation of the right tibial nerve. Also, no nerve action potential was elicited from stimulation of the right sural nerve. A fascicular biopsy of the right sural nerve revealed the presence of both demyelinated and remyelinated axons, and an onion-bulb formation with a marked decrease in the density of the myelinated fibers. Based on the neurological examination and nerve conduction studies of the family members, a younger sister, younger brother and an elder daughter of the proband were found to be affected by demyelinating polyneuropathy. Diabetes mellitus was not found among the family members with laboratory evidences of demyelinating polyneuropathy. Based on the family history, an uncle on the mother's side of the proband, the proband's grandmother and a younger daughter of a proband's brother were considered to be affected. The uncle and grandmother had diabetes mellitus. Therefore, we concluded that this family had HMSN type I with autosomal dominant inheritance. In the studies on fluorescence in situ hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the genomic DNA of the proband, a DNA duplication in the 17p11.2-12 region was not observed. However, the direct sequencing analysis of DNA fragments from genomic DNA encoding the Po gene of the proband revealed a substitution of histidine for arginine at the codon 98 in the extramembranous domain of Po. She was heterozygous for the mutant allele and normal allele. Alterations in the tertiary structure of the extramembranous domain of Po may result in an impairment of the peripheral myelin compaction. This is the second Japanese family with the same mutation (Arg98-->His) of myelin Po as reported previously by us, and this type of case is rare in the literature. Therefore, the mutation at the codon 98 may play a critical role in the development of the myelin abnormality in HMSN type IB. PMID:8851708
Ohnishi, A; Kashiwada, E; Hashimoto, T; Yamamoto, T; Murai, Y; Ohashi, H; Ikegami, T; Hayasaka, K; Sudo, K; Yamamori, S
Three patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) showed spontaneous improvement in visual acuities after months\\u000a of legal blindness. Two male patients with bilateral subacute visual loss were 14 years of age at presentation. The first\\u000a male patient had a mitochondrial DNA mutation at nucleotide position 11778. The second male patient was found to be negative\\u000a for the designated primary
Gölge Acaro?lu; Tülay Kansu; Çi?dem F. Do?ulu
Chronic distal symmetrical sensory peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological complication of cancer chemotherapy, HIV treatment and diabetes. Although aetiology-specific differences in presentation are evident, the clinical signs and symptoms of these neuropathies are clearly similar. Data from animal models of neuropathic pain suggest that the similarities have a common cause: mitochondrial dysfunction in primary afferent sensory neurons. Mitochondrial dysfunction is caused by mitotoxic effects of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs of several chemical classes, HIV-associated viral proteins, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor treatment, as well as the (possibly both direct and indirect) effects of excess glucose. The mitochondrial injury results in a chronic neuronal energy deficit, which gives rise to spontaneous nerve impulses and a compartmental neuronal degeneration that is first apparent in the terminal receptor arbor-that is, intraepidermal nerve fibres-of cutaneous afferent neurons. Preliminary data suggest that drugs that prevent mitochondrial injury or improve mitochondrial function could be useful in the treatment of these conditions. PMID:24840972
Bennett, Gary J; Doyle, Timothy; Salvemini, Daniela
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1 (HSN-1) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by missense mutations in the SPTLC1 gene. The SPTLC1 protein is part of the SPT enzyme which is a ubiquitously expressed, critical and thus highly regulated endoplasmic reticulum bound membrane enzyme that maintains sphingolipid concentrations and thus contributes to lipid metabolism, signalling, and membrane structural functions. Lipid droplets are dynamic organelles containing sphingolipids and membrane bound proteins surrounding a core of neutral lipids, and thus mediate the intracellular transport of these specific molecules. Current literature suggests that there are increased numbers of lipid droplets and alterations of lipid metabolism in a variety of other autosomal dominant neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. This study establishes for the first time, a significant increase in the presence of lipid droplets in HSN-1 patient-derived lymphoblasts, indicating a potential connection between lipid droplets and the pathomechanism of HSN-1. However, the expression of adipophilin (ADFP), which has been implicated in the regulation of lipid metabolism, was not altered in lipid droplets from the HSN-1 patient-derived lymphoblasts. This appears to be the first report of increased lipid body accumulation in a peripheral neuropathy, suggesting a fundamental molecular linkage between a number of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24711860
Marshall, Lee L; Stimpson, Scott E; Hyland, Ryan; Coorssen, Jens R; Myers, Simon J
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by bilateral painless optic atrophy and blindness. It usually occurs in young men in association with three major mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). We report a patient with a history of alcohol abuse who developed at age 63 years visual impairment, sensorineural hearing loss, and memory dysfunction, suggestive of Susac's syndrome. The patient carried the heteroplasmic mt. 11778G>A mutation on the T2e mtDNA haplogroup. It remains unclear if chronic alcohol abuse combined with the mitochondrial genetic background prompted an aged-related neurodegeneration or deferred the onset of the LHON disease. PMID:20632027
Zoccolella, Stefano; Petruzzella, Vittoria; Prascina, Francesco; Artuso, Lucia; Pacillo, Francesca; Dell'Aglio, Rosa; Avolio, Carlo; Delle Noci, Nicola; Attimonelli, Marcella; Specchio, Luigi Maria
A previously healthy 34-year-old man sustained multiple skull fractures in a traffic accident. Radiological findings and visual field examination did not detect any abnormality. Shortly after the accident, he noticed blurred vision in both eyes. Six months after the accident, he gradually developed disturbance of visual acuity in the right eye. His best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 0.8 OD and 1.2 OS and brain MRI did not show any abnormality, while Humphrey visual field analysis demonstrated right homonymous hemianopsia. Two months after the initial presentation, his BCVA showed 0.1 OD and 0.08 OS. Visual field examination suggested that both right homonymous hemianopsia and left blind spot had become enlarged. Mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated G11,778A mutation and a diagnosis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was made. A few reports have documented mild acute insult to the head or blunt optic trauma as triggers of optic neuropathy in subjects with LHON. Although, the precise mechanism of LHON following trauma remains unknown, it appears that an acute insult may be sufficient to precipitate neuropathy in the optic nerve already compromised by mitochondrial dysfunction. Asymptomatic carriers should be advised to avoid possible precipitating factors such as head trauma. PMID:22019873
Hayashi, Shintaro; Okamoto, Koichi
Three patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) showed spontaneous improvement in visual acuities after months of legal blindness. Two male patients with bilateral subacute visual loss were 14 years of age at presentation. The first male patient had a mitochondrial DNA mutation at nucleotide position 11778. The second male patient was found to be negative for the designated primary mutations (11778, 14484, 3460) and two of the secondary mutations (15257, 9804). The third patient was a 20-year-old female who presented with bilateral optic atrophy. She had been diagnosed as LHON and was found positive for the 3460 mutation when she was 15. These patients' pattern of visual recovery by developing small islands of normal vision within a central scotoma is characteristic in such rare cases of LHON. PMID:14750573
Acaro?lu, G; Kansu, T; Do?ulu, C F
The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse with a complex molecular architecture that provides for reliable transmission between the nerve terminal and muscle fiber. Using linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing of DNA samples from subjects with distal hereditary motor neuropathy type VII, we identified a mutation in SLC5A7, which encodes the presynaptic choline transporter (CHT), a critical determinant of synaptic acetylcholine synthesis and release at the NMJ. This dominantly segregating SLC5A7 mutation truncates the encoded product just beyond the final transmembrane domain, eliminating cytosolic-C-terminus sequences known to regulate surface transporter trafficking. Choline-transport assays in both transfected cells and monocytes from affected individuals revealed significant reductions in hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline uptake, a finding consistent with a dominant-negative mode of action. The discovery of CHT dysfunction underlying motor neuropathy identifies a biological basis for this group of conditions and widens the spectrum of disorders that derive from impaired NMJ transmission. Our findings compel consideration of mutations in SLC5A7 or its functional partners in relation to unexplained motor neuronopathies.
Barwick, Katy E.S.; Wright, Jane; Al-Turki, Saeed; McEntagart, Meriel M.; Nair, Ajith; Chioza, Barry; Al-Memar, Ali; Modarres, Hamid; Reilly, Mary M.; Dick, Katherine J.; Ruggiero, Alicia M.; Blakely, Randy D.; Hurles, Matt E.; Crosby, Andrew H.
The aims of this study are to investigate whether auditory dysfunction is part of the spectrum of neurological abnormalities associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and to determine the perceptual consequences of auditory neuropathy (AN) in affected listeners. Forty-eight subjects confirmed by genetic testing as having one of four mitochondrial mutations associated with LHON (mt11778, mtDNA14484, mtDNA14482 and mtDNA3460) participated. Thirty-two of these had lost vision, and 16 were asymptomatic at the point of data collection. While the majority of individuals showed normal sound detection, >25% (of both symptomatic and asymptomatic participants) showed electrophysiological evidence of AN with either absent or severely delayed auditory brainstem potentials. Abnormalities were observed for each of the mutations, but subjects with the mtDNA11778 type were the most affected. Auditory perception was also abnormal in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, with >20% of cases showing impaired detection of auditory temporal (timing) cues and >30% showing abnormal speech perception both in quiet and in the presence of background noise. The findings of this study indicate that a relatively high proportion of individuals with the LHON genetic profile may suffer functional hearing difficulties due to neural abnormality in the central auditory pathways. PMID:21887510
Rance, Gary; Kearns, Lisa S; Tan, Johanna; Gravina, Anthony; Rosenfeld, Lisa; Henley, Lauren; Carew, Peter; Graydon, Kelley; O'Hare, Fleur; Mackey, David A
PURPOSE: To report a case of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy with multiple-sclerosis-like symptoms.METHODS: Observational case report. A 34-year-old man was found to have Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and a mutation at position 11778 of the mitochondrial genome. The progression of vision loss and onset of weakness in the right leg warranted neuroimaging.RESULTS: Magnetic resonance imaging documented multiple lesions in the
Mai Tran; Ravi Bhargava; Ian M MacDonald
DNA markers on the X chromosome were used to map the locus for an unusual form of X-linked recessive hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with associated deafness and mental retardation in a three-generation family that was originally reported by Cowchocket al. (Am. J. Hum. Genet.35: 85A, 1983;Am. J. Med. Genet.20: 307–315, 1985). This family included seven affected males, three obligate
JANICE M. PRIEST; KENNETH H. FISCHBECK; NASSIM NOURI; BRONYA J. B. KEATS
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an uncommon diagnosis that should be considered in patients with multiple compressive neuropathies. We present the case of a woman who presented with bilateral hand numbness and weakness. Electrodiagnostic testing revealed bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, bilateral ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, left peroneal neuropathy at the fibular head, and a primarily demyelinating generalized sensorimotor neuropathy. Subsequent genetic testing identified a deletion at chromosome 17p11.2 to confirm the diagnosis of HNPP. Treatment of this largely self-limiting disease is controversial, and this patient suffered minimal disability with treatment including splinting and surgical releases.
Feinberg, Joseph; DiCarlo, Edward F.; Birchansky, Sherri B.; Wolfe, Scott W.
Many human childhood mitochondrial disorders result from abnormal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and altered bioenergetics. These abnormalities span most of the mtDNA, demonstrating that there are no "unique" positions on the mitochondrial genome that when deleted or mutated produce a disease phenotype. This diversity implies that the relationship between mitochondrial genotype and clinical phenotype is very complex. The origins of clinical phenotypes are thus unclear, fundamentally difficult-to-treat, and are usually clinically devastating. Current treatment is largely supportive and the disorders progress relentlessly causing significant morbidity and mortality. Vitamin supplements and pharmacological agents have been used in isolated cases and clinical trials, but the efficacy of these interventions is unclear. In spite of recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of mitochondrial diseases, a cure remains elusive. An optimal cure would be gene therapy, which involves introducing the missing gene(s) into the mitochondria to complement the defect. Our recent research results indicate the feasibility of an innovative protein-transduction ("protofection") technology, consisting of a recombinant mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) that avidly binds mtDNA and permits efficient targeting into mitochondria in situ and in vivo. Thus, the development of gene therapy for treating mitochondrial disease offers promise, because it may circumvent the clinical abnormalities and the current inability to treat individual disorders in affected individuals. This review aims to focus on current treatment options and future therapeutics in mitochondrial disease treatment with a special emphasis on Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. PMID:23545042
Hereditary recurrent neuropathies are uncommon. Disorders with a known molecular basis falling within this group include hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) due to the deletion of the PMP22 gene or to mutations in this same gene, and hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) caused by mutations in the SEPT9 gene. We report a three-generation family presenting a hereditary recurrent neuropathy without pathological changes in either PMP22 or SEPT9 genes. We performed a genome-wide mapping, which yielded a locus of 12.4Mb on chromosome 21q21. The constructed haplotype fully segregated with the disease and we found significant evidence of linkage. After mutational screening of genes located within this locus, encoding for proteins and microRNAs, as well as analysis of large deletions/insertions, we identified 71 benign polymorphisms. Our findings suggest a novel genetic locus for a recurrent hereditary neuropathy of which the molecular defect remains elusive. Our results further underscore the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of this group of neuropathies. PMID:24878226
Calpena, E; Martínez-Rubio, D; Arpa, J; García-Peńas, J J; Montaner, D; Dopazo, J; Palau, F; Espinós, C
Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration with the preferential involvement of those forming the papillomacular bundle. The optic nerve is considered the main pathological target for LHON. Our aim was to investigate the possible involvement of the post-geniculate visual pathway in LHON patients. We used diffusion-weighted imaging for in vivo evaluation. Mean diffusivity maps from 22 LHON visually impaired, 11 unaffected LHON mutation carriers and 22 healthy subjects were generated and compared at level of optic radiation (OR). Prefrontal and cerebellar white matter were also analyzed as internal controls. Furthermore, we studied the optic nerve and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in post-mortem specimens obtained from a severe case of LHON compared to an age-matched control. Mean diffusivity values of affected patients were higher than unaffected mutation carriers (P<0.05) and healthy subjects (P<0.01) in OR and not in the other brain regions. Increased OR diffusivity was associated with both disease duration (B?=?0.002; P<0.05) and lack of recovery of visual acuity (B?=?0.060; P<0.01). Post-mortem investigation detected atrophy (41.9% decrease of neuron soma size in the magnocellular layers and 44.7% decrease in the parvocellular layers) and, to a lesser extent, degeneration (28.5% decrease of neuron density in the magnocellular layers and 28.7% decrease in the parvocellular layers) in the LHON LGN associated with extremely severe axonal loss (99%) in the optic nerve. The post-geniculate involvement in LHON patients is a downstream post-synaptic secondary phenomenon, reflecting de-afferentation rather than a primary neurodegeneration due to mitochondrial dysfunction of LGN neurons.
Rizzo, Giovanni; Tozer, Kevin R.; Tonon, Caterina; Manners, David; Testa, Claudia; Malucelli, Emil; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Barboni, Piero; Randhawa, Ruvdeep S.; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Carelli, Valerio; Lodi, Raffaele
Objective To describe the patient profiles of the Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) Gene Therapy Clinical Trial, year 1. This study aims to identify and characterize affected patients and carriers with the G11778A mutation in mitochondrial DNA for planned gene therapy that will use “allotopic expression” by delivering a normal nuclear-encoded ND4 gene into the nuclei of retinal ganglion cells via an adeno-associated virus vector injected into the vitreous. Methods Patients with LHON with visual loss as well as asymptomatic maternally related family members were molecularly screened for ND1, ND4, and ND6 mutations in mitochondrial DNA commonly associated with LHON. All patients and maternal relatives also underwent complete neuro-ophthalmic examination, automated visual field testing, pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and OCT3. Results Twenty-five subjects with LHON and 21 carriers positive for the G11778A mitochondrial DNA mutation were recruited. Three additional mutations in the ND4 gene, G11719A, G11947A, or G11914A, were detected. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was 78.3 ?m up to 32 months after visual loss. It was 63.5 ?m for all affected patients and 100.7 ?m for carriers (P<.01). Mean PERG amplitude was lower in affected patients (40% of normal) than in carriers (94% of normal) (P<.01). Four carriers with PERG amplitudes less than 75% of normal had Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study acuity more than 20/25, mean defect more than ?2 dB, and average RNFL thickness more than 80 ?m. Conclusions Potential candidates for future gene therapy may include affected patients, as late as 32 months after loss of vision, with mildly reduced RNFL thickness or carriers with low PERG amplitudes and normal RNFL thickness, if the PERG amplitude is a predictor of conversion to LHON in these carriers.
Lam, Byron L.; Feuer, William J.; Abukhalil, Fawzi; Porciatti, Vittorio; Hauswirth, William W.; Guy, John
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration with the preferential involvement of those forming the papillomacular bundle. The optic nerve is considered the main pathological target for LHON. Our aim was to investigate the possible involvement of the post-geniculate visual pathway in LHON patients. We used diffusion-weighted imaging for in vivo evaluation. Mean diffusivity maps from 22 LHON visually impaired, 11 unaffected LHON mutation carriers and 22 healthy subjects were generated and compared at level of optic radiation (OR). Prefrontal and cerebellar white matter were also analyzed as internal controls. Furthermore, we studied the optic nerve and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in post-mortem specimens obtained from a severe case of LHON compared to an age-matched control. Mean diffusivity values of affected patients were higher than unaffected mutation carriers (P<0.05) and healthy subjects (P<0.01) in OR and not in the other brain regions. Increased OR diffusivity was associated with both disease duration (B?=?0.002; P<0.05) and lack of recovery of visual acuity (B?=?0.060; P<0.01). Post-mortem investigation detected atrophy (41.9% decrease of neuron soma size in the magnocellular layers and 44.7% decrease in the parvocellular layers) and, to a lesser extent, degeneration (28.5% decrease of neuron density in the magnocellular layers and 28.7% decrease in the parvocellular layers) in the LHON LGN associated with extremely severe axonal loss (99%) in the optic nerve. The post-geniculate involvement in LHON patients is a downstream post-synaptic secondary phenomenon, reflecting de-afferentation rather than a primary neurodegeneration due to mitochondrial dysfunction of LGN neurons. PMID:23209682
Rizzo, Giovanni; Tozer, Kevin R; Tonon, Caterina; Manners, David; Testa, Claudia; Malucelli, Emil; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Barboni, Piero; Randhawa, Ruvdeep S; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Sadun, Alfredo A; Carelli, Valerio; Lodi, Raffaele
Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been reported in HIV-infected patients in association with the immune reconstitution syndrome whose symptoms can be mimicked by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-mediated mitochondrial toxicity. We report a case of a 17-year-old, HIV-infected patient on HAART with a normal CD4 count and undetectable viral load, presenting with acute lower extremity weakness associated with lactatemia. Electromyography/nerve conduction studies revealed absent sensory potentials and decreased compound muscle action potentials, consistent with a diagnosis of acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy. Lactatemia resolved following cessation of HAART; however, neurological deficits minimally improved over several months in spite of immune modulatory therapy. This case highlights the potential association between HAART, mitochondrial toxicity and acute axonal neuropathies in HIV-infected patients, distinct from the immune reconstitution syndrome.
Capers, Kimberly N.; Turnacioglu, Sinan; Leshner, Robert T.; Crawford, John R.
Chemotherapy-induced sensory neuropathy occurs in most patients undergoing treatment with oxaliplatin for colorectal cancer.\\u000a Although the acute form of neurotoxicity is transient, the chronic form, which is correlated with the cumulative dose of oxaliplatin\\u000a administered over time, may be long lasting in a subset of patients and may have a significant impact on function and quality\\u000a of life. Because treatment
Joleen Hubbard; Axel Grothey
Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is an important but poorly recognized cause of peripheral neuropathy. Several forms of peripheral nerve dysfunction occur, including trigeminal sensory neuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy and pure sensory neuronopathy. The pathological findings vary and the definite treatment is not known. Here we present 4 cases of acute ataxic sensory polyneuropathy with SS, and the experience of
Wei-Hung Chen; Jiann-Horng Yeh; Hou-Chang Chiu
Objectives: Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease in which acute or subacute bilateral visual loss occurs preferentially in young men. Over 95% of LHON cases are associated with one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations, but only 50% of men and 10% of women who harbour a pathogenetic mtDNA mutation develop optic neuropathy. This incomplete
C Battisti; P Formichi; E Cardaioli; S Bianchi; P Mangiavacchi; S A Tripodi; P Tosi; A Federico
Canine ganglioradiculitis (sensory neuropathy) was examined pathologically in two dogs (dog Nos. 1 and 2). The affected dogs had 1 and 2 years clinical courses from the onset, respectively. As common clinical signs, both cases showed progressive ataxia, difficulty in prehending food, visual deficit, and several sensory abnormalities. Gross observation after tissue fixation revealed whitish discoloration in the dorsal column of the spinal cords. The histological lesions were mainly distributed in the spinal dorsal roots, ganglions, and dorsal columns. In the spinal dorsal roots and ganglions, there were striking myelin loss, mild infiltration of mononuclear cells, and proliferation of small spindle cells. In the dorsal funiculus, there were moderate to severe diffuse myelin-loss and axonal degeneration. Immunohistochemistry for substance P (SP) revealed marked reduction of SP-immunopositive granules in the spinal substantia gelatinosa of affected dogs. By immunohistochemistry, CD3-positive cells were observed in the dorsal roots of dog No. 2, while CD3-positive cells were rare in those of dog No. 1. In the spinal ganglion of dog No. 1 there were many CD3- and MHC class II-positive cells. By indirect immunofluorescence assay using sera from affected dogs, no autoantibodies against canine nerve tissues were detected. The clinicopathological features of the present cases are almost consistent with those in previous reports of canine sensory neuropathies, while the etiology remains unclear. PMID:18176020
Funamoto, Miwako; Nibe, Kazumi; Morozumi, Motoji; Edamura, Kazuya; Uchida, Kazuyuki
A patient is described who devloped a bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and a trigeminal sensory neuropathy as the initial manifestations of mixed connective tissue disease. Either condition can occur in other connective tissue diseases, but this combination has not been reported previously in mixed connective tissue disease, in which, however, trigeminal sensory neuropathy is frequently seen.
F M Vincent; R N Van Houzen
We assessed abnormalities within the principal brain resting state networks (RSNs) in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) to define whether functional abnormalities in this disease are limited to the visual system or, conversely, tend to be more diffuse. We also defined the structural substrates of fMRI changes using a connectivity-based analysis of diffusion tensor (DT) MRI data. Neuro-ophthalmologic assessment, DT MRI and RS fMRI data were acquired from 13 LHON patients and 13 healthy controls. RS fMRI data were analyzed using independent component analysis and SPM5. A DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation analysis was performed using the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally, as seed regions. Compared to controls, LHON patients had a significant increase of RS fluctuations in the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally. They also showed decreased RS fluctuations in the right lateral occipital cortex and right temporal occipital fusiform cortex. Abnormalities of RS fluctuations were correlated significantly with retinal damage and disease duration. The DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation identified a higher number of clusters in the right auditory cortex in LHON vs. controls. Differences of cluster-centroid profiles were found between the two groups for all the four seeds analyzed. For three of these areas, a correspondence was found between abnormalities of functional and structural connectivities. These results suggest that functional and structural abnormalities extend beyond the visual network in LHON patients. Such abnormalities also involve the auditory network, thus corroborating the notion of a cross-modal plasticity between these sensory modalities in patients with severe visual deficits.
Rocca, Maria A.; Valsasina, Paola; Pagani, Elisabetta; Bianchi-Marzoli, Stefania; Milesi, Jacopo; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo
Major advances in understanding the pathogenesis of inherited metabolic disease caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations have yet to translate into treatments of proven efficacy. Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy is the most common mitochondrial DNA disorder causing irreversible blindness in young adult life. Anecdotal reports support the use of idebenone in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, but this has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. We conducted a 24-week multi-centre double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 85 patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy due to m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C or mitochondrial DNA mutations. The active drug was idebenone 900 mg/day. The primary end-point was the best recovery in visual acuity. The main secondary end-point was the change in best visual acuity. Other secondary end-points were changes in visual acuity of the best eye at baseline and changes in visual acuity for both eyes in each patient. Colour-contrast sensitivity and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness were measured in subgroups. Idebenone was safe and well tolerated. The primary end-point did not reach statistical significance in the intention to treat population. However, post hoc interaction analysis showed a different response to idebenone in patients with discordant visual acuities at baseline; in these patients, all secondary end-points were significantly different between the idebenone and placebo groups. This first randomized controlled trial in the mitochondrial disorder, Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, provides evidence that patients with discordant visual acuities are the most likely to benefit from idebenone treatment, which is safe and well tolerated.
Klopstock, Thomas; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Rouleau, Jacinthe; Heck, Suzette; Bailie, Maura; Atawan, Alaa; Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Schubert, Marion; Garip, Aylin; Kernt, Marcus; Petraki, Diana; Rummey, Christian; Leinonen, Mika; Metz, Gunther; Griffiths, Philip G.; Meier, Thomas
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by bilateral painless optic atrophy and\\u000a blindness. It usually occurs in young men in association with three major mutations in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). We\\u000a report a patient with a history of alcohol abuse who developed at age 63 years visual impairment, sensorineural hearing loss,\\u000a and memory dysfunction, suggestive of Susac’s
Stefano Zoccolella; Vittoria Petruzzella; Francesco Prascina; Lucia Artuso; Francesca Pacillo; Rosa Dell’Aglio; Carlo Avolio; Nicola Delle Noci; Marcella Attimonelli; Luigi Maria Specchio
Muscle carnitine deficiency usually results in a lipid storage myopathy, but more rarely, neuropathy occurs in this condition. We report herein a 29-year-old man with muscle carnitine deficiency who developed not only a lipid storage myopathy, but also a severe sensory neuropathy. Oral therapy with levo-carnitine (3 g per day) for 3 months produced a remarkable improvement of the myopathy and sensory neuropathy. Six months later, he remained in good condition under strict dietary control. This report emphasizes that severe neuropathy may occur in some patients with muscle carnitine deficiency, and highlights the need for the neurologist's familiarity with those afflicted to achieve optimal clinical management. PMID:19768376
Zhang, Wei; Miao, Jianting; Zhang, Guangyun; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Dawei; Wan, Qun; Yu, Yingxin; Zhao, Gang; Li, Zhuyi
We report the case of a 33-year-old woman with limited systemic sclerosis and chronic progressive sensory ataxic neuropathy. Sural nerve biopsy showed loss of myelinated fibers mostly those of large diameter, axonal degeneration and infiltration of macrophages, but no signs of vasculitis. Physical examination, laboratory testing, neurophysiological and neuroradiological examinations suggested that the dorsal root was primarily affected in this patient. Cytokine analysis by multiplex bead array assay revealed that IL-1beta and GM-CSF were increased both in serum and CSF. Although her symptoms did not respond to corticosteroid therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy resulted in marked improvement. IVIg could be effective in case of immune-mediated reversible neuronal dysfunction associated with collagen disease without vasculitis. PMID:16336975
Nobuhara, Yasuyuki; Saito, Mineki; Goto, Rina; Yoshidome, Yoshihito; Kawamura, Miwako; Kasai, Takefumi; Higashimoto, Ikkou; Eiraku, Nobutaka; Umehara, Fujio; Osame, Mitsuhiro; Arimura, Kimiyoshi
Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited blinding disease caused as a result of homoplasmic point mutations in complex I subunit genes of mitochondrial DNA. It is characterized by incomplete penetrance, as only some mutation carriers become affected. Thus, the mitochondrial DNA mutation is necessary but not sufficient to cause optic neuropathy. Environmental triggers and genetic modifying factors have been considered to explain its variable penetrance. We measured the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass indicators in blood cells from affected and carrier individuals, screening three large pedigrees and 39 independently collected smaller families with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, as well as muscle biopsies and cells isolated by laser capturing from post-mortem specimens of retina and optic nerves, the latter being the disease targets. We show that unaffected mutation carriers have a significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass compared with their affected relatives and control individuals. Comparative studies of fibroblasts from affected, carriers and controls, under different paradigms of metabolic demand, show that carriers display the highest capacity for activating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore we postulate that the increased mitochondrial biogenesis in carriers may overcome some of the pathogenic effect of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Screening of a few selected genetic variants in candidate genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis failed to reveal any significant association. Our study provides a valuable mechanism to explain variability of penetrance in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy and clues for high throughput genetic screening to identify the nuclear modifying gene(s), opening an avenue to develop predictive genetic tests on disease risk and therapeutic strategies.
Iommarini, Luisa; Giordano, Luca; Maresca, Alessandra; Pisano, Annalinda; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Caporali, Leonardo; Liguori, Rocco; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Fanelli, Francesca; Fracasso, Flavio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; D'Adamo, Pio; Hudson, Gavin; Pyle, Angela; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Zeviani, Massimo; Salomao, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Ventura, Dora Fix; Moraes, Milton; Moraes Filho, Milton; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Federico; De Negri, Annamaria; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Tancredi, Andrea; Mancini, Massimiliano; d'Amati, Giulia; Loguercio Polosa, Paola; Cantatore, Palmiro
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited blinding disease caused as a result of homoplasmic point mutations in complex I subunit genes of mitochondrial DNA. It is characterized by incomplete penetrance, as only some mutation carriers become affected. Thus, the mitochondrial DNA mutation is necessary but not sufficient to cause optic neuropathy. Environmental triggers and genetic modifying factors have been considered to explain its variable penetrance. We measured the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass indicators in blood cells from affected and carrier individuals, screening three large pedigrees and 39 independently collected smaller families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, as well as muscle biopsies and cells isolated by laser capturing from post-mortem specimens of retina and optic nerves, the latter being the disease targets. We show that unaffected mutation carriers have a significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass compared with their affected relatives and control individuals. Comparative studies of fibroblasts from affected, carriers and controls, under different paradigms of metabolic demand, show that carriers display the highest capacity for activating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore we postulate that the increased mitochondrial biogenesis in carriers may overcome some of the pathogenic effect of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Screening of a few selected genetic variants in candidate genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis failed to reveal any significant association. Our study provides a valuable mechanism to explain variability of penetrance in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and clues for high throughput genetic screening to identify the nuclear modifying gene(s), opening an avenue to develop predictive genetic tests on disease risk and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24369379
Giordano, Carla; Iommarini, Luisa; Giordano, Luca; Maresca, Alessandra; Pisano, Annalinda; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Caporali, Leonardo; Liguori, Rocco; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Fanelli, Francesca; Fracasso, Flavio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; D'Adamo, Pio; Hudson, Gavin; Pyle, Angela; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Chinnery, Patrick F; Zeviani, Massimo; Salomao, Solange R; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Ventura, Dora Fix; Moraes, Milton; Moraes Filho, Milton; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Federico; De Negri, Annamaria; Sadun, Alfredo A; Tancredi, Andrea; Mancini, Massimiliano; d'Amati, Giulia; Loguercio Polosa, Paola; Cantatore, Palmiro; Carelli, Valerio
Objective: To determine the effect of smoked cannabis on the neuropathic pain of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy and an experimental pain model. Methods: Prospective randomized placebo-controlled trial conducted in the inpatient General Clinical Research Center between May 2003 and May 2005 involving adults with painful HIV- associated sensory neuropathy. Patients were randomly assigned to smoke either cannabis (3.56% tetrahydrocannabinol) or identical
D. I. Abrams; C. A. Jay; S. B. Shade; H. Vizoso; H. Reda; M. E. Kelly; M. C. Rowbotham; K. L. Petersen
HIV-associated sensory neuropathy remains an important complication of combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) and HIV infection. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been associated with symptomatic neuropathy in clinical trial participants. We examined associations between mitochondrial DNA variation and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in CHARTER. CHARTER is a U.S. based longitudinal observational study of HIV-infected adults who underwent a structured interview and standardized examination. HIV-associated sensory neuropathy was determined by trained examiners as ?1 sign (diminished vibratory and sharp-dull discrimination or ankle reflexes) bilaterally. Mitochondrial DNA sequencing was performed and haplogroups were assigned by published algorithms. Multivariable logistic regression of associations between mitochondrial DNA SNPs, haplogroups and HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were performed. In analyses of associations of each mitochondrial DNA SNP with HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, the two most significant SNPs were at positions A12810G (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.27 [0.11-0.65]; p = 0.004) and T489C (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.41 [0.21-0.80]; p = 0.009). These synonymous changes are known to define African haplogroup L1c and European haplogroup J, respectively. Both haplogroups are associated with decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy compared with all other haplogroups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.29 [0.12-0.71]; p = 0.007 and odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.42 [0.18-1.0]; p = 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, in this cohort of mostly combination antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects, two common mitochondrial DNA SNPs and their corresponding haplogroups were associated with a markedly decreased prevalence of HIV-associated sensory neuropathy.
Holzinger, Emily R.; Hulgan, Todd; Ellis, Ronald J.; Samuels, David C.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Haas, David W.; Kallianpur, Asha R.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Clifford, David B.; Collier, Ann C.; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Marra, Christina M.; McArthur, Justin C.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Morgello, Susan; Simpson, David M.; Franklin, Donald R.; Rosario, Debralee; Selph, Doug; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor
Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) are a heterogenous group of genetic disorders with length-dependent degeneration of motor axons. Obtaining a genetic diagnosis in patients with dHMN remains challenging. We performed exome sequencing in a diagnostic setting in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of dHMN. Potential disease-causing variants in genes associated with dHMN and other forms of inherited neuropathies/motor neuron diseases were validated using Sequenom. The coverage in the genes studied was >95% with an average coverage of >50 times. In none of the patients a mutations was found in genes previously reported to be associated with dHMN. However, in 2/12 patients a recessive mutation in histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1, recently discovered as a cause of axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia) was identified. Our results demonstrate the diagnostic value of exome sequencing for patients with inherited neuropathies. The phenotypic spectrum of recessive mutations in HINT1 includes dHMN. HINT1 should be added to the list of genes to check for in dHMN. PMID:24105373
Zhao, Hui; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; De Jonghe, Peter; Robberecht, Wim; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Damme, Philip
An animal model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was produced by introducing the human optic atrophy mtDNA ND6 P25L mutation into the mouse. Mice with this mutation exhibited reduction in retinal function by elecroretinogram (ERG), age-related decline in central smaller caliber optic nerve fibers with sparing of larger peripheral fibers, neuronal accumulation of abnormal mitochondria, axonal swelling, and demyelination. Mitochondrial analysis revealed partial complex I and respiration defects and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, whereas synaptosome analysis revealed decreased complex I activity and increased ROS but no diminution of ATP production. Thus, LHON pathophysiology may result from oxidative stress. PMID:23129651
Lin, Chun Shi; Sharpley, Mark S; Fan, Weiwei; Waymire, Katrina G; Sadun, Alfredo A; Carelli, Valerio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Baciu, Peter; Sung, Eric; McManus, Meagan J; Pan, Billy X; Gil, Daniel W; Macgregor, Grant R; Wallace, Douglas C
We report a case of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) masquerading as optic neuritis with late visual recovery. A 28-year-old man had gradual visual loss in both eyes for two weeks. Visual acuity was 0.4 in the right eye and 0.7 in the left. Fundus examination revealed hyperaemic discs in each eye. Fluorescein angiography revealed dye leakage at both optic discs in the late phase. Static perimetry (Humphrey 30-2) revealed bilateral relative central scotomata. Magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerves was normal and his lumbar puncture showed normal opening pressure. He received steroid pulse therapy for three days. Nevertheless, vision in his right eye deteriorated to 0.1 one month later and left vision worsened to 0.05 six months later. Fifteen months after onset, his vision began to improve. At 21 months, his vision recovered to 0.9?R and 1.0?L. Peripheral blood DNA sequencing revealed 14484 mutation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Visual recovery can occur in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy with mtDNA 14484 mutation. LHON could be misdiagnosed as optic neuritis in some cases. Molecular examination of mtDNA mutation can confirm the diagnosis of LHON in clinically controversial patients. We should keep in mind the diagnosis of LHON when optic neuritis shows poor response to pulse therapy. PMID:23905692
Hsu, Tsui-Kang; Wang, An-Guor; Yen, May-Yung; Liu, Jorn-Hon
Objectives Sensory neuropathy (SN) is a common peripheral nerve complication of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy. Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerosis and microvascular disease, is associated with SN in HIV-uninfected (HIV?) persons. We examined if MetS or its components predispose individuals to HIV-SN. Design From a prospective multicenter cohort of 1,556 HIV+ subjects, a subgroup (n=130) with fasting laboratory tests and SN assessment was selected. Methods SN was defined by symmetrically decreased reflexes or sensation loss in the legs. MetS was defined by presence of ?3 risk factors: mean arterial pressure (MAP) ?100 mm Hg; triglycerides (TRG) ?150 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) <40 mg/dL for males, <50 mg/dL for females; body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2; plasma glucose (GLU) ?100 mg/dl and self-reported diabetes (DM II). Multivariate logistic regression examined the association between HIV-SN and MetS. Results After controlling for HIV-SN risk factors- age, CD4 current, length of HIV infection, use of dideoxynucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors; MetS was not associated with HIV-SN (p=0.72). However, when each MetS component was assessed, elevated TRG was a significant risk factor for HIV-SN. From the larger cohort, both DM II (OR=1.4, p<0.01) and elevated TRG (OR=1.4, p=0.01) were risk factors for HIV-SN. Conclusion The risk of HIV-SN was increased for DM II and elevated TRG, but not other MetS components. Both increase the risk of SN in HIV- populations, but the mechanism(s) remains unclear.
Ances, Beau M.; Vaida, Florin; Rosario, Debralee; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Ellis, Ronald J.; Simpson, David M.; Clifford, David B.; McArthur, Justin C.; Grant, Igor; McCutchan, J. Allen
Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disease caused by missense mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). However, incomplete penetrance and a predominance of male patients presenting with vision loss suggest that modifying factors play an important role in the development of the disease. Evidence from several studies suggests that both nuclear modifier genes and environmental factors may be necessary to trigger the optic neuropathy in individuals harboring an LHON-causing mtDNA mutation. Recently, an optic neuropathy susceptibility locus at Xp21-Xq21 has been reported. In this study, we performed X-chromosomal linkage analysis in a large Brazilian family harboring a homoplasmic G11778A mtDNA mutation on a haplogroup J background. We report the identification of a novel LHON susceptibility locus on chromosome Xq25-27.2, with multipoint non-parametric linkage scores of > 5.00 (P = 0.005) and a maximum two-point non-parametric linkage score of 10.12, (P = 0.003) for marker DXS984 (Xq27.1). These results suggest genetic heterogeneity for X-linked modifiers of LHON. PMID:18363168
Shankar, Suma P; Fingert, John H; Carelli, Valerio; Valentino, Maria L; King, Terri M; Daiger, Stephen P; Salomao, Solange R; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Braun, Terri A; Sheffield, Val C; Sadun, Alfredo A; Stone, Edwin M
Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; "glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)," "dynactin 1 (DCTN1)," "small heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1),"…
Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent
Objectives: Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) can be difficult to distinguish from optic neuritis seen in multiple sclerosis (MS). About half of the LHON patients harbor a mutation at nucleotide (nt) 11778 in the mitochondrial (mt) DNA. In addition, mutations at nt-3460 and nt-14484 have been associated with LHON. An association of LHON and MS has been suspected for decades,
Daniel S. Mojon; Joseph Herbert; Saud A. Sadiq; James R. Miller; Michelle Madonna; Michio Hirano
Background: Painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies (HIV-SN) are a common complication of HIV infection. The pathogenesis is unknown and the treatment very limited. Gabapentin (GBP) is effective in painful diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia and its effectiveness on painful HIV-SN has been reported anecdotally. Design: Multicenter, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods: Patients were followed for a 1-week screening, a 4-week
K. Hahn; G. Arendt; J. S. Braun; H.-J von Giesen; I. W. Husstedt; M. Maschke; M. E. Straube; E. Schielke
There is growing evidence that hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection might cause peripheral neuropathy. We aimed to investigate\\u000a the prevalence, clinical and electrophysiological features of sensory neuropathy in patients with cryoglobulin negative HCV\\u000a infection. We studied 46 consecutive cryoglobulin negative HCV positive patients (24 of them with and 22 without neuropathic\\u000a symptoms, NS) and compared to 28 age and gender matched
Min-Suk Yoon; Mark Obermann; Christina Dockweiler; Roland Assert; Ali Canbay; Sebastian Haag; Guido Gerken; Hans-Christoph Diener; Zaza Katsarava
A woman in her early 60s presented to our Movement Disorders Centre with a 5-year history of progressive peripheral neuropathy, gait instability with falls, blurred vision, cognitive impairment and tremors. The patient was found to have profound sensory ataxia, chronic ophthalmoplegia, dementia with significant deficits in registration and construction and bilateral resting tremor of the hands. Investigations revealed an unremarkable MRI of the brain, negative cerebrospinal fluid studies, and unremarkable chemistries. Nerve conduction studies found a severe sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Genetic testing revealed a compound heterozygous mutation in the POLG1 gene consistent with the diagnosis of Sensory Ataxia Neuropathy Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) syndrome. PMID:23997076
Lovan, Alyson; Ihtsham ul Haq; Balakrishnan, Nikhil
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally transmitted disease resulting from a point mutation in mitochondrial (mt) DNA. In this report we describe a case of Leber's disease with typical clinical findings but atypical ophthalmoscopic presentation. A 14-year-old boy developed severe loss of vision acuity in the left eye, with only partial recovery, followed 4 months later by the same symptoms in the right eye. Fundoscopic examination showed hyperemic papilla on the right eye and optic disc pallor on the left eye. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of lymphocytic mt-DNA revealed a point mutation at 11778. Leber's disease should be considered in young patients (not always male) with sudden visual loss and simple papillary involvement at fundoscopic examination but without the typical telangiectatic microangiopathy. PMID:11248462
Pantaleoni, C; D'Arrigo, S; Bagnasco, I; Piozzi, E; Carrara, F; Scaioli, V; Riva, D
To report a case of clinical and electrophysiological recovery in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) with G3460A Mutation. A 10-year-old boy with a three-month history of painless bilateral sequential visual loss upon presentation underwent visual acuity (diminished), anterior and posterior segment examination (normal), fluorescein angiography (normal), Goldman kinetic perimetry (bilateral central scotomata), genetic (a point G3460A mutation) and electrophysiological investigation (undetectable pattern visual evoked potentials (VEP); low amplitude, broadened and reduced flash VEPs and loss of the N95 component in the pattern electroretinograms). Diagnosis of LHON was made. Eighteen months later vision and electrophysiological tests results began spontaneously improving. Kinetic perimetry revealed reduced density and size of scotomata. Two years later, there had been further electrophysiological improvement. This report describes both clinical and electrophysiological improvement in LHON with G3460A mutation. PMID:22684678
Sharkawi, Eamon; Oleszczuk, Justyna D; Holder, Graham E; Raina, Joyti
Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers.
Thouin, Anais; Griffiths, Philip G.; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick
Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers. PMID:23667621
Thouin, Anais; Griffiths, Philip G; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is caused by point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and is characterized by bilateral, painless sub-acute visual loss that develops during the second decade of life. Here we report the case of a five year old girl who presented with clinical and neuroradiological findings reminiscent of Leigh syndrome but carried a mtDNA mutation m.11778G>A (p.R340H) in the MTND4 gene usually observed in patients with LHON. This case is unusual for age of onset, gender, associated neurological findings and evolution, further expanding the clinical spectrum associated with primary LHON mtDNA mutations. PMID:21414825
Fruhman, Gary; Landsverk, Megan L; Lotze, Timothy E; Hunter, Jill V; Wangler, Michael F; Adesina, Adekunle M; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Scaglia, Fernando
Chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathies (CADP) are an important group of immune neuromuscular disorders affecting myelin. These are distinct from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Classically, CIDP is characterized by proximal and distal weakness, large fiber sensory loss, elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein content, demyelinating changes nerve conduction studies or nerve biopsy, and response to immunomodulating treatment. In this chapter we discuss CADP with emphasis on multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM), distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy and conclude with less common variants. While each of these entities has distinctive laboratory and electrodiagnostic features that aid in their diagnosis, clinical characteristics are of paramount importance in diagnosing specific conditions and determining the most appropriate therapies. Unlike CIDP, MMN is typically asymmetric and affects only the motor nerve fibers. MMN is a rare disease that presents chronically, over several years of progression affecting the arms are more commonly than the legs. Men are more likely than women to develop MMN. MADSAM should be suspected in patients who have weakness and loss of sensation in primarily one arm or leg which progresses slowly over several months to years. It is important in patient with multifocal demyelinating clinical presentation to distinguish MMN from MADSAM since corticosteroids are not effective in MMN where the mainstay of therapy is intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIg). DADS can be subdivided into DADS-M (associated woth M-protein) and DADS-I which is idioapthic. While DADS-I patients respond somewhat to immunotherapy, DADS-M patients present with distal predominant sensorimotor demyelinating neuropathy phenotype and are notoriously refractory to immunotherapies regardless of antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). Our knowledge regarding pathogenesis, diagnosis and management continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment.
Barohn, Richard J.; Katz, Jonathan
We report the first case of definite neuromyelitis optica (NMO) with a pathogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) (G11778A point mutation). A 36-year-old Japanese woman had experienced recurrent neurological symptoms originating from involvements of the optic nerves and spinal cord. She finally lost her bilateral vision, and spastic paraparesis and sensory disturbances below the T6 level remained despite intensive immunotherapies. Brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed T2-high-intensity lesions in the optic nerves and thoracic spinal cord, but no lesions in the brain. A blood examination revealed positivity for both anti-aquaproin-4 antibodies and an LHON mtDNA mutation. PMID:24263387
Shiraishi, Wataru; Hayashi, Shintaro; Kamada, Takashi; Isobe, Noriko; Yamasaki, Ryo; Murai, Hiroyuki; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi
Objectives: Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease in which acute or subacute bilateral visual loss occurs preferentially in young men. Over 95% of LHON cases are associated with one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations, but only 50% of men and 10% of women who harbour a pathogenetic mtDNA mutation develop optic neuropathy. This incomplete penetrance and preference for men suggests that additional genetic (nuclear or mitochondrial) and/or environmental factors must modulate phenotype expression in LHON. A role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondrial diseases, secondary to mtDNA mutations, or as a result of the direct effect of ROS cytotoxicity, has been implicated in many mitochondrial disorders, including LHON. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress induced apoptosis in LHON. Methods: The 2-deoxy-D-ribose induced apoptotic response of peripheral blood lymphocytes from six patients with LHON and six healthy subjects was investigated using light microscopy, flow cytometry, agarose gel electrophoresis, and the measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential. Results: Cells of patients with LHON had a higher rate of apoptosis than those of controls and there was evidence of mitochondrial involvement in the activation of the apoptotic cascade. Conclusions: These differences in oxidative stress induced apoptosis are in line with the hypothesis that redox homeostasis could play a role in the expression of genetic mutations in different individuals and could represent a potential target in the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Battisti, C; Formichi, P; Cardaioli, E; Bianchi, S; Mangiavacchi, P; Tripodi, S; Tosi, P; Federico, A
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of modifier factors in the expression of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods. Thirty-five subjects from two Han Chinese families with maternally transmitted LHON underwent a clinical and genetic evaluation and molecular analysis of mitochondrial (mt)DNA. Results. Matrilineal relatives in the two Chinese families exhibited a wide range of severity in visual impairment, from blindness to nearly normal vision. Very strikingly, all nine affected individuals of 21 matrilineal relatives (13 females/8 males) were female, which translates to 33% and 57% of penetrance for optic neuropathy in the two families. The average age at onset was 22 and 25 years. These observations were in contrast with typical features in many LHON pedigrees that have a predominance of affected males. Molecular analysis of their mtDNAs identified the homoplasmic ND4 G11778A mutation and distinct sets of variants belonging to the Asian haplogroups M1 and M10a. Of other variants, the L175F variant in CO3; the I58V variant in ND6; and the I189V, L292R, and S297A variants in CYTB were located at highly conserved residues of polypeptides. Conclusions. Only female matrilineal relatives with a wide range of penetrance, severity, and age at onset of optic neuropathy in these two Chinese pedigrees showed the involvement of X-linked or autosomal recessive modifier genes in the phenotypic manifestation of the G11778A mutation. Furthermore, mitochondrial haplogroup-specific variants, together with epigenetic and environmental factors, may contribute to the phenotypic manifestation of the primary LHON-associated G11778A mutation in these pedigrees.
Qu, Jia; Wang, Ying; Tong, Yi; Zhou, Xiangtian; Zhao, Fuxin; Yang, Li; Zhang, Shoukang; Zhang, Juanjuan; West, Constance E.; Guan, Min-Xin
A 42 year old man presented with a slowly progressive gait disturbance, generalised weakness, dysarthria, clumsiness and tremor of his hands, and involuntary jerks. Hexosaminidase A activity in plasma, leucocytes and fibroblasts was considerably reduced, establishing the diagnosis of GM2 gangliosidosis. Clinical examination showed two previously unreported features, a clinically evident sensory neuropathy and internuclear ophthalmoplegia.
D Barnes; V P Misra; E P Young; P K Thomas; A E Harding
Mitochondrial DNA background has been shown to be involved in the penetrance of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in western Eurasian populations. To analyze mtDNA haplogroup distribution pattern in Han Chinese patients with LHON and G11778A mutation, we analyzed the mtDNA haplogroups of 41 probands with LHON known to harbor G11778A mutation by sequencing the mtDNA control region hypervariable segments
Yanli Ji; Xiaoyun Jia; Qingjiong Zhang; Yong-Gang Yao
The possibility that some combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms, previously associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), may affect mitochondrial respiratory function was tested in osteosarcoma-derived transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). In this cellular system, in the presence of the same nuclear background, different exogenous mtDNAs are used to repopulate a parental cell line previously devoid of its original mtDNA. No detectable
Valerio Carelli; Lodovica Vergani; Barbara Bernazzi; Claudia Zampieron; Laura Bucchi; Maria Lucia Valentino; Chiara Rengo; Antonio Torroni; Andrea Martinuzzi
A rare form of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) that is associated with hereditary spastic dystonia has been studied in a large Dutch family. Neuropathy and ophthalmological lesions were present together in some family members, whereas only one type of abnormality was found in others. mtDNA mutations previously reported in LHON were not present. Sequence analysis of the protein-coding mitochondrial genes revealed two previously unreported mtDNA mutations. A heteroplasmic A-->G transition at nucleotide position 11696 in the ND4 gene resulted in the substitution of an isoleucine for valine at amino acid position 312. A second mutation, a homoplasmic T-->A transition at nucleotide position 14596 in the ND6 gene, resulted in the substitution of a methionine for the isoleucine at amino acid residue 26. Biochemical analysis of a muscle biopsy revealed a severe complex I deficiency, providing a link between these unique mtDNA mutations and this rare, complex phenotype including Leber optic neuropathy.
De Vries, D. D.; Went, L. N.; Bruyn, G. W.; Scholte, H. R.; Hofstra, R. M.; Bolhuis, P. A.; van Oost, B. A.
Background Sjögren syndrome is a common, chronic autoimmune disease that typically produces inflammation and poor function of the salivary and lacrimal glands. Other organs can be affected, including the nervous system. Sensory peripheral neuropathy is a common manifestation of the disease. Methods Eight-eight patients attending a dry eyes-dry mouth clinic were classified as primary Sjögren syndrome and underwent a neurological examination. Anti-Ro (or SSA) and anti-La (or SSB) were determined using immunodiffusion as well as Inno-Lia and BioPlex ANA screen. Serum vitamin B12 levels were determined using an enzyme-linked microtiter plate assay. Results Twenty-seven (31%) of the 88 patients had peripheral neuropathy as defined by loss of light touch, proprioception or vibratory sensation. Anti-Ro and anti-La were found by immunodiffusion in 12 patients, and 8 of these 12 had neuropathy (?2=8.46, p=0.0036, odds ratio = 6.0 compared to those without precipitating anti-Ro and anti-La). Of the 27 patients with only anti-Ro by immunodiffusion, 13 (48.1%) of these had neuropathy (?2 =5.587, p=0.018 compared to those without anti-Ro). There was no relationship of the other, more sensitive measures of anti-Ro and anti-La to neuropathy. In addition, we found no association of serum vitamin B12 levels to neuropathy among these patients with Sjögren syndrome. Conclusion Sensory peripheral neuropathy is common among patients with Sjögren syndrome, and is associated with the presence of anti-Ro and anti-La when determined by immunodiffusion.
Scofield, Amanda K.; Radfar, Lida; Ice, John; Vista, Evan; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Houston, Glen; Lewis, David; Stone, Donald U.; Chodosh, James; Hefner, Kimberly; Lessard, Christopher J.; Moser, Kathy L.; Scofield, R. Hal
A man with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy (MADSAM), or Lewis-Sumner syndrome, presented with a progressive left lumbosacral plexus lesion resembling a neurofibroma. After 7 years he developed a left ulnar nerve lesion with conduction block in its upper segment. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin improved the symptoms and signs of both lesions. We conclude that inflammatory neuropathy must be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral nerve tumors, and that unifocal lesions may precede multifocal involvement in MADSAM by several years. In addition, we discuss the clinical features in 9 patients attending a specialist peripheral nerve clinic and review the literature. PMID:16609974
Allen, David C; Smallman, Clare A; Mills, Kerry R
Thirteen patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who suffered from oxaliplatin-induced sensory neuropathy were evaluated to determine the neuropathy Grade before and after the administration of pregabalin. All patients received oxaliplatin as adjuvant or first-line chemotherapy. The mFOLFOX6 and CapeOX groups included 3 and 10 cases, respectively, and the average treatment regimens were 8 and 5 doses, respectively. Before receiving pregabalin, sensory neuropathy was classified as Grade 3 in 2 patients, as Grade 2 in 8 patients, and as Grade 1 in 3 patient. The average amount of pregabalin administered to patients was 237 (range: 150-450) mg. After administering pregabalin, we observed improvements in 8 neuropathy cases (61. 5%)within approximately 2 weeks. All side effects were mild. In this study, pregabalin was shown to positively impact sensory neuropathy resulting from oxaliplatin treatment and to enable the long-term use of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:24047775
Nagahara, Hisashi; Noda, Eiji; Maeda, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Toru; Hirakawa, Toshiki; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Shibutani, Masatsune; Hirakawa, Kosei
Mutations in the DYNC1H1 gene encoding for dynein heavy chain cause two closely related human motor neuropathies, dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and lead to sensory neuropathy and striatal atrophy in mutant mice. Dynein is the molecular motor carrying mitochondria retrogradely on microtubules, yet the consequences of dynein mutations on mitochondrial physiology have not been explored. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts bearing heterozygous or homozygous point mutation in Dync1h1, similar to human mutations, show profoundly abnormal mitochondrial morphology associated with the loss of mitofusin 1. Furthermore, heterozygous Dync1h1 mutant mice display progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle and mitochondria progressively increase in size and invade sarcomeres. As a likely consequence of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, Dync1h1 mutant mice develop hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and progress to glucose intolerance with age. Similar defects in mitochondrial morphology and mitofusin levels are observed in fibroblasts from patients with SMA-LED. Last, we show that Dync1h1 mutant fibroblasts show impaired perinuclear clustering of mitochondria in response to mitochondrial uncoupling. Our results show that dynein function is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function with aging and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to dynein-dependent neurological diseases, such as SMA-LED. PMID:23742762
Eschbach, Judith; Sinniger, Jérôme; Bouitbir, Jamal; Fergani, Anissa; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard; René, Frédérique; Larmet, Yves; Marion, Vincent; Baloh, Robert H; Harms, Matthew B; Shy, Michael E; Messadeq, Nadia; Weydt, Patrick; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc
Purpose Dominant optic atrophy (DOA) is the most common form of autosomal inherited optic neuropathy, mainly caused by mutations in the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) gene. The purpose of this study was to detect OPA1 gene mutations and associated phenotypes in Chinese patients with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy. Methods A cohort of 193 Chinese families with suspected hereditary optic neuropathy was collected, which had been excluded from the three common primary mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in our prior screening. Sanger sequencing was used to analyze variants in the coding and adjacent regions of OPA1. Results In this study, 11 heterozygous OPA1 mutations, among which eight were novel and three were known, were identified in 12 of the 193 families (6.2%) but in none of the 192 control individuals. These novel mutations consisted of two nonsense mutations (p.E707* and p.K797*), two missense mutations (p.T330S and p.V377I), two deletions (p.S64fs and p.L331fs), one small insertion (p.L17fs), and one splice site mutation (c.2614–2A>G). Of the 12 families, three had a family history of optic neuropathy while nine were sporadic cases. Analysis of the family members in the two sporadic cases demonstrated that one parent in each of the two families had the OPA1 mutation and mild phenotype of optic atrophy. A 4-year-old boy with severe ocular phenotype was found to be compound heterozygous for two OPA1 mutations, a p.S64fs frameshift deletion and a p.V377I missense mutation, possibly implying an additive effect. Conclusions This study implies that the frequency of DOA is much lower than that of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Chinese compared with other ethnic groups. Lack of awareness of the mild phenotype of DOA may contribute to the low frequency of OPA1-related DOA in Chinese. The phenotype associated with compound heterozygous OPA1 mutations may suggest a possible addictive effect.
Chen, Yabin; Jia, Xiaoyun; Wang, Panfeng; Xiao, Xueshan; Li, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangming
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited late-onset form of blindness characterized by acute or subacute bilateral retinal degradation resulting in a permanent loss of central vision. G11778A, C3460A, and T14484C mutations on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are specific for LHON and account for most, but not all, worldwide LHON cases. A six-generation Indonesian LHON family with the T14484C mutation was analyzed. Polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that all of the maternal lineages had the T14484C mutation in a homoplasmic form. Penetrance of the disease (33.3%) and male predominance (3:1) was similar to other worldwide LHON with the T14484C mutation. The incidence of offspring born to affected mothers was no different from that of unaffected mothers, and the age distribution of cases was no higher than that of asymptomatic carriers. Eight secondary mutations were sought but not detected. The patients of this family belonged to haplogroup M. These findings support the idea that the mtDNA backgrounds involved in the expression of LHON mutations in southeast Asians are different from those of Europeans. PMID:12827453
Nishioka, Tomoki; Tasaki, Mamoru; Soemantri, Augustinus; Dyat, Marbaniati; Susanto, J C; Tamam, Moedrik; Sudarmanto, Bambang; Ishida, Takafumi
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease characterized by optic nerve degeneration associated with severe bilateral visual loss in young men and occasionally in women. A mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replacement mutation in LHON patient, G to A transition at nucleotide position (nt) 11778 converting the 340th arginine to histidine in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4, was detected as SfaNI site polymorphism (Wallace et al., Science, 242: 1427-1430, 1988). To evaluate if the SfaNI site loss can be used to diagnose LHON patients, mtDNAs from peripheral blood of six affected males including five probands from five unrelated Japanese families with LHON, a pair of parents and a normal sister of one of the probands and 4 control persons were analyzed using PCR amplification method. The mutation of leukocyte mtDNA at nt 11778 was identified in all of the affected patients, the normal mother and the sister examined, while the father who is normal and 4 control persons did not show the change. These findings support that the mutation at nt 11778 is also associated with LHON in the Japanese and the test of the SfaNI site loss described here is useful for confirming the clinical diagnosis of LHON patients with the mutation at nt 11778. PMID:1681125
Fujiki, K; Hotta, Y; Hayakawa, M; Saito, K; Ara, F; Ueda, S; Goto, T; Ishida, M; Yanashima, K; Shiono, T
Over 95% of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) cases are due to mutations in mitochondrial DNA-encoded subunits of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (E.C.188.8.131.52., complex I). A recessive X-linked susceptibility gene that acts synergistically with the primary mtDNA mutation to produce visual loss is suggested by the high male-to-female ratio among LHON patients. The ESSS protein is a recently isolated subunit of bovine heart mitochondrial complex I. We revisited the genomic sequence of NDUFB11, the human homolog mapping to chromosome Xp11.23, and identified two mRNA isoforms showing different expression profiles in human tissues. Cultured skin fibroblasts from four LHON patients showed a pattern of expression similar to normal controls. Moreover, NDUFB11 did not seem to influence risk and age at onset of visual loss in a total of 65 individuals from 35 Italian LHON families. Also, the gene was not affected in 11 children with a severe encephalopathy associated with decreased complex I activity in skeletal muscle. PMID:17292333
Petruzzella, Vittoria; Tessa, Alessandra; Torraco, Alessandra; Fattori, Fabiana; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Bruno, Claudio; Cardaioli, Elena; Papa, Sergio; Federico, Antonio; Santorelli, Filippo M
Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS), which encodes the enzyme responsible for charging tRNA(Gly) with glycine in both the cytoplasm and mitochondria, is implicated to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2D (CMT2D) and distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V (dHMN-V). We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify the genetic defects in the two dHMN families. WES revealed several decades of non-synonymous variants in the CMT and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes. The subsequent capillary sequencing for family members and controls revealed two novel causative mutations, c.598G>A (D200N) and c.794C>T (S265F), in the GARS gene in each dHMN family. Both mutations were cosegregated with affected individuals in each family, and were not found in the 200 controls. The mutation sites were well conserved between the different species and in silico analysis predicted that both mutations may affect protein function. Therefore, we believe that these two novel GARS mutations are the underlying causes of the dHMN phenotype. PMID:23279345
Lee, Hye Jin; Park, Jin; Nakhro, Khriezanou; Park, Jin Mo; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally transmitted disorder caused by point mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Most cases are due to mutations in genes encoding subunits of the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase that is Complex I of the electron transport chain (ETC). These mutations are located at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, or 14484 in the mitochondrial genome. The disease is characterized by apoplectic, bilateral, and severe visual loss. While the mutated mtDNA impairs generation of ATP by all mitochondria, there is only a selective loss of retinal ganglion cells and degeneration of optic nerve axons. Thus, blindness is typically permanent. Half of the men and 10% of females who harbor the pathogenic mtDNA mutation actually develop the phenotype. This incomplete penetrance and gender bias is not fully understood. Additional mitochondrial and/or nuclear genetic factors may modulate the phenotypic expression of LHON. In a population-based study, the mtDNA background of haplogroup J was associated with an inverse relationship of low-ATP generation and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Effective therapy for LHON has been elusive. In this paper, we describe the findings of pertinent published studies and discuss the controversies of potential strategies to ameliorate the disease.
Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D.; Guy, John
We performed the first population-based clinical and molecular genetic study of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in a population of 2,173,800 individuals in the North East of England. We identified 16 genealogically unrelated families who harbor one of the three primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations that cause LHON. Two of these families were found to be linked genetically to a common maternal founder. A de novo mtDNA mutation (G3460A) was identified in one family. The minimum point prevalence of visual failure due to LHON within this population was 3.22 per 100,000 (95% CI 2.47–3.97 per 100,000), and the minimum point prevalence for mtDNA LHON mutations was 11.82 per 100,000 (95% CI 10.38–13.27 per 100,000). These results indicate that LHON is not rare but has a population prevalence similar to autosomally inherited neurological disorders. The majority of individuals harbored only mutant mtDNA (homoplasmy), but heteroplasmy was detected in ?12% of individuals. Overall, however, ?33% of families with LHON had at least one heteroplasmic individual. The high incidence of heteroplasmy in pedigrees with LHON raises the possibility that a closely related maternal relative of an index case may not harbor the mtDNA mutation, highlighting the importance of molecular genetic testing for each maternal family member seeking advice about their risks of visual failure.
Man, P. Y. W.; Griffiths, P. G.; Brown, D. T.; Howell, N.; Turnbull, D. M.; Chinnery, P. F.
Optic atrophy describes a group of diseases of retinal ganglion cells and axons that eventually lead to loss of vision. Optic atrophy has both congenital and acquired causes, and its diagnosis (or differential diagnosis) is complicated. This case report describes a 20-year-old man who presented with a 1-year history of progressive vision loss in both eyes and no obvious systemic symptoms. Fundus examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Based on clinical characteristics, visual field analysis and pattern visual evoked potential examination, the presumptive diagnosis was Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Analysis of mitochondrial DNA indicated the absence of all of three common mutations associated with LHON (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, m.14484T>C). Detailed questioning of the patient revealed a history of prolonged language development and poor balance. Neurological examination indicated abnormal co-ordination, suggesting the presence of inherited spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA). Analysis of the SCA7 gene revealed a high number of trinucleotide repeats [(CAG)(n), n > 64], confirming the diagnosis of SCA. The aetiology of optic atrophies is complicated and the molecular genetic detection approach provides the best information for diagnosing these diseases. PMID:23206485
Song, Y P; Chen, Z S; Mo, G Y; Ding, Q; Zhu, L; Yan, M
A 20-year-old man with mild myopathy, external ophthalmoparesis, epilepsy, and diffuse white matter hyperintensity in the brain on magnetic resonance imaging had partial merosin deficiency in muscle and absent merosin in the endoneurium. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities were slow. Nerve biopsy showed reduction of large myelinated fibers, short internodes, enlarged nodes, excessive variability of myelin thickness, tomacula, and uncompacted myelin, but no evidence of segmental demyelination, naked axons, or onion bulbs. Thus, in congenital muscular dystrophy, merosin expression may be dissociated in different tissues, and the neuropathy is sensory-motor and due to abnormal myelinogenesis. PMID:12661054
Di Muzio, A; De Angelis, M V; Di Fulvio, P; Ratti, A; Pizzuti, A; Stuppia, L; Gambi, D; Uncini, A
Sensory nerve biopsy specimens from patients with Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy\\u000a (CIDP), and controls consisting of other neuropathies, were examined in order to characterise the nature and intensity of\\u000a any inflammatory infiltrate. In order to establish whether ?? T cells were present in these infiltrates we examined the expression\\u000a of ?? and ?? T cell receptors
John Winer; Sharon Hughes; Joanne Cooper; Anne Ben-Smith; Caroline Savage
Peripheral neuropathy refers to disorders of the peripheral nervous system. They have numerous causes and diverse presentations; hence, a systematic and logical approach is needed for cost-effective diagnosis, especially of treatable neuropathies. A detailed history of symptoms, family and occupational history should be obtained. General and systemic examinations provide valuable clues. Neurological examinations investigating sensory, motor and autonomic signs help to define the topography and nature of neuropathy. Large fiber neuropathy manifests with the loss of joint position and vibration sense and sensory ataxia, whereas small fiber neuropathy manifests with the impairment of pain, temperature and autonomic functions. Electrodiagnostic (EDx) tests include sensory, motor nerve conduction, F response, H reflex and needle electromyography (EMG). EDx helps in documenting the extent of sensory motor deficits, categorizing demyelinating (prolonged terminal latency, slowing of nerve conduction velocity, dispersion and conduction block) and axonal (marginal slowing of nerve conduction and small compound muscle or sensory action potential and dennervation on EMG). Uniform demyelinating features are suggestive of hereditary demyelination, whereas difference between nerves and segments of the same nerve favor acquired demyelination. Finally, neuropathy is classified into mononeuropathy commonly due to entrapment or trauma; mononeuropathy multiplex commonly due to leprosy and vasculitis; and polyneuropathy due to systemic, metabolic or toxic etiology. Laboratory investigations are carried out as indicated and specialized tests such as biochemical, immunological, genetic studies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy are carried out in selected patients. Approximately 20% patients with neuropathy remain undiagnosed but the prognosis is not bad in them.
Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee; Nair, Pradeep P.
Liver transplantation (LT) has been reported in only 1 patient with hereditary variant apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) amyloidosis and was associated with a 50% decrease in production of variant apoAI. The potential for this to benefit clinical manifestations of apoAI amyloidosis such as peripheral neuropathy has not been determined. A 59-yr-old Irish-born male with hereditary systemic amyloidosis associated with apoAI Gly26Arg, which was suspected to be the cause of a progressive peripheral neuropathy, along with end-stage renal failure and hepatic dysfunction, underwent hepatorenal transplantation. Evaluation of his clinical outcome included serial neurological examinations and nerve conduction studies. The proportion of variant apoAI in the plasma was estimated before and after LT. Hepatorenal transplantation was successful, with the plasma concentration of variant apoAI decreasing by over 50% after transplantation and this was associated with progressive resolution of the patient's neuropathic symptoms and a significant and sustained improvement in electrophysiological parameters. In conclusion, liver transplantation reduces production of the amyloid fibril precursor protein to a degree that can facilitate net regression of amyloid deposits, which may aid recovery of end-organ damage such as that seen in peripheral neuropathy. PMID:17600344
Testro, Adam G; Brennan, Stephen O; Macdonell, Richard A L; Hawkins, Philip N; Angus, Peter W
IMPORTANCE We developed a novel strategy for treatment of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) caused by a mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit IV (ND4) mitochondrial gene. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the safety and effects of the gene therapy vector to be used in a proposed gene therapy clinical trial. DESIGN AND SETTING In a series of laboratory experiments, we modified the mitochondrial ND4 subunit of complex I in the nuclear genetic code for import into mitochondria. The protein was targeted into the organelle by agency of a targeting sequence (allotopic expression). The gene was packaged into adeno-associated viral vectors and then vitreally injected into rodent, nonhuman primate, and ex vivo human eyes that underwent testing for expression and integration by immunohistochemical analysis and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. During serial follow-up, the animal eyes underwent fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, and multifocal or pattern electroretinography. We tested for rescue of visual loss in rodent eyes also injected with a mutant G11778A ND4 homologue responsible for most cases of LHON. EXPOSURE Ocular infection with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors containing a wild-type allotopic human ND4 gene. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Expression of human ND4 and rescue of optic neuropathy induced by mutant human ND4. RESULTS We found human ND4 expressed in almost all mouse retinal ganglion cells by 1 week after injection and ND4 integrated into the mouse complex I. In rodent eyes also injected with a mutant allotopic ND4, wild-type allotopic ND4 prevented defective adenosine triphosphate synthesis, suppressed visual loss, reduced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and prevented demise of axons in the optic nerve. Injection of ND4 in the ex vivo human eye resulted in expression in most retinal ganglion cells. Primates undergoing vitreal injection with the ND4 test article and followed up for 3 months had no serious adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Expression of our allotopic ND4 vector in the ex vivo human eye, safety of the test article, rescue of the LHON mouse model, and the severe irreversible loss of visual function in LHON support clinical testing with mutated G11778A mitochondrial DNA in our patients. PMID:24457989
Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D; Yu, Hong; Chou, Tsung-Han; Feuer, William J; Ruggeri, Marco; Porciatti, Vittorio; Tse, David; Hauswirth, William W; Chiodo, Vince; Boye, Sanford L; Lewin, Alfred S; Neuringer, Martha; Renner, Lauren; Guy, John
Objective: To determine whether the association between multiple sclerosis (MS) and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) (known as “Harding disease”) is a chance finding, or the 2 disorders are mechanistically linked. Methods: We performed a United Kingdom–wide prospective cohort study of prevalent cases of MS with LHON mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. The new cases were compared with published cases, enabling a comprehensive clinical description. We also performed a meta-analysis of studies screening patients with MS for LHON mtDNA mutations to find evidence of a genetic association. Results: Twelve new patients were identified from 11 pedigrees, and 44 cases were identified in the literature. The combined cohort had the following characteristics: multiple episodes of visual loss, predominance for women, and lengthy time interval before the fellow eye is affected (average 1.66 years), which is very atypical of LHON; conversely, most patients presented without eye pain and had a poor visual prognosis, which is unusual for optic neuritis associated with MS. The number of UK cases of LHON-MS fell well within the range predicted by the chance occurrence of MS and the mtDNA mutations known to cause LHON. There was no association between LHON mtDNA mutations and MS in a meta-analysis of the published data. Conclusions: Although the co-occurrence of MS and LHON mtDNA mutations is likely to be due to chance, the resulting disorder has a distinct phenotype, implicating a mechanistic interaction. Patients with LHON-MS have a more aggressive course, and prognostication and treatment should be guarded.
Pfeffer, Gerald; Burke, Ailbhe; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Compston, D. Alastair S.
The distinction between mild pathogenic mtDNA mutations and population polymorphisms can be ambiguous because both are homoplasmic, alter conserved functions, and correlate with disease. One possible explanation for this ambiguity is that the same variant may have different consequences in different contexts. The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) nucleotide 3394 T > C (Y30H) variant is such a case. This variant has been associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and it reduces complex I activity and cellular respiration between 7% and 28% on the Asian B4c and F1 haplogroup backgrounds. However, complex I activity between B4c and F1 mtDNAs, which harbor the common 3394T allele, can also differ by 30%. In Asia, the 3394C variant is most commonly associated with the M9 haplogroup, which is rare at low elevations but increases in frequency with elevation to an average of 25% of the Tibetan mtDNAs (odds ratio = 23.7). In high-altitude Tibetan and Indian populations, the 3394C variant occurs on five different macrohaplogroup M haplogroup backgrounds and is enriched on the M9 background in Tibet and the C4a4 background on the Indian Deccan Plateau (odds ratio = 21.9). When present on the M9 background, the 3394C variant is associated with a complex I activity that is equal to or higher than that of the 3394T variant on the B4c and F1 backgrounds. Hence, the 3394C variant can either be deleterious or beneficial depending on its haplogroup and environmental context. Thus, this mtDNA variant fulfills the criteria for a common variant that predisposes to a “complex” disease.
Ji, Fuyun; Sharpley, Mark S.; Derbeneva, Olga; Alves, Leonardo Scherer; Qian, Pin; Wang, Yaoli; Chalkia, Dimitra; Lvova, Maria; Xu, Jiancheng; Yao, Wei; Simon, Mariella; Platt, Julia; Xu, Shiqin; Angelin, Alessia; Davila, Antonio; Huang, Taosheng; Wang, Ping H.; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Moore, Lorna G.; Qian, Guisheng; Wallace, Douglas C.
Purpose To study mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in patients suspected of having this mitochondrial disorder in a Latvian population. Additional aims were to determine the heteroplasmy status of all non-synonymous polymorphisms identified in the current study and to identify the mitochondrial haplogroups of the studied participants because these factors may contribute to the manifestation of LHON. Methods Twelve patients, including patients in two families, were enrolled in the current study. LHON was suspected based on the findings of ophthalmologic examinations. In clinically affected individuals, the presence of all previously reported LHON-associated mutations was assessed with sequencing analysis. Additionally, the SURVEYOR endonuclease assay was used to detect heteroplasmy. The mitochondrial haplogroups were identified with restriction analysis and the sequencing of hypervariable segment 1. Results In one family (mother and son), there was one primary LHON-associated mutation, G11778A. In addition, one rare previously reported LHON-associated polymorphism, A13637G, was detected in two unrelated patients. A non-synonymous polymorphism at T6253C was found in one individual. This mutation was reported in the background of the 3460 mutation among LHON patients in a Chinese population. No non-synonymous point mutations in mitochondrial DNA were found in five of the study participants. Conclusions Molecular analysis of 12 patients with suspected LHON confirmed the diagnosis in four patients and allowed the use of appropriate prophylactic measures and treatment. Further investigations and additional studies of different populations are necessary to confirm the role of the non-synonymous polymorphisms A13637G and T6253C in the manifestation of LHON and the associations of these polymorphisms with mitochondrial haplogroups and heteroplasmy.
Baumane, Kristine; Zalite, Solveiga; Ranka, Renate; Zole, Egija; Pole, Ilva; Sepetiene, Svetlana; Laganovska, Guna; Baumanis, Viesturs; Pliss, Liana
Purpose. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a mitochondrial disease, has clinical manifestations that reflect the initial preferential involvement of the papillomacular bundle (PMB). The present study seeks to predict the order of axonal loss in LHON optic nerves using the Nerve Fiber Layer Stress Index (NFL-SI), which is a novel mathematical model. Methods. Optic nerves were obtained postmortem from four molecularly characterized LHON patients with varying degrees of neurodegenerative changes and three age-matched controls. Tissues were cut in cross-section and stained with p-phenylenediamine to visualize myelin. Light microscopic images were captured in 32 regions of each optic nerve. Control and LHON tissues were evaluated by measuring axonal dimensions to generate an axonal diameter distribution map. LHON tissues were further evaluated by determining regions of total axonal depletion. Results. A size gradient was evident in the control optic nerves, with average axonal diameter increasing progressively from the temporal to nasal borders. LHON optic nerves showed an orderly loss of axons, starting inferotemporally, progressing centrally, and sparing the superonasal region until the end. Values generated from the NFL-SI equation fit a linear regression curve (R2 = 0.97; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The quantitative histopathologic data from this study revealed that the PMB is most susceptible in LHON, supporting clinical findings seen early in the course of disease onset. The present study also showed that the subsequent progression of axonal loss within the optic nerve can be predicted precisely with the NFL-SI equation. The results presented provided further insight into the pathophysiology of LHON.
Pan, Billy X.; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Carelli, Valerio; Rue, Kelly S.; Salomao, Solange R.; Moraes-Filho, Milton N.; Moraes, Milton N.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Sadun, Alfredo A.
Background: The authors investigated the correlation of protan and tritan color vision with disease characteristics in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The authors also characterized the therapeutic potential of idebenone in protecting patients from developing dyschromatopsia in LHON. Methods: Color contrast data of 39 LHON patients participating in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled intervention study were evaluated. Patients reported disease onset <5 years before enrolment and were genetically confirmed. Protan and tritan color contrast sensitivity was measured using a computer graphics method in patients receiving idebenone (Catena; 900 mg/d; N = 28) or placebo (N = 11) for 6 months. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.1 years, 87.2% were men, 76.9% carried the m11778G>A mutation, and mean duration since onset was 2 years. Assessing protan and tritan color vision at baseline revealed a high degree of color confusion even in young patients (<25 years) and with a short history of disease (<1 year). Treatment with idebenone improved tritan color vision compared with placebo (P = 0.008 at week 24); a similar trend was seen for protan. The effect of idebenone was most prominent in patients with discordant visual acuity (interocular difference of logMAR >0.2). In this subgroup, the treatment effect at week 24 was 20.4% (P = 0.005) in favor of idebenone for the tritan color domain and 13.5% (P = 0.067) for the protan domain. Conclusion: This study confirms that protan and tritan color confusion is an early symptom in LHON. Treatment with idebenone can protect from loss of color vision, particularly in patients who are at imminent risk of further vision loss.
Rudolph, Guenther; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos; Buchner, Boriana; Heck, Suzette; Al-Tamami, Jasmina; Seidensticker, Florian; Rummey, Christian; Leinonen, Mika; Meier, Thomas
Diabetes is the most prevalent metabolic disorder in the United States, and between 50% and 70% of diabetic patients suffer from diabetes-induced neuropathy. Yet our current knowledge of the functional changes in sensory nerves and their distal terminals caused by diabetes is limited. Here, we set out to investigate the functional and morphological consequences of diabetes on specific subtypes of cutaneous sensory nerves in mice. Diabetes was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After 6–8 wk, mice were characterized for behavioral sensitivity to mechanical and heat stimuli followed by analysis of sensory function using teased nerve fiber recordings and histological assessment of nerve fiber morphology. Diabetes produced severe functional impairment of C-fibers and rapidly adapting A?-fibers, leading to behavioral hyposensitivity to both mechanical and heat stimuli. Electron microscopy images showed that diabetic nerves have axoplasm with more concentrated organelles and frequent axon-myelin separations compared with control nerves. These changes were restricted to the distal nerve segments nearing their innervation territory. Furthermore, the relative proportion of A?-fibers was reduced in diabetic skin-nerve preparations compared with nondiabetic control mice. These data identify significant deficits in sensory nerve terminal function that are associated with distal fiber loss, morphological damage, and behavioral hyposensitivity in diabetic C57Bl/6 mice. These findings suggest that diabetes damages sensory nerves, leading to functional deficits in sensory signaling that underlie the loss of tactile acuity and pain sensation associated with insensate diabetic neuropathy.
Lennertz, Richard C.; Medler, Karen A.; Bain, James L.; Wright, Douglas E.
Diabetic neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus with over half of all patients developing altered sensation as a result of damage to peripheral sensory neurons. Hyperglycemia results in altered nerve conduction velocities, loss of epidermal innervation, and the development of painful or painless signs and symptoms in the feet and hands. Current research has been unable to determine if a patient will develop insensate or painful neuropathy or be protected from peripheral nerve damage all together. One of the mechanisms that has been recognized to have a role in the pathogenesis of sensory neuron damage is the process of reactive dicarbonyls forming advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) as a direct result of hyperglycemia. The glyoxalase system, composed of the enzymes glyoxalase I (GLO1) and glyoxalase II, is the main detoxification pathway involved in breaking down toxic reactive dicarbonyls before producing carbonyl stress and forming AGEs on proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids. This review discusses AGEs, GLO1, their role in diabetic neuropathy, and potential therapeutic targets of the AGE pathway.
Jack, M.M.; Wright, D.E.
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited mitochondrial disorder that primarily affects the optic nerve. We report a case of reduced visual acuity secondary to optic atrophy in a 13-year-old boy. Transient seizures developed subsequently. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. Ragged red fibers were not detected on skeletal muscle biopsy. A 11778G>A mitochondrial DNA point mutation was identified in the lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood. His younger brother was a carrier with the same mutation. The presentation of this case is unusual documenting LHON in association with PRES. PMID:23782927
Da, Yuwei; Zhang, Xuxiang; Li, Fang; Yang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xinqing; Jia, Jianping
A 31-year-old woman developed subacute bilateral visual loss over a 2-week period. Two months later, the diagnosis of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) 11778/ND4 was established and the patient was treated with 900 mg of idebenone daily. Over the ensuing 9 months, visual acuity improved from 20/200 to 20/25 in each eye with near-total resolution in visual field abnormalities. Our case report is in agreement with 2 large published series of patients with LHON treated with idebenone, raising hope for treatment of this visually devastating mitochondrial disorder. PMID:22269948
Sabet-Peyman, Esfandiar J; Khaderi, Khizer R; Sadun, Alfredo A
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mono-neuropathies secondary to minor trauma or compression. Whilst typical episodes of palsy generally become apparent during the second and the third decades, HNPP is rarely diagnosed in the first decade. We present the case of a 6-year-old patient to draw attention to the possibility
Ay?e Oytun Bayrak; Esra Battaloglu; Hande Turker; Ibrahim Baris; Gurkan Oztas
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation is emerging as a fundamental mechanism in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications including diabetic neuropathy. This study evaluated the role of PARP in diabetic sensory neuropathy. The experiments were performed in control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with or without the PARP inhibitor 1,5-isoquinolinediol (ISO; 3 mg · kg?1 · day?1 i.p.) for 2 weeks after 2 weeks without treatment. Diabetic rats developed thermal hyperalgesia (assessed by paw-withdrawal and tail-flick tests), mechanical hyperalgesia (von Frey anesthesiometer/rigid filaments and Randall-Sellito tests), tactile allodynia (flexible von Frey filaments), and increased flinching behavior in phases 1 and 2 of the 2% formalin pain test. They also had clearly manifest increase in nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) immunoreactivities in the sciatic nerve and increased superoxide formation (hydroxyethidine method) and nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in vasa nervorum. ISO treatment alleviated abnormal sensory responses, including thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia as well as exaggerated formalin flinching behavior in diabetic rats, without affecting the aforementioned variables in the control group. Poly(ADP-ribose) and, to a lesser extent, nitrotyrosine abundance in sciatic nerve, as well as superoxide and nitrotyrosine formation in vasa nervorum, were markedly reduced by ISO therapy. Apoptosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons (transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay) was not detected in any of the groups. In conclusion, PARP activation contributes to early diabetic sensory neuropathy by mechanisms that may include oxidative stress but not neuronal apoptosis.
Ilnytska, Olga; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V.; Stevens, Martin J.; Drel, Viktor R.; Mashtalir, Nazar; Pacher, Pal; Yorek, Mark A.; Obrosova, Irina G.
Background Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disorder, which in over 90% of cases is due to one of three primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations (m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C, respectively in MT-ND4, MT-ND1 and MT-ND6 genes). However, the spectrum of mtDNA mutations causing the remaining 10% of cases is only partially and often poorly defined. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve such a list of pathological variants, we completely sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of suspected LHON patients from Italy, France and Germany, lacking the three primary common mutations. Phylogenetic and conservation analyses were performed. Sixteen mitochondrial genomes were found to harbor at least one of the following nine rare LHON pathogenic mutations in genes MT-ND1 (m.3700G>A/p.A132T, m.3733G>A-C/p.E143K-Q, m.4171C>A/p.L289M), MT-ND4L (m.10663T>C/p.V65A) and MT-ND6 (m.14459G>A/p.A72V, m.14495A>G/p.M64I, m.14482C>A/p.L60S, and m.14568C>T/p.G36S). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these substitutions were due to independent events on different haplogroups, whereas interspecies comparisons showed that they affected conserved amino acid residues or domains in the ND subunit genes of complex I. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that these nine substitutions are all primary LHON mutations. Therefore, despite their relative low frequency, they should be routinely tested for in all LHON patients lacking the three common mutations. Moreover, our sequence analysis confirms the major role of haplogroups J1c and J2b (over 35% in our probands versus 6% in the general population of Western Europe) and other putative synergistic mtDNA variants in LHON expression.
Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Reynier, Pascal; La Morgia, Chiara; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Liguori, Rocco; Pizza, Fabio; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Federico; De Negri, Anna Maria; Zeviani, Massimo; Dollfus, Helene; Moulignier, Antoine; Ducos, Ghislaine; Orssaud, Christophe; Bonneau, Dominique; Procaccio, Vincent; Leo-Kottler, Beate; Fauser, Sascha; Wissinger, Bernd; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Torroni, Antonio; Carelli, Valerio
We report the case of a 50-year-old man with subacute onset of bilateral visual field loss and visual acuity loss. His visual acuity was 0.07 OD/0.09 OS and Goldmann perimetry showed central scotomas. The optic fundi were normal bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed hyperintensity in the right optic nerve on T(2) weighted imaging and swelling of the optic chiasm with slight enhancement of the bilateral optic nerves and the optic chiasm on gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Since sensory disturbance in the left hand and leg was noted in addition to the visual problem, multiple sclerosis (MS) was suspected initially. The patient was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone (1,000 mg/day), plasma exchange therapy, and immunosuppressant therapy. However, his visual disturbance did not improve. He had a history of deafness and family history of visual disturbance, because of which we performed an analysis of mitochondrial DNA. G11778A point mutation was found, and a diagnosis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was made. Although gadolinium contrast enhancement and swelling of the optic nerve are rare, this case shows that these findings are not in conflict with LHON. The present case also suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction may trigger the onset of MS-like extraocular symptoms in patients with LHON. PMID:22354234
Furuki, Misako; Ohkubo, Takuya; Ota, Kiyobumi; Ishikawa, Kinya; Yokota, Takanori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro
Context Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited loss of central vision related to pathogenic mutations in the mitochondrial genome, which are a necessary but not sufficient condition to develop the disease. Investigation of precipitating environmental/occupational (and additional genetic) factors could be relevant for prevention. Case presentation After a 6-month period of occupational exposure to n-hexane and other organic solvents, a 27-year-old man (a moderate smoker) developed an optic neuropathy. The patient had a full ophthalmologic and neurologic investigation, including standardized cycloergometer test for serum lactic acid levels and a skeletal muscle biopsy. His exposure history was also detailed, and he underwent genetic testing for LHON mitochondrial DNA mutations. The patient suffered a sequential optic neuropathy with the hallmarks of LHON and tested positive for the homoplasmic 11778G ? A/ND4 mutation. Routine laboratory monitoring revealed increased concentrations of urinary 2.5 hexandione (n-hexane metabolite) and hippuric acid (toluene metabolite) in the period immediately preceding the visual loss. Discussion In a subject carrying an LHON mutation, the strict temporal sequence of prolonged appreciable occupational exposure followed by sudden onset of visual loss must raise a suspicion of causality (with a possible further interaction with tobacco smoke). Relevance In this article, we add to the candidate occupational/environmental triggers of LHON and highlight the need for appropriate case–control (and laboratory) studies to validate the causal effect of mixed toxic exposures.
Carelli, Valerio; Franceschini, Flavia; Venturi, Silvia; Barboni, Piero; Savini, Giacomo; Barbieri, Giuseppe; Pirro, Ettore; La Morgia, Chiara; Valentino, Maria L.; Zanardi, Francesca; Violante, Francesco S.; Mattioli, Stefano
OBJECTIVESLeber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease leading to bilateral loss of central vision and severe optic nerve atrophy. A subtype of LHON presents additional clinical and MRI aspects indistinguishable from those of multiple sclerosis (MS) (LHON-MS). In patients with LHON or LHON-MS, an assessment was made of (a) the severity of optic nerve damage, using MRI and
M Inglese; M Rovaris; S Bianchi; L La Mantia; G L Mancardi; A Ghezzi; P Montagna; F Salvi; M Filippi
IMPORTANCE Patients with rare diseases and complex clinical presentations represent a challenge for clinical diagnostics. Genomic approaches are allowing the identification of novel variants in genes for very rare disorders, enabling a molecular diagnosis. Genomics is also revealing a phenotypic expansion whereby the full spectrum of clinical expression conveyed by mutant alleles at a locus can be better appreciated. OBJECTIVE To elucidate the molecular cause of a complex neuropathy phenotype in 3 patients by applying genomic sequencing strategies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Three affected individuals from 2 unrelated families presented with a complex neuropathy phenotype characterized by axonal sensorimotor neuropathy and microcephaly. They were recruited into the Centers for Mendelian Genomics research program to identify the molecular cause of their phenotype. Whole-genome, targeted whole-exome sequencing, and high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays were performed in genetics clinics of tertiary care pediatric hospitals and biomedical research institutions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing identified the variants responsible for the patients’ clinical phenotype. RESULTS We identified compound heterozygous alleles in 2 affected siblings from 1 family and a homozygous nonsense variant in the third unrelated patient in the vaccinia-related kinase 1 gene (VRK1). In the latter subject, we found a common haplotype on which the nonsense mutation occurred and that segregates in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We report the identification of disease-causing alleles in 3 children from 2 unrelated families with a previously uncharacterized complex axonal motor and sensory neuropathy accompanied by severe nonprogressive microcephaly and cerebral dysgenesis. Our data raise the question of whether VRK1 mutations disturb cell cycle progression and may result in apoptosis of cells in the nervous system. The application of unbiased genomic approaches allows the identification of potentially pathogenic mutations in unsuspected genes in highly genetically heterogeneous and uncharacterized neurological diseases.
Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lotze, Timothy; Jamal, Leila; Penney, Samantha; Campbell, Ian M.; Pehlivan, Davut; Hunter, Jill V.; Woodbury, Suzanne L.; Raymond, Gerald; Adesina, Adekunle M.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Muzny, Donna M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wiszniewski, Wojciech
We described a 62-year-old man with a 10 years history of chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy. His laboratory investigations revealed elevated serum IgM with IgM kappa paraproteinemia, IgM antibody against b-series gangliosides including GD3, GD2, GD1b, GT1b, GQ1b, GQ1b alpha, and high titer of cold agglutinin. The clinical and serological features in our patient were compatible with the diagnosis of CANOMAD (chronic ataxic neuropathy with ophthalmoplegia, M-protein, agglutination, and disialosyl antibodies), proposed by Willison et al. IgM antibody against b-series gangliosides including GD1b appeared to play an essential role in developing autoimmune sensory ataxic neuropathy. PMID:10614164
Susuki, K; Koga, M; Yuki, N; Johkura, K; Kuroiwa, Y
Although a variety of industrial chemicals, as well as several chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer or HIV, preferentially induce a peripheral sensory neuropathy what remains unclear is why these agents induce a sensory vs. a motor or mixed neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that the endothelial cells that vascularize the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which houses the primary afferent sensory neurons, are unique in that they have large fenestrations and are permeable to a variety of low and high molecular weight agents. In the present report we used whole-mount preparations, immunohistochemistry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy to show that the cell body-rich area of the L4 mouse DRG has a 7 fold higher density of CD31+ capillaries than cell fiber rich area of the DRG or the distal or proximal aspect of the sciatic nerve. This dense vascularization, coupled with the high permeability of these capillaries, may synergistically contribute, and in part explain, why many potentially neurotoxic agents preferentially accumulate and injure cells within the DRG. Currently, cancer survivors and HIV patients constitute the largest and most rapidly expanding groups that have chemically induced peripheral sensory neuropathy. Understanding the unique aspects of the vascularization of the DRG and closing the endothelial fenestrations of the rich vascular bed of capillaries that vascularize the DRG before intravenous administration of anti-neoplastic or anti-HIV therapies, may offer a mechanism based approach to attenuate these chemically induced peripheral neuropathies in these patients.
Jimenez-Andrade, Juan M; Herrera, Monica B; Ghilardi, Joseph R; Vardanyan, Marina; Melemedjian, Ohannes K; Mantyh, Patrick W
Mitochondrial disorders cannot be ignored anymore in most medical disciplines; indeed their minimum estimated prevalence is superior to 1 in 5000 births. Despite the progress made in the last 25 years on the identification of gene mutations causing mitochondrial pathologies, only slow progress was made towards their effective treatments. Ocular involvement is a frequent feature in mitochondrial diseases and corresponds to severe and irreversible visual handicap due to retinal neuron loss and optic atrophy. Interestingly, three clinical trials for Leber Congenital Amaurosis due to RPE65 mutations are ongoing since 2007. Overall, the feasibility and safety of ocular Adeno-Associated Virus delivery in adult and younger patients and consistent visual function improvements have been demonstrated. The success of gene-replacement therapy for RPE65 opens the way for the development of similar approaches for a broad range of eye disorders, including those with mitochondrial etiology such as Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON). PMID:24702846
Cwerman-Thibault, Hélčne; Augustin, Sébastien; Ellouze, Sami; Sahel, José-Alain; Corral-Debrinski, Marisol
Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that affects peripheral nerves by repeated focal pressure. HNPP can be diagnosed by clinical findings, electrodiagnostic studies, histopathological features, and genetic analysis. Ultrasonography is increasingly used for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases; however, sonographic features of HNPP have not been clearly defined. We report the sonographic findings and comparative electrodiagnostic data in a 73-year-old woman with HNPP, confirmed by genetic analysis. The cross-sectional areas of peripheral nerves were enlarged at typical nerve entrapment sites, but enlargement at non-entrapment sites was uncommon. These sonographic features may be helpful for diagnosis of HNPP when electrodiagnostic studies are suspicious of HNPP and/or gene study is not compatible.
Kim, Se Hwa; Yoon, Joon Shik; Park, Bum Jun
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) ND mutations that are mostly homoplasmic. However, these mutations are not sufficient to explain the peculiar features of penetrance and the tissue-specific expression of the disease and are believed to be causative in association with unknown environmental or other genetic factors. Discerning between clear-cut pathogenetic variants, such as those that appear to be heteroplasmic, and less penetrant variants, such as the homoplasmic, remains a challenging issue that we have addressed here using next-generation sequencing approach. We set up a protocol to quantify MTND5 heteroplasmy levels in a family in which the proband manifests a LHON phenotype. Furthermore, to study this mtDNA haplotype, we applied the cybridization protocol. The results demonstrate that the mutations are mostly homoplasmic, whereas the suspected heteroplasmic feature of the observed mutations is due to the co-amplification of Nuclear mitochondrial Sequences. PMID:22589247
Petruzzella, Vittoria; Carrozzo, Rosalba; Calabrese, Claudia; Dell'Aglio, Rosa; Trentadue, Raffaella; Piredda, Roberta; Artuso, Lucia; Rizza, Teresa; Bianchi, Marzia; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Guerriero, Silvana; Gasparre, Giuseppe; Attimonelli, Marcella
Background Causes of neuropathic pain following nerve injury remain unclear, limiting the development of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Animal models have provided some directions, but little is known about the specific sensory neurons that undergo changes in such a way as to induce and maintain activation of sensory pain pathways. Our previous studies implicated changes in the A?, normally non-nociceptive neurons in activating spinal nociceptive neurons in a cuff-induced animal model of neuropathic pain and the present study was directed specifically at determining any change in excitability of these neurons. Thus, the present study aimed at recording intracellularly from A?-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and determining excitability of the peripheral receptive field, of the cell body and of the dorsal roots. Methods A peripheral neuropathy was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by inserting two thin polyethylene cuffs around the right sciatic nerve. All animals were confirmed to exhibit tactile hypersensitivity to von Frey filaments three weeks later, before the acute electrophysiological experiments. Under stable intracellular recording conditions neurons were classified functionally on the basis of their response to natural activation of their peripheral receptive field. In addition, conduction velocity of the dorsal roots, configuration of the action potential and rate of adaptation to stimulation were also criteria for classification. Excitability was measured as the threshold to activation of the peripheral receptive field, the response to intracellular injection of depolarizing current into the soma and the response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Results In control animals mechanical thresholds of all neurons were within normal ranges. A? DRG neurons in neuropathic rats demonstrated a mean mechanical threshold to receptive field stimulation that were significantly lower than in control rats, a prolonged discharge following this stimulation, a decreased activation threshold and a greater response to depolarizing current injection into the soma, as well as a longer refractory interval and delayed response to paired pulse electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated changes in functionally classified A? low threshold and high threshold DRG neurons in a nerve intact animal model of peripheral neuropathy that demonstrates nociceptive responses to normally innocuous cutaneous stimuli, much the same as is observed in humans with neuropathic pain. We demonstrate further that the peripheral receptive fields of these neurons are more excitable, as are the somata. However, the dorsal roots exhibit a decrease in excitability. Thus, if these neurons participate in neuropathic pain this differential change in excitability may have implications in the peripheral drive that induces central sensitization, at least in animal models of peripheral neuropathic pain, and A? sensory neurons may thus contribute to allodynia and spontaneous pain following peripheral nerve injury in humans.
OBJECTIVESLeber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease characterised by acute or subacute bilateral visual loss in young patients. The primary aetiological event is a mutation in the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) affecting in most cases mtDNA-encoded subunits of the respiratory chain NADH: coenzyme Q oxidoreductase (complex I). The impaired function of complex I leads to a decline in
P Klivenyi; E Karg; C Rozsa; R Horvath; S Komoly; I Nemeth; S Turi; L Vecsei
Inherited neuropathies are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. At least 30 genes have been associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and related inherited neuropathies. Genetic studies have revealed that abnormalities in the following factors are the cause of inherited neuropathies: myelin components, transcription factors controlling myelination, myelin maintenance system, differentiation factors related to the peripheral nerve, neurofilaments, protein transfer system, mitochondrial proteins, DNA repair, RNA/protein synthesis, ion channels, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. On the other hand, a precise molecular diagnosis is often needed to confirm a clinical diagnosis, offer genetic counseling to the patient and family, and provide prognostic information to the patient. Unfortunately, along with the increase in the number of genes that must be screened for mutations, the labor and reagent costs of molecular genetic testing have increased significantly. On the basis of the recent progress of DNA analysis methods, the use of resequencing microarray seems to be an economical and highly sensitive method to detect mutations. In this study, we attempted to screen for CMT patients mutations using these methods. PMID:21613657
Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Takashima, Hiroshi
Purpose Focal neurodegeneration of the optic nerve in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is primarily due to a maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA mutation. However, the markedly reduced penetrance of LHON and segregation pattern of visual failure within families implicates an interacting nuclear genetic locus modulating the phenotype. Folate deficiency is known to cause bilateral optic neuropathy, and defects of folate metabolism have been associated with nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Methods Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) catalyzes a critical step in folate metabolism, and genetic variation in MTHFR has been associated with several late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Results We therefore determined whether functional genetic variants in MTHFR could account for the reduced penetrance in LHON by studying 414 LHON mtDNA mutation carriers. We found no evidence of association between visual failure in LHON and MTHFR polymorphisms or the MTHFR haplotype. Conclusions Genetic variation in MTHFR does not provide an explanation for the variable phenotype in LHON.
Hudson, Gavin; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Zeviani, Massimo
Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) intoxicated rodents develop a peripheral neuropathy characterized by sensory nerve conduction deficits associated with disturbances of nerve fiber geometry and axonal atrophy. To investigate the possibility that glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36)-amide (GLP-1) receptor agonism may influence axonal structure and function through neuroprotection neurotrophic support, effects of GLP-1 and its long acting analog, Exendin-4 (Ex4) treatment on pyridoxine-induced peripheral
TracyAnn Perry; Harold W. Holloway; Ananda Weerasuriya; Peter R. Mouton; Kara Duffy; Julie A. Mattison; Nigel H. Greig
A 35-year-old young man displayed Leber's optic neuropathy (LHON) due to T14484C and multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotype that was dominated by symptoms and signs of spinal cord impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed demyelinating lesions extending from D6 to D11 in the spinal cord with gadolinium enhancement, while only three linear demyelinating lesions were seen on brain MRI. In the literature, a major involvement of the spinal cord was already reported in three of four male patients with the 14484 LHON mutation who developed MS, but the reasons of this peculiar association remain unknown, and further research in this area is needed. PMID:21685233
La Russa, Antonella; Cittadella, Rita; Andreoli, Virginia; Valentino, Paola; Trecroci, Francesca; Caracciolo, Manuela; Gallo, Olivier; Gambardella, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo
In order to clarify the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic syndrome, immunohistochemical studies were performed in a patient with subacute sensory neuropathy secondary to a small cell lung cancer. The case was a 73-year-old ex-farmer, whose chief complaints were pins and needles sensation of distal limbs and gait difficulty. After 6 weeks prodromata of pain in the upper limbs and numbness in all the limbs, he became unable to stand up without assistance. Neurological examinations on admission revealed marked sensory disturbances with glove and stocking type hypalgesia to pin prick and the loss of position and vibration senses in the distal extremities. His deep tendon reflexes also decreased in all the limbs. A chest X-ray showed a mass in the left upper lung field. A transbronchial lung biopsy of the mass revealed a small cell carcinoma. He was treated with anti-cancer drugs and radiation but he died of pneumonia after 8 months illness. Autopsy revealed a marked demyelination of the entire posterior column of the spinal cord. Dorsal root ganglia were infiltrated by lymphocytes with significant neuronal loss. Immunohistochemically, most of the infiltrated cells around the neurons were classified as CD8+ with fewer CD4+ lymphocytes. No B-lymphocytes were detected in the ganglia. The HLA-ABC and HLA-DR positive cells were found only among the satellite cells, not in the neurons. The serum and CSF from the patient were immunohistologically reacted with the nuclei and cytoplasm of all neurons of human as well as of rats, indicating the presence of anti-Hu type antineuronal antibody in the patient's CSF as well as serum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1327606
Yoshioka, A; Ueda, Y; Sakai, K; Negami, T; Hirose, G
We report there the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of 10 Han Chinese families with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy. Clinical evaluation revealed that ten families exhibited extremely low penetrance of visual impairment, with the average of 10%. In particular, ten (8 males/2 females) of 114 matrilineal relatives in these families exhibited the variable severity and age-at-onset in visual dysfunction. The average age-of-onset of vision loss was 19 years old. Molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) identified the homoplasmic ND6 T14484C mutation and distinct sets of variants, belonging to the Asian haplogroups B5b, D4, D4g1b, G3a2, R11, R11a and Z3, respectively. However, there was the absence of secondary LHON-associated mtDNA mutations in these ten Chinese families: The low penetrance of vision loss in these Chinese pedigrees strongly indicated that the T14484C mutation was itself insufficient to produce a clinical phenotype. The absence of secondary LHON mtDNA mutations suggest that these mtDNA haplogroup-specific variants may not play an important role in the phenotypic expression of the T14484C mutation in those Chinese families with low penentrace of vision loss. However, nuclear modifier genes and environmental factors appear to be modifier factors for the phenotypic manifestation of the T14484C mutation in these Chinese families.
Qu, Jia; Zhou, Xiangtian; Zhao, Fuxin; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Minglian; Sun, Yan-Hong; Liang, Min; Yuan, Meixia; Liu, Qi; Tong, Yi; Wei, Qi-Ping; Yang, Li; Guan, Min-Xin
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited form of visual dysfunction caused by mutations in several genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (complex I). Development of gene therapies for LHON has been impeded by genetic heterogeneity and the need to deliver therapies to the mitochondria of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the cells primarily affected in LHON. The therapy under development entails intraocular injection of a nuclear yeast gene NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NDI1) that encodes a single subunit complex I equivalent and as such is mutation independent. NDI1 is imported into mitochondria due to an endogenous mitochondrial localisation signal. Intravitreal injection represents a clinically relevant route of delivery to RGCs not previously used for NDI1. In this study, recombinant adenoassociated virus (AAV) serotype 2 expressing NDI1 (AAV-NDI1) was shown to protect RGCs in a rotenone-induced murine model of LHON. AAV-NDI1 significantly reduced RGC death by 1.5-fold and optic nerve atrophy by 1.4-fold. This led to a significant preservation of retinal function as assessed by manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and optokinetic responses. Intraocular injection of AAV-NDI1 overcomes many barriers previously associated with developing therapies for LHON and holds great therapeutic promise for a mitochondrial disorder for which there are no effective therapies. PMID:22669418
Chadderton, Naomi; Palfi, Arpad; Millington-Ward, Sophia; Gobbo, Oliverio; Overlack, Nora; Carrigan, Matthew; O'Reilly, Mary; Campbell, Matthew; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Wolfrum, Uwe; Humphries, Peter; Kenna, Paul F; Farrar, G Jane
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrially inherited form of visual dysfunction caused by mutations in several genes encoding subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (complex I). Development of gene therapies for LHON has been impeded by genetic heterogeneity and the need to deliver therapies to the mitochondria of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the cells primarily affected in LHON. The therapy under development entails intraocular injection of a nuclear yeast gene NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (NDI1) that encodes a single subunit complex I equivalent and as such is mutation independent. NDI1 is imported into mitochondria due to an endogenous mitochondrial localisation signal. Intravitreal injection represents a clinically relevant route of delivery to RGCs not previously used for NDI1. In this study, recombinant adenoassociated virus (AAV) serotype 2 expressing NDI1 (AAV-NDI1) was shown to protect RGCs in a rotenone-induced murine model of LHON. AAV-NDI1 significantly reduced RGC death by 1.5-fold and optic nerve atrophy by 1.4-fold. This led to a significant preservation of retinal function as assessed by manganese enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and optokinetic responses. Intraocular injection of AAV-NDI1 overcomes many barriers previously associated with developing therapies for LHON and holds great therapeutic promise for a mitochondrial disorder for which there are no effective therapies.
Chadderton, Naomi; Palfi, Arpad; Millington-Ward, Sophia; Gobbo, Oliverio; Overlack, Nora; Carrigan, Matthew; O'Reilly, Mary; Campbell, Matthew; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Wolfrum, Uwe; Humphries, Peter; Kenna, Paul F; Jane Farrar, G
We compared the pupil responses originating from outer versus inner retinal photoreception between patients with isolated hereditary optic neuropathy (HON, n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 8). Three different testing protocols were used. For the first two protocols, a response function of the maximal pupil contraction versus stimulus light intensity was generated and the intensity at which half of the maximal pupil contraction, the half-max intensity, was determined. For the third protocol, the pupil size after light offset, the re-dilation rate and re-dilation amplitude were calculated to assess the post-light stimulus response. Patients with HON had bilateral, symmetric optic atrophy and significant reduction of visual acuity and visual field compared to controls. There were no significant mean differences in the response curve and pupil response parameters that reflect mainly rod, cone or melanopsin activity between patients and controls. In patients, there was a significant correlation between the half-max intensity of the red light sequence and visual field loss. In conclusion, pupil responses derived from outer or inner retinal photoreception in HON patients having mild-to moderate visual dysfunction are not quantitatively different from age-matched controls. However, an association between the degree of visual field loss and the half-max intensity of the cone response suggests that more advanced stages of disease may lead to impaired pupil light reflexes. PMID:24275502
Kawasaki, Aki; Collomb, Sylvie; Léon, Lorette; Münch, Mirjam
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The disease is characterized by loss of central vision due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and optic nerve atrophy. Despite progress towards a better understanding of the disease, no therapeutic treatment is currently approved for this devastating disease. Idebenone, a short-chain benzoquinone, has shown promising evidence of efficacy in protecting vision loss and in accelerating recovery of visual acuity in patients with LHON. It was therefore of interest to study suitable LHON models in vitro and in vivo to identify anatomical correlates for this protective activity. At nanomolar concentrations, idebenone protected the rodent RGC cell line RGC-5 against complex I dysfunction in vitro. Consistent with the reported dosing and observed effects in LHON patients, we describe that in mice, idebenone penetrated into the eye at concentrations equivalent to those which protected RGC-5 cells from complex I dysfunction in vitro. Consequently, we next investigated the protective effect of idebenone in a mouse model of LHON, whereby mitochondrial complex I dysfunction was caused by exposure to rotenone. In this model, idebenone protected against the loss of retinal ganglion cells, reduction in retinal thickness and gliosis. Furthermore, consistent with this protection of retinal integrity, idebenone restored the functional loss of vision in this disease model. These results support the pharmacological activity of idebenone and indicate that idebenone holds potential as an effective treatment for vision loss in LHON patients. PMID:23028832
Heitz, Fabrice D; Erb, Michael; Anklin, Corinne; Robay, Dimitri; Pernet, Vincent; Gueven, Nuri
The Duffy system, Fya, Fyb, and HLA antigens were studied in 86 members, 39 affected, 47 healthy subjects, of 17 families with HMSN types I, II and III. The incidence of autosomal dominant as well as recessive, or sporadic forms was registered. In the autosomal dominant form of HMSN type I a close linkage was found between the genes coding the disease under study and the determinants Fya and Fyb. Recombination was found in only 9.1% of the cases. A study of HLA antigens revealed a major decrease in antigen B27 in the patients under scrutiny. An identical haplotype of most of the parents was a conspicuous feature in families with the autosomal dominant form of HMSN type I. PMID:1709295
Nevsímalová, S; Prazák, J; Herzog, P; Seemanová, E
The Duffa system (Fya Fyb) and HLA antigens were examined in 86 subjects (39 affected, 47 healthy) in 17 families with HMSN type I, II and III. They recorded the incidence of autosomal dominant as well as recessive (possibly sporadic) forms. In the autosomal dominant form of HMSN type I a close relationship was detected between genes coding the investigated disease and blood cell signs Fya and Fyb. Recombination was found only in 9.1% of the cases. Investigation HLA antigens revealed marked reduction of the B27 antigen in the investigated patients. A striking sign in families with the autosomal dominant form of HMSN type I was an identical haplotype of the majority of parents. PMID:2635080
Nevsímalová, S; Prazák, J; Herzog, P; Seemanová, E
Clinical, pathologic and molecular genetic studies of Japanese HMSN patients were reported. Among 26 HMSN I probands tested, the PMP22 gene region was duplicated in 18 (69%). A proband of HNPP, whose PMP22 gene region was deleted, was described. A proband with HMSN I was found to have a mutant allele that caused a substitution of arginine for glycine at amino acid 93 of PMP22. The mutation was located in the transmembrane portion of PMP22. The patient's sural nerve showed decrease of large myelinated fibers and frequent segmental demyelination and remyelination. A family with HMSN IB was found to have a mutant allele that caused a substitution of histidine for arginine at amino acid 98 of Po. The mutation was located in the extracellular domain of Po. The sural nerve from a proband showed uncompaction of major dense lines, wide-spaced major dense lines, and thin myelin sheath relative to axon size. One family of HMSN X with a mutant allele that caused a substitution of leucine for serine at amino acid 26 of Cx32 was found. The mutation was located in the fist transmembrane portion of Cx32. A variety of genetic abnormalities, probably underlying pathologic changes of the peripheral nerve, found among Caucasians were also noticed among Japanese. PMID:8752423
Sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common cause of pain in HIV-infected people. Establishing a diagnosis of HIV-SN is important, especially when contemplating opioid use in high risk populations. However physical findings of HIV-SN may be subtle, and sensitive diagnostic tools require specialized expertise. We investigated the association between self-report of distal neuropathic pain and/or paresthesias (DNPP) and objective signs of HIV-SN. Data were obtained from the Central Nervous System HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. Out of 237 participants, 101 (43%) reported DNPP. Signs of HIV-SN were measured by a modified Total Neuropathy Score (TNS), composed of 6 objective sensory subscores (pin sensibility, vibration sensibility, deep tendon reflexes, quantitative sensory testing for cooling and vibration, and sural sensory amplitude). Self-report of DNPP was associated with all 6 TNS items in univariate analysis and with 4 TNS items in multivariate analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of self-report of DNPP in detecting the presence of a sensory abnormality was 52% and 92% respectively with a PPV of 96% and a NPV of 34%. Increasing intensity of pain measured on a visual analog scale was associated with increasing severity of sensory abnormality. In summary, our results suggest that HIV-infected patients reporting symptoms consistent with HIV-SN, such as tingling, pins and needles, or aching or stabbing pain in the distal lower extremities, usually have objective evidence of HIV-SN on neurologic examination or with neurophysiologic testing. This finding holds true regardless of demographic factors, depression or substance use history.
Robinson-Papp, J.; Morgello, S.; Vaida, F.; Fitzsimons, C.; Simpson, D.M.; Elliott, K.J.; Al-Lozi, M.; Gelman, B.B.; Clifford, D.; Marra, C.M.; McCutchan, J.A.; Atkinson, J.H.; Dworkin, R.H.; Grant, I.; Ellis, R.
We report the case of a 62-year-old man with sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis (SANDO). He developed gait disturbance at 54 years of age, muscle weakness at 56 years, and difficulty hearing at 58 years. His brother had muscle weakness in both legs from age 20 years, and was diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease because he had muscle weakness of the four extremities, decreased CMAP and SNAP amplitudes on peripheral nerve conduction tests, and loss of large myelinated fibers and onion-bulb formations on sural nerve biopsy. His brother died aged 46 years, but no accurate cause of death was identified. Neurological examination of the present patient revealed bilateral ptosis, external ophthalmoparesis, dysarthria, dysphagia, sensorineural hearing loss, mild weakness and atrophy of proximal muscles in all four limbs, severe sensory ataxia, and disturbance of deep sensation in his legs. He showed elevation of lactate and pyruvate levels in cerebrospinal fluid and serum. An aerobic exercise test disclosed a marked increase in lactate and pyruvate levels in serum. On nerve conduction study, amplitudes of CMAP and SNAP, and F wave-evoked frequency were decreased. Needle electromyography showed chronic neurogenic patterns with fibrillation potentials in the extremity muscles. Head MRI demonstrated T2 prolonged lesions in the bilateral basal ganglia, while brain MRS revealed a small lactate peak. Biopsy of his left lateral vastus muscle showed ragged-red fibers and group atrophy, and some muscle fibers had decreased cytochrome c activity. Left sural nerve biopsy revealed a marked loss of large myelinated fibers, and some onion-bulb formations. Genetic testing disclosed a large mtDNA deletion in the biopsied muscle. Among nuclear genes, we found point mutations in ANT-1 (exon 1 c.105G>A, 5' untranslated region) and POLG-1 (exon 4, c.1218G>A, p. and exon 23 c.3920C>T, p.A1217V). We diagnosed SANDO. This is the first case of SANDO with large mitochondrial DNA deletions in Japanese. PMID:23524600
Tanaka, Koji; Tateishi, Takahisa; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Urata, Michiyo; Kira, Jun-ichi
The assessment of functional deficits in small fibre neuropathies (SFN) requires using ancillary tests other than conventional neurophysiological techniques. One of the tests with most widespread use is thermal threshold determination, as part of quantitative sensory testing. Thermal thresholds typically reflect one point in the whole subjective experience elicited by a thermal stimulus. We reasoned that more information could be obtained by analyzing the subjective description of the ongoing sensation elicited by slow temperature changes (dynamic thermal testing, DTT). Twenty SFN patients and 20 healthy subjects were requested to describe, by using an electronic visual analog scale system, the sensation perceived when the temperature of a thermode was made to slowly change according to a predetermined pattern. The thermode was attached to the left ventral forearm or the distal third of the left leg and the stimulus was either a monophasic heat or cold stimuli that reached 120% of pain threshold and reversed to get back to baseline at a rate of 0.5 °C/s. Abnormalities seen in patients in comparison to healthy subjects were: (1) delayed perception of temperature changes, both at onset and at reversal, (2) longer duration of pain perception at peak temperature, and (3) absence of an overshoot sensation after reversal, ie, a transient perception of the opposite sensation before the temperature reached again baseline. The use of DTT increases the yield of thermal testing for clinical and physiological studies. It adds information that can be discriminant between healthy subjects and SFN patients and shows physiological details about the process of activation and inactivation of temperature receptors that may be abnormal in SFN. PMID:23806653
Medici, Conrado; Barraza, Gonzalo; Castillo, Carlos D; Morales, Merche; Schestatsky, Pedro; Casanova-Mollŕ, Jordi; Valls-Sole, Josep
Hereditary myelopathies are a diverse group of disorders in which major aspects of the clinical syndrome involve spinal cord structures. Hereditary myelopathic syndromes can be recognized as four clinical paradigms: (1) spinocerebellar ataxia, (2) motor neuron disorder, (3) leukodystrophy, and (4) distal motor-sensory axonopathy. This review illustrates these hereditary myelopathy paradigms with clinical examples with an emphasis on clinical recognition and differential diagnosis.
Fink, John K.
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease characterized by retinal ganglion cell degeneration and optic nerve atrophy, leading to a loss of central vision. The aim of this study was to explore the topographical pattern of damage to the brain white matter (WM) tracts from patients with chronic LHON using diffusion tensor (DT) MRI and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Brain dual-echo and DT MRI scans were acquired from 13 patients with chronic LHON and 25 matched controls using a 3.0 T scanner. TBSS analysis was performed using the FMRIB's Diffusion Toolbox. A complete neuro-ophthalmologic examination, including standardized automated Humphrey perimetry as well as average and temporal peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (PRNFL) measurements, was obtained in all patients. Mean average and temporal PRNFL thicknesses were decreased significantly in LHON patients. Compared to controls, TBSS analysis revealed significant diffusivity abnormalities in these patients, which were characterized by a decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and an increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity, affecting exclusively the optic tracts and optic radiations (OR). In patients, a significant correlation was found between optic tract average FA and mean visual acuity (r = 0.57, p = 0.04). In LHON patients, DT MRI reveals a microstructural alteration of the WM along the entire visual pathways, with a sparing of the other main WM tracts of the brain. Damage to the OR may be secondary either to trans-synaptic degeneration, which in turn is due to neuroaxonal loss in the retina and optic nerve, or to local mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:22249289
Milesi, Jacopo; Rocca, Maria A; Bianchi-Marzoli, Stefania; Petrolini, Melissa; Pagani, Elisabetta; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo
In the present study, the changes in the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness associated with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) were examined by Cirrus high definition-optical coherence tomography (OCT), and the correlation between the RNFL thickness and the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was evaluated. A cross-sectional study was performed. Sixty-eight eyes from patients with LHON and 30 eyes from healthy individuals were scanned. Affected eyes were divided into 5 groups according to disease duration: Group 1, ?3 months; group 2, 4–6 months; group 3, 7–9 months; group 4, 10–12 months; and group 5, >12 months. The RNFL thickness of the temporal, superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and the 360° average were compared between the LHON groups and the control group. The eyes in groups 1 and 2 were observed to have a thicker RNFL in the superior, nasal and inferior quadrants and a higher 360°-average RNFL thickness compared with those of the control group (P<0.05), the RNFL was observed to be thinner in the temporal quadrant in groups 1 and 2. The eyes in groups 3 and 4 showed a thinner RNFL in the temporal (P=0.001), superior and inferior (both P<0.05) quadrants, and a lower 360°-average RNFL thickness as compared with controls (P=0.001). No significant correlation was identified between BCVA and RNFL thickness. RNFL thickness was observed to undergo a unique process from thickening to thinning in the patients with LHON. Changes in different quadrants occurred at different time periods and the BCVA was not found to be correlated with RNFL thickness.
ZHANG, YIXIN; HUANG, HOUBIN; WEI, SHIHUI; QIU, HUAIYU; GONG, YAN; LI, HONGYANG; DAI, YANLI; JIANG, ZHAOCAI; LIU, ZIHAO
Background Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disorder with gender biased and incomplete penetrance. The majority of LHON patients are caused by one of the three primary mutations (m.3460G > A, m.11778G > A and m.14484T > C). Rare pathogenic mutations have been occasionally reported in LHON patients. Methods We screened mutation m.10680G > A in the MT-ND4L gene in 774 Chinese patients with clinical features of LHON but lacked the three primary mutations by using allele specific PCR (AS-PCR). Patients with m.10680G > A were further determined entire mtDNA genome sequence. Results The optimal AS-PCR could detect as low as 10% heteroplasmy of mutation m.10680G > A. Two patients (Le1263 and Le1330) were identified to harbor m.10680G > A. Analysis of the complete mtDNA sequences of the probands suggested that they belonged to haplogroups B4a1 and D6a1. There was no other potentially pathogenic mutation, except for a few private yet reported variants in the MT-ND1 and MT-ND5 genes, in the two lineages. A search in reported mtDNA genome data set (n = 9277; excluding Chinese LHON patients) identified no individual with m.10680G > A. Frequency of m.10680G > A in Chinese LHON patients analyzed in this study and our previous studies (3/784) was significantly higher than that of the general populations (0/9277) (P = 0.0005). Conclusion Taken together, we speculated that m.10680G > A may be a rare pathogenic mutation for LHON in Chinese. This mutation should be included in future clinical diagnosis.
The clinical and laboratory phenotype of a paraproteinaemic neuropathy syndrome termed chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies is described in a series of 18 cases. Previous single case reports have outlined some features of this syndrome. All 18 cases were defined by the presence of serum IgM antibodies which react principally with NeuAc (alpha2-8)NeuAc(alpha2-3)Gal-configured disialosyl epitopes common to many gangliosides including GDlb, GD3, GTlb and GQlb. In 17 out of 18 cases, the serum contained benign IgM paraproteins, and in four of these cases at least two IgM paraproteins were present. The IgM antibodies were also cold agglutinins in 50% of cases. The clinical picture comprised a chronic neuropathy with marked sensory ataxia and areflexia, and with relatively preserved motor function in the limbs. In addition, 16 out of 18 cases had motor weakness affecting oculomotor and bulbar muscles as fixed or as relapsing-remitting features. When present in their entirety, these clinical features have been described previously under the acronym CANOMAD: chronic ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, IgM paraprotein, cold agglutinins and disialosyl antibodies. This distribution of clinical features is reminiscent of Miller Fisher syndrome, in which acute-phase anti-disialylated ganglioside IgG antibodies are found. Clinical electrophysiology and nerve biopsy show both demyelinating and axonal features. A partial response to intravenous immunoglobulin and other treatments is reported in some cases. PMID:11571215
Willison, H J; O'Leary, C P; Veitch, J; Blumhardt, L D; Busby, M; Donaghy, M; Fuhr, P; Ford, H; Hahn, A; Renaud, S; Katifi, H A; Ponsford, S; Reuber, M; Steck, A; Sutton, I; Schady, W; Thomas, P K; Thompson, A J; Vallat, J M; Winer, J
There has been considerable progress during the past 24 years in the molecular genetics of mitochondrial DNA and related nuclear DNA mutations, and more than 100 nerve biopsies from hereditary neuropathies related to mitochondrial cytopathy have been accurately examined. Neuropathies were first reported in diseases related to point mutations of mitochondrial DNA, but they proved to be a prominent feature of the phenotype in mitochondrial disorders caused by defects in nuclear DNA, particularly in 3 genes: polymerase gamma 1 (POLG1), mitofusin 2 (MFN2), and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1). Most patients have sensory-motor neuropathy, sometimes associated with ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, seizures, parkinsonism, myopathy, or visceral disorders. Some cases are caused by consanguinity, but most are sporadic with various phenotypes mimicking a wide range of other etiologies. Histochemistry on muscle biopsy, as well as identification of crystalloid inclusions at electron microscopy, may provide a diagnostic clue to mitochondriopathy, but nerve biopsy is often less informative. Nevertheless, enlarged mitochondria containing distorted or amputated cristae are highly suggestive, particularly when located in the Schwann cell cytoplasm. Also noticeable are clusters of regenerating myelinated fibers surrounded by concentric Schwann cell processes, and such onion bulb-like formations are frequently observed in neuropathies caused by GDAP1 mutations. PMID:23147504
Vital, Anne; Vital, Claude
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1C (CMT1C) is a dominantly inherited motor and sensory neuropathy. Despite human genetic evidence linking missense mutations in SIMPLE to CMT1C, the in vivo role of CMT1C-linked SIMPLE mutations remains undetermined. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying CMT1C pathogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type or CMT1C-linked W116G human SIMPLE. Mice expressing mutant, but not wild type, SIMPLE develop a late-onset motor and sensory neuropathy that recapitulates key clinical features of CMT1C disease. SIMPLE mutant mice exhibit motor and sensory behavioral impairments accompanied by decreased motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and reduced compound muscle action potential amplitude. This neuropathy phenotype is associated with focally infolded myelin loops that protrude into the axons at paranodal regions and near Schmidt–Lanterman incisures of peripheral nerves. We find that myelin infolding is often linked to constricted axons with signs of impaired axonal transport and to paranodal defects and abnormal organization of the node of Ranvier. Our findings support that SIMPLE mutation disrupts myelin homeostasis and causes peripheral neuropathy via a combination of toxic gain-of-function and dominant-negative mechanisms. The results from this study suggest that myelin infolding and paranodal damage may represent pathogenic precursors preceding demyelination and axonal degeneration in CMT1C patients.
Lee, Samuel M.; Sha, Di; Mohammed, Anum A.; Asress, Seneshaw; Glass, Jonathan D.; Chin, Lih-Shen; Li, Lian
Objective: We investigated whether progressive sensory neuropathy was accompanied by changes in whole body insulin sensitivity in rats made diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ). The effects of early and late insulin supplementation were also studied. Materials\\/Methods: The STZ-treated rats failed to gain weight and exhibited stable hyperglycaemia and low plasma insulin levels with a decrease in nerve conduction velocity (NCV) measured
Zoltan Szilvássy; Joseph Nemeth; Péter Kovács; György Paragh; Réka Sári; László Vígh; Barna Peitl
In performing FOLFOX chemotherapy (infusional 5-FU/LV with oxaliplatin) for advanced colorectal cancer, the neurotoxicity of oxaliplatin (L-OHP) is the dose-limiting factor. A retrospective study of 25 consecutive patients, receiving modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) for advanced colorectal cancer, was conducted. From March 2006 to February 2008, we investigated the process of development of sensory neuropathy by adverse effect grading and our original interview-based intake about the afflicted regions. Neurotoxicity developed in 21 cases (84%) after 6 courses and the cumulative L-OHP dose was 410 mg/m(2) in median. In 11 cases (52%), it developed from the fingers, while in 8 cases (38%), it occurred from the fingers and toes simultaneously. It developed from the toes or tongue only in one case each. In 6 cases (55%), in which it occurred from the fingers, the symptom aggravated to grade 2 (G2) according to the Neurotoxicity Criteria of DEBIOPHARM (DEBNTC). On the other hand, in cases of coexpression of the fingers and toes, 7 cases (88%) developed G2 neuropathy, among one of whom suffered from grade 3 (G3). The coexistence of diabetes mellitus without neuropathy had no influence on the development of the neurotoxicity in the grading of DEB-NTC. One month after the last mFOLFOX6 therapy, neurotoxicity newly developed in one case, and was aggravated in two cases two months after cessation of the chemotherapy. Therefore, careful observation of the course should be continued even after the end of mFOLFOX6 therapy. Our results suggest that L-OHP neurotoxicity develops on fingers or fingers and toes simultaneously in most cases. And when it occurred on fingers and toes simultaneously, it would aggravate to G2 or G3 during the chemotherapy. The interviewed-based intake about the afflicted region, such as ours, can be used to predict the deterioration of the neurotoxicity. PMID:19692771
Satomi, Machiko; Kono, Toru; Mamiya, Noriaki; Chisato, Naoyuki; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki; Sugawara, Mutsubu; Saito, Takashige; Matsubara, Kazuo; Kasai, Shinichi
Abstract Many incurable mitochondrial disorders result from mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and impaired respiration. Leigh's syndrome (LS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of infants, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) causes blindness in young adults. Treatment of LHON and LS cells harboring G11778A and T8993G mutant mtDNA, respectively, by >90%, with healthy donor mtDNA complexed with recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM), improved mitochondrial respiration by ?1.2-fold in LHON cells and restored >50% ATP synthase function in LS cells. Mitochondrial replication, transcription, and translation of key respiratory genes and proteins were increased in the short term. Increased NRF1, TFAMB1, and TFAMA expression alluded to the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis as a mechanism for improving mitochondrial respiration. These results represent the development of a therapeutic approach for LHON and LS patients in the near future.
Bergquist, Kristen; Young, Kisha; Gnaiger, Erich; Rao, Raj R.
Many incurable mitochondrial disorders result from mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and impaired respiration. Leigh's syndrome (LS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of infants, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) causes blindness in young adults. Treatment of LHON and LS cells harboring G11778A and T8993G mutant mtDNA, respectively, by >90%, with healthy donor mtDNA complexed with recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM), improved mitochondrial respiration by ?1.2-fold in LHON cells and restored >50% ATP synthase function in LS cells. Mitochondrial replication, transcription, and translation of key respiratory genes and proteins were increased in the short term. Increased NRF1, TFAMB1, and TFAMA expression alluded to the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis as a mechanism for improving mitochondrial respiration. These results represent the development of a therapeutic approach for LHON and LS patients in the near future. PMID:22390282
Iyer, Shilpa; Bergquist, Kristen; Young, Kisha; Gnaiger, Erich; Rao, Raj R; Bennett, James P
Background. Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PN) may be severeand dose-limiting at initial doses = 275 mg\\/M2, but itsneurotoxicity at doses = 250 mg\\/M2 has been incompletelycharacterized. The purposes of this study were to characterize and quantifypaclitaxel-induced PN and to determine the utility of quantitative sensorytesting (QST). Methods. We prospectively examined clinically and by QST 37women with metastatic breast cancer, treated with
Peter a. Forsyth; Casilda Balmaceda; Kendra Peterson; Andrew D. Seidman; Penny Brasher; Lisa M. Deangelis
Spinal muscular atrophy and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies are characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy caused by the degenerations of peripheral motor and sensory nerves. Recent advances in genetics have resulted in the identification of missense mutations in TRPV4 in patients with these hereditary neuropathies. Neurodegeneration caused by Ca2+ overload due to the gain-of-function mutation of TRPV4 was suggested as the molecular mechanism for the neuropathies. Despite the importance of TRPV4 mutations in causing neuropathies, the precise role of TRPV4 in the sensory/motor neurons is unknown. Here, we report that TRPV4 mediates neurotrophic factor-derived neuritogenesis in developing peripheral neurons. TRPV4 was found to be highly expressed in sensory and spinal motor neurons in early development as well as in the adult, and the overexpression or chemical activation of TRPV4 was found to promote neuritogenesis in sensory neurons as well as PC12 cells, whereas its knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition had the opposite effect. More importantly, nerve growth factor or cAMP treatment up-regulated the expression of phospholipase A2 and TRPV4. Neurotrophic factor-derived neuritogenesis appears to be regulated by the phospholipase A2-mediated TRPV4 pathway. These findings show that TRPV4 mediates neurotrophic factor-induced neuritogenesis in developing peripheral nerves. Because neurotrophic factors are essential for the maintenance of peripheral nerves, these findings suggest that aberrant TRPV4 activity may lead to some types of pathology of sensory and motor nerves.
Jang, Yongwoo; Jung, Jooyoung; Kim, Hyungsup; Oh, Jungeun; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Jung, Saewoon; Kim, Kyung-Tai; Cho, Hawon; Yang, Dong-Jin; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, In-Beom; Song, Mi-Ryoung; Oh, Uhtaek
ObjectiveThe pattern of abnormal median-normal sural sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is frequently found in acute\\/chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP\\/CIDP), whereas sural\\/radial SNAP amplitude ratio is sensitive to detect dying-back degeneration. To investigate whether radial SNAP and its amplitude ratio to median or sural SNAP provide additional particular patterns of sensory nerve involvement.
Noriko Tamura; Satoshi Kuwabara; Sonoko Misawa; Masahiro Mori; Miho Nakata; Takamichi Hattori
Perrault syndrome (PS) is a rare autosomal recessive condition with ovarian dysgenesis, hearing deficit and neurological abnormalities in female patients. The molecular basis of the syndrome is heterogeneous, mutations in the HSD17B4 gene have been identified in one family and mutations in the HARS2 gene have been found in another one. We have excluded pathogenic changes in the HSD17B4 gene and in the HARS2 gene by a direct sequencing of all coding exons in a female with clinical hallmarks of PS, ataxia and mild mental retardation. In addition, the patient suffers from severe Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) due to 11778G>A mtDNA mutation. This case is the first reported patient with PS and LHON. Possible influence of hypoestrogenism on the manifestation of optic neuropathy in this patient is discussed in the context of recent findings concerning the crucial role of estrogens in supporting the vision capacity in LHON-related mtDNA mutation carriers. PMID:23748049
Badura-Stronka, Magdalena; Wawrocka, Anna; Zawieja, Krzysztof; Silska, Sylwia; Krawczy?ski, Maciej Robert
The m.14484T>C mutation in mitochondrial ND6 gene (MT-ND6) is a primary mutation underlying the development of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) , but by itself not enough to cause visual loss. To explore the role of mitochondrial haplogroups on the expression of LHON for the people carrying the m.14484T>C mutation, we performed systematic and extended mutational screening of MT-ND6 gene in a cohort of 1177 Han Chinese patients with LHON. A total of 67 affected subjects carried the homoplasmic m.14484T>C mutation, accounting for 5.7% of this LHON population. The penetrances of optic neuropathy among 51 pedigrees carrying the m.14484T>C mutation ranged from 5.6% to 100.0%, with the average of 21.5%. The sequence analysis of entire mitochondrial genomes of 51 probands exhibited distinct sets of polymorphisms belonging to 18 Eastern Asian haplogroups. The frequencies of haplogroup A and haplogroup F were sig-nificantly less in the LHON mtDNA samples than those in 106 Chinese controls. On the other hand, the haplogroup M10a accounted for 9.8% of the patient's mtDNA samples but was absent in 106 Chinese controls. Strikingly, the average pene-trance (46.13%) of optic neuropathy for the pedigrees carrying mitochondrial haplogroup M10a was higher than those car-rying other mtDNA haplogroups. These observations indicated that mitochondrial haplogroup M10a may increase the risk of visual loss. PMID:24846978
Meng, Xiangjuan; Zhu, Jinping; Gao, Min; Zhang, Sai; Zhao, Fuxin; Zhang, Juanjuan; Liu, Xiaoling; Wei, Qiping; Tong, Yi; Zhang, Minglian; Qu, Jia; Guan, Minxin
Thresholds for cutaneous warming and cooling stimuli were measured in 20 diabetics with neuropathic foot ulcers. All patients had a profound disturbance of sensory perception in the ulcerated foot with complete loss of perception of warming; thresholds for vibration and cooling were highly abnormal in all but two patients. Measurements of thermal threshold were made on both feet in 10 patients: warming was lost bilaterally in all, and cooling was bilaterally absent in six. There was no clear pattern of sensory loss in those diabetics with unilateral foot ulceration to suggest that sensory impairment was the determining factor for the development of a plantar ulcer. Measurements of thermal thresholds were made at additional sites in 13 patients and although the most marked abnormalities of sensation were always found in the feet, in some severe neuropaths, abnormal thresholds on the hand and even the face were demonstrated. Thresholds for warming were invariably more abnormal than thresholds for cooling. The diabetics with neuropathic ulceration in this study all had severe generalised peripheral nerve disease involving large myelinated as well as both small myelinated and unmyelinated sensory fibres. The quantitative evidence on the distribution of sensory loss for thermal sensations supports the hypothesis that the neuropathic process affecting the small myelinated and unmyelinated fibres is length dependent. Images
Ali, Z; Carroll, M; Robertson, K P; Fowler, C J
Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) occasionally manifest as polyneuropathy either as the dominant feature or as one of many other manifestations (inherited mitochondrial neuropathy). MIDs in which polyneuropathy is the dominant feature, include NARP syndrome due to the transition m.8993T>, CMT2A due to MFN2 mutations, CMT2K and CMT4A due to GDAP1 mutations, and axonal/demyelinating neuropathy with external ophthalmoplegia due to POLG1 mutations. MIDs in which polyneuropathy is an inconstant feature among others is the MELAS syndrome, MERRF syndrome, LHON, Mendelian PEO, KSS, Leigh syndrome, MNGIE, SANDO; MIRAS, MEMSA, AHS, MDS (hepato-cerebral form), IOSCA, and ADOA syndrome. In the majority of the cases polyneuropathy presents in a multiplex neuropathy distribution. Nerve conduction studies may reveal either axonal or demyelinated or mixed types of neuropathies. If a hereditary neuropathy is due to mitochondrial dysfunction, the management of these patients is at variance from non-mitochondrial hereditary neuropathies. Patients with mitochondrial hereditary neuropathy need to be carefully investigated for clinical or subclinical involvement of other organs or systems. Supportive treatment with co-factors, antioxidants, alternative energy sources, or lactate lowering agents can be tried. Involvement of other organs may require specific treatment. Mitochondrial neuropathies should be included in the differential diagnosis of hereditary neuropathies. PMID:21402391
Objective. We describe and interpret self-cadence treadmill walking by neuropathic diabetic subjects under biomechanical and somatosensorial considerations.Design. EMG variables during stance phase of neuropathic diabetic subjects were acquired and analyzed. We also evaluated sensorial and motor aspects of the feet and legs.Methods. The experimental procedures are divided as follows: (a) determination of the sensitive cronaxie and pain tolerance in selected
I. C. N. Sacco; A. C. Amadio
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a severe and painful adverse reaction of cancer treatment in patients that is little understood or treated. Cytotoxic drugs that cause CIPN exert their effects by increasing oxidative stress, which activates the ion channel TRPA1 expressed by nociceptors. In this study, we evaluated whether TRPA1 acted as a critical mediator of CIPN by bortezomib or oxaliplatin in a mouse model system. Bortezomib evoked a prolonged mechanical, cold, and selective chemical hypersensitivity (the latter against the TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate). This CIPN hypersensitivity phenotype that was stably established by bortezomib could be transiently reverted by systemic or local treatment with the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. A similar effect was produced by the oxidative stress scavenger ?-lipoic acid. Notably, the CIPN phenotype was abolished completely in mice that were genetically deficient in TRPA1, highlighting its essential role. Administration of bortezomib or oxaliplatin, which also elicits TRPA1-dependent hypersensitivity, produced a rapid, transient increase in plasma of carboxy-methyl-lysine, a by-product of oxidative stress. Short-term systemic treatment with either HC-030031 or ?-lipoic acid could completely prevent hypersensitivity if administered before the cytotoxic drug. Our findings highlight a key role for early activation/sensitization of TRPA1 by oxidative stress by-products in producing CIPN. Furthermore, they suggest prevention strategies for CIPN in patients through the use of early, short-term treatments with TRPA1 antagonists. PMID:23477783
Trevisan, Gabriela; Materazzi, Serena; Fusi, Camilla; Altomare, Alessandra; Aldini, Giancarlo; Lodovici, Maura; Patacchini, Riccardo; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Nassini, Romina
Because significant postoperative blood loss can result in many complications, hemostasis remains a critical part of successful joint replacement outcomes. Advanced techniques, such as electrocautery use after optimally timed tourniquet release, focus on desired patient blood loss outcomes. The purposes of this study were to report the incidence of nerve injury, identify associated risk factors following the use of bipolar electrocautery for hemostasis in the posterior knee during primary total knee arthroplasty, and compare that rate with the rate seen using a standard electrocautery device. Clinical and operative data were retrospectively reviewed for an association with postoperative nerve injury in 241 consecutive patients when using bipolar electrocautery between July 2007 and October 2008. A comparison group of 192 demographically similar consecutive patients between November 2008 and October 2009 was also evaluated to establish a surgeon-specific benchmark when using standard electrocautery. Seven (2.9%) of 241 patients in the bipolar electrocautery group reported documented neuropathies compared with 1 (0.52%) of 192 patients using standard electrocautery. In addition, female sex and rheumatoid arthritis were associated with postoperative nerve injury following bipolar electrocautery. Although the bipolar radiofrequency device is effective in achieving hemostasis, the authors recommend judicious use of this procedure in women or patients with rheumatoid arthritis and cautious, nonaggressive use of posterior compartment bipolar radiofrequency ablation in the remaining patient populations. PMID:23379925
Lyons, Steven; Morrison, Kurt; Tejiram, Shawn; Levering, Melissa; Polikandriotis, John A; Bernasek, Thomas
Spontaneous pain is difficult to measure in animals. One proposed biomarker of spontaneous pain is autotomy, a behavior frequently observed in rats with complete hindpaw denervation (the neuroma model of neuropathic pain). A large body of evidence suggests that this behavior reflects spontaneous dysesthesic sensations akin to phantom limb pain or anesthesia dolorosa. After partial paw denervation, such as in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain, autotomy is rare. Does this mean that spontaneous pain is absent? We denervated hindpaws in two stages: SNI surgery completed 7 or 28 days later by transection of the saphenous and sural nerves (SaSu). Minimal autotomy was evoked by the first stage. But it started rapidly after SaSu surgery rendered the limb numb, much more rapidly than after denervation in a single stage (neuroma model). The acceleration was proportional to the delay between the two surgeries. This "priming" effect of the first surgery indicates that the neural substrate of autotomy, spontaneous neuropathic pain, was not initiated by the onset of numbness, but rather by the first, SNI surgery. But the animal's pain experience was occult. The saphenous and sural nerves provided nociceptive sensory cover for the paw, preventing the behavioral expression of the spontaneous pain in the form of autotomy. The results support prior observations suggesting that partial nerve injury triggers spontaneous pain as well as allodynia, and illustrate the importance of nociceptive sensory cover in the prevention of self-inflicted limb injury. PMID:22548979
Koplovitch, Pini; Minert, Anne; Devor, Marshall
[A case of acute autonomic, sensory and motor neuropathy with swelling and gadolinium enhancement of bilateral trigeminal nerve on MRI and dissociation between superficial and deep sensation disturbance].
We report a case of a 46-year old man with acute autonomic, sensory and motor neuropathy (AASMN). He developed severe orthostatic hypotension, anuria,anhydrosis, tonic pupil with dysarthria, dysphagia, jaw claudication, and dysesthesia and sharp pain several days after symptom of upper respiratory infection. Neurological examination revealed severely decreased superficial sensation with normal deep sensation. Brain MRI findings showed bilateral trigeminal nerve swelling with gadolinium (Gd) enhancement. His motor and sensory symptoms and MRI abnormality were improved after the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and intravenous methylprednisolone therapy; however his autonomic symptoms scarcely reacted to these immunotherapies. As long as we investigated in AASMN cases, bilateral trigeminal nerve swelling with Gd enhancement and dissociation between superficial and deep sensation disturbance have not reported, suggesting that the present case mainly disrupted C nerve fibers distributing postganglionic autonomic and temperature-pain sensory nerves. PMID:23470893
Naito, Hiroyuki; Doi, Hikaru; Inamizu, Saeko; Ito, Hijiri; Araki, Takehisa
Background Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a condition characterised by a rapid bilateral central vision loss due to death of the retinal ganglion cells, leading to visual impairment commonly occurring during young adulthood. The disease manifests itself more in male patients than female patients. The mtDNA mutations m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C are by far more frequent in LHON than any other mutation. In this report, a multi-generational Arab family from Kuwait with 14 male members with LHON was investigated. Methods Complete mtDNA mutational analysis by direct Sanger's sequencing was carried out to detect pathogenic mutations, polymorphisms and haplogrouping. Results All maternally related subjects from this study who were examined expressed the L3 haplotype background, with two concurrent mtDNA mutations, 10609T>C and 10663T>C, that led to non-conservative amino acid changes of Ile47Thr and Val65Ala, respectively. The two variations were absent in 144 normal and ethnicity-matched controls. Conclusions The two identified mutations associated with LHON in this family may exert their pathogenicity through a cumulative or haplogroup effect. This is the first report of the presence of two concurrent mutations in the ND4L gene in individuals with LHON who carry the L3 haplogroup.
Behbehani, Raed; Melhem, Motasem; Alghanim, Ghazi; Behbehani, Kazem; Alsmadi, Osama
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and adversely affects the patients’ quality of life. Evidence has accumulated that PDN is associated with hyperexcitability of peripheral nociceptive primary sensory neurons. However, the precise cellular mechanism underlying PDN remains elusive. This may result in the lacking of effective therapies for the treatment of PDN. The phenolic glucoside, gastrodin, which is a main constituent of the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has been widely used as an anticonvulsant, sedative, and analgesic since ancient times. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying its analgesic actions are not well understood. By utilizing a combination of behavioral surveys and electrophysiological recordings, the present study investigated the role of gastrodin in an experimental rat model of STZ-induced PDN and to further explore the underlying cellular mechanisms. Intraperitoneal administration of gastrodin effectively attenuated both the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by STZ injection. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from nociceptive, capsaicin-sensitive small diameter neurons of the intact dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Recordings from diabetic rats revealed that the abnormal hyperexcitability of neurons was greatly abolished by application of GAS. To determine which currents were involved in the antinociceptive action of gastrodin, we examined the effects of gastrodin on transient sodium currents (INaT) and potassium currents in diabetic small DRG neurons. Diabetes caused a prominent enhancement of INaT and a decrease of potassium currents, especially slowly inactivating potassium currents (IAS); these effects were completely reversed by GAS in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, changes in activation and inactivation kinetics of INaT and total potassium current as well as IAS currents induced by STZ were normalized by GAS. This study provides a clear cellular basis for the peripheral analgesic action of gastrodin for the treatment of chronic pain, including PDN.
Ye, Xin; Han, Wen-Juan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Luo, Ceng; Hu, San-Jue
Painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus and adversely affects the patients' quality of life. Evidence has accumulated that PDN is associated with hyperexcitability of peripheral nociceptive primary sensory neurons. However, the precise cellular mechanism underlying PDN remains elusive. This may result in the lacking of effective therapies for the treatment of PDN. The phenolic glucoside, gastrodin, which is a main constituent of the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has been widely used as an anticonvulsant, sedative, and analgesic since ancient times. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying its analgesic actions are not well understood. By utilizing a combination of behavioral surveys and electrophysiological recordings, the present study investigated the role of gastrodin in an experimental rat model of STZ-induced PDN and to further explore the underlying cellular mechanisms. Intraperitoneal administration of gastrodin effectively attenuated both the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by STZ injection. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were obtained from nociceptive, capsaicin-sensitive small diameter neurons of the intact dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Recordings from diabetic rats revealed that the abnormal hyperexcitability of neurons was greatly abolished by application of GAS. To determine which currents were involved in the antinociceptive action of gastrodin, we examined the effects of gastrodin on transient sodium currents (I(NaT)) and potassium currents in diabetic small DRG neurons. Diabetes caused a prominent enhancement of I(NaT) and a decrease of potassium currents, especially slowly inactivating potassium currents (I(AS)); these effects were completely reversed by GAS in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, changes in activation and inactivation kinetics of I(NaT) and total potassium current as well as I(AS) currents induced by STZ were normalized by GAS. This study provides a clear cellular basis for the peripheral analgesic action of gastrodin for the treatment of chronic pain, including PDN. PMID:22761855
Sun, Wei; Miao, Bei; Wang, Xiu-Chao; Duan, Jian-Hong; Ye, Xin; Han, Wen-Juan; Wang, Wen-Ting; Luo, Ceng; Hu, San-Jue
The most common forms of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) or Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) are associated with mutations affecting myelin genes in the peripheral nervous system. A minor subgroup of CMT type 1A (CMT1A) is caused by point mutations in the gene encoding the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22). To study the mechanisms by which these mutations cause the
Roland Naef; Ueli Suter
A 26-year-old man had complaints of insidiously progressive muscle weakness of the legs, worse in the right leg than in the left. Slight to moderate degrees of asymmetrical muscular atrophy and weakness of the distal lower limb muscles, greater in the right leg than in the left, without fasciculation, were also observed. Pes equinovarus deformity of both feet was obvious. Muscle stretch reflexes were decreased in the upper limbs and absent in the lower limbs, without pathologic reflexes. Vibratory sensation was moderately decreased in the toes. The right median and tibial motor nerve conduction velocities were 19.4 and 10.5 m/sec, respectively, with a markedly prolonged distal latency. No nerve action potentials were elicited from stimulation of the right and left sural nerves. A fascicular biopsy of the right sural nerve was performed. The myelinated fibers showing segmental de- and remyelination were frequently found in teased fiber preparations. Both demyelinated and remyelinated axons and onion-bulbs were frequently observed by light and electron microscopy in the Epon-embedded sections. Based on the neurological examinations and nerve conduction studies of the family members, an elder brother, father and grandmother of the proband were found to be affected by polyneuropathy. However, the mother, an uncle, an aunt, and a cousin of the proband were normal. Therefore, we concluded that this family had HMSN type I with autosomal dominant inheritance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7525134
Ohnishi, A; Ohnari, K; Hashimoto, T; Hayasaka, K; Yoshimura, T; Fukushima, Y
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an optic nerve dysfunction resulting from mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is transmitted in a maternal pattern of inheritance. It is caused by three primary point mutations: G11778A, G3460A and T14484C; in the mitochondrial genome. These mutations are sufficient to induce the disease, accounting for the majority of LHON cases, and affect genes that encode for the different subunits of mitochondrial complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Other mutations are secondary mutations associated with the primary mutations. The purpose of this study was to determine MT-ND variations in Iranian patients with LHON. In order to determine the prevalence and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in the LHON patients, their DNA was studied using PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Sequencing of MT-ND genes from 35 LHON patients revealed a total of 44 nucleotide variations, in which fifteen novel variations-A14020G, A13663G, C10399T, C4932A, C3893G, C10557A, C12012A, C13934T, G4596A, T12851A, T4539A, T4941A, T13255A, T14353C and del A 4513-were observed in 27 LHON patients. However, eight patients showed no variation in the ND genes. These mutations contribute to the current database of mtDNA polymorphisms in LHON patients and may facilitate the definition of disease-related mutations in human mtDNA. This research may help to understand the disease mechanism and open up new diagnostic opportunities for LHON. PMID:24158608
Rezvani, Zahra; Didari, Elmira; Arastehkani, Ahoura; Ghodsinejad, Vadieh; Aryani, Omid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud
LHON (Leber hereditary optic neuropathy) is a maternally inherited disease that leads to sudden loss of central vision at a young age. There are three common primary LHON mutations, occurring at positions 3460, 11778 and 14484 in the human mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA), leading to amino acid substitutions in mitochondrial complex I subunits ND1, ND4 and ND6 respectively. We have now examined the effects of ND6 mutations on the function of complex I using the homologous NuoJ subunit of Escherichia coli NDH-1 (NADH:quinone oxidoreductase) as a model system. The assembly level of the NDH-1 mutants was assessed using electron transfer from deamino-NADH to the 'shortcut' electron acceptor HAR (hexammine ruthenium), whereas ubiquinone reductase activity was determined using DB (decylubiquinone) as a substrate. Mutant growth in minimal medium with malate as the main carbon source was used for initial screening of the efficiency of energy conservation by NDH-1. The results indicated that NuoJ-M64V, the equivalent of the common LHON mutation in ND6, had a mild effect on E. coli NDH-1 activity, while nearby mutations, particularly NuoJ-Y59F, NuoJ-V65G and NuoJ-M72V, severely impaired the DB reduction rate and cell growth on malate. NuoJ-Met64 and NuoJ-Met72 position mutants lowered the affinity of NDH-1 for DB and explicit C-type inhibitors, whereas NuoJ-Y59C displayed substrate inhibition by oxidized DB. The results are compatible with the notion that the ND6 subunit delineates the binding cavity of ubiquinone substrate, but does not directly take part in the catalytic reaction. How these changes in the enzyme's catalytic properties contribute to LHON pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:17894548
Pätsi, Jukka; Kervinen, Marko; Finel, Moshe; Hassinen, Ilmo E
We reported here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) with C5601T mutation in seven Chinese families. The ophthalmologic examinations of seven Chinese families who were clinically diagnosed LHON were conducted. Strikingly, these families exhibited very low penetrance of visual impairment, and the penetrance was 9.5%, 14.3%, 4.5%, 8.3%, 10.0%, 22.2% and 25.0%. Meanwhile, entire mitochondrial genome of seven probands was amplified by PCR using 24 pairs of oligonucleotide primers with overlapping fragments. Molecular analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in these pedigrees revealed the absence of three common LHON associated G11778A, G3460A and T14484C mutations but the presence of homoplastic LHON associated tRNAAla C5601T mutation in probands and other matrilineal relatives. These mtDNA polymorphism sites belongs to the Asian haplogroups G2, G2a1, G2a1, G2, G2b, G2a1 and G2. By analyzing mitochondrial genome, seven LHON families all carry the C5601T mutation. The C5601T mutation occurs at the highly conserved nucleotide (conventional position 59) of tRNAAla, thereby contributing to the structural formation and stabilization of functional tRNAs and leading to mitochondrial dysfunction involved in visual impairment. The incomplete penetrance of visual loss in these seven Chinese pedigrees strongly indicates that the tRNAAla C5601T mutation was itself insufficient to produce a clinical phenotype. The lack of functional mtDNA variants in these pedigrees ruled out the role of mitochondrial background in the phenotypic expression of visual loss. Therefore, nuclear backgrounds and environmental factors seem to be modifying factors for the phenotypic manifestation of the tRNAAla C5601T mutation in the seven Chinese families. PMID:22917908
Zhou, Hui-Hui; Dai, Xian-Ning; Lin, Bei; Mi, Hui; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Zhao, Fu-Xin; Zhang, Juan-Juan; Zhou, Xiang-Tian; Sun, Yan-Hong; Wei, Qi-Ping; Qu, Jia; Guan, Min-Xin
Diabetes mellitus with peripheral sensory neuropathy frequently results in forefoot ulceration. Ulceration at the first ray level tends to be recalcitrant to local wound care modalities and off-loading techniques. If healing does occur, ulcer recurrence is common. When infection develops, partial first ray amputation in an effort to preserve maximum foot length is often performed. However, the survivorship of partial first ray amputations in this patient population and associated re-amputation rate remain unknown. Therefore, in an effort to determine the actual re-amputation rate following any form of partial first ray amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy, the authors conducted a systematic review. Only studies involving any form of partial first ray amputation associated with diabetes mellitus and peripheral sensory neuropathy but without critical limb ischemia were included. Our search yielded a total of 24 references with 5 (20.8%) meeting our inclusion criteria involving 435 partial first ray amputations. The weighted mean age of patients was 59 years and the weighted mean follow-up was 26 months. The initial amputation level included the proximal phalanx base 167 (38.4%) times; first metatarsal head resection 96 (22.1%) times; first metatarsal-phalangeal joint disarticulation 53 (12.2%) times; first metatarsal mid-shaft 39 (9%) times; hallux fillet flap 32 (7.4%) times; first metatarsal base 29 (6.7%) times; and partial hallux 19 (4.4%) times. The incidence of re-amputation was 19.8% (86/435). The end stage, most proximal level, following re-amputation was an additional digit 32 (37.2%) times; transmetatarsal 28 (32.6%) times; below-knee 25 (29.1%) times; and LisFranc 1 (1.2%) time. The results of our systematic review reveal that one out of every five patients undergoing any version of a partial first ray amputation will eventually require more proximal re-amputation. These results reveal that partial first ray amputation for patients with diabetes and peripheral sensory neuropathy may not represent a durable, functional, or predictable foot-sparing amputation and that a more proximal amputation, such as a balanced transmetatarsal amputation, as the index amputation may be more beneficial to the patient. However, this remains a matter for conjecture due to the limited data available and, therefore, additional prospective investigations are warranted. PMID:22396832
Borkosky, Sara L; Roukis, Thomas S
Diabetes mellitus with peripheral sensory neuropathy frequently results in forefoot ulceration. Ulceration at the first ray level tends to be recalcitrant to local wound care modalities and off-loading techniques. If healing does occur, ulcer recurrence is common. When infection develops, partial first ray amputation in an effort to preserve maximum foot length is often performed. However, the survivorship of partial first ray amputations in this patient population and associated re-amputation rate remain unknown. Therefore, in an effort to determine the actual re-amputation rate following any form of partial first ray amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy, the authors conducted a systematic review. Only studies involving any form of partial first ray amputation associated with diabetes mellitus and peripheral sensory neuropathy but without critical limb ischemia were included. Our search yielded a total of 24 references with 5 (20.8%) meeting our inclusion criteria involving 435 partial first ray amputations. The weighted mean age of patients was 59 years and the weighted mean follow-up was 26 months. The initial amputation level included the proximal phalanx base 167 (38.4%) times; first metatarsal head resection 96 (22.1%) times; first metatarsal-phalangeal joint disarticulation 53 (12.2%) times; first metatarsal mid-shaft 39 (9%) times; hallux fillet flap 32 (7.4%) times; first metatarsal base 29 (6.7%) times; and partial hallux 19 (4.4%) times. The incidence of re-amputation was 19.8% (86/435). The end stage, most proximal level, following re-amputation was an additional digit 32 (37.2%) times; transmetatarsal 28 (32.6%) times; below-knee 25 (29.1%) times; and LisFranc 1 (1.2%) time. The results of our systematic review reveal that one out of every five patients undergoing any version of a partial first ray amputation will eventually require more proximal re-amputation. These results reveal that partial first ray amputation for patients with diabetes and peripheral sensory neuropathy may not represent a durable, functional, or predictable foot-sparing amputation and that a more proximal amputation, such as a balanced transmetatarsal amputation, as the index amputation may be more beneficial to the patient. However, this remains a matter for conjecture due to the limited data available and, therefore, additional prospective investigations are warranted.
Borkosky, Sara L.; Roukis, Thomas S.
Background The aim of this study was to compare primary sensory neurons in controls and in an animal neuropathic pain model in order to understand which types of neurons undergo changes associated with peripheral neuropathy. On the basis of intracellular recordings in vivo from somata, L4 sensory dorsal root ganglion neurons were categorized according to action potential configuration, conduction velocity, and receptive field properties to mechanical stimuli. Methods Intracellular recordings were made from functionally identified dorsal root ganglion neurons in vivo in the Mosconi and Kruger animal model of peripheral neuropathic pain. Results In this peripheral neuropathy model, a specific population of A?-fiber low threshold mechanoreceptor neurons, which respond normally to innocuous mechanical stimuli, exhibited differences in action potential configuration and conduction velocity when compared with control animals. No abnormal conduction velocity, action potential shapes, or tactile sensitivity of C-fiber neurons were encountered. Conclusion This study provides evidence for defining a potential role of A?-fiber low threshold mechanoreceptor neurons that might contribute to peripheral neuropathic pain.
Zhu, Yong Fang; Wu, Qi; Henry, James L
IMPORTANCE Establishing the natural history of G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is important to determine the optimal end points to assess the safety and efficacy of a planned gene therapy trial. OBJECTIVE To use the results of the present natural history study of patients with G11778A LHON to plan a gene therapy clinical trial that will use allotopic expression by delivering a normal nuclear-encoded ND4 gene into the nuclei of retinal ganglion cells via an adeno-associated virus vector injected into the vitreous. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective observational study initiated in 2008 was conducted in primary and referral institutional practice settings. Participants included 44 individuals with G11778A LHON, recruited between September 2008 and March 2012, who were evaluated every 6 months and returned for 1 or more follow-up visits (6-36 months) as of August 2012. EXPOSURES Complete neuro-ophthalmic examination and main measures. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visual acuity, automated visual field testing, pattern electroretinogram, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. RESULTS Clinical measures were stable during the follow-up period, and visual acuity was as good as or better than the other visual factors used for monitoring patients. Based on a criterion of 15 or more letters from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, 13 eyes of 8 patients (18%) improved, but 24 months after the onset of symptoms, any further improvements were to no better than 20/100. Acuity recovery occurred in some patients despite continued marked retinal nerve fiber layer thinning indistinguishable from that in patients who did not recover visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Spontaneous improvement of visual acuity in patients with G11778A LHON is not common and is partial and limited when it occurs, so improvements in vision with adeno-associated virus-mediated gene therapy of a synthetic wild-type ND4 subunit gene should be possible to detect with a reasonable sample size. Visual acuity appears to be the most suitable primary end point for the planned clinical trial. PMID:24525545
Lam, Byron L; Feuer, William J; Schiffman, Joyce C; Porciatti, Vittorio; Vandenbroucke, Ruth; Rosa, Potyra R; Gregori, Giovanni; Guy, John
At age 35, a man with a genetic diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) but no family history of neuropathy and no clinical symptoms developed rapidly progressive loss of balance, distal limb numbness, loss of manual dexterity, and hand tremor. Five years later, he walked with support and had mild pes cavus, marked sensory ataxia, severe leg and hand weakness, absent deep tendon reflexes (DTRs), severe sensory loss, and hand tremor. He had dramatically reduced motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), strikingly prolonged motor distal latencies, absent sensory action potentials and lower limb compound muscle action potentials. CMT1A duplication was reconfirmed but the dramatic change in his clinical course suggested a superimposed acquired neuropathy. An IgM-kappa monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) with high titer anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) activity was found. Nerve biopsy showed severe loss of myelinated fibers with onion bulbs, no evidence of uncompacted myelin, and few IgM deposits. Rituximab was given and he improved. It is very likely that this is a chance association of two rare and slowly progressive neuropathies; rapidly worsening course may have been due to a "double hit". Interestingly, there are reports of possible superimposition of dysimmune neuropathies on hereditary ones, and the influence of the immune system on inherited neuropathies is matter for debate. PMID:23781967
Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Salsano, Ettore; Ciano, Claudia; Palamara, Luisa; Morbin, Michela; Pareyson, Davide
Sensory polyneuropathies are the most frequent neurological complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP), associated with HIV infection, is characterized by length-dependent axonal degeneration of sensory fibres. In rodent dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cultures, HIV viral envelope protein gp120 results in neurotoxicity and axonal degeneration. Since it is unknown whether the axonal degeneration is a consequence
Giorgia Melli; Sanjay C. Keswani; Angela Fischer; Weiran Chen; Ahmet Hok
Approximately 1 in 2500 Americans suffer from Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The underlying disease mechanisms are unique in most forms of CMT, with many point mutations on various genes causing a toxic accumulation of misfolded proteins. Symptoms of the disease often present within the first two decades of life, with CMT1A patients having reduced compound muscle and sensory action potentials, slow nerve conduction velocities, sensory loss, progressive distal weakness, foot and hand deformities, decreased reflexes, bilateral foot drop and about 5% become wheelchair bound. In contrast, the ultra-rare disease Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN) is frequently described as a recessively inherited condition that results in progressive nerve death. GAN usually appears in early childhood and progresses slowly as neuronal injury becomes more severe and leads to death in the second or third decade. There are currently no treatments for any of the forms of CMTs or GAN. We suggest that further clinical studies should analyse electrical impedance myography as an outcome measure for CMT. Further, additional quality of life (QoL) assessments for these CMTs are required, and we need to identify GAN biomarkers as well as develop new genetic testing panels for both diseases. We propose that using the Global Registry of Inherited Neuropathy (GRIN) could be useful for many of these studies. Patient advocacy groups and professional organizations (such as the Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation (HNF), Hannah's Hope Fund (HHF), The Neuropathy Association (TNA) and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) can play a central role in educating clinicians and patients. Undertaking these studies will assist in the correct diagnosis of disease recruiting patients for clinical studies, and will ultimately improve the endpoints for clinical trials. By addressing obstacles that prevent industry investment in various forms of inherited neuropathies, we can envision treatment options for these rare diseases in the near future. PMID:24860645
Sames, Lori; Moore, Allison; Arnold, Renee; Ekins, Sean
Approximately 1 in 2500 Americans suffer from Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The underlying disease mechanisms are unique in most forms of CMT, with many point mutations on various genes causing a toxic accumulation of misfolded proteins. Symptoms of the disease often present within the first two decades of life, with CMT1A patients having reduced compound muscle and sensory action potentials, slow nerve conduction velocities, sensory loss, progressive distal weakness, foot and hand deformities, decreased reflexes, bilateral foot drop and about 5% become wheelchair bound. In contrast, the ultra-rare disease Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN) is frequently described as a recessively inherited condition that results in progressive nerve death. GAN usually appears in early childhood and progresses slowly as neuronal injury becomes more severe and leads to death in the second or third decade. There are currently no treatments for any of the forms of CMTs or GAN. We suggest that further clinical studies should analyse electrical impedance myography as an outcome measure for CMT. Further, additional quality of life (QoL) assessments for these CMTs are required, and we need to identify GAN biomarkers as well as develop new genetic testing panels for both diseases. We propose that using the Global Registry of Inherited Neuropathy (GRIN) could be useful for many of these studies. Patient advocacy groups and professional organizations (such as the Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation (HNF), Hannah's Hope Fund (HHF), The Neuropathy Association (TNA) and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) can play a central role in educating clinicians and patients. Undertaking these studies will assist in the correct diagnosis of disease recruiting patients for clinical studies, and will ultimately improve the endpoints for clinical trials. By addressing obstacles that prevent industry investment in various forms of inherited neuropathies, we can envision treatment options for these rare diseases in the near future.
Polyneuropathy is a common complication of end-stage renal failure especially when treatment with periodic hemodialysis is started too late. Large myelinated fibers bear the brunt of the many biological changes associated with renal failure. Nerve conduction slowing is common in this setting. Compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel commonly occurs in these patients, as a result of amyloid deposits at this site. End-stage renal failure in diabetic patients is often associated with severe distal motor and sensory deficits. Improved quality of periodic hemodialysis and renal transplantation have dramatically reduced the prevalence and severity of peripheral neuropathy in these patients. PMID:23931805
The ND4 G11778A mutation is the most common mitochondrial DNA mutation leading to Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Despite considerable clinical evidences, the modifier role of nuclear background and mitochondrial haplotypes in phenotypic manifestation of LHON remains poorly understood. We investigated the effect of these modifiers on bioenergetics in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from five affected subjects of one Chinese family carrying the G11778A mutation and five Chinese controls. Significant reductions in the activities of complexes I and III were observed in mutant cell lines from the Chinese family, whereas the mutant cell lines from other families carrying the same mutation exhibited only reduced activity of complex I. The reduced activities of complexes I and III caused remarkably higher reductions of ATP synthesis in mutant cell lines from the Chinese family than those from other families. The deficient respiration increased generation of reactive oxygen species. The defect in complex III activity, likely resulting from the mitochondrial haplotype or nuclear gene alteration, worsens mitochondrial dysfunction caused by the G11778A mutation, thereby causing extremely high penetrance and expressivity of optic neuropathy in this Chinese family. Our data provide the first experimental evidence that altered activity of complex III modulates the phenotypic manifestation of LHON-associated G11778A mutation. Thus, our findings may provide new insights into the pathophysiology of LHON. PMID:21742061
Qian, Yaping; Zhou, Xiangtian; Liang, Min; Qu, Jia; Guan, Min-Xin
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are two inherited peripheral neuropathies. The most prevalent mutations are a reciprocal 1.5-Mb duplication and 1.5-Mb deletion, respectively, at the CMT1A/HNPP locus on chromosome 17p11.2. Point mutations in the coding region of the myelin genes, peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), myelin protein zero (MPZ) or connexin 32 (Cx32) have been reported in CMT patients, including CMT type 1 (CMT1), CMT type 2 (CMT2) and Déjérine-Sottas neuropathy (DS) patients, and only in the coding region of PMP22 in HNPP families lacking a deletion. We have investigated point and small mutations in the MPZ, PMP22 and Cx32 genes in a series of patients of Spanish ancestry: 47 CMT patients without duplications, and 5 HNPP patients without deletions. We found 15 different mutations in 16 CMT patients (34%). Nine different mutations in ten patients were detected in the Cx32 gene, this being the most frequently involved gene in this series, whereas five mutations involved the MPZ gene and only one the PMP22 gene. Six out of nine nucleotide substitutions in the Cx32 gene involved two codons encoding arginine at positions 164 and 183, suggesting that these two codons may constitute two Cx32 regions prone to mutate in the Spanish population. Analysis of HNPP patients revealed a 5' splicing mutation in intron 1 of the PMP22 gene in a family with autosomal dominance, which confirms allelic heterogeneity in HNPP. Ectopic mRNA analysis on leukocytes suggests that this mutation might behave as a null allele. PMID:9187667
Bort, S; Nelis, E; Timmerman, V; Sevilla, T; Cruz-Martínez, A; Martínez, F; Millán, J M; Arpa, J; Vílchez, J J; Prieto, F; Van Broeckhoven, C; Palau, F
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) refers to symptoms and signs of neuropathy in a patient with diabetes in whom other causes of neuropathy have been excluded. Distal symmetrical neuropathy is the commonest accounting for 75% DN. Asymmetrical neuropathies may involve cranial nerves, thoracic or limb nerves; are of acute onset resulting from ischaemic infarction of vasa nervosa. Asymmetric neuropathies in diabetic patients
V Bansal; J Kalita; U K Misra
The management of symptomatic diabetic sensory neuropathy presents a therapeutic challenge to the practicing physician. Two\\u000a approaches are outlined in this article. First, symptomatic therapies, which will not influence the natural history of painful\\u000a neuropathy, are discussed. These include, in addition to the stable glycemic control, tricyclic drugs, a number of anticonvulsant\\u000a and antiarrhythmic agents, and opioid-like medications. Topical therapies
Andrew J. M. Boulton
Although not quite as well protected as in the CNS, nerve fibres in peripheral nerves are relatively protected from systemic immune responses and inflammatory reactions by the specialized endoneurial endothelial and perineurial barriers. Expression of MHC class II molecules is restricted to a few macrophage-like cells. Compared with peripheral nerve trunks, there are more of these cells and more permeable blood vessels in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal roots. These are sites of predilection for the inflammatory response in experimental allergic neuritis. This experimental disease can be induced by immunization with either of two myelin proteins, P0 and P2, and a similar but less inflammatory, more chronic demyelinating neuropathy can be induced in rabbits with the glycolipid galactocerebroside. In myelin protein induced EAN CD4+ T helper cell responses are sufficient to transfer full-blown disease but antibodies, of undefined specificity, may also play a part. In rabbit galactocerebroside neuritis, antibodies are probably more important and are directed predominantly against a haptenic group including galactose. Experimental allergic neuritis provides an accurate histological model of GBS and CIDP. A small proportion of patients with GBS and CIDP show T-cell responses to P0 and/or P2 which may mark important pathogenetic reactions. Also some patients with GBS and CIDP have antibodies to gangliosides, including for instance the most abundant peripheral nerve ganglioside LM1, which may also be important. In particular, patients with acute severe GBS and marked axonal degeneration often have IgG antibodies to GM1 and GD1b, while patients with Miller Fisher syndrome are characterized by antibodies to GQ1b. IgM antibodies to ganglioside GM1 are often found in multifocal motor neuropathy with conduction block, but are not a sensitive or specific test for that condition. Antibodies to sulphatide have recently been found in some patients with distal predominantly sensory axonal neuropathy. High titres of antibody to MAG which also react with SGPG are specific for IgM paraproteinaemic demyelinating neuropathy. Antibodies to an approximately 37kDa protein present in neuronal nuclei (Hu) are specific for paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy usually associated with SCLC. Autoimmune responses to neural antigens have become useful diagnostically in some diseases and probably indicate important pathogenetic mechanisms. In inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, macrophage-mediated demyelination is probably targetted by both antibody and T-cell mediated autoimmune responses. The nature of the autoantigen and the relative importance of T- versus B-cell responses are likely to vary depending on the nature of any initiating immunization and the host immunogenetic background.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7921591
Hughes, R A
Modern cancer therapy prolongs patients life but commonly increases incidence of treatment-related complications. One of such adverse effect is a neurotoxicity, which usually manifestates as peripheral neuropathies (CIPN), characterised by various sensory (tingling, numbness, pain), motor (foot and hands drop, fastening buttons difficulties) and autonomic (constipation, arythmia) abnormalities as well as pain. Despite of intensive epidemiological and clinical studies, standardized diagnostic criteria and methods of the neuropathy prevention and treatment have not been fully established. The most commonly used form of treatment is symptomatic therapy, including anticonvulsant and antidepressant drugs. Proper education of patients and their families of symptoms and neuropathy consequences is desirable to reduce anxiety and stress. PMID:24575651
Kolak, Agnieszka; Staros?awska, Elzbieta; Kubiatowski, Tomasz; Kieszko, Dariusz; Cisek, Pawe?; Patyra, Krzysztof Ireneusz; Surdyka, Dariusz; Mocarska, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek
Pain-sensing sensory neurons (nociceptors) of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) can become sensitized (hyperexcitable) in response to pathological conditions such as diabetes, which in turn may lead to the development of painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN). Because of insufficient knowledge about the mechanisms for this hypersensitization, current treatment for painful PDN has been limited to somewhat nonspecific systemic drugs having significant side effects or potential for abuse. Recent studies have established that the CaV3.2 isoform of T-channels makes a previously unrecognized contribution to sensitization of pain responses by enhancing excitability of nociceptors in animal models of type 1 and type 2 PDN. Furthermore, it has been reported that the glycosylation inhibitor neuraminidase can inhibit the native and recombinant CaV3.2 T-currents in vitro and completely reverse mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in diabetic animals with PDN in vivo. Understanding details of posttranslational regulation of nociceptive channel activity via glycosylation may facilitate development of novel therapies for treatment of painful PDN. Pharmacological targeting the specific pathogenic mechanism rather than the channel per se may cause fewer side effects and reduce the potential for drug abuse in patients with diabetes. PMID:24482063
Todorovic, Slobodan M; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna
Hereditary neuropathies form a heterogeneous group of disorders for which over 40 causal genes have been identified to date. Recently, dominant mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 gene were found to be associated with three distinct neuromuscular phenotypes: hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 2C, scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy and congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 encodes a cation channel previously implicated in several types of dominantly inherited bone dysplasia syndromes. We performed DNA sequencing of the coding regions of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 in a cohort of 145 patients with various types of hereditary neuropathy and identified five different heterozygous missense mutations in eight unrelated families. One mutation arose de novo in an isolated patient, and the remainder segregated in families. Two of the mutations were recurrent in unrelated families. Four mutations in transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 targeted conserved arginine residues in the ankyrin repeat domain, which is believed to be important in protein–protein interactions. Striking phenotypic variability between and within families was observed. The majority of patients displayed a predominantly, or pure, motor neuropathy with axonal characteristics observed on electrophysiological testing. The age of onset varied widely, ranging from congenital to late adulthood onset. Various combinations of additional features were present in most patients including vocal fold paralysis, scapular weakness, contractures and hearing loss. We identified six asymptomatic mutation carriers, indicating reduced penetrance of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 defects. This finding is relatively unusual in the context of hereditary neuropathies and has important implications for diagnostic testing and genetic counselling.
Zimon, Magdalena; Baets, Jonathan; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Berciano, Jose; Garcia, Antonio; Lopez-Laso, Eduardo; Merlini, Luciano; Hilton-Jones, David; McEntagart, Meriel; Crosby, Andrew H.; Barisic, Nina; Boltshauser, Eugen; Shaw, Christopher E.; Landoure, Guida; Ludlow, Christy L.; Gaudet, Rachelle; Houlden, Henry; Reilly, Mary M.; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.; Sumner, Charlotte J.; Timmerman, Vincent; Jordanova, Albena
Hereditary neuropathies form a heterogeneous group of disorders for which over 40 causal genes have been identified to date. Recently, dominant mutations in the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 gene were found to be associated with three distinct neuromuscular phenotypes: hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 2C, scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy and congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 encodes a cation channel previously implicated in several types of dominantly inherited bone dysplasia syndromes. We performed DNA sequencing of the coding regions of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 in a cohort of 145 patients with various types of hereditary neuropathy and identified five different heterozygous missense mutations in eight unrelated families. One mutation arose de novo in an isolated patient, and the remainder segregated in families. Two of the mutations were recurrent in unrelated families. Four mutations in transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 targeted conserved arginine residues in the ankyrin repeat domain, which is believed to be important in protein-protein interactions. Striking phenotypic variability between and within families was observed. The majority of patients displayed a predominantly, or pure, motor neuropathy with axonal characteristics observed on electrophysiological testing. The age of onset varied widely, ranging from congenital to late adulthood onset. Various combinations of additional features were present in most patients including vocal fold paralysis, scapular weakness, contractures and hearing loss. We identified six asymptomatic mutation carriers, indicating reduced penetrance of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 defects. This finding is relatively unusual in the context of hereditary neuropathies and has important implications for diagnostic testing and genetic counselling. PMID:20460441
Zimo?, Magdalena; Baets, Jonathan; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Berciano, José; Garcia, Antonio; Lopez-Laso, Eduardo; Merlini, Luciano; Hilton-Jones, David; McEntagart, Meriel; Crosby, Andrew H; Barisic, Nina; Boltshauser, Eugen; Shaw, Christopher E; Landouré, Guida; Ludlow, Christy L; Gaudet, Rachelle; Houlden, Henry; Reilly, Mary M; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Sumner, Charlotte J; Timmerman, Vincent; Jordanova, Albena; Jonghe, Peter De
This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a battery of morphological and functional tests for the assessment of small nerve fiber loss in asymptomatic diabetic neuropathy (DNP). Patients diagnosed for ?10 years with type 1 (n = 10) or type 2 (n = 13) diabetes mellitus (DM) without conventional symptoms or signs of DNP were recruited and compared with healthy controls (n = 18) and patients with overt DNP (n = 5). Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFd) was measured with PGP9.5 immunostaining on punch skin biopsies performed at the distal leg. Functional tests consisted of quantitative sensory testing (QST) for light-touch, cool, warm and heat pain detection thresholds and brain-evoked potentials with electrical (SEPs) and CO(2) laser stimulation [laser-evoked potentials (LEPs)] of hand dorsum and distal leg using small (0.8 mm(2)) and large (20 mm(2)) beam sizes. Results confirmed a state of asymptomatic DNP in DM, but only at the distal leg. Defining a critical small fiber loss as a reduction of IENFd ?-2 z scores of healthy controls, this state prevailed in type 2 (30%) over type 1 DM (10%) patients despite similar disease duration and current glycemic control. LEPs with the small laser beam performed best in terms of sensitivity (91%), specificity (83%) and area-under-the ROC curve (0.924). Although this performance was not statically different from that of warm and cold detection threshold, LEPs offer an advantage over QST given that they bypass the subjective report and are therefore unbiased by perceptual factors. PMID:21472496
Ragé, Michael; Van Acker, Nathalie; Knaapen, Michiel W M; Timmers, Maarten; Streffer, Johannes; Hermans, Michel P; Sindic, Christian; Meert, Theo; Plaghki, Léon
Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are known to cause Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). However, the co-occurrence of double pathogenic mutations with different pathological significance in pedigrees is a rare event. Methods Detailed clinical investigation and complete mtDNA sequencing analysis was performed for two Indian families with LHON. The haplogroup was constructed based on evolutionarily important mtDNA variants. Results We observed the existence of double pathogenic mutations (m.11778G>A and m.1555A>G) in two Indian LHON families, who are from different haplogroup backgrounds (M5a and U2e1), with different clinical penetrance of the disease (visual impairment). The m.11778G>A mutation in the MT-ND4 gene is associated primarily with LHON; whereas, m.1555A>G in the 12S rRNA gene has been reported with aminoglycoside-induced non-syndromic hearing loss. Conclusions The absence of hearing abnormality and widely varying clinical expression of LHON suggest additional nuclear modifier genes, environmental factors, and population heterogeneity might play an important role in the expression of visual impairment in these families.
Khan, Nahid Akhtar; Govindaraj, Periyasamy; Jyothi, Vuskamalla; Meena, Angamuthu K
Peripheral neuropathies are the most common neurological manifestations occurring in HIV-infected individuals. Distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is the most common form encountered today and is one of the few that are specific to HIV infection or its treatment. The wide variety of other neuropathies is akin to the neuropathies seen in the general population and should be managed accordingly. In the pre-ART era, neuropathies were categorized according to the CD4 count and HIV viral load. In the early stages of HIV infection when CD4 count is high, the inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies predominate and in the late stages with the decline of CD4 count opportunistic infection-related neuropathies prevail. That scenario has changed with the present almost universal use of ART (antiretroviral therapy). Hence, HIV-associated peripheral neuropathies are better classified according to their clinical presentations: distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), mononeuropathies, mononeuropathies multiplex and cranial neuropathies, autonomic neuropathy, lumbosacral polyradiculomyelopathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like motor neuropathy. Treated with ART, HIV-infected individuals are living longer and are at a higher risk of metabolic and age-related complications; moreover they are also prone to the potentially neurotoxic effects of ART. There are no epidemiological data regarding the incidence and prevalence of the peripheral neuropathies. In the pre-ART era, most data were from case reports, series of patients, and pooled autopsy data. At that time the histopathological evidence of neuropathies in autopsy series was almost 100%. In large prospective cohorts presently being evaluated, it has been found that 57% of HIV-infected individuals have distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy and 38% have neuropathic pain. It is now clear that distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is caused predominantly by the ART's neurotoxic effect but may also be caused by the HIV itself. With a sizeable morbidity, the neuropathic pain caused by distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is very difficult to manage; it is often necessary to change the ART regimen before deciding upon the putative role of HIV infection itself. If the change does not improve the pain, there are few options available; the most common drugs used for neuropathic pain are usually not effective. One is left with cannabis, which cannot be recommended as routine therapy, recombinant human nerve growth factor, which is unavailable, and topical capsaicin with its side-effects. Much has been done to and learned from HIV infection in humans; HIV-infected individuals, treated with ART, are now dying mostly from cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS-related cancers. It hence behooves us to find new approaches to mitigate the residual neurological morbidity that still impacts the quality of life of that population. PMID:23931799
Gabbai, Alberto Alain; Castelo, Adauto; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle
Objective To provide updated estimates of the prevalence and clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus?associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) and neuropathic pain due to HIV-SN in the combination antiretroviral therapy (CART) era. Design Prospective, cross-sectional analysis. Clinical correlates for HIV-SN and neuropathic pain, including age, exposure to CART, CD4 levels, plasma viral load, hepatitis C virus infection, and alcohol use disorders, were evaluated in univariate and multivariate models. Setting Six US academic medical centers. Patients One thousand five hundred thirty-nine HIV-infected individuals enrolled in the CNS (Central Nervous System) HIV Anti-Retroviral Therapy Effects Research study. Main Outcome Measures The presence of HIV-SN, defined by 1 or more clinical signs (diminished vibration or sharp sensation in the legs and feet; reduced ankle reflexes) in a distal, symmetrical pattern. Neuropathic pain was defined as aching, stabbing, or burning in a similar distribution. The effect on quality of life was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey. Results We found HIV-SN in 881 participants. Of these, 38.0% reported neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain was significantly associated with disability in daily activities, unemployment, and reduced quality of life. Risk factors for HIV-SN after adjustment were advancing age (odds ratio, 2.1 [95%confidence interval, 1.8–2.5] per 10 years), lower CD4 nadir (1.2 [1.1–1.2] per 100-cell decrease), current CART use (1.6 [1.3–2.8]), and past “D-drug” use (specific dideoxynucleoside analogue antiretrovirals) (2.0 [1.3–2.6]). Risk factors for neuropathic pain were past D-drug use and higher CD4 nadir. Conclusions Neuropathic pain and HIV-SN remain prevalent, causing substantial disability and reduced quality of life even with successful CART. The clinical correlates of HIV-SN have changed with the evolution of treatment. These findings argue for redoubled efforts to determine HIV-SN pathogenesis and the development of symptomatic and neuroregenerative therapies.
Ellis, Ronald J.; Rosario, Debralee; Clifford, David B.; McArthur, Justin C.; Simpson, David; Alexander, Terry; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Vaida, Florin; Collier, Ann; Marra, Christina M.; Ances, Beau; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Dworkin, Robert H.; Morgello, Susan; Grant, Igor
Use of transmitochondrial cybrids to assign a complex I defect to the mitochondrial DNA-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 gene mutation at nucleotide pair 14459 that causes Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dystonia.
A heteroplasmic G-to-A transition at nucleotide pair (np) 14459 within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) gene has been identified as the cause of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and/or pediatric-onset dystonia in three unrelated families. This ND6 np 14459 mutation changes a moderately conserved alanine to a valine at amino acid position 72 of the ND6 protein. Enzymologic analysis of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) with submitochondrial particles isolated from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts revealed a 60% reduction (P < 0.005) of complex I-specific activity in patient cell lines compared with controls, with no differences in enzymatic activity for complexes II plus III, III and IV. This biochemical defect was assigned to the ND6 np 14459 mutation by using transmitochondrial cybrids in which patient Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cell lines were enucleated and the cytoplasts were fused to a mtDNA-deficient (p 0) lymphoblastoid recipient cell line. Cybrids harboring the np 14459 mutation exhibited a 39% reduction (p < 0.02) in complex I-specific activity relative to wild-type cybrid lines but normal activity for the other complexes. Kinetic analysis of the np 14459 mutant complex I revealed that the Vmax of the enzyme was reduced while the Km remained the same as that of wild type. Furthermore, specific activity was inhibited by increasing concentrations of the reduced coenzyme Q analog decylubiquinol. These observations suggest that the np 14459 mutation may alter the coenzyme Q-binding site of complex I.
Jun, A S; Trounce, I A; Brown, M D; Shoffner, J M; Wallace, D C
Schwann cells, the myelin forming cells in the peripheral nervous system, play a key role in the pathology of various inflammatory, metabolic and hereditary polyneuropathies. Advances in identifying growth factors and signaling molecules that are expressed by Schwann cells have paved the way to development of new treatment strategies that are aimed to improve the protective and regenerative properties of Schwann cells in peripheral nerve disorders. These include the exogenous application of growth factors and neurohormones, which have been advanced into clinical trials in humans and transplantation paradigms that have been moved into late stage preclinical models. In this review we will discuss the latest developments in these therapeutic approaches with special regard to peripheral nerve disorders, in which the progress in basic research have already been translated into clinical trials including HIV-associated distal sensory polyneuropathy and diabetic neuropathy.
Lehmann, Helmar C.; Hoke, Ahmet
Many autoantibodies have been described in association with peripheral neuropathy, but the use of antibody testing in clinical practice remains a matter of some debate. Serum autoantibodies to gangliosides or glycoproteins are implicated in a variety of sensory and motor neuropathy syndromes. Paraneoplastic antibodies help identify patients who have a neuropathy related to an underlying malignancy. Detection of an autoantibody in the right clinical setting provides some evidence that the peripheral nerve disturbance is immune mediated and that immunomodulatory therapy may be of benefit. PMID:17324719
Vernino, Steven; Wolfe, Gil I
Synopsis Neuropathic disorders encompass those that affect the neuron’s cell body or neuronopathies, those affecting the peripheral process, or peripheral neuropathies. The peripheral neuropathies can be broadly subdivided into the myelinopathies and axonopathies. These conditions can be hereditary or acquired. Each of these disorders has distinct clinical features that enable neurologists to recognize the various patterns of presentation. Once a particular pattern is established, further laboratory studies can be performed to confirm the clinical impression.
Barohn, Richard J; Amato, Anthony A.
The majority of cases of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) and of hereditary neuropathy with a liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are the result of heterozygosity for the duplication or deletion of peripheral myelin protein 22 gene (PMP22) on 17p11.2. Southern blots, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymorphic marker analysis are currently used diagnostic methods. But they are time-consuming, labor-intensive and have some significant limitations. We describe a rapid realtime quantitative PCR method for determining gene copy number for the identification of DNA duplication or deletion occurring in CMT1A or HNPP and compare the results obtained with REP-PCR. Six patients with CMT1A and 14 patients with HNPP [confirmed by Repeat (REP)-PCR], and 16 patients with suspicious CMT1A and 13 patients with suspicious HNPP [negative REP-PCR], and 15 normal controls were studied. We performed REP-PCR, which amplified a 3.6 Kb region (including a 1.7 Kb recombination hotspot), using specific CMT1A-REP and real-time quantitative PCR on the LightCycler system. Using a comparative threshold cycle (Ct) method and ?-globin as a reference gene, the gene copy number of the PMP22 gene was quantified. The PMP22 duplication ratio ranged from 1.35 to 1.74, and the PMP22 deletion ratio from 0.41 to 0.53. The PMP22 ratio in normal controls ranged from 0.81 to 1.12. All 6 patients with CMT1A and 14 patients with HNPP confirmed by REP-PCR were positive by real-time quantitative PCR. Among the 16 suspicious CMT1A and 13 suspicious HNPP with negative REP-PCR, 2 and 4 samples, respectively, were positive by real-time quantitative PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR is a more sensitive and more accurate method than REP-PCR for the detection of PMP22 duplications or deletions, and it is also faster and easier than currently available methods. Therefore, we believe that the real-time quantitative method is useful for diagnosing CMT1A and HNPP.
Choi, Jong Rak; Lee, Woon Hyoung; Sunwoo, Il Nam; Lee, Eun Kyung; Lee, Chang Hoon
Polyneuropathy is one of the commonest complications of the diabetes and the commonest form of neuropathy in the developed\\u000a world. Diabetic polyneuropathy encompasses several neuropathic syndromes, the most common of which is distal symmetrical neuropathy,\\u000a the main initiating factor for foot ulceration. The epidemiology of diabetic neuropathy has recently been reviewed in reasonable\\u000a detail (1). Several clinic- (2,3) and populationbased
Recent advances in genetic analysis technology have enabled a surprising progress in genetic diagnosis in the field of neurological disease research. High-throughput molecular biology techniques, such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing, are the major contributors to this progress and to new discoveries. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), a known hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, is clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Genetic studies have revealed at least 35 disease causing-genes responsible for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Genetic studies have revealed that abnormalities in the following factors are the cause of inherited neuropathies: myelin components, transcription factors controlling myelination, myelin maintenance system, differentiation factors related to the peripheral nerve, neurofilaments, protein transfer system, mitochondrial proteins, DNA repair, RNA/protein synthesis, ion channels, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase. On the other hand concomitant with the increase in the number of genes that must be screened for mutations, the labor and reagent costs for molecular genetic testing have increased significantly. Therefore, new methodology for detecting gene mutations is required. Based on the recent progress in DNA analysis methods, resequencing microarray appears to be an economical and highly sensitive method for detecting mutations. We have been screening CMT patients for mutations using originally designed microarray DNA chips since 2007, thencehaving identified disease causing mutations in MPZ, GJB1, PMP22, EGR2, MFN2, NEFL, PRX, AARS, GARS, DNM2, and SETX genes in CMT patients. PMID:22790800
The typical clinical manifestation of vasculitic peripheral neuropathy is sensory-dominant multiple mononeuropathy, although it can progress to distal-dominant sensorimotor polyneuropathy. It is painful in most cases. Peripheral nerves may be the most prone to produce symptoms of the vasculitis. Nerve conduction studies show reduced amplitude of M wave or sensory nerve action potential, which depends on the degree of injury of a nerve examined. Wallerian degeneration can cause pseudo-conduction block in the acute stage and temporal dispersion in the chronic stage. However, a definite diagnosis requires histological confirmation. Combined biopsy of the sural nerve and the peroneus brevis muscle can be performed by a single incision. Skin biopsy can also be performed. To increase the diagnostic yield, biopsy specimens are prepared in different manners to observe as many cross sections as possible: frozen unfixed, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded, and glutaraldehyde-fixed epon embedded specimens, as well as teased fiber preparation of a nerve. Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy usually results from small-vessel vasculitis. There are still controversies regarding the classification of vasculitides. Differential diagnosis of vasculitis includes infection and lymphoma. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of neuropathy result in the impairment of ADL and QOL. Recovery from axonal degeneration usually takes time and is not always possible. Treatment includes corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide, and intravenous immunoglobulin administration; however, the intensity of treatment depends on the disease activity of vasculitis. PMID:24200608
Aims and Methods: The authors analyzed the public dataset of Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study to examine the association of glucose dysmetabolism with HIV-related peripheral neuropathy. Results: Among 5,622 participants in the data, 282 (5%) had peripheral neuropathy, of which 225 had sensory neuropathy. Of 225 participants with sensory neuropathy, 191 (84.8%) had exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Of 225
Soham G. Sheth; Chitharanjan V. Rao; Alexandros Tselis; Richard A. Lewis
Abstract Sarcoid neuropathy, a rare condition which is seen in 1% of patients with sarcoidosis, often emerges as one of the differential diagnoses of neuropathies with an unknown origin. Recent studies have revealed that sarcoid neuropathy shows a broader spectrum of clinical characteristics than previously expected, including a Guillain-Barré- or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-like presentation, small fiber neuropathy, and typical subacute multiple mononeuropathy. This makes the diagnosis difficult in certain cases. Due to the lack of diagnostic markers for this condition, neurological, laboratory, neurophysiological, and image analyses are all necessary to evaluate the probability of sarcoid neuropathy during differential diagnosis. This review mentions several cues for guiding the diagnosis, and diagnostic criteria. PMID:25082319
Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that disrupts the body's regulation of iron. It is the most common genetic disease in whites. Men have a 24-fold increased rate of iron-overload disease compared with women. Persons who are homozygous for the HFE gene mutation C282Y comprise 85 to 90 percent of phenotypically affected persons. End-organ damage or clinical manifestations of hereditary hemochromatosis occur in approximately 10 percent of persons homozygous for C282Y. Symptoms of hereditary hemochromatosis are nonspecific and typically absent in the early stages. If present, symptoms may include weakness, lethargy, arthralgias, and impotence. Later manifestations include arthralgias, osteoporosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer, cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, and hypogonadism. Diagnosis requires confirmation of increased serum ferritin levels and transferrin saturation, with or without symptoms. Subtyping is based on genotypic expression. Serum ferritin measurement is the most useful prognostic indicator of disease severity. Liver biopsy is performed to stage the degree of fibrosis with severe ferritin elevation or transaminitis, or to diagnose nonclassical hereditary hemochromatosis in patients with other genetic defects. Treatment of hereditary hemochromatosis requires phlebotomy, and the frequency is guided by serial measurements of serum ferritin levels and transferrin saturation. Iron avidity can result from overtreatment. If iron avidity is not suspected, it may mimic undertreatment with persistently elevated transferrin saturation. Dietary modification is generally unnecessary. Universal screening for hereditary hemochromatosis is not recommended, but testing should be performed in first-degree relatives of patients with classical HFE-related hemochromatosis, those with evidence of active liver disease, and patients with abnormal iron study results. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma is reserved for those with hereditary hemochromatosis and cirrhosis. PMID:23418762
Crownover, Brian K; Covey, Carlton J
AIMS: To identify the threshold of reduced sensory perception in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM) using a range of research grade monofilaments. METHODS: Three groups of participants were recruited into a between subject, cross-sectional study. Group 1(NEW), persons with Type 2 DM diagnosed for less than 2 years (n = 80); Group 2 (EST) persons with Type 2
Mary P Thomson; Julia Potter; Paul M Finch; Richard B Paisey
Compression neuropathy includes a heterogeneous group of focal neuropathy syndromes related to peripheral nerve compression. Although acute or chronic compression-related injury may occur in essentially any peripheral nerve, certain anatomic considerations may predispose certain nerves to intrinsic or extrinsic compression-related injury. The clinical presentations of specific compression or entrapment syndromes depend on factors such as chronicity, location, severity, and mechanism of involvement of a particular nerve. In this article the diagnosis and management strategies of the more common and well-established entrapment and compression-related neuropathy syndromes are addressed. PMID:23642716
Arnold, William David; Elsheikh, Bakri H
Diagnostics of neuropathy pain is presented in the article, where most essential are methods of clinical estimation with the use of questionnaires and scales for verification and quantitative estimation of pain. The neurological inspection of patients with suspicion on neuropathy pain must plug in itself of the motive, sensory and vegetative phenomena with the purpose of authentication of all signs of neurological dysfunction. If on a background immunotherapy it is not succeeded fully a pain syndrome preparations of the first row, setting of combined pharmacotherapy allows to promote efficiency of treatment at the less dosages of preparations and reduce the risk of development of by-effects. PMID:23373387
Murashko, N K
Aims To identify the threshold of reduced sensory perception in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM) using a range of research grade monofilaments. Methods Three groups of participants were recruited into a between subject, cross-sectional study. Group 1(NEW), persons with Type 2 DM diagnosed for less than 2 years (n = 80); Group 2 (EST) persons with Type 2 DM diagnosed for more than 2 years (n = 91), and Group 3, a Comparison group without Type 2 DM (n = 73), resulted in a total study population, n = 244. Research grade monofilaments (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10-gram) were employed using standardised protocol, at 6 sites on the plantar aspect of both feet. The demographic and anthropometric measures of gender, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and duration of Type 2 DM since diagnosis (if applicable) of the participants were analysed. Results Perception of the research grade monofilaments differed significantly between the 3 groups (p < 0.05). The 6-gram monofilament was found to be the threshold of normal perception, based on 90% of the Comparison group perceiving the 6-gram monofilament at all sites in contrast to 64% of NEW and 48% of EST groups. Conclusion The 6-gram monofilament was identified as the threshold of normal sensory perception. Inability to perceive the 6-gram monofilament indicates, when using the method described in this study, that diminution of sensory perception is evident. Employing a range of monofilaments, 6, 8 and 10-grams in Type 2 DM foot screening would allow the clinical detection of deteriorating sensory perception and enable implementation of foot protection strategies at an earlier stage than is currently practised.
Thomson, Mary P; Potter, Julia; Finch, Paul M; Paisey, Richard B
Hereditary megaduodenum is a rare disease with autosomal dominant transmission characterized by visceral myopathy that involves the digestive and urinary tracts, and usually presents as intestinal pseudo-obstruction. Recently, a high rate of spontaneous chromosomal damage was found in blood lymphocytes of patients with hereditary megaduodenum, predictive of an increased cancer risk. Clinical manifestations of the disease vary, ranging from severe pseudo-obstruction to asymptomatic family members; recurrent urinary tract infections are common. Histology reveals vacuolar degeneration and fibrosis of the longitudinal layer of gastrointestinal muscle. This disease should be suspected in patients with an enlarged duodenum but no mechanical obstruction. Treatment is symptomatic and based on diet and control of bacterial overgrowth. Enteral or parenteral nutrition may be needed. Laterolateral duodenojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy may sometimes be helpful to relieve obstructive symptoms. The risk of cancer in patients with hereditary megaduodenum is still unknown. This paper describes a family with hereditary megaduodenum in which one of the three affected members died of esophageal carcinoma and reviews the literature on the disease with particular attention to reports of cancer. PMID:8995957
Paragangliomas (PGL) and pheochromocytomas (PCC) are rare, usually benign tumors that originate from the neuroendocrine tissue along the paravertebral axis. Up to 35% of these tumors may be hereditary; they are associated with germline mutations in genes encoding subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme complex in the context of the familial PGL syndromes, PGL1, 3 and 4 caused by
Margarita Raygada; Barbara Pasini; Constantine A. Stratakis
Evidence and research indicate that the majority of cases of coronary artery disease represent familial disorders which are best explained by a polygenic hereditary predisposition interacting with emotional triggers such as diet and stress. Early identification is judged necessary. (Authors/JA)
Nora, James J.; And Others
IDPN-induced changes in a variety of sensory, motor and autonomic nerves were studied by whole-mount immunocytochemistry. A full range of proximo-distal accumulations of neurofilament-like material was found, from paranuclear round bodies in perikarya to distal and preterminal axonal dilations. Conversely, both terminal areas and nodal-paranodal regions of myelinated axons showed striking, sharply localized loss of neurofilament-immunostaining. The latter change, when transport of neurofilaments is halted by IDPN, may indicate their local processing and/or differential transport at nodal-paranodal regions. PMID:7820635
Ferri, G L; Cichi, A; Bastone, A; Gaudio, R M; Frontali, N; Dahl, D
Mitochondrial diseases in children are often associated with a peripheral neuropathy but the presence of the neuropathy is under-recognized because of the overwhelming involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). These mitochondrial neuropathies are heterogeneous in their clinical, neurophysiological, and histopathological characteristics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of childhood mitochondrial neuropathy. Early recognition of neuropathy may help with the identification of the mitochondrial syndrome. While it is not definite that the characteristics of the neuropathy would help in directing genetic testing without the requirement for invasive skin, muscle or liver biopsies, there appears to be some evidence for this hypothesis in Leigh syndrome, in which nuclear SURF1 mutations cause a demyelinating neuropathy and mitochondrial DNA MTATP6 mutations cause an axonal neuropathy. POLG1 mutations, especially when associated with late-onset phenotypes, appear to cause a predominantly sensory neuropathy with prominent ataxia. The identification of the peripheral neuropathy also helps to target genetic testing in the mitochondrial optic neuropathies. Although often subclinical, the peripheral neuropathy may occasionally be symptomatic and cause significant disability. Where it is symptomatic, recognition of the neuropathy will help the early institution of rehabilitative therapy. We therefore suggest that nerve conduction studies should be a part of the early evaluation of children with suspected mitochondrial disease. PMID:22435634
Menezes, Manoj P; Ouvrier, Robert A
A study was carried out on 135 patients with chronic idiopathic neuropathy (63), neuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy (51, including eight with anti-MAG antibody activity) and the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (21). Serum IgM, IgG and IgA anti-sulphatide antibody titres were compared with titres in 304 patients with other neurological or immunological diseases and in 50 normal subjects. Titres were presented a) as the highest serum dilution at which reactivity could be detected, and b) in the linear region of the optical density curve. A substantial number of patients with neurological or immunological diseases had higher titres than normal subjects. Compared with normal and disease controls, five patients with neuropathy associated with IgMk monoclonal gammopathy had raised titres of IgM anti-sulphatide antibodies and one patient with GBS had raised IgM, IgG and IgA anti-sulphatide antibodies in the acute phase of the disease. Two patients had a predominantly axonal sensory neuropathy with presenting symptoms of painful paresthesiae and minimal neurological deficit. Three patients had a predominantly demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy associated with anti-MAG antibody activity. The patient with GBS had extensive sensory loss and antibody titres returned to normal within three weeks. Raised titres of anti-sulphatide antibodies occurred in several types of neuropathy, but all had some degree of sensory impairment and associated immunological abnormality.
van den Berg, L H; Lankamp, C L; de Jager, A E; Notermans, N C; Sodaar, P; Marrink, J; de Jong, H J; Bar, P R; Wokke, J H
Inherited disorders of bilirubin metabolism involve four autosomal recessive syndromes: Gilbert, CriglerNajjar, Dubin-Johnson and Rotor, among which the first two are characterized by unconjugated and the second two by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Gilbert syndrome occurs in 2%-10% of general population, while others are rare. Except for Crigler-Najjar syndrome, hereditary hyperbilirubinemias belong to benign disorders and thus no treatment is required. PMID:24839786
Review of the various drugs in current clinical use showed that over 50 of them may cause a purely sensory or mixed sensorimotor neuropathy. These include antimicrobials, such as isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, nitrofurantoin, and metronidazole; antineoplastic agents, particularly vinca alkaloids; cardiovascular drugs, such as perhexiline and hydrallazine; hypnotics and psychotropics, notable methaqualone; antirheumatics, such as gold, indomethacin, and chloroquine; anticonvulsants, particularly phenytoin; and other drugs, including disulfiram, calcium carbimide, and dapsone. Patients receiving drug treatment who complain of paraesthesie, pain, muscle cramps, or other abnormal sensations and those without symptoms who are receiving drugs that are known or suspected to be neurotoxic should undergo neurological examination and studies of motor and sensory nerve conduction. This will allow the incidence of drug-induced peripheral neuropathy to be determined more precisely. PMID:219931
Argov, Z; Mastaglia, F L
Abstract Significance: Mitochondrial dynamics describes the continuous change in the position, size, and shape of mitochondria within cells. The morphological and functional complexity of neurons, the remarkable length of their processes, and the rapid changes in metabolic requirements arising from their intrinsic excitability render these cells particularly dependent on effective mitochondrial function and positioning. The rules that govern these changes and their functional significance are not fully understood, yet the dysfunction of mitochondrial dynamics has been implicated as a pathogenetic factor in a number of diseases, including disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Recent Advances: In recent years, a number of mutations of genes encoding proteins that play important roles in mitochondrial dynamics and function have been discovered in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, a hereditary peripheral neuropathy. These findings have directly linked mitochondrial pathology to the pathology of peripheral nerve and have identified certain aspects of mitochondrial dynamics as potential early events in the pathogenesis of CMT. In addition, mitochondrial dysfunction has now been implicated in the pathogenesis of noninherited neuropathies, including diabetic and inflammatory neuropathies. Critical Issues: The role of mitochondria in peripheral nerve diseases has been mostly examined in vitro, and less so in animal models. Future Directions: This review examines available evidence for the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the pathogenesis of peripheral neuropathies, their relevance in human diseases, and future challenges for research in this field. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 601-620. PMID:24386984
Porphyric neuropathy often poses a diagnostic dilemma; it is typically associated with the hepatic porphyrias, characterized by acute life-threatening attacks of neurovisceral symptoms that mimic a range of acute medical and psychiatric conditions. The development of acute neurovisceral attacks is responsive to environmental factors, including drugs, hormones, and diet. This chapter reviews the clinical manifestations, genetics, pathophysiology, and mechanisms of neurotoxicity of the acute hepatic porphyrias. While the etiology of the neurological manifestations in the acute porphyrias remains undefined, the main hypotheses include toxicity of porphyrin precursors and deficiency of heme synthesis. These hypotheses will be discussed with reference to novel experimental models of porphyric neuropathy. PMID:23931806
Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi; Park, Susanna B; Krishnan, Arun V
Prophylactic treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents the neuropathic pain syndrome that is evoked by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. The paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is associated with degeneration of the intraepidermal terminal arbors of primary afferent neurons, with the activation of cutaneous Langerhans cells, and with an increased incidence of swollen and vacuolated axonal mitochondria in A-fibers and C-fibers. Previous work suggests that ALCAR is neuroprotective in other nerve injury models and that it improves mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, we examined whether the prophylactic efficacy of ALCAR was associated with the prevention of intraepidermal terminal arbor degeneration, the inhibition of Langerhans cell activation, or the inhibition of swelling and vacuolation of axonal mitochondria. In animals with a confirmed ALCAR effect, we found no evidence of a neuroprotective effect on the paclitaxel-evoked degeneration of sensory terminal arbors or an inhibition of the paclitaxel-evoked activation of Langerhans cells. However, ALCAR treatment completely prevented the paclitaxel-evoked increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated C-fiber mitochondria, while having no effect on the paclitaxel-evoked changes in A-fiber mitochondria. Our results suggest that the efficacy of prophylactic ALCAR treatment against the paclitaxel-evoked pain may be related to a protective effect on C-fiber mitochondria. PMID:18078936
Jin, Hai Wei; Flatters, Sarah J L; Xiao, Wen Hua; Mulhern, Howard L; Bennett, Gary J
Toxic neuropathy represents an important clinical problem in the use of the chemotherapeutic substances Taxol and thalidomide. Sensory neuropathy has a high incidence, lacks an effective treatment and is the dose-limiting factor for these drugs. The pathogenic basis of these neuropathies is unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that the experimental toxic neuropathies from Taxol and thalidomide results from destruction of
Rudolf Kirchmair; Anne B Tietz; Eleftheria Panagiotou; Dirk H Walter; Marcy Silver; Young-Sup Yoon; Peter Schratzberger; Alberto Weber; Kengo Kusano; David H Weinberg; Allan H Ropper; Jeffrey M Isner; Douglas W Losordo
The advent of the genetics era has profoundly changed the way we look at iron related diseases, particularly hemochromatosis. New discoveries have challenged historical concepts about the disease, such as its monogenic nature, intestinal origin or complete phenotypic penetrance. This review presents a new concept of hemochromatosis which stems from the idea that, beyond their genetic diversities, all known hemochromatoses have in common the same metabolic abnormality: the genetically determined failure to prevent unneeded iron from entering the circulatory pool. Inappropriate levels of hepcidin, the iron hormone, appear now as the central pathogenic event in all forms of hemochromatosis: depending on the protein involved, and its effect on hepatic production of hepcidin, the phenotype varies, ranging from massive early-onset iron loading with severe organ disease (e.g., associated with homozygous mutations of hemojuvelin or hepcidin itself) to the milder late-onset phenotype characterizing the classic and highly prevalent HFE-related form or the rare transferrin receptor 2-related form. In vitro and in vivo studies will be needed to dissect the consequences of each hereditary hemochromatosis allele and increase our understanding of the precise contribution of each gene to the hereditary hemochromatosis phenotype. PMID:16891003
Diabetic neuropathies (DN) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that include a wide range of abnormalities. They can be\\u000a focal or diffuse, proximal or distal, affecting both peripheral and autonomic nervous systems, causing morbidity with significant\\u000a impact on the quality of life of the person with diabetes, resulting in early mortality. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy,\\u000a the most common form of DN,
Aaron I. Vinik
Hereditary photodermatoses are characterized by an increased photosensitivity caused by an inherited single gene defect. With few exceptions, they manifest in early childhood, reveal heterogeneous clinical symptoms, and are difficult to treat. Although these diseases are rare, it is very important to make an accurate diagnosis on the basis of clinical symptoms, specific diagnostic tests, and direct DNA analysis. We review the spectrum of inherited photodermatoses, including porphyria cutanea tarda, erythropoietic protoporphyria, actinic prurigo, Kindler syndrome, and disorders associated with a defect in DNA repair, including xeroderma pigmentosum, trichothiodystrophy, Cockayne syndrome, and Bloom syndrome. Early diagnosis may prevent complications associated with prolonged unprotected exposure to sunlight and makes it possible to offer genetic counseling and, when indicated, prenatal diagnosis to families at risk for these rare heritable disorders. PMID:17075715
Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Burgdorf, W H C; Has, C; Berneburg, M; Frank, J
At least 10% of ovarian tumors are hereditary and associated with highly penetrant, autosomal, dominant genetic predisposition. Three clinical manifestations of hereditary ovarian cancer have been identified: site-specific ovarian cancer, hereditary breast and\\/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) and hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndromes. BRCA germline mutations account for more than 90% of all hereditary epithelial ovarian tumors whereas most of
Antonio Russo; Valentina Calň; Loredana Bruno; Sergio Rizzo; Viviana Bazan; Gaetana Di Fede
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most commonly occurring major complications of diabetes. The disease may manifest in several clinical patterns: most frequently as distal symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy. Guidelines are available for the diagnosis of DPN by the primary care physician. These recommend that a review of diabetic patients, including a questionnaire and inspection and neurological examination of
Objective: The incidence, cause, and prognosis of sciatic neuropathy in children is not well understood. We report our 30-year experience of 53 patients with pediatric sciatic neuropathies (SN). Methods: Prospective review of the history, physical examination, electrophysiologic findings, and clinical course of children with SN. Results: The etiology of SN injury was varied and included trauma (13), iatrogenic causes (13) (8 orthopedic surgeries and 5 miscellaneous surgeries), prolonged extrinsic compression and immobilization (6), tumors (7), vascular (5), idiopathic and progressive (4), infantile and nonprogressive (2), and unknown, presumed postviral (3). Electrophysiologic studies demonstrated abnormalities in motor conduction studies of the peroneal nerve in 44/53 (83%) or tibial nerve in 35/51 (67%). Sensory conduction studies were abnormal in sural nerve in 34 of 43 cases (79%), and superficial peroneal nerves in 15/25 (60%). Needle EMG was abnormal in peroneal innervated muscles in all subjects, in tibial nerve innervated muscles in 43/51 (84%), and in the hamstrings in 18/29 (62%). Prognosis for recovery was variable and depended on the etiology and the severity of the nerve injury. Conclusions: SN is an uncommon mononeuropathy in children. The causes of SN are varied in children compared to adults. Electrophysiologic studies in children may be limited by poor tolerance but play an important role in establishing the diagnosis.
Ryan, M.M.; Escolar, D.M.; Darras, B.; Jones, H.R.
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I (HMSN I) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy. In some CMT families linkage has been reported with either the Duffy blood group or the APOA2 gene, both located on chromosome 1q. More recently, linkage has been found in six CMT families with two chromosome 17p markers. We extensively analyzed a multi-generation Charcot-Marie-Tooth family by using molecular genetic techniques in order to localize the CMT gene defect. First, we constructed a continuous linkage group of 11 chromosome 1 markers and definitely excluded chromosome 1 as the site of mutation. Second, we analyzed the family for linkage with chromosome 17. The two-point lod scores obtained with D17S58 and D17S71 proved that this Charcot-Marie-Tooth family is linked to chromosome 17. Moreover, multipoint linkage results indicated that the mutation is most likely located on the chromosome 17p arm, distal of D17S71.
Raeymaekers, P; Timmerman, V; De Jonghe, P; Swerts, L; Gheuens, J; Martin, J J; Muylle, L; De Winter, G; Vandenberghe, A; Van Broeckhoven, C
... Hereditary peroneal nerve dysfunction; Neuropathy - peroneal (hereditary); Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy ... Nerves that stimulate movement (called the motor nerves) are most ... and most severely. Symptoms usually begin between mid-childhood ...
Almitrine bismesylate is thought to cause sensory peripheral neuropathy. Forty-six patients are reported who received almitrine bismesylate alone for chronic respiratory failure or in combination with raubasine for various cerebrovascular diseases. Polyneuropathy appeared between 9 and 25 months after the onset of treatment. Sensory signs and symptoms were confined to the distal parts of the lower limbs and involved large
P. Bouche; L. Lacomblez; J. M. Leger; M. P. Chaunu; H. Ratinahirana; P. Brunet; J. J. Hauw; H. P. Cathala; D. Laplane
As a cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (Taxol® ) causes dose-related peripheral neuropathy in human beings. The mechanisms underlying this toxicity are currently unknown, and there are no validated treatments for its prevention or control. To assess whether lithium as a pre-treatment and at subtherapeutic dose could prevent the peripheral neuropathy produced by it, rats were treated with paclitaxel (2?mg/kg i.p. every other day for a total of 16 times) and/or lithium chloride (300?mg/l) via water supply. General toxicity and body-weight were measured regularly during the experiment. To evaluate the sensory and motor neuropathy hot-plate, open-field test and nerve conduction velocity were used. In rats treated with only paclitaxel, there was behavioural, electrophysiological and histological evidence of a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy after 16 injections. Lithium robustly reduced the rate of mortality and general toxicity. Paclitaxel-induced sensorimotor neuropathy was significantly improved as indicated by changes in hotplate latency, total distance moved and a significant increase in sciatic, sural and tail sensory or motor nerve conduction velocity. The same results were observed in histopathological examinations; however, dorsal root ganglion neurons did not significantly change in the paclitaxel-treated groups. These results suggest that lithium, at subtherapeutic doses, can prevent both motor and sensory components of paclitaxel neuropathy in rats. Thus, lithium at these doses, as an inexpensive and relatively safe salt, may be useful clinically in preventing the neuropathy induced by paclitaxel treatment. PMID:21917116
Pourmohammadi, Nasir; Alimoradi, Houman; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Bakhtiarian, Azam; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza
Background and Purpose The etiology of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) often remains unclear. Since SFN may be the only symptom of late-onset Fabry disease, it may be underdiagnosed in patients with idiopathic polyneuropathy. We aimed to uncover the etiological causes of seemingly idiopathic SFN by applying a focused investigatory procedure, to describe the clinical phenotype of true idiopathic SFN, and to elucidate the possible prevalence of late-onset Fabry disease in these patients. Methods Forty-seven adults younger than 60 years with seemingly idiopathic pure or predominantly small fiber sensory neuropathy underwent a standardized focused etiological and clinical investigation. The patients deemed to have true idiopathic SFN underwent genetic analysis of the alpha-galactosidase A gene (GLA) that encodes the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (Fabry disease). Results The following etiologies were identified in 12 patients: impaired glucose tolerance (58.3%), diabetes mellitus (16.6%), alcohol abuse (8.3%), mitochondrial disease (8.3%), and hereditary neuropathy (8.3%). Genetic alterations of unknown clinical significance in GLA were detected in 6 of the 29 patients with true idiopathic SFN, but this rate did not differ significantly from that in healthy controls (n=203). None of the patients with genetic alterations in GLA had significant biochemical abnormalities simultaneously in blood, urine, and skin tissue. Conclusions A focused investigation may aid in uncovering further etiological factors in patients with seemingly idiopathic SFN, such as impaired glucose tolerance. However, idiopathic SFN in young to middle-aged Swedish patients does not seem to be due to late-onset Fabry disease.
Kostulas, Konstantinos; Vrethem, Magnus; Rolfs, Arndt; Press, Rayomand
Peripheral neuropathies are among the most common neurological diseases and have numerous causes, including diabetes, alcohol, hereditary, toxic, metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, ischaemic and paraneoplastic. Often, however, no definitive cause is identified and the condition is termed idiopathic neuropathy. Here we describe a patient who was initially diagnosed with idiopathic sciatic neuropathy but who was eventually diagnosed with prostate cancer. This is an uncommon manifestation of prostate cancer, and the diagnostic was difficult because prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was normal and the positron emission tomography scan negative. Changes in PSA should always raise the suspicion of prostate cancer, just as idiopathic progressive neuropathy should always raise the suspicion of an underlying malignancy, even when standard diagnostics fail to explain the patient's symptoms.
Hansen, Jakob M?ller; Rasti, Zoreh; Smith, Torben; Lassen, Lisbeth Hjorth
Immune-mediated neuropathies represent a heterogeneous spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders that can be classified according to time course, predominant involvement of motor/sensory fibers, distribution of deficits and paraclinical parameters such as electrophysiology and serum antibodies. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in elucidating underlying pathomechanisms, which made it possible to identify potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the latest development in pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated neuropathies. PMID:21179533
Lehmann, Helmar C; Meyer Zu Horste, Gerd; Kieseier, Bernd C; Hartung, Hans-Peter
To construct a sensory neuropathy model, excess pyridoxine (150 mg/kg s.i.d.) was injected subcutaneously in dogs over a period of 7 days. During the administrations period, the dogs experienced body weight reduction and proprioceptive loss involving the hindquarters. After pyridoxine administration was completed, electrophysiological recordings showed that the M wave remained at a normal state, but the H-reflex of the treated dogs disappeared at 7 days. The dorsal funiculus of L4 was disrupted irregularly in the axons and myelin with vacuolation. The dorsal root ganglia of L4, and sciatic and tibial nerves showed degenerative changes and vacuolation. However, the lateral and ventral funiculi of L4 showed a normal histopathologic pattern. Although this subcutaneous administration method did not cause systemic toxicity and effectively induced sensory neuropathy, this study confirmed the possibility of producing a pyridoxine-induced sensory neuropathy model in dogs with short-term administration.
Chung, Jin-Young; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Hwang, Cheol-Yong
We describe a 40-year-old male with idiopathic hypoparathyroidism presenting with tetany, proximal weakness, signs of hypocalcaemia including Chvostek and Trousseau's and diminished tendon reflexes in the upper and lower limbs. Electrophysiological studies revealed a sensory-motor neuropathy, predominantly axonal as evidenced by decreased CMAP amplitudes, with normal distal latencies-velocites, except for median nerve where a prolonged distal latency was observed. Serial nerve conduction studies were performed at repeated intervals for 2 years, while he received treatment for hypoparathyroidism (calcium and vitamin D supplementation). A progressive improvement in neuropathy both clinical and on electrophysiological studies was observed. Occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in hypocalcaemic states such as hypoparathyroidism and its reversibility after normalization of calcium homeostasis lend proof to the role of critical Ca2+ ion concentration in the normal functioning of the peripheral axons. PMID:11903124
Goswami, R; Bhatia, M; Goyal, R; Kochupillai, N
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological findings in peroneal mononeuropathies following a weight-reduction diet. Thirty patients with acute peroneal palsy and weight loss were studied. Complete nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed in upper and lower limbs. NCS showed conduction block (CB) of the peroneal nerve at the fibular head that recovered in 29 patients within 3 weeks to 3 months. Severity of CB was correlated with clinical weakness. Three patients had abnormalities consistent with polyneuropathy (PNP). NCS in asymptomatic relatives confirmed familial neuropathy. Nerve biopsy and molecular study were consistent with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). One of these peroneal palsies (6 months) recovered after neurolysis. Weight loss might be a risk factor in peroneal mononeuropathies. NCS is a tool in the diagnosis of the site and severity of the nerve injury. Testing should be considered for relatives of patients with PNP because peroneal mononeuropathies may be the first expression of HNPP. PMID:10905469
Cruz-Martinez, A; Arpa, J; Palau, F
The purpose of this study was to investigate the recovery of burn related neuropathies by electrodiagnostic testing. Burn patients who presented to an American Burn Association verified burn center were interviewed and examined for clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathies by a physiatrist. Patients whom consented to participate were tested for electrodiagnostic evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Repeated studies were performed to assess for evidence of recovery. A total of 370 patients were screened. 36 (9.73%) patients had clinical evidence of neuropathy. Eighteen male patients with a mean total body surface area burn of 42% had nerve conduction studies performed. Etiologies of the injuries included 8 flame, 8 electrical and 3 others. Seventy three nerve conduction studies were performed and 58 of the tests were abnormal. The most commonly affected nerve was the median sensory (10). For patients with repeated tests, the mean time between tests was 169 days (SD 140 days). There was a significant difference between the initial and follow up test (McNemar’s change test p=0.009). In subset analysis of motor and sensory abnormalities, there was no significant difference (p=0.07). The most common neuropathy identified in this cohort was the median sensory. Overall, there was improvement in the nerve conduction abnormalities examined. This study suggests that the prognosis for recovery after burn related neuropathy is good.
Gabriel, Vincent; Kowalske, Karen J.; Holavanahalli, Radha K.
Bortezomib is a new chemotherapeutic agent approved for the treatment of relapsed\\/refractory and newly diagnosed multiple\\u000a myeloma. One of the major side effects of bortezomib is a peripheral length-dependent sensory axonal neuropathy and, less\\u000a frequently, a small fiber neuropathy. Autonomic symptoms like postural dizziness, syncope, diarrhoea, ileus, impotence and\\u000a urinary disturbances have been reported, nevertheless, autonomic neuropathy has never been
Maria Pia Giannoccaro; Vincenzo Donadio; Carolina Gomis Pčrez; Walter Borsini; Vitantonio Di Stasi; Rocco Liguori
Clinical expression of POLG mutations is largely variable. We present a patient with a new mutation in spacer region of mitochondrial polymerase gamma protein (P765T). The clinical picture is characterized by the presence of sensory-ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, dysarthria and gastroparesis, which had not been previously observed in ataxia neuropathy spectrum. PMID:22805437
Bostan, Alionka; Glibert, Gerald; Dachy, Bernard; Dan, Bernard
Peripheral neuropathy, involving motor, sensory, and autonomic nerves, is a common and debilitating complication of diabetes. Many features of human diabetic neuropathy can be modeled in the mouse using streptozotocin (STZ) to selectively destroy pancreatic beta cells resulting in sustained hyperglycemia but not requiring insulin replacement. We have previously demonstrated that recombinant replication defective herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vectors expressing
James R. Goss; Munmun Chattopadhyay; William F. Goins; Darren Wolfe; Marina Mata; Joseph C. Glorioso; David J. Fink
Summary A double blind crossover study with placebo and carbamazepine was done in 30 diabetic patients who presented diverse clinical types of peripheral diabetic neuropathy. The active drug offered symptomatic relief of all sensory manifestations in 28 cases. No effort was made to assess the action of carbamazepine upon motor or visceral manifestations of neuropathy. There were two complete failures. Untoward
J. A. Rull; R. Quibrera; H. González-Millán; O. Lozano Castańeda
The diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and related neuropathies (e. g. Déjčrine-Sottas disease; hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) appears to be easy. However, the incredible advances in molecular genetics have greatly complicated the classification of these disorders, and the proper diagnosis of the CMT subtype may be important for correct genetic counselling and prognosis. Moreover, these diseases may
Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies.
Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.
During 2010, 15 articles were published which focused on chronic sensorimotor axonal neuropathy; some will be discussed in this review. Clinical diagnosis from signs and symptoms seems to be excessively variable, often overestimating the incidence of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Long-term use of Metformin is associated with malabsorption of vitamin B12. Metformin exposure may be a iatrogenic cause for exacerbation of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. The neuroprotective role of vitamin E against cisplatinperipheral neurotoxicity has been suggested by a phase III study. Metallosis after hip arthroplasty with a cobalt-chromium alloy prosthesis can cause progressive sensory disturbance, hearing loss and hypothyroidism. The effects of electrical stimulation on neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats do not support a benefit of the tested protocol using electrical stimulation during the period of motor nerve recovery following injury. The rate of motor vehicle accidents in patients with neuropathy, based on surveys from 260 subjects, demonstrated that 40.6% were involved in traffic accidents. Accident frequency and discomfort with driving are higher in neuropathy patients compared to age-matched national statistics. Peripheral neuropathy in primary (AL) amyloidosis may be the cause of stepwise progressive, multiple upper limb mononeuropathies. PMID:22100324
Sensory neuropathies are a frequent and dose-limiting complication resulting from treatment with cisplatin. Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) promotes the survival of the large fiber sensory neurones that are impaired in cisplatin-induced neuropathy, and may therefore serve as a preventive agent. However, the short half-life of recombinant NT-3 after systemic administration limits its clinical applications. We compared two muscle-based gene transfer strategies for
P-F Pradat; P Kennel; S Naimi-Sadaoui; F Finiels; D Scherman; C Orsini; P Delaere; J Mallet; F Revah
Objective To assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) having neuropathic symptoms, and to investigate the relationship between electrophysiological findings of peripheral neuropathy and clinical findings of RA. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of RA and who had tingling or burning sensation in any extremity were electrophysiologically examined for evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Study parameters, including age, gender, laboratory parameters, duration of RA, and medication, were recorded. The symptoms and signs of neuropathy were quantified with the neuropathy symptom score, and the functional statuses of these patients were assessed. Results Out of a total of 30 RA patients, 10 (33%) had peripheral neuropathy: 2 had bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 5 had unilateral CTS, 1 had sensory polyneuropathy, and 2 had motor-sensory polyneuropathy. The mean ages of the patients with and without peripheral neuropathy were 69.4 and 56.5 years, respectively (p<0.05). A significant relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody. However, no relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and the type of medication, RA duration, the patients' functional status, neuropathic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein values. Conclusion Neuropathic symptoms are common in RA patients, and it is difficult to distinguish peripheral neuropathy symptoms from those of arthritis. Patients with RA, particularly elderly patients and anti-CCP antibody positive patients who complain of neuropathic symptoms should undergo electrophysiological examination.
Sim, Mi Kyung; Yoon, Jisun; Park, Dae Hwan; Kim, Yong-Gil
The authors describe peripheral nerve involvement in a 12-month-old boy with Cree leukodystrophy. Nerve conduction and genetic studies were performed during investigation of his leukodystrophy. Mutation analysis of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2B5 gene detected homozygosity of the R195 mutation, confirming the diagnosis of Cree leukodystrophy. Median and posterior tibial motor nerve conduction study results were normal, but sensory responses in the median nerves were unobtainable bilaterally, in keeping with a sensory axonal neuropathy. Somatosensory-evoked potentials were absent in the upper extremities and delayed in the lower extremities, confirming sensory nerve involvement. This degree of sensory nerve involvement has not been previously reported in patients with eukaryotic initiation factor 2B5-related disorders. Peripheral neuropathy should be looked for both clinically and with electrodiagnostic studies in patients with eukaryotic initiation factor 2B-related disorders. PMID:17641267
Huntsman, R J; Seshia, S; Lowry, N; Lemire, E G; Harder, S L
The purpose of this study was to determine whether peripheral neuropathy explains the apparent association between diabetes and disability in old age, and to evaluate the utility of lower extremity function tests in older diabetic adults with and without neuropathy. We evaluated 39 adults, aged 70-79 years, for pressure sensation (log(10)g), vibration perception threshold (VPT; microns), and electrophysiologic function of the peroneal nerve. The subjects included patients with established diabetic neuropathy (DN; n = 14), diabetic controls without neuropathy (DC; n = 13), and nondiabetic controls (NDC; n = 12). Nonparametric statistical methods were used to relate neuropathy measures to performance in tests of walking speed, static and dynamic balance, coordination, and ankle strength (kilograms). Significant age-adjusted correlations were observed between measures of sensory neuropathy and a variety of performance measures, and electrophysiologic measures were related to static balance. DN subjects had significantly higher pressure sensation than NDC (5.17 vs 3.38g, P < 0.05), higher VPT (62.5 vs 21.7 microm, P < 0.05), and lower peroneal motor response amplitudes at multiple sites. Pressure sensation and nerve conduction measures did not differ between DC and NDC. Compared with NDC, DN subjects performed significantly worse on tests of walking speed (0.99 vs 1.34 m/s; P < 0.05), static balance (4.9 vs 20.4 s; P < 0.05), dynamic balance (9.23 vs 25.52 s; P < 0.05), and coordination (6.73 vs 4.76 s; P < 0.05). No differences were observed in these measures between DC and NDC. Observed differences in physical abilities between older diabetic and nondiabetic adults may have been due to the subset of diabetic individuals with peripheral neuropathy. Quantitative measures of sensory and motor nerve function have distinct effects on physical performance. Interventions aimed at reducing the impact of diabetes-associated disability in old age may have the greatest impact among people with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:11754184
Resnick, Helaine E; Stansberry, Kevin B; Harris, Tamara B; Tirivedi, Mahdvi; Smith, Kimberly; Morgan, Polly; Vinik, Aaron I
We report three female patients, 43, 47, and 50 years old, with a rare asymmetric form of clinically pure sensory neuropathy\\u000a associated with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. In all three patients glandular involvement was accompanied by peripheral nerve\\u000a disease. Sensory conduction studies showed completely normal results in two of three patients. Yet assessment of thermal-specific\\u000a thresholds and thermal pain thresholds, combined
Miro Denišli?; Duška Meh
Objective In HIV populations that are aging due to improved longevity with combination antiretroviral therapy (CART), both hypertriglyceridemia (hTRG) and sensory neuropathy have become increasingly common. Sensory neuropathy is associated with substantial long-term disability and frequently requires management with analgesics. Elevated serum triglycerides (TRGs) are associated with an increased risk for sensory neuropathy in diabetes mellitus. However, the contribution of hTRG to sensory neuropathy in HIV has not been carefully evaluated. Design Prospective, comparative, single-center, cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Clinical correlates of sensory neuropathy were assessed in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants. HIV-sensory neuropathy was defined as one or more clinical signs of reduced distal sensation or ankle reflexes; symptoms were distal leg and foot pain, parasthesias or numbness. TRG levels were assessed along with concomitant metabolic and other risk factors including glucose, lipids, age, height, current and nadir CD4, and past or current use of protease inhibitors, dideoxynucleoside antiretrovirals (d-drugs), and statins in univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results Of 436 HIV patients (median age 52 years; 75% on CART), 27% had sensory neuropathy; 48% were symptomatic. TRG levels were significantly higher in HIV-positive than HIV-negative individuals (mean ± SD, 245 ± 242 versus 160 ± 97 mg/dl; P < 0.001). Among HIV-positive patients, those with TRG levels in the highest tertile (? 244 mg/dl) were more likely to have sensory neuropathy than those in the lowest tertile (reference, ? 142 mg/dl) after adjusting for concurrent predictors (adjusted odds ratio 2.7, 95% confidence interval 1.4–5.5). Conclusions Elevated triglyceride levels increased the risk for HIV-sensory neuropathy in HIV-positive individuals independently of other known risk factors.
Banerjee, Sugato; McCutchan, J. Allen; Ances, Beau M.; Deutsch, Reena; Riggs, Patricia K.; Way, Lauren; Ellis, Ronald J.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary component of the disorder, as opposed to diseases in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurologic or multisystem syndrome. Because of the great genetic heterogeneity of this condition, it can be challenging for the general neurologist to diagnose patients with specific types of CMT. This article reviews the biology of the inherited peripheral neuropathies, delineates major phenotypic features of the CMT subtypes, and suggest strategies for focusing genetic testing. PMID:23642725
Saporta, Mario A; Shy, Michael E
SYNOPSIS Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary component of the disorder, as opposed to diseases in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurological or multisystem syndrome. Due to the great genetic heterogeneity of this condition, it can be challenging for the general neurologist to diagnose patients with specific types of CMT. Here, we review the biology of the inherited peripheral neuropathies, delineate major phenotypic features of the CMT subtypes and suggest strategies for focusing genetic testing.
Saporta, Mario A.; Shy, Michael E.
Surgical decompression of peripheral nerves for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy has been studied and previously reported. These studies reported decreased pain and some studies showed improved sensory function. The role that this surgery can play remains controversial. PMID:15165580
Biddinger, Kent R; Amend, Kari J
We report a successful treatment with rituximab in a patient with CANOMAD neuropathy resistant to previous therapy. The titers\\u000a of anti-disialosyl antibodies were decreased 3 months after the beginning of the treatment and the sensory ataxia clearly\\u000a improved after 9 months of therapy.
Emilien Delmont; P. Y. Jeandel; A. M. Hubert; L. Marcq; J. Boucraut; C. Desnuelle
We report a successful treatment with rituximab in a patient with CANOMAD neuropathy resistant to previous therapy. The titers of anti-disialosyl antibodies were decreased 3 months after the beginning of the treatment and the sensory ataxia clearly improved after 9 months of therapy. PMID:19960199
Delmont, Emilien; Jeandel, P Y; Hubert, A M; Marcq, L; Boucraut, J; Desnuelle, C
OBJECTIVE Neuropathy is a frequent and severe complication of diabetes. Multiple metabolic defects in type 2 diabetic patients result in oxidative injury of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. Our previous work focused on hyperglycemia clearly demonstrates induction of mitochondrial oxidative stress and acute injury in DRG neurons; however, this mechanism is not the only factor that produces neuropathy in vivo. Dyslipidemia also correlates with the development of neuropathy, even in pre-diabetic patients. This study was designed to explore the contribution of dyslipidemia in neuropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mice (n = 10) were fed a control (10% kcal %fat) or high-fat (45% kcal %fat) diet to explore the impact of plasma lipids on the development of neuropathy. We also examined oxidized lipid–mediated injury in cultured DRG neurons from adult rat using oxidized LDLs (oxLDLs). RESULTS Mice on a high-fat diet have increased oxLDLs and systemic and nerve oxidative stress. They develop nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and sensory deficits prior to impaired glucose tolerance. In vitro, oxLDLs lead to severe DRG neuron oxidative stress via interaction with the receptor lectin-like oxLDL receptor (LOX)-1 and subsequent NAD(P)H oxidase activity. Oxidative stress resulting from oxLDLs and high glucose is additive. CONCLUSIONS Multiple metabolic defects in type 2 diabetes directly injure DRG neurons through different mechanisms that all result in oxidative stress. Dyslipidemia leads to high levels of oxLDLs that may injure DRG neurons via LOX-1 and contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy.
Vincent, Andrea M.; Hayes, John M.; McLean, Lisa L.; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Feldman, Eva L.
Back ground: Vincristine (VCR), is a chemotherapy drug, useful in the treatment of leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumor and it is a potent neurotoxin and sensory neuropathy drug which a common behavioral toxicity of this drug. Neuropathy is common squeal of intensive chemotherapy protocols that contain vincristine and corticosteroids. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective and descriptive study of neuropathy during in chemotherapy program with vincristine for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Data was analyzed by spss Version16 software. Results: From total of 51 cases, 23 patients had vincristine neuropathy (45%). Patients with visceral neuropathy have shown ileus, constipation in 13 patients (25%), occasionally severe diarrhea 11 (21%), mild diarrhea 7 (13.7%) and transient diarrhea in 16 patients (31%). Motor neuropathy were found in one patient with Bell, s palsy (1.9%) and one patient with Hoarseness. 12 patients (23.5%) had some type of complication together with sensory peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion: Almost half of patients with vincristin chemotherapy had neuropathy and the mean age of patients with neuropathy was 12.3 years.
Dorchin, M; Masoumi Dehshiri, R; Soleiman, S; Manashi, M
Case studies of two siblings suffering from a gum disorder in which enlargement of the gingival mucosa is caused by a fibrosis. The disorder in the two children was felt to be an hereditary recessive trait. (CD)
Nevin, N. C.
Gastrointestinal and respiratory involvement is common in hereditary angioedema, laryngeal edema being the main cause of mortality in these patients. We report the case of an 18 year-old woman with a history of hereditary angioedema, who presented an episode of coughing and vomiting the night before, and who was diagnosed with pneumomediastinum as a complication of an episode of angioedema. We review the causes and pathogenesis of the mediastinic emphysema. PMID:12968401
Bernedo, N; González, I; Gastaminza, G; Audícana, M T; Fernández, E; Muńoz, D
Background: Fungal infections are common and life threatening among immunosupressive patients. Rare side effects may occur related to the use of voriconazole, which is the drug of choice in invasive aspergillosis. Patients and Methods: Neuropathy was determined through clinical and electromyographic findings during the course of voriconazole therapy in 2 patients developing invasive aspergillosis. Results: Since examinations revealed no neuropathy
Firdevs Aksoy; Elif Akdogan; Kemalettin Aydin; Mustafa Yilmaz; Vildan Altunayoglu; Ebru Emel Sozen; Serdar Bedii Omay; Iftihar Koksal
There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach.
Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A
PURPOSE: Obstetric trauma and excessive defecatory straining with perineal descent may lead to pudendal neuropathy with bilateral increase in pudendal nerve terminal motor latencies (PNTML). We have frequently observed unilateral prolongation of PNTML. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of unilateral pudendal neuropathy are discussed. METHODS: Records of 174 patients referred to pelvic floor laboratory for anorectal manometry and PNTML testing were
Yash P. Sangwan; John A. Coller; Richard C. Barrett; John J. Murray; Patricia L. Roberts; David J. Schoetz
... usually begin during adolescence, but onset varies from infancy to the mid-thirties. Cramps in the hand ... and some affected individuals eventually develop problems with walking (gait disturbance). People with this disorder have normal ...
... be affected. Many people with this disorder experience carpal tunnel syndrome when a nerve in the wrist (the median nerve) is involved. Carpal tunnel syndrome is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness ...
We present a case of length-dependent sensory axonal polyneuropathy due to lead exposure from a cosmetic product. Serial follow-ups showed a direct relationship between the lead level, clinical symptoms, and the polyneuropathy. Our patient had a relatively short-term exposure to lead after misusing a hair dye on his beard. Nerve conduction studies showed a predominantly axonal sensory neuropathy that correlated with lead blood levels and reached 3 times the upper limit of normal. The patient had an unexpected sensory predominant neuropathy. He had a full recovery after stopping the lead-containing product. Blood lead levels were noted to be below previously reported toxic levels. No other systemic signs of lead toxicity were noted. This could be related to the mucosal route of absorption inducing a reversible injury at lower than previously reported lead levels and after a shorter duration of exposure. PMID:24872215
Deeb, Wissam; Cachia, David; Quinn, Colin; Salameh, Johnny
Brachial plexus compressive neuropathy following the use of axillary crutches (crutch palsy) is a rare but well-recognized entity. Most reported cases involve the posterior cord of the brachial plexus in children and have resolved spontaneously within 8-12 weeks. We recently treated a 36-year-old man who was using axillary crutches for mobilization after a supracondylar femoral fracture. Bilateral posterior cord (predominantly radial nerve) compressive neuropathy subsequently developed, with lesser involvement of the ulnar and median nerves. The patient had little to no improvement clinically 8 weeks after the estimated onset of the palsy, and an electromyogram at that time confirmed the presence of a severe axonotmesis lesion of the radial, median, and ulnar nerves bilaterally. The patient was treated with static cock-up wrist splinting and discontinuation of the axillary crutches. Return of sensory and motor function was delayed but occurred within 9 months. PMID:9057152
Raikin, S; Froimson, M I
Objectives: Evidences of oxidative and/or nitrosative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in experimental and human studies. This study is aimed to assess the serum peroxynitrite and oxidized lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with clinical and laboratory evidences of peripheral neuropathy. Materials and Methods: Eighty four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (51 of them had neuropathy) and 31 apparent healthy subjects were studied in the unit of neurophysiology at the University Hospital of Medical College, Al-Nahrin University in Baghdad, Iraq. Neuropathy total symptom score (NTSS), neuropathy impairment score in the lower leg (NIS-LL), and nerve conduction velocity of sensory (ulnar and sural) and motor (ulnar and common peroneal) nerves were used to assess the neuropathy. Fasting venous blood was obtained from each participant for the determination of serum glucose and oxidized lipoproteins. Results: The electrophysiology study revealed significant decrease in conduction velocity of ulnar (sensory and motor components), sural, and common peroneal nerves in diabetic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy and healthy subjects. Significant high level of serum peroxynitrite was found in diabetic patients with or without neuropathy compared with non-diabetics. The changes in serum-oxidized lipoproteins in patients with diabetics with or without neuropathy were non-significantly differed from healthy subjects. Neither nitrosative stress nor oxidative stress indices correlated with the variables that are related to the neuropathy. Conclusion: It concludes that evidence of nitrosative and to less extent the oxidative stress is associated with neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus and their indices not correlated with variables related to neuropathy.
Al-Nimer, Marwan S; Al-Ani, Fakhir S; Ali, Fatima S
This study investigates motor (MNCS) and sensory (SNCS) nerve conduction in a sample of non-diabetic obese people without symptoms suggestive of neuropathy and looks for a possible metabolic alteration. Twenty-one patients and 20 age-matched controls underwent (a) MNCS (median, ulnar, peroneal, and tibial) and SNCS (median, ulnar, and sural); (b) quantitative sensory testing to measure sensory threshold for vibration, warm and cold sensation (WS-CS), heat and cold-induced pain; and (c) blood sample analysis to evaluate glucose and insulin levels and calculate the quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index (QUICKI). The obese group showed significantly decreased compound muscle action potential amplitude of tibial and peroneal nerves and decreased sensory action potential amplitude of all nerves. Most of the sensory thresholds were altered in obese patients. Insulin serum levels were significantly increased while QUICKI decreased in obese patients. WS and CS from the index and little fingers and WS from the big toe significantly correlated with QUICKI. Thermal and pain thresholds from the index and thermal thresholds from the little finger correlated with QUICKI values. The non-diabetic obese patients showed a subclinical involvement of different diameter sensory fibers. Such impairment was related to hyperinsulinemia and insulin sensitivity. The increase in sensory threshold of obese patients might be due to a metabolic alteration, potentially leading to a future clinical neuropathy. PMID:16279984
Miscio, Giacinta; Guastamacchia, Giulia; Brunani, Amelia; Priano, Lorenzo; Baudo, Silvia; Mauro, Alessandro
Objective:To determine the responses to treatment of patients with chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy associated with anti-GD1b IgM antibodies.Methods:Patients with chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy associated with anti-GD1b IgM antibodies followed in our department for at least 12 months between 2001 and 2008 were identified and studied retrospectively. Patients were tested at regular intervals using the INCAT disability score. Patients whose disability
S Attarian; J Boucraut; A M Hubert; D Uzenot; E Delmont; A Verschueren; J Franques; J P Azulay; J Pouget
In humans, exposure to organic solvents (OS) is frequent in work activities or as a recreational inhalant, inducing severe neuropathy (secondary to demyelization of peripheral nerves). We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increases local content of neural growth factor (NGF), improving peripheral neuropathy of diverse origins. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ATRA on OS-induced peripheral neuropathy in experimental mice. Two simultaneous experiments were performed. The first one aimed to evaluate ATRA for the prevention of damage induced by OS, the second to test ATRA as an OS-induced neuropathy treatment. Nociceptive threshold latency and NGF concentration in serum and in peripheral nerves were determined. Morphological changes and evidence of sciatic nerve regeneration were evaluated. Mice exposed to OS developed neuropathy and axonal degeneration. ATRA diminished the effects of OS inhalation on sensorial changes and nerve morphology. Treatment with ATRA reversed sensorial and nerve morphological changes of OS-induced neuropathy, and this was associated with increased contents of NGF. Similar to previous experiences on diabetic and toxic neuropathy, ATRA reduced and partially reversed the peripheral neuropathy caused by OS exposure. These favorable effects apparently are due to local production of NGF induced by neural regeneration in response to the administration of retinoic acid. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24647975
Palencia, Guadalupe; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Saavedra-Perez, David; Peńa-Curiel, Omar; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Ordońez, Graciela; Flores-Estrada, Diana; Sotelo, Julio; Arrieta, Oscar
Background and Aim. The sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers used for predicting peripheral neuropathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis (SLE-LN) remain unsatisfactory. This study aimed to determine the autoantibodies levels in SLE-LN patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods. Data of 559 SLE-LN patients were collected retrospectively, including titers of autoantibodies, electrodiagnostic studies, and clinical manifestations. Results. The neurologic manifestations of the SLE-LN patients were diverse and nonspecific. The prevalence rate of peripheral polyneuropathy was 2.68%, of which about 73.33% was mixed sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Numbness and functional gastrointestinal problems were the most prevalent symptoms and these were noted in every subtype of peripheral neuropathy. Among all the serology markers, anti-Ro was significantly associated with neuropathy related to SLE (P = 0.009). Conclusion. Peripheral neuropathy among LN patients is rare and may be easily overlooked. This study demonstrated that positive anti-Ro antibody may imply neuropathy in LN patients. Thus, anti-Ro can be considered a biomarker that should be added to the panel of conventional autoantibodies in LN patients.
Su, Yu-Jih; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Chih-Min; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lu, Cheng-Hsien
Aim. This study compares the effectiveness of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), neurothesiometer, and electromyography (EMG) in detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes type 2. Materials and Methods. 106 patients with diabetes type 2 treated at the outpatient clinic of Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Department of Endocrinology between September 2008 and May 2009 were included in this study. Patients were evaluated by glycemic regulation tests, MNSI (questionnaire and physical examination), EMG (for detecting sensorial and motor defects in right median, ulnar, posterior tibial, and bilateral sural nerves), and neurothesiometer (for detecting alterations in cold and warm sensations as well as vibratory sensations). Results. According to the MNSI score, there was diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 34 (32.1%) patients (score ?2.5). However, when the patients were evaluated by EMG and neurothesiometer, neurological impairments were detected in 49 (46.2%) and 79 (74.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusion. According to our findings, questionnaires and physical examination often present lower diabetic peripheral neuropathy prevalence. Hence, we recommend that in the evaluation of diabetic patients neurological tests should be used for more accurate results and thus early treatment options to prevent neuropathic complications.
Mete, Turkan; Aydin, Yusuf; Saka, Mustafa; Cinar Yavuz, Halise; Bilen, Sule; Yalcin, Yavuz; Arli, Berna; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar
131 HA-TTR patients from a single referral centre presented at onset five major clinical syndromes: (1) the typical "Portuguese variant" axonal polyneuropathy with dissociated (syringomyelic like) sensory loss and autonomic dysfunction; (2) bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome; (3) restless leg syndrome with impotence and unexplained loss of weight; (4) pure motor neuropathy without autonomic abnormalities; (5) recurrent small brain or spinal cord ischemia or haemorrhages with leptomeningeal amyloid deposition (and late superficial siderosis of the central nervous system) and vitreous deposits. Some patients in our population presented a "pseudodemyelinating" onset of the somatic neuropathy, as well as atypical motor neuropathy simulating lower motor neuron disease. The five syndromes can overlap in advanced stages of the disease. Genetic screening of HA-TTR could be worthwhile in any idiopathic progressive axonal peripheral neuropathy, as well as in drug resistant demyelinating sensory-motor neuropathy or in pure motor neuropathy, when multi-organ involvement is present. PMID:22620967
Salvi, Fabrizio; Pastorelli, Francesca; Plasmati, Rosaria; Bartolomei, Illaria; Dall'Osso, Daniela; Rapezzi, Claudio
This article discusses inheritance patterns in hearing loss, epidemiology, clues to genetic causes, locating genes that cause hereditary disorders, genes related to hearing loss disorders in individuals with Usher syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Branchio-oto-renal and Pendred syndromes, and the significance of finding…
Tran, LenhAnh P.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.
Phenotypic data for 71 genetic markers for members of five Caucasian kindreds were tested for linkage with the autosomal dominant mutations causing Charcot-Marie-Tooth (hereditary motor sensory) neuropathy type I, characterized by markedly reduced nerve conduction velocities. Lod score analysis gave no evidence of linkage to the closely linked chromosome 1 loci SPTA1-FY-F5-AT3 and APOA2. In contrast, these mutations were found to map closely (zeta = 10.828, theta = 0.0) to D17S58, an anonymous segment of DNA from 17p11.2-p11.1, and thus define the CMT1A locus. Segregation information data for an inferred recombinant offspring indicated that the CMT1A locus is probably proximal to MYH2, the locus encoding adult skeletal muscle myosin heavy polypeptide 2, which maps to 17p13. Analysis of the lod scores on a per kindred basis gave no evidence of genetic heterogeneity. PMID:2365358
McAlpine, P J; Feasby, T E; Hahn, A F; Komarnicki, L; James, S; Guy, C; Dixon, M; Qayyum, S; Wright, J; Coopland, G
Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a potentially dose limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents like taxanes, vinca-alkaloids, platinum compounds, bortezomib and thalidomide. Supposed pathogenetic mechanisms of CIPN are axonopathy through dying back axon damage and neuronopathy in which the cell bodies of the dorsal root ganglia are involved. The exact pathophysiology however is not clear and different underlying mechanisms have been proposed for different classes of anti-cancer drugs. Sensory symptoms, like pain, numbness and tingling are most common, but motor weakness, autonomic dysfunction and even cranial nerve involvement may occur. CIPN can be painful and/or disabling, causing significant loss of functional abilities and decreasing quality of life. This can lead to dose reductions, discontinuation of treatment and may thus, ultimately, affect survival. Risk factors for CIPN include dose per cycle, cumulative dose, treatment schedule, duration of infusion, administration of other chemotherapeutics, comorbidity and pre-existing peripheral neuropathy. The exploration of polymorphisms in genes associated with incidence or severity of neuropathy might result in identifying individuals being at higher risk of neurotoxicity. An update on genes possibly associated with CIPN is given. CIPN may be reversible or be more or less permanent. Many preventive and treatment strategies have been explored, without significant efficacy up till now. In this review we describe the different drug-related characteristics of CIPN, pharmacogenomic studies, neurophysiological findings, treatment and outcome, and neuroprotective strategies. PMID:24830939
Miltenburg, N C; Boogerd, W
Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are frequently responsible for neuropathies with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PNP) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. The last years have seen a growing list of evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics might be dysfunctional in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), and these mechanisms might present a common link between dissimilar CMT2-causing genes. PMID:24768438
Cassereau, J; Codron, P; Funalot, B
Peripheral nerve disorders are among the most common neurological complications of HIV disease. Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common form of neuropathy in patients with AIDS and can be caused by diverse mechanisms, including infectious, metabolic, inflammatory, nutritional, and toxic factors. Antiretroviral agents may cause or contribute to HIV-related DSP. Recognition of peripheral neuropathy has become increasingly important as more patients receive nucleoside analogue agents for the treatment of HIV disease. It is crucial to correctly distinguish between the neuropathies caused by toxic effects of nucleoside analogues and those that are primarily related to underlying HIV disease, because timely diagnosis and proper treatment of peripheral neuropathies may allow the continuation of antiretroviral therapy as well as improve the quality of life. The identification and treatment of peripheral neuropathies associated with use of the nucleoside drugs zalcitabine (ddC), didanosine (ddI), and stavudine (d4T) are reviewed. PMID:7749792
Simpson, D M; Tagliati, M
Sporadic acute brachial plexus neuropathy occurs in approximately 1.64/100,000 population, but may present in epidemic form. Sporadic lumbosacral plexus neuropathy is far less common and has to be distinguished from more common disorders affecting the plexus and roots such as diabetes. Early this century, when serum therapy became popular to treat or prevent prevalent infectious diseases, it became apparent that a plexopathy could follow treatment. It has thus been assumed that many of the cases are due to an autoimmune or inflammatory lesion of the plexus. A wide variety of vaccines, infections and medications seem able to precipitate the disorder. Recent work has shown that cultured lymphocytes from affected patients, but not controls, are able to mount a blastogenic response to components of cadaver brachial plexus. This response seems to be selective not only to the brachial plexus, but also to discrete components of the plexus. The recovery rate in brachial plexus neuropathy is good, being almost 90% at 3 years. Recovery with lumbosacral disease is less satisfactory. Histological material and descriptions of acute brachial plexus neuropathy are rare. There is some evidence that an inflammatory process is present, but the role of demyelination and axonal atrophy in producing the observed clinical signs, is still uncertain. Virtually nothing is known about the histological changes in lumbosacral plexus neuropathy. Treatment is mainly supportive, but important in limiting disability. Steroids may help relieve pain in the acute stages, but do not seem to alter the prognosis. PMID:7921588
Russell, J W; Windebank, A J
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is one of the most common side effects of bortezomib therapy. The majority of bortezomib-related PN is a sensory neuropathy of mild to moderate degree, and is reversible after dose reduction or discontinuation. However, occasionally bortezomib-induced neuropathy can be severe and affects motor and/or autonomic nerves, and may be mediated by immune process. The role of immune modulation therapy in the management of bortezomib-induced PN was not well established. Here, we reported a case of bortezomib-induced severe PN that responded well to plasma exchange and steroid treatment.
Autoantibodies against gangliosides GM1 or GD1a are associated with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), whereas antibodies to GD1b ganglioside are detected in acute sensory ataxic neuropathy (ASAN). These neuropathies have been proposed to be closely related and comprise a continuous spectrum, although the underlying mechanisms, especially for sensory nerve involvement, are still unclear. Antibodies to GM1 and GD1a have been proposed to disrupt the nodes of Ranvier in motor nerves via complement pathway. We hypothesized that the disruption of nodes of Ranvier is a common mechanism whereby various anti-ganglioside antibodies found in these neuropathies lead to nervous system dysfunction. Here, we show that the IgG monoclonal anti-GD1a/GT1b antibody injected into rat sciatic nerves caused deposition of IgG and complement products on the nodal axolemma and disrupted clusters of nodal and paranodal molecules predominantly in motor nerves, and induced early reversible motor nerve conduction block. Injection of IgG monoclonal anti-GD1b antibody induced nodal disruption predominantly in sensory nerves. In an ASAN rabbit model associated with IgG anti-GD1b antibodies, complement-mediated nodal disruption was observed predominantly in sensory nerves. In an AMAN rabbit model associated with IgG anti-GM1 antibodies, complement attack of nodes was found primarily in motor nerves, but occasionally in sensory nerves as well. Periaxonal macrophages and axonal degeneration were observed in dorsal roots from ASAN rabbits and AMAN rabbits. Thus, nodal disruption may be a common mechanism in immune-mediated neuropathies associated with autoantibodies to gangliosides GM1, GD1a, or GD1b, providing an explanation for the continuous spectrum of AMAN, AMSAN, and ASAN. PMID:22178332
Susuki, Keiichiro; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Schafer, Dorothy P; Hirata, Koichi; Zhang, Gang; Funakoshi, Kei; Rasband, Matthew N
Objective: to determine the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a cohort of patients with demyelinating neuropathies. Methods: Patients were retrospectively recruited from our cohort of different forms of demyelinating neuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP), Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A), and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) referred to our Department of Neurology in a 10-year period. The validated 4-item RLS questionnaire was used for diagnosis of RLS. All patients with RLS who fulfilled criteria underwent a suggested immobilization test to confirm the diagnosis. A group of outpatients referred to the sleep disorders unit and data from published literature were used as controls. Results: Prevalence of RLS in demyelinating neuropathy group was higher than prevalence observed in control population (p = 0.0142) or in the literature data (p = 0.0007). In particular, in comparison with both control population and literature data, prevalence of RLS was higher in CIDP group (p = 0.0266 and p = 0.0063, respectively) and in CMT1A group (p = 0.0312 and p = 0.0105, respectively), but not in HNPP (p = 1.000 and p = 0.9320, respectively). Conclusions: our study confirms a high prevalence of RLS in inflammatory neuropathies as CIDP and, among inherited neuropathies, in CMT1A but not in HNPP. Considering that this is only a small cohort from a single-center retrospective experience, the link between RLS and neuropathy remains uncertain, and larger multicenter studies are probably needed to clarify the real meaning of the association between RLS and neuropathy. Citation: Luigetti M; Del Grande A; Testani E; Bisogni G; Losurdo A; Giannantoni NM; Mazza S; Sabatelli M; Della Marca G. Restless leg syndrome in different types of demyelinating neuropathies: a single-center pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):945-949.
Luigetti, Marco; Del Grande, Alessandra; Testani, Elisa; Bisogni, Giulia; Losurdo, Anna; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Mazza, Salvatore; Sabatelli, Mario; Della Marca, Giacomo
Introduction: Distal sensory neuropathy is the most common form of diabetic neuropathy. We developed a novel antidromic technique for assessment of distal nerve function for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. Methods: Diabetic and control groups underwent standard and more distal sensory nerve conduction studies (NCS); sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) of the proper digital branches of the medial plantar nerve were recorded with our method after stimulation at the sole and recording from digits I and II. Results: Comparison between controls and diabetics showed a statistically significant difference in mean SNAP amplitudes for all nerves tested. A higher percentage of abnormal SNAPs was obtained with our technique than with either conventional or more distal NCS in all patients. Conclusions: As compared with clinical evaluation and other NCS, our antidromic stimulation was the most sensitive method to detect abnormal sensory nerve conduction in symptomatic and asymptomatic diabetic patients. Muscle Nerve 50:193-199, 2014. PMID:24282067
Squintani, Giovanna; Zoppini, Giacomo; Donato, Francesco; Pineschi, Elena; Donini, Diana; Stoico, Vincenzo; Moretto, Giuseppe; Bonora, Enzo; Morini, Alberto
Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin
Sensory loss and weakness in Charcot–Marie–Tooth (CMT) neuropathy is due to axonal loss. However, the pattern and degree of axonal loss cannot be accurately determined from routine electrodiagnostic or strength testing due to collateral reinnervation. We sought to quantify axonal loss in two upper extremity muscles in CMT1A and CMT2 subjects using the electrophysiologic endpoint measure of motor unit number
Victoria H Lawson; A Gordon Smith; Mark B Bromberg
We tested patients with celiac disease (CD) for the presence of serum anti-ganglioside antibodies. Six of twenty-seven patient sera were reactive against brain gangliosides by an agglutination immunoassay. Neurological examination in all six revealed the presence of distal sensory loss, consistent with the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. When tested by ELISA for antibodies to isolated GM1, GM2, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b,
Armin Alaedini; Peter H. R. Green; Howard W. Sander; Arthur P. Hays; Eugenia T. Gamboa; Alessio Fasano; Michelle Sonnenberg; Linda D. Lewis; Norman Latov
We have previously demonstrated that Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats with spontaneous type-2 diabetes and peripheral neuropathy exhibit regional osteopathic changes. In the present study on 18 GK rats and 21 control Wistar rats, the occurrence of the sensory neuropeptides substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and the autonomic neuropeptide Y (NPY) was analysed in bone and joints, dorsal root
Tashfeen Ahmad; Anna Ugarph-Morawski; Jian Li; Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar; Anja Finn; Claes-Göran Östenson; Andris Kreicbergs
Within the ambit of multiple tumors, an important issue is that of already identified hereditary syndromes, a group of anatomical-clinical\\u000a entities that have been well distinguished and studied for years. Such diseases have a common etiopathogenetic mechanism,\\u000a mostly represented by a genetic mutation. It is easy to understand how a patient, who has in his or her genetic history a
Nicola Carlomagno; Luigi Pelosio; Akbar Jamshidi; Marius Yabi; Francesca Duraturo; Paola Izzo; Andrea Renda
SUMMARY Mutations in the enzyme glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS) cause motor and sensory axon loss in the peripheral nervous system in humans, described clinically as Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2D or distal spinal muscular atrophy type V. Here, we characterise a new mouse mutant, GarsC201R, with a point mutation that leads to a non-conservative substitution within GARS. Heterozygous mice with a C3H genetic background have loss of grip strength, decreased motor flexibility and disruption of fine motor control; this relatively mild phenotype is more severe on a C57BL/6 background. Homozygous mutants have a highly deleterious set of features, including movement difficulties and death before weaning. Heterozygous animals have a reduction in axon diameter in peripheral nerves, slowing of nerve conduction and an alteration in the recovery cycle of myelinated axons, as well as innervation defects. An assessment of GARS levels showed increased protein in 15-day-old mice compared with controls; however, this increase was not observed in 3-month-old animals, indicating that GARS function may be more crucial in younger animals. We found that enzyme activity was not reduced detectably in heterozygotes at any age, but was diminished greatly in homozygous mice compared with controls; thus, homozygous animals may suffer from a partial loss of function. The GarsC201R mutation described here is a contribution to our understanding of the mechanism by which mutations in tRNA synthetases, which are fundamentally important, ubiquitously expressed enzymes, cause axonopathy in specific sets of neurons.
Achilli, Francesca; Bros-Facer, Virginie; Williams, Hazel P.; Banks, Gareth T.; AlQatari, Mona; Chia, Ruth; Tucci, Valter; Groves, Michael; Nickols, Carole D.; Seburn, Kevin L.; Kendall, Rachel; Cader, Muhammed Z.; Talbot, Kevin; van Minnen, Jan; Burgess, Robert W.; Brandner, Sebastian; Martin, Joanne E.; Koltzenburg, Martin; Greensmith, Linda; Nolan, Patrick M.; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.
Growing evidence suggests that prediabetes and metabolic syndrome are associated with increased risk for the development of microvascular complications including retinopathy, nephropathy, and, most commonly, peripheral painful neuropathy and/or autonomic neuropathy. The etiology of these disabling neuropathies is unclear, and several clinical and experimental studies implicated obesity, impaired fasting glycemia/impaired glucose tolerance, elevated triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acids, as well as oxidative-nitrative stress. Endoplasmic reticulum stress resulting from abnormal folding of newly synthesized proteins and leading to the impairment of metabolism, transcriptional regulation, and gene expression, is emerging as a key mechanism of metabolic diseases including obesity and diabetes. We evaluated the role for this phenomenon in prediabetic neuropathy using two animal models i.e., Zucker (fa/fa) rats and high-fat diet fed mice which displayed obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in the absence of overt hyperglycemia. Endoplasmic reticulum stress manifest in upregulation of the glucose-regulated proteins BiP/GRP78 and GRP94 of unfolded protein response was identified in the sciatic nerve of Zucker rats. A chemical chaperone, trimethylamine oxide, blunted endoplasmic reticulum stress and alleviated sensory nerve conduction velocity deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. A selective inhibitor of eukaryotic initiation factor-2? dephosphorylation, salubrinal, improved glucose intolerance and alleviated peripheral nerve dysfunction in high-fat diet fed mice. Our findings suggest an important role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the neurobiology of prediabetic peripheral neuropathy, and identify a new therapeutic target. PMID:23142188
Lupachyk, Sergey; Watcho, Pierre; Obrosov, Alexander A; Stavniichuk, Roman; Obrosova, Irina G
The latest clinical guideline includes three major hereditary disorders presenting with urticaria: urticaria pigmentosa (mastocytosis), hereditary angioedema, and cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. Understanding the genetic cause and the consequent pathogenesis of such disorders helps in providing disease-specific essential therapeutic regimens. In recent years, distinct hereditary autoinflammatory syndromes with cold urticaria have been reported: NLRP12-associated periodic syndrome, and PLCG2-associated antibody deficiency and immune dysregulation. Moreover, some familial cases with urticaria still remain to be genetically defined. Rapid progress in genetic analysis and further insights into undefined hereditary urticaria promise the development of novel therapeutics in the near future. PMID:24262697
Toxic optic neuropathy (TON) is a disease entity which is not only underdiagnosed, but also often diagnosed at a stage when recovery of vision is not possible. This article gives an overview of common causes, clinical features, and management of TON.
Sharma, Pradeep; Sharma, Reena
Chronic painful diabetic neuropathy can cause a variety of challenges, particularly in successful treatment. The pain, which can last for years, can severely impair quality of life. Management is difficult, although the careful use of drugs can be significantly beneficial. Tricyclic and anticonvulsant drugs may be effective, with a variety of drugs available as second line agents. Newer non-drug systems
S. J. Benbow; I. A. MacFarlane
Quantitative sensory testing was used to assess the prevalence of sensory dysfunction in patients with cancer, carefully screened for other risk factors for neuropathy. Large fibre type sensory function was evaluated using vibration threshold (VT) determinations while small fibre type sensory function was assessed by thermal threshold (TT) determinations. Mean VT and TT were significantly elevated in the toes but not the fingers of cancer patients. VT elevations in the toes occurred in 31% of cancer patients and in 6% of control subjects. TT elevations in the toes occurred in 43% of cancer patients and 4% of control subjects. Based on these findings it is concluded that large and small fibre type sensory dysfunction is much more common in carefully screened cancer patients than in control subjects. This sensory dysfunction is most likely to represent a neuropathy related directly or indirectly associated with cancer.
Lipton, R B; Galer, B S; Dutcher, J P; Portenoy, R K; Pahmer, V; Meller, F; Arezzo, J C; Wiernik, P H
Abstract Objectives. Peripheral sensory neuropathy is a neurological deficit resulting in decreased detection of sensation through the peripheral nervous system. Peripheral sensory neuropathy is commonly diagnosed with the use of a monofilament and either a tuning fork or neurothesiometer. Statins are a widely used medication and there has been some debate of association with their use and peripheral sensory neuropathy. This pilot study aimed to test the sensory perception of participants with long-term statin use and compare these results to their peers who were not taking statins. Methods. Thirty participants were recruited and equally divided into a statin and non-statin group. Healthy participants were screened by their medical and medication history, Australian Type 2 Diabetes Risk assessment, and random blood glucose level. An assessor who was blinded to the participant group conducted sensory assessments using a 10?g monofilament and neurothesiometer. Results. There was no difference in monofilament testing results between the groups. The statin group was less sensate at the styloid process (p?=?0.031) and medial malleolus (p?=?0.003) than the control group. Results at the hallux were not statistically significant (p?=?0.183). Conclusion. This result is suggestive of a potential association between long-term statin use and a decrease in peripheral sensory perception. This may be because of peripheral sensory neuropathy. Limitations such as consideration of participant height, participant numbers, and inability to analyze results against statin groups are reported. As statins are a life-saving medication, careful consideration should be applied to these results and further research be conducted to determine if these results are applicable to larger populations. PMID:24219409
West, Brenton; Williams, Cylie M; Jilbert, Elise; James, Alicia M; Haines, Terry P
Mutations in the SPG3A gene cause a form of pure, early-onset autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia linked to chromosome 14q. The encoded protein, atlastin, is a putative member of the dynamin superfamily of large GTPases involved in cellular trafficking patterns. We report a new atlastin mutation causing spastic paraplegia in association with axonal neuropathy in an Italian family. PMID:15742100
Scarano, Valentina; Mancini, Pietro; Criscuolo, Chiara; De Michele, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Carlo; Tucci, Tecla; Tessa, Alessandra; Santorelli, Filippo M; Perretti, Anna; Santoro, Lucio; Filla, Alessandro
OBJECTIVE—When to suspect a paraneoplastic disorder is a puzzling problem that has not recently been studied in a large series of patients referred for peripheral neuropathy.?METHODS—From 422 consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy, 26 were analysed who concomitantly had carcinoma but no tumorous infiltration, drug toxicity, or cachexia. Their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological data were analysed according to the presence of anti-onconeural antibodies, the latency between presentation and cancer diagnosis, and the incidence of carcinoma in the corresponding types of neuropathy of the population of 422patients.?RESULTS—Seven patients (group I) had anti-onconeural antibodies (six anti-Hu, one anti-CV2) and 19 did not (groups IIA and B). In group I, subacute sensory neuropathy (SSN) was the most frequent but other neuropathies including demyelinating neuropathies were present. Patients in group II A had a short latency (mean 7.88months), and a rapidly and usually severe neuropathy which corresponded in 11/14 to an established inflammatory disorder including neuropathy with encephalomyelitis, mononeuritis multiplex, and acute or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Patients in group IIB had a long latency (mean 8.4 years) and a very chronic disorder corresponding in four of five to an axonal non-inflammatory polyneuropathy. In this population, the incidence of carcinoma occurring with a short latency was 47% in sensory neuronopathy, 1.7% in Guillain-Barré syndrome, 10% in mononeuritis multiplex and CIDP, and 4.5% in axonal polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSIONS—Paraneoplastic neuropathies associated with carcinoma are heterogeneous disorders. Neuropathies occurring with a long latency with tumours probably resulted from a coincidental association. Neuropathies which occurred within a few years of the tumour evolved rapidly and corresponded mostly to inflammatory disorders. As dysimmune neuropathies are probably paraneoplastic in a limited number of cases, patients with these disorders should probably not be investigated systematically for carcinoma in the absence of anti-onconeural antibodies, except when the neuropathy is associated with encephalomyelitis and probably with vasculitis. Questions remain concerning CIDP.??
Antoine, J.; Mosnier, J.; Absi, L.; Convers, P.; Honnorat, J.; Michel, D.
Mutations in a number of plasma proteins, including transthyretin, apolipoprotein AI, fibrinogen Aalpha-chain, lysozyme, and apolipoprotein AII, are associated with hereditary systemic amyloidosis. Transthyretin amyloidosis is the most common and is usually associated with peripheral neuropathy. Mutations in the other proteins usually have no neuropathic consequences and, instead, cause principally renal and cardiac amyloidosis. Only the apolipoprotein AI glycine 26 arginine mutation may cause peripheral neuropathy and then in only some of the kindreds with this disease. This review is concerned with the non-neuropathic hereditary systemic amyloidoses. It strives to present a synopsis of the present day knowledge of these diseases including each feature of each precursor protein and its mutations; the clinical phenotype of the disease; and suggestions for treatment when feasible. The main objective is to increase awareness of these autosomal dominant diseases, enhance the chances of early diagnosis, enhance the physician's and subsequently the patient's knowledge of each disease, and finally emphasize the need for more research to find ways to treat or prevent these diseases. PMID:16011983
Benson, Merrill D
Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a syndrome designation describing inherited disorders in which lower extremity weakness and spasticity are the predominant symptoms. There are more than 50 genetic types of HSP. HSP affects individuals diverse ethnic groups with prevalence estimates ranging from 1.2 to 9.6 per 100,000 [39, 70, 77, 154, 185]. Symptoms may begin at any age. Gait impairment that begins after childhood usually worsens very slowly over many years. Gait impairment that begins in infancy and early childhood may not worsen significantly. Post mortem studies consistently identify degeneration of corticospinal tract axons (maximal in the thoracic spinal cord) and degeneration of fasciculus gracilis fibers (maximal in the cervico-medullary region). HSP syndromes thus appear to involve motor-sensory axon degeneration affecting predominantly (but not exclusively) the distal ends of long central nervous system (CNS) axons. In general, proteins encoded by HSP genes have diverse functions including axon transport (e.g. SPG30/KIF1A, SPG10/KIF5A and possibly SPG4/Spastin); endoplasmic reticulum morphology (e.g. SPG3A/Atlastin, SPG4/Spastin, SPG12/reticulon 2, and SPG31/REEP1, all of which interact); mitochondrial function (e.g. SPG13/chaperonin 60/heat shock protein 60, SPG7/paraplegin; and mitochondrial ATP6; 4) myelin formation (e.g. SPG2/Proteolipid protein and SPG42/Connexin 47); 5) protein folding and ER-stress response (SPG6/NIPA1, SPG8/K1AA0196 (Strumpellin), SGP17/BSCL2 (Seipin) [113-115], “mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia” due to CcT5 mutation and presumably SPG18/ERLIN2); 6) corticospinal tract and other neurodevelopment (e.g. SPG1/L1 cell adhesion molecule and SPG22/thyroid transporter MCT8); 7) fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism (e.g. SPG28/DDHD1, SPG35/FA2H, SPG39/NTE, SPG54/DDHD2, and SPG56/CYP2U1); and 8) endosome membrane trafficking and vesicle formation (e.g. SPG47/AP4B1, SPG48/KIAA0415, SPG50/AP4M1, SPG51/AP4E, SPG52/AP4S1, and VSPG53/VPS37A). The availability of animal models (including bovine, murine, zebrafish, Drosophila, and C. elegans) for many types of HSP permits exploration of disease mechanisms and potential treatments. This review highlights emerging concepts of this large group of clinically similar disorders. For recent review of HSP including historical descriptions, differential diagnosis, and additional references see .
Fink, John K.
Neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in pain, decreased motility, and amputation. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a variety of forms whose impact ranges from discomfort to death. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic neurons and results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways. These activated pathways are a major source of damage and are potential therapeutic targets in diabetic neuropathy. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, few options are available to eliminate the root causes. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscores the need for causally targeted therapies. This review covers the pathology, epidemiology, biochemical pathways, and prevention of diabetic neuropathy, as well as discusses current symptomatic and causal therapies and novel approaches to identify therapeutic targets.
Edwards, James L.; Vincent, Andrea; Cheng, Thomas; Feldman, Eva L.
Greyhound dogs exposed to oral acrylamide for a period of eight weeks developed a sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy that had many features in common with acrylamide neuropathy seen in other species. Most of the animals also developed the clinical and radiological features of megaoesophagus. The association of neuropathy and megaoesophagus suggests that an axonopathy of the vagus may be an aetiological factor in this disorder. Images
Satchell, P M; McLeod, J G
Peripheral neuropathy is a devastating complication of diabetes mellitus because of the debilitating symptoms it causes or\\u000a associated higher risk of other complications, in particular those involving the lower extremity. This chapter will review\\u000a the prevalence, incidence, and risk factors for different types of diabetic neuropathy. There are seven major types of diabetic\\u000a neuropathy: (1) distal symmetric polyneuropathy, (2) autonomic
Stephanie Wheeler; Nalini Singh; Edward J. Boyko
Single doses of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), a triester of trivalent phosphorus, cause ataxia and paralysis in hens. Characteristics\\u000a of neurotoxicity were described as somewhat different from organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), which is\\u000a caused by triesters of pentavalent phosphorus. The onset of TPP neuropathy was reported to occur earlier than that of OPIDP\\u000a (5–10 versus 7–14 days after dosing, respectively),
F. Fioroni; A. Moretto; M. Lotti
A recessively inherited hypertrophic neuropathy was discovered in Tibetan Mastiff dogs. Affected pups developed a generalized weakness with hyporeflexia shortly after weaning. Diagnostic findings in 10–18-week-old pups included: moderate to severe reduction in nerve conduction velocities, infrequent denervation potentials, and inconstant elevation in CSF protein. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of peripheral nerves and roots revealed widespread demyelination and primitive onion
J. F. Cummings; B. J. Cooper; A. Lahunta; T. J. Winkle
Radiation-induced neuropathy is commonly observed among oncological patients. Radiation can affect the nervous tissue directly or indirectly by inducing vasculopathy or dysfunction of internal organs. Symptoms may be mild and reversible (e.g., pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, drowsiness, fatigue, paresthesia) or life-threatening (cerebral oedema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures). Such complications are clinically divided into peripheral (plexopathies, neuropathies of spinal and cranial nerves) and central neuropathy (myelopathy, encephalopathy, cognitive impairment). The degree of neuronal damages primarily depends on the total and fractional radiation dose and applied therapeutic methods. The conformal and megavoltage radiotherapy seems to be the safeties ones. Diagnostic protocol includes physical examination, imaging (in particular magnetic resonance), electromyography, nerve conduction study and sometimes histological examination. Prevention and early detection of neurological complications are necessary in order to prevent a permanent dysfunction of the nervous system. Presently their treatment is mostly symptomatic, but in same cases a surgical intervention is required. An experimental and clinical data indicates some effectiveness of different neuroprotective agents (e.g. anticoagulants, vitamin E, hyperbaric oxygen, pentoxifylline, bevacizumab, methylphenidate, donepezil), which should be administered before and/or during radiotherapy. PMID:24490474
Kolak, Agnieszka; Staros?awska, Elzbieta; Kieszko, Dariusz; Cisek, Pawe?; Patyra, Krzysztof Ireneusz; Surdyka, Dariusz; Dobrzy?ska-Rutkowska, Aneta; ?opacka-Szatan, Karolina; Burdan, Franciszek
A patient with a chronic, large fibre sensory neuropathy had an immunoglobulin M lambda monoclonal paraprotein reactive at titres in excess of 1/10(5) with NeuNAc(alpha 2-8)NeuNAc(alpha 2-3)Gal configured disialosyl groups present on the gangliosides GD1b, GT1b, GQ1b, and GD3. The paraprotein showed weaker reactivity with GD1a, GM3, and LM1 but no reactivity with GM2, GM1, or asialo-GM1. In addition, the paraprotein had cold agglutinating activity with anti-Pr2 specificity, Pr2 being an antigenic determinant on membrane glycoproteins or glycolipids in erythrocytes or both. A large fibre sensory neuropathy with monoclonal anti-disialosyl antibodies is an increasingly recognised form of paraproteinaemic neuropathy. Images
Willison, H J; Paterson, G; Veitch, J; Inglis, G; Barnett, S C
Certain aspects of the clinical syndrome of dementia, cerebral atrophy, predominantly sensory neuropathy, and vacuolar myelopathy in AIDS resemble those seen in vitamin B12 deficiency. Pathologically, there are similarities not only in the changes in the spinal cord, but also in the brain and peripheral nerves. The pathogenesis of vacuolar myelopathy may be secondary to a combination of immune mediated
S V Tan; R J Guiloff
Neuropathies that affect the lower limbs are often encountered after trauma or iatrogenic injury or by entrapment at areas of anatomic restriction. Symptoms may initially be masked by concomitant trauma or recovery from surgical procedures. The nerves that serve the lower extremities arise from the lumbosacral plexus, formed by the L2-S2 nerve roots. The major nerves that supply the lower extremities are the femoral, obturator, lateral femoral cutaneous, and the peroneal (fibular) and tibial, which arise from the sciatic nerve, and the superior and inferior gluteal nerves. An understanding of the motor and sensory functions of these nerves is critical in recognizing and localizing nerve injury. Electrodiagnostic studies are an important diagnostic tool. A well-designed electromyography study can help confirm and localize a nerve lesion, assess severity, and evaluate for other peripheral nerve lesions, such as plexopathy or radiculopathy. PMID:23542774
Type 2 diabetes (DM) is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy in the Western world. A comorbidity, hypertension, has been speculated to contribute to initiation or worsening of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We studied adult rat models using genetic strains with DM (Zucker Diabetic Fat rats)±hypertension (HTN (ZSF-1 rats)) to investigate the relative contributions of DM and HTN and the potential for additive effects of HTN upon existing DM for the development of peripheral neuropathy. Long duration sensorimotor behavioral and electrophysiological testing was complemented by histological and molecular methods. Only DM led to tactile and thermal hyperalgesia and affected motor nerve electrophysiology. Although DM led to marked loss of sensory amplitudes and to sensory conduction slowing, a mild additive effect from HTN contributed after 6months of DM with worsening of slowing of sensory nerve conduction velocities, but without effect upon sensory amplitudes. At the sensory dominant sural nerve, mild (<10%) but greater degrees of myelin thinning were noted with DM and HTN combined, suggesting a mild additive effect. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression was increased only at the sural nerve in the presence of HTN with co-localization to Schwann cells and myelin. The effects of DM and HTN upon peripheral nerve are dissimilar, with HTN contributing to MMP upregulation at the sites of myelin thinning at sensory nerve fibers, potentially worsening comorbid DM. Together, our results indicate that HTN has a mild additive contribution to diabetic peripheral neuropathy at sensory peripheral nerve fibers manifesting with the loss of myelin thickness. PMID:23938761
De Visser, Adriena; Hemming, Amanda; Yang, Christina; Zaver, Shaila; Dhaliwal, Raj; Jawed, Zaid; Toth, Cory
Ion channelopathies are caused by malfunction or altered regulation of ion channel proteins due to hereditary or acquired protein changes. In neurology, main phenotypes include certain forms of epilepsy, ataxia, migraine, neuropathic pain, myotonia, and muscle weakness including myasthenia and periodic paralyses. The total prevalence of monogenic channelopathies in neurology is about 35:100,000. Susceptibility-related mutations further increase the relevance of channel genes in medicine considerably. As many disease mechanisms have been elucidated by functional characterization on the molecular level, the channelopathies are regarded as model disorders for pathogenesis and treatment of non-monogenic forms of epilepsy and migraine. As more than 35% of marketed drugs target ion channels, there is a high chance to identify compounds that counteract the effects of the mutations. PMID:20824453
Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Lerche, Holger; Weber, Yvonne; Lehmann-Horn, Frank
The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients.
Cheng, Jianguo; Daftari, Anuj; Zhou, Lan
Diabetic peripheral neuropathies are a variety of syndromes which affect sensory, autonomic and motor nerve function. The commonest form, distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy, is a major risk factor for foot ulceration, which may eventually lead to lower limb amputation. By 2010, it is estimated that globally 220 million people will have diabetes, and epidemiological studies estimate that more than 50%
Peter K. Thomas
Animal models of diabetes do not reach the severity of human diabetic neuropathy but relatively mild neurophysiological deficits and minor morphometric changes. The lack of degenerative neuropathy in diabetic rodent models seems to be a consequence of the shorter length of the axons or the shorter animal life span. Diabetes-induced demyelination needs many weeks or even months before it can be evident by morphometrical analysis. In mice myelination of the peripheral nervous system starts at the prenatal period and it is complete several days after birth. Here we induced experimental diabetes to neonatal mice and we evaluated its effect on the peripheral nerve 4 and 8weeks after diabetes induction. Neurophysiological values showed a decline in sensory nerve conduction velocity at both time-points. Morphometrical analysis of the tibial nerve demonstrated a decrease in the number of myelinated fibers, fiber size and myelin thickness at both time-points studied. Moreover, aldose reductase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activities were increased even if the amount of the enzyme was not affected. Thus, type 1 diabetes in newborn mice induces early peripheral neuropathy and may be a good model to assay pharmacological or gene therapy strategies to treat diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24846610
Ariza, L; Pagčs, G; García-Lareu, B; Cobianchi, S; Otaegui, P J; Ruberte, J; Chillón, M; Navarro, X; Bosch, A
Three patients with peripheral neuropathy and a solitary plasmacytoma are presented, and the literature is reviewed. It is suggested that middle-aged men with an obscure progressive sensorimotor neuropathy, a raised CSF protein, and otherwise negative investigations should have a full skeletal survey since irradiation of a plasmacytoma may lead to a considerable improvement in the associated neurological disability. Images
Read, D; Warlow, C
A 4 year old boy developed a profound motor neuropathy after repeated deliberate inhalation of petroleum vapour. The condition was characterised by extreme slowing of the nerve conduction velocity. He made a gradual recovery over six months. The neuropathy was attributed to the N-hexane component of petroleum. PMID:3021070
Hall, D M; Ramsey, J; Schwartz, M S; Dookun, D
A 4 year old boy developed a profound motor neuropathy after repeated deliberate inhalation of petroleum vapour. The condition was characterised by extreme slowing of the nerve conduction velocity. He made a gradual recovery over six months. The neuropathy was attributed to the N-hexane component of petroleum.
D M Hall; J Ramsey; M S Schwartz; D Dookun
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Although much attention has been focused on the neurological sequelae of the hereditary ataxias, patients with these conditions also may develop cardiac complications that represent a significant cause of disability and even death. In this paper, we describe the hereditary ataxias with known cardiac involvement, discuss underlying causes, and review guidelines for screening and treatment. Continued progress will require coordinated clinical trial networks, interdisciplinary care teams, and team science.
Moore, Sean; Raman, Subha V.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.
Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.
The archetypal NARP syndrome is almost exclusively associated with the m.8993T>C/G mutation in the sixth subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, whereas other mutations in the MT-ATP6 gene primarily associate with Leigh syndrome or Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We report a novel mitochondrial point mutation, m.8989G>C, in a patient presenting with neuropathy, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa constituting the classical NARP phenotype. This mutation alters the amino acid right next to canonical NARP mutation. We suggest that classic NARP syndrome relates to a defined dysfunction of p.MT-ATP6. PMID:23266623
Duno, Morten; Wibrand, Flemming; Baggesen, Kirsten; Rosenberg, Thomas; Kjaer, Niels; Frederiksen, Anja L
Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) syndrome type 1 and tomaculous neuropathy, also called hereditary neuropathy with liability to\\u000a pressure palsies (HNPP), represent two groups of neurological disorders with different subtypes, which can be distinguished\\u000a at the molecular level. It is known that a 1.5-mb region on chromosome 17p11.2– 12, which includes the gene for the peripheral\\u000a myelin protein 22 kDa (PMP22), is duplicated
Thomas Liehr; Holger Grehl; Bernd Rautenstrauss
Peripheral neuropathy is a well-recognised late complication in both insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. However, its exact cause remains unknown. Various pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed as an explanation for the development of nerve fibre damage and associated sensory loss in this disease. As a result, many kinds of drugs are currently under evaluation for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. This paper describes the rationale behind the usage of all these drugs and reviews major clinical and preclinical results published so far. Supplementary intake of such natural, non-toxic compounds as vitamin constituents, linoleic acid and flavonoids is encouraged, as well as strict control of hyperglycaemia, until the efficacy of one or another experimental drug is established. PMID:8024999
Schoemaker, J H
OBJECTIVES—The term tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) is currently used to describe several neurological syndromes attributed to toxiconutritional causes. However, TAN was initially proposed to describe a specific neurological syndrome seen predominantly among the Ijebu speaking Yorubas in south western Nigeria. In this study, the prevalence of TAN was determined in Ososa, a semiurban community in south western Nigeria described as endemic for TAN in 1969, and its neurological features were compared with Strachan's syndrome, prisoners of war neuropathy, the epidemic neuropathy in Cuba, and konzo.?METHODS—A census of Ososa was followed by door to door screening of all subjects aged 10 years and above with a newly designed screening instrument. Subjects who screened positive had a neurological examination, and the diagnosis of TAN was made if any two or more of bilateral optic atrophy, bilateral neurosensory deafness, sensory gait ataxia, or distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy were present.?RESULTS—A total of 4583 inhabitants were registered in the census. Of these, 3428 subjects aged 10 years and above were screened. The diagnosis of TAN was made in 206 of 323 subjects who screened positive for TAN. The prevalence of TAN was 6.0%, 3.9% in males and 7.7% in females. The highest age specific prevalence was 24% in the 60-69 years age group in women.?CONCLUSION—The occurrence of TAN in Ososa continues at a higher prevalence than was reported 30 years ago. Its neurological features and natural history do not resemble those described for Strachan syndrome, epidemic neuropathy in Cuba, or konzo. The increasing consumption of cassava foods linked to its causation makes TAN of public health importance in Nigeria, the most populous African country.??
Oluwole, O; Onabolu, A; Link, H.; Rosling, H.
Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is an integral membrane protein present in all neurons and in some non-neural-cell types of vertebrates. Recent data indicate that NTE is involved in a cell-signalling pathway controlling interactions between neurons and accessory glial cells in the developing nervous system. NTE has serine esterase activity and efficiently catalyses the hydrolysis of phenyl valerate (PV) in vitro, but its physiological substrate is unknown. By sequence analysis NTE has been found to be related neither to the major serine esterase family, which includes acetylcholinesterase, nor to any other known serine hydrolases. NTE comprises at least two functional domains: an N-terminal putative regulatory domain and a C-terminal effector domain which contains the esterase activity and is, in part, conserved in proteins found in bacteria, yeast, nematodes and insects. NTE's effector domain contains three predicted transmembrane segments, and the active-site serine residue lies at the centre of one of these segments. The isolated recombinant domain shows PV hydrolase activity only when incorporated into phospholipid liposomes. NTE's esterase activity appears to be largely redundant in adult vertebrates, but organophosphates which react with NTE in vivo initiate unknown events which lead, after a delay of 1-3 weeks, to a neuropathy with degeneration of long axons. These neuropathic organophosphates leave a negatively charged group covalently attached to the active-site serine residue, and it is suggested that this may cause a toxic gain of function in NTE.
Corneal epithelial lesions can be found in approximately one-half of asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. These lesions are transient and clinically resemble the keratopathy seen in staphylococcal keratoconjunctivitis. Staphylococcal organisms, however, can be isolated in equal percentages from diabetic patients without keratopathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be related to the presence of diabetic keratopathy after adjusting for age with analysis of covariance. The strongest predictor of both keratopathy and corneal fluorescein staining was vibration perception threshold in the toes (P less than 0.01); and the severity of keratopathy was directly related to the degree of diminution of peripheral sensation. Other predictors of keratopathy were: reduced tear breakup time (P less than 0.03), type of diabetes (P less than 0.01), and metabolic status as indicated by c-peptide fasting (P less than 0.01). No significant relationships were found between the presence of keratopathy and tear glucose levels, endothelial cell densities, corneal thickness measurements, the presence of S epidermidis, or with duration of disease. It is our conclusion that asymptomatic epithelial lesions in the nontraumatized diabetic cornea can occur as a manifestation of generalized polyneuropathy and probably represent a specific form of corneal neuropathy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3
Schultz, R O; Peters, M A; Sobocinski, K; Nassif, K; Schultz, K J
Autosomal dominantly transmitted hereditary multiple exostoses is an uncommon disorder consisting of multiple projections of bone capped by cartilage. The lesions are most numerous in the metaphyses of long bones but may appear on flat bones. Sarcomatous transformation occurs in 1-25% of patients. We report a 33-year-old man with sciatica, previously diagnosed as hereditary multiple exostoses, presenting with multiple peripheral nerve compressions. Electrodiagnostic studies showed profound axon-loss multiple neuropathies involving the sciatic, superior gluteal, and inferior gluteal nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left pelvis showed a large mass in the sacral area that was suggestive of a chondrosarcoma. An open intralesional excision biopsy confirmed chondrosarcoma transformed from chondromatosis. Excision of the lesion was effective in eliminating the impingement of nerves and retarding progressive osseous growth. We suggest that malignant transformation be suspected in cases with focal compression neuropathy of patients known to have multiple exostoses. Osteochondroma as a possible cause for compression neuropathy is discussed. PMID:10918272
Paik, N J; Han, T R; Lim, S J
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the risk of neuropathy in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the role of levodopa exposure as a potential risk factor. A multicenter study of 330 patients with PD and 137 healthy controls with a comparable age distribution was performed. With respect to levodopa exposure, 144 patients had long exposure (? 3 years) to levodopa (LELD), 103 patients had short exposure (<3 years) to levodopa (SELD), and 83 patients had no exposure to levodopa (NOLD). Nerve function was evaluated using the reduced total neuropathy score. Right sural sensory antidromic and peroneal motor nerve conduction studies were performed by neurophysiologists who were blinded to the existence of neuropathy clinical features or PD treatment. Overall, 19.40% of patients in the LELD group, 6.80% in the SELD group, 4.82% in the NOLD group, and 8.76% in the control group were diagnosed with neuropathy (axonal, predominantly sensory). Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that the risk of neuropathy was not influenced by disease duration, severity, or sex. The risk of neuropathy increased by approximately 8% for each year of age (P < 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.037-1.128). The risk of neuropathy was 2.38 higher in the LELD group than in the control group (P = 0.022; OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.130-5.014). In a comparison between patients with and without neuropathy (Student's t test), the levodopa dose was higher (P < 0.0001), serum vitamin B12 levels were lower (P = 0.0102), and homocysteine levels were higher (P < 0.001) in the patients with neuropathy. Our results demonstrate that the duration of exposure to levodopa, along with age, is the main risk factor for the development of neuropathy. Screening for homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels and clinical-neurophysiological monitoring for neuropathy may be advisable in patients with PD who are receiving treatment with levodopa. PMID:23836370
Ceravolo, Roberto; Cossu, Giovanni; Bandettini di Poggio, Monica; Santoro, Lucio; Barone, Paolo; Zibetti, Maurizio; Frosini, Daniela; Nicoletti, Valentina; Manganelli, Fiore; Iodice, Rosa; Picillo, Marina; Merola, Aristide; Lopiano, Leonardo; Paribello, Alessandra; Manca, Davide; Melis, Maurizio; Marchese, Roberta; Borelli, Paolo; Mereu, Alessandra; Contu, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo
One of the main challenges in the clinical management of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the overlap of syndromes with different underlying genetic causes and the differentiated risk management of colorectal and associated malignancies. The Lynch syndrome (hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, HNPCC) is characterized by the development of colorectal, endometrial, gastric and other cancers and is caused by a mutation in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) are important prognostic factors and may predict the response to chemotherapy. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) may be seen as a counterpart to Lynch syndrome, responsible for <1% of all CRC cases. Recently the MUTYH gene has been identified as a further polyposis gene. The associated disorder has been termed MYH-associated polyposis (MAP) and displays an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. For clinical management, distinguishing between Lynch syndrome, attenuated FAP and MAP is important for risk assessment, surveillance recommendations and indication for prophylactic surgery. PMID:18853126
Diabetic neuropathy is a relatively early and common complication affecting approximately 30% of diabetic patients. According to Ayurvedic principles there is involvement of Vata and Pitta Dosa in diabetic neuropathy. Bhumyamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri) is a plant which shows possibility to pacify these two Dosas. Another plant Atibala (Abutilon indicum) has also Vata pacifying qualities. Present study has been carried out to study the effects of Bhumyamalaki and Atibala on 33 patients of diabetic neuropathy. All the patients have been given Bhumyamalaki Churna 3 g twice a day and decoction of 10 g of Atibala-mula twice a day for 30 days. Neuropathy analyzer machine has been used for exact recording of sensory perception of vibration, cold and hot sensations before and after treatment. Changes in numbness, tingling, burning sensation and pain in lower limbs have also been assessed before and after treatment. Results have been analyzed statistically by applying the 't' test. It can be stated from the results that use of Bhumyamalaki and Atibalamula in the patients of diabetic neuropathy can revert the diminished sensory perception and can reduce the symptoms significantly. PMID:22529650
Patel, Kalapi; Patel, Manish; Gupta, S N
Diabetic neuropathy is a relatively early and common complication affecting approximately 30% of diabetic patients. According to Ayurvedic principles there is involvement of Vata and Pitta Dosa in diabetic neuropathy. Bhumyamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri) is a plant which shows possibility to pacify these two Dosas. Another plant Atibala (Abutilon indicum) has also Vata pacifying qualities. Present study has been carried out to study the effects of Bhumyamalaki and Atibala on 33 patients of diabetic neuropathy. All the patients have been given Bhumyamalaki Churna 3 g twice a day and decoction of 10 g of Atibala-mula twice a day for 30 days. Neuropathy analyzer machine has been used for exact recording of sensory perception of vibration, cold and hot sensations before and after treatment. Changes in numbness, tingling, burning sensation and pain in lower limbs have also been assessed before and after treatment. Results have been analyzed statistically by applying the ‘t’ test. It can be stated from the results that use of Bhumyamalaki and Atibalamula in the patients of diabetic neuropathy can revert the diminished sensory perception and can reduce the symptoms significantly.
Patel, Kalapi; Patel, Manish; Gupta, S N
Background: Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a severe recessive disorder characterised by variable combination of progressive sensory motor neuropathy, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and "frizzly" hair. The disease is caused by GAN gene mutations on chromosome 16q24.1. Aims: To search for GAN gene mutations in Turkish patients with GAN and characterise the phenotype associated with them. Methods: Linkage and mutation analyses were performed in six affected patients from three consanguineous families. These patients were also investigated by cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Electromyography (EMG) was performed in heterozygous carriers from family 1 and family 3. Results: Linkage to 16q24.1 was confirmed by haplotype analysis. GAN mutations were identified in all families. Family 1 had the R293X mutation, previously reported in another Turkish family. Families 2 and 3, originating from close geographical areas, shared a novel mutation, 1502+1G>T, at the donor splice site of exon 9. All patients displayed a common phenotype, including peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and frizzly hair. Cranial MRI showed diffuse white matter abnormalities in two patients from family 1 and the patient from family 3, and minimal white matter involvement in the patient from family 2. EMG of a heterozygous R293X mutation carrier showed signs of mild axonal neuropathy, whereas a 1502+1G>T mutation carrier had normal EMG. EEG abnormalities were found in three patients. Conclusion: These findings highlight the association of CNS involvement, in particular white matter abnormalities, with peripheral neuropathy in GAN. The phenotypical consequences of both mutations (when homozygous) were similar.
Demir, E; Bomont, P; Erdem, S; Cavalier, L; Demirci, M; Kose, G; Muftuoglu, S; Cakar, A; Tan, E; Aysun, S; Topcu, M; Guicheney, P; Koenig, M; Topaloglu, H
In contrast to diabetic autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in long-term alcoholics has been studied rarely. Using both standardized bedside tests and computer-assisted analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), we prospectively compared autonomic neurocardial function between 35 strictly selected, detoxified alcoholics (DSM-III-R), and 80 well matched healthy controls. Evidence for a potential CAN was found in 25.7% of all
M. W Agelink; R Malessa; U Weisser; W Lemmer; T Zeit; T Majewski; E Klieser
Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (DOA) are the two most common inherited optic neuropathies in the general population. Both disorders share striking pathological similarities, marked by the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the early involvement of the papillomacular bundle. Three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations; m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C account for over 90% of LHON cases, and in DOA, the majority of affected families harbour mutations in the OPA1 gene, which codes for a mitochondrial inner membrane protein. Optic nerve degeneration in LHON and DOA is therefore due to disturbed mitochondrial function and a predominantly complex I respiratory chain defect has been identified using both in vitro and in vivo biochemical assays. However, the trigger for RGC loss is much more complex than a simple bioenergetic crisis and other important disease mechanisms have emerged relating to mitochondrial network dynamics, mtDNA maintenance, axonal transport, and the involvement of the cytoskeleton in maintaining a differential mitochondrial gradient at sites such as the lamina cribosa. The downstream consequences of these mitochondrial disturbances are likely to be influenced by the local cellular milieu. The vulnerability of RGCs in LHON and DOA could derive not only from tissue-specific, genetically-determined biological factors, but also from an increased susceptibility to exogenous influences such as light exposure, smoking, and pharmacological agents with putative mitochondrial toxic effects. Our concept of inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies has evolved over the past decade, with the observation that patients with LHON and DOA can manifest a much broader phenotypic spectrum than pure optic nerve involvement. Interestingly, these phenotypes are sometimes clinically indistinguishable from other neurodegenerative disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and multiple sclerosis, where mitochondrial dysfunction is also thought to be an important pathophysiological player. A number of vertebrate and invertebrate disease models has recently been established to circumvent the lack of human tissues, and these have already provided considerable insight by allowing direct RGC experimentation. The ultimate goal is to translate these research advances into clinical practice and new treatment strategies are currently being investigated to improve the visual prognosis for patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathies.
Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Griffiths, Philip G.; Chinnery, Patrick F.
Hereditary hemochromatosis is a common inherited disorder of the iron metabolism. Screening studies indicate that it has a prevalence of one in 200 to 400, depending on the population studied, and a carrier rate of about one in seven to one in 10. Feder et al identified the hereditary hemochromatosis gene (HFE) in 1996 and two candidate mutations; the C282Y mutation has been shown to be responsible for the majority of the hereditary hemochromatosis cases worldwide. The gene discovery has led to rapid advances in the field of iron metabolism. Although the basic defect is still not fully understood, much is known about the sequence of events leading to iron overload. Hereditary hemochromatosis is a major candidate for population screening and meets the screening criteria of the World Health Organization, and Wilson and Jungner. It is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases in white populations, and, importantly, early diagnosis and simple effective treatment allow normal life expectancy. The discovery of the HFE gene and the frequency of the single C282Y mutation as a cause of most cases of hereditary hemochromatosis allow the possibility of widespread genetic testing. However, the logistics, and the psychological and social consequence of this, coupled with incomplete expression of the genotype, necessitate further studies before population screening can be justified. PMID:10694284
Eijkelkamp, E J; Yapp, T R; Powell, L W
Background Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) is a well known entity that has many infectious agents reported as antecedent events. The spectrum\\u000a of GBS includes acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), acute motor\\u000a sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), and some other variants like Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Patient with AMAN variant of GBS after severe bilateral pneumonia and ARDS due to
Marija Santini; Vladimir Krajinovi?; Dinko Raffanelli; Bruno Barši?
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers affecting men. It may soon become the main cancer - caused mortality among men all over the world. The genetic basis of prostate cancer is very complex and its etiology is poorly understood. The genes associated with hereditary predisposition to prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Family history of PC, particularly at a young age, is a strong risk factor. Through linkage analysis, numerous prostate cancer susceptibility chromosomal loci have been identified, including: HPC1 (1q24-25), PCaP (1q42.2-43), HPCX (Xq27-28), CAPB (1p36), HPC2 (17p12), HPC20 (20q13). However, it turned out that any of these genes is not a high-risk prostate cancer susceptibility gene. According to literature data HPC is associated with genes involved in androgen metabolism, including androgen receptor gene - AR, SRD5A2 and CYP17, genes involved in the DNA damage repair, including BRCA1, BRCA2, NBS1 and MLH1 or some developmental genes as HOXB13. Identification of PC high predisposition susceptibility genes is very important, because the ascertainment of a higher risk of prostate cancer development in mutation carriers enable to develop and implement in clinical practice suitable prophylactic programs which could prevent the disease or detect it in an early stage. It seems that better knowledge of the molecular pathology of prostate cancer could make it easier to discover new drugs of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activity. There are many cellular pathways associated with PC cancerogenesis, which may become a potential goal for such drugs in the future. PMID:24864115
Heise, Marta; Haus, Olga
A recessively inherited hypertrophic neuropathy was discovered in Tibetan Mastiff dogs. Affected pups developed a generalized weakness with hyporeflexia shortly after weaning. Diagnostic findings in 10-18-week-old pups included: moderate to severe reduction in nerve conduction velocities, infrequent denervation potentials, and inconstant elevation in CSF protein. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of peripheral nerves and roots revealed widespread demyelination and primitive onion bulb formation with relatively little degeneration of axons. Myelin changes often were most striking in the cytoplasmic regions of the sheaths and consisted of separations at the major dense lines, anomalous incisure patterns, and marked filamentous accumulations in the inner spirals and adaxonal cytoplasm. The results of these initial studies suggest an inborn defect in the Schwann cell's ability to form or maintain a stable myelin sheath. PMID:6259873
Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J; de Lahunta, A; van Winkle, T J
Peripheral nerve entrapments are frequent. They usually appear in anatomical tunnels such as the carpal tunnel. Nerve compressions may be due to external pressure such as the fibular nerve at the fibular head. Malignant or benign tumors may also damage the nerve. For each nerve from the upper and lower limbs, detailed clinical, electrophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic aspects are described. In the upper limbs, carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow are the most frequent manifestations; the radial nerve is less frequently involved. Other nerves may occasionally be damaged and these are described also. In the lower limbs, the fibular nerve is most frequently involved, usually at the fibular head by external compression. Other nerves may also be involved and are therefore described. The clinical and electrophysiological examination are very important for the diagnosis, but imaging is also of great use. Treatments available for each nerve disease are discussed. PMID:23931789
Hereditary paraganglioma, Gorlin-Goltz syndrome and Fanconi anemia are among the rare hereditary tumor syndromes of the head and neck. Patients with hereditary paraganglioma often develop multiple tumors of the glomus caroticum and glomus jugulotympanicum. The corresponding genetic defects of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase complex induce autonomous tumor cell growth. In patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome basal cell carcinomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumors usually occur much earlier than in patients with sporadic tumors. The associated germline mutations are located in the patched gene which is a modulator of the cell cycle. Fanconi anemia represents a chromosomal instability syndrome which is characterized by early onset of pancytopenia, i.e. bone marrow failure and subsequent development of acute myeloid leukemia and/or squamous cell carcinomas, especially of the head and neck. A total of 13 different gene clusters have been identified in 2 DNA associated complexes which play an important role in DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:20844882
Schwarz-Furlan, S; Brase, C; Stockmann, P; Furlan, I; Hartmann, A
Improved recognition and availability of noninvasive testing of autonomic disorders has prompted a better understanding of\\u000a disease mechanisms of some disease forms, especially potentially treatable immune-mediated autonomic neuropathies. Development\\u000a is acute, subacute, or less commonly chronic. Autonomic involvement is common and an important cause of morbidity and mortality\\u000a in Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute autonomic neuropathy can affect parasympathetic, sympathetic, and enteric
Mill Etienne; Louis H. Weimer
Although not very common, medication-induced neuropathy is a treatable condition and, therefore, is important to identify.\\u000a Medications continue to grow in number and expand in usage; consequently, toxic neuropathy continues to be relevant to neurologists.\\u000a Many agents have toxicities that are tolerated because the treatments are necessary, such as therapies for HIV and malignancy.\\u000a Additional agents to prevent or ameliorate
Louis H. Weimer
We introduce the notion of relative hereditary Artin algebras, as a generalization of algebras with representation dimension at most 3. We prove the following results. (1) The relative hereditariness of an Artin algebra is left–right symmetric and is inherited by endomorphism algebras of projective modules. (2) The finitistic dimensions of a relative hereditary algebra and its opposite algebra are finite.As
Based on analyzing the central dogma of biology, this paper raises hypothesis, using the analogism method to set up the corporate hereditary central dogma. It analyzes the differences between the Corporate hereditary central dogma and the central dogma of biology, which explains the significance of research on Corporate hereditary central dogma; it discusses the meanings of all factors of Corporate
The toxicity profile of oxaliplatin, a platinum derivative currently used in the treatment of colorectal cancer, differs from those of the other platinum compounds, cisplatin and carboplatin. Oxaliplatin treatment induces an acute neurotoxicity characterized by a rapid onset of cold-induced distal dysesthesia and a chronic sensory peripheral neuropathy. A single intravenous dose of oxaliplatin produced a dose-dependent mechanical hyperalgesia and
Elizabeth K. Joseph; Xiaojie Chen; Oliver Bogen; Jon D. Levine
Peripheral neuropathy is a major consequence of diabetes mellitus with up to 50 % of patients showing clinically significant neural injury during the disease course. Hearing loss (as defined by impaired sound detection thresholds) is a recognized symptom of DM, but the possibility of auditory neuropathy (AN) has not been explored in this population. This pilot study investigated peripheral auditory function, auditory processing and speech perception in individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and compared the findings with measures of vestibular function, ocular pathology/visual acuity and overall neurologic profile. Ten adults with T1DM and ten matched controls underwent a battery of tests which included: audiometry, otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem responses, temporal processing measures and speech perception. Six of the ten T1DM participants showed electrophysiologic evidence of AN and impaired functional hearing. Furthermore, auditory capacity was correlated with both visual acuity and degree of somatic peripheral neuropathy. This pilot investigation revealed functional-hearing deficits severe enough to impact upon everyday communication. Should the findings be confirmed by larger studies, auditory evaluation may form an important part of the management regimen for individuals with T1DM. This may be especially important for those with DM-related eye conditions, as deficits across multiple sensory modalities can have multiplicative detrimental effects on quality-of-life. PMID:24846202
Rance, Gary; Chisari, Donella; O'Hare, Fleur; Roberts, Leslie; Shaw, Jonathan; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin; Szmulewicz, David
Sodium channel Nav1.9 is expressed in peripheral nociceptive neurons, as well as visceral afferents, and has been shown to act as a threshold channel. Painful peripheral neuropathy represents a significant public health challenge and may involve gain-of-function variants in sodium channels that are preferentially expressed in peripheral sensory neurons. Although gain-of-function variants of peripheral sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 have recently been found in painful small fibre neuropathy, the aetiology of peripheral neuropathy in many cases remains unknown. We evaluated 459 patients who were referred for possible painful peripheral neuropathy, and confirmed the diagnosis of small fibre neuropathy in a cohort of 393 patients (369 patients with pure small fibre neuropathy, and small fibre neuropathy together with large fibre involvement in an additional 24 patients). From this cohort of 393 patients with peripheral neuropathy, we sequenced SCN11A in 345 patients without mutations in SCN9A and SCN10A, and found eight variants in 12 patients. Functional profiling by electrophysiological recordings showed that these Nav1.9 mutations confer gain-of-function attributes to the channel, depolarize resting membrane potential of dorsal root ganglion neurons, enhance spontaneous firing, and increase evoked firing of these neurons. Our data show, for the first time, missense mutations of Nav1.9 in individuals with painful peripheral neuropathy. These genetic and functional observations identify missense mutations of Nav1.9 as a cause of painful peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24776970
Huang, Jianying; Han, Chongyang; Estacion, Mark; Vasylyev, Dymtro; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Gerrits, Monique M; Tyrrell, Lynda; Lauria, Giuseppe; Faber, Catharina G; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G
Tumors arising in patients with hereditary cancer syndromes may have distinct drug sensitivity as compared to their sporadic counterparts. Breast and ovarian neoplasms from BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by deficient homologous recombination (HR) of DNA, that makes them particularly sensitive to platinum compounds or inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Outstandingly durable complete responses to high dose chemotherapy have been observed in several cases of BRCA-related metastatic breast cancer (BC). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that women with BRCA1-related BC may derive less benefit from taxane-based treatment than other categories of BC patients. There is virtually no reports directly assessing drug response in hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) patients; studies involving non-selected (i.e., both sporadic and hereditary) CRC with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) suggest therapeutic advantage of irinotecan. Celecoxib has been approved for the treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Hereditary medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) have been shown to be highly responsive to a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib, which exerts specific activity towards mutated RET receptor. Given the rapidly improving accessibility of DNA analysis, it is foreseen that the potential predictive value of cancer-associated germ-line mutations will be increasingly considered in the future studies.
In this article, we provide a detailed depiction of capillary changes at the nailfold and labial mucosa in a patient with hereditary benign telangiectasia. To the best of our knowledge, no such extensive capillaroscopic documentation of this entity has been made previously.
Rossella De Angelis; Leonardo Bugatti; Patrizia Del Medico; Giorgio Filosa
A thorough history and physical examination are vital to the assessment of upper extremity compressive neuropathies. This article summarizes relevant anatomy and physical examination findings associated with upper extremity compressive neuropathies. PMID:23026457
Popinchalk, Samuel P; Schaffer, Alyssa A
Crucifixion as a means of torture and execution was first developed in the 6th century B.C. and remained popular for over 1000 years. Details of the practice, which claimed hundreds of thousands of lives, have intrigued scholars as historical records and archaeological findings from the era are limited. As a result, various aspects of crucifixion, including the type of crosses used, methods of securing victims to crosses, the length of time victims survived on the cross, and the exact mechanisms of death, remain topics of debate. One aspect of crucifixion not previously explored in detail is the characteristic hand posture often depicted in artistic renditions of crucifixion. In this posture, the hand is clenched in a peculiar and characteristic fashion: there is complete failure of flexion of the thumb and index finger with partial failure of flexion of the middle finger. Such a "crucified clench" is depicted across different cultures and from different eras. A review of crucifixion history and techniques, median nerve anatomy and function, and the historical artistic depiction of crucifixion was performed to support the hypothesis that the "crucified clench" results from proximal median neuropathy due to positioning on the cross, rather than from direct trauma of impalement of the hand or wrist. PMID:23785656
Regan, Jacqueline M; Shahlaie, Kiarash; Watson, Joseph C
Mutations in the spastic paraplegia 7 (SPG7) gene encoding paraplegin are responsible for autosomal recessive hereditary spasticity. We screened 135 unrelated index cases, selected in five different settings: SPG7-positive patients detected during SPG31 analysis using SPG31/SPG7 multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (n = 7); previously reported ambiguous SPG7 cases (n = 5); patients carefully selected on the basis of their phenotype (spasticity of the lower limbs with cerebellar signs and/or cerebellar atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging/computer tomography scan and/or optic neuropathy and without other signs) (n = 24); patients with hereditary spastic paraparesis referred consecutively from attending neurologists and the national reference centre in a diagnostic setting (n = 98); and the index case of a four-generation family with autosomal dominant optic neuropathy but no spasticity linked to the SPG7 locus. We identified two SPG7 mutations in 23/134 spastic patients, 21% of the patients selected according to phenotype but only 8% of those referred directly. Our results confirm the pathogenicity of Ala510Val, which was the most frequent mutation in our series (65%) and segregated at the homozygous state with spastic paraparesis in a large family with autosomal recessive inheritance. All SPG7-positive patients tested had optic neuropathy or abnormalities revealed by optical coherence tomography, indicating that abnormalities in optical coherence tomography could be a clinical biomarker for SPG7 testing. In addition, the presence of late-onset very slowly progressive spastic gait (median age 39 years, range 18–52 years) associated with cerebellar ataxia (39%) or cerebellar atrophy (47%) constitute, with abnormal optical coherence tomography, key features pointing towards SPG7-testing. Interestingly, three relatives of patients with heterozygote SPG7 mutations had cerebellar signs and atrophy, or peripheral neuropathy, but no spasticity of the lower limbs, suggesting that SPG7 mutations at the heterozygous state might predispose to late-onset neurodegenerative disorders, mimicking autosomal dominant inheritance. Finally, a novel missense SPG7 mutation at the heterozygous state (Asp411Ala) was identified as the cause of autosomal dominant optic neuropathy in a large family, indicating that some SPG7 mutations can occasionally be dominantly inherited and be an uncommon cause of isolated optic neuropathy. Altogether, these results emphasize the clinical variability associated with SPG7 mutations, ranging from optic neuropathy to spastic paraplegia, and support the view that SPG7 screening should be carried out in both conditions.
Klebe, Stephan; Depienne, Christel; Gerber, Sylvie; Challe, Georges; Anheim, Mathieu; Charles, Perrine; Fedirko, Estelle; Lejeune, Elodie; Cottineau, Julien; Brusco, Alfredo; Dollfus, Helene; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Mancini, Cecilia; Ferrer, Xavier; Sole, Guilhem; Destee, Alain; Mayer, Jean-Michel; Fontaine, Bertrand; de Seze, Jerome; Clanet, Michel; Ollagnon, Elisabeth; Busson, Philippe; Cazeneuve, Cecile; Stevanin, Giovanni; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Brice, Alexis
Despite improvements in the identification of causes of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic polyneuropathy remains common. Medication\\u000a and toxic neuropathy account for a small but important percentage of potentially preventable or reversible causes of neuropathy.\\u000a New drugs that can induce neuropathy have been approved over the past several years, including the anticancer agents bortezomib,\\u000a ixabepilone, and oxaliplatin. We review the neurotoxic effects
Louis H. Weimer; Noor Sachdev
Summary A patient with rheumatoid arthritis developed gold induced peripheral neuropathy after 255 mgms of aurothioglucose. This neuropathy is characterized by weakness and numbness of the hands and feet in association with hyperalgesia of the palmar surface of the hands. The absence of vasculitis permits differentiation of gold neuropathy from the neuritis associates with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus.
J. J. Weiss; G. R. Thompson; R. Lazaro
The Semmes-Weinstein pressure aesthesiometer, which measures cutaneous pressure sensation, was used for quantifying sensory loss in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Eighty subjects comprising four groups were tested: nondiabetic controls (Group C); non-neuropathic, diabetic controls (Group DC); diabetic subjects with neuropathy and without a history of pedal ulcerations (Group DN); and, diabetic subjects with a history of or active pedal ulceration (Group DU). Cutaneous pressure sensation of 10 dorsal and plantar sites on the foot were tested, using a method of interval comparison modeled after the two-alternative forced choice algorithm. The sensitivity threshold level was defined as the lightest probe in which the subject accurately chose the correct interval in at least 2 out of 3 trials. The mean sensitivity threshold level for Group DC was not significantly increased (p greater than .05) compared to Group C. In contrast, patients with neuropathy (Group DN or DU) showed a significantly higher mean sensitivity threshold (p less than .001) than either Group C or DC. In addition, this technique demonstrated that patients in Group DU had a mean sensitivity threshold that was statistically higher (p less than .001) than Group DN, although both groups of patients had symptomatic neuropathy. This study provides a direct demonstration that decreased sensation of pressure occurs in the feet of diabetic patients with a history of ulceration. The best discrimination between groups is obtained by requiring that three of the six plantar forefoot sites have a sensitivity threshold level of greater than 5.07 log (0.1 mg) force as the risk discriminator level. Semmes-Weinstein aesthesiometry should now be tested in a prospective study to demonstrate its effectiveness in determining those patients at great risk of developing foot ulcers. PMID:3361455
Holewski, J J; Stess, R M; Graf, P M; Grunfeld, C
: The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between balance and foot sensibility in a population of patients with impaired lower extremity sensation. The hypothesis was that increasing impairment of sensation correlates with impaired balance. To date, no report has investigated the relationship between loss of balance with the degree of sensibility in the foot in a population with neuropathy. Ten control subjects and 35 patients with sensory abnormalities and balance problems related to a neuropathy were evaluated. The MatScan Measurement System was used to measure their ability to stand still, maintaining their balance with their eyes open and then with their eyes shut. The degree to which the person moves while attempting to stand still is defined as "sway," which was recorded for normal and neuropathy patients. Sensibility of the foot was measured with the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device, which is noninvasive and nonpainful. The 1- and 2-point static touch thresholds are measured for the pulp of the big toe, medial heel, and the dorsum of the foot. Loss of 2- or 1-point sensation was recorded as sensibility score and compared with controls. Statistical analysis of data and their comparisons for the 2 groups was completed. There were 55% females in control and 64% in neuropathy patients, whereas average age was 50 and 62 years, respectively. Neuropathy was the result of diabetes in 64.5%, hypothyroidism in 19.3%, their combination in 13%, and of unknown etiology in the remaining 19% of patients. Controls had significantly lower mean sway than neuropathy patients (22.9 +/- 9% vs. 189.5 +/- 180%, P = 0.006). Likewise, sensibility score for normal and neuropathy patients was also significantly different (31.4 +/- 9% vs. 232.8 +/- 59%, P <0.0001). When compared with the controls, 99% upper limit of confidence, sensibility in the neuropathy group at the hallux pulp was abnormal at a level consistent with axonal loss in 52% and was completely absent in the remaining 48%. Similarly, at the heel, sensibility was normal in 6.5%, abnormal at a level consistent with axonal loss in 71%, and absent in the remaining 22.5%. The correlation coefficient between sway and sensibility score was 0.36. The results of this investigation for the first time document the intuitive relationship between increasing loss of foot sensibility and increasing loss of balance. These measurements can now be used prospectively to evaluate whether restoration of sensation to patients with neuropathy, through peripheral nerve decompression, can improve balance and reduce falls/fractures in this patient population. PMID:15166971
Ducic, Ivica; Short, Kelly W; Dellon, A Lee
Pre-treatment with cisplatin (3 mg/kg) i.p. once a day over 6 days induced sensory neuropathy as confirmed by femoral nerve conduction velocity test and significantly decreased contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (100 stimuli, 20 V, 0.1 ms, 20 Hz) in isolated main bronchial rings from guinea-pigs. The field stimulation-induced non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxations, however, were amplified in rings from animals with cisplatin neuropathy. The NANC relaxation response was completely blocked by 30 microM N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester in preparations from both control and cisplatin-treated animals. Superoxide dismutase (40 units/ml) was without effect on NANC relaxation in control rings, however, it substantially decreased NANC relaxation in preparations from animals with cisplatin neuropathy. These results show that cisplatin-induced sensory neuropathy is accompanied by attenuation of neural bronchoconstriction and an enhanced NANC relaxation. The latter is in part attained by an increased peripheral superoxide production. PMID:10973628
Szilvássy, J; Sziklai, I; Racz, T; Horvath, P; Rabloczky, G; Szilvassy, Z
The diagnostic of optic neuropathy (ON) is a clinical diagnostic, relying on a detailed medical history, and a thorough clinical examination. In some cases, the attribution of the vision loss to a lesion of the optic nerve can be challenging, and further work-up is required to confirm the optic neuropathy. Once the diagnostic of optic neuropathy is stated, the pathophysiological mechanism of the ON has to be determined so that the appropriate therapeutic strategy can be initiated as promptly as possible. The diagnostic work-up must be as targeted as possible, oriented by the clinical examination. The different steps leading to the positive diagnostic of ON, and the etiologic work-up are detailed hereafter in order to achieve the most targeted work-up as possible. Differentials and current pitfalls are being reviewed. PMID:22999102
Touitou, V; LeHoang, P
Of 22 patients (18 men and four women ranging in age from 50 to 89 years) with radiographic and clinical evidence of Paget's disease, nine had visual field defects. All nine had arcuate scotomas and five of the nine had generalized constriction. The visual field changes were asymptomatic in six of nine patients and progressive in two patients. Only two patients had radiographic evidence of optic canal constriction by bony impingement. There was no objective improvement in the optic neuropathy in the three patients treated with synthetic salmon calcitonin. Our data suggested that the optic neuropathy of Paget's disease cannot be explained solely on the basis of bony compression and the cause of optic neuropathy in patients with normal optic canals remains unknown. PMID:6720822
Eretto, P; Krohel, G B; Shihab, Z M; Wallach, S; Hay, P
Anti-neoplastic agents in the platinum-complex, taxane, vinca alkaloid, and proteasome-inhibitor classes induce a dose-limiting, chronic, distal, symmetrical, sensory peripheral neuropathy that is often accompanied by neuropathic pain. Clinical descriptions suggest that these conditions are very similar, but clinical data are insufficient to determine the degree of similarity and to determine if they share common pathophysiological mechanisms. Animal models do not have the limitations of clinical studies and so we have characterized a rat model of chronic painful peripheral neuropathy induced by a platinum-complex agent, oxaliplatin, in order to compare it with a previously characterized model of chronic painful peripheral neuropathy induced by a taxane agent, paclitaxel. The oxaliplatin model evokes mechano-allodynia, mechano-hyperalgesia, and cold-allodynia that have a delayed onset, gradually increasing severity, a distinct delay to peak severity, and duration of about 2.5 months. There is no effect on heat sensitivity. Electron microscopy (EM) analyses found no evidence for axonal degeneration in peripheral nerve, and there is no upregulation of activating transcription factor-3 in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia. There is a statistically significant loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers in the plantar hind paw skin. Oxaliplatin treatment causes a significant increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated mitochondria in peripheral nerve axons, but not in their Schwann cells. Nerve conduction studies found significant slowing of sensory axons, but no change in motor axons. Single fiber recordings found an abnormal incidence of A- and C-fibers with irregular, low-frequency spontaneous discharge. Prophylactic dosing with two drugs that are known to protect mitochondria, acetyl-l-carnitine and olesoxime, significantly reduced the development of pain hypersensitivity. Our results are very similar to those obtained previously with paclitaxel, and support the hypothesis that these two agents, and perhaps other chemotherapeutics, produce very similar conditions because they have a mitotoxic effect on primary afferent neurons. PMID:22200546
Xiao, W H; Zheng, H; Bennett, G J
Painful diabetic neuropathy is a disease of the peripheral sensory neuron with impaired opioid responsiveness. Since ?-opioid receptor (MOR) activation can inhibit the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activity in peripherally sensory neurons, this study investigated the mechanisms of impaired opioid inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity in painful diabetic neuropathy. Intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg) in Wistar rats led to a degeneration of insulin producing pancreatic ?-cells, elevated blood glucose, and mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia). In these animals, local morphine's inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced nocifensive behavior as well as on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 current in dorsal root ganglion cells were significantly impaired. These changes were associated with a loss in MOR but not TRPV1 in peripheral sensory neurons. Intrathecal delivery of nerve growth factor in diabetic animals normalized sensory neuron MOR and subsequently rescued morphine's inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity in vivo and in vitro. These findings identify a loss in functional MOR on sensory neurons as a contributing factor for the impaired opioid inhibitory effects on capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity during advanced STZ-induced diabetes. Moreover, they support growing evidence of a distinct regulation of opioid responsiveness during various painful states of disease (e.g. arthritis, cancer, neuropathy) and may give novel therapeutic incentives. PMID:24863039
Shaqura, Mohammed; Khalefa, Baled I; Shakibaei, Mehdi; Zöllner, Christian; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Fürst, Susanna; Schäfer, Michael; Mousa, Shaaban A
Pre-treatment with cisplatin (3 mg\\/kg) i.p. once a day over 6 days induced sensory neuropathy as confirmed by femoral nerve conduction velocity test and significantly decreased contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (100 stimuli, 20 V, 0.1 ms, 20 Hz) in isolated main bronchial rings from guinea-pigs. The field stimulation-induced non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) relaxations, however, were amplified in rings from
Judith Szilvássy; Istvan Sziklai; Tamas Racz; Peter Horvath; Gyorgy Rabloczky; Zoltan Szilvassy
Diabetic neuropathies (DNs) differ in clinical course, distribution, fiber involvement (type and size), and pathophysiology, the most typical type being a length-dependent distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) with differing degrees of autonomic involvement. The pathogenesis of diabetic DSP is multifactorial, including increased mitochondrial production of free radicals due to hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Mechanisms that impact neuronal activity, mitochondrial function, membrane permeability, and endothelial function include formation of advanced glycosylation end products, activation of polyol aldose reductase signaling, activation of poly(ADP ribose) polymerase, and altered function of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase pump. Hyperglycemia-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress triggers several neuronal apoptotic processes. Additional mechanisms include impaired nerve perfusion, dyslipidemia, altered redox status, low-grade inflammation, and perturbation of calcium balance. Successful therapies require an integrated approach targeting these mechanisms. Intensive glycemic control is essential but is insufficient to prevent onset or progression of DSP, and disease-modifying treatments for DSP have been disappointing. Atypical forms of DN include subacute-onset sensory (symmetric) or motor (asymmetric) predominant conditions that are frequently painful but generally self-limited. DNs are a major cause of disability, associated with reduced quality of life and increased mortality. PMID:24954624
Albers, James W; Pop-Busui, Rodica
Peripheral neuropathy develops in human subjects with prediabetes and metabolic syndrome, prior to overt hyperglycemia. The contributions of impaired glucose tolerance and insulin signaling, hypertriglyceridemia and/or increased NEFA, and hypercholesterolemia to this condition remain unknown. Niacin and its derivatives alleviate dyslipidemia with a minor effect on glucose homeostasis. This study evaluated the roles of impaired glucose tolerance versus dyslipidemia in prediabetic neuropathy using Zucker fatty (fa/fa) rats and the niacin derivative acipimox, as well as the interplay of hypertriglyceridemia, increased NEFA, and oxidative-nitrosative stress. 16 wk-old Zucker fatty rats with impaired glucose tolerance, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and increased NEFA, displayed sensory nerve conduction velocity deficit, thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia, and tactile allodynia. Acipimox (100 mgkg?1d?1, 4 weeks) reduced serum insulin, NEFA, and triglyceride concentrations without affecting glucose tolerance and hypercholesterolemia. It alleviated sensory nerve conduction velocity deficit, changes in behavioral measures of sensory function, and corrected oxidative-nitrosative stress, but not impaired insulin signaling, in peripheral nerve. Elevated NEFA increased total and mitochondrial superoxide production and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in cultured human Schwann cells. In conclusion, hypertriglyceridemia and/or increased NEFA concentrations cause prediabetic neuropathy through oxidative-nitrosative stress. Lipid-lowering agents and antioxidants may find use in management of this condition.
Lupachyk, Sergey; Watcho, Pierre; Hasanova, Nailia; Julius, Ulrich; G.Obrosova, Irina
Congenital cataracts are an important cause of visual impairment in children. Approximately one-third of congenital cataracts are hereditary. The disease, when inherited as an isolated abnormality, is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous. Autosomal dominant forms with high penetrance appear to be the most common. To date, thirteen genes have been implicated in cataractogenesis. The identification of the genetic mutations causing congenital cataracts will provide a better understanding of cataractogenesis in childhood and provide further insights into normal lens development. PMID:12843900
Beby, F; Morle, L; Michon, L; M, Bozon; Edery, P; Burillon, C; Denis, Ph
The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in general population is ever increasing. The diagnosis and classification of peripheral neuropathies is often difficult as it involves careful clinical and electro-diagnostic examination by an expert neurologist. In developing countries a large percentage of the disease remains undiagnosed due to lack of adequate number of experts. In this study a novel clinical decision support system has been developed using a fuzzy expert system. The study was done to provide a solution to the demand of systems that can improve health care by accurate diagnosis in limited time, in the absence of specialists. It employs a graphical user interface and a fuzzy logic controller with rule viewer for identification of the type of peripheral neuropathy. An integrated medical records database is also developed for the storage and retrieval of the data. The system consists of 24 input fields, which includes the clinical values of the diagnostic test and the clinical symptoms. The output field is the disease diagnosis, whether it is Motor (Demyelinating/Axonopathy) neuropathy, sensory (Demyelinating/Axonopathy) neuropathy, mixed type or a normal case. The results obtained were compared with the expert's opinion and the system showed 93.27 % accuracy. The study aims at showing that Fuzzy Expert Systems may prove useful in providing diagnostic and predictive medical opinions. It enables the clinicians to arrive at a better diagnosis as it keeps the expert knowledge in an intelligent system to be used efficiently and effectively. PMID:24692180
Kunhimangalam, Reeda; Ovallath, Sujith; Joseph, Paul K
Degeneration of peripheral motor axons is a common feature of several debilitating diseases including complicated forms of hereditary spastic paraplegia. One such form is caused by loss of the mitochondrial energy-dependent protease paraplegin. Paraplegin-deficient mice display a progressive degeneration in several axonal tracts, characterized by the accumulation of morphological abnormal mitochondria. We show that adenoassociated virus–mediated (AAV-mediated) intramuscular delivery of paraplegin halted the progression of neuropathological changes and rescued mitochondrial morphology in the peripheral nerves of paraplegin-deficient mice. One single injection before onset of symptoms improved the motor performance of paraplegin-deficient mice for up to 10 months, indicating that the peripheral neuropathy contributes to the clinical phenotype. This study provides a proof of principle that gene transfer may be an effective therapeutic option for patients with paraplegin deficiency and demonstrates that AAV vectors can be successfully employed for retrograde delivery of an intracellular protein to spinal motor neurons, opening new perspectives for several hereditary axonal neuropathies of the peripheral nerves.
Pirozzi, Marinella; Quattrini, Angelo; Andolfi, Gennaro; Dina, Giorgia; Malaguti, Maria Chiara; Auricchio, Alberto; Rugarli, Elena I.
PURPOSE: Aims of the present study were to assess frequency of pudendal neuropathy in patients with constipation and fecal incontinence, to determine its correlation with clinical variables, anal electromyographic assessment, and anal manometric pressures, and to determine usefulness of the pudendal nerve terminal motor latency assessment in evaluation of these evacuatory disorders. METHODS: From 1988 to 1993, 395 patients (constipated,
Carlos A. Vaccaro; Denis M. O. Cheong; Steven D. Wexner; Juan J. Nogueras; Virgilio D. Salanga; Maurice R. Hanson; Reginald C. Phillips
We present four cases of femoral neuropathy due to urological surgery, first case happened after right lumbotomy twenty years ago and the other three cases in the last four years after iliac incision. We review lesion production mecanism, evolution, treatment and prevention of this rare neurological complication. We do a literature review about this pathology related with urological activity. PMID:18020214
Pastor Guzmán, J M; Pastor Navarro, H; Donate Moreno, M J; Pardal Fernández, J M; Carrión López, P; Salinas Sánchez, A; Virseda Rodríguez, J A
Four patients were observed who developed similar episodes of peripheral neuropathy following prolonged treatment with chloroquine phosphate. This previously unreported toxic reaction consisted of bilateral loss of knee and ankle reflexes and weakness of the quadriceps muscles. Gradual return to normal followed withdrawal of the chloroquine. Other toxic reactions to the drug are reviewed.
Loftus, Lawrence R.
Background Paclitaxel causes an acute pain syndrome (P-APS), occurring within days after each dose and usually abating within days. Paclitaxel also causes a more classic peripheral neuropathy, which steadily increases in severity with increasing paclitaxel total doses. Little detail is available regarding the natural history of these two syndromes, or any relationship between them, although a recent publication does provide natural history data about weekly paclitaxel, supporting an association between the severity of P-APS and eventual peripheral neuropathy symptoms. Methods Patients entering this study were about to receive paclitaxel and carboplatin every 3 weeks. Daily questionnaires were completed for the first week after every chemotherapy dose and EORTC QLQ-CIPN 20 instruments were completed weekly. Results The P-APS severity peaked on day 4 after the initial chemotherapy dose, with 12%, 29%, 23%, and