Sample records for hereditary sensory neuropathy

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed March 2015 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is ...

  2. [Clinical practice of hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) and hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN)].

    PubMed

    Takashima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Inherited neuropathy is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of neuropathies, the main category becomes Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT), also known as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN), and hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). At least 80 genes have been associated with CMT, HMN or HSAN, a precise molecular diagnosis is often needed to make a clinical diagnosis accurately, enable genetic counseling of the patient and understanding of their molecular mechanisms. To identify the mutation in each patient, using a high-throughput NGS, we established a diagnostic procedure involving screening of disease causing genes in CMT, HMN or HSAN. PMID:25672680

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... gene ; growth factor ; hereditary ; inherited ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...

  4. Hereditary motor-sensory, motor, and sensory neuropathies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan; De Jonghe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission, age of occurrence, and, in selected cases, pathological findings. The combination of these parameters frequently orients towards specific genetic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first pediatric concern. Primary, motor-sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating AD forms (CMT1). Others are demyelinating AR forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Pure motor HN represent<10% of HN but exhibit large clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Sensory/dysautonomic HN cover five classical subtypes, each one related to specific genes. However, genetic heterogeneity is largly greater than initially suspected. Syndromic HN distinguish: "purely neurological syndromes", which are multisystemic, usually AD disorders, such as spinocerebellar atrophies +, spastic paraplegias +, etc. Peripheral Neuropathy may be the presenting feature, including in childhood. Clearly degenerative, AR forms prompt to investigate a large set of pleiotropic genes. Other syndromes, expressed in the perinatal period and comprising malformative features, are mainly developmental disorders, sometimes related to specific transcription factors. Altogether, >40 genes with various biological functions have been found responsible for HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait: for the pediatric neurologist, phenotype/genotype correlations constitute a permanent bidirectional exercise. PMID:23622364

  5. Detection of hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type I in childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T E Feasby; A F Hahn; C F Bolton; W F Brown; W J Koopman

    1992-01-01

    Clinical signs and slowed motor nerve conduction velocities were found in 17 of 36 children under 10 years of age who had one parent with hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type I (HMSN I). Four children had slowed conduction velocities at one year or less. Clinical signs were subtle and included pes planus, distal foot wasting, weakness of ankle eversion and

  6. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with auditory neuropathy in a Gypsy family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Leonardis; J. Zidar; M. Popovi?; V. Timmerman; A. Löfgren; C. Van Broeckhoven; D. Butinar

    2000-01-01

    In a Slovene Gypsy family of 19 subjects from four generations three patients with clinical characteristics compatible with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy -Lom (HMSNL), were found. They had severe distal and milder proximal muscle atrophy and weakness with areflexia of myotatic jerks. Two had facial weakness at the time when already wheelchair bound. All sensory modalities were affected distally

  7. Hereditary Neuropathies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and autonomic neuropathy. The most common type is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, one of the hereditary motor ... 722-8396 Related NINDS Publications and Information NINDS Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Information Page Charcot-Marie-Tooth ...

  8. [Developments in hereditary neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Dubourg, O

    2012-12-01

    Hereditary sensorimotor neuropathies, or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) comprise a group of diseases with heterogeneous clinical, electrophysiological and genetic expression. They are classified by the mode of inheritance (autosomal dominant, X-linked dominant, autosomal recessive) and their electrophysiological characteristics taking into account the speed of motor conduction of the median nerve (demyelinating, intermediary and axonal forms). Certain purely motor forms are called spinal CMT or hereditary distal motor neuropathy, or distal spinal amyotrophy. CMT involving an important sensorial component, trophic disorders, or signs of dysautonomia are included in the classification of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. PMID:23153686

  9. Somatosensory evoked potentials, sensory nerve potentials and sensory nerve conduction in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Aramideh; J. E. Hoogendijk; C. M. Aalfs; F. E. Posthumus Meyjes; M. Visser; B. W. Ongerboer De Visser

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients from six families with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I and control subjects were included in this study. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was derived from a neurological examination and compared with neurophysiological test findings. Further, sensory nerve conduction velocities (SNCV) were compared with the motor nerve conduction velocities (MNCV). Five patients whom peaks of N11\\/N13 complex

  10. Clinical disease severity and axonal dysfunction in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy Ia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camiel Verhamme; Ivo N. van Schaik; Johannes H. T. M. Koelman; Rob J. de Haan; Marinus Vermeulen; Marianne de Visser

    2004-01-01

    Background Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Ia (HMSN Ia) is known as a primarily demyelinating peripheral nerve disease. Evidence is accumulating that axonal involvement determines the course of the disease process. Methods Fifty-one patients were investigated. Physical disability and impairments were scored. Nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) were used as indirect measures for myelination status and compound muscle\\/sensory nerve action

  11. Genes for Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant ("SPTLC1"…

  12. Autosomal recessive type II hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with acrodystrophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Thomas; D. Claus; R. H. M. King

    1999-01-01

    A family is described with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance in which three siblings developed a progressive neuropathy\\u000a that combined limb weakness and severe distal sensory loss leading to prominent mutilating changes. Electrophysiological and\\u000a nerve biopsy findings indicated an axonopathy. The disorder is therefore classifiable as type II hereditary motor and sensory\\u000a neuropathy (HMSN II). The clinical features differ from those

  13. Autosomal recessive inheritance of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with optic atrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, R M; Riordan-Eva, P; Wood, N W

    1997-01-01

    Three siblings are reported with childhood onset hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) and adult onset optic atrophy. Electrophysiological studies showed an axonal neuropathy and dysfunction of the retinal ganglion cells or optic nerve. The presumed mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive. This is the second family in which autosomal recessive inheritance of HMSN and optic atrophy (HMSN type VI) has been described, and the first in which electrophysiological studies have been reported. PMID:9120454

  14. Autosomal recessive hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with mental retardation, optic atrophy and pyramidal signs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K D MacDermot; R W Walker

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome is described, consisting of severe neurogenic distal wasting, generalised muscle weakness, absent ankle reflexes, pyramidal signs, mental retardation, optic atrophy and retinal colloid bodies. A sural nerve biopsy from one case showed loss of nerve fibres suggesting the diagnosis of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy. Progression of the disorder was very slow, all patients still being able to

  15. Assessment and evaluation of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies with autonomic and neurophysiological examinations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max J. Hilz

    2002-01-01

    The five different types of the rare hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are classified by their mode of inheritance, pathology, natural history, biochemical, neurophysiologic and autonomic abnormalities. Clinically, the different types of HSANs can be identified by a detailed history and examination and 'bedside' tests of sympathetic or parasympathetic function such as active standing, metronomic breathing or the Valsalva

  16. Recent Advances in the Genetics of Hereditary Axonal Sensory-Motor Neuropathies Type 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Senda Ajroud-Driss; Han-Xiang Deng; Teepu Siddique

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary axonal motor and sensory neuropathies or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) are characterized clinically\\u000a by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, sensory loss, and foot deformities. Conduction velocities are usually in the normal\\u000a range or mildly slowed. The majority of CMT2 are autosomal-dominant but autosomal-recessive forms have been described. The\\u000a number of genes associated with CMT2 have significantly increased in

  17. [Molecular pathogenesis of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Kotruchow, Katarzyna; Kabzi?ska, Dagmara; Karpi?ska, Kamila; Kocha?ski, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2 is an inherited axonal motor and sensory neuropathy. It is very heterogenous, both clinically and genetically. Till present, 15 types of CMT2, 14 loci and 13 genes are known to be causative of CMT2. Studying mechanisms of molecular pathogenesis is very important for finding a therapy for patients but the diversity of proteins involved in pathogenesis makes this very difficult. Proteins involved in molecular pathogenesis are e.g. proteins of the mitochondrial outer membrane with opposite functions (mitofusin 2 and GDAP1) responsible for fusion and fission of the mitochondrial network. Mutations also occur in genes encoding tRNA-synthetases, neuronal cytoskeletal protein, cation channel protein and molecular chaperones. This review presents knowledge of CMT2 and possible pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for the disease. PMID:22235654

  18. Hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy associated with proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Fukai, Yuta; Rikimaru, Mitsue; Henmi, Shoji; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2010-04-15

    We describe three patients from the same family with hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy followed by proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities. Sensory ataxic gait began as an initial symptom when patients were in their 50s. Mild proximal weakness in the lower extremities appeared several years later. Serum creatine kinase was mildly elevated. Nerve conduction studies revealed sensory dominant axonal neuropathy, and short sensory evoked potentials showed involvement of the sensory nerve axon, dorsal root ganglia and posterior funiculus of the spinal cord. Needle electromyography showed fibrillation, positive sharp waves, and multiple giant motor unit potentials, suggesting the involvement of anterior horn motor neurons or the anterior root. Autosomal recessive inheritance was considered, because of consanguinity. The disorder described here may be a new clinical entity with unique clinical manifestations. PMID:20083254

  19. [Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II A: early neurological and skeletal findings].

    PubMed

    Esmer, C; Díaz Zambrano, S; Santos Díaz, M A; González Huerta, L M; Cuevas Covarrubias, S A; Bravo Oro, A

    2014-04-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies are genetic disorders characterized by the loss of sensation including pain, tactile and temperature. Its clinical and molecular features vary widely; the symptoms may begin from birth or be noticed in the first or second decade, with different types of complications of trauma to the extremities such as ulcers, mutilations and acral amputations. They are classified into six groups from I to VI, determined by the abnormality in eleven genes leading to phenotypic variations in the age of onset and the presence or absence of dysautonomia signs. With the exception of type I, all are autosomal recessive. The type II of these neuropathies is characterized by insensitivity to pain, heat and proprioception. We describe three members of a Mexican family with WNK1 gene mutation that caused hereditary neuropathy IIA. PMID:23831200

  20. Two cases of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P).

    PubMed

    Mori, Chiaki; Saito, Tomoko; Saito, Toshio; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Sakoda, Saburo

    2015-01-01

    We, herein, report two independent cases with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Their common clinical features are slowly progressive proximal dominant muscular atrophy, fasciculations and mild to moderate distal sensory disturbance with areflexia. Nerve conduction study revealed an absence of sensory nerve action potentials, in contrast to almost normal compound muscle action potentials. Gene analysis in both patients elucidated heterozygous mutation (c.854C>T, p.Pro285Leu) in the TFG, which is an identical mutation, already described by Ishiura et al. Okinawa and Shiga are two foci of HMSN-P in Japan. Eventually, one patient is from Okinawa and the other is from a mountain village in Shiga prefecture. When we see a patient who has symptoms suggestive of motor neuron disease with sensory neuropathy, HMSN-P should be considered as a differential diagnosis despite the patient's actual resident place. PMID:26103812

  1. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) and optic atrophy (HMSN type VI, Vizioli)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cornelius Weiller; Andreas Ferbert

    1991-01-01

    Summary Clinical and electrophysiological findings are described in three patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy in association with optic atrophy (HMSN VI). The optic atrophy was of the Leber type in a 15-year-old boy. In a 70-year-old patient, as in three members of his family, optic atrophy was associated with tapetoretinal degeneration. In addition to HMSN and optic atrophy

  2. Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy Type VI with Bilateral Middle Cerebellar Peduncle Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Han Sang; Cha, Dong Min

    2014-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) 2A with optic atrophy is referred to as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type VI (HMSN VI) and is caused by mitofusin 2 gene (MFN2) mutation. In patients with MFN2 related CMT, central nervous system is known to be also involved and cerebral white matter is mostly involved. We report a patient confirmed as HMSN VI who had isolated bilateral middle cerebellar peduncular lesions in brain MRI. PMID:25258575

  3. A novel homozygous mutation in the WNK1/HSN2 gene causing hereditary sensory neuropathy type 2.

    PubMed

    Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Kabzi?ska, Dagmara; Lipowska, Marta; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Kocha?ski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2 is a rare disorder caused by recessive mutations in the WNK1/HSN2 gene located on chromosome 12p13.33. Phenotype of the patients is characterized by severe sensory loss affecting all sensory modalities. We report a novel homozygous Lys179fsX182 (HSN2); Lys965fsX968 (WNK1/HSN2) mutation causing an early childhood onset hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2, with acromutilations in upper and lower limbs, and autonomic dysfunction. To the best of our knowledge this is the first genetically proven case of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2 originating from East Europe. PMID:22910560

  4. A family with autosomal dominant mutilating neuropathy not linked to either Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2B (CMT2B) or hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilia Bellone; Carmelo Rodolico; Antonio Toscano; Emilio Di Maria; Denise Cassandrini; Antonio Pizzuti; Simona Pigullo; Anna Mazzeo; Vincenzo Macaione; Paolo Girlanda; Giuseppe Vita; Franco Ajmar; Paola Mandich

    2002-01-01

    Sensory loss and ulcero-mutilating features have been observed in hereditary sensory neuropathy type I and in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type IIB, also referred as Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 2B. To date two loci associated with ulcero-mutilating neuropathy have been described: CMT2B at 3q13–q22 and HSN I at 9q22.1–q22.3. We performed linkage analysis with chromosomal markers representing the hereditary sensory

  5. Neurofilament light mutation causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with pyramidal signs.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Yujiro; Nomura, Miwa; Nakamura, Tomonori; Arata, Hitoshi; Yuan, Junhui; Yoshimura, Akiko; Okamoto, Yuji; Matsuura, Eiji; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    To identify novel mutations causing hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) with pyramidal signs, a variant of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), we screened 28 CMT and related genes in four members of an affected Japanese family. Clinical features included weakness of distal lower limb muscles, foot deformity, and mild sensory loss, then late onset of progressive spasticity. Electrophysiological studies revealed widespread neuropathy. Electron microscopic analysis showed abnormal mitochondria and mitochondrial accumulation in the neurons and Schwann cells. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an abnormally thin corpus callosum. In all four, microarrays detected a novel heterozygous missense mutation c.1166A>G (p.Y389C) in the gene encoding the light-chain neurofilament protein (NEFL), indicating that NEFL mutations can result in a HMSN with pyramidal signs phenotype. PMID:25583183

  6. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy--Lom, a novel demyelinating neuropathy associated with deafness in gypsies. Clinical, electrophysiological and nerve biopsy findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luba Kalaydjieva; Amelia Nikolova; Ivo Turnev; Julia Petrova; Anna Hristova; Boryana Ishpekova; Iva Petkova; Alexander Shmarov; Stella Stancheva; L. Middleton; Luciano Merlini; A. Trogu; J. R. Muddle; R. H. M. King; P. K. Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Summary A previously unrecognized neuropathy was identified in Bulgarian gypsies, and was designated hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL) after the town where the initial cases were found. It was subsequently identified in other gypsy communities. The disorder, which is of autosomal recessive inheritance, was mapped to chromosome 8q24. It begins consistently in the first decade of life with gait

  7. Ultrasound of radial, ulnar, median, and sciatic nerves in healthy subjects and patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Heinemeyer; Carl D Reimers

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the capability of ultrasonography to visualize extremity nerves. Fifty healthy women and men and 10 patients suffering with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) were examined. The radial nerve lateral to the humerus, ulnar nerve distal to the cubital tunnel, median nerve in the middle of the forearm and proximal to the palmar crease,

  8. A mutation in an alternative untranslated exon of hexokinase 1 associated with Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy – Russe (HMSNR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janina Hantke; David Chandler; Rosalind King; Ronald JA Wanders; Dora Angelicheva; Ivailo Tournev; Elyshia McNamara; Marcel Kwa; Velina Guergueltcheva; Radka Kaneva; Frank Baas; Luba Kalaydjieva

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy – Russe (HMSNR) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder, identified in the Gypsy population. Our previous studies mapped the gene to 10q22-q23 and refined the gene region to ?70 kb. Here we report the comprehensive sequencing analysis and fine mapping of this region, reducing it to ?26 kb of fully characterised sequence spanning the upstream

  9. [The role of molecular genetics in diagnosis of hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Kocha?ski, A; Jedrzejowska, H; Ryniewicz, B; Budny, B

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary motor-sensory neuropathies (HMSN) are a heterogeneous group of disorders of peripheral nervous system. Four genes in HMSN have been characterized so far i.e.: PMP22, MPZ, Cx32 and EGR-2. The advent of molecular genetic techniques over the past few years has provided identification of molecular defects in a few forms of HMSN. The present study describes the application of modern molecular genetic methods, which are used in the studies of HMSN. Southern blot hybridisation, Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), Short Tandem Repeat analysis (STR), Semiquantitative PCR analysis (SQ-PCR), Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism method (SSCP), Heteroduplex analysis (HD) and finally DNA automated sequencing are described in the present paper. In the conclusions the advantages and limits of mentioned methods of DNA analysis in HMSN have been described. PMID:11253483

  10. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type II (HMSN-II) and neurogenic muscle hypertrophy: a case report and literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maurelli; E. Candeloro; M. T. Egitto; E. Alfonsi

    1998-01-01

    We present two siblings affected by hereditary motor and sensory type II neuropathy (HMSN-II) with neuromyotonia, and associated with muscle hypertrophy of the thighs and calves in one. We review the literature about the association between HMSN-II, neuromyotonia and muscle hypertrophy. Muscle enlargement in HMSN-II is rare and may be sporadic or under genetic control. In our patient, muscle hypertrophy

  11. Misclassification and linkage of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Type 2B

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, J.M.; Speer, M.C.; Stajich, J.M. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Recently Kwon et al. published in the Journal their work describing linkage of a single large family with an inherited axonal neuropathy to chromosome 3, which they suggest is a second locus for Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 2 and subsequently named {open_quotes}CMT2B.{close_quotes} We think that the diagnostic classification of this family as CMT2 is incorrect, since the subjects have a severe sensory neuropathy that fits within the hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type 1 classification of Dyck (1993). Abnormal sensory findings in CMT2 separate it from distal spinal muscular atrophy but are a minor component of clinical symptoms in most CMT patients, as CMT is primarily a motor neuropathy. When Kwon et al. state that {open_quotes}all [patients] had characteristic findings in their physical examinations, including... evidence of foot sores that were slow to heal, or amputated limbs related to the poorly healing foot ulcers,{close_quotes} it suggests that a different diagnosis is more appropriate. In our experience collecting data on >950 individuals in >60 CMT1, CMT2, CMTX and CMT4 families, we have not seen foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, or amputations. Ulcerations leading to osteomyelitis and amputations are usually associated with severe sensory neuropathies. 16 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Frequency of mutations in the genes associated with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy in a UK cohort

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, G. L.; Murphy, S. M.; Polke, J. M.; Laura, M.; Salih, M. A. M.; Muntoni, F.; Blake, J.; Brandner, S.; Davies, N.; Horvath, R.; Price, S.; Donaghy, M.; Roberts, M.; Foulds, N.; Ramdharry, G.; Soler, D.; Lunn, M. P.; Manji, H.; Davis, M. B.; Houlden, H.; Reilly, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    The hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, also known as the hereditary sensory neuropathies) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, characterised by a progressive sensory neuropathy often complicated by ulcers and amputations, with variable motor and autonomic involvement. To date, mutations in twelve genes have been identified as causing HSAN. To study the frequency of mutations in these genes and the associated phenotypes, we screened 140 index patients in our inherited neuropathy cohort with a clinical diagnosis of HSAN for mutations in the coding regions of SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2, FAM134B, NTRK1 (TRKA) and NGFB. We identified 25 index patients with mutations in six genes associated with HSAN (SPTLC1, RAB7, WNK1/HSN2, FAM134B, NTRK1 and NGFB); 20 of which appear to be pathogenic giving an overall mutation frequency of 14.3%. Mutations in the known genes for HSAN are rare suggesting that further HSAN genes are yet to be identified. The p.Cys133Trp mutation in SPTLC1 is the most common cause of HSAN in the UK population and should be screened first in all patients with sporadic or autosomal dominant HSAN. PMID:22302274

  13. Targeted high-throughput sequencing identifies mutations in atlastin-1 as a cause of hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    PubMed

    Guelly, Christian; Zhu, Peng-Peng; Leonardis, Lea; Papi?, Lea; Zidar, Janez; Schabhüttl, Maria; Strohmaier, Heimo; Weis, Joachim; Strom, Tim M; Baets, Jonathan; Willems, Jan; De Jonghe, Peter; Reilly, Mary M; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Hatz, Martina; Trajanoski, Slave; Pieber, Thomas R; Janecke, Andreas R; Blackstone, Craig; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is an axonal form of autosomal-dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy distinguished by prominent sensory loss that leads to painless injuries. Unrecognized, these can result in delayed wound healing and osteomyelitis, necessitating distal amputations. To elucidate the genetic basis of an HSN I subtype in a family in which mutations in the few known HSN I genes had been excluded, we employed massive parallel exon sequencing of the 14.3 Mb disease interval on chromosome 14q. We detected a missense mutation (c.1065C>A, p.Asn355Lys) in atlastin-1 (ATL1), a gene that is known to be mutated in early-onset hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG3A and that encodes the large dynamin-related GTPase atlastin-1. The mutant protein exhibited reduced GTPase activity and prominently disrupted ER network morphology when expressed in COS7 cells, strongly supporting pathogenicity. An expanded screen in 115 additional HSN I patients identified two further dominant ATL1 mutations (c.196G>C [p.Glu66Gln] and c.976 delG [p.Val326TrpfsX8]). This study highlights an unexpected major role for atlastin-1 in the function of sensory neurons and identifies HSN I and SPG3A as allelic disorders. PMID:21194679

  14. [MFN2 gene analysis in patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy from Bashkortostan Republic].

    PubMed

    Khidiyatova, I M; Skachkova, I A; Saifullina, E V; Magzhanov, R V; Schagina, O A; Zinchenko, R A; Petrin, A N; Khusnutdinova, E K

    2013-07-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) type IIA is caused by mutations in the mitofusin type-2 (MFN2) gene and represents one of the most common axonal forms of HMSN. We determined the spectrum and frequency of MFN2 gene mutations in patients from the Bashkortostan Republic (BR). Four different mutations were revealed in 5 out of 170 unrelated patients, i.e., c.2113G>A (p.Val705Ile) (1.2% among all types of H MSN in the total sample of patients and 2% among patients of Tatar ethnicity). This mutation was described previously; c.775C>T (p.Arg259Cys) (0.6%, in the total sample of patients and 2% among the patients of Tatar ethnicity); c.776G>A (p.Arg259His) (0.6% in the total sample of patients and 1.5% among the patients of Russians ethnicity); and c.2171T>C (p.Leu724Pro) (1.2% in the total sample of patients and 7.4% among the patients of Bashkirs ethnicity). These are new mutations that were not observed among healthy family members and in control samples of healthy subjects. Five identified nucleotide substitutions represent single nucleotide polymorphisms of the gene, including c.892G>A (p.Gly298Arg), c.957C>T (Gly319Gly), and c1039-222t>c, which were described previously, while c.175+28c>t and c.2204+15t>c represent new nucleotide substitutions in the intron regions of the gene. PMID:24450158

  15. Disturbances in affective touch in hereditary sensory & autonomic neuropathy type III

    PubMed Central

    Macefield, Vaughan G.; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Löken, Line; Axelrod, Felicia B.; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III, Riley–Day syndrome, Familial Dysautomia) is characterised by elevated thermal thresholds and an indifference to pain. Using microelectrode recordings we recently showed that these patients possess no functional stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in their muscles (muscle spindles), a feature that may explain their lack of stretch reflexes and ataxic gait, yet patients have apparently normal low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The density of C-fibres in the skin is markedly reduced in patients with HSAN III, but it is not known whether the C-tactile afferents, a distinct type of low-threshold C fibre present in hairy skin that is sensitive to gentle stroking and has been implicated in the coding of pleasant touch are specifically affected in HSAN III patients. We addressed the relationship between C-tactile afferent function and pleasant touch perception in 15 patients with HSAN III and 15 age-matched control subjects. A soft make-up brush was used to apply stroking stimuli to the forearm and lateral aspect of the leg at five velocities: 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 cm/s. As demonstrated previously, the control subjects rated the slowest and highest velocities as less pleasant than those applied at 1–10 cm/s, which fits with the optimal velocities for exciting C-tactile afferents. Conversely, for the patients, ratings of pleasantness did not fit the profile for C-tactile afferents. Patients either rated the higher velocities as more pleasant than the slow velocities, with the slowest velocities being rated unpleasant, or rated all velocities equally pleasant. We interpret this to reflect absent or reduced C-tactile afferent density in the skin of patients with HSAN III, who are likely using tactile cues (i.e. myelinated afferents) to rate pleasantness of stroking or are attributing pleasantness to this type of stimulus irrespective of velocity. PMID:24726998

  16. [Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV: a report on two cases].

    PubMed

    Achouri, E; Gribaa, M; Bouguila, J; Haddad, S; Souayeh, N; Saad, A; Essoussi, A S

    2011-04-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of unexplained fever, extensive anhidrosis, total insensitivity to pain, hypotonia, and mental retardation. The absence of urticarial reaction to intradermal injection of histamine is a sign of great diagnostic value, but this is common to all types of HSAN. The most frequent complications of this disease are corneal scarring, multiple fractures, joint deformities, osteomyelitis, and disabling self-mutilations. Malignant hyperthermia and sepsis are major causes of mortality. We relate the first observations of two Tunisian children with genetically confirmed HSAN IV. Our goal is to review the clinical aspects of this mysterious neuropathy and to emphasize the peculiarities of its management. These two patients are brothers from 1st-degree consanguineous parents (cousins) with no particular medical history. The 1st patient, the family's 1st child, presented in the 1st h of life with hypotonia and persistent fever, which was refractory to antipyretics. At the age of 8 months, the patient presented recurrent febrile seizures and developed significant self-mutilations of the fingers and tongue. He died 3 months later in a context of multivisceral failure from sepsis and malignant hyperthermia. The 2nd patient, currently aged 4 years, was born after a normal sister. He consulted in the neonatal period for a high fever. The diagnosis of HSAN IV was rapidly suspected and genetically confirmed. In fact, this patient is homozygous for the NTRK1 gene, whereas his sister and both parents are heterozygous. Special predispositions have been taken to improve the course of the disease such as air conditioning to control hyperthermia, a dental tray to reduce the injuries resulting from self-mutilation, regular moistening of the eyes to avoid corneal drying, and chlorpromazine to control hyperactivity and reduce injuries. The good progression with all these predispositions and others underlines the importance of appropriate multidisciplinary management and close monitoring of patients suffering from HSAN IV, especially during the first 3 years of life. Indeed, mortality, behavioral disorders, and mental retardation significantly decrease after this age. New curative treatments are expected in the next decade. PMID:21397470

  17. Genetic aspects of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (types I and II)

    PubMed Central

    Harding, A E; Thomas, P K

    1980-01-01

    The genetic features of a series of 227 patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) have been analysed. The series comprised 119 index cases from 110 families in which 108 affected relatives were identified. The cases were classified as having type I or type II HMSN on the basis of nerve conduction studies. Inheritance in the type I cases was autosomal dominant in 139 (45 families) and autosomal recessive in eight (four families) with 26 single cases. For the type II cases, 35 (17 families) were autosomal dominant and three (two families) autosomal recessive with 16 single cases. A significant excess of males was present in the combined single and recessive type I cases and in the type I index cases. No X linked pedigrees were identified. The correlation coefficients for motor nerve conduction velocity between the index cases and their relatives suggested further genetic heterogeneity in the type I cases. Parent-offspring and sib-sib correlation coefficients for age of onset in the dominantly inherited type I cases were less than 0·5. There was therefore no strong suggestion of genetic heterogeneity in terms of age of onset. The severity of muscle weakness did not differ between the dominantly inherited type I and type II cases. In both types males had higher weakness scores than females, but there was no difference for either type in relation to the sex of the affected parent. Segration analysis suggested that approximately 70% of the single generation type I cases were of autosomal recessive inheritance, whereas only about 25% of the single generation type II cases were recessive. Biological fitness was reduced in type II HMSN, which would support a higher proportion of new dominant mutations among the single cases of this type than in type I. Despite the excess of males in the type I single case/recessive category, a contribution of cases with X linked recessive inheritance is improbable. Single cases of HMSN, especially the type II form in view of its later onset, are likely to be unrecognised clinically and will be classified as `cryptogenic' neuropathy. As in many affected subjects the degree of disability is minimal, a careful scrutiny of the relatives is merited in such instances. PMID:7218272

  18. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia and optic atrophy: report on a family

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Dillmann; Günther Heide; Bettina Dietz; Elemer Teshmar; Klaus Schimrigk

    1997-01-01

    We describe two siblings affected by a motor and sensory neuropathy starting in childhood. Already in infancy, a spastic\\u000a gait disturbance had become obvious, leading later to multiple surgical interventions. In adolescence, progressive loss of\\u000a vision developed. At the time of our examination, both siblings showed severe weakness and atrophy of the distal muscles of\\u000a legs and arms. Tendon jerks

  19. [Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is caused by a mutation in TFG].

    PubMed

    Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by proximal predominant weakness and muscle atrophy accompanied by distal sensory disturbance. Linkage analysis using 4 families identified a region on chromosome 3 showing a LOD score exceeding 4. Further refinement of candidate region was performed by haplotype analysis using high-density SNP data, resulting in a minimum candidate region spanning 3.3 Mb. Exome analysis of an HMSN-P patient revealed a mutation (c.854C>T, p.Pro285Leu) in TRK-fused gene (TFG). The identical mutation was found in the four families, which cosegregated with the disease. The mutation was neither found in Japanese control subjects nor public databases. Detailed haplotype analysis suggested two independent origins of the mutation. These findings indicate that the mutation in TFG causes HMSN-P. PMID:24291930

  20. [Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Hilo, Wasseem; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen; Modi, Naftali; Briscoe, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease characterized by subacute severe visual loss in both eyes, which usually manifests in young adulthood. The disease has maternal inheritance due to mitochondrial DNA mutation. The final diagnosis is genetic. There is still no proven treatment, but there is significant progress in developments on the genetics of the disease to reach gene therapy. In this article we review the latest literature relevant to this disease. PMID:24167936

  1. Growth Hormone Replacement in an Adult with Mild Growth Hormone Deficiency and Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy: Growth Hormone Restores Independent Mobility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine A. Lissett; Andrew A. Toogood; Mohammed Didi; Stephen M. Shalet

    1998-01-01

    We present the case of an adult patient with growth hormone (GH) insufficiency and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1. Stopping GH replacement at the attainment of final height was associated with a marked reduction in power and mobility, resulting in the patient becoming wheelchair bound. GH replacement was assessed in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. During the GH replacement

  2. Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penelope J. Spring; Cindy Kok; Garth A. Nicholson; Alvin J. Ing; Judith M. Spies; Mark L. Bassett; John Cameron; Paul Kerlin; Simon Bowler; Roger Tuck; John D. Pollard

    2005-01-01

    Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals

  3. KIF1A, an Axonal Transporter of Synaptic Vesicles, Is Mutated in Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Rivičre, Jean-Baptiste; Ramalingam, Siriram; Lavastre, Valérie; Shekarabi, Masoud; Holbert, Sébastien; Lafontaine, Julie; Srour, Myriam; Merner, Nancy; Rochefort, Daniel; Hince, Pascale; Gaudet, Rébecca; Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie; Baets, Jonathan; Houlden, Henry; Brais, Bernard; Nicholson, Garth A.; Van Esch, Hilde; Nafissi, Shahriar; De Jonghe, Peter; Reilly, Mary M.; Timmerman, Vincent; Dion, Patrick A.; Rouleau, Guy A.

    2011-01-01

    Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSANII) is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by peripheral nerve degeneration resulting in a severe distal sensory loss. Although mutations in FAM134B and the HSN2 exon of WNK1 were associated with HSANII, the etiology of a substantial number of cases remains unexplained. In addition, the functions of WNK1/HSN2 and FAM134B and their role in the peripheral nervous system remain poorly understood. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we found that KIF1A, an axonal transporter of synaptic vesicles, interacts with the domain encoded by the HSN2 exon. In parallel to this screen, we performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping in a consanguineous Afghan family affected by HSANII and identified a unique region of homozygosity located on chromosome 2q37.3 and spanning the KIF1A gene locus. Sequencing of KIF1A in this family revealed a truncating mutation segregating with the disease phenotype. Subsequent sequencing of KIF1A in a series of 112 unrelated patients with features belonging to the clinical spectrum of ulcero-mutilating sensory neuropathies revealed truncating mutations in three additional families, thus indicating that mutations in KIF1A are a rare cause of HSANII. Similarly to WNK1 mutations, pathogenic mutations in KIF1A were almost exclusively restricted to an alternatively spliced exon. This study provides additional insights into the molecular pathogenesis of HSANII and highlights the potential biological relevance of alternative splicing in the peripheral sensory nervous system. PMID:21820098

  4. Genetic linkage and heterogeneity in type I Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I).

    PubMed Central

    Chance, P F; Bird, T D; O'Connell, P; Lipe, H; Lalouel, J M; Leppert, M

    1990-01-01

    The segregation patterns of DNA markers from the pericentromeric regions of chromosomes 1 and 17 were studied in seven pedigrees segregating an autosomal dominant gene for Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type I (CMT I; hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy I). A multilocus analysis with four markers (pMCR-3, pMUC10, FY, and pMLAJ1) spanning the pericentromeric region of chromosome 1 excluded the CMT I gene from this region in six pedigrees but gave some evidence for linkage to the region of Duffy in one pedigree. Linkage of the CMT I gene to markers in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 17 (markers pA10-41, pEW301, p3.6, and pTH17.19) was established; however, in these seven pedigrees homogeneity analysis with chromosome 17 markers detected significant genetic heterogeneity. This analysis suggested that three of the seven pedigrees are not linked to this same region. Overall, two of the seven CMT I pedigrees were not linked to markers tested from chromosomes 1 or 17. These results confirm genetic heterogeneity in CMT I and implicate the existence of a third autosomal locus, in addition to a locus on chromosome 17, and a probable locus on chromosome 1. This evidence of etiological heterogeneity, supported by statistical tests, will have to be taken into consideration when fine-structure genetic maps of the regions around CMT I are constructed. PMID:2239969

  5. The TRK-fused gene is mutated in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement.

    PubMed

    Ishiura, Hiroyuki; Sako, Wataru; Yoshida, Mari; Kawarai, Toshitaka; Tanabe, Osamu; Goto, Jun; Takahashi, Yuji; Date, Hidetoshi; Mitsui, Jun; Ahsan, Budrul; Ichikawa, Yaeko; Iwata, Atsushi; Yoshino, Hiide; Izumi, Yuishin; Fujita, Koji; Maeda, Kouji; Goto, Satoshi; Koizumi, Hidetaka; Morigaki, Ryoma; Ikemura, Masako; Yamauchi, Naoko; Murayama, Shigeo; Nicholson, Garth A; Ito, Hidefumi; Sobue, Gen; Nakagawa, Masanori; Kaji, Ryuji; Tsuji, Shoji

    2012-08-10

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread fasciculations, proximal-predominant muscle weakness, and atrophy followed by distal sensory involvement. To date, large families affected by HMSN-P have been reported from two different regions in Japan. Linkage and haplotype analyses of two previously reported families and two new families with the use of high-density SNP arrays further defined the minimum candidate region of 3.3 Mb in chromosomal region 3q12. Exome sequencing showed an identical c.854C>T (p.Pro285Leu) mutation in the TRK-fused gene (TFG) in the four families. Detailed haplotype analysis suggested two independent origins of the mutation. Pathological studies of an autopsied patient revealed TFG- and ubiquitin-immunopositive cytoplasmic inclusions in the spinal and cortical motor neurons. Fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, a frequent finding in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was also observed in the motor neurons with inclusion bodies. Moreover, TAR DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43)-positive cytoplasmic inclusions were also demonstrated. In cultured cells expressing mutant TFG, cytoplasmic aggregation of TDP-43 was demonstrated. These findings indicate that formation of TFG-containing cytoplasmic inclusions and concomitant mislocalization of TDP-43 underlie motor neuron degeneration in HMSN-P. Pathological overlap of proteinopathies involving TFG and TDP-43 highlights a new pathway leading to motor neuron degeneration. PMID:22883144

  6. The distal hereditary motor neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Rossor, Alexander M; Kalmar, Bernadett; Greensmith, Linda; Reilly, Mary M

    2012-01-01

    The distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases that share the common feature of a length-dependent predominantly motor neuropathy. Many forms of dHMN have minor sensory abnormalities and/or a significant upper-motor-neuron component, and there is often an overlap with the axonal forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2) and with juvenile forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hereditary spastic paraplegia. Eleven causative genes and four loci have been identified with autosomal dominant, recessive and X-linked patterns of inheritance. Despite advances in the identification of novel gene mutations, 80% of patients with dHMN have a mutation in an as-yet undiscovered gene. The causative genes have implicated proteins with diverse functions such as protein misfolding (HSPB1, HSPB8, BSCL2), RNA metabolism (IGHMBP2, SETX, GARS), axonal transport (HSPB1, DYNC1H1, DCTN1) and cation-channel dysfunction (ATP7A and TRPV4) in motor-nerve disease. This review will summarise the clinical features of the different subtypes of dHMN to help focus genetic testing for the practising clinician. It will also review the neuroscience that underpins our current understanding of how these mutations lead to a motor-specific neuropathy and highlight potential therapeutic strategies. An understanding of the functional consequences of gene mutations will become increasingly important with the advent of next-generation sequencing and the need to determine the pathogenicity of large amounts of individual genetic data. PMID:22028385

  7. Mutations in the yeast LCB1 and LCB2 genes, including those corresponding to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type I mutations, dominantly inactivate serine palmitoyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Gable, Ken; Han, Gongshe; Monaghan, Erin; Bacikova, Dagmar; Natarajan, Mukil; Williams, Robert; Dunn, Teresa M

    2002-03-22

    It was recently demonstrated that mutations in the human SPTLC1 gene, encoding the Lcb1p subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type I . As a member of the subfamily of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate enzymes known as the alpha-oxoamine synthases, serine palmitoyltransferase catalyzes the committed step of sphingolipid synthesis. The residues that are mutated to cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type I reside in a highly conserved region of Lcb1p that is predicted to be a catalytic domain of Lcb1p on the basis of alignments with other members of the alpha-oxoamine synthase family. We found that the corresponding mutations in the LCB1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduce serine palmitoyltransferase activity. These mutations are dominant and decrease serine palmitoyltransferase activity by 50% when the wild-type and mutant LCB1 alleles are coexpressed. We also show that serine palmitoyltransferase is an Lcb1p small middle dotLcb2p heterodimer and that the mutated Lcb1p proteins retain their ability to interact with Lcb2p. Modeling studies suggest that serine palmitoyltransferase is likely to have a single active site that lies at the Lcb1p small middle dotLcb2p interface and that the mutations in Lcb1p reside near the lysine in Lcb2p that is expected to form the Schiff's base with the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate cofactor. Furthermore, mutations in this lysine and in a histidine residue that is also predicted to be important for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding to Lcb2p also dominantly inactivate SPT similar to the hereditary sensory neuropathy type 1-like mutations in Lcb1p. PMID:11781309

  8. Mitochondrial cytopathy presenting as hereditary sensory neuropathy with progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and fatal myoclonic epileptic status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen; F. J. M. Gabreëls; I. F. M. de Coo; W. Ruitenbeek; P. Wesseling; H. J. ter Laak

    1996-01-01

    Summary We present six adult patients from three separate families, with a remarkably uniform heredo-ataxic syndrome, developing in three stages and ending in early death. The initial stage is determined by severe sensory neuropathy. The second stage is characterized further by progressive external ophthalmo- plegia (PEO), probably caused by ocular myopathy, and progressive ataxia. During a short last stage there

  9. Distal and scapuloperoneal distributions of muscle involvement occurring within a family with type I hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Harding; P. K. Thomas

    1980-01-01

    Davidenkow's syndrome has been defined as a hereditary disorder characterized by proximal muscle weakness and wasting in the upper limbs with distal weakness in the lower, and associated with distal sensory loss in all four limbs. It has been assumed to be genetically distinct. A family is described in which the index case displayed these features. Motor nerve conduction velocity

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Reviewed August 2009 What is distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V? Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Reviewed August 2009 What is distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II? Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies On this page: ... Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2007 What is hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies? Hereditary neuropathy with ...

  13. [Genotype-phenotype correlation in hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy type IA associated with duplication in chromosome 17p11.2-12].

    PubMed

    Ryniewicz, B; Jedrzejowska, H; Kocha?ski, A

    2000-01-01

    Results of clinical, electrophysiological and morphological examination, were presented in 19 patients from 8 families with hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy type I (HMSN type I) with 17p11.2-12 duplication (i.e. CMT IA). The course of the disease was rather mild, slowly progressive. Generalized demyelinating lesion of peripheral nerves was found on EMG examination, with median nerve conduction velocity between 10-20 m/s and very prolonged F wave latency. Sural nerve biopsy was characteristic of chronic demyelinating process. Phenotypic characteristics of our HMSN type I patients shows clinical, electrophysiological and morphological homogeneity, however there are some data from literature indicating possibility of intrafamilial and interfamilial variability. PMID:11317491

  14. Sensory neuropathies including painful and toxic neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. J. Wokke; Gert W. van Dijk

    1997-01-01

    In most peripheral neuropathies, dysfunction of motor and sensory nerve fibres is present. However, in some of them either\\u000a pattern may predominate or be exclusively present. In this review we describe the clinical characteristics of sensory neuropathies,\\u000a with emphasis on their possible causes. Guidelines are given for the diagnostic approach in these patients and, where possible,\\u000a suggestions are given for

  15. Spectrum and frequencies of mutations in the MFN2 gene and its phenotypical expression in Czech hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type II patients.

    PubMed

    Brožková, Dana Šafka; Posádka, Jan; Laššuthová, Petra; Mazanec, Radim; Haberlová, Jana; Sišková, Dana; Sakmaryová, Iva; Neupauerová, Jana; Seeman, Pavel

    2013-12-01

    The axonal type of Charcot?Marie?Tooth (CMT) disorders is genetically heterogeneous, therefore the causal mutation is unlikely to be observed, even in clinically well characterized patients. Mitofusin?2 (MFN2) gene mutations are the most frequent cause of axonal CMT disorders in a number of populations. There are two phenotypes; early onset, which is severe and late onset, which is a milder phenotype. A cohort of 139 unrelated Czech patients with axonal neuropathy was selected for sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis (MLPA) testing of the MFN2 gene. A total of 11 MFN2 mutations were detected, with eight pathogenic mutations and three potentially rare benign polymorphisms. MLPA testing in 64 unrelated patients did not detect any exon duplication or deletion. The frequency of the pathogenic mutations detected in Czech hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type II (HMSN II) patients was 7.2%. Early onset was more frequent among pathogenic mutation cases. Therefore we propose to examine the MFN2 gene mainly in patients with early and severe axonal CMT. PMID:24126688

  16. Genetics of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in the Spanish Gypsy population: the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Russe in depth.

    PubMed

    Sevilla, T; Martínez-Rubio, D; Márquez, C; Paradas, C; Colomer, J; Jaijo, T; Millán, J M; Palau, F; Espinós, C

    2013-06-01

    Four private mutations responsible for three forms demyelinating of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) have been associated with the Gypsy population: the NDRG1 p.R148X in CMT type 4D (CMT4D/HMSN-Lom); p.C737_P738delinsX and p.R1109X mutations in the SH3TC2 gene (CMT4C); and a G>C change in a novel alternative untranslated exon in the HK1 gene causative of CMT4G (CMT4G/HMSN-Russe). Here we address the findings of a genetic study of 29 Gypsy Spanish families with autosomal recessive demyelinating CMT. The most frequent form is CMT4C (57.14%), followed by HMSN-Russe (25%) and HMSN-Lom (17.86%). The relevant frequency of HMSN-Russe has allowed us to investigate in depth the genetics and the associated clinical symptoms of this CMT form. HMSN-Russe probands share the same haplotype confirming that the HK1 g.9712G>C is a founder mutation, which arrived in Spain around the end of the 18th century. The clinical picture of HMSN-Russe is a progressive CMT disorder leading to severe weakness of the lower limbs and prominent distal sensory loss. Motor nerve conduction velocity was in the demyelinating or intermediate range. PMID:22978647

  17. Transit defect of potassium-chloride Co-transporter 3 is a major pathogenic mechanism in hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum.

    PubMed

    Salin-Cantegrel, Adčle; Rivičre, Jean-Baptiste; Shekarabi, Masoud; Rasheed, Sarah; Dacal, Sandra; Laganičre, Janet; Gaudet, Rébecca; Rochefort, Daniel; Lesca, Gaëtan; Gaspar, Claudia; Dion, Patrick A; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Rouleau, Guy A

    2011-08-12

    Missense and protein-truncating mutations of the human potassium-chloride co-transporter 3 gene (KCC3) cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC), which is a severe neurodegenerative disease characterized by axonal dysfunction and neurodevelopmental defects. We previously reported that KCC3-truncating mutations disrupt brain-type creatine kinase-dependent activation of the co-transporter through the loss of its last 140 amino acids. Here, we report a novel and more distal HMSN/ACC-truncating mutation (3402C ? T; R1134X) that eliminates only the last 17 residues of the protein. This small truncation disrupts the interaction with brain-type creatine kinase in mammalian cells but also affects plasma membrane localization of the mutant transporter. Although it is not truncated, the previously reported HMSN/ACC-causing 619C ? T (R207C) missense mutation also leads to KCC3 loss of function in Xenopus oocyte flux assay. Immunodetection in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cultured cells revealed a decreased amount of R207C at the plasma membrane, with significant retention of the mutant proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. In mammalian cells, curcumin partially corrected these mutant protein mislocalizations, with more protein reaching the plasma membrane. These findings suggest that mis-trafficking of mutant protein is an important pathophysiological feature of HMSN/ACC causative KCC3 mutations. PMID:21628467

  18. Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies characterized by chronic motor and sensory

    E-print Network

    Gilad, Yoav

    characterized by chronic motor and sensory neuropathy resulting in progressive distal muscle weakness.smeyers@ua.ac.be The Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation 1751 2nd Ave Suite 103 New York NY 10128 Phone: 877-463-1287; 212-Marie-Tooth Hereditary Neuropathy. In: GeneReviews at GeneTests: Medical Genetics Information Resource. Copyright

  19. Neuromyotonia in hereditary motor neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A F Hahn; A W Parkes; C F Bolton; S A Stewart

    1991-01-01

    Two siblings with a distal motor neuropathy experienced cramping and difficulty in relaxing their muscles after voluntary contraction. Electromyographic recordings at rest revealed repetitive high voltage spontaneous electrical discharges that were accentuated after voluntary contraction and during ischaemia. Regional neuromuscular blockage with curare indicated hyperexcitability of peripheral nerve fibres and nerve block suggested that the ectopic activity originated in proximal

  20. Medical Management of Hereditary Optic Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    La Morgia, Chiara; Carbonelli, Michele; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Alfredo Arrigo; Carelli, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary optic neuropathies are diseases affecting the optic nerve. The most common are mitochondrial hereditary optic neuropathies, i.e., the maternally inherited Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and dominant optic atrophy (DOA). They both share a mitochondrial pathogenesis that leads to the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells and axons, in particular of the papillo-macular bundle. Typically, LHON is characterized by an acute/subacute loss of central vision associated with impairment of color vision and swelling of retinal nerve fibers followed by optic atrophy. DOA, instead, is characterized by a childhood-onset and slowly progressive loss of central vision, worsening over the years, leading to optic atrophy. The diagnostic workup includes neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation and genetic testing of the three most common mitochondrial DNA mutations affecting complex I (11778/ND4, 3460/ND1, and 14484/ND6) for LHON and sequencing of the nuclear gene OPA1 for DOA. Therapeutic strategies are still limited including agents that bypass the complex I defect and exert an antioxidant effect (idebenone). Further strategies are aimed at stimulating compensatory mitochondrial biogenesis. Gene therapy is also a promising avenue that still needs to be validated. PMID:25132831

  1. [Review of the recent literature on hereditary neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Birouk, N

    2014-12-01

    The recent literature included interesting reports on the pathogenic mechanisms of hereditary neuropathies. The axonal traffic and its abnormalities in some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease were particularly reviewed by Bucci et al. Many genes related to CMT disease code for proteins that are involved directly or not in intracellular traffic. KIF1B controls vesicle motility on microtubules. MTMR2, MTMR13 and FIG4 regulate the metabolism of phosphoinositide at the level of endosomes. The HSPs are involved in the proteasomal degradation. GDAP1 and MFN2 regulate the mitochondrial fission and fusion respectively and the mitochondial transport within the axon. Pareyson et al. reported a review on peripheral neuropathies in mitochondrial disorders. They used the term of "mitochondrial CMT" for the forms of CMT with abnormal mitochondrial dynamic or structure. Among the new entities, we can draw the attention to a proximal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance, which is characterized by motor deficit with cramps and fasciculations predominating in proximal muscles. Distal sensory deficit can be present. The gene TFG on chromosome 3 has been recently identified to be responsible for this form. Another rare form of axonal autosomal recessive neuropathy due to HNT1 gene mutation is characterized by the presence of hands myotonia that appears later than neuropathy but constitute an interesting clinical hallmark to orientate the diagnosis of this form. In terms of differential diagnosis, CMT4J due to FIG4 mutation can present with a rapidly progressive and asymmetric weakness that resembles CIDP. Bouhy et al. made an interesting review on the therapeutic trials, animal models and the future therapeutic strategies to be developed in CMT disease. PMID:25459128

  2. Acute sensory neuropathy in an adolescent girl following BCG vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Hughes; Richard A. C. Hughes

    1999-01-01

    A 13-year-old girl developed a sensory neuropathy following bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination, consistent with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy or acute sensory axonal neuropathy.

  3. Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies characterized by chronic motor and sensory

    E-print Network

    Gilad, Yoav

    characterized by chronic motor and sensory neuropathy resulting in progressive distal muscle weakness.smeyers@ua.ac.be The Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation 1751 2nd Ave Suite 103 New York NY 10128 Phone: 877-463-1287; 2126/11 Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies

  4. Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies characterized by chronic motor and sensory

    E-print Network

    Ober, Carole

    characterized by chronic motor and sensory neuropathy resulting in progressive distal muscle weakness.smeyers@ua.ac.be The Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation 1751 2nd Ave Suite 103 New York NY 10128 Phone: 877-463-1287; 2121/13 Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies

  5. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, Cherise; Van Stavern, Greg; McClelland, Collin

    2015-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is one of the most common inherited optic neuropathies causing bilateral central vision loss. The disorder results from point mutations in mitochondrial DNA and subsequent mitochondrial dysfunction. The primary cell type that is lost in LHON is the retinal ganglion cell, which is highly susceptible to disrupted ATP production and oxidative stress. Inheritance of LHON follows that of mitochondrial genetics, and it has a highly variable clinical phenotype, as other genetic and environmental factors also play a role. Although LHON usually presents with isolated vision loss, some patients suffer other neurological sequelae. For ill-defined reasons, male LHON mutation carriers are more affected than females. Most LHON patients remain legally blind, but a small proportion can experience spontaneous partial recovery, often within the first year of symptom onset. Unfortunately, at this time there are no established curative interventions and treatment is largely supportive. Patients should be offered low vision services and counseled on mitigating risk factors for additional vision loss, such as smoking and consuming alcohol. Encouraging treatments currently undergoing investigation includes ubiquinone analogs, such as idebenone, as well as gene therapy and stem cells to restore ATP synthesis and provide neuroprotection to surviving retinal ganglion cells.

  6. Episodic neurological dysfunction in hereditary peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Mailankody, Pooja; Isnwara, Pawanraj Palu; Prasad, Chandrajit; Mustare, Veerendrakumar

    2015-01-01

    Episodic transient neurological symptoms are an important set of problems presenting to a neurologist in his routine practice. Occasionally, detailed clinical history including past and family history supplemented with focused examination can bring out a rare cause for such symptoms. We describe in this report in a young male presenting with episodic focal neurological dysfunction, with family history of similar episodes in mother and brother. Examination showed features of pes cavus and peripheral neuropathy for which patient was asymptomatic. Mother and brother were established cases of hereditary neuropathy. Imaging on multiple occasions showed reversible white matter abnormalities. Clinical suspicion of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1X) was confirmed with detection of mutation in Gap Junction B1 (GJB1) gene, which codes for connexin 32 protein (c.425G>A; p.R142Q hemizygous mutation). Though this mutation has been already reported in CMTX patients, it has not been associated with transient neurological dysfunctions. This is probably the first reported case of CMTX patient with transient neurological dysfunction from India, whose family members had similar episodes. PMID:25745327

  7. Genotypes & Sensory Phenotypes in 2 New X-Linked Neuropathies (CMTX3 and dSMAX) and Dominant CMT\\/HMN Overlap Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garth Nicholson; Marina Kennerson; Megan Brewer; James Garbern; Michael Shy

    \\u000a Classification of neuropathies into Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome (CMT, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy) or purely\\u000a motor neuropathies is relatively easy in single patients but subtle sensory findings can vary in different affected individuals\\u000a in a family. We examined the extent of sensory involvement in different individuals in two new X-linked neuropathy syndromes\\u000a (CMTX3 and dSMAX) and in some dominantly inherited mainly

  8. Goiter and Laryngeal Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm3, with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm3. The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population. PMID:23818901

  9. Distal hereditary motor neuropathy in Korean patients with a small heat shock protein 27 mutation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ki Wha Chung; Sang-Beom Kim; Sun Young Cho; Su Jin Hwang; Sun Wha Park; Sung Hee Kang; Joonki Kim; Jeong Hyun Yoo; Byung-Ok Choi

    2008-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) is a hetero- geneous disorder characterized by degeneration of motor nerves in the absence of sensory abnormalities. Recently, mutations in the small heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) gene were found to cause dHMN type II or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2F (CMT2F). The au- thors studied 151 Korean axonal CMT or dHMN fami- lies, and found

  10. Genetic spectrum of hereditary neuropathies with onset in the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Baets, Jonathan; Deconinck, Tine; De Vriendt, Els; Zimo?, Magdalena; Yperzeele, Laetitia; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Peeters, Kristien; Spiegel, Ronen; Parman, Yesim; Ceulemans, Berten; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Pou-Serradell, Adolf; Bernert, Günther; Dinopoulos, Argirios; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Sallinen, Satu-Leena; Fabrizi, Gian Maria; Pauly, Fernand; Van den Bergh, Peter; Bilir, Birdal; Battaloglu, Esra; Madrid, Ricardo E; Kabzi?ska, Dagmara; Kochanski, Andrzej; Topaloglu, Haluk; Miller, Geoffrey; Jordanova, Albena; Timmerman, Vincent; De Jonghe, Peter

    2011-09-01

    Early onset hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies are rare disorders encompassing congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy with disease onset in the direct post-natal period and Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy starting in infancy. The clinical spectrum, however, reaches beyond the boundaries of these two historically defined disease entities. De novo dominant mutations in PMP22, MPZ and EGR2 are known to be a typical cause of very early onset hereditary neuropathies. In addition, mutations in several other dominant and recessive genes for Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease may lead to similar phenotypes. To estimate mutation frequencies and to gain detailed insights into the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of early onset hereditary neuropathies, we selected a heterogeneous cohort of 77 unrelated patients who presented with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy within the first year of life. The majority of these patients were isolated in their family. We performed systematic mutation screening by means of direct sequencing of the coding regions of 11 genes: MFN2, PMP22, MPZ, EGR2, GDAP1, NEFL, FGD4, MTMR2, PRX, SBF2 and SH3TC2. In addition, screening for the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A duplication on chromosome 17p11.2-12 was performed. In 35 patients (45%), mutations were identified. Mutations in MPZ, PMP22 and EGR2 were found most frequently in patients presenting with early hypotonia and breathing difficulties. The recessive genes FGD4, PRX, MTMR2, SBF2, SH3TC2 and GDAP1 were mutated in patients presenting with early foot deformities and variable delay in motor milestones after an uneventful neonatal period. Several patients displaying congenital foot deformities but an otherwise normal early development carried the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A duplication. This study clearly illustrates the genetic heterogeneity underlying hereditary neuropathies with infantile onset. PMID:21840889

  11. Genetic spectrum of hereditary neuropathies with onset in the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    Baets, Jonathan; Deconinck, Tine; De Vriendt, Els; Zimo?, Magdalena; Yperzeele, Laetitia; Van Hoorenbeeck, Kim; Peeters, Kristien; Spiegel, Ronen; Parman, Yesim; Ceulemans, Berten; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Pou-Serradell, Adolf; Bernert, Günther; Dinopoulos, Argirios; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Sallinen, Satu-Leena; Fabrizi, Gian Maria; Pauly, Fernand; Van den Bergh, Peter; Bilir, Birdal; Battaloglu, Esra; Madrid, Ricardo E.; Kabzi?ska, Dagmara; Kochanski, Andrzej; Topaloglu, Haluk; Miller, Geoffrey; Jordanova, Albena; Timmerman, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Early onset hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies are rare disorders encompassing congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy with disease onset in the direct post-natal period and Dejerine–Sottas neuropathy starting in infancy. The clinical spectrum, however, reaches beyond the boundaries of these two historically defined disease entities. De novo dominant mutations in PMP22, MPZ and EGR2 are known to be a typical cause of very early onset hereditary neuropathies. In addition, mutations in several other dominant and recessive genes for Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease may lead to similar phenotypes. To estimate mutation frequencies and to gain detailed insights into the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of early onset hereditary neuropathies, we selected a heterogeneous cohort of 77 unrelated patients who presented with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy within the first year of life. The majority of these patients were isolated in their family. We performed systematic mutation screening by means of direct sequencing of the coding regions of 11 genes: MFN2, PMP22, MPZ, EGR2, GDAP1, NEFL, FGD4, MTMR2, PRX, SBF2 and SH3TC2. In addition, screening for the Charcot–Marie–Tooth type 1A duplication on chromosome 17p11.2-12 was performed. In 35 patients (45%), mutations were identified. Mutations in MPZ, PMP22 and EGR2 were found most frequently in patients presenting with early hypotonia and breathing difficulties. The recessive genes FGD4, PRX, MTMR2, SBF2, SH3TC2 and GDAP1 were mutated in patients presenting with early foot deformities and variable delay in motor milestones after an uneventful neonatal period. Several patients displaying congenital foot deformities but an otherwise normal early development carried the Charcot–Marie–Tooth type 1A duplication. This study clearly illustrates the genetic heterogeneity underlying hereditary neuropathies with infantile onset. PMID:21840889

  12. A clinico-pathological study of chronic hereditary motor neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Matsubara; H. Tanabe

    1983-01-01

    Forty cases of chronic hereditary motor neuropathy (CHMN) were divided into five categories according to the distribution of muscle atrophy; they were proximal, facioscapulohumeral, bulbospinal, distal and scapuloperoneal forms. Their clinical features and laboratory data were analysed, and muscle biopsies from 32 of them were studied by histological, histochemical and electron microscopical methods. An attempt at quantitative assessment of the

  13. Visual Rehabilitation of Persons with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudanko, S.-L.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents results of a noncontrolled clinical study of 20 persons with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy who were treated from 1976 to 1990 at the Low Vision Centre of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Handicapped. The importance of early functional visual rehabilitation is emphasized, as is the use of low vision aids to help…

  14. Peripheral neuropathies associated with primary Sjögren syndrome: immunologic profiles of nonataxic sensory neuropathy and sensorimotor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sčne, Damien; Jallouli, Moez; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Saadoun, David; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Maisonobe, Thierry; Diemert, Marie-Claude; Musset, Lucile; Haroche, Julien; Piette, Jean-Charles; Amoura, Zahir; Cacoub, Patrice

    2011-03-01

    We conducted this study to characterize the relationship between primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS)-associated peripheral neuropathy (PN) and markers of B-cell monoclonal proliferation and chronic activation. The cohort included 120 consecutive patients presenting with definite pSS according to the American-European Consensus Group criteria. Serum markers of chronic B-cell activation included autoantibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia. Markers of monoclonal B-cell proliferation included mixed cryoglobulin, monoclonal gammopathy, abnormal ?/? free light chain (FLC) ratio, and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). Definite PN was present in 30 patients (25%) including 7 patients (23%) with sensorimotor neuropathy, 3 patients (10%) with ataxic sensory neuropathy, and 20 patients (67%) with nonataxic sensory neuropathy. Patients with a sensorimotor neuropathy differed from those without PN by higher rates of monoclonal B-cell proliferation markers, that is, mixed cryoglobulin (57% vs. 11%; p = 0.008), monoclonal gammopathy (71% vs. 17%; p = 0.004), higher FLC ratio (2.7 ± 1.5 vs. 1.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.024), and B-NHL (57% vs. 3%; p < 0.001). Patients with nonataxic sensory neuropathy were characterized by a higher age (57.5 ± 10.7 vs. 48.7 ± 14.3 years; p = 0.007), more frequent central nervous system (CNS) involvement (15% vs. 2%; p = 0.04) and a lower prevalence of chronic B-cell activation serum markers, that is, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) (60% vs. 90%; p = 0.003), anti-SSA (Ro) (40% vs. 72%; p = 0.009), anti-SSB (La) (15% vs. 41%; p = 0.039), rheumatoid factor (37% vs. 67%; p = 0.02), and hypergammaglobulinemia (35% vs. 64%; p = 0.023). In multivariate analysis, sensorimotor neuropathy was associated with the presence of B-NHL (odds ratio [OR], 39.0; p < 0.001), whereas nonataxic sensory neuropathy was associated with the presence of CNS involvement (OR, 17.0; p = 0.025) and ANA (OR, 0.07; p < 0.001). In conclusion, we found that up to 25% of pSS patients presented with PN, predominantly sensory neuropathy. Distinctive immunologic profiles were found according to the type of SS-associated neuropathy: nonataxic sensory neuropathy was marked by a low prevalence of B-cell activation markers, and sensorimotor neuropathy was marked by a high prevalence of B-cell monoclonal proliferation markers. PMID:21358442

  15. A reversible functional sensory neuropathy model.

    PubMed

    Danigo, Aurore; Magy, Laurent; Richard, Laurence; Sturtz, Franck; Funalot, Benoît; Demiot, Claire

    2014-06-13

    Small-fiber neuropathy was induced in young adult mice by intraperitoneal injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist. At day 7, RTX induced significant thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia. At day 28, mechanical and thermal nociception were restored. No nerve degeneration in skin was observed and unmyelinated nerve fiber morphology and density in sciatic nerve were unchanged. At day 7, substance P (SP) was largely depleted in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was only moderately depleted. Three weeks after, SP and CGRP expression was restored in DRG neurons. At the same time, CGRP expression remained low in intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) whereas SP expression had improved. In summary, RTX induced in our model a transient neuropeptide depletion in sensory neurons without nerve degeneration. We think this model is valuable as it brings the opportunity to study functional nerve changes in the very early phase of small fiber neuropathy. Moreover, it may represent a useful tool to study the mechanisms of action of therapeutic strategies to prevent sensory neuropathy of various origins. PMID:24792390

  16. Morphometry of endoneurial capillaries in diabetic sensory and autonomic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bradley; P. K. Thomas; R. H. M. King; J. G. Llewelyn; J. R. Muddle; P. J. Watkins

    1990-01-01

    Summary  Nerve biopsies were obtained from 27 patients with diabetic neuropathy. All had a symmetric distal sensory and autonomic neuropathy or a purely sensory neuropathy. Mean age was 39.8 years (range 23–57 years). Two patients had Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and the remainder Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Morphometric observations on endoneurial capillaries were compared with results from organ donor control

  17. A locus for axonal motor-sensory neuropathy with deafness and mental retardation maps to Xq26-q27

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Priest; N. Nouri; B. J. B. Keats

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two DNA markers spanning the X chromosome have been analyzed for linkage to the locus causing an unusual form of X-linked recessive hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy in a Pennsylvania family of Italian ancestry. This 3 generation family which was originally reported by Cowchock includes 7 affected males, 3 obligate carrier females, and 4 unaffected males. Males are severely affected

  18. Cranial nerves palsy as an initial feature of an early onset distal hereditary motor neuropathy – A new distal hereditary motor neuropathy phenotype

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Haberlová; K. G. Claeys; P. De Jonghe; P. Seeman

    2009-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by a pure motor axonal neuropathy. It is occasionally associated with additional signs such as facial weakness, vocal cord paralysis, weakness of the diaphragm, and pyramidal signs. Although predominantly the inheritance is autosomal dominant, all types of inheritance have been described. Here we report a Czech family with cranial

  19. Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy in LEOPARD syndrome.

    PubMed

    Beukers, Richard J; van Bellegem, Annemarie C M; Gruppen, Mariken; Overweg-Plandsoen, Wouterina C G; Vermeulen, Marinus

    2010-04-01

    A case of acute predominantly axonal motor and sensory neuropathy (AMSAN) is reported in a 16-year-old boy with LEOPARD syndrome (the acronym represents lentigines, ECG conduction abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonic stenosis, abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and sensorineural deafness). The presentation was atypical for acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy, in that this patient had progression of symptoms of more than 4 weeks and there were signs of reinnervation in the acute phase. Treatment response to intravenous immunoglobulins was excellent. In patients with LEOPARD syndrome and acute neuropathies, treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins should be considered. PMID:20304339

  20. Defective presynaptic choline transport underlies hereditary motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Katy E S; Wright, Jane; Al-Turki, Saeed; McEntagart, Meriel M; Nair, Ajith; Chioza, Barry; Al-Memar, Ali; Modarres, Hamid; Reilly, Mary M; Dick, Katherine J; Ruggiero, Alicia M; Blakely, Randy D; Hurles, Matt E; Crosby, Andrew H

    2012-12-01

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse with a complex molecular architecture that provides for reliable transmission between the nerve terminal and muscle fiber. Using linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing of DNA samples from subjects with distal hereditary motor neuropathy type VII, we identified a mutation in SLC5A7, which encodes the presynaptic choline transporter (CHT), a critical determinant of synaptic acetylcholine synthesis and release at the NMJ. This dominantly segregating SLC5A7 mutation truncates the encoded product just beyond the final transmembrane domain, eliminating cytosolic-C-terminus sequences known to regulate surface transporter trafficking. Choline-transport assays in both transfected cells and monocytes from affected individuals revealed significant reductions in hemicholinium-3-sensitive choline uptake, a finding consistent with a dominant-negative mode of action. The discovery of CHT dysfunction underlying motor neuropathy identifies a biological basis for this group of conditions and widens the spectrum of disorders that derive from impaired NMJ transmission. Our findings compel consideration of mutations in SLC5A7 or its functional partners in relation to unexplained motor neuronopathies. PMID:23141292

  1. Diagnosis and new treatments in genetic neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M M Reilly; M E Shy

    2009-01-01

    The genetic neuropathies are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases of which the most common types are Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT), the hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies and the distal hereditary motor neuropathies. More than 30 causative genes have been described, making an accurate genetic diagnosis increasingly possible. Although no specific therapies are yet available, research into their pathogenesis

  2. Evidence for preserved direct pupillary light response in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Wakakura; J Yokoe

    1995-01-01

    AIMS\\/BACKGROUND--Pupillary light response is usually defective in all types of optic neuropathy. However, the authors have observed in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) relatively normal light response, with consequent misdiagnosis psychogenic visual loss in some cases. To confirm this clinical impression, afferent pupillary defect was assessed by measurement of adjusted constriction amplitude (CA) and escape rate (ER) by

  3. Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Presenting as an Acute Brachial Plexopathy: A Lover's Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Wedderburn, Sarah; Pateria, Puraskar; Panegyres, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    It is generally regarded that patients with hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies, due to a deletion in the PMP22 gene, show recurrent pressure palsy and generalised peripheral neuropathy (pes cavus and hammer toes sometimes develop). Brachial plexopathy is rarely identified as a first presentation of hereditary neuropathy to pressure palsies. We describe a young man who developed a painless flail upper limb with a clinical diagnosis of a brachial plexopathy after his partner slept on his arm – a PMP22 deletion was found. His father, who had a symmetrical polyneuropathy without recurrent mononeuropathies, shared the PMP22 deletion. PMID:25685136

  4. Hereditary thermosensitive neuropathy: an autosomal dominant disorder of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Magy, L; Birouk, N; Vallat, J M; Gouider, R; Maisonobe, T; Bouche, P; Lyon-Caen, O; Fontaine, B

    1997-06-01

    We report the clinical and electrophysiologic characteristics of eight patients (four men and four women) with a hereditary neuropathy with probable thermosensitivity (HTN) of autosomal dominant inheritance. Patients presented reversible episodes of ascending muscle weakness, paresthesiae, and areflexia apparently triggered by an elevation of body temperature over 38.5 degrees C. Mean age at onset was 13 +/- 12 (SD; range 6 to 43). Four patients had suffered up to five attacks. EMG and pathologic findings were compatible with a reversible demyelinating neuropathy such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We excluded loci causing other hereditary demyelinating neuropathies, such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type I (CMT type I) and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), by linkage analysis; thus, HTN is not allelic to either CMT type I or to HNPP. PMID:9191787

  5. Molecular genetics and mechanisms of disease in distal hereditary motor neuropathies: insights directing future genetic studies.

    PubMed

    Drew, A P; Blair, I P; Nicholson, G A

    2011-11-01

    The distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders that primarily affect motor neurons, without significant sensory involvement. New dHMN genes continue to be identified. There are now 11 causative genes described for dHMN, and an additional five genetic loci with unidentified genes. This genetic heterogeneity has further delineated the classification of dHMN, which was previously classified according to mode of inheritance, age at onset, and additional complicating features. Some overlap between phenotypically distinct forms of dHMN is also apparent. The mutated genes identified to-date in dHMN include HSPB1, HSPB8, HSPB3, DCTN1, GARS, PLEKHG5, BSCL2, SETX, IGHMBP2, ATP7A and TRPV4. The pathogenesis of mutations remains to be fully elucidated, however common pathogenic mechanisms are emerging. These include disruption of axonal transport, RNA processing defects, protein aggregation and inclusion body formation, disrupted calcium channel activity, and loss of neuroprotective signalling. Some of these dHMN genes are also mutated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). This review examines the growing number of identified dHMN genes, discusses recent insights into the functions of these genes and possible pathogenic mechanisms, and looks at the increasing overlap between dHMN and the other neuropathies CMT2 and SMA. PMID:21902652

  6. Phenotypic heterogeneity in hereditary motor neuropathy type V: a new case report series.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Manuela; Raggi, Alberto; Barone, Rita; Muglia, Maria; Citrigno, Luigi; Cantone, Mariagiovanna; Lanza, Giuseppe; Pennisi, Giovanni; Ferri, Raffaele; Bella, Rita

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have revealed a wide phenotypic heterogeneity in hereditary motor neuropathy type V in which upper and lower motor neurons and peripheral motor axons are variously affected, even within the same family. In this case series, we describe the genetic, clinical and electrophysiological features of patients belonging to a four-generation Italian family. Because of a possible anticipation phenomenon, the disorder became apparent at an earlier age as it passed to the next generation, with a median age of onset of 65 years for the first 2 generations, 32 for the third, and 13.5 for the fourth. The symptoms at onset varied considerably among the sufferers, with a predominant impairment of the hands in seven cases, the impairment of the four limbs in one patient and only of the lower limbs in another. Also muscle atrophy was variable, from very mild to severe (wasting of the distal muscles of the limbs). Moreover, electrophysiological results were heterogeneous, including cases with isolated and with diffuse axonal motor neuropathy, and one case of motor sensory polyneuropathy. A novel polymorphism G?T was also found in the Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2 gene on intron 4. This broad phenotypic and genotypic spectrum calls the clinician attention to this rare and still insufficiently known disease. PMID:22427291

  7. A Locus for Axonal Motor-Sensory Neuropathy with Deafness and Mental Retardation Maps to Xq24–q26

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JANICE M. PRIEST; KENNETH H. FISCHBECK; NASSIM NOURI; BRONYA J. B. KEATS

    1995-01-01

    DNA markers on the X chromosome were used to map the locus for an unusual form of X-linked recessive hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with associated deafness and mental retardation in a three-generation family that was originally reported by Cowchocket al. (Am. J. Hum. Genet.35: 85A, 1983;Am. J. Med. Genet.20: 307–315, 1985). This family included seven affected males, three obligate

  8. Vesiculobullous dermatomyositis with sensory motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ayhan, Erhan; Baykara, Sule Nergiz; Ozekinci, Selver; Aytekin, Sema

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with muscle weakness in both legs for a duration of 2 months. Physical examination revealed periorbital edema and erythema, erythema on the neck and chest, erythematous papules on the proximal-distal interphalangeal and metocarpophalangeal joints, crusted plaque lesions on the thighs and around the knees, and bullous and ulcerated lesions in the antecubital and popliteal fossae (Figure 1A and 1B). Some bullous lesions were intact and some were ulcerated. There was severe edema especially in the upper extremities. He had a history of 15-kg weight loss for 4 months. Laboratory findings were remarkable for a white blood cell count of 16.0 K/UL (4.60-10.20 K/UL), a C-reactive protein of 6.93 mg/dL (0-0.5 mg/dL), an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 50 mm/h (8-15 mm/h), an aspartate aminotransferase level of 213 U/L (10-40 U/L), a lactate dehydrogenase of 447 U/L (< 225 U/L), and a creatine kinase level of 1733 U/L (29-200 U/L). Results from antinuclear antibody at 1:320 titers and anti-smooth muscle antibody were positive. Results from anti-SS A/SS B antibodies, anti Jo-1 antibody, U1-snRNP antibody, and anti-ds DNA antibody tests were negative. A skin biopsy specimen obtained from the right antecubital fossa showed minimal orthokeratosis and subepidermal detachments. There was marked edema in the dermis and lymphocyte infiltration around the skin appendages (Figure 2). Direct immunofluorescence studies demonstrated scattered staining for C3 and IgM at the basal membrane zone. Results for IgG, IgA, and fibrin staining were negative. Muscle biopsy from left deltoid muscle was performed and some muscle fibers were demonstrated to be atrophied. There was remarkable difference between muscle fiber diameters. With Masson staining, there was increased connective tissue and no inflammation. Electromyography (EMG) showed a myogenic pattern. Nerve conduction studies showed tibial, median, ulnar, peroneal motor neuropathy, and median, ulnar, and sural sensory neuropathy. Based on these findings, diagnosis of vesiculo-bullous dermatomyositis (DM) was made. Further investigation of esophagogastroduodenoscopy with biopsy revealed ulcerated lesions on antrum and corpus and these were assessed as Helicobacter pylori-negative atrophic chronic gastritis. No pathologic findings were described on chest, abdomen, and pelvic tomography. Levels of tumor markers were within normal ranges. Overall, no sign of malignancy was detected. Methyl prednisolone treatment of 1 mg/kg/d was started; however, new bullous lesions erupted while the original lesions were healing. PMID:23930362

  9. Pyridoxine-induced toxicity in rats: a stereological quantification of the sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Ann Perry; Ananda Weerasuriya; Peter R. Mouton; Harold W. Holloway; Nigel H. Greig

    2004-01-01

    Excess ingestion of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) causes a severe sensory neuropathy in humans. The mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated, and studies of pyridoxine neuropathy in experimental animals have yielded disparate results. Pyridoxine intoxication appears to produce a neuropathy characterized by necrosis of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) sensory neurons and degeneration of peripheral and central sensory projections, with

  10. Pyridoxine-induced sensory ataxic neuronopathy and neuropathy: revisited.

    PubMed

    Kulkantrakorn, Kongkiat

    2014-11-01

    High dose pyridoxine is neurotoxic. Previous case reports were sparse and little is known about the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings. Three patients with pyridoxine-induced sensory ataxic neuropathy were studied and a review of the involved literature was performed. Three patients, aged 80, 83 and 83 years old, presented with sensory ataxia for 3-8 months. Examination showed signs of polyneuropathy and sensory ataxia. Six hundred milligrams of pyridoxine was consumed each day for 3-10 years, in the form of vitamin B1-6-12 combination tablet. Investigations for other causes of neuropathy were unremarkable. Blood levels of vitamin B6 were markedly elevated at 104.6, 81.4 and 66.9 times of upper normal limits. Electrodiagnostic tests showed symmetric axonal sensory polyneuropathy in two patients. Two years after vitamin discontinuation, all patients showed no significant improvement in the neuropathy and gait. In conclusion, consumption of high dose pyridoxine can cause sensory neuronopathy and axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy, leading to sensory ataxia which may not be reversible. PMID:25056196

  11. Clinical, electrophysiological and magnetic resonance findings in a family with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies caused by a novel PMP22 mutation.

    PubMed

    Yurrebaso, Izaskun; Casado, Oscar L; Barcena, Joseba; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar; Aguirre, Urko

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is a disorder mainly caused by a 1.5-Mb deletion at 17p11.2-12 (and in some rare cases by point mutations) and clinically associated with recurrent painless palsies. Here, we performed electrophysiological (motor, sensory and terminal latency index), MRI and genetic studies in a family referred for ulnar neuropathy with pain. Surprisingly, we found typical neurophysiological features of HNPP (prolongation of distal motor latencies and diffuse SNCV slowing with significant slowing of motor nerve conduction velocities). Besides, the proband presented conduction block in left ulnar, left median and both peroneal nerves. MRI findings were consistent with an underlying neuropathy. Molecular studies identified a novel frameshift mutation in PMP22 confirming the diagnosis of HNPP. Our data suggest that neurophysiological studies are essential to characterize underdiagnosed HNPP patients referred for peripheral neuropathy. Our experience shows that MRI could be a complementary tool for the diagnosis of these patients. PMID:24239057

  12. Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies: two distinct clinical, electrophysiologic, and genetic entities.

    PubMed

    Gouider, R; LeGuern, E; Emile, J; Tardieu, S; Cabon, F; Samid, M; Weissenbach, J; Agid, Y; Bouche, P; Brice, A

    1994-12-01

    Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) is an autosomal disease characterized by painful episodes of brachial palsy. The presence of tomacula in some patients suggested that HNA might be genetically related to hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), caused by point mutations in the PMP22 gene or deletion of the region containing this gene. In a clinical, electrophysiologic, and molecular study of two families with HNA, we show that the PMP22 gene is not deleted, duplicated, or mutated in HNA and that the disease is not linked to any other gene in the HNPP deleted region. We conclude that HNA and HNPP are distinct genetic entities. PMID:7991107

  13. BSCL2 mutations in two Dutch families with overlapping Silver syndrome-distal hereditary motor neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Scheffer; Jeroen J. J. van Eijk; Martina H. A. Versteeg; Hannie Kremer; Machiel J. Zwarts; H. Jurgen Schelhaas; Baziel G. M. van Engelen

    2006-01-01

    Mutations in the BSCL2 gene have recently been identified in families with (SPG17-linked) Silver syndrome-type hereditary spastic paraparesis as well as in families with distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN). We describe the first two Dutch families with BSCL2 mutations and corroborate the phenotypic variability of this gene mutation, as features compatible with Silver syndrome, variant Silver syndrome (with predominant foot

  14. An Analysis of the Symptomatic Domains Most Relevant to Charcot Marie Tooth Neuropathy (CMT) Patients

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-04-28

    Charcot Marie Tooth Disease (CMT); Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy; Nerve Compression Syndromes; Tooth Diseases; Congenital Abnormalities; Genetic Diseases, Inborn; Heredodegenerative Disorders, Nervous System

  15. A Histopathologic and Morphometric Differentiation of Nerves in Optic Nerve Hypoplasia and Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein G. Saadati; Hugo Y. Hsu; Keith B. Heller; Alfredo A. Sadun

    Objectives: To characterize and quantitate optic nerve histopathologic and morphometric differences between optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) as an early and congeni- tal form of intrinsic axonal loss and Leber hereditary op- tic neuropathy (LHON) as a late and acquired form of intrinsic axonal loss. Materials and Methods: Optic nerves from 3 sources were examined: a 42-year-old healthy woman (control), a

  16. Antiretroviral Therapy-Associated Acute Motor and Sensory Axonal Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Capers, Kimberly N.; Turnacioglu, Sinan; Leshner, Robert T.; Crawford, John R.

    2011-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been reported in HIV-infected patients in association with the immune reconstitution syndrome whose symptoms can be mimicked by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-mediated mitochondrial toxicity. We report a case of a 17-year-old, HIV-infected patient on HAART with a normal CD4 count and undetectable viral load, presenting with acute lower extremity weakness associated with lactatemia. Electromyography/nerve conduction studies revealed absent sensory potentials and decreased compound muscle action potentials, consistent with a diagnosis of acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy. Lactatemia resolved following cessation of HAART; however, neurological deficits minimally improved over several months in spite of immune modulatory therapy. This case highlights the potential association between HAART, mitochondrial toxicity and acute axonal neuropathies in HIV-infected patients, distinct from the immune reconstitution syndrome. PMID:21327178

  17. Pyridoxine-induced neuropathy in rats: a sensory neuropathy that responds to 4-methylcatechol.

    PubMed

    Callizot, N; Warter, J M; Poindron, P

    2001-08-01

    Sensory neuropathies are frequently associated with diabetes or with antimitotic treatments in humans suffering from cancer, and are in this case the most important limitation to the use of antimitotic drugs. For this reason, there is a need to establish and validate animal models of sensory neuropathies that could be routinely used, together with the already known models, for studying and evaluating the effects of putative neuroprotective compounds. In the present study, we prove by behavioral and electromyographical analyses that (a) it is possible to induce a nonlethal, exclusively sensory, reversible neuropathy by intoxicating rats with large amounts of pyridoxine, using a new schedule of intoxication; (b) 4-methylcatechol, a drug known to induce nerve growth factor synthesis, improves the clinical status of pyridoxine-intoxicated animals, shortens the duration of the disease, and restores the morphological integrity of the sensory fibers. Owing to its mode of installation and its clinical features, we propose that this model be used as an additional model for preclinical studies of neuroprotective drugs. PMID:11493027

  18. A family with distal hereditary motor neuropathy and a K141Q mutation of small heat shock protein HSPB1.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kengo; Idehara, Ryo; Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Takashima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We herein describe a Japanese family with distal hereditary motor neuropathy carrying a K141Q mutation of small heat shock protein HSPB1. Two patients among them had late onset disease (older than 50 years). The muscles of the distal legs were weak and atrophic. Sensory and autonomic dysfunction were not seen. Even eight years after onset, one patient could still walk without support. A nerve conduction study revealed axonal degeneration of the motor nerves of the legs. A heterozygous K141Q mutation was detected in the affected patients. The late onset and mild clinical phenotype might reflect the mild biochemical alteration of HSP27 induced by the K141Q mutation. PMID:25088881

  19. Characterisation of autoantibodies to peripheral myelin protein 22 in patients with hereditary and acquired neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Ritz, M F; Lechner-Scott, J; Scott, R J; Fuhr, P; Malik, N; Erne, B; Taylor, V; Suter, U; Schaeren-Wiemers, N; Steck, A J

    2000-05-01

    To investigate the possibility that an autoimmune mechanism may play a role in the hereditary neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A), sera were analysed by Western blot for anti-peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) autoantibodies. These sera were compared with sera from patients with CMT type 2 (CMT2), acquired peripheral neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP), anti-MAG IgM neuropathy, Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS), diabetic neuropathy and with control blood donors. Anti-PMP22 positive sera were detected in 70% of patients with CMT1 and unexpectedly in 60% of patients with CMT2. Interestingly, 44% of the patients with other peripheral neuropathies and 23% of the apparently healthy controls showed also anti-PMP22 antibody reactivity. Immunohistochemical analysis of the human anti-PMP22 antisera on healthy sural nerve sections and on PMP22-expressing COS cells revealed that these sera did not recognise endogenous PMP22. Our results indicate that anti-PMP22 autoantibodies are found in sera of patients with different types of peripheral neuropathies, but their role in the pathogenesis of these diseases remains to be determined. PMID:10713355

  20. Acute motor axonal neuropathy and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy share a common immunological profile.

    PubMed

    Yuki, N; Kuwabara, S; Koga, M; Hirata, K

    1999-10-15

    Griffin and colleagues (Griffin JW, Li CY, Ho TW, Tian M, Gao CY, Xue P, Mishu B, Cornblath DR, Macko C, McKhann GM, Asbury AK. Pathology of motor-sensory axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome. Ann Neurol 1996;39:17-28 [4]) proposed that acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) are part of the spectrum of a single type of immune attack on the axon. In contrast, IgG anti-GM1 antibody is associated closely with AMAN, but whether other IgG anti-ganglioside antibodies are associated with this neuropathy is not clear. We investigated whether IgG anti-ganglioside antibodies can be used as immunological markers to differentiate AMAN from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and whether these autoantibodies are present in AMSAN. The frequencies of anti-GM1, anti-GM1b, and anti-GD1a IgG antibodies in 21 AMAN patients were significantly higher than in 19 AIDP patients. Anti-GM1b and anti-GD1a IgG, as well as anti-GM1 IgG antibodies, therefore are immunological markers for AMAN. The patients with AMSAN had anti-GM1, anti-GM1b, and anti-GD1a IgG antibodies, indicative that AMAN and AMSAN share a common immunological profile. PMID:10526194

  1. A clinical, epidemiological and genetic study of hereditary motor neuropathies in Benghazi, Libya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Radhakrishnan; A. K. Thacker; J. C. Maloo

    1988-01-01

    A 4-year-search for spinal muscular atrophies (hereditary motor neuropathies, HMN) in Benghazi, Libya, yielded a total of 24 patients, among whom 18 were index cases. This group comprised 6 acute infantile, 12 chronic childhood, and 3 each with adult-onset proximal, and distal forms of the disorder. Distal HMN constituted 12.5% of the total cases. The crude average annual incidence of

  2. Small heat shock protein 27 mutation in a Japanese patient with distal hereditary motor neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuki Kijima; Chikahiko Numakura; Tomohide Goto; Takao Takahashi; Tesshu Otagiri; Kazuo Umetsu; Kiyoshi Hayasaka

    2005-01-01

    Heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) belongs to a family of small heat shock proteins that play significant roles in the cellular stress response and are also involved in the control of protein–protein interactions as chaperons. Mutation in HSP27 has been identified as the cause of axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN). Heat shock protein 22 (HSP22)

  3. Extra-Visual Functional and Structural Connection Abnormalities in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Maria A.; Valsasina, Paola; Pagani, Elisabetta; Bianchi-Marzoli, Stefania; Milesi, Jacopo; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We assessed abnormalities within the principal brain resting state networks (RSNs) in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) to define whether functional abnormalities in this disease are limited to the visual system or, conversely, tend to be more diffuse. We also defined the structural substrates of fMRI changes using a connectivity-based analysis of diffusion tensor (DT) MRI data. Neuro-ophthalmologic assessment, DT MRI and RS fMRI data were acquired from 13 LHON patients and 13 healthy controls. RS fMRI data were analyzed using independent component analysis and SPM5. A DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation analysis was performed using the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally, as seed regions. Compared to controls, LHON patients had a significant increase of RS fluctuations in the primary visual and auditory cortices, bilaterally. They also showed decreased RS fluctuations in the right lateral occipital cortex and right temporal occipital fusiform cortex. Abnormalities of RS fluctuations were correlated significantly with retinal damage and disease duration. The DT MRI connectivity-based parcellation identified a higher number of clusters in the right auditory cortex in LHON vs. controls. Differences of cluster-centroid profiles were found between the two groups for all the four seeds analyzed. For three of these areas, a correspondence was found between abnormalities of functional and structural connectivities. These results suggest that functional and structural abnormalities extend beyond the visual network in LHON patients. Such abnormalities also involve the auditory network, thus corroborating the notion of a cross-modal plasticity between these sensory modalities in patients with severe visual deficits. PMID:21347331

  4. Disruption in the autophagic process underlies the sensory neuropathy in dystonia musculorum mice.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Andrew; De Repentigny, Yves; Lynch-Godrei, Anisha; Gibeault, Sabrina; Eid, Walaa; Kuo, Daniel; Zha, Xiaohui; Kothary, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    A homozygous mutation in the DST (dystonin) gene causes a newly identified lethal form of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy in humans (HSAN-VI). DST loss of function similarly leads to sensory neuron degeneration and severe ataxia in dystonia musculorum (Dst(dt)) mice. DST is involved in maintaining cytoskeletal integrity and intracellular transport. As autophagy is highly reliant upon stable microtubules and motor proteins, we assessed the influence of DST loss of function on autophagy using the Dst(dt-Tg4) mouse model. Electron microscopy (EM) revealed an accumulation of autophagosomes in sensory neurons from these mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the autophagic flux was impaired. Levels of LC3-II, a marker of autophagosomes, were elevated. Consequently, Dst(dt-Tg4) sensory neurons displayed impaired protein turnover of autophagosome substrate SQTSM1/p62 and of polyubiquitinated proteins. Interestingly, in a previously described Dst(dt-Tg4) mouse model that is partially rescued by neuronal specific expression of the DST-A2 isoform, autophagosomes, autolysosomes, and damaged organelles were reduced when compared to Dst(dt-Tg4) mutant mice. LC3-II, SQTSM1, polyubiquitinated proteins and autophagic flux were also restored to wild-type levels in the rescued mice. Finally, a significant decrease in DNAIC1 (dynein, axonemal, intermediate chain 1; the mouse ortholog of human DNAI1), a member of the DMC (dynein/dynactin motor complex), was noted in Dst(dt-Tg4) dorsal root ganglia and sensory neurons. Thus, DST-A2 loss of function perturbs late stages of autophagy, and dysfunctional autophagy at least partially underlies Dst(dt) pathogenesis. We therefore conclude that the DST-A2 isoform normally facilitates autophagy within sensory neurons to maintain cellular homeostasis. PMID:26043942

  5. THE ROLE OF GLYOXALASE I IN HYPERGLYCEMIA-INDUCED SENSORY NEURON DAMAGE AND DEVELOPMENT OF DIABETIC SENSORY NEUROPATHY SYMPTOMS

    E-print Network

    Jack, Megan Marie

    2011-08-31

    Diabetic neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus with over half of all patients developing altered sensation as a result of damage to peripheral sensory neurons. Hyperglycemia results in altered nerve...

  6. Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I and type II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Sghirlanzoni; D. Pareyson; V. Scaioli; R. Marazzi; L. Pacini

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to clearly identify the different HMSN subgroups, we prospectively evaluated 128 subjects (46 index cases, 39 affected and 43 unaffected relatives) on clinical, genetic and electrophysiological grounds. The diagnosis of HMNS I or II was made in 77 patients. Differential diagnosis between type I and II patients was impossible on clinical grounds alone, but nerve conduction study

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding HSAN2? acids ; apnea ; apoptosis ; autonomic nervous system ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; ...

  8. Characteristics of patients with sensory neuropathy diagnosed with abnormal small nerve fibres on skin biopsy.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, E A; Hays, A P; Chin, R L; Sander, H W; Brannagan, T H

    2006-08-01

    Clinical, laboratory and electrodiagnostic (EDX) characteristics of 62 patients with sensory neuropathy with abnormal skin biopsies were reviewed. Reduced epidermal nerve fibre density (ENFD) was seen in 71% and morphological changes with normal ENFD were seen in 29% of the patients. Patients with small fibre sensory neuropathy may have associated large fibre loss undetected by routine EDX. Identified associations included abnormal glucose metabolism, Lyme vaccination, monoclonal gammopathy, vitamin B12 deficiency, coeliac disease, and diseases of the connective tissue, inflammatory bowel and thyroid. Sensory neuropathy remained undetermined in 50% of the patients. PMID:16844956

  9. Exome sequencing reveals HINT1 mutations as a cause of distal hereditary motor neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Race, Valérie; Matthijs, Gert; De Jonghe, Peter; Robberecht, Wim; Lambrechts, Diether; Van Damme, Philip

    2014-06-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) are a heterogenous group of genetic disorders with length-dependent degeneration of motor axons. Obtaining a genetic diagnosis in patients with dHMN remains challenging. We performed exome sequencing in a diagnostic setting in 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of dHMN. Potential disease-causing variants in genes associated with dHMN and other forms of inherited neuropathies/motor neuron diseases were validated using Sequenom. The coverage in the genes studied was >95% with an average coverage of >50 times. In none of the patients a mutations was found in genes previously reported to be associated with dHMN. However, in 2/12 patients a recessive mutation in histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 (HINT1, recently discovered as a cause of axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia) was identified. Our results demonstrate the diagnostic value of exome sequencing for patients with inherited neuropathies. The phenotypic spectrum of recessive mutations in HINT1 includes dHMN. HINT1 should be added to the list of genes to check for in dHMN. PMID:24105373

  10. Autosomal dominant optic atrophy with asymptomatic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, R M; Bird, A C; Harding, A E

    1996-01-01

    The association between hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) and optic atrophy has been termed HMSN type VI. The autosomal dominant inheritance of this syndrome is reported. Three generations were affected with optic atrophy, which differed in some respects from classic dominant optic atrophy, and an asymptomatic, mainly sensory, neuropathy. PMID:8708653

  11. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy mutations associated with infantile-onset myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Frye, Richard E

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy syndromes with onset in the first year of life, especially when they include myoclonic features, have special significance since they are associated with long-term developmental and neurological abnormalities. Dravet's severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy is especially interesting as it is associated with fever-provoked seizures and mutations in the alpha subunit of the sodium channel (SCN1A) in about one-third of the cases. Here, we report 2 children who had clinical features of severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy without mutations in the SCN1A gene who were found to have mitochondrial DNA mutations associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. These 2 children demonstrated markers of mitochondrial dysfunction, drug-resistant epilepsy, and dysfunction of nonneurological systems. These cases demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA mutations, especially those associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy, should be considered in cases of myclonic epilepsy starting in infancy, especially when mutations in the SCN1A gene are not found. PMID:21527392

  12. A Japanese family with early-onset ataxia with motor and sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunsuke Kobayashi; Hiroshi Takuma; Shigeo Murayama; Masaki Sakurai; Ichiro Kanazawa

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a Japanese family with hereditary ataxia with peripheral neuropathy. Three affected siblings from this family exhibited very similar clinical features: teenage-onset, slowly progressive ataxia, followed by distal weakness, which developed after the age of 30 years. Magnetic resonance imaging studies showed marked atrophy in the cerebellar hemisphere and vermis, and a sural nerve biopsy revealed a

  13. Relative Contribution of Mutations in Genes for Autosomal Dominant Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; "glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)," "dynactin 1 (DCTN1)," "small heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1),"…

  14. Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy after cervical spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Miscusi, Massimo; Currŕ, Antonio; Della Rocca, Carlo; Missori, Paolo; Petrozza, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    The authors report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome with a poor prognosis, immediately after surgery for resection of a cervical chondroma. A misdiagnosis of spinal cord shock due to an acute surgical or vascular postoperative complication was initially made in this patient. Nevertheless, there was continuous transient improvement that was followed by progressive worsening, and further investigation was necessary. The diagnosis of AMSAN, associated with acute colitis caused by Helicobacter pylori, was made based on neurophysiological examinations and colonoscopy. Interestingly, the patient also developed nephrotic syndrome, which was thought to be a further complication of the autoimmune reaction. Delayed administration of immunoglobulins (400 mg/kg/day), mesalazine (800 mg 3×/day), and meropenem (3 g/day) was used to treat the Helicobacter infection and the autoimmune reaction, leading to restoration of renal function and slight neurological improvement. The patient's general condition and neurological status improved slightly, but he remained seriously disabled (Frankel Grade C). This case demonstrates that a new onset of neurological symptoms in the early postoperative period after spine surgery could be related to causes other than iatrogenic myelopathy, and that an early diagnosis can reduce neurological sequelae, leading to a better outcome. PMID:22559275

  15. Raised Intraocular Pressure as a Potential Risk Factor for Visual Loss in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Thouin, Anais; Griffiths, Philip G.; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers. PMID:23667621

  16. Acute small fibre sensory neuropathy: another variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Seneviratne, U; Gunasekera, S

    2002-01-01

    The clinical features and normal routine nerve conduction studies, which assess large diameter nerve fibre function, indicate small sensory fibre dysfunction in the group. Their presentation and CSF findings would fit into the diagnosis of sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome. The current study suggests that acute small fibre sensory neuropathy (ASFSN) is another clinical entity which could perhaps be included in the heterogeneous range of Guillain-Barré syndrome. PMID:11909922

  17. Reduced penetrance in hereditary motor neuropathy caused by TRPV4 Arg269Cys mutation.

    PubMed

    Berciano, José; Baets, Jonathan; Gallardo, Elena; Zimo?, Magdalena; García, Antonio; López-Laso, Eduardo; Combarros, Onofre; Infante, Jon; Timmerman, Vincent; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Incomplete penetrance has rarely been reported in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Our aim is to describe reduced penetrance in a hereditary motor neuropathy pedigree due to mutation in the transient receptor potential vallinoid 4 (TRPV4) gene. The pedigree comprised two affected members, the proband aged 44 years and her affected daughter aged 7 years, and seven additional related subjects, three of whom were subclinical gene mutation carriers aged 9, 40 and 70 years. Clinico-electrophysiological studies, MRI of lower-limb musculature and genetic testing of the TRPV4 were performed. The proband presented with a moderate facio-scapulo-peroneal syndrome, whereas her symptomatic daughter suffered from severe congenital spinal muscular atrophy with arthrogryposis, laryngomalacia, and vocal cord paresis. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed a pure motor axonal neuropathy. In the proband, MRI showed extensive and widespread fatty atrophy of lower-leg musculature, whereas in thigh musculature there was just mild distal fatty infiltration of vastus lateralis. Genetic testing revealed a heterozygous Arg269Cys mutation in the TPRV4 gene. In all three mutation carriers results from clinical and electrophysiological examination, and MRI of foot and lower-leg musculature were normal. We conclude that non-penetrance may be an integral feature of neuropathic syndromes associated with TRPV4 gene mutation. PMID:21336783

  18. N88S mutation in the BSCL2 gene in a Serbian family with distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V or Silver syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Rako?evi?-Stojanovi?; V. Mili?-Raši?; S. Peri?; J. Baets; V. Timmerman; I. Dierick; S. Pavlovi?; P. De Jonghe

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundDistal hereditary motor neuropathy type V (dHMN-V) and Silver syndrome are rare phenotypically overlapping diseases which can be caused by mutations in the Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy 2 (BSCL2) gene or Seipin.

  19. Clinical, electrophysiologic, and molecular correlations in 13 families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and a chromosome 17p11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Gouider, R; LeGuern, E; Gugenheim, M; Tardieu, S; Maisonobe, T; Léger, J M; Vallat, J M; Agid, Y; Bouche, P; Brice, A

    1995-11-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of acute nerve palsies. We performed a clinical, electrophysiologic, and molecular study of 13 French families with HNPP associated with a chromosome 17p11.2 deletion in 36 individuals. There were electrophysiologic abnormalities in all symptomatic (n = 28) and asymptomatic (n = 8) deletion carriers, even in childhood. Bilateral delayed distal motor latency of the median nerve at the wrist, reduced sensory velocity in the palm-wrist segment, and delayed distal motor latency or reduced motor velocity in the peroneal nerve was diagnostic in at-risk relatives. This large series confirms the reliability of molecular analysis combined with a simplified electrophysiologic examination for the diagnosis of HNPP associated with 17p11.2 deletion. PMID:7501152

  20. Vascularization of the dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerve of the mouse: Implications for chemical-induced peripheral sensory neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan M Jimenez-Andrade; Monica B Herrera; Joseph R Ghilardi; Marina Vardanyan; Ohannes K Melemedjian; Patrick W Mantyh

    2008-01-01

    Although a variety of industrial chemicals, as well as several chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer or HIV, preferentially induce a peripheral sensory neuropathy what remains unclear is why these agents induce a sensory vs. a motor or mixed neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that the endothelial cells that vascularize the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which houses the primary afferent

  1. A comparison of nerve conduction velocities and current perception thresholds as correlates of clinical severity of diabetic sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M S Rendell; J J Katims; R Richter; F Rowland

    1989-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) are the standard measurements used to confirm the presence or absence of diabetic neuropathy. NCVs were contrasted with the newer technique of measurement of alternating current perception thresholds (CPTs) in assessing the quantitative level of correlation with severity of diabetic sensory neuropathy. A very detailed, scored neurological history (symptoms) and physical examination, emphasising sensory assessment, was

  2. A locus for axonal motor-sensory neuropathy with deafness and mental retardation maps to Xq26-q27

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, J.M.; Nouri, N.; Keats, B.J.B. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Twenty-two DNA markers spanning the X chromosome have been analyzed for linkage to the locus causing an unusual form of X-linked recessive hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy in a Pennsylvania family of Italian ancestry. This 3 generation family which was originally reported by Cowchock includes 7 affected males, 3 obligate carrier females, and 4 unaffected males. Males are severely affected at birth or within the first few years of life with areflexia, slowly progressive axonal atrophy, and absence of large myelinated fibers, and they all develop pes cavus and hammer toes. Five of the 7 affected males show associated deafness and 3 of these 5 individuals also presented with mental retardation or social developmental delay. Motor nerve conduction velocities in affected males are normal to mildly delayed and sensory conduction velocities are markedly abnormal. Heterozygous females are asymptomatic. Close linkage to the Xg blood group locus (Xp22) was previously excluded in this family while weak linkage of the disease gene to DXYS1 (Xq13-q21) was suggested. The current study excludes the short arm and the proximal long arm of the X chromosome. Haplotype analysis of markers on the long arm demonstrates that HPRT is a proximal flanking marker and that the disease gene is closely linked to the marker DXS984. Further microsatellite markers are being studied in order to refine the region of the distal long arm of the X chromosome containing the gene causing the motor-sensory neuropathy in this family. This is the first such gene assigned to the distal region of Xq.

  3. Human extraocular muscles in mitochondrial diseases: comparing chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Carta; V Carelli; T D’Adda; F N Ross-Cisneros; A A Sadun

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare the ultrastructural aspects of human extraocular muscles in two types of mitochondrial disease: chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).Methods: Muscle samples of the medial rectus obtained from surgery in a sporadic case of CPEO associated with deleted mitochondrial DNA, and post mortem in a case of 3460\\/ND1 LHON were processed for electron

  4. A Clone Contig of 12q24.3 Encompassing the Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathy Type II Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joy Irobi; Fadel Tissir; Peter De Jonghe; Els De Vriendt; Christine Van Broeckhoven; Vincent Timmerman; Joke Beuten

    2000-01-01

    We previously assigned the disease locus for autosomal dominant hereditary motor neuropathy type II (distal HMN II) within a 13-cM interval at chromosome 12q24.3. We constructed a physical map of the distal HMN II region based on yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs), P1 artificial chromosomes (PACs), and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) using an STS content mapping approach. The contig contains 26

  5. Peripheral sensory neuropathy associated with short-term oral acitretin therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsambaos, D; Sakkis, T; Chroni, E; Koniavitou, K; Monastirli, A; Pasmatzi, E; Paschalis, C

    2003-01-01

    A 57-year-old female patient with widespread chronic plaque psoriasis and a 32-year-old male patient with severe oral lichen planus are reported, who developed sensory symptoms in the extremities 3 and 4 months after the onset of oral acitretin therapy, respectively. Both patients showed clinical and electrophysiological evidence of a sensory peripheral neuropathy, which completely resolved 2 and 2.5 years after discontinuation of oral acitretin administration, respectively. PMID:12566828

  6. Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy Associated with Short-Term Oral Acitretin Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Tsambaos; T. Sakkis; E. Chroni; K. Koniavitou; A. Monastirli; E. Pasmatzi; C. Paschalis

    2003-01-01

    A 57-year-old female patient with widespread chronic plaque psoriasis and a 32-year-old male patient with severe oral lichen planus are reported, who developed sensory symptoms in the extremities 3 and 4 months after the onset of oral acitretin therapy, respectively. Both patients showed clinical and electrophysiological evidence of a sensory peripheral neuropathy, which completely resolved 2 and 2.5 years after

  7. Exome sequencing identifies a REEP1 mutation involved in distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Christian; Pieber, Thomas R; Hertel, Nicole; Schabhüttl, Maria; Fischer, Carina; Trajanoski, Slave; Graf, Elisabeth; Keiner, Silke; Kurth, Ingo; Wieland, Thomas; Varga, Rita-Eva; Timmerman, Vincent; Reilly, Mary M; Strom, Tim M; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2012-07-13

    The distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMNs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders affecting the lower motoneuron. In a family with both autosomal-dominant dHMN and dHMN type V (dHMN/dHMN-V) present in three generations, we excluded mutations in all genes known to be associated with a dHMN phenotype through Sanger sequencing and defined three potential loci through linkage analysis. Whole-exome sequencing of two affected individuals revealed a single candidate variant within the linking regions, i.e., a splice-site alteration in REEP1 (c.304-2A>G). A minigene assay confirmed complete loss of splice-acceptor functionality and skipping of the in-frame exon 5. The resulting mRNA is predicted to be expressed at normal levels and to encode an internally shortened protein (p.102_139del). Loss-of-function REEP1 mutations have previously been identified in dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a disease associated with upper-motoneuron pathology. Consistent with our clinical-genetic data, we show that REEP1 is strongly expressed in the lower motoneurons as well. Upon exogeneous overexpression in cell lines we observe a subcellular localization defect for p.102_139del that differs from that observed for the known HSP-associated missense mutation c.59C>A (p.Ala20Glu). Moreover, we show that p.102_139del, but not p.Ala20Glu, recruits atlastin-1, i.e., one of the REEP1 binding partners, to the altered sites of localization. These data corroborate the loss-of-function nature of REEP1 mutations in HSP and suggest that a different mechanism applies in REEP1-associated dHMN. PMID:22703882

  8. Dynein mutations associated with hereditary motor neuropathies impair mitochondrial morphology and function with age

    PubMed Central

    Eschbach, Judith; Sinniger, Jérome; Bouitbir, Jamal; Fergani, Anissa; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard; Rene, Frédérique; Larmet, Yves; Baloh, Robert H.; Harms, Matthew B.; Shy, Michael E.; Messadeq, Nadia; Weydt, Patrick; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C.; Dupuis, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the tail domain of dynein heavy chain (DYNC1H1) cause two closely related human motor neuropathies, dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and lead to sensory neuropathy and striatal atrophy in mutant mice. Dynein is the molecular motor carrying mitochondria retrogradely on microtubules, yet the consequences of dynein mutations on mitochondrial physiology have not been explored. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts bearing heterozygous or homozygous point mutation in the tail domain of dynein, similar to human mutations, show profoundly abnormal mitochondrial morphology associated with loss of mitofusin 1. Furthermore, heterozygous dynein mutant mice display mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues and mitochondria progressively increase in size and invade sarcomeres in muscles. As a likely consequence of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, dynein mutant mice develop hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and progress to glucose intolerance with age. Last, similar defects in mitochondrial morphology and mitofusin levels are observed in fibroblasts from patients with SMA-LED. Our results show that dynein function is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function with ageing and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to dyneindependent neurological diseases, such as SMA-LED. PMID:23742762

  9. Sensory nerve conduction in the upper limbs at various stages of diabetic neuropathy 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Noël

    1973-01-01

    In 59 diabetic patients, sensory nerve potentials were recorded at various sites along the course of the median nerve. Pathological responses were characterized by reduced amplitude, desynchronization and decreased conduction velocity (CV). Four groups of patients with increasingly severe nerve dysfunction were distinguished. The presence and severity of clinical neuropathy in the upper limbs could be related to decreased maximal

  10. A Female Patient with Down Syndrome and Low-Penetrance Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Frousiakis, Starleen E; Pouw, Andrew E; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2014-09-01

    We present the case of a 19-year-old female with a history of Down syndrome (DS) who was referred to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic for evaluation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The patient's family history was significant for a known G11778A mutation in a maternal relative, consistent with LHON. The patient was also positive for the G11778A mutation; however, the genotype demonstrated low penetrance in the pedigree, with only 1 out of 10 adult male offspring showing signs or symptoms of the disease. Mitochondrial mutations implicated in LHON have been shown to impair complex I of the electron transport chain and thereby reducing the effective generation of adenosine triphosphate and increasing the production of toxic reactive oxygen species. Although the partial or complete triplicate of chromosome 21 constitutes the etiology of DS, some of the pleiotropic phenotypes of the syndrome have been attributed to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Given the low penetrance of the mutation and the patient's sex, this case illustrates the possibility that the mitochondrial mutation demonstrated increased penetrance due to pre-existing mitochondrial dysfunction related to DS. PMID:25566062

  11. Two novel mutations of GARS in Korean families with distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Jin; Park, Jin; Nakhro, Khriezanou; Park, Jin Mo; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha

    2012-12-01

    Glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS), which encodes the enzyme responsible for charging tRNA(Gly) with glycine in both the cytoplasm and mitochondria, is implicated to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 2D (CMT2D) and distal hereditary motor neuropathy type V (dHMN-V). We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify the genetic defects in the two dHMN families. WES revealed several decades of non-synonymous variants in the CMT and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes. The subsequent capillary sequencing for family members and controls revealed two novel causative mutations, c.598G>A (D200N) and c.794C>T (S265F), in the GARS gene in each dHMN family. Both mutations were cosegregated with affected individuals in each family, and were not found in the 200 controls. The mutation sites were well conserved between the different species and in silico analysis predicted that both mutations may affect protein function. Therefore, we believe that these two novel GARS mutations are the underlying causes of the dHMN phenotype. PMID:23279345

  12. HspB8 mutation causing hereditary distal motor neuropathy impairs lysosomal delivery of autophagosomes.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Alice S; Phadwal, Kanchan; Turner, Bradley J; Oliver, Peter L; Raw, Annie; Simon, Anna Katharina; Talbot, Kevin; Agashe, Vishwas R

    2011-12-01

    HspB8, a small heat-shock protein implicated in autophagy, is mutated in patients with distal hereditary motor neuropathy type II (dHMNII). Autophagy is essential for maintaining protein homeostasis in the central nervous system, but its role has not been investigated in peripheral motor neurons. We used a novel, multispectral-imaging flow cytometry assay to measure autophagy in cells. This assay revealed that over-expression of wild-type HspB8 in motor neuron-like NSC34 cells led to an increased co-localisation of autophagosomes with the lysosomes. By contrast, over-expression of mutant HspB8 resulted in autophagosomes that co-localised with protein aggregates but failed to co-localise with the lysosomes. A similar impairment of autophagy could also be demonstrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from two dHMNII patients with the HspB8(K141E) mutation. We conclude that defects in HspB8-mediated autophagy are likely to contribute to dHMNII pathology and their detection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells could be a useful, accessible biomarker for the disease. PMID:21985219

  13. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with mitochondrial ND1 T3394C mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Min [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Guan, Minqiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhao, Fuxing; Zhou, Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yuan, Meixia [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Tong, Yi [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005 (China); Yang, Li [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)] [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wei, Qi-Ping; Sun, Yan-Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Lu, Fan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qu, Jia, E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); and others

    2009-06-05

    We report here the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of four Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). There were variable severity and age-of-onset in visual impairment among these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the homoplasmic T3394C (Y30H) mutation, which localized at a highly conserved tyrosine at position 30 of ND1, and distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphisms belonging to haplogroups D4b and M9a. The occurrence of T3394C mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by visual impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of visual impairment. However, there was the absence of functionally significant mtDNA mutations in these four Chinese pedigrees carrying the T3394C mutation. Therefore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s) may play a role in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated T3394C mutation.

  14. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with mitochondrial ND6 T14502C mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fuxin [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Guan, Minqiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhou, Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yuan, Meixia; Liang, Ming [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Liu, Qi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yongmei [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yang, Li [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)] [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Tong, Yi [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005 (China); Wei, Qi-Ping; Sun, Yan-Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Qu, Jia, E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); and others

    2009-11-20

    We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of three Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). There were variable severity and age of onset in visual impairment among these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the homoplasmic T14502C (I58V) mutation, which localized at a highly conserved isoleucine at position 58 of ND6, and distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphisms belonging to haplogroups M10a, F1a1, and H2. The occurrence of T14502C mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by visual impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of visual impairment. Here, mtDNA variants I187T in the ND1, A122V in CO1, S99A in the A6, and V254I in CO3 exhibited an evolutionary conservation, indicating a potential modifying role in the development of visual impairment associated with T14502C mutation in those families. Furthermore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s) may play a role in the phenotypic manifestation of the LHON-associated T14502C mutation in these Chinese families.

  15. Spectrum of peripheral neuropathy in eastern India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bhaskar; Sengupta, Sarbani; Bhattacharjee, Rahul; Pal, Sandip; Saha, Sankar P; Ganguly, Gautam; Ganguly, Prasanta K; Das, Shyamal K; Roy, Trishit

    2006-04-01

    Peripheral neuropathies constitute an important group of disorders in neurological practice. Very few systematic studies on peripheral neuropathies are available from India. Hence we conducted a prospective study in two large hospitals from Kolkata, the biggest city of eastern India in order to find out the spectrum of peripheral neuropathy. This prospective study was carried out from June 1998 to January 2003 on admitted patients with symptoms and signs of peripheral neuropathy. Two hundred and twenty-five patients were evaluated (one hundred and twenty-five from an industrial hospital and one hundred from an academic tertiary care institution at Kolkata). Result showed that most of the cases of peripheral neuropathy belonged to fourth decade with men dominance. Common varieties of neuropathy were Guillain-Barré syndrome, diabetes mellitus, hereditary motor sensory neuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, drugs and toxin related. Unusual varieties were Isaacs's syndrome and X-linked hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy. One case of neuropathy due to Plasmodium vivax has received intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. The type of peripheral neuropathy in hospital-based patients in eastern India was similar to other parts of country excepting some sporadic types due to infective or genetic causes and a large number of cases of undetermined aetiology exist despite detailed investigations. PMID:16910321

  16. Corneal confocal microscopy reveals trigeminal small sensory fiber neuropathy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Giulio; Grisan, Enrico; Scarpa, Fabio; Fazio, Raffaella; Comola, Mauro; Quattrini, Angelo; Comi, Giancarlo; Rama, Paolo; Riva, Nilo

    2014-01-01

    Although subclinical involvement of sensory neurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been previously demonstrated, corneal small fiber sensory neuropathy has not been reported to-date. We examined a group of sporadic ALS patients with corneal confocal microscopy, a recently developed imaging technique allowing in vivo observation of corneal small sensory fibers. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) examination revealed a reduction of corneal small fiber sensory nerve number and branching in ALS patients. Quantitative analysis demonstrated an increase in tortuosity and reduction in length and fractal dimension of ALS patients’ corneal nerve fibers compared to age-matched controls. Moreover, bulbar function disability scores were significantly related to measures of corneal nerve fibers anatomical damage. Our study demonstrates for the first time a corneal small fiber sensory neuropathy in ALS patients. This finding further suggests a link between sporadic ALS and facial-onset sensory and motor neuronopathy (FOSMN) syndrome, a rare condition characterized by early sensory symptoms (with trigeminal nerve distribution), followed by wasting and weakness of bulbar and upper limb muscles. In addition, the finding supports a model of neurodegeneration in ALS as a focally advancing process. PMID:25360111

  17. Secondary Post-Geniculate Involvement in Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Giovanni; Tozer, Kevin R.; Tonon, Caterina; Manners, David; Testa, Claudia; Malucelli, Emil; Valentino, Maria Lucia; La Morgia, Chiara; Barboni, Piero; Randhawa, Ruvdeep S.; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Carelli, Valerio; Lodi, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is characterized by retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration with the preferential involvement of those forming the papillomacular bundle. The optic nerve is considered the main pathological target for LHON. Our aim was to investigate the possible involvement of the post-geniculate visual pathway in LHON patients. We used diffusion-weighted imaging for in vivo evaluation. Mean diffusivity maps from 22 LHON visually impaired, 11 unaffected LHON mutation carriers and 22 healthy subjects were generated and compared at level of optic radiation (OR). Prefrontal and cerebellar white matter were also analyzed as internal controls. Furthermore, we studied the optic nerve and the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in post-mortem specimens obtained from a severe case of LHON compared to an age-matched control. Mean diffusivity values of affected patients were higher than unaffected mutation carriers (P<0.05) and healthy subjects (P<0.01) in OR and not in the other brain regions. Increased OR diffusivity was associated with both disease duration (B?=?0.002; P<0.05) and lack of recovery of visual acuity (B?=?0.060; P<0.01). Post-mortem investigation detected atrophy (41.9% decrease of neuron soma size in the magnocellular layers and 44.7% decrease in the parvocellular layers) and, to a lesser extent, degeneration (28.5% decrease of neuron density in the magnocellular layers and 28.7% decrease in the parvocellular layers) in the LHON LGN associated with extremely severe axonal loss (99%) in the optic nerve. The post-geniculate involvement in LHON patients is a downstream post-synaptic secondary phenomenon, reflecting de-afferentation rather than a primary neurodegeneration due to mitochondrial dysfunction of LGN neurons. PMID:23209682

  18. Mathematically Modeling the Involvement of Axons in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Billy X.; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Carelli, Valerio; Rue, Kelly S.; Salomao, Solange R.; Moraes-Filho, Milton N.; Moraes, Milton N.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Sadun, Alfredo A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a mitochondrial disease, has clinical manifestations that reflect the initial preferential involvement of the papillomacular bundle (PMB). The present study seeks to predict the order of axonal loss in LHON optic nerves using the Nerve Fiber Layer Stress Index (NFL-SI), which is a novel mathematical model. Methods. Optic nerves were obtained postmortem from four molecularly characterized LHON patients with varying degrees of neurodegenerative changes and three age-matched controls. Tissues were cut in cross-section and stained with p-phenylenediamine to visualize myelin. Light microscopic images were captured in 32 regions of each optic nerve. Control and LHON tissues were evaluated by measuring axonal dimensions to generate an axonal diameter distribution map. LHON tissues were further evaluated by determining regions of total axonal depletion. Results. A size gradient was evident in the control optic nerves, with average axonal diameter increasing progressively from the temporal to nasal borders. LHON optic nerves showed an orderly loss of axons, starting inferotemporally, progressing centrally, and sparing the superonasal region until the end. Values generated from the NFL-SI equation fit a linear regression curve (R2 = 0.97; P < 0.001). Conclusions. The quantitative histopathologic data from this study revealed that the PMB is most susceptible in LHON, supporting clinical findings seen early in the course of disease onset. The present study also showed that the subsequent progression of axonal loss within the optic nerve can be predicted precisely with the NFL-SI equation. The results presented provided further insight into the pathophysiology of LHON. PMID:23060142

  19. Retinal Ganglion Cell Dysfunction in Asymptomatic G11778A: Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Guy, John; Feuer, William J.; Porciatti, Vittorio; Schiffman, Joyce; Abukhalil, Fawzi; Vandenbroucke, Ruth; Rosa, Potyra R.; Lam, Byron L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To report the serial evaluation of asymptomatic eyes of subjects with mutated G11778A mitochondrial DNA. Methods. Forty-five asymptomatic G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) carriers and two patients with the mutation who developed unilateral visual loss underwent testing that included visual acuity, automated visual field, pattern electroretinogram (PERG), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography every 6 months between September 2008 and March 2012. Results. Visual acuity, visual fields, and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness remained stable within the normal range. Mean PERG amplitudes of carriers dropped progressively by ?40% from baseline to 36 months. In addition, comparisons with the fellow eyes of patients with unilateral optic neuritis revealed a 3.4 ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) letter loss in the LHON carriers. A single carrier developed visual loss, with PERG amplitudes dropping by half. In one of two LHON cases who presented with unilateral visual loss, visual acuity in the asymptomatic eye was ?20/40 at baseline. The PERG amplitude of this eye was reduced to ?30% of normal. Six months later, his visual acuity had dropped to ?20/500. A second patient who was ?20/20 and had a visual field defect in the asymptomatic eye at baseline remained at this level for the 18 months of follow-up. His PERG amplitudes were similar to those of asymptomatic carriers, with 0.78 ?V at baseline that did not decline with follow-up. Conclusions. Declines of the PERG amplitude suggest subclinical retinal ganglion cell dysfunction in asymptomatic G11778A subjects, which is progressive. PMID:24398093

  20. Sensory neuropathy in human immunodeficiency virus\\/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients: Protease inhibitorâ??mediated neurotoxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline A. Pettersen; Gareth Jones; Catherine Worthington; Hartmut B. Krentz; Oliver T. Keppler; Ahmet Hoke; M. John Gill; Christopher Power

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common and disabling disorder, often associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. We investigated the clinical features and associated pathogenic determinants of HIV-SN in a neurological cohort of HIV-infected patients, together with a novel model of HIV-SN. Methods: HIV-infected patients with neurological disease were investigated in terms of clinical and laboratory aspects

  1. Rare Primary Mitochondrial DNA Mutations and Probable Synergistic Variants in Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Anna; Pala, Maria; Hooshiar Kashani, Baharak; Reynier, Pascal; La Morgia, Chiara; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Liguori, Rocco; Pizza, Fabio; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Federico; De Negri, Anna Maria; Zeviani, Massimo; Dollfus, Helene; Moulignier, Antoine; Ducos, Ghislaine; Orssaud, Christophe; Bonneau, Dominique; Procaccio, Vincent; Leo-Kottler, Beate; Fauser, Sascha; Wissinger, Bernd; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Torroni, Antonio; Carelli, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    Background Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disorder, which in over 90% of cases is due to one of three primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations (m.11778G>A, m.3460G>A and m.14484T>C, respectively in MT-ND4, MT-ND1 and MT-ND6 genes). However, the spectrum of mtDNA mutations causing the remaining 10% of cases is only partially and often poorly defined. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to improve such a list of pathological variants, we completely sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of suspected LHON patients from Italy, France and Germany, lacking the three primary common mutations. Phylogenetic and conservation analyses were performed. Sixteen mitochondrial genomes were found to harbor at least one of the following nine rare LHON pathogenic mutations in genes MT-ND1 (m.3700G>A/p.A132T, m.3733G>A-C/p.E143K-Q, m.4171C>A/p.L289M), MT-ND4L (m.10663T>C/p.V65A) and MT-ND6 (m.14459G>A/p.A72V, m.14495A>G/p.M64I, m.14482C>A/p.L60S, and m.14568C>T/p.G36S). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these substitutions were due to independent events on different haplogroups, whereas interspecies comparisons showed that they affected conserved amino acid residues or domains in the ND subunit genes of complex I. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that these nine substitutions are all primary LHON mutations. Therefore, despite their relative low frequency, they should be routinely tested for in all LHON patients lacking the three common mutations. Moreover, our sequence analysis confirms the major role of haplogroups J1c and J2b (over 35% in our probands versus 6% in the general population of Western Europe) and other putative synergistic mtDNA variants in LHON expression. PMID:22879922

  2. Brain Metabolic Profiles Obtained by Proton MRS in Two Forms of Mitochondriopathies: Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Marie Salvan; Jean Vion-Dury; Sylviane Confort-Gouny; Iban Sangla; Jean. Pouget; Patrick J. Cozzone

    1998-01-01

    The status of brain metabolism has been evaluated using monovoxel short echo time (20 ms) 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 6 patients with two forms of mitochondrial disorders without clinical cerebral involvement: 2 patients with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and 4 patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). Patients with LHON displayed normal spectra. In all patients with CPEO,

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging, magnetisation transfer imaging, and diffusion weighted imaging correlates of optic nerve, brain, and cervical cord damage in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Inglese; M Rovaris; S Bianchi; L La Mantia; G L Mancardi; A Ghezzi; P Montagna; F Salvi; M Filippi

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVESLeber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease leading to bilateral loss of central vision and severe optic nerve atrophy. A subtype of LHON presents additional clinical and MRI aspects indistinguishable from those of multiple sclerosis (MS) (LHON-MS). In patients with LHON or LHON-MS, an assessment was made of (a) the severity of optic nerve damage, using MRI and

  4. The clinical and laboratory features of chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Willison; C. P. O'Leary; J. Veitch; L. D. Blumhardt; M. Busby; M. Donaghy; P. Fuhr; H. Ford; A. Hahn; S. Renaud; H. A. Katifi; S. Ponsford; M. Reuber; A. Steck; I. Sutton; W. Schady; P. K. Thomas; A. J. Thompson; J.-M. Vallat; J. Winer

    2001-01-01

    Summary The clinical and laboratory phenotype of a para- proteinaemic neuropathy syndrome termed chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM anti- bodies is described in a series of 18 cases. Previous single case reports have outlined some features of this syndrome. All 18 cases were defined by the presence of serum IgM antibodies which react principally with NeuAc (?2-8)NeuAc(?2-3)Gal-configured disialosyl

  5. Uncompacted myelin in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies with the 17 p11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejowska, H; Fidzia?ska, A; Kocha?ski, A

    1999-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl with a typical features of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and deletion on chromosome 17p11.2 was described. In the mother who was asymptomatic the same genetic defect was found. In a sural nerve biopsy obtained from the girl myelin thickenings characteristic for this disease and de- and remyelination in nerve fibers were found. Special attention was paid to the occurrence of uncompacted myelin, which was present in diffuse and focal forms. It is concluded that high amount of uncompacted myelin is characteristic for HNPP and it is probably related to the under-expression of peripheral myelin protein 22. PMID:10705641

  6. The acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome after thoracic spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jocelyn; Kahn, D Ethan; Wang, Michael Y

    2011-12-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the eponym used to describe acute inflammatory polyradiculoneuropathies, which manifest with weakness and diminished reflexes. Although the classic form of GBS is considered to be an ascending demyelinating polyneuropathy, several variants have been described in the literature, including the Miller-Fisher syndrome, acute panautonomic neuropathy, acute motor axonal neuropathy, and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN). Few cases of postoperative GBS have been documented, particularly for the AMSAN variant. The authors describe the case of a patient who developed AMSAN after thoracic spine surgery and highlight the importance of investigating new-onset weakness in the postoperative period. PMID:21923235

  7. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25221597

  8. Electrophysiological characterisation of motor and sensory tracts in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are characterised by lower limb spasticity due to degeneration of the corticospinal tract. We set out for an electrophysiological characterisation of motor and sensory tracts in patients with HSP. Methods We clinically and electrophysiologically examined a cohort of 128 patients with genetically confirmed or clinically probable HSP. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to arms and legs, somato-sensory evoked potentials of median and tibial nerves, and nerve conduction studies of tibial, ulnar, sural, and radial nerves were assessed. Results Whereas all patients showed clinical signs of spastic paraparesis, MEPs were normal in 27% of patients and revealed a broad spectrum with axonal or demyelinating features in the others. This heterogeneity can at least in part be explained by different underlying genotypes, hinting for distinct pathomechanisms in HSP subtypes. In the largest subgroup, SPG4, an axonal type of damage was evident. Comprehensive electrophysiological testing disclosed a more widespread affection of long fibre tracts involving peripheral nerves and the sensory system in 40%, respectively. Electrophysiological abnormalities correlated with the severity of clinical symptoms. Conclusions Whereas HSP is primarily considered as an upper motoneuron disorder, our data suggest a more widespread affection of motor and sensory tracts in the central and peripheral nervous system as a common finding in HSP. The distribution patterns of electrophysiological abnormalities were associated with distinct HSP genotypes and could reflect different underlying pathomechanisms. Electrophysiological measures are independent of symptomatic treatment and may therefore serve as a reliable biomarker in upcoming HSP trials. PMID:24107482

  9. A case of acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy following hepatitis a infection.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yoon-Sik; Han, Sang-Don; Choi, Jin-Yong; Kim, Ick Hee; Kim, Yong-Duk; Na, Sang-Jun

    2013-12-01

    Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) are recently described subtypes of Guillain-Barre syndrome characterized by acute onset of distal weakness, loss of deep tendon reflexes, and sensory symptoms. A 21-yr-old male was transferred to our hospital due to respiration difficulties and progressive weakness. In laboratory findings, immunoglobulin M antibodies against hepatitis A were detected in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The findings of motor nerve conduction studies showed markedly reduced amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials in bilateral peroneal, and posterior tibial nerves, without evidence of demyelination. Based on clinical features, laboratory findings, and electrophysiologic investigation, the patient was diagnosed the AMSAN following acute hepatitis A viral infection. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and recovered slowly. Clinicians should consider this rare but a serious case of AMSAN following acute hepatitis A infection. PMID:24339719

  10. A Case of Acute Motor and Sensory Axonal Neuropathy Following Hepatitis A Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yoon-Sik; Han, Sang-Don; Choi, Jin-Yong; Kim, Ick Hee; Kim, Yong-Duk

    2013-01-01

    Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) are recently described subtypes of Guillain-Barre syndrome characterized by acute onset of distal weakness, loss of deep tendon reflexes, and sensory symptoms. A 21-yr-old male was transferred to our hospital due to respiration difficulties and progressive weakness. In laboratory findings, immunoglobulin M antibodies against hepatitis A were detected in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. The findings of motor nerve conduction studies showed markedly reduced amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials in bilateral peroneal, and posterior tibial nerves, without evidence of demyelination. Based on clinical features, laboratory findings, and electrophysiologic investigation, the patient was diagnosed the AMSAN following acute hepatitis A viral infection. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and recovered slowly. Clinicians should consider this rare but a serious case of AMSAN following acute hepatitis A infection. PMID:24339719

  11. Goldberg-Shprintzen megacolon syndrome with associated sensory motor axonal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dafsari, Hormos Salimi; Byrne, Susan; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Pitt, Matthew; Jongbloed, Jan Dh; Flinter, Frances; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2015-06-01

    Goldberg-Shprintzen megacolon syndrome (GOSHS) (OMIM 609460) is characterized by a combination of learning difficulties, characteristic dysmorphic features and Hirschsprung's disease. Variable clinical features include iris coloboma, congenital heart defects and central nervous system abnormalities, in particular polymicrogyria. GOSHS has been attributed to recessive mutations in KIAA1279, encoding kinesin family member (KIF)-binding protein (KBP) with a crucial role in neuronal microtubule dynamics. Here we report on a 7-year-old girl with GOSHS as a result of a homozygous deletion of exons 5 and 6 of the KIAA1279 gene. She had been referred with the suspicion of an underlying neuromuscular disorder before the genetic diagnosis was established, prompted by the findings of motor developmental delay, hypotonia, ptosis and absent reflexes. Neurophysiological studies revealed unequivocal evidence of a peripheral axonal sensory motor neuropathy. We hypothesize that an axonal sensory motor neuropathy may be part of the phenotypical spectrum of KIAA1279-related GOSHS, probably reflecting the effects of reduced KBP protein expression on peripheral neuronal function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25846562

  12. Mutations in HINT1 are one of the most frequent causes of hereditary neuropathy among Czech patients and neuromyotonia is rather an underdiagnosed symptom.

    PubMed

    Laššuthová, P; Brožková, D Šafka; Kr?tová, M; Neupauerová, J; Haberlová, J; Mazanec, R; Dvo?á?ková, N; Goldenberg, Z; Seeman, P

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the HINT1 gene were recently discovered as being the major cause of autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia. This combination was clinically recognized and described previously in a few reports but is generally unknown. We aimed to establish the importance of HINT1 mutations as the cause of hereditary neuropathy and particularly hereditary motor neuropathy/axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (HMN/CMT2) among Czech patients. Overall, mutations in the HINT1 gene seem to be a surprisingly frequent cause of inherited neuropathy in our group of patients. Biallelic pathogenic mutations were found in 21 patients from 19 families. The prevalent mutation in the Czech population is the p.R37P (95% of pathogenic alleles). Clinically, all patients with biallelic mutations presented with early onset of symptoms at the end of the first decade. Foot/toe extension weakness to plegia was present in almost all patients. Neuromyotonia was present in all but two patients. However, it had been properly recognized in only three patients prior to molecular genetic diagnosis. HINT1 mutations seem to be one of the most frequent causes of inherited neuropathy and are probably the most frequent cause of HMN in Czech patients. We suggest all HMN/CMT2 patients be tested for the presence of the prevalent mutation, the p.R37P. PMID:25342199

  13. Recent advances in the genetics of distal hereditary motor neuropathy give insight to a disease mechanism involving copper homeostasis that may extend to other motor neuron disorders.

    PubMed

    Merner, N D; Dion, P A; Rouleau, G A

    2011-01-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) is a sub-group of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common peripheral neuropathy, that affects only motor neurons. The recent observation of ATP7A mutations in dHMN provides insight for a common disease mechanism that may involve copper homeostasis. Functionally, diverse proteins were previously shown to underlie dHMN and a convergent link is destined to unfold for some of these. We propose connections between copper and known dHMN genes that overlap also with the causative genes of other motor neuron disorders (MNDs). PMID:21143467

  14. Isolated Vitamin E Deficiency Mimicking Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathy in a 13YearOld Boy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Fusco; Daniele Frattini; Francesco Pisani; Cinzia Gellera; Elvio Della Giustina

    2008-01-01

    We report an atypical neurophysiologic pattern of isolated vitamin E deficiency in a 13-year-old boy. Electroneurography— electromyography, somatosensory evoked potentials, serum vitamin E concentration and genetic analysis of the ?-tocopherol transfer protein gene were performed. Nerve conduction study failed to show peripheral neuropathy whereas needle electromyography of distal muscles demonstrated chronic neurogenic motor unit potentials. Both clinical and neurophysiologic data

  15. Modulating molecular chaperones improves sensory fiber recovery and mitochondrial function in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Urban, Michael J; Pan, Pan; Farmer, Kevin L; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S J; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2012-05-01

    Quantification of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (iENFs) is an important approach to stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and is a promising clinical endpoint for identifying beneficial therapeutics. Mechanistically, diabetes decreases neuronal mitochondrial function and enhancing mitochondrial respiratory capacity may aid neuronal recovery from glucotoxic insults. We have proposed that modulating the activity and expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp) may be of benefit in treating DPN. KU-32 is a C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor that improved thermal hypoalgesia in diabetic C57Bl/6 mice but it was not determined if this was associated with an increase in iENF density and mitochondrial function. After 16 weeks of diabetes, Swiss Webster mice showed decreased electrophysiological and psychosensory responses and a >30% loss of iENFs. Treatment of the mice with ten weekly doses of 20mg/kg KU-32 significantly reversed pre-existing deficits in nerve conduction velocity and responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli. KU-32 therapy significantly reversed the pre-existing loss of iENFs despite the identification of a sub-group of drug-treated diabetic mice that showed improved thermal sensitivity but no increase in iENF density. To determine if the improved clinical indices correlated with enhanced mitochondrial activity, sensory neurons were isolated and mitochondrial bioenergetics assessed ex vivo using extracellular flux technology. Diabetes decreased maximal respiratory capacity in sensory neurons and this deficit was improved following KU-32 treatment. In conclusion, KU-32 improved physiological and morphologic markers of degenerative neuropathy and drug efficacy may be related to enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics in sensory neurons. PMID:22465570

  16. Ankle ROM and stiffness measured at rest and during gait in individuals with and without diabetic sensory neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Smita Rao; Charles Saltzman; H. John Yack

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of our study was to examinethe relationship between ankledorsiflexion(DF) range of motion (ROM) and stiffness measured at rest (passively) and plantar loading during gait in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and sensory neuropathy. Specifically, we sought to address three questions for this at-risk patient population: (1) Does peak passive DF ROM predict ankle DF ROM

  17. Quantitative thermal sensory testing — value of testing for both cold and warm sensation detection in evaluation of small fiber neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Garima Shukla; Manvir Bhatia; Madhuri Behari

    2005-01-01

    Objective:Small fiber neuropathy is a common neurological disorder, often missed or ignored by physicians, since examination and routine nerve conduction studies are usually normal in this condition. Many methods including quantitative thermal sensory testing are currently being used for early detection of this condition, so as to enable timely investigation and treatment. This study was conducted to assess the yield

  18. Mutation analysis of the human pancreatic phospholipase A 2 gene in a family with distal hereditary motor neuropathy type II linked to 12q24

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joke Beuten; Els De Vriendt; Peter De Jonghe; Jean-Jacques Martin; Christine Van Broeckhoven; Vincent Timmerman

    1997-01-01

    Molecular genetic analysis in a Belgian family with distal hereditary motor neuropathy type II (distal HMN II), demonstrated significant linkage of markers located at chromosome 12q24. The candidate region, extending from D12S86 to D12S340, includes the gene encoding pancreatic phospholipase A2 (PPLA2). PPLA2 is a candidate gene for distal HMN II in this family since it is expressed in the

  19. Heat shock protein 27 R127W mutation: evidence of a continuum between axonal Charcot–Marie–Tooth and distal hereditary motor neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Solla; Alessandro Vannelli; Alessandra Bolino; Giovanni Marrosu; Silvia Coviello; Maria Rita Murru; Stefania Tranquilli; Daniela Corongiu; Sara Benedetti; Maria Giovanna Marrosu

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundHeat shock protein 27 (HSP27) mutations have been reported to cause both Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) type 2F and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) although never previously in a single family.ObjectiveTo analyse clinical and electrophysiological findings obtained in a single large Sardinian family bearing the HSP27 R127W mutation.MethodsTwenty-one members of a five generation Sardinian family have been studied, including thirteen members

  20. Hyperglycemia- and neuropathy-induced changes in mitochondria within sensory nerves

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Hussein S; Mervak, Colin M; Münch, Alexandra E; Robell, Nicholas J; Hayes, John M; Porzio, Michael T; Singleton, J Robinson; Smith, A Gordon; Feldman, Eva L; Lentz, Stephen I

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study focused on altered mitochondrial dynamics as a potential mechanism for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We employed both an in vitro sensory neuron model and an in situ analysis of human intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) from cutaneous biopsies to measure alterations in the size distribution of mitochondria as a result of hyperglycemia and diabetes, respectively. Methods Neurite- and nerve-specific mitochondrial signals within cultured rodent sensory neurons and human IENFs were measured by employing a three-dimensional visualization and quantification technique. Skin biopsies from distal thigh (DT) and distal leg (DL) were analyzed from three groups of patients; patients with diabetes and no DPN, patients with diabetes and confirmed DPN, and healthy controls. Results This analysis demonstrated an increase in mitochondria distributed within the neurites of cultured sensory neurons exposed to hyperglycemic conditions. Similar changes were observed within IENFs of the DT in DPN patients compared to controls. This change was represented by a significant shift in the size frequency distribution of mitochondria toward larger mitochondria volumes within DT nerves of DPN patients. There was a length-dependent difference in mitochondria within IENFs. Distal leg IENFs from control patients had a significant shift toward larger volumes of mitochondrial signal compared to DT IENFs. Interpretation The results of this study support the hypothesis that altered mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to DPN pathogenesis. Future studies will examine the potential mechanisms that are responsible for mitochondrial changes within IENFs and its effect on DPN pathogenesis. PMID:25493271

  1. Relative contribution of mutations in genes for autosomal dominant distal hereditary motor neuropathies: a genotype-phenotype correlation study.

    PubMed

    Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A T J M; Wokke, John H J; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS), dynactin 1 (DCTN1), small heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1), small heat shock 22 kDa protein 8 (HSPB8), Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL2) and senataxin (SETX). In addition a mutation in the (VAMP)-associated protein B and C (VAPB) was found in several Brazilian families with complex and atypical forms of autosomal dominantly inherited motor neuron disease. We have investigated the distribution of mutations in these seven genes in a cohort of 112 familial and isolated patients with a diagnosis of distal motor neuropathy and found nine different disease-causing mutations in HSPB8, HSPB1, BSCL2 and SETX in 17 patients of whom 10 have been previously reported. No mutations were found in GARS, DCTN1 and VAPB. The phenotypic features of patients with mutations in HSPB8, HSPB1, BSCL2 and SETX fit within the distal HMN classification, with only one exception; a C-terminal HSPB1-mutation was associated with upper motor neuron signs. Furthermore, we provide evidence for a genetic mosaicism in transmitting an HSPB1 mutation. This study, performed in a large cohort of familial and isolated distal HMN patients, clearly confirms the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of distal HMN and provides a basis for the development of algorithms for diagnostic mutation screening in this group of disorders. PMID:18325928

  2. Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy associated with active systemic lupus erythematosus and anticardiolipin antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ubogu, E E; Zaidat, O O; Suarez, J I

    2001-10-01

    Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) is an axonal variant of Guillian-Barré syndrome (GBS) that presents with acute ascending quadriparesis. This has generally been described in association with Campylobacter jejuni infections or with anti-ganglioside antibodies. Known cases have shown a slow recovery and a poor prognosis. We report a case with clinical and electrophysiological evidence of AMSAN in association with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and anticardiolipin antibodies but not the other associations, with a rapid response to combination immunosuppressant and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy. The association between AMSAN and SLE has not been previously described. This case illustrates that early recognition and the utilization of electrophysiologic techniques may be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of GBS associated with SLE. Fulminant or rapidly progressive cases should be managed in specialized intensive care units. Combination therapy of immunosuppressants and IVIg may be beneficial in non-vasculitic axonal radiculo-neuropathies associated with SLE, resulting in good outcomes. PMID:17039164

  3. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy associated with a multiple-sclerosis-like picture in a man.

    PubMed

    La Russa, Antonella; Cittadella, Rita; Andreoli, Virginia; Valentino, Paola; Trecroci, Francesca; Caracciolo, Manuela; Gallo, Olivier; Gambardella, Antonio; Quattrone, Aldo

    2011-06-01

    A 35-year-old young man displayed Leber's optic neuropathy (LHON) due to T14484C and multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotype that was dominated by symptoms and signs of spinal cord impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed demyelinating lesions extending from D6 to D11 in the spinal cord with gadolinium enhancement, while only three linear demyelinating lesions were seen on brain MRI. In the literature, a major involvement of the spinal cord was already reported in three of four male patients with the 14484 LHON mutation who developed MS, but the reasons of this peculiar association remain unknown, and further research in this area is needed. PMID:21685233

  4. Idebenone Protects against Retinal Damage and Loss of Vision in a Mouse Model of Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Heitz, Fabrice D.; Erb, Michael; Anklin, Corinne; Robay, Dimitri; Pernet, Vincent; Gueven, Nuri

    2012-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited disease caused by mutations in complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The disease is characterized by loss of central vision due to retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and optic nerve atrophy. Despite progress towards a better understanding of the disease, no therapeutic treatment is currently approved for this devastating disease. Idebenone, a short-chain benzoquinone, has shown promising evidence of efficacy in protecting vision loss and in accelerating recovery of visual acuity in patients with LHON. It was therefore of interest to study suitable LHON models in vitro and in vivo to identify anatomical correlates for this protective activity. At nanomolar concentrations, idebenone protected the rodent RGC cell line RGC-5 against complex I dysfunction in vitro. Consistent with the reported dosing and observed effects in LHON patients, we describe that in mice, idebenone penetrated into the eye at concentrations equivalent to those which protected RGC-5 cells from complex I dysfunction in vitro. Consequently, we next investigated the protective effect of idebenone in a mouse model of LHON, whereby mitochondrial complex I dysfunction was caused by exposure to rotenone. In this model, idebenone protected against the loss of retinal ganglion cells, reduction in retinal thickness and gliosis. Furthermore, consistent with this protection of retinal integrity, idebenone restored the functional loss of vision in this disease model. These results support the pharmacological activity of idebenone and indicate that idebenone holds potential as an effective treatment for vision loss in LHON patients. PMID:23028832

  5. Pupil responses derived from outer and inner retinal photoreception are normal in patients with hereditary optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Aki; Collomb, Sylvie; Léon, Lorette; Münch, Mirjam

    2014-03-01

    We compared the pupil responses originating from outer versus inner retinal photoreception between patients with isolated hereditary optic neuropathy (HON, n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 8). Three different testing protocols were used. For the first two protocols, a response function of the maximal pupil contraction versus stimulus light intensity was generated and the intensity at which half of the maximal pupil contraction, the half-max intensity, was determined. For the third protocol, the pupil size after light offset, the re-dilation rate and re-dilation amplitude were calculated to assess the post-light stimulus response. Patients with HON had bilateral, symmetric optic atrophy and significant reduction of visual acuity and visual field compared to controls. There were no significant mean differences in the response curve and pupil response parameters that reflect mainly rod, cone or melanopsin activity between patients and controls. In patients, there was a significant correlation between the half-max intensity of the red light sequence and visual field loss. In conclusion, pupil responses derived from outer or inner retinal photoreception in HON patients having mild-to moderate visual dysfunction are not quantitatively different from age-matched controls. However, an association between the degree of visual field loss and the half-max intensity of the cone response suggests that more advanced stages of disease may lead to impaired pupil light reflexes. PMID:24275502

  6. Characteristic features of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) presenting with brachial plexopathy in soldiers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Eun

    2014-11-15

    A brachial plexus lesion is not common in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP). We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic features of young soldiers with HNPP presenting with brachial plexopathy. By reviewing 2year medical records from Korean military hospitals, we identified soldiers with brachial plexus lesions. Among them, patients diagnosed with HNPP were determined and clinical and electrophysiological findings were compared between HNPP and non-HNPP patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Thirteen patients (6.8%) were diagnosed with HNPP among 189 patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Push-ups, as either a punishment or an exercise, was the most frequent preceding event in HNPP patients (76.9%), whereas it was rare in non-HNPP patients. The distal motor latency of the median nerve showed the highest sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (100%) for HNPP in patients with a brachial plexus lesion. In conclusion, HNPP should be suspected in patients with brachial plexopathy if brachial plexopathy develops after push-ups or if the distal motor latency of median nerves is prolonged. PMID:25175852

  7. The utility of clinical neurophysiological and quantitative sensory testing for trigeminal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the utility of neurophysiological recordings and quantitative sensory testing (QST) in providing sensitive, quantitative, and objective tests for the diagnosis and localization of damage to the trigeminal nerve. Electromyography and recordings of the masseter reflex and compound muscle action potential evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation or direct electrical stimulation of the masseteric nerve can be of value in evaluating the function of a motor neurons supplying the muscles of mastication. Orthodromic recording of the sensory action potential and trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potential recording with the near-nerve stimulation technique are sensitive tools for the investigation of trigeminal sensory Abeta afferents, whereas recordings of polysynaptic trigeminal brainstem reflexes and tactile QST are less sensitive. At late stages of recovery, the blink reflex and masseter inhibitory reflex are often normal, but at earlier stages, the blink reflex recording has good prognostic value, and the presence of a reflex response may confirm continuity of the nerve trunk after partial laceration. Trigeminal small-fiber function (Adelta and C) can be studied with thermal QST of the cool, warm, heat pain, and cold pain detection thresholds or with laser-evoked potential recording. Thermal QST may remain abnormal years after axonal damage and aids in the diagnosis of late sequelae of trigeminal nerve injury. In a study of the diagnostic value of neurography, blink reflex and thermal QST, and various commonly used clinical sensory tests, neurophysiologic tests and thermal QST had better sensitivity (50% to 88% vs 40% to 59%) and negative predictive values (78% to 100% vs 70% to 74%) compared to clinical examination, whereas the specificity (55% to 100%) and positive predictive values (48% to 73%) were similar. At 1 year after trigeminal nerve injury, the risk of a false negative finding with clinical sensory testing was 94%, whereas the combination of nerve conduction recordings and thermal QST increased the diagnostic yield to 100% in patients with long-standing postsurgical sensory alteration. In conclusion, clinical neurophysiological recordings and QST improve the diagnostic accuracy for trigeminal neuropathy. PMID:15636020

  8. Hereditary motor neuropathy, distal type: electrophysiological and pathological studies of a case

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Bottacchi; R. Nemni; M. Camerlingo; P. Gambaro; M. Corbo; A. Mamoli

    1985-01-01

    A case of HMN, distal type transmitted as autosomal dominant is described. Clinical findings appear to be consistent with a peroneal muscular atrophy, indistinguishable from HMSN types I and II. The electrophysiological data reveal a pathological involvement of the anterior horns, whereas sensory and motor conduction are normal. A muscle biopsy showed neurogenic atrophy, while the morphology of the sural

  9. Noninvasive Peroneal Sensory and Motor Nerve Conduction Recordings in the Rabbit Distal Hindlimb: Feasibility, Variability and Neuropathy Measure

    PubMed Central

    Hotson, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The peroneal nerve anatomy of the rabbit distal hindlimb is similar to humans, but reports of distal peroneal nerve conduction studies were not identified with a literature search. Distal sensorimotor recordings may be useful for studying rabbit models of length-dependent peripheral neuropathy. Surface electrodes were adhered to the dorsal rabbit foot overlying the extensor digitorum brevis muscle and the superficial peroneal nerve. The deep and superficial peroneal nerves were stimulated above the ankle and the common peroneal nerve was stimulated at the knee. The nerve conduction studies were repeated twice with a one-week intertest interval to determine measurement variability. Intravenous vincristine was used to produce a peripheral neuropathy. Repeat recordings measured the response to vincristine. A compound muscle action potential and a sensory nerve action potential were evoked in all rabbits. The compound muscle action potential mean amplitude was 0.29 mV (SD ± 0.12) and the fibula head to ankle mean motor conduction velocity was 46.5 m/s (SD ± 2.9). The sensory nerve action potential mean amplitude was 22.8 ?V (SD ± 2.8) and the distal sensory conduction velocity was 38.8 m/s (SD ± 2.2). Sensorimotor latencies and velocities were least variable between two test sessions (coefficient of variation ?=? 2.6–5.9%), sensory potential amplitudes were intermediate (coefficient of variation ?=? 11.1%) and compound potential amplitudes were the most variable (coefficient of variation ?=?19.3%). Vincristine abolished compound muscle action potentials and reduced sensory nerve action potential amplitudes by 42–57% while having little effect on velocity. Rabbit distal hindlimb nerve conduction studies are feasible with surface recordings and stimulation. The evoked distal sensory potentials have amplitudes, configurations and recording techniques that are similar to humans and may be valuable for measuring large sensory fiber function in chronic models of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:24658286

  10. Role of TNF block genetic variants in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in black Southern Africans.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Antonia L; Hendry, Liesl M; Kamerman, Peter R; Chew, Constance S N; Price, Patricia; Cherry, Catherine L; Lombard, Zané

    2015-03-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common neurological complication of HIV infection. The TNF block is a region within the central MHC that contains many immunoregulatory genes. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the TNF block have been associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians and whites. Here we investigated genetic associations with HIV-SN in 342 black Southern Africans (190 cases and 152 neuropathy-free controls) using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the TNF block and a set of haplotypes defined by 31 SNPs in Asian and white populations (denoted FVa). We included population-appropriate tagSNPs derived from an African population (Yoruban, YRI, HapMap) and derived extended haplotypes comprising 61 SNPs (denoted FVa_ext b). We found no association between HIV-SN and carriage of two SNPs (TNF-1031/rs1799964*C and BAT1 (intron10)/rs9281523*C) associated with HIV-SN in whites and Asians. Additionally, a haplotype containing TNF-1031/rs1799964*C associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians, but was not present in this African population. However, alleles of seven SNPs associated with reduced risk of HIV-SN (corrected for age, height and multiple comparisons). These were rs11796*A, rs3130059*G, rs2071594*C, NFKBIL1-62/rs2071592*A, rs2071591*A, LTA+252/rs909253*G, rs1041981*C. One haplotype (FV18_ext1), not containing these alleles, was associated with increased risk of HIV-SN after correction for age, height and multiple comparisons. Our results confirm the involvement of genes in the TNF block in altering risk for HIV-SN, but genotypes critical in this African population differed from those affecting HIV-SN in whites and Asians. These differences support the need for genetic association studies in diverse populations. PMID:24896147

  11. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Tudor J C; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Williams, Amanda C de C; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L H; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K; Rice, Andrew S C

    2014-09-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n=28), of whom 75% (n=21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  12. Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

  13. Prevalence of subclinical neuropathy in diabetic patients: assessment by study of conduction velocity distribution within motor and sensory nerve fibres

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierluigi Bertora; Pierluigi Valla; Elisabetta Dezuanni; Maurizio Osio; Davide Mantica; Maurizio Bevilacqua; Guido Norbiato; Mario Riccardo Caccia; Alfonso Mangoni

    1998-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity distribution (CVD) study is a newly-developed electrodiagnostic method for detecting alterations\\u000a in the composition of nerve fibres according to their conduction velocity. The presence of subclinical neuropathy was evaluated\\u000a in 138 diabetic patients by CVD study of four motor nerves (external popliteal and ulnar nerves bilaterally) and two sensory\\u000a nerves (median nerve bilaterally), and the data obtained

  14. c-Jun activation in Schwann cells protects against loss of sensory axons in inherited neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hantke, Janina; Carty, Lucy; Wagstaff, Laura J; Turmaine, Mark; Wilton, Daniel K; Quintes, Susanne; Koltzenburg, Martin; Baas, Frank; Mirsky, Rhona; Jessen, Kristján R

    2014-11-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A is the most frequent inherited peripheral neuropathy. It is generally due to heterozygous inheritance of a partial chromosomal duplication resulting in over-expression of PMP22. A key feature of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A is secondary death of axons. Prevention of axonal loss is therefore an important target of clinical intervention. We have previously identified a signalling mechanism that promotes axon survival and prevents neuron death in mechanically injured peripheral nerves. This work suggested that Schwann cells respond to injury by activating/enhancing trophic support for axons through a mechanism that depends on upregulation of the transcription factor c-Jun in Schwann cells, resulting in the sparing of axons that would otherwise die. As c-Jun orchestrates Schwann cell support for distressed neurons after mechanical injury, we have now asked: do Schwann cells also activate a c-Jun dependent neuron-supportive programme in inherited demyelinating disease? We tested this by using the C3 mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. In line with our previous findings in humans with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A, we found that Schwann cell c-Jun was elevated in (uninjured) nerves of C3 mice. We determined the impact of this c-Jun activation by comparing C3 mice with double mutant mice, namely C3 mice in which c-Jun had been conditionally inactivated in Schwann cells (C3/Schwann cell-c-Jun(-/-) mice), using sensory-motor tests and electrophysiological measurements, and by counting axons in proximal and distal nerves. The results indicate that c-Jun elevation in the Schwann cells of C3 nerves serves to prevent loss of myelinated sensory axons, particularly in distal nerves, improve behavioural symptoms, and preserve F-wave persistence. This suggests that Schwann cells have two contrasting functions in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A: on the one hand they are the genetic source of the disease, on the other, they respond to it by mounting a c-Jun-dependent response that significantly reduces its impact. Because axonal death is a central feature of much nerve pathology it will be important to establish whether an axon-supportive Schwann cell response also takes place in other conditions. Amplification of this axon-supportive mechanism constitutes a novel target for clinical intervention that might be useful in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and other neuropathies that involve axon loss. PMID:25216747

  15. The Pupil Light Reflex in Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Evidence for Preservation of Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Ana Laura A.; Nagy, Balázs V.; La Morgia, Chiara; Barboni, Piero; Oliveira, André Gustavo Fernandes; Salomăo, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; de Moraes-Filho, Milton Nunes; Chicani, Carlos Filipe; Belfort, Rubens; Carelli, Valerio; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Hood, Donald C.; Ventura, Dora Fix

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the pupillary light reflex (PLR) of patients with severe loss of vision due to Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) in the context of a proposed preservation of melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells (mRGCs). Methods. Ten LHON patients (7 males; 51.6 ± 14.1 years), with visual acuities ranging from 20/400 to hand motion perception and severe visual field losses, were tested and compared with 16 healthy subjects (7 males; 42.15 ± 15.4 years) tested as controls. PLR was measured with an eye tracker and the stimuli were controlled with a Ganzfeld system. Pupil responses were measured monocularly, to 1 second of blue (470 nm) and red (640 nm) flashes with 1, 10, 100, and 250 cd/m2 luminances. The normalized amplitude of peak of the transient PLR and the amplitude of the sustained PLR at 6 seconds after the flash offset were measured. In addition, optical coherence topography (OCT) scans of the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer were obtained. Results. The patient's peak PLR responses were on average 15% smaller than controls (P < 0.05), but 5 out of 10 patients had amplitudes within the range of controls. The patients' sustained PLRs were comparable with controls at lower flash intensities, but on average, 27% smaller to the 250 cd/m2 blue light, although there was considerable overlap with the PLR amplitudes of control. All patients had severe visual field losses and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness was reduced to a minimum around the optic disc in 8 of the 10 patients. Conclusions. The PLR is maintained overall in LHON patients despite the severity of optic atrophy. These results are consistent with previous evidence of selective preservation of mRGCs. PMID:23737476

  16. Acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Ensrud, E R; Krivickas, L S

    2001-05-01

    The acquired demyelinating neuropathies can be divided into those with an acute onset and course and those with a more chronic course. The acute neuropathies present as Guillain-Barré syndrome and include acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), Miller Fisher syndrome, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), and acute pandysautonomia. The chronic neuropathies are collectively known as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and include MADSAM (multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy, also know as Lewis-Sumner syndrome) and DADS (distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy) as variants. The clinical features, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prognosis of these neuropathies are discussed. PMID:11345010

  17. Sural sensory action potential identifies diabetic peripheral neuropathy responders to therapy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I; Bril, Vera; Litchy, William J; Price, Karen L; Bastyr, Edward J

    2005-11-01

    Identifying patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) amenable to therapy is a challenge. To determine whether the amplitude of the sural sensory nerve action potential (sural SNAP) reflects the severity of DPN, an analysis was performed on 205 patients with DPN, identified by an abnormal vibration detection threshold (VDT), who were enrolled in a multinational clinical trial investigating ruboxistaurin (RBX) mesylate. Nerve conduction velocity and response amplitude and latency were measured and compared. VDT was significantly lower in those with preserved sural SNAPs (n = 128) than in those in whom they were absent (n = 77; 21.5 vs. 22.7 JND units, P = 0.002). Thus, preserved sural SNAP denoted less severe DPN. Logistic regression analyses evaluating baseline characteristics, HbA(1c), and baseline symptom scores identified only DPN duration as a factor that might contribute to the presence of sural SNAP (P = 0.004; OR = 0.896). For patients with abnormal VDT, preserved sural SNAP identifies a patient population with less severe DPN who may respond to therapeutic intervention in clinical trials. PMID:16116628

  18. Mitochondria and peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Vital, Anne; Vital, Claude

    2012-12-01

    There has been considerable progress during the past 24 years in the molecular genetics of mitochondrial DNA and related nuclear DNA mutations, and more than 100 nerve biopsies from hereditary neuropathies related to mitochondrial cytopathy have been accurately examined. Neuropathies were first reported in diseases related to point mutations of mitochondrial DNA, but they proved to be a prominent feature of the phenotype in mitochondrial disorders caused by defects in nuclear DNA, particularly in 3 genes: polymerase gamma 1 (POLG1), mitofusin 2 (MFN2), and ganglioside-induced differentiation-associated protein 1 (GDAP1). Most patients have sensory-motor neuropathy, sometimes associated with ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, seizures, parkinsonism, myopathy, or visceral disorders. Some cases are caused by consanguinity, but most are sporadic with various phenotypes mimicking a wide range of other etiologies. Histochemistry on muscle biopsy, as well as identification of crystalloid inclusions at electron microscopy, may provide a diagnostic clue to mitochondriopathy, but nerve biopsy is often less informative. Nevertheless, enlarged mitochondria containing distorted or amputated cristae are highly suggestive, particularly when located in the Schwann cell cytoplasm. Also noticeable are clusters of regenerating myelinated fibers surrounded by concentric Schwann cell processes, and such onion bulb-like formations are frequently observed in neuropathies caused by GDAP1 mutations. PMID:23147504

  19. Disturbed sensory perception of changes in thermoalgesic stimuli in patients with small fiber neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Medici, Conrado; Barraza, Gonzalo; Castillo, Carlos D; Morales, Merche; Schestatsky, Pedro; Casanova-Mollŕ, Jordi; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of functional deficits in small fibre neuropathies (SFN) requires using ancillary tests other than conventional neurophysiological techniques. One of the tests with most widespread use is thermal threshold determination, as part of quantitative sensory testing. Thermal thresholds typically reflect one point in the whole subjective experience elicited by a thermal stimulus. We reasoned that more information could be obtained by analyzing the subjective description of the ongoing sensation elicited by slow temperature changes (dynamic thermal testing, DTT). Twenty SFN patients and 20 healthy subjects were requested to describe, by using an electronic visual analog scale system, the sensation perceived when the temperature of a thermode was made to slowly change according to a predetermined pattern. The thermode was attached to the left ventral forearm or the distal third of the left leg and the stimulus was either a monophasic heat or cold stimuli that reached 120% of pain threshold and reversed to get back to baseline at a rate of 0.5 °C/s. Abnormalities seen in patients in comparison to healthy subjects were: (1) delayed perception of temperature changes, both at onset and at reversal, (2) longer duration of pain perception at peak temperature, and (3) absence of an overshoot sensation after reversal, ie, a transient perception of the opposite sensation before the temperature reached again baseline. The use of DTT increases the yield of thermal testing for clinical and physiological studies. It adds information that can be discriminant between healthy subjects and SFN patients and shows physiological details about the process of activation and inactivation of temperature receptors that may be abnormal in SFN. PMID:23806653

  20. The clinical and laboratory features of chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies.

    PubMed

    Willison, H J; O'Leary, C P; Veitch, J; Blumhardt, L D; Busby, M; Donaghy, M; Fuhr, P; Ford, H; Hahn, A; Renaud, S; Katifi, H A; Ponsford, S; Reuber, M; Steck, A; Sutton, I; Schady, W; Thomas, P K; Thompson, A J; Vallat, J M; Winer, J

    2001-10-01

    The clinical and laboratory phenotype of a paraproteinaemic neuropathy syndrome termed chronic sensory ataxic neuropathy with anti-disialosyl IgM antibodies is described in a series of 18 cases. Previous single case reports have outlined some features of this syndrome. All 18 cases were defined by the presence of serum IgM antibodies which react principally with NeuAc (alpha2-8)NeuAc(alpha2-3)Gal-configured disialosyl epitopes common to many gangliosides including GDlb, GD3, GTlb and GQlb. In 17 out of 18 cases, the serum contained benign IgM paraproteins, and in four of these cases at least two IgM paraproteins were present. The IgM antibodies were also cold agglutinins in 50% of cases. The clinical picture comprised a chronic neuropathy with marked sensory ataxia and areflexia, and with relatively preserved motor function in the limbs. In addition, 16 out of 18 cases had motor weakness affecting oculomotor and bulbar muscles as fixed or as relapsing-remitting features. When present in their entirety, these clinical features have been described previously under the acronym CANOMAD: chronic ataxic neuropathy, ophthalmoplegia, IgM paraprotein, cold agglutinins and disialosyl antibodies. This distribution of clinical features is reminiscent of Miller Fisher syndrome, in which acute-phase anti-disialylated ganglioside IgG antibodies are found. Clinical electrophysiology and nerve biopsy show both demyelinating and axonal features. A partial response to intravenous immunoglobulin and other treatments is reported in some cases. PMID:11571215

  1. Early onset (childhood) monogenic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) with onset in childhood are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission and, in selected cases, pathological findings. Especially relevant to pediatrics are the items "secondary" versus "primary" neuropathy, "syndromic versus nonsyndromic," and "period of life." Different combinations of these parameters frequently point toward specific monogenic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first concern in pediatrics. As a rule, metabolic diseases include additional, orienting symptoms or signs, and their biochemical diagnosis is based on logical algorithms. Primary, motor sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating autosomal dominant (AD) forms (CMT1). Other forms include demyelinating autosomal recessive (AR) forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Peripheral motor neuron disorders are dominated by AR SMN-linked spinal muscular atrophies. (Distal) hereditary motor neuropathies represent <10% of HN but exhibit large clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Sensory/dysautonomic HN involves five classic subtypes, each one related to specific genes. However, genetic heterogeneity is larger than initially suspected. Syndromic HN distinguish "purely neurological syndromes", which are multisystemic, such as spinocerebellar atrophies +, spastic paraplegias +, etc. Peripheral neuropathy is possibly the presenting feature, including in childhood. Autosomal recessive forms, on average, start more frequently in childhood. "Multiorgan syndromes", on the other hand, are more specific to Pediatrics. AR forms, which are clearly degenerative, prompt the investigation of a large set of pleiotropic genes. Other syndromes expressed in the perinatal period are mainly developmental disorders, and can sometimes be related to specific transcription factors. Systematic malformative workup and ethical considerations are necessary. Altogether, >40 genes with various biological functions have been found to be responsible for primary HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait, and some for various types of transmission. PMID:23931819

  2. Prostaglandin E1 in lipid microspheres ameliorates diabetic peripheral neuropathy: clinical usefulness of Semmes–Weinstein monofilaments for evaluating diabetic sensory abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Akahori; Toshinari Takamura; Tetsuo Hayakawa; Hitoshi Ando; Haruhisa Yamashita; Ken-ichi Kobayashi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Prostaglandin E1 in lipid microspheres (Lipo-PGE1) on diabetic peripheral neuropathy from view of symptoms, neurological examinations including sensory threshold evaluated with Semmes–Weinstein monofilaments (SWM). Type 2 diabetic patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy were participated in this study. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups, 11 Lipo-PGE1-treated patients and 16 control patients. Lipo-PGE1 at a

  3. AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Susan C.; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of many of the systemic amyloidoses. Although the cause of neuropathy is not entirely clear, it is likely related to amyloid deposition within the nerve. This may lead to focal, multifocal, or diffuse neuropathies involving sensory, motor and/or autonomic fibers. The presenting symptoms depend on the distribution of nerves affected. One of the most common phenotypes is sensorimotor polyneuropathy, which is characterized by symptoms of neuropathic pain, numbness, and in advanced cases weakness. Symptoms begin in the feet and ultimately progress to the proximal legs and hands. The most common focal neuropathy is a median neuropathy at the wrist, or clinically known as carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel symptoms may include pain and sensory disturbances in the lateral palm and fingers; hand weakness may ensue if the focal neuropathy is severe. Autonomic neuropathy may affect a variety of organ systems such as the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Symptoms may be non-specific making the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy more difficult to identify. However, it is important to recognize and distinguish autonomic neuropathy from diseases of the end-organs themselves. This chapter reviews the inherited and acquired amyloidoses that affect the peripheral nervous system including familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and primary, secondary and senile amyloidosis. We emphasize the clinical presentation of the neurologic aspects of these diseases, physical examination findings, appropriate diagnostic evaluation, treatment and prognosis. PMID:23239211

  4. Heat shock protein 70 is necessary to improve mitochondrial bioenergetics and reverse diabetic sensory neuropathy following KU-32 therapy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jiacheng; Farmer, Kevin L; Pan, Pan; Urban, Michael J; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S J; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2014-02-01

    Impaired neuronal mitochondrial bioenergetics contributes to the pathophysiologic progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and may be a focal point for disease management. We have demonstrated that modulating heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 with the small-molecule drug KU-32 ameliorates psychosensory, electrophysiologic, morphologic, and bioenergetic deficits of DPN in animal models of type 1 diabetes. The current study used mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes to determine the relationship of changes in sensory neuron mitochondrial bioenergetics to the onset of and recovery from DPN. The onset of DPN showed a tight temporal correlation with a decrease in mitochondrial bioenergetics in a genetic model of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, sensory hypoalgesia developed 10 weeks before the occurrence of significant declines in sensory neuron mitochondrial bioenergetics in the type 1 model. KU-32 therapy improved mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the type 1 and type 2 models, and this tightly correlated with a decrease in DPN. Mechanistically, improved mitochondrial function following KU-32 therapy required Hsp70, since the drug was ineffective in diabetic Hsp70 knockout mice. Our data indicate that changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics may rapidly contribute to nerve dysfunction in type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes, and that modulating Hsp70 offers an effective approach toward correcting sensory neuron bioenergetic deficits and DPN in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24263156

  5. Acute optic neuropathy associated with a novel MFN2 mutation.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, Luca; Marcotulli, Christian; Storti, Eugenia; Tessa, Alessandra; Serrao, Mariano; Parisi, Vincenzo; Santorelli, F M; Pierelli, Francesco; Casali, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in the mitofusin 2 (MFN2) gene cause CMT2A the most common form of autosomal dominant axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT). In addition, mutations in MFN2 have been shown to be responsible for Hereditary Motor Sensory Neuropathy type VI (HSMN VI), a rare early-onset axonal CMT associated with optic neuropathy. Most reports of HMSN VI presented with a sub-acute form of optic neuropathy. Herein, we report a CMT2A patient, who developed very rapidly progressing severe optic neuropathy. A 40-year-old Caucasian man was evaluated for gait disturbance and lower limbs weakness, slowly progressed over the last 2 years. Due to clinical data and family history, a diagnosis of CMT2 was made. The novel heterozygous c.775C > T (p.Arg259Cys) mutation in MFN2 was detected in the patient and his clinical affected mother. Interestingly, the patient developed a severe sudden bilateral visual deterioration few years early, with clinical and instrumental picture suggestive of acute bilateral optic neuropathy. Our report expands the spectrum of MFN2-related manifestation because it indicates that visual symptoms of HMSN VI may enter in the differential with acquired or hereditary acute optic neuropathies, and that severe optic neuropathy is not invariably an early manifestation of the disease but may occur as disease progressed. This report could have an impact on clinicians who evaluate patients with otherwise unexplainable bilateral acute-onset optic neuropathy, especially if associated with a motor and sensory axonal neuropathy. PMID:25957633

  6. Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the eye, ataxia (lack of muscle coordination), epilepsy, cognitive impairment, peripheral neuropathy, and deafness. The diagnosis ... should lead to ways to prevent, treat, and cure HSP. NIH Patient Recruitment for Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia ...

  7. A de novo case of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) of maternal origin: a new mechanism for deletion in 17p11.2?

    PubMed

    LeGuern, E; Gouider, R; Ravisé, N; Lopes, J; Tardieu, S; Gugenheim, M; Abbas, N; Bouche, P; Agid, Y; Brice, A

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant neuropathy, most often associated with a deletion of the 17p11.2 region, which is duplicated in 70% of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1A). Most de novo CMT1A and HNPP cases have been of paternal origin. A rare case of de novo HNPP of maternal origin was analysed to determine the underlying mechanism. Affected individuals in the family carried a deletion corresponding to the CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit associated with a rearrangement of the CMT1A-REP sequences. Segregation analysis of 17p11-p12 markers in the family indicated that the deletion was not generated by unequal crossing over between homologous 17 chromosomes, as in de novo cases from paternal origin, but rather by an intrachromosomal rearrangement. Two distinct mechanisms can therefore lead to the same 17p11.2 deletion. This result suggests that intrachromosomal rearrangement may be specific to maternal transmissions. PMID:8789446

  8. Neurological associations in auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder: Results from a tertiary hospital in South India

    PubMed Central

    Lepcha, Anjali; Chandran, Reni K.; Alexander, Mathew; Agustine, Ann Mary; Thenmozhi, K.; Balraj, Achamma

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To find out the prevalence and types of neurological abnormalities associated in auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder in a large tertiary referral center. Settings and Design: A prospective clinical study was conducted on all patients diagnosed with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder in the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and neurology departments during a 17-month period. Patients with neurological abnormalities on history and examination were further assessed by a neurologist to determine the type of disorder present. Results: The frequency of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder was 1.12%. Sixty percent were found to have neurological involvement. This included cerebral palsy in children, peripheral neuropathy (PN), spinocerebellar ataxia, hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy, spastic paresis, and ponto-bulbar palsy. Neurological lesions did not present simultaneously with hearing loss in most patients. Sixty-six percent of patients with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder were born of consanguineous marriages. Conclusions: There is a high prevalence of neurological lesions in auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder which has to be kept in mind while evaluating such patients. Follow-up and counselling regarding the appearance of neuropathies is therefore important in such patients. A hereditary etiology is indicated in a majority of cases of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. PMID:26019414

  9. Role of the DNA Base Excision Repair Protein, APE1 in Cisplatin, Oxaliplatin, or Carboplatin Induced Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Mark R.; Jiang, Yanlin; Guo, Chunlu; Reed, April; Meng, Hongdi; Vasko, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Although chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of platinum drugs, the mechanisms of this toxicity remain unknown. Previous work in our laboratory suggests that cisplatin-induced CIPN is secondary to DNA damage which is susceptible to base excision repair (BER). To further examine this hypothesis, we studied the effects of cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin on cell survival, DNA damage, ROS production, and functional endpoints in rat sensory neurons in culture in the absence or presence of reduced expression of the BER protein AP endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1). Using an in situ model of peptidergic sensory neuron function, we examined the effects of the platinum drugs on hind limb capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation. Exposing sensory neurons in culture to the three platinum drugs caused a concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis and cell death, although the concentrations of carboplatin were 10 fold higher than cisplatin. As previously observed with cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin also increased DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-H2AX and reduced the capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP from neuronal cultures. Both cisplatin and oxaliplatin increased the production of ROS as well as 8-oxoguanine DNA adduct levels, whereas carboplatin did not. Reducing levels of APE1 in neuronal cultures augmented the cisplatin and oxaliplatin induced toxicity, but did not alter the effects of carboplatin. Using an in vivo model, systemic injection of cisplatin (3 mg/kg), oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg), or carboplatin (30 mg/kg) once a week for three weeks caused a decrease in capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation, which was delayed in onset. The effects of cisplatin on capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation were attenuated by chronic administration of E3330, a redox inhibitor of APE1 that serendipitously enhances APE1 DNA repair activity in sensory neurons. These outcomes support the importance of the BER pathway, and particularly APE1, in sensory neuropathy caused by cisplatin and oxaliplatin, but not carboplatin and suggest that augmenting DNA repair could be a therapeutic target for CIPN. PMID:25188410

  10. Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial of Amitriptyline for Analgesia in Painful HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dinat, Natalya; Marinda, Edmore; Moch, Shirra; Rice, Andrew S. C.; Kamerman, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study at a single center in South Africa, to ascertain whether amitriptyline is an effective analgesic for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy of moderate to severe intensity in: i) antiretroviral drug naive individuals, and ii) antiretroviral drug users. 124 HIV-infected participants (antiretroviral drug naive = 62, antiretroviral drug users = 62) who met the study criteria for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy were randomized to once-daily oral amitriptyline (titrated to a median: interquartile range of 50: 25-50 mg) or placebo for six weeks, followed by a three-week washout period and subsequent treatment crossover. The primary outcome measure was change from baseline in worst pain intensity of the feet (measured by participant self-report using an 11-point numerical pain rating scale) after six weeks of treatment. 122 of 124 participants completed all study visits and were included in the analysis of the primary outcome. In the antiretroviral drug-naive group (n = 61) there was no significant difference in the mean change in pain score from baseline after six weeks of treatment with placebo or amitriptyline [amitriptyline: 2.8 (SD 3.3) vs. placebo: 2.8 (3.4)]. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the change in pain score after six weeks of treatment with placebo or amitriptyline in the antiretroviral drug-user group (n = 61) [amitriptyline: 2.7 (3.3) vs. placebo: 2.1 (2.8)]. Controlling for period effects and treatment order effects did not alter the outcome of the analyses. Nor did analyzing the intention-to-treat cohort (missing data interpolated using baseline observation carried forward) alter the outcome of the analyses. In summary, amitriptyline, at the doses used here, was no more effective than an inactive placebo at reducing pain intensity in individuals with painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy of moderate to severe intensity, irrespective of whether they were on antiretroviral therapy or not. Trial Registration ISRCTN 54452526 PMID:25974287

  11. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity in the baboon: normal values and changes during acrylamide neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Hopkins; R. W. Gilliatt

    1971-01-01

    Nerve conduction velocity and the amplitude of nerve and muscle action potentials have been measured in the median and anterior tibial nerves of normal adult and infant baboons. The effect of altered temperature on velocity has also been investigated. Seven adult baboons were intoxicated with acrylamide. In animals given 10-15 mg\\/kg\\/day, the gradual development of a peripheral neuropathy was accompanied

  12. CHARACTERIZATION & TREATMENT OF LARGE SENSORY FIBER PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY IN DIABETIC MICE

    E-print Network

    Muller, Karra

    2008-11-17

    Patients with large-fiber diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DPN) can develop altered sensorimotor function. Gait and balance control are regulated, in part, through large sensory nerves innervating muscle spindles. The overall goal...

  13. Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy caused by the homoplasmic ND1 m.3635G>A mutation in nine Han Chinese families.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Jiang, Pingping; Jin, Xiaofen; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Minglian; Xie, Shipeng; Gao, Min; Zhang, Sai; Sun, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Jinping; Ji, Yanchun; Wei, Qi-Ping; Tong, Yi; Guan, Min-Xin

    2014-09-01

    In this report, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)-associated mitochondrial m.3635G>A (p.S110N, ND1) mutation. A mutational screening of ND1 gene in a cohort of 1070 Han Chinese subjects LHON identified the m.3635G>A mutation in nine Chinese families with suggestively maternally transmitted LHON. Thirty-eight (22 males/16 females) of 162 matrilineal relatives in these families exhibited the variable severity and age-at-onset of optic neuropathy. Molecular analysis of their mitochondrial genomes identified the homoplasmic m.3635G>A mutation and distinct sets of polymorphisms belonging to the Asian haplogroups G2a1, R11a, D4, R11a, M7b2, G1a, F1a1, B4, and N9a3, respectively. Using cybrids constructed by transferring mitochondria from lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from one Chinese family into mtDNA-less (?(0)) cells, we showed ~27% decrease in the activity of NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) in mutant cybrids carrying the m.3635G>A mutation, compared with control cybrids. The respiratory deficiency caused by the m.3635G>A mutation results in decreased efficiency of mitochondrial ATP synthesis. These mitochondrial dysfunctions caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species in the mutant cybrids. The data provide the direct evidence for the m.3635G>A mutation leading to LHON. Our findings may provide new insights into the understanding of pathophysiology of LHON. PMID:25194554

  14. Mutant HSPB8 causes protein aggregates and a reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in dermal fibroblasts from distal hereditary motor neuropathy patients.

    PubMed

    Irobi, Joy; Holmgren, Anne; De Winter, Vicky; Asselbergh, Bob; Gettemans, Jan; Adriaensen, Dirk; Ceuterick-de Groote, Chantal; Van Coster, Rudy; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

    2012-08-01

    Missense mutations in the small heat shock protein HSPB8 cause distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2L). We previously demonstrated that, despite the ubiquitous expression of HSPB8, motor neurons appear to be predominantly affected by HSPB8 mutations. Here, we studied the effect of mutant HSPB8 in primary fibroblast cultures derived from dHMN patients' skin biopsy. In early passage cultures, we observed in all patients' fibroblasts HSPB8 protein aggregates that were not detected in control cells. After applying heat shock stress on the patients' early passage cultured cells, the protein aggregates coalesced into larger formations, while in control cells a homogenous upregulation of HSPB8 protein expression was seen. We also found a reduction in the mitochondrial membrane potential in the early passage cultures. After three months in culture, the number of cells with aggregates had become indistinguishable from that in controls and the mitochondrial membrane potential had returned to normal. These results emphasize the possible drawbacks of using patients' non-neuronal cells to study neuropathological disease mechanisms. PMID:22595202

  15. Two families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy carrying G11778A and T14502C mutations with haplogroup H2a2a1 in mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Chen; Wei, Tanwei; Hu, Bo; Peng, Chunyan; Qiu, Xueping; Wei, Li; Yan, Ming

    2015-08-01

    The mitochondrial haplogroup has been reported to affect the clinical expression of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The present study aimed to investigate the interaction between mutations and the haplogroup of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in families. Two unrelated families with LHON were enrolled in the study, and clinical, genetic and molecular characterizations were determined in the affected and unaffected family members. Polymerase chain reaction direct sequencing was performed using 24 pairs of overlapping primers for whole mtDNA to screen for mutations and haplogroup. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to evaluate the pathogenic effect of these mtDNA mutations and the haplogroup. The G11778A mutation was identified in the two families. In addition, the members of family 2 exhibited the T14502C mutation and those in family 1 exhibited the T3394C and T14502C mutations, which were regarded as secondary mutations. The penetrance of visual loss in families 1 and 2 were 30.8 and 33.3%, respectively. In addition, the two families were found to be in the H2a2a1 haplogroup. In this limited sample size, it was demonstrated that the H2a2a1 haplogroup had a possible protective effect against LHON. Additional modifying factors, including environmental factors, lifestyle, estrogen levels and nuclear genes may also be important in LHON. PMID:25936877

  16. Molecular genetic analysis of the 17p11.2 region in patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed

    Timmerman, V; Löfgren, A; Le Guern, E; Liang, P; De Jonghe, P; Martin, J J; Verhalle, D; Robberecht, W; Gouider, R; Brice, A; Van Broeckhoven, C

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is in most cases associated with an interstitial deletion of the same 1.5-Mb region at 17p11.2 that is duplicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) patients. Unequal crossing-over following misalignment at flanking repeat sequences (CMT1A-REP), either leads to tandem duplication in CMT1A patients or deletion in HNPP patients. With the use of polymorphic DNA markers located within the CMT1A/HNPP duplication/deletion region we detected the HNPP deletion in 16 unrelated HNPP patients, 11 of Belgian and 5 of French origin. In all cases, the 1.5-Mb size of the HNPP deletion was confirmed by EcoRI dosage analysis using a CMT1A-REP probe. In the 16 HNPP patients, the same 370/320-kb EagI deletion-junction fragments were detected with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), while in CMT1A patients, a 150-kb EagI duplication-junction fragment was seen. Thus, PFGE analysis of EagI-digested DNA with a CMT1A-REP probe allows direct detection of the HNPP deletion or the CMT1A duplication for DNA diagnostic purposes. PMID:8557256

  17. Neurotrophin3 Administration Attenuates Deficits of Pyridoxine-Induced Large-Fiber Sensory Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maureen E. Helgren; Kenneth D. Cliffer; Kim Torrento; Chris Cavnor; Rory Curtis; Peter S. DiStefano; Stanley J. Wiegand; Ronald M. Lindsay

    1997-01-01

    Chronic treatment of adult rats for 2-3 weeks with high doses of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) produced a profound proprioceptive loss, similar to that found in humans overdosed with this vita- min or treated with the chemotherapeutic agent cisplatin. Pyr- idoxine toxicity was manifest as deficits in simple and precise locomotion and sensory nerve function and as degeneration of large-diameter\\/large-fiber spinal

  18. Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy in Golden Retriever Dogs Is Caused by a Deletion in the Mitochondrial tRNATyr Gene

    PubMed Central

    Baranowska, Izabella; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Nennesmo, Inger; Holmqvist, Erik; Heidrich, Nadja; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Andersson, Göran; Wagner, E. Gerhart H.; Hedhammar, Ĺke; Wibom, Rolf; Andersson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Sensory ataxic neuropathy (SAN) is a recently identified neurological disorder in golden retrievers. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected dogs belong to one maternal lineage, and a statistical analysis showed that the disorder has a mitochondrial origin. A one base pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene was identified at position 5304 in affected dogs after re-sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of seven individuals. The deletion was not found among dogs representing 18 different breeds or in six wolves, ruling out this as a common polymorphism. The mutation could be traced back to a common ancestor of all affected dogs that lived in the 1970s. We used a quantitative oligonucleotide ligation assay to establish the degree of heteroplasmy in blood and tissue samples from affected dogs and controls. Affected dogs and their first to fourth degree relatives had 0–11% wild-type (wt) sequence, while more distant relatives ranged between 5% and 60% wt sequence and all unrelated golden retrievers had 100% wt sequence. Northern blot analysis showed that tRNATyr had a 10-fold lower steady-state level in affected dogs compared with controls. Four out of five affected dogs showed decreases in mitochondrial ATP production rates and respiratory chain enzyme activities together with morphological alterations in muscle tissue, resembling the changes reported in human mitochondrial pathology. Altogether, these results provide conclusive evidence that the deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene is the causative mutation for SAN. PMID:19492087

  19. Novel therapeutic strategy to prevent chemotherapy-induced persistent sensory neuropathy by TRPA1 blockade.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Materazzi, Serena; Fusi, Camilla; Altomare, Alessandra; Aldini, Giancarlo; Lodovici, Maura; Patacchini, Riccardo; Geppetti, Pierangelo; Nassini, Romina

    2013-05-15

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a severe and painful adverse reaction of cancer treatment in patients that is little understood or treated. Cytotoxic drugs that cause CIPN exert their effects by increasing oxidative stress, which activates the ion channel TRPA1 expressed by nociceptors. In this study, we evaluated whether TRPA1 acted as a critical mediator of CIPN by bortezomib or oxaliplatin in a mouse model system. Bortezomib evoked a prolonged mechanical, cold, and selective chemical hypersensitivity (the latter against the TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate). This CIPN hypersensitivity phenotype that was stably established by bortezomib could be transiently reverted by systemic or local treatment with the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. A similar effect was produced by the oxidative stress scavenger ?-lipoic acid. Notably, the CIPN phenotype was abolished completely in mice that were genetically deficient in TRPA1, highlighting its essential role. Administration of bortezomib or oxaliplatin, which also elicits TRPA1-dependent hypersensitivity, produced a rapid, transient increase in plasma of carboxy-methyl-lysine, a by-product of oxidative stress. Short-term systemic treatment with either HC-030031 or ?-lipoic acid could completely prevent hypersensitivity if administered before the cytotoxic drug. Our findings highlight a key role for early activation/sensitization of TRPA1 by oxidative stress by-products in producing CIPN. Furthermore, they suggest prevention strategies for CIPN in patients through the use of early, short-term treatments with TRPA1 antagonists. PMID:23477783

  20. Fifteen novel mutations in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, 2, 3, 4, 4L, 5 and 6 genes from Iranian patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Zahra; Didari, Elmira; Arastehkani, Ahoura; Ghodsinejad, Vadieh; Aryani, Omid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud

    2013-12-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an optic nerve dysfunction resulting from mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is transmitted in a maternal pattern of inheritance. It is caused by three primary point mutations: G11778A, G3460A and T14484C; in the mitochondrial genome. These mutations are sufficient to induce the disease, accounting for the majority of LHON cases, and affect genes that encode for the different subunits of mitochondrial complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Other mutations are secondary mutations associated with the primary mutations. The purpose of this study was to determine MT-ND variations in Iranian patients with LHON. In order to determine the prevalence and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in the LHON patients, their DNA was studied using PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Sequencing of MT-ND genes from 35 LHON patients revealed a total of 44 nucleotide variations, in which fifteen novel variations-A14020G, A13663G, C10399T, C4932A, C3893G, C10557A, C12012A, C13934T, G4596A, T12851A, T4539A, T4941A, T13255A, T14353C and del A 4513-were observed in 27 LHON patients. However, eight patients showed no variation in the ND genes. These mutations contribute to the current database of mtDNA polymorphisms in LHON patients and may facilitate the definition of disease-related mutations in human mtDNA. This research may help to understand the disease mechanism and open up new diagnostic opportunities for LHON. PMID:24158608

  1. Complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence variation of Chinese families with mutation m.3635G>A and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Rui; Zhang, A-Mei; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The majority of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) cases are caused by one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) primary mutations (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C). In recent studies, we and others have shown that mutation m.3635G>A is a primary LHON mutation, particularly in Chinese. The purpose of this study was to perform a thorough analysis for the complete mtDNA genome sequence variation in Chinese patients with m.3635G>A and to identify potentially functional variants cosegregated with m.3635G>A. Methods The complete mtDNA genomes of five Chinese patients with LHON carrying m.3635G>A were determined. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to distinguish the private and ancestral mtDNA variants in each lineage. Previously unreported variants in each mtDNA were defined with a web-based and database search. mtDNA variants that changed the structure of the membrane-spanning region of the protein were also evaluated, together with evolutionary conservation analysis, to predict their potential pathogenicity. Results The five patients with LHON sequenced in this study belonged to haplogroups M7b4 (Le131), F1a (Le329 and Le337), B5b (Le569), and M7b6 (Le834), which suggested multiple origins of m.3635G>A. Private variants m.12811T>C, m.14063T>C, m.15237T>C, and m.9071C>T in these patients were predicted to change the structure of the membrane-spanning region of the respective proteins. Conclusions Mutation m.3635G>A had multiple origins in Chinese patients with LHON. We also identified several potentially functional variants cosegregated with m.3635G>A. PMID:23304069

  2. Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) in a 15-year-old boy presenting with severe pain and distal muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Rostásy, K M; Huppke, P; Beckers, B; Brockmann, K; Degenhardt, V; Wesche, B; König, F; Gärtner, J

    2005-08-01

    Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) is a recently described subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome characterized by acute onset of distal weakness, loss of deep tendon reflexes and sensory symptoms. Electrophysiological studies show mildly reduced nerve conduction velocities combined with a marked reduction of muscle action and sensory nerve action potentials. Here, we report a 15-year-old boy who suffered from severe burning and knife-like pain that increased over a period of three months and resulted in a disrupted sleep pattern and suicidal intentions as well as marked loss of weight. In addition, he developed muscle weakness in his hands and feet. Neurophysiological and histopathological studies revealed AMSAN. Marked improvement of his condition was achieved by treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, high-dose methylprednisolone, and a combination of gabapentin, antidepressants, and an oral morphine. PMID:16138251

  3. A newly identified Thr99fsX110 mutation in the PMP22 gene associated with an atypical phenotype of the hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies.

    PubMed

    Moszy?ska, Izabela; Kabzi?ska, Dagmara; Sinkiewicz-Darol, Elena; Kocha?ski, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is manifested by a spectrum of phenotypes, from the classical HNPP course associated with intermittent nerve palsies to a neuropathy resembling Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 (CMT1) disease. The majority of HNPP cases are associated with submicroscopical deletions in the 17p11.2-p12 region containing the PMP22 gene, while PMP22 point mutations are rare, representing about 15% of HNPP cases. In this study, we present a patient manifesting with atypical HNPP phenotype associated with a new Thr99fsX110 mutation in the PMP22 gene. We conclude that all patients who fulfill the electrophysiological criteria of HNPP, even if they lack the typical HNPP phenotype, should be tested for point mutations in the PMP22 gene. PMID:19830275

  4. Coexistence of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and anti-MAG neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Salsano, Ettore; Ciano, Claudia; Palamara, Luisa; Morbin, Michela; Pareyson, Davide

    2013-06-01

    At age 35, a man with a genetic diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) but no family history of neuropathy and no clinical symptoms developed rapidly progressive loss of balance, distal limb numbness, loss of manual dexterity, and hand tremor. Five years later, he walked with support and had mild pes cavus, marked sensory ataxia, severe leg and hand weakness, absent deep tendon reflexes (DTRs), severe sensory loss, and hand tremor. He had dramatically reduced motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV), strikingly prolonged motor distal latencies, absent sensory action potentials and lower limb compound muscle action potentials. CMT1A duplication was reconfirmed but the dramatic change in his clinical course suggested a superimposed acquired neuropathy. An IgM-kappa monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance (MGUS) with high titer anti-myelin associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) activity was found. Nerve biopsy showed severe loss of myelinated fibers with onion bulbs, no evidence of uncompacted myelin, and few IgM deposits. Rituximab was given and he improved. It is very likely that this is a chance association of two rare and slowly progressive neuropathies; rapidly worsening course may have been due to a "double hit". Interestingly, there are reports of possible superimposition of dysimmune neuropathies on hereditary ones, and the influence of the immune system on inherited neuropathies is matter for debate. PMID:23781967

  5. Recessively transmitted predominantly motor neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Parman, Ye?im; Battalo?lu, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Recessively transmitted predominantly motor neuropathies are rare and show a severe phenotype. They are frequently observed in populations with a high rate of consanguineous marriages. At least 15 genes and six loci have been found to be associated with autosomal recessive CMT (AR-CMT) and X-linked CMT (AR-CMTX) and also distal hereditary motor neuronopathy (AR-dHMN). These disorders are genetically heterogeneous but the clinical phenotype is relatively homogeneous. Distal muscle weakness and atrophy predominating in the lower extremities, diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes, distal sensory loss, and pes cavus are the main clinical features of this disorder with occasional cranial nerve involvement. Although genetic diagnosis of some of subtypes of AR-CMT are now available, rapid advances in the molecular genetics and cell biology show a great complexity. Animal models for the most common subtypes of human AR-CMT disease provide clues for understanding the pathogenesis of CMT and also help to reveal possible treatment strategies of inherited neuropathies. This chapter highlights the clinical features and the recent genetic and biological findings in these disorders based on the current classification. PMID:23931818

  6. Concordance between epidermal nerve fiber density and sensory examination in patients with symptoms of idiopathic small fiber neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Walk; Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb; Cynthia Davey; William R. Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    Quantitation of epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) density is an objective diagnostic test of small fiber neuropathy (SFN). For a diagnostic test to be clinically useful it should correspond well with clinically meaningful physical findings. We performed a retrospective analysis of the concordance between foot ENF density and clinical findings in all patients seen at our institution with possible idiopathic SFN

  7. Peripheral Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Peripheral Neuropathy Information Page Condensed from Peripheral Neuropathy Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Peripheral Neuropathy? Peripheral neuropathy describes damage to the peripheral nervous ...

  8. Diabetic Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Is there any treatment? ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a peripheral nerve disorder caused ...

  9. Clinical, electrophysiological and morphological findings of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy with vocal cord palsy and mutations in the GDAP1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Sevilla; Ana Cuesta; Maria JoseChumillas; Fernando Mayordomo; Laia Pedrola; Francesc Palau; Juan J. Vilchez

    2003-01-01

    Summary Three Spanish families with an autosomal recessive severe hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, show- ing mutations in the ganglioside-induced-differentiation- associated protein 1 (GDAP1) gene in the Charcot- Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 4A locus were studied. The disorder started in the neonatal period or early infancy with weakness and wasting of the feet and, sub- sequently, involvement of the hands, causing

  10. Anti-B-series ganglioside-recognizing autoantibodies in an acute sensory neuropathy patient cause cell death of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, T; Miyatake, T; Yuki, N

    1993-07-23

    To examine the cytotoxicity of a patient's serum with an acute relapsing sensory neuropathy syndrome, dorsal root ganglion neurons from young adult rats were cultured in the presence of the patient's serum which had an extremely higher-titer monoclonal IgM antibody recognizing B-series gangliosides, GD2, GD1b, GT1b and GQ1b. By the addition of the inactivated patient's serum, the relatively larger cells died after undergoing of metamorphosis during several hours of culture, whilst the smaller cells survived. The IgM fraction isolated from the patient's serum showed similar cytotoxicity towards the neurons as the inactivated whole serum. No cytotoxicity was observed with the IgM fraction-containing medium after it had been absorbed with ganglioside GD1b. The results suggested that the anti-B-series ganglioside-directed antibody is the causal agent for the human neurologic disease. PMID:8233048

  11. Overlap phenotype between CMT1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies caused by the novel small in-frame deletion c.407_418del12 in PMP22 gene.

    PubMed

    Vill, Katharina; Kuhn, Marius; Gläser, Dieter; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    We report monozygotic twins, who presented with a clinical picture of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1) with bilateral foot drop, pes cavus, thoracic kyphosis, and scoliosis. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) showed up in one of them. Neurography showed demyelinating neuropathy, typical for CMT1, and transient conduction block in the ulnar nerve correlating with clinical ulnar palsy due to minor mechanical stress in only one of them. Genetic analysis revealed novel small de novo deletion c.407_418del12 in the PMP22 gene. Our patient shows the rarely reported combination of CMT1A and HNPP, caused by an in-frame deletion in the PMP22 gene. HNPP is in the majority of cases correlated with heterozygous deletion of the whole PMP22 gene or other mutations leading to functional haploinsufficiency. The cases give further evidence that pathogenesis of HNPP is not completely understood and can obviously result from existence of a defective protein, too. The intrafamiliar phenotypic variability, even in monozygotic twins, confirms the well-known fact that factors apart from genetics contribute to the clinical course. PMID:25265422

  12. Microsatellite mapping of the deletion in patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP): new molecular tools for the study of the region 17p12 --> p11 and for diagnosis.

    PubMed

    LeGuern, E; Ravise, N; Gouider, R; Gugenheim, M; Lopes, J; Bouche, P; Agid, Y; Brice, A

    1996-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy characterized by recurrent episodes of nerve palsies. We have analyzed 11 microsatellite markers from chromosome 17p12 --> p11 in nine French families with HNPP. The three microsatellites D17S839 (afm200yb12), D17S955 (afm317ygl), and D17S921 (afm191xh12) were localized in the deleted region. In allele segregation analyses, the microsatellite D17S793 (afm165zd4) detected two chromosome 17-linked loci, one of which was deleted in HNPP patients. Using these STR markers, we found that the deletion coincided with the CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit in eight of the nine families. In the remaining pedigree, the deletion lay between the centromeric microsatellite D17S805 (afm234tal) and the telomeric marker D17S922 (afm197xh6), which flank the CMT1A monomer unit. Comparison of these data with the available genetic and physical maps of 17p12 --> p11 shows that this region, which is frequently subject to rearrangement-inducing diseases, such as Smith-Magenis syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A, and HNPP, presents recombination hot spots. Finally, this study demonstrates the usefulness of the D17S122 (RM11GT) and D17S921 (afm191xh12) microsatellites as tools for the molecular diagnosis of HNPP. PMID:8565626

  13. Giant axonal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vijaykumar, Kadambari; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Taly, Arun B; Mahadevan, Anita; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Nagappa, Madhu; Sinha, Sanjib

    2015-06-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy is an autosomal recessive disorder of childhood with distinct morphological features. An 8-year-old boy presented with progressive walking difficulty and recurrent falls. Evaluation showed frizzy hair, characteristic facies, sensory motor neuropathy, and ataxia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral symmetric white matter signal changes in the cerebellum and periventricular regions along with involvement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule. Sural nerve biopsy demonstrated giant axons with neurofilament accumulation. The clinicopathologic manifestations of giant axonal neuropathy are discussed along with the clinical and histologic differential diagnoses. PMID:25213662

  14. Hereditary and acquired polyneuropathy conditions of the peripheral nerves: clinical considerations and MR neurography imaging.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Jaya R; Phillips, Lauren; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2015-04-01

    Polyneuropathies can be classified as either primarily demyelinating or axonal, and further as hereditary or acquired. It is important to recognize acquired neuropathies because some are amenable to treatment. Clinical findings and electrophysiology are used in the routine diagnosis of these conditions. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a helpful supplementary diagnostic tool. This article discusses the typical clinical findings, electrophysiology findings, and MRN appearances of common hereditary or acquired neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and postsurgical neuropathy. PMID:25764237

  15. Fasciculations in human hereditary disease.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Aliyev, Rahim

    2015-06-01

    Fasciculations are a manifestation of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability in addition to myokymia, neuromyotonia, cramps, or tetany. Fasciculations occur in hereditary and non-hereditary diseases. Among the hereditary diseases, fasciculations are most frequently reported in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Among the non-hereditary diseases, fasciculations occur most frequently in peripheral nerve hyperexcitability syndromes (Isaac's syndrome, voltage-gated potassium channelopathy, cramp fasciculation syndrome, Morvan syndrome). If the cause of fasciculations remains unknown, they are called benign. Systematically reviewing the literature about fasciculations in hereditary disease shows that fasciculations can be a phenotypic feature in bulbospinal muscular atrophy (BSMA), GM2-gangliosidosis, triple-A syndrome, or hereditary neuropathy. Additionally, fasciculations have been reported in familial amyloidosis, spinocerebellar ataxias, Huntington's disease, Rett syndrome, central nervous system disease due to L1-cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) mutations, Fabry's disease, or Gerstmann-Sträussler disease. Rarely, fasciculations may be a phenotypic feature in patients with mitochondrial disorders or other myopathies. Fasciculations are part of the phenotype in much more genetic disorders than commonly assumed. Fasciculations not only occur in motor neuron disease, but also in hereditary neuropathy, spinocerebellar ataxia, GM2-gangliosidosis, Huntington's disease, Rett syndrome, Fabry's disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler disease, mitochondrial disorders, or muscular dystrophies. PMID:25073774

  16. Screening of the 17p11.2--p12 region in a large cohort of patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease or hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP).

    PubMed

    Kabzinska, D; Pierscinska, J; Kochanski, A

    2009-01-01

    Within the last decade, numerous methods have been applied to detect the most common mutation in patients affected with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, i.e. submicroscopic duplication in the 17p11.2--p12 region. In 1993, another neuropathy - known as hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) - has been shown to be caused by a 17p11.2--p12 deletion. Historically, Southern blot analysis was the first approach to identify CMT1A duplication or HNPP deletion. This time- and labor-consuming method requires prior selection of DNA samples. In fact, only CMT patients affected with the demyelinating form of CMT1 have been screened for CMT1A duplication. After the 17p11.2--p12 duplication was identified in the CMT1 families, subsequent studies revealed additional axonal features in the patients harboring the 17p11.2--p12 duplication. Thus it seems reasonable to test all patients affected with CMT for the presence of the 17p11.2--p12 duplication. To evaluate the utility of real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR (RFLP-PCR), we screened a large group of 179 families with the diagnosis of CMT/HNPP for the presence of the 17p11.2--p12 duplication/deletion. Due to a high frequency of CMT1A duplication in familial cases of CMT, we propose (in contrast to the previous studies) to perform Q-PCR analysis in all patients diagnosed with CMT. PMID:19638685

  17. Metabolic neuropathies

    MedlinePLUS

    Neuropathy - metabolic ... can be caused by many different things. Metabolic neuropathy may be caused by: A problem with the ... one of the most common causes of metabolic neuropathies. People who are at the highest risk of ...

  18. Toxic Neuropathy as a Complication of Thiophenicol Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yukito Shinohara; Fumie Yamaguchi; Fumio Gotoh

    1977-01-01

    Two cases with sensory neuropathy due to thiophenicol therapy are reported. Thiophenicol neuropathy is hitherto unreported in literature published in English. Neurological manifestations of these cases were similar to those of chloramphenicol neuropathy, but rather marked impairment of position sense in the lower extremities was characteristic. Thiophenicol neuropathy reported in Japanese literature was reviewed and it is concluded that thiophenicol

  19. Mitochondrial neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef

    2005-04-01

    Polyneuropathy is a frequent feature of mitochondriopathy (MCP). If and how often polyneuropathy in MCP is primarily due to the underlying disorder (mitochondrial neuropathy, MN) or due to other well-known causes is unknown. Retrospectively investigated were 108 MCP-patients with polyneuropathy. According to established diagnostic criteria 37 patients were classified as definite MCP, 56 as probable MCP and 15 as possible MCP. In 38 of the 108 MCP-patients with polyneuropathy (35%), no plausible cause for polyneuropathy other than MCP could be found. MN was characterized by weakness, muscle cramps, wasting, reduced tendon reflexes, muscle pain, ataxia, restless legs, hypesthesia, paresthesia, dysesthesia, and vegetative impairment. In 21 cases predominantly motor fibers, in 14 cases both motor and sensory fibers and in 3 cases predominantly sensory fibers were affected. Axonal degeneration was found in 19 cases, demyelination in 4 and mixed-type polyneuropathy in 15. On sural nerve biopsy axonal loss was the predominant finding. In a single case tomaculae and abnormally shaped and structured mitochondria were found. MN exists, occurs in one third of the MCP-patients with polyneuropathy, and is characterized by predominant affection of the motor and sensory fibers with diffuse, symmetric and equal distribution between upper and lower limbs and by axonal degeneration. PMID:15823672

  20. Peripheral neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    Peripheral neuritis; Neuropathy - peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy ... Neuropathy is very common. There are many types and causes. Often, no cause can be found. Some ...

  1. Attenuation of persistent pain-related behavior by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors in a rat model of HIV sensory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Nasirinezhad, Farinaz; Jergova, Stanislava; Pearson, James P; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    Distal sensory neuropathies are a hallmark of HIV infections and can result in persistent and disabling pain despite advances in antiretroviral therapies. HIV-sensory neuropathic (HIV-SN) pain may be amenable to cannabinoid treatment, but currently available agonist treatments are limited by untoward side effects and potential for abuse in this patient population. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors may offer an alternative approach by inhibiting the degradation of endocannabinoids with purportedly fewer untoward CNS side effects. In order to evaluate this potential approach in the management of HIV-SN pain, the recombinant HIV envelope protein gp120 was applied epineurally to the rat sciatic nerve to induce an HIV-SN-like pain syndrome. Two distinct FAAH inhibitory compounds, URB597 and PF-3845 were tested, and contrasted with standard antinociceptive gabapentin or vehicle treatment, for attenuation of tactile allodynia, cold allodynia, and mechanical hyperalgesia. Both FAAH inhibitors markedly reduced cold and tactile allodynia with limited anti-hyperalgesic effects. Peak antinociceptive effects produced by both agents were more modest than gabapentin in reducing tactile allodynia with similar potency ranges. URB597 produced comparable cold anti-allodynic effects to gabapentin, and the effects of both FAAH inhibitors were longer lasting than gabapentin. To assess the contribution of cannabinoid receptors in these antinociceptive effects, CB1 antagonist AM251 or CB2 antagonist SR144528 were tested in conjunction with FAAH inhibitors. Results suggested a contribution of both CB1- and CB2-mediated effects, particularly in reducing tactile allodynia. In summary, these findings support inhibition of endocannabinoid degradation as a promising target for management of disabling persistent HIV-SN pain syndromes. PMID:25486617

  2. HIV peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Gabbai, Alberto Alain; Castelo, Adauto; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are the most common neurological manifestations occurring in HIV-infected individuals. Distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is the most common form encountered today and is one of the few that are specific to HIV infection or its treatment. The wide variety of other neuropathies is akin to the neuropathies seen in the general population and should be managed accordingly. In the pre-ART era, neuropathies were categorized according to the CD4 count and HIV viral load. In the early stages of HIV infection when CD4 count is high, the inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies predominate and in the late stages with the decline of CD4 count opportunistic infection-related neuropathies prevail. That scenario has changed with the present almost universal use of ART (antiretroviral therapy). Hence, HIV-associated peripheral neuropathies are better classified according to their clinical presentations: distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), mononeuropathies, mononeuropathies multiplex and cranial neuropathies, autonomic neuropathy, lumbosacral polyradiculomyelopathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like motor neuropathy. Treated with ART, HIV-infected individuals are living longer and are at a higher risk of metabolic and age-related complications; moreover they are also prone to the potentially neurotoxic effects of ART. There are no epidemiological data regarding the incidence and prevalence of the peripheral neuropathies. In the pre-ART era, most data were from case reports, series of patients, and pooled autopsy data. At that time the histopathological evidence of neuropathies in autopsy series was almost 100%. In large prospective cohorts presently being evaluated, it has been found that 57% of HIV-infected individuals have distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy and 38% have neuropathic pain. It is now clear that distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is caused predominantly by the ART's neurotoxic effect but may also be caused by the HIV itself. With a sizeable morbidity, the neuropathic pain caused by distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is very difficult to manage; it is often necessary to change the ART regimen before deciding upon the putative role of HIV infection itself. If the change does not improve the pain, there are few options available; the most common drugs used for neuropathic pain are usually not effective. One is left with cannabis, which cannot be recommended as routine therapy, recombinant human nerve growth factor, which is unavailable, and topical capsaicin with its side-effects. Much has been done to and learned from HIV infection in humans; HIV-infected individuals, treated with ART, are now dying mostly from cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS-related cancers. It hence behooves us to find new approaches to mitigate the residual neurological morbidity that still impacts the quality of life of that population. PMID:23931799

  3. Sympathetic skin response versus maximum motor and sensory conduction velocity to detect subclinical neuropathy in non-insulin-dependent diabetics.

    PubMed

    Caccia, M R; Dezuanni, E; Salvaggio, A; Osio, M; Bevilacqua, M; Norbiato, G; Mangoni, A

    1991-01-01

    Conventional motor (MCV) and sensory conduction velocity (SCV) of the ulnar (UN), peroneal (PN) and median nerves (MN) and the areas of sympathetic sudomotor response (SSR) recorded from the middle finger were measured on both sides in 20 normal and 20 non-insulin-dependent diabetic (NIDD) subjects. Conventional statistical tests (t test, linear correlation coefficient r) and discrimination analysis were applied to the above electrophysiological parameters. To evaluate the capability of the tests to separate NIDD diseased from normal nerves, the results were represented as generalized distances, i.e., difference between mean discriminant normalized combinations adjusted for intra-group variability. The r values were 0.92 (P less than 0.01) for the UN, 0.40 (P greater than 0.05) for the PN, and 0.86 (P less than 0.01) for the MN sensory action potential (SAP) amplitudes. No significant differences were found for normalized latencies. The r values of the SSR areas were 0.62 (P less than 0.01) at the right and 0.77 (P less than 0.01) at the left, homolaterally to the side of stimulation. SR and MCV generalized distances were 1.35 and 1.39, respectively. The discriminating power of SSR, MCV and SCV considered together was higher (2.40) than that of MCV and SCV (1.70). Since motor, sensory and autonomic alterations often did not coexist in NIDD, it was possible to find at least one type of involvement in most of the diabetic subjects. PMID:1746243

  4. Sensory neuron subpopulation-specific dysregulation of intracellular calcium in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, E; Gold, M S

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the prediction that the unique manifestation of chemotherapeutic-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) would be reflected in a specific pattern of changes in the regulation of the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in subpopulations of cutaneous neurons. To test this prediction, we characterized the pattern of changes in mechanical nociceptive threshold associated with paclitaxel administration (2mg/kg, iv, every other day for four days), as well as the impact of target of innervation and paclitaxel treatment on the regulation of [Ca(2+)]i in subpopulations of putative nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons. Neurons innervating the glabrous and hairy skin of the hindpaw as well as the thigh were identified with retrograde tracers, and fura-2 was used to assess changes in [Ca(2+)]i. Paclitaxel was associated with a persistent decrease in mechanical nociceptive threshold in response to stimuli applied to the glabrous skin of the hindpaw, but not the hairy skin of the hindpaw or the thigh. However, in both putative nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons, resting [Ca(2+)]i was significantly lower in neurons innervating the thigh after treatment. The magnitude of the depolarization-evoked Ca(2+) transient was also lower in putative non-nociceptive thigh neurons. More interestingly, while paclitaxel had no detectable influence on either resting or depolarization-evoked Ca(2+) transients in putative non-nociceptive neurons, in putative nociceptive neurons there was a subpopulation-specific decrease in the duration of the evoked Ca(2+) transient that was largely restricted to neurons innervating the glabrous skin. These results suggest that peripheral nerve length alone, does not account for the selective distribution of CIPN symptoms. Rather, they suggest the symptoms of CIPN reflect an interaction between the toxic actions of the therapeutic and unique properties of the neurons deleteriously impacted. PMID:25982563

  5. Mitochondrial protein alterations in a familial peripheral neuropathy caused by the V144D amino acid mutation in the sphingolipid protein, SPTLC1.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Scott E; Coorssen, Jens R; Myers, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is the final common path in many neurological disorders. Subsets of neuropathies involving the sensory neuron are known as hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSNs). Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN-I) is the most common subtype of HSN with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with clinical symptom onset between the second or third decade of life. Heterozygous mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) long chain subunit 1 (SPTLC1) gene were identified as the pathogenic cause of HSN-I. Ultrastructural analysis of mitochondria from HSN-I patient cells has displayed unique morphological abnormalities that are clustered to the perinucleus where they are wrapped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This investigation defines a small subset of proteins with major alterations in abundance in mitochondria harvested from HSN-I mutant SPTLC1 cells. Using mitochondrial protein isolates from control and patient lymphoblasts, and a combination of 2D gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, we have shown the increased abundance of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1, an electron transport chain protein, as well as the immunoglobulin, Ig kappa chain C. The regulation of these proteins may provide a new route to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying HSN-I. PMID:25584079

  6. Comparison of different modalities for detection of small fiber neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Tobin; Michael J Giuliani; David Lacomis

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: In general, large fiber sensory function is easier to assess than small fiber function both clinically and electrophysiologically. Therefore, small fiber sensory neuropathies are more difficult to diagnose. The relative sensitivities of different electrodiagnostic tests for small fiber neuropathy are not known. We sought to determine and compare the sensitivities of quantitative thermal sensory testing (QST), quantitative sudomotor axon

  7. Asymptomatic small fiber neuropathy in diabetes mellitus: investigations with intraepidermal nerve fiber density, quantitative sensory testing and laser-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Ragé, Michael; Van Acker, Nathalie; Knaapen, Michiel W M; Timmers, Maarten; Streffer, Johannes; Hermans, Michel P; Sindic, Christian; Meert, Theo; Plaghki, Léon

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a battery of morphological and functional tests for the assessment of small nerve fiber loss in asymptomatic diabetic neuropathy (DNP). Patients diagnosed for ?10 years with type 1 (n = 10) or type 2 (n = 13) diabetes mellitus (DM) without conventional symptoms or signs of DNP were recruited and compared with healthy controls (n = 18) and patients with overt DNP (n = 5). Intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFd) was measured with PGP9.5 immunostaining on punch skin biopsies performed at the distal leg. Functional tests consisted of quantitative sensory testing (QST) for light-touch, cool, warm and heat pain detection thresholds and brain-evoked potentials with electrical (SEPs) and CO(2) laser stimulation [laser-evoked potentials (LEPs)] of hand dorsum and distal leg using small (0.8 mm(2)) and large (20 mm(2)) beam sizes. Results confirmed a state of asymptomatic DNP in DM, but only at the distal leg. Defining a critical small fiber loss as a reduction of IENFd ?-2 z scores of healthy controls, this state prevailed in type 2 (30%) over type 1 DM (10%) patients despite similar disease duration and current glycemic control. LEPs with the small laser beam performed best in terms of sensitivity (91%), specificity (83%) and area-under-the ROC curve (0.924). Although this performance was not statically different from that of warm and cold detection threshold, LEPs offer an advantage over QST given that they bypass the subjective report and are therefore unbiased by perceptual factors. PMID:21472496

  8. Clinical spectrum of cryoglobulinaemic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gemignani, F; Brindani, F; Alfieri, S; Giuberti, T; Allegri, I; Ferrari, C; Marbini, A

    2005-01-01

    Background and objective: Cryoglobulinaemic neuropathy (CN) is probably common, as it is usually related to HCV infection. The aim of this study was to delineate the clinical spectrum of CN in a large series and to investigate the factors influencing its expression. Methods: Seventy one consecutive patients (12 men, 59 women), diagnosed as having CN on the basis of clinical features of neuropathy, clinical and serological findings of mixed cryoglobulinaemia, and exclusion criteria, were identified during a six year period. All patients underwent clinical examination, and electrophysiological and laboratory investigations. Results: Results of the patients with "pure" CN (n = 54) and those with comorbidities (n = 17) were evaluated separately. Of the former 76% had sensory neuropathy (including selective small fibre sensory neuropathy (SFSN) in 14 patients), 15% had sensorimotor polyneuropathy, and 9% had mononeuritis multiplex. The pattern of distribution was similar in the patients with comorbidities. In 30/54 patients, CN was the first manifestation of cryoglobulinaemia. Patients with mild cryoglobulinaemic syndrome had sensory neuropathy more frequently than patients with active syndrome (p<0.001), in particular SFSN (p<0.001). The latter group had more severe features, with significantly more cases of reduced or absent motor (p = 0.028) and sensory action potentials (p<0.001), and a tendency towards higher Rankin scores (p = 0.06). Conclusions: Sensory neuropathy, often in the form of SFSN, is by far the commonest form of CN. Cryoglobulinaemia should be vigorously investigated in the diagnosis of sensory neuropathy, especially in older women. Activity of the cryoglobulinaemic syndrome is a major factor influencing the clinical expression and severity of CN. PMID:16170087

  9. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups M7b1'2 and M8a affect clinical expression of leber hereditary optic neuropathy in Chinese families with the m.11778G-->a mutation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yanli; Zhang, A-Mei; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Xiao, Xueshan; Li, Shiqiang; Guo, Xiangming; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Zhang, Qingjiong; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2008-12-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most extensively studied mitochondrial disease, with the majority of the cases being caused by one of three primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations. Incomplete disease penetrance and gender bias are two features of LHON and indicate involvement of additional genetic or environmental factors in the pathogenesis of the disorder. Haplogroups J, K, and H have been shown to influence the clinical expression of LHON in subjects harboring primary mutations in European families. However, whether mtDNA haplogroups would affect the penetrance of LHON in East Asian families has not been evaluated yet. By studying the penetrance of LHON in 1859 individuals from 182 Chinese families (including one from Cambodia) with the m.11778G-->A mutation, we found that haplogroup M7b1'2 significantly increases the risk of visual loss, whereas M8a has a protective effect. Analyses of the complete mtDNA sequences from LHON families with m.11778G-->A narrow the association of disease expression to m.12811T-->C (Y159H) in the NADH dehydrogenase 5 gene (MT-ND5) in haplogroup M7b1'2 and suggest that the specific combination of amino acid changes (A20T-T53I) in the ATP synthase 6 protein (MT-ATP6) caused by m.8584G-->A and m.8684C-->T might account for the beneficial background effect of M8a. Protein secondary-structure prediction for the MT-ATP6 with the two M8a-specific amino acid changes further supported our inferences. These findings will assist in further understanding the pathogenesis of LHON and guide future genetic counseling in East Asian patients with m.11778G-->A. PMID:19026397

  10. Auditory Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... opinions about the potential benefits of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other technologies for people with auditory neuropathy. ... for some children and adults with auditory neuropathy. Cochlear implants (electronic devices that compensate for damaged or nonworking ...

  11. "Pseudo" hypertrophic neuropathy of childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Baba, M; Takada, H; Miura, H; Okushima, T; Matsunaga, M

    1995-01-01

    A 9 year old boy had chronic progressive motor-sensory neuropathy that started in early infancy. He had enlarged nerves and pes cavus deformity. Motor conduction studies showed very dispersed, polyphasic compound muscle action potentials with conduction velocities around 2 m/s. A sural nerve biopsy showed severe loss of myelinated fibres. Two months of treatment with corticosteroids restored muscle power. During this time the enlarged nerves became normal and electrophysiological recovery was achieved. Chronically acquired neuropathy in infancy is strikingly similar to genetically determined neuropathy. PMID:7876860

  12. Electrophysiological studies in diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Albert; Buchthal, Fritz

    1970-01-01

    In 30 patients with diabetic neuropathy sensory potentials in the median nerve, motor conduction in the lateral popliteal and median nerves, and electromyographic findings in distal and proximal muscles were compared with the severity of symptoms and signs. All patients had abnormalities in at least one of the electrophysiological parameters. The sensory potentials were the most sensitive indicator of subclinical involvement; abnormalities were found in 24 patients, 12 of whom had no sensory symptoms or signs and five of whom had no other clinical or electrophysiological evidence of neuropathy in the upper extremities. This indicates that sensory nerve fibres may be affected before motor. The next most sensitive parameter was the presence of fibrillation potentials, found in more than half the distal muscles examined. Slowing in motor conduction in the lateral popliteal nerve was the only electrophysiological change correlated to the severity of the neuropathy, and no other electrophysiological parameter was correlated to the duration or the severity of the neuropathy or the diabetes. An onset of neuropathy before or simultaneously with the manifestations of the diabetes, as well as the frequent occurrence of asymptomatic changes in sensory conduction, support the evidence at hand that the neuropathy develops concomitantly with and as an integral part of the metabolic disturbance rather than as a consequence of the vascular complications of diabetes. Of three patients with clinical signs or symptoms of a diabetic amyotrophy, two had asymptomatic electrophysiological abnormalities in distal nerves and muscles, consistent with widespread involvement of the peripheral nerves. The third patient had electromyographic changes in the medial vastus muscles suggestive of a myopathy. Motor and sensory conduction in distal and proximal nerves were normal. Images PMID:5505671

  13. Pattern Recognition Approach to Neuropathy and Neuronopathy

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J; Amato, Anthony A.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Neuropathic disorders encompass those that affect the neuron’s cell body or neuronopathies, those affecting the peripheral process, or peripheral neuropathies. The peripheral neuropathies can be broadly subdivided into the myelinopathies and axonopathies. These conditions can be hereditary or acquired. Each of these disorders has distinct clinical features that enable neurologists to recognize the various patterns of presentation. Once a particular pattern is established, further laboratory studies can be performed to confirm the clinical impression. PMID:23642713

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Ataxia neuropathy spectrum

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). As the name implies, people with ataxia ... weakness of the external muscles of the eye (ophthalmoplegia), which leads to drooping eyelids (ptosis). Other signs ...

  15. [Atypical neuropathies associated with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Lozeron, P

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes is the leading cause of neuropathy worldwide and, due to the epidemic progression of the affection, prevalence of diabetic neuropathies will increase in the near future. Beside the typical diabetic neuropathy pattern and the common entrapment neuropathies, several unusual clinical forms have been described with either a symmetrical or an asymmetrical pattern. Treatment-induced neuropathy is an acute sensory affection most commonly related to acute glycemic control. Pain is debilitating and associated with vegetative dysfunction. Prevention is important, as resolution is often incomplete. Several patterns or asymmetrical neuropathies of inflammatory and ischemic origin were described long ago in the lower limb. They are debilitating, most often painful and require steroid treatment. Other patterns affecting the thoracolumbar region or the upper limbs or involving a painless motor deficit must be identified as specific treatments are sometimes needed. An association between diabetes and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has not been demonstrated but diagnosis may be suggested due to the misleading low conduction velocities seen in classical diabetic neuropathy. Like any other patient, the diabetic patient may present a neuropathy unrelated to diabetes. To facilitate patient care, neurologists should be aware of such clinical entities. PMID:25459114

  16. Chronic dysimmune neuropathies: Beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Satish V.; Deshmukh, Shrikant S.; Dhonde, Pramod D.

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum of chronic dysimmune neuropathies has widened well beyond chronic demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Pure motor (multifocal motor neuropathy), sensorimotor with asymmetrical involvement (multifocal acquired demylinating sensory and motor neuropathy), exclusively distal sensory (distal acquired demyelinating sensory neuropathy) and very proximal sensory (chronic immune sensory polyradiculopathy) constitute the variants of CIDP. Correct diagnosis of these entities is of importance in terms of initiation of appropriate therapy as well as prognostication of these patients. The rates of detection of immune-mediated neuropathies with monoclonal cell proliferation (monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance, multiple myeloma, etc.) have been facilitated as better diagnostic tools such as serum immunofixation electrophoresis are being used more often. Immune neuropathies associated with malignancies and systemic vasculitic disorders are being defined further and treated early with better understanding of the disease processes. As this field of dysimmune neuropathies will evolve in the future, some of the curious aspects of the clinical presentations and response patterns to different immunosuppressants or immunomodulators will be further elucidated. This review also discusses representative case studies. PMID:21808468

  17. Properties of human skin mechanoreceptors in peripheral neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Mizobuchi; S Kuwabara; S Toma; Y Nakajima; K Ogawara; T Hattori

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the properties of mechanoreceptors in patients with peripheral neuropathy. The skin mechanoreceptor is a terminal organ of the primary sensory neuron, which is likely to be affected earlier and more severely than is the nerve trunk by peripheral neuropathies.Methods: Single sensory unit responses to air-puff and electric stimulation were recorded using the microneurographic technique in the glabrous

  18. Chemotherapy induced neuropathy in clinical practice Neuropatía inducida por quimioterapia en la práctica clínica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Camilo E. Fadul

    SUMMARY Neuropathic pain is a common symptom amongst patients with chemotherapy induced peripheral nerve neurotoxicity, and symptoms are indistinguishable from those seen with toxic neuropathy from other causes. The neuropathy is predominantly sensory and follows a glove-stocking distribution and associates with burning pain. Autonomic neuropathy manifested as constipation frequently occurs. There are some risk factors for neuropathy caused by chemotherapy:

  19. Neurophysiological aspects of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R A; Skuse, N F; Lethlean, A K

    1976-01-01

    1. Eighty-eight intrafascicular neural recordings were obtained in 10 normal subjects, 5 patients with axonal degeneration and 11 patients with demyelinating neuropathy. 2. Stimulus levels required for perception and fibre activation were higher in neuropathic subjects. Fibres transmitting touch perception had significantly lower conduction velocities in both patient groups, but were very much lower in the group with demyelinating neuropahty than the group with axonal degeneration. Maximum electrical stimulation evoked dispersed fibre responses in the axonal degeneration group and more dispersed, slowly conducting fibre potentials in the demyelinating group. In patients with hypertrophic Charcot-Marie-Tooth disorder, usually only a small group of slowly conducting low amplitude potentials was recorded. 3. Delivery of a train of supramaximal stimuli caused prolongation of latency and dispersion of fibre potentials in all microneurographic recordings. The changes were significantly greater in the axonal neuropathy group than in normals, and recovery was slower. The demyelinating neuropathies showed significantly greater changes than both the normal and the axonal neuropathy groups, and post-tetanic conduction slowing became even more marked after limb temperature was raised. 4. Surface SAP recordings showed normal refractory period in chronic axonal neuropathy but significant latency prolongation occurred in demyelinating neuropathy. 5. It is concluded that both receptor and nerve fibre abnormalities contribute to sensory dysfunction in degenerative and demyelinating neuropathies. PMID:196281

  20. [Sarcoid neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Koga, Michiaki

    2014-08-01

    Sarcoid neuropathy, a rare condition which is seen in 1% of patients with sarcoidosis, often emerges as one of the differential diagnoses of neuropathies with an unknown origin. Recent studies have revealed that sarcoid neuropathy shows a broader spectrum of clinical characteristics than previously expected, including a Guillain-Barré- or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-like presentation, small fiber neuropathy, and typical subacute multiple mononeuropathy. This makes the diagnosis difficult in certain cases. Due to the lack of diagnostic markers for this condition, neurological, laboratory, neurophysiological, and image analyses are all necessary to evaluate the probability of sarcoid neuropathy during differential diagnosis. This review mentions several cues for guiding the diagnosis, and diagnostic criteria. PMID:25082319

  1. ?3, a novel auxiliary subunit for the voltage gated sodium channel is upregulated in sensory neurones following streptozocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhaval S. Shah; M. Isabel Gonzalez; Steve Bramwell; Rob D. Pinnock; Kevin Lee; Alistair K. Dixon

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we have used in situ hybridization to examine the changes in mRNA expression of the voltage gated sodium channel subunits ?1 and ?3, which occur in response to streptozocin induced diabetic neuropathy. Under control conditions ?1 mRNA was detected throughout the spinal cord and in large dorsal root ganglion (DRG) A? fibres whilst ?3 mRNA was

  2. Asymptomatic small fiber neuropathy in diabetes mellitus: investigations with intraepidermal nerve fiber density, quantitative sensory testing and laser-evoked potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ragé; Nathalie Van Acker; Michiel W. M. Knaapen; Maarten Timmers; Johannes Streffer; Michel P. Hermans; Christian Sindic; Theo Meert; Léon Plaghki

    This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a battery of morphological and functional tests for the assessment of small\\u000a nerve fiber loss in asymptomatic diabetic neuropathy (DNP). Patients diagnosed for ?10 years with type 1 (n = 10) or type 2 (n = 13) diabetes mellitus (DM) without conventional symptoms or signs of DNP were recruited and compared with healthy controls\\u000a (n = 18) and patients

  3. Peripheral Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... may damage nerves and cause peripheral neuropathy. Medication toxicity can be caused by many agents in addition ... causes such as infection, toxin exposure, medication-related toxicity, vitamin deficiencies, hormonal deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, or compression ...

  4. Giant Axonal Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Giant Axonal Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Giant Axonal Neuropathy? Is there any treatment? ... being done? Clinical Trials What is Giant Axonal Neuropathy? Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare inherited ...

  5. Estimation of the size of the chromosome 17p11.2 duplication in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1a (CMT1a). HMSN Collaborative Research Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Raeymaekers; V Timmerman; E Nelis; W Van Hul; P De Jonghe; J J Martin; C Van Broeckhoven

    1992-01-01

    We have previously shown a duplication in 17p11.2 with probe pVAW409R3 (D17S122) in 12 families with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I (HMSN I) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1). In this study we aimed to estimate the size of the duplication using additional polymorphic DNA markers located in 17p11.2-p12. Two other 17p11.2 markers, pVAW412R3 (D17S125) and pEW401 (D17S61),

  6. Hereditary Hyperlipoproteinemias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nora, James J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Evidence and research indicate that the majority of cases of coronary artery disease represent familial disorders which are best explained by a polygenic hereditary predisposition interacting with emotional triggers such as diet and stress. Early identification is judged necessary. (Authors/JA)

  7. Advances in diagnostics and outcome measures in peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Merkies, Ingemar S J; Faber, Catharina G; Lauria, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are a group of acquired and hereditary disorders presenting with different distribution and nerve fiber class involvement. The overall prevalence is 2.4%, increasing to 8% in the elderly population. However, the frequency may vary depending on the underlying pathogenesis and association with systemic diseases. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy is the most common form, though multiple mononeuropathies, non-length dependent neuropathy and small fiber neuropathy can occur and may require specific diagnostic tools. The use of uniform outcome measures in peripheral neuropathies is important to improve the quality of randomized controlled trials, enabling comparison between studies. Recent developments in defining the optimal set of outcome measures in inflammatory neuropathies may serve as an example for other conditions. Diagnostic and outcome measure advances in peripheral neuropathies will be discussed. PMID:25703220

  8. Which lower limb frontal plane sensory and motor functions predict gait speed and efficiency on uneven surfaces in older persons with diabetic neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Allet, L.; Kim, H.; Ashton-Miller, J.A.; Richardson, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify which frontal plane lower limb sensorimotor functions predict gait speed and efficiency (step-width-to-step-length ratio) on an uneven surface. Design Cross sectional, observational study. Setting Biomechanics research laboratory. Participants Thirty-three subjects (14; 42.4% female and 21; 63.6% with diabetic distal symmetric peripheral neuropathy), with a spectrum of lower limb sensorimotor function ranging from normal to marked diabetic neuropathy. Methods Independent variables included ankle inversion/eversion proprioceptive thresholds, and normalized measures of maximum voluntary strength and maximum rate of torque development (RTD) of hip abduction/adduction and ankle inversion/eversion. Kinematic data were obtained using an optoelectronic system as subjects walked over an uneven 10m surface. Main Outcome Measures Dependent variables included gait speed and efficiency (determined by step-width-to-step-length ratio) on an uneven surface. Results Hip adduction RTD, ankle inversion RTD, and hip abduction maximal strength predicted XY% of gait speed, with the first predicting the majority (45%). Ankle inversion RTD was the only significant predictor of gait efficiency, accounting for 46% of its variability. Age predicted neither gait speed nor efficiency. Conclusions The rapid generation of strength in the frontal plane at the hip and ankle is responsible for the successful negotiation of irregular surfaces in older persons. Age demonstrated no independent influence. Training regimens in older persons should include maneuvers that develop strength rapidly in hip adductors and ankle invertors if navigation of uneven surfaces is a functional goal. PMID:22796383

  9. Peripheral neuropathy associated with mitochondrial disease in children.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Manoj P; Ouvrier, Robert A

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases in children are often associated with a peripheral neuropathy but the presence of the neuropathy is under-recognized because of the overwhelming involvement of the central nervous system (CNS). These mitochondrial neuropathies are heterogeneous in their clinical, neurophysiological, and histopathological characteristics. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of childhood mitochondrial neuropathy. Early recognition of neuropathy may help with the identification of the mitochondrial syndrome. While it is not definite that the characteristics of the neuropathy would help in directing genetic testing without the requirement for invasive skin, muscle or liver biopsies, there appears to be some evidence for this hypothesis in Leigh syndrome, in which nuclear SURF1 mutations cause a demyelinating neuropathy and mitochondrial DNA MTATP6 mutations cause an axonal neuropathy. POLG1 mutations, especially when associated with late-onset phenotypes, appear to cause a predominantly sensory neuropathy with prominent ataxia. The identification of the peripheral neuropathy also helps to target genetic testing in the mitochondrial optic neuropathies. Although often subclinical, the peripheral neuropathy may occasionally be symptomatic and cause significant disability. Where it is symptomatic, recognition of the neuropathy will help the early institution of rehabilitative therapy. We therefore suggest that nerve conduction studies should be a part of the early evaluation of children with suspected mitochondrial disease. PMID:22435634

  10. Mutation in NDUFA13/GRIM19 leads to early onset hypotonia, dyskinesia and sensorial deficiencies, and mitochondrial complex I instability.

    PubMed

    Angebault, Claire; Charif, Majida; Guegen, Naig; Piro-Megy, Camille; Mousson de Camaret, Benedicte; Procaccio, Vincent; Guichet, Pierre-Olivier; Hebrard, Maxime; Manes, Gael; Leboucq, Nicolas; Rivier, François; Hamel, Christian P; Lenaers, Guy; Roubertie, Agathe

    2015-07-15

    Mitochondrial complex I (CI) deficiencies are causing debilitating neurological diseases, among which, the Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and Leigh Syndrome are the most frequent. Here, we describe the first germinal pathogenic mutation in the NDUFA13/GRIM19 gene encoding a CI subunit, in two sisters with early onset hypotonia, dyskinesia and sensorial deficiencies, including a severe optic neuropathy. Biochemical analysis revealed a drastic decrease in CI enzymatic activity in patient muscle biopsies, and reduction of CI-driven respiration in fibroblasts, while the activities of complex II, III and IV were hardly affected. Western blots disclosed that the abundances of NDUFA13 protein, CI holoenzyme and super complexes were drastically reduced in mitochondrial fractions, a situation that was reproduced by silencing NDUFA13 in control cells. Thus, we established here a correlation between the first mutation yet identified in the NDUFA13 gene, which induces CI instability and a severe but slowly evolving clinical presentation affecting the central nervous system. PMID:25901006

  11. Enhanced Excitability of Primary Sensory Neurons and Altered Gene Expression of Neuronal Ion Channels in Dorsal Root Ganglion in Paclitaxel-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijun; Dougherty, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanism of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy after paclitaxel treatment is not well understood. Given the poor penetration of paclitaxel into central nervous system, peripheral nervous system is most at risk. Methods Intrinsic membrane properties of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were studied by intracellular recordings. Multiple-gene real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction array was used to investigate gene expression of DRG neuronal ion channels. Results Paclitaxel increased the incidence of spontaneous activity from 4.8% to 27.1% in large and from 0% to 33.3% in medium-sized neurons. Paclitaxel decreased the rheobase (nA) from 1.6 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.1 in large, from 1.5 ± 0.2 to 0.6 ± 0.1 in medium-sized, and from 1.6 ± 0.2 to 1.0 ± 0.1 in small neurons. After paclitaxel, other characteristics of membrane properties in each group remained the same except that A? neurons showed shorter action potential fall time (ms) (1.0 ± 0.2, n = 10 vs. 1.8 ± 0.3, n = 9, paclitaxel vs. vehicle). Meanwhile, real-time polymerase chain reaction array revealed an alteration in expression of some neuronal ion channel genes including upregulation of HCN1 (fold change 1.76 ± 0.06) and Nav1.7 (1.26 ± 0.02) and downregulation of Kir channels (Kir1.1, 0.73 ± 0.05, Kir3.4, 0.66 ± 0.06) in paclitaxel-treated animals. Conclusions The increased neuronal excitability and the changes in gene expression of some neuronal ion channels in DRG may provide insight into the molecular and cellular basis of paclitaxel neuropathy, which may lead to novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:24534904

  12. The evolutionarily conserved transcription factor PRDM12 controls sensory neuron development and pain perception.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Vanja; Cole, Tiffany; Van Campenhout, Claude; Khoung, Thang M; Leung, Calvin; Vermeiren, Simon; Novatchkova, Maria; Wenzel, Daniel; Cikes, Domagoj; Polyansky, Anton A; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Meixner, Arabella; Bellefroid, Eric J; Neely, G Gregory; Penninger, Josef M

    2015-06-18

    PR homology domain-containing member 12 (PRDM12) belongs to a family of conserved transcription factors implicated in cell fate decisions. Here we show that PRDM12 is a key regulator of sensory neuronal specification in Xenopus. Modeling of human PRDM12 mutations that cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) revealed remarkable conservation of the mutated residues in evolution. Expression of wild-type human PRDM12 in Xenopus induced the expression of sensory neuronal markers, which was reduced using various human PRDM12 mutants. In Drosophila, we identified Hamlet as the functional PRDM12 homolog that controls nociceptive behavior in sensory neurons. Furthermore, expression analysis of human patient fibroblasts with PRDM12 mutations uncovered possible downstream target genes. Knockdown of several of these target genes including thyrotropin-releasing hormone degrading enzyme (TRHDE) in Drosophila sensory neurons resulted in altered cellular morphology and impaired nociception. These data show that PRDM12 and its functional fly homolog Hamlet are evolutionary conserved master regulators of sensory neuronal specification and play a critical role in pain perception. Our data also uncover novel pathways in multiple species that regulate evolutionary conserved nociception. PMID:25891934

  13. [Autoimmune neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Hansen, P R

    1989-10-30

    Chronic progressive polyneuropathy is frequently cryptogenic but occurs in association with monoclonal gammopathy. In cases of this type, a relatively mild, mainly axonal sensomotor neuropathy is frequently present and may be difficult to distinguish from carcinomatous neuropathy in malignant conditions without the presence of the M-component. In benign essential gammopathy (MGUS) with an M-component of IgM-kappa class, the neuropathy is frequently demyelinizing and the paraprotein reacts specifically with carbohydrate determinants in myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and other glycoproteins and glycolipids in peripheral nerve tissue. Demonstration is undertaken by immune fluorescence investigation (eg on skin biopsy material) whereas serological diagnosis involves difficulties. There is much evidence to suggest that the autoimmune reaction is of significance for the development of nerve damage and uncontrolled trials have shown beneficial effects of immune suppression including plasmapherisis. The latter treatment should be considered in the Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuropathy and HIV-infection and also in motor neurone disease and IgM-MGUS, in which autoimmunological mechanisms may also be of pathophysiological significance. PMID:2686140

  14. Hereditary Cerebellar Ataxias: A Korean Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Sun; Cho, Jin Whan

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary ataxia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive ataxia combined with/without peripheral neuropathy, extrapyramidal symptoms, pyramidal symptoms, seizure, and multiple systematic involvements. More than 35 autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias have been designated as spinocerebellar ataxia, and there are 55 recessive ataxias that have not been named systematically. Conducting genetic sequencing to confirm a diagnosis is difficult due to the large amount of subtypes with phenotypic overlap. The prevalence of hereditary ataxia can vary among countries, and estimations of prevalence and subtype frequencies are necessary for planning a diagnostic strategy in a specific population. This review covers the various hereditary ataxias reported in the Korean population with a focus on the prevalence and subtype frequencies as the clinical characteristics of the various subtypes.

  15. CRYPTOGENIC SENSORY POLYNEUROPATHY

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause. They are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). The age of onset is variable but usually in the sixth to seventh decade of life, affecting men and women equally. CSPN symptoms progress slowly, most patients present with distal leg paresthesias or pain that progressed over years to involve the hands. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy of neuropathic pain (see Treatment of Painful Peripheral Neuropathy chapter) and physical therapy for balance training and occasionally assistive devices. PMID:23642719

  16. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

  17. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A A Listen En Espańol Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  18. Recombination hot spot in a 3.2-kb region of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A repeat sequences: new tools for molecular diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A. French CMT Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, J.; LeGuern, E.; Gouider, R.; Tardieu, S.; Abbas, N.; Birouk, N.; Gugenheim, M.; Bouche, P.; Agid, Y.; Brice, A.

    1996-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are autosomal dominant neuropathies, associated, respectively, with duplications and deletions of the same 1.5-Mb region on 17p11.2-p12. These two rearrangements are the reciprocal products of an unequal meiotic crossover between the two chromosome 17 homologues, caused by the misalignment of the CMT1A repeat sequences (CMT1A-REPs), the homologous sequences flanking the 1.5-Mb CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit. In order to map recombination breakpoints within the CMT1A-REPs, a 12.9-kb restriction map was constructed from cloned EcoRI fragments of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs. Only 3 of the 17 tested restriction sites were present in the proximal CMT1A-REP but absent in the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating a high degree of homology between these sequences. The rearrangements were mapped in four regions of the CMT1A-REPs by analysis of 76 CMT1A index cases and 38 HNPP patients, who where unrelated. A hot spot of crossover breakpoints, located in a 3.2-kb region, accounted for three-quarters of the rearrangements, detected after EcoRI/SacI digestion, by the presence of 3.2-kb and 7.8-kb junction fragments in CMT1A and HNPP patients, respectively. These junction fragments, which can be detected on classical Southern blots, permit molecular diagnosis. Other rearrangements can also be detected by gene dosage on the same Southern blots. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8651299

  19. Recombination hot spot in a 3.2-kb region of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A repeat sequences: new tools for molecular diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A. French CMT Collaborative Research Group.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J; LeGuern, E; Gouider, R; Tardieu, S; Abbas, N; Birouk, N; Gugenheim, M; Bouche, P; Agid, Y; Brice, A

    1996-06-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are autosomal dominant neuropathies, associated, respectively, with duplications and deletions of the same 1.5-Mb region on 17p11.2-p12. These two rearrangements are the reciprocal products of an unequal meiotic crossover between the two chromosome 17 homologues, caused by the misalignment of the CMT1A repeat sequences (CMT1A-REPs), the homologous sequences flanking the 1.5-Mb CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit. In order to map recombination breakpoints within the CMT1A-REPs, a 12.9-kb restriction map was constructed from cloned EcoRI fragments of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs. Only 3 of the 17 tested restriction sites were present in the proximal CMT1A-REP but absent in the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating a high degree of homology between these sequences. The rearrangements were mapped in four regions of the CMT1A-REPs by analysis of 76 CMT1A index cases and 38 HNPP patients, who where unrelated. A hot spot of crossover breakpoints, located in a 3.2-kb region, accounted for three-quarters of the rearrangements, detected after EcoRI/SacI digestion, by the presence of 3.2-kb and 7.8-kb junction fragments in CMT1A and HNPP patients, respectively. These junction fragments, which can be detected on classical Southern blots, permit molecular diagnosis. Other rearrangements can also be detected by gene dosage on the same Southern blots. PMID:8651299

  20. Therapeutic Angiogenesis Inhibits or Rescues Chemotherapy-induced Peripheral Neuropathy: Taxol and Thalidomide-induced Injury of Vasa Nervorum is Ameliorated by VEGF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf Kirchmair; Anne B Tietz; Eleftheria Panagiotou; Dirk H Walter; Marcy Silver; Young-Sup Yoon; Peter Schratzberger; Alberto Weber; Kengo Kusano; David H Weinberg; Allan H Ropper; Jeffrey M Isner; Douglas W Losordo

    2007-01-01

    Toxic neuropathy represents an important clinical problem in the use of the chemotherapeutic substances Taxol and thalidomide. Sensory neuropathy has a high incidence, lacks an effective treatment and is the dose-limiting factor for these drugs. The pathogenic basis of these neuropathies is unknown. We investigated the hypothesis that the experimental toxic neuropathies from Taxol and thalidomide results from destruction of

  1. [Painful neuropathies and small fiber involvement].

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, J-P

    2014-12-01

    It is customary to consider that a purely sensory and painful neuropathy accompanied by normal electroneuromyographic examination may be or must be a small fiber neuropathy. This leads to perform specific tests, such as measuring the intra-epidermal nerve fiber density on skin biopsy or neurophysiological tests, such as evoked potentials to noxious stimuli (laser) or quantification of thermal sensory thresholds. However, these tests are only sensitive to the loss of small fibers (A-delta and C), which does not reflect the mechanisms responsible for peripheral neuropathic pain. Selective loss of small sensory fibers inherently generates a sensory deficit that does not necessarily present a painful character. Also, assigning the cause of a painful neuropathy to a small fiber neuropathy has no pathophysiological sense, although there are indirect links between these two conditions. In fact, it is not possible to explain univocally peripheral neuropathic pain, which reflects complex and diverse mechanisms, involving different types of nerve fibers. In this context, the clinical and laboratory approach must be improved to better understand the underlying mechanisms. It is imperative to interpret the data provided by laboratory tests and to correlate these data to the clinical signs and symptoms presented by the patients. Thus, one must go beyond many a priori and misinterpretations that unfortunately exist in this area at present and are not based on any solid pathophysiological basis. PMID:25459125

  2. Localization of the mutation in an extended family with Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (HMSN I).

    PubMed Central

    Raeymaekers, P; Timmerman, V; De Jonghe, P; Swerts, L; Gheuens, J; Martin, J J; Muylle, L; De Winter, G; Vandenberghe, A; Van Broeckhoven, C

    1989-01-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I (HMSN I) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy. In some CMT families linkage has been reported with either the Duffy blood group or the APOA2 gene, both located on chromosome 1q. More recently, linkage has been found in six CMT families with two chromosome 17p markers. We extensively analyzed a multi-generation Charcot-Marie-Tooth family by using molecular genetic techniques in order to localize the CMT gene defect. First, we constructed a continuous linkage group of 11 chromosome 1 markers and definitely excluded chromosome 1 as the site of mutation. Second, we analyzed the family for linkage with chromosome 17. The two-point lod scores obtained with D17S58 and D17S71 proved that this Charcot-Marie-Tooth family is linked to chromosome 17. Moreover, multipoint linkage results indicated that the mutation is most likely located on the chromosome 17p arm, distal of D17S71. PMID:2589322

  3. Exploration of small fibers for testing diabetic neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawzia Chéliout-Héraut; N. Zrek; H. Khemliche; O. Varnet; D. Seret-Begue; M. Martinez; R. Nizou; F. Bour

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. – Electrophysiological exploration of neuropathies is a standard method of investigating the dysfunction of myelinated larger fibers (A?, A?). However, this method cannot test dysfunctions in other fibers. To evaluate the smaller (A?) and unmyelinated fiber (C-fibers) lesions a quantitative method has been perfected: the study of the sensory thresholds (quantitative sensory testing: QST). It allows the investigation of

  4. Exploration des petites fibres dans le dépistage des neuropathies diabétiques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fawzia Chéliout-Héraut; N. Zrek; H. Khemliche; O. Varnet; D. Seret-Begue; M. Martinez; R. Nizou; F. Bour

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. – Electrophysiological exploration of neuropathies is a standard method of investigating the dysfunction of myelinated larger fibers (A?, A?). However, this method cannot test dysfunctions in other fibers. To evaluate the smaller (A?) and unmyelinated fiber (C-fibers) lesions a quantitative method has been perfected: the study of the sensory thresholds (Quantitative Sensory Testing: QST). It allows the investigation of

  5. The variable clinical manifestations of ulnar neuropathies at the elbow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J D Stewart

    1987-01-01

    In twenty-five cases of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, the involvement of the fibres from three sensory and to four motor branches were examined clinically and, where possible, electrophysiologically. Of the sensory fibres, those from the terminal digital nerves were most commonly involved. The fibres to the hand muscles were much more frequently involved than those to the forearm muscles.

  6. Quality assessment of online patient education resources for peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hansberry, David R; Suresh, Ragha; Agarwal, Nitin; Heary, Robert F; Goldstein, Ira M

    2013-03-01

    Given its practicality, the internet is a primary resource for patients afflicted with diseases like peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, it is important that the readily available online resources on peripheral neuropathy are tailored to the general public, particularly concerning readability. Patient education resources were downloaded from the US National Library of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Neuropathy.org, GBS/CIDP Foundation International, Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation, Charcot-Marie-Tooth Association, Foundation for Peripheral Neuropathy, and Neuropathy Action Foundation websites. All patient education material related to peripheral neuropathy was evaluated for its level of readability using the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level. The FRE scores averaged 43.4 with only the US National Library of Medicine scoring above 60 (76.5). The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level scores averaged 11.0. All scores were above a seventh-grade level except the US National Library of Medicine, which had a score of a fifth-grade reading level. Most Americans may not fully benefit from patient education resources concerning peripheral neuropathy education on many of the websites. Only the US National Library of Medicine, which is written at a fifth-grade level, is likely to benefit the average American. PMID:23521643

  7. Fetal akinesia in metatropic dysplasia: The combined phenotype of chondrodysplasia and neuropathy?

    PubMed

    Unger, Sheila; Lausch, Ekkehart; Stanzial, Franco; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Stefanova, Irina; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nilius, Bernd; Zabel, Bernhard; Superti-Furga, Andrea

    2011-11-01

    Dominant mutations in the receptor calcium channel gene TRPV4 have been associated with a family of skeletal dysplasias (metatropic dysplasia, pseudo-Morquio type 2, spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type, brachyolmia, and familial digital arthropathy) as well as with dominantly inherited neuropathies (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 2C, scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy, and congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy). While there is phenotypic overlap between the various members of each group, the two groups were considered to be totally separate with the former being strictly a structural skeletal condition and the latter group being confined to the peripheral nervous system. We report here on fetal akinesia as the presenting feature of severe metatropic dysplasia, suggesting that certain TRPV4 mutations can cause both a skeletal and a neuropathic phenotype. Three cases were detected on prenatal ultrasound because of absent movements in the second trimester. Case 4 presented with multiple joint contractures and absent limb movements at birth and was diagnosed with "fetal akinesia syndrome". Post-interruption and post-natal X-rays showed typical features of metatropic dysplasia in all four. Sequencing of the TRPV4 gene confirmed the presence of de novo heterozygous mutations predicting G78W (Case 1), T740I (Cases 2 and 3), and K276E (Case 4). Although some degree of restriction of movements is not uncommon in fetuses with skeletal dysplasia, akinesia as leading sign is unusual and suggests that certain TRPV4 mutations produce both chondrodysplasia and a peripheral neuropathy resulting in a severe "overlap" phenotype. PMID:21964829

  8. Peripheral neuropathies of rheumatologic disease and gluten-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Reda, Haatem; Chin, Russell L

    2014-09-01

    Peripheral nervous system disease is a common and often debilitating feature of many systemic rheumatologic disorders. Such involvement takes many forms, reflecting the variety of underlying pathophysiology, though most patients present with painful multifocal neuropathy (usually vasculitic) or a distal sensory more than motor peripheral neuropathy (sometimes vasculitic and nearly always axonal). The presence of peripheral nervous system involvement is often an early signal of the generalization of inflammatory disease in blood vessels or extravascular tissues, though peripheral neuropathy is not itself an independent predictor of mortality. Nonetheless, progressive multifocal neuropathy, motor neuropathy, small fiber neuropathy, and sensory neuronopathy should be treated early and aggressively with immunosuppression (or the gluten-free diet in appropriate situations) to limit morbidity. Given the rapidly evolving therapeutic landscape, partnership with a rheumatologist is essential. Treatment is usually sustained for 1 to 2 years, and remission is possible in many cases within 6 to 12 months, with variable rates of relapse and treatment resistance. Patients should be meticulously monitored for relapse with serial laboratory testing, electrodiagnostic studies, and clinical examination. Functional rating scores, such as the neuropathy impairment scale and the total neuropathy score are useful for longitudinal assessment. PMID:25369437

  9. Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy (CHN)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that influence the formation of myelin, an insulating coating on nerve fibers (axons). CHN is inherited in ... these effects. Disease: Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Peripheral Neuropathies Printer-friendly version Send ...

  10. Neuropathy secondary to drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a loss of sensation or movement in a part of the body ... weakness. Many medications may affect the development of neuropathy, including: Heart or blood pressure medications Amiodarone Hydralazine ...

  11. Peripheral neuropathies 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Assal, J.P.; Liniger, C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors present results and experience in sixteen specific disciplines related to the study of nerve physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment. Twenty-two different peripheral neuropathies are presented, and different models related to health care strategies are discussed. The authors report on Inflammatory and autoimmune neuropathies and Genetic neuropathies.

  12. Neuropathy target esterase (NTE): overview and future.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Rudy J; Hein, Nichole D; Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva J; Fink, John K; Makhaeva, Galina F

    2013-03-25

    Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) was discovered by M.K. Johnson in his quest for the entity responsible for the striking and mysterious paralysis brought about by certain organophosphorus (OP) esters. His pioneering work on OP neuropathy led to the view that the biochemical lesion consisted of NTE that had undergone OP inhibition and aging. Indeed, nonaging NTE inhibitors failed to produce disease but protected against neuropathy from subsequently administered aging inhibitors. Thus, inhibition of NTE activity was not the culprit; rather, formation of an abnormal protein was the agent of the disorder. More recently, however, Paul Glynn and colleagues showed that whereas conventional knockout of the NTE gene was embryonic lethal, conditional knockout of central nervous system NTE produced neurodegeneration, suggesting to these authors that the absence of NTE rather than its presence in some altered form caused disease. We now know that NTE is the 6th member of a 9-protein family called patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing proteins, PNPLA1-9. Mutations in the catalytic domain of NTE (PNPLA6) are associated with a slowly developing disease akin to OP neuropathy and hereditary spastic paraplegia called NTE-related motor neuron disorder (NTE-MND). Furthermore, the NTE protein from affected individuals has altered enzymological characteristics. Moreover, closely related PNPLA7 is regulated by insulin and glucose. These seemingly disparate findings are not necessarily mutually exclusive, but we need to reconcile recent genetic findings with the historical body of toxicological data indicating that inhibition and aging of NTE are both necessary in order to produce neuropathy from exposure to certain OP compounds. Solving this mystery will be satisfying in itself, but it is also an enterprise likely to pay dividends by enhancing our understanding of the physiological and pathogenic roles of the PNPLA family of proteins in neurological health and disease, including a potential role for NTE in diabetic neuropathy. PMID:23220002

  13. Pathogenesis and Treatment of Immune-Mediated Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Helmar C.; zu Horste, Gerd Meyer; Kieseier, Bernd C.

    2009-01-01

    Immune-mediated neuropathies represent a heterogeneous spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders that can be classified according to time course, predominant involvement of motor/sensory fibers, distribution of deficits and paraclinical parameters such as electrophysiology and serum antibodies. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in elucidating underlying pathomechanisms, which made it possible to identify potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the latest development in pathogenesis and treatment of immune-mediated neuropathies. PMID:21179533

  14. Interferon alfa treatment for Sjogren's syndrome associated neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Mori, K; Matsuo, K; Inukai, A; Kawagashira, Y; Sobue, G

    2005-04-01

    Treatment response to interferon alfa (IFNalpha) is described in three consecutive cases of two forms of Sjogren's syndrome associated neuropathy (SSN)-two with sensory ataxic ganglionopathy and one with sensorimotor neuropathy with demyelinating features. All responded well to IFNalpha in terms of neuropathic symptoms, sicca symptoms, antibody titres, and findings in salivary gland biopsy specimens. IFNalpha thus showed promise in treating both SSN and the underlying Sjogren's syndrome. PMID:15774450

  15. Pyridoxine induced neuropathy by subcutaneous administration in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jin-Young; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Hwang, Cheol-Yong

    2008-01-01

    To construct a sensory neuropathy model, excess pyridoxine (150 mg/kg s.i.d.) was injected subcutaneously in dogs over a period of 7 days. During the administrations period, the dogs experienced body weight reduction and proprioceptive loss involving the hindquarters. After pyridoxine administration was completed, electrophysiological recordings showed that the M wave remained at a normal state, but the H-reflex of the treated dogs disappeared at 7 days. The dorsal funiculus of L4 was disrupted irregularly in the axons and myelin with vacuolation. The dorsal root ganglia of L4, and sciatic and tibial nerves showed degenerative changes and vacuolation. However, the lateral and ventral funiculi of L4 showed a normal histopathologic pattern. Although this subcutaneous administration method did not cause systemic toxicity and effectively induced sensory neuropathy, this study confirmed the possibility of producing a pyridoxine-induced sensory neuropathy model in dogs with short-term administration. PMID:18487933

  16. Assessment of Recovery from Burn Related Neuropathy by Electrodiagnostic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, Vincent; Kowalske, Karen J.; Holavanahalli, Radha K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the recovery of burn related neuropathies by electrodiagnostic testing. Burn patients who presented to an American Burn Association verified burn center were interviewed and examined for clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathies by a physiatrist. Patients whom consented to participate were tested for electrodiagnostic evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Repeated studies were performed to assess for evidence of recovery. A total of 370 patients were screened. 36 (9.73%) patients had clinical evidence of neuropathy. Eighteen male patients with a mean total body surface area burn of 42% had nerve conduction studies performed. Etiologies of the injuries included 8 flame, 8 electrical and 3 others. Seventy three nerve conduction studies were performed and 58 of the tests were abnormal. The most commonly affected nerve was the median sensory (10). For patients with repeated tests, the mean time between tests was 169 days (SD 140 days). There was a significant difference between the initial and follow up test (McNemar’s change test p=0.009). In subset analysis of motor and sensory abnormalities, there was no significant difference (p=0.07). The most common neuropathy identified in this cohort was the median sensory. Overall, there was improvement in the nerve conduction abnormalities examined. This study suggests that the prognosis for recovery after burn related neuropathy is good. PMID:19506500

  17. Machado-Joseph disease presenting as severe asymmetric proximal neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    van Schaik, I N; Jobsis, G; Vermeulen, M; Keizers, H; Bolhuis, P; de Visser, M

    1997-01-01

    Despite much effort, a 74 year old man with progressive proximal weakness and sensory disturbances due to axonal neuropathy remained a diagnostic problem. Investigation of his family disclosed an additional patient with a cerebellar syndrome and a family member with mainly pyramidal features. Analysis of DNA showed a CAG repeat expansion in the Machado-Joseph disease gene in all three patients. Although not conclusively proved, we think that the neuropathy of the index case is linked to the CAG repeat expansion. Machado-Joseph disease should be considered in progressive axonal neuropathy.?? PMID:9343141

  18. Mitochondrial Optic Neuropathies: How Two Genomes may Kill the Same Cell Type?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerio Carelli; Chiara La Morgia; Luisa Iommarini; Rosanna Carroccia; Marina Mattiazzi; Simonetta Sangiorgi; Sabrina Farne’; Alessandra Maresca; Beatrice Foscarini; Lucia Lanzi; Marcello Amadori; Marzio Bellan; Maria Lucia Valentino

    2007-01-01

    Ocular involvement is a prevalent feature in mitochondrial diseases. Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and dominant\\u000a optic atrophy (DOA) are both non-syndromic optic neuropathies with a mitochondrial etiology. LHON is associated with point\\u000a mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which affect subunit genes of complex I. The majority of DOA patients harbor mutations\\u000a in the nuclear-encoded protein OPA1, which is

  19. Differential diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and related neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pareyson

    2004-01-01

    The diagnosis of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and related neuropathies (e. g. Déjčrine-Sottas disease; hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies) appears to be easy. However, the incredible advances in molecular genetics have greatly complicated the classification of these disorders, and the proper diagnosis of the CMT subtype may be important for correct genetic counselling and prognosis. Moreover, these diseases may

  20. Somatic and autonomic small fiber neuropathy induced by bortezomib therapy: an immunofluorescence study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Pia Giannoccaro; Vincenzo Donadio; Carolina Gomis Pčrez; Walter Borsini; Vitantonio Di Stasi; Rocco Liguori

    2011-01-01

    Bortezomib is a new chemotherapeutic agent approved for the treatment of relapsed\\/refractory and newly diagnosed multiple\\u000a myeloma. One of the major side effects of bortezomib is a peripheral length-dependent sensory axonal neuropathy and, less\\u000a frequently, a small fiber neuropathy. Autonomic symptoms like postural dizziness, syncope, diarrhoea, ileus, impotence and\\u000a urinary disturbances have been reported, nevertheless, autonomic neuropathy has never been

  1. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in peripheral neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Paul; Calcutt, Nigel A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal neuronal calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis has been implicated in numerous diseases of the nervous system. The pathogenesis of two increasingly common disorders of the peripheral nervous system, namely neuropathic pain and diabetic polyneuropathy, has been associated with aberrant Ca2+ channel expression and function. Here we review the current state of knowledge regarding the role of Ca2+ dyshomeostasis and associated mitochondrial dysfunction in painful and diabetic neuropathies. The central impact of both alterations of Ca2+ signalling at the plasma membrane and also intracellular Ca2+ handling on sensory neuron function is discussed and related to abnormal endoplasmic reticulum performance. We also present new data highlighting sub-optimal axonal Ca 2+ signalling in diabetic neuropathy and discuss the putative role for this abnormality in the induction of axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies. The accumulating evidence implicating Ca2+ dysregulation with both painful and degenerative neuropathies, along with recent advances in understanding of regional variations in Ca2+ channel and pump structures, makes modulation of neuronal Ca2+ handling an increasingly viable approach for therapeutic interventions against the painful and degenerative aspects of many peripheral neuropathies. PMID:20034667

  2. Entrapment neuropathies III: lower limb.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Luis S; Bencardino, Jenny; Ghazikhanian, Varand; Beltran, Javier

    2010-11-01

    Clinicians frequently encounter compressive neuropathies of the lower extremity. The clinical history and physical examination, along with electrodiagnostic testing and imaging studies, lead to the correct diagnosis. The imaging characteristics of the compression neuropathies can include acute and chronic changes in the nerves and the muscles they innervate. We provide a detailed review of compression neuropathies of the lower extremity with an emphasis on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics. We discuss the clinical presentation, etiology, anatomical location, and MR imaging appearance of these neuropathies, including the piriformis syndrome, iliacus syndrome, saphenous neuropathy, obturator neuropathy, lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy (meralgia paresthetica), proximal tibial neuropathy, common peroneal neuropathy, deep peroneal neuropathy, superficial peroneal neuropathy, tarsal tunnel syndrome, Baxter's neuropathy, jogger's foot, sural neuropathy, and Morton's neuroma. PMID:21072728

  3. CXCR4 chemokine receptor signaling mediates pain hypersensitivity in association with antiretroviral toxic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia K. Bhangoo; Dongjun Ren; Richard J. Miller; David M. Chan; Matthew S. Ripsch; Clarissa Weiss; Christian McGinnis; Fletcher A. White

    2007-01-01

    Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to produce painful neuropathies and to enhance states of pain hypersensitivity produced by HIV-1 infection. It has also been observed that in some neuropathic pain models, chemokines and their receptors are upregulated, perhaps contributing to the pain state. In order to understand if chemokines are involved in NRTI-mediated sensory neuropathies, we treated rats

  4. Cutaneous silent period changes in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with small fiber neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Onal; U. H. Ulas; O. Oz; V. S. Bek; M. Yucel; A. Tasl?p?nar; Z. Odabas?

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveSmall myelinated (A-?) and unmyelinated (C) somatic sensory fibers are initially affected and may be the earliest exhibited sign of neuropathy in glucose dysmetabolism. Cutaneous silent period (CSP) is an inhibitory spinal reflex and its afferents consist of A-? nerve fibers. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP changes in Type 2 diabetic patients with small fiber neuropathy.

  5. Small fiber neuropathy following vaccination for rabies, varicella or Lyme disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nizar Souayah; Senda Ajroud-Driss; Howard W. Sander; Thomas H. Brannagan; Arthur P. Hays; Russell L. Chin

    2009-01-01

    Neuropathy following vaccination has been reported; however, biopsy-confirmed small fiber neuropathy has not been described. We report five patients who developed paresthesias within one day to two months following vaccination for rabies, varicella zoster, or Lyme disease. On examination, there was mild sensory loss in distal extremities, preserved strength, normal or minimally abnormal electrodiagnostic findings, and decreased epidermal nerve fiber

  6. [HIV-associated neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Hahn, K; Husstedt, I W

    2010-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated polyneuropathy has become the most common neurological complication of HIV infection and is one of the main risk factors for development of a neuropathy worldwide. Therefore HIV should always be considered as an underlying cause in patients with neuropathy. Many types of peripheral neuropathies are seen in HIV infection depending on the stage of infection. The inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies both acute (Guillain-Barré syndrome, GBS) and chronic (chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, CIDP) occur mainly at the time of seroconversion or early in the course of the disease while syndromes associated with opportunistic infections like CMV (i.e. polyradiculoneuropathy) occur in the late phase of HIV infection and are related to the loss of immune function. Distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common neuropathy in HIV-infected patients. We review the clinical manifestations, epidemiology, clinical diagnostics, pathophysiology and management strategies for HIV-associated polyneuropathies. PMID:20195565

  7. Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Nardin; Roy Freeman

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the most prevalent peripheral neuropathy in the Western world. It has been reported to affect\\u000a nearly 50% of people with diabetes (1,2). It is responsible for a significant proportion of the mortality and morbidity that accompany diabetes and ranks third in\\u000a lifetime expenditures associated with diabetic complications (3). Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was until recently thought to

  8. Hereditary Congenital External Ophthalmoplegia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Houtman; T. W. van Weerden; P. H. Robinson; B. de Vries; Tj. U. Hoogenraad

    1986-01-01

    Several members of a large pedigree suffering from hereditary congenital external ophthalmoplegia, an autosomal hereditary disorder of ocular movements, were examined and surgically treated. From nystagmographic findings it was concluded that the main cause of this disorder is of supranuclear origin. Specimen of the inferior oblique muscle revealed no abnormalities or showed decrease of type I muscle fibers.

  9. Giant axonal neuropathy: a rare inherited neuropathy with simple clinical clues.

    PubMed

    Kamate, Mahesh; Ramakrishna, Shashikala; Kambali, Shweta; Mahadevan, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterised by accumulation of excess neurofilaments in the axons of peripheral and central nervous systems, which hampers signal transmission. It usually manifests in infancy and early childhood and is slowly progressive. Those affected with GAN have characteristic curly kinky hair, everted feet and a crouched gait, which suggest the diagnosis in most cases. We describe twin children who presented with difficulty in walking and an abnormal gait since they began walking; clinical clues such as hair changes led us to the final diagnosis. PMID:25216920

  10. Genetic determination of motor neuron disease and neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vrebalov Cindro, Pavle; Vrebalov Cindro, Veselin

    2015-03-01

    Following the completion of the Human Genome Project, a lot of progress has been made in understanding the genetic basis of motor neuron diseases (MNDs) and neuropathies. Spinal Muscular Atrophies (SMA) are caused by mutations in the SMN1 gene localized on Chromosome 5q11. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) has been found to have at least 18 different types, many of them associated to different genetic loci (e.g. SOD1, ALS2, SETX, FUS, VAPB, ANG, TARDBP and others), but many of the forms have still not been associated with a particular gene. Sensomotoric hereditary neuropathies (Charcot-Marie-Tooth) are a large heterogeneous group of various hereditary neuropathies, which have also been associated with a wide spectrum of genetic mutations, such as PMP22, LITAF, EGR2, P0 protein, KIF1B, MFN2, RAB7 and others. It is also apparent that more genes are being implicated, mutations discovered, and phenotypes recognised and broadened. Therefore, a lot of continuing, additional research effort will be required in the coming years to illuminate pathogenic mechanisms that underlie motor neuron diseases and neuropathies and that could lead to new and improved treatments. PMID:26040103

  11. Somatic and autonomic small fiber neuropathy induced by bortezomib therapy: an immunofluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Giannoccaro, Maria Pia; Donadio, Vincenzo; Gomis Pčrez, Carolina; Borsini, Walter; Di Stasi, Vitantonio; Liguori, Rocco

    2011-04-01

    Bortezomib is a new chemotherapeutic agent approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. One of the major side effects of bortezomib is a peripheral length-dependent sensory axonal neuropathy and, less frequently, a small fiber neuropathy. Autonomic symptoms like postural dizziness, syncope, diarrhoea, ileus, impotence and urinary disturbances have been reported, nevertheless, autonomic neuropathy has never been characterized. We describe by means of immunofluorescence, the involvement of autonomic skin nerve fibers in three patients with small fiber neuropathy induced by bortezomib treatment. PMID:21290160

  12. Treatment of peripheral neuropathies.

    PubMed Central

    Hallett, M; Tandon, D; Berardelli, A

    1985-01-01

    There are three general approaches to treatment of peripheral neuropathy. First, an attempt should be made to reverse the pathophysiological process if its nature can be elucidated. Second, nerve metabolism can be stimulated and regeneration encouraged. Third, even if the neuropathy itself cannot be improved, symptomatic therapy can be employed. This review outlines the options available for each approach. PMID:3003254

  13. Chronic Neuropathies – Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Neuropathy and Its Variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sindhu Ramchandren; Richard A. Lewis

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic neuropathy is a highly prevalent condition, and an enormous burden to society, from a health, social and financial standpoint. Identifying new therapeutic strategies that have asignificant impact on the neuropathy patients’ quality of life has been difficult. Objective: This review presents a brief perspective on clinical evaluation of chronic neuropathies, with a focus on chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy

  14. HSPB1 and HSPB8 in inherited neuropathies: study of an Italian cohort of dHMN and CMT2 patients.

    PubMed

    Capponi, Simona; Geroldi, Alessandro; Fossa, Paola; Grandis, Marina; Ciotti, Paola; Gulli, Rossella; Schenone, Angelo; Mandich, Paola; Bellone, Emilia

    2011-12-01

    Mutations in the small heat-shock protein 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1) and 22 kDa protein 8 (HSPB8) genes were associated with distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN) and with the axonal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Here we report the clinical and molecular evaluation of an Italian dHMN and CMT2 cohort to establish HSPB1 and HSPB8 mutation occurrence and associated clinical features. One hundred and sixty-seven patients with dHMN or CMT2 were studied. HSPB1 and HSPB8 exons 1 and 3 molecular analysis was carried out through DHPLC and direct sequencing of each variant chromatogram. HSPB8 exon 2 was analyzed by direct sequencing. Four mutations in five unrelated dHMN patients and four mutations in four unrelated CMT2 cases were found in HSPB1. The p.Arg136Leu mutation was found in two patients with different phenotypes. Electroneurographical follow-up study in a dHMN patient revealed that sensory impairment occurred with disease progression. The HSPB1 mutation frequency was 8% in dHMN and 4% in CMT2 patients. The significant HSPB1 mutation frequency in both phenotypes indicates its relevance in the pathogenesis of these neuropathies. Recent literature data suggest a continuum between dHMN and CMT2. We confirm this finding in our cohort, proposing a definite relationship between these disorders. PMID:22176143

  15. Evaluation of neuropathy during intensive vincristine chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dorchin, M; Masoumi Dehshiri, R; Soleiman, S; Manashi, M

    2013-01-01

    Back ground: Vincristine (VCR), is a chemotherapy drug, useful in the treatment of leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumor and it is a potent neurotoxin and sensory neuropathy drug which a common behavioral toxicity of this drug. Neuropathy is common squeal of intensive chemotherapy protocols that contain vincristine and corticosteroids. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective and descriptive study of neuropathy during in chemotherapy program with vincristine for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Data was analyzed by spss Version16 software. Results: From total of 51 cases, 23 patients had vincristine neuropathy (45%). Patients with visceral neuropathy have shown ileus, constipation in 13 patients (25%), occasionally severe diarrhea 11 (21%), mild diarrhea 7 (13.7%) and transient diarrhea in 16 patients (31%). Motor neuropathy were found in one patient with Bell, s palsy (1.9%) and one patient with Hoarseness. 12 patients (23.5%) had some type of complication together with sensory peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion: Almost half of patients with vincristin chemotherapy had neuropathy and the mean age of patients with neuropathy was 12.3 years. PMID:24575286

  16. Hereditary Hemochromatosis (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... buildup can be prevented. Doctors usually diagnose iron overload with these blood tests: serum ferritin : measures the ... disease. Back Continue Treatment Doctors treat the iron overload from hereditary hemochromatosis by regularly drawing blood to ...

  17. Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevin, N. C.

    1971-01-01

    Case studies of two siblings suffering from a gum disorder in which enlargement of the gingival mucosa is caused by a fibrosis. The disorder in the two children was felt to be an hereditary recessive trait. (CD)

  18. Bilateral brachial plexus compressive neuropathy (crutch palsy).

    PubMed

    Raikin, S; Froimson, M I

    1997-01-01

    Brachial plexus compressive neuropathy following the use of axillary crutches (crutch palsy) is a rare but well-recognized entity. Most reported cases involve the posterior cord of the brachial plexus in children and have resolved spontaneously within 8-12 weeks. We recently treated a 36-year-old man who was using axillary crutches for mobilization after a supracondylar femoral fracture. Bilateral posterior cord (predominantly radial nerve) compressive neuropathy subsequently developed, with lesser involvement of the ulnar and median nerves. The patient had little to no improvement clinically 8 weeks after the estimated onset of the palsy, and an electromyogram at that time confirmed the presence of a severe axonotmesis lesion of the radial, median, and ulnar nerves bilaterally. The patient was treated with static cock-up wrist splinting and discontinuation of the axillary crutches. Return of sensory and motor function was delayed but occurred within 9 months. PMID:9057152

  19. [Vitamin D and neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Putz, Zsuzsanna; Martos, Tímea; Németh, Nóra; Körei, Anna Erzsébet; Szabó, Márta; Vági, Orsolya Erzsébet; Kempler, Miklós Soma; Kempler, Péter

    2013-12-22

    Diabetes is a widespread disease and, therefore, studies dealing with diabetes and its complications are very important for public health. Numerous reports link vitamin D deficiency to the increased risk of diabetes mellitus and complications such as neuropathy. However, there are limited and conflicting data available on vitamin D deficiency in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Studies in type 2 diabetics confirmed the relationship between vitamin D deficiency and incidence of neuropathy. Recent reports suggest a relationship between the incidence of plantar ulcers and vitamin D deficiency. PMID:24334132

  20. Epidemiology and clinical features of HIV-1 associated neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Verma, A

    2001-03-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is common in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Peripheral neuropathies complicate all stages of the HIV-1 disease and cause considerable morbidity and disability in HIV-1 infected individuals and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Whereas symptomatic neuropathies occur in approximately 10% to 15% of HIV-1-infected patients overall, pathologic evidence of peripheral nerve involvement is present in virtually all end-stage AIDS patients. There are 6 major clinical types of HIV-associated neuropathies that are regularly seen in large HIV-1 clinics. Distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is the most common among the HIV-1-associated neuropathies. DSP generally occurs in later stages of HIV-1 infection and it follows an indolent and protracted clinical course. The dominant clinical features in DSP include distal pain, paresthesia and numbness in a typical length-dependent fashion with proximal to distal gradient. Whereas toxic neuropathies--secondary to certain antiretroviral agents--are clinically similar to DSP, their temporal relation to neurotoxic medication helps distinguish them from other HIV-1-associated neuropathies. DSP and toxic neuropathy may coexist in a single patient. Acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies (AIDP and CIDP) produce global limb weakness. AIDP may occur at seroconversion and it can therefore be the initial manifestation of HIV-1 infection. CIDP generally occurs in the mid to late stages of HIV-1 infection. Progressive polyradiculopathy (PP) occurs in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and is generally caused by the opportunist cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Mononeuropathy multiplex (MM) in early stages of HIV-1 infection is immune mediated, whereas in advanced AIDS it is caused by the CMV infection. Finally, subclinical autonomic nervous system involvement is common in all stages of HIV-1 infection. Because HIV-1-associated neuropathies are diverse in their etiology and pathogenesis, a precise clinical diagnosis is required to formulate a rational therapeutic intervention. PMID:11293807

  1. Genetic Screening for OPA1 and OPA3 Mutations in Patients with Suspected Inherited Optic Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Shankar, Suma P.; Biousse, Valérie; Miller, Neil R.; Bean, Lora J.H.; Coffee, Bradford; Hegde, Madhuri; Newman, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (DOA) is one of the most common inherited optic neuropathies, and it is genetically heterogeneous, with mutations in both OPA1 and OPA3 known to cause disease. About 60% of cases harbor OPA1 mutations, whereas OPA3 mutations have only been reported in two pedigrees with DOA and premature cataracts. The aim of this study was to determine the yield of OPA1 and OPA3 screening in a cohort of presumed DOA cases referred to a tertiary diagnostic laboratory. Design Retrospective case series. Participants One hundred and eighty-eight probands with bilateral optic atrophy referred for molecular genetic investigations at a tertiary diagnostic facility: 38 patients with an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance and 150 sporadic cases. Methods OPA1 and OPA3 genetic testing was initially performed using PCR-based sequencing methods. The presence of large-scale OPA1 and OPA3 genomic rearrangements was further assessed with a targeted comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray platform. The three primary Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutations, m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C, were also screened in all patients. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of patients with OPA1 and OPA3 pathogenic mutations. The clinical profile observed in molecularly confirmed DOA cases. Results We found 21 different OPA1 mutations in 27 of the 188 (14.4%) probands screened. The mutations included six novel pathogenic variants and the first reported OPA1 initiation codon mutation at c.1A>T. An OPA1 missense mutation, c.239A>G (p.Y80C), was identified in an 11-year-old African-American girl with optic atrophy and peripheral sensori-motor neuropathy in her lower limbs. The OPA1 detection rate was significantly higher among individuals with a positive family history of visual failure (50.0%) compared with sporadic cases (5.3%). The primary LHON screen was negative in our patient cohort, and additional molecular investigations did not reveal any large-scale OPA1 rearrangements or OPA3 genetic defects. The mean baseline visual acuity for our OPA1-positive group was 0.48 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) (Mean Snellen equivalent = 20/61, range = 20/20–20/400, 95% confidence interval = 20/52–20/71), and visual deterioration occurred in 54.2% of patients during follow-up. Conclusions OPA1 mutations are the most common genetic defects identified in patients with suspected DOA, whereas OPA3 mutations are very rare in isolated optic atrophy cases. PMID:21036400

  2. Toxic optic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anat Kesler; Pazit Pianka

    2003-01-01

    Toxic optic neuropathy is a complex, multifactorial disease potentially affecting individuals of all ages, races, places,\\u000a and economic strata. Etiology includes nutritional, environmental, toxicologic, and genetic factors. Most cases of nutritional\\u000a amblyopia are encountered in disadvantaged countries. However, toxic amblyopia related to drug treatment or alcohol abuse\\u000a is also encountered in the Western world. Typically, toxic and nutritional optic neuropathy

  3. Ischemic Optic Neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony C. Arnold

    ? Ischemic optic neuropathy is classified by location as anterior or posterior and by etiology as arteritic or nonarteritic.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) presents with rapid, usually painless, monocular visual field loss in the presence\\u000a of optic disc edema. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? Arteritic AION is typically more severe and more frequently bilateral than nonarteritic AION, and is associated with severe

  4. Painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Amanda; Goutman, Stephen A; Callaghan, Brian C

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic, and associated neuropathy is its most costly and disabling complication. Given the rising prevalence of painful diabetic neuropathy, it is increasingly important that we understand the best ways to diagnose and treat this condition. Diagnostic tests in this field are evolving rapidly. These include the use of skin biopsies to measure small unmyelinated fibers, as well as even newer techniques that can measure both small unmyelinated fibers and large myelinated fibers in the same biopsy. The main treatments for painful diabetic neuropathy remain management of the underlying diabetes and drugs for the relief of pain. However, emerging evidence points to major differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including the ability of glycemic control to prevent neuropathy. Enhanced glucose control is much more effective at preventing neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2 disease [corrected]. This dichotomy emphasizes the need to study the pathophysiologic differences between the two types of diabetes, because different treatments may be needed for each condition. The impact of the metabolic syndrome on neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes may account for the difference between the two types of diabetes and requires further study. Finally, neuropathic pain is under-recognized and undertreated despite an ever evolving list of effective drugs. Evidence exists to support several drugs, but the optimal sequence and combination of these drugs are still to be determined. PMID:24803311

  5. Diminished Superoxide Generation Is Associated With Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Changes in the Mitochondrial Proteome of Sensory Neurons From Diabetic Rats

    E-print Network

    Akude, Eli; Zherebitskaya, Elena; Chowdhury, Subir K. Roy; Smith, Darrell R.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Fernyhough, Paul

    2011-09-28

    OBJECTIVE Impairments in mitochondrial function have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of diabetic sensory neuropathy. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in axons of sensory neurons in type 1 diabetes is due...

  6. Retinoic acid reduces solvent-induced neuropathy and promotes neural regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Palencia, Guadalupe; Hernández-Pedro, Norma; Saavedra-Perez, David; Peńa-Curiel, Omar; Ortiz-Plata, Alma; Ordońez, Graciela; Flores-Estrada, Diana; Sotelo, Julio; Arrieta, Oscar

    2014-08-01

    In humans, exposure to organic solvents (OS) is frequent in work activities or as a recreational inhalant, inducing severe neuropathy (secondary to demyelization of peripheral nerves). We have previously shown that all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) increases local content of neural growth factor (NGF), improving peripheral neuropathy of diverse origins. In this study, we evaluated the effect of ATRA on OS-induced peripheral neuropathy in experimental mice. Two simultaneous experiments were performed. The first one aimed to evaluate ATRA for the prevention of damage induced by OS, the second to test ATRA as an OS-induced neuropathy treatment. Nociceptive threshold latency and NGF concentration in serum and in peripheral nerves were determined. Morphological changes and evidence of sciatic nerve regeneration were evaluated. Mice exposed to OS developed neuropathy and axonal degeneration. ATRA diminished the effects of OS inhalation on sensorial changes and nerve morphology. Treatment with ATRA reversed sensorial and nerve morphological changes of OS-induced neuropathy, and this was associated with increased contents of NGF. Similar to previous experiences on diabetic and toxic neuropathy, ATRA reduced and partially reversed the peripheral neuropathy caused by OS exposure. These favorable effects apparently are due to local production of NGF induced by neural regeneration in response to the administration of retinoic acid. PMID:24647975

  7. Mitotoxicity and bortezomib-induced chronic painful peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, H; Xiao, W H; Bennett, G J

    2012-12-01

    Many of the most effective anti-cancer drugs induce a dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy that compromises therapy. Evidence from animal models of chemotherapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy produced by the taxane agent, paclitaxel, and the platinum-complex agent, oxaliplatin, indicate that they produce neuropathy via a common mechanism-a toxic effect on the mitochondria in primary afferent sensory neurons. Bortezomib is from the proteasome-inhibitor class of chemotherapeutics. It also produces a dose-limiting peripheral neuropathy, but its effects on neuronal mitochondria are unknown. To investigate this, we developed a model of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat and assessed mitochondrial function (respiration and ATP production) in sciatic nerve samples harvested at two time points: day 7, which is three days after treatment and before pain appears, and day 35, which is one month post-treatment and the time of peak pain severity. We found significant deficits in Complex I-mediated and Complex II-mediated respiration, and in ATP production at both time points. Prophylactic treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine, which has previously been shown to prevent paclitaxel- and oxaliplatin-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and pain, completely blocked bortezomib's effects on mitochondria and pain. These results suggest that mitotoxicity may be the core pathology for all chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and that drugs that protect mitochondrial function may be useful chemotherapy adjuncts. PMID:22947198

  8. The Association between Autoantibodies and Peripheral Neuropathy in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yu-Jih; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Chih-Min; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. The sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers used for predicting peripheral neuropathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis (SLE-LN) remain unsatisfactory. This study aimed to determine the autoantibodies levels in SLE-LN patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods. Data of 559 SLE-LN patients were collected retrospectively, including titers of autoantibodies, electrodiagnostic studies, and clinical manifestations. Results. The neurologic manifestations of the SLE-LN patients were diverse and nonspecific. The prevalence rate of peripheral polyneuropathy was 2.68%, of which about 73.33% was mixed sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Numbness and functional gastrointestinal problems were the most prevalent symptoms and these were noted in every subtype of peripheral neuropathy. Among all the serology markers, anti-Ro was significantly associated with neuropathy related to SLE (P = 0.009). Conclusion. Peripheral neuropathy among LN patients is rare and may be easily overlooked. This study demonstrated that positive anti-Ro antibody may imply neuropathy in LN patients. Thus, anti-Ro can be considered a biomarker that should be added to the panel of conventional autoantibodies in LN patients. PMID:24864250

  9. Comparison of efficiencies of michigan neuropathy screening instrument, neurothesiometer, and electromyography for diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Mete, Turkan; Aydin, Yusuf; Saka, Mustafa; Cinar Yavuz, Halise; Bilen, Sule; Yalcin, Yavuz; Arli, Berna; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

    2013-01-01

    Aim. This study compares the effectiveness of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), neurothesiometer, and electromyography (EMG) in detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes type 2. Materials and Methods. 106 patients with diabetes type 2 treated at the outpatient clinic of Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Department of Endocrinology between September 2008 and May 2009 were included in this study. Patients were evaluated by glycemic regulation tests, MNSI (questionnaire and physical examination), EMG (for detecting sensorial and motor defects in right median, ulnar, posterior tibial, and bilateral sural nerves), and neurothesiometer (for detecting alterations in cold and warm sensations as well as vibratory sensations). Results. According to the MNSI score, there was diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 34 (32.1%) patients (score ?2.5). However, when the patients were evaluated by EMG and neurothesiometer, neurological impairments were detected in 49 (46.2%) and 79 (74.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusion. According to our findings, questionnaires and physical examination often present lower diabetic peripheral neuropathy prevalence. Hence, we recommend that in the evaluation of diabetic patients neurological tests should be used for more accurate results and thus early treatment options to prevent neuropathic complications. PMID:23818897

  10. Natura non facit saltus in anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Uncini, Antonino; Notturno, Francesca; Capasso, Margherita

    2013-10-01

    Natura non facit saltus (Latin for "nature does not make jumps") is a maxim expressing the idea that natural things and properties change gradually, in a continuum, rather than suddenly. In biomedical sciences, for taxonomic purposes, we make jumps that emphasize differences more than similarities. Among the dysimmune neuropathies, 2 disorders, characterized by the presence of antibodies to gangliosides GM1 and GD1a and a peculiar, exclusive motor involvement, have been identified: acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). However, anti-GM1 or -GD1a antibodies are also associated with acute motor and sensory axonal motor neuropathy (AMSAN). We review the results of recent clinical and experimental studies showing that AMAN and MMN are not exclusively motor. We discuss the possible explanations for the greater resistance of sensory fibers to antibody attack to finally suggest that AMAN, AMSAN, and MMN belong to a continuous spectrum with a common pathophysiological mechanism. PMID:23625341

  11. IgM deposits on skin nerves in anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Raffaella; Erne, Beat; Lauria, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Borgna, Monica; Morbin, Michela; Arnold, Andreas; Czaplinski, Adam; Fuhr, Peter; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Steck, Andreas J

    2005-02-01

    Anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) neuropathy is a chronic demyelinating neuropathy with predominant involvement of large sensory fibers and deposits of IgM and complement on sural nerve myelinated fibers. We assessed the presence of IgM deposits on skin myelinated nerve fibers and the involvement of unmyelinated axons in anti-MAG neuropathy. Skin biopsies were performed in 14 patients with anti-MAG neuropathy, in 8 patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and in 2 patients with IgM paraproteinemic neuropathy. Biopsies were taken at the proximal thigh in 20 patients, at the distal leg in 21 patients, at the proximal arm in 13 patients, and at the hand or fingertip in 10 patients. We found IgM deposits on dermal myelinated fibers in all anti-MAG neuropathy patients, with a greater prevalence at the distal site of the extremities. Deposits were located throughout the length of the fibers and at the paranodal loops. CIDP and IgM paraproteinemic neuropathies did not show any deposit of IgM. Anti-MAG neuropathy and CIPD patients showed a decrease in epidermal nerve fiber density reflecting an associated axonal loss. In anti-MAG neuropathy, both large- and small-diameter nerve fibers are affected, and specific deposits of IgM are found on skin myelinated nerve fibers. PMID:15668968

  12. Peripheral neuropathies during biologic therapies.

    PubMed

    Yagita, Masato; Hamano, Toshiaki; Hatachi, Saori; Fujita, Masaaki

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral neuropathies should be recognized as the adverse effects of biological agents, especially anti-TNF agents. However, no solid clinical databases for biological agent-associated peripheral neuropathies (BAPN) have been established in Japan. Here we report two cases of peripheral neuropathy associated with anti-TNF agents. One was peroneal motor neuropathy. The other case was chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. In addition, we summarize the previous reports on BAPN and discuss their prevalence rate, pathogenesis and management. PMID:24313920

  13. Hereditary chronic pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Rosendahl; Hans Bödeker; Joachim Mössner; Niels Teich

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary chronic pancreatitis (HCP) is a very rare form of early onset chronic pancreatitis. With the exception of the young age at diagnosis and a slower progression, the clinical course, morphological features and laboratory findings of HCP do not differ from those of patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. As well, diagnostic criteria and treatment of HCP resemble that of chronic

  14. Infantile peripheral neuropathy, deafness, and proximal tubulopathy associated with a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene

    PubMed Central

    Stojanovi?, Vesna; Mayr, Johannes A.; Sperl, Wolfgang; Bariši?, Nenad; Doronjski, Aleksandra; Milak, Gordana

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are a group of autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by reduction of the amount of mitochondrial DNA in the affected tissue (muscle, liver, brain, or kidneys). We report a case of an infant with myopathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, nephrocalcinosis, proximal renal tubulopathy, moderate lactic acidosis, and a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene. PMID:24382854

  15. Multifocal Motor Neuropathy: Update on Clinical Characteristics, Pathophysiological Concepts and Therapeutic Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven G. Meuth; Christoph Kleinschnitz

    2010-01-01

    Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is an acquired immune-mediated neuropathy characterized by chronic or stepwise progressive asymmetrical limb weakness without sensory deficits. The upper extremities are more often affected than the lower extremities with distal paresis dominating over proximal paresis. Important diagnostic features are persistent multifocal partial conduction blocks (CBs) and the presence of high-titer anti-GM1 serum antibodies. Motor neuron disease,

  16. Restless Leg Syndrome in Different Types of Demyelinating Neuropathies: A Single-Center Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Luigetti, Marco; Del Grande, Alessandra; Testani, Elisa; Bisogni, Giulia; Losurdo, Anna; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Mazza, Salvatore; Sabatelli, Mario; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to determine the prevalence of restless legs syndrome (RLS) in a cohort of patients with demyelinating neuropathies. Methods: Patients were retrospectively recruited from our cohort of different forms of demyelinating neuropathies, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP), Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A), and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) referred to our Department of Neurology in a 10-year period. The validated 4-item RLS questionnaire was used for diagnosis of RLS. All patients with RLS who fulfilled criteria underwent a suggested immobilization test to confirm the diagnosis. A group of outpatients referred to the sleep disorders unit and data from published literature were used as controls. Results: Prevalence of RLS in demyelinating neuropathy group was higher than prevalence observed in control population (p = 0.0142) or in the literature data (p = 0.0007). In particular, in comparison with both control population and literature data, prevalence of RLS was higher in CIDP group (p = 0.0266 and p = 0.0063, respectively) and in CMT1A group (p = 0.0312 and p = 0.0105, respectively), but not in HNPP (p = 1.000 and p = 0.9320, respectively). Conclusions: our study confirms a high prevalence of RLS in inflammatory neuropathies as CIDP and, among inherited neuropathies, in CMT1A but not in HNPP. Considering that this is only a small cohort from a single-center retrospective experience, the link between RLS and neuropathy remains uncertain, and larger multicenter studies are probably needed to clarify the real meaning of the association between RLS and neuropathy. Citation: Luigetti M; Del Grande A; Testani E; Bisogni G; Losurdo A; Giannantoni NM; Mazza S; Sabatelli M; Della Marca G. Restless leg syndrome in different types of demyelinating neuropathies: a single-center pilot study. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):945-949. PMID:23997707

  17. Dysfunction of nodes of Ranvier: a mechanism for anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Susuki, Keiichiro; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Schafer, Dorothy P.; Hirata, Koichi; Zhang, Gang; Funakoshi, Kei; Rasband, Matthew N.

    2011-01-01

    Autoantibodies against gangliosides GM1 or GD1a are associated with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), whereas antibodies to GD1b ganglioside are detected in acute sensory ataxic neuropathy (ASAN). These neuropathies have been proposed to be closely related and comprise a continuous spectrum, although the underlying mechanisms, especially for sensory nerve involvement, are still unclear. Antibodies to GM1 and GD1a have been proposed to disrupt the nodes of Ranvier in motor nerves via complement pathway. We hypothesized that the disruption of nodes of Ranvier is a common mechanism whereby various anti-ganglioside antibodies found in these neuropathies lead to nervous system dysfunction. Here, we show that the IgG monoclonal anti-GD1a/GT1b antibody injected into rat sciatic nerves caused deposition of IgG and complement products on the nodal axolemma and disrupted clusters of nodal and paranodal molecules predominantly in motor nerves, and induced early reversible motor nerve conduction block. Injection of IgG monoclonal anti-GD1b antibody induced nodal disruption predominantly in sensory nerves. In an ASAN rabbit model associated with IgG anti-GD1b antibodies, complement-mediated nodal disruption was observed predominantly in sensory nerves. In an AMAN rabbit model associated with IgG anti-GM1 antibodies, complement attack of nodes was found primarily in motor nerves, but occasionally in sensory nerves as well. Periaxonal macrophages and axonal degeneration were observed in dorsal roots from ASAN rabbits and AMAN rabbits. Thus, nodal disruption may be a common mechanism in immune-mediated neuropathies associated with autoantibodies to gangliosides GM1, GD1a, or GD1b, providing an explanation for the continuous spectrum of AMAN, AMSAN, and ASAN. PMID:22178332

  18. Dysfunction of nodes of Ranvier: a mechanism for anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Susuki, Keiichiro; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Schafer, Dorothy P; Hirata, Koichi; Zhang, Gang; Funakoshi, Kei; Rasband, Matthew N

    2012-01-01

    Autoantibodies against gangliosides GM1 or GD1a are associated with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) and acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), whereas antibodies to GD1b ganglioside are detected in acute sensory ataxic neuropathy (ASAN). These neuropathies have been proposed to be closely related and comprise a continuous spectrum, although the underlying mechanisms, especially for sensory nerve involvement, are still unclear. Antibodies to GM1 and GD1a have been proposed to disrupt the nodes of Ranvier in motor nerves via complement pathway. We hypothesized that the disruption of nodes of Ranvier is a common mechanism whereby various anti-ganglioside antibodies found in these neuropathies lead to nervous system dysfunction. Here, we show that the IgG monoclonal anti-GD1a/GT1b antibody injected into rat sciatic nerves caused deposition of IgG and complement products on the nodal axolemma and disrupted clusters of nodal and paranodal molecules predominantly in motor nerves, and induced early reversible motor nerve conduction block. Injection of IgG monoclonal anti-GD1b antibody induced nodal disruption predominantly in sensory nerves. In an ASAN rabbit model associated with IgG anti-GD1b antibodies, complement-mediated nodal disruption was observed predominantly in sensory nerves. In an AMAN rabbit model associated with IgG anti-GM1 antibodies, complement attack of nodes was found primarily in motor nerves, but occasionally in sensory nerves as well. Periaxonal macrophages and axonal degeneration were observed in dorsal roots from ASAN rabbits and AMAN rabbits. Thus, nodal disruption may be a common mechanism in immune-mediated neuropathies associated with autoantibodies to gangliosides GM1, GD1a, or GD1b, providing an explanation for the continuous spectrum of AMAN, AMSAN, and ASAN. PMID:22178332

  19. Severe Neuropathy After Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccination in a Child Carrying a Novel FrameShift Mutation in the Small Heat-Shock Protein 27 Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paola Mandich; Marina Grandis; Alessandra Varese; Alessandro Geroldi; Massimo Acquaviva; Paola Ciotti; Rossella Gulli; Laura Doria-Lamba; Gian Maria Fabrizi; Gaia Giribaldi; Antonio Pizzuti; Angelo Schenone; Emilia Bellone

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in small heat-shock protein 27 and small heat-shock protein 22 genes were found in association with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 and distal hereditary motor neuropathy. We searched for mutations in small heat-shock protein 27 gene in an Italian family with peripheral neuropathy and intrafamilial phenotypic variability. A novel heterozygous frame-shift mutation c.476_477delCT was found while point mutations in most

  20. Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Michelle; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Benbow, Jennifer H.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side effect that occurs in many patients undergoing chemotherapy. It is often irreversible and frequently leads to early termination of treatment. In this study, we have identified two compounds, lithium and ibudilast, that when administered as a single prophylactic injection prior to paclitaxel treatment, prevent the development of CIPN in mice at the sensory-motor and cellular level. The prevention of neuropathy was not observed in paclitaxel-treated mice that were only prophylactically treated with a vehicle injection. The coadministration of lithium with paclitaxel also allows for administration of higher doses of paclitaxel (survival increases by 60%), protects against paclitaxel-induced cardiac abnormalities, and, notably, does not interfere with the antitumor effects of paclitaxel. Moreover, we have determined a mechanism by which CIPN develops and have discovered that lithium and ibudilast inhibit development of peripheral neuropathy by disrupting the interaction between paclitaxel, neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1), and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) to prevent treatment-induced decreases in intracellular calcium signaling. This study shows that lithium and ibudilast are candidate therapeutics for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy and could enable patients to tolerate more aggressive treatment regimens.—Mo, M., Erdelyi, I., Szigeti-Buck, K., Benbow, J. H., Ehrlich, B. E. Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment. PMID:22889832

  1. Hereditary Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:23174490

  2. CaV3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels in Peripheral Sensory Neurons Are Important for Mibefradil-Induced Reversal of Hyperalgesia and Allodynia in Rats with Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Obradovic, Aleksandar Lj.; Hwang, Sung Mi; Scarpa, Joseph; Hong, Sung Jun; Todorovic, Slobodan M.; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that streptozotocin (STZ) injections in rats lead to the development of painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) accompanied by enhancement of CaV3.2 T-type calcium currents (T-currents) and hyperexcitability in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here we used the classical peripherally acting T-channel blocker mibefradil to examine the role of CaV3.2 T-channels as pharmacological targets for treatment of painful PDN. When administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), at clinically relevant doses, mibefradil effectively alleviated heat, cold and mechanical hypersensitivities in STZ-treated diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that CaV3.2 antisense (AS)-treated diabetic rats exhibit a significant decrease in painful PDN compared with mismatch antisense (MIS)-treated diabetic rats. Co-treatment with mibefradil (9 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in reversal of heat, cold and mechanical hypersensitivity in MIS-treated but not in AS-treated diabetic rats, suggesting that mibefradil and CaV3.2 AS share the same cellular target. Using patch-clamp recordings from acutely dissociated DRG neurons, we demonstrated that mibefradil similarly blocked T-currents in diabetic and healthy rats in a voltage-dependent manner by stabilizing inactive states of T-channels. We conclude that antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of mibefradil in PDN are at least partly mediated by inhibition of CaV3.2 channels in peripheral nociceptors. Hence, peripherally acting voltage-dependent T-channel blockers could be very useful in the treatment of painful symptoms of PDN. PMID:24705276

  3. Hereditary Channelopathies in Neurology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Jurkat-Rott; Holger Lerche; Yvonne Weber; Frank Lehmann-Horn

    \\u000a Ion channelopathies are caused by malfunction or altered regulation of ion channel proteins due to hereditary or acquired\\u000a protein changes. In neurology, main phenotypes include certain forms of epilepsy, ataxia, migraine, neuropathic pain, myotonia,\\u000a and muscle weakness including myasthenia and periodic paralyses. The total prevalence of monogenic channelopathies in neurology\\u000a is about 35:100,000. Susceptibility-related mutations further increase the relevance of

  4. Hereditary myosin myopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anders Oldfors

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary myosin myopathies have emerged as a new group of muscle diseases with highly variable clinical features and onset during fetal development, childhood or adulthood. They are caused by mutations in skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain (MyHC) genes. Mutations have been reported in two of the three MyHC isoforms expressed in adult limb skeletal muscle: type I (slow\\/?-cardiac MyHC; MYH7)

  5. [Hereditary factors in strabismus].

    PubMed

    Mvogo, C E; Ellong, A; Bella-Hiag, A L; Luma-Namme, H

    2001-01-01

    This retrospective study took place in the Ophthalmology Department of Douala General Hospital. The aim was to determine the importance of hereditary factors in a group of strabismic Cameroonians. In a series of 275 patients with strabismus, we found 79 familial cases (28.72%). Among them, 22.78% had more than one relative with squint and 75% had the same type of strabismus as their relative. There was no significant difference in the percentage of familial cases with regard to the type of strabismus, the sex, the mode of fixation and the impairment of ductions. As far as ametropias are concerned, only myopia showed a hereditary tendency in our series. The authors agree with the literature in that there is a significant hereditary component in the cause of strabismus, but its genetic sites are yet to be identified. There is strong hope in this direction with the decoding of the human genom and the advances in molecular biology. However, the study of familial cases is important since it allows high risk groups to be defined and screened. It thus makes it possible to successfully fight amblyopia through early detection and treatment. PMID:11861199

  6. Automated Peripheral Neuropathy Assessment Using Optical Imaging and Foot Anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Hafeez-U R; Spruce, Michelle; Alty, Stephen R; Dudley, Sandra

    2015-08-01

    A large proportion of individuals who live with type-2 diabetes suffer from plantar sensory neuropathy. Regular testing and assessment for the condition is required to avoid ulceration or other damage to patient's feet. Currently accepted practice involves a trained clinician testing a patient's feet manually with a hand-held nylon monofilament probe. The procedure is time consuming, labor intensive, requires special training, is prone to error, and repeatability is difficult. With the vast increase in type-2 diabetes, the number of plantar sensory neuropathy sufferers has already grown to such an extent as to make a traditional manual test problematic. This paper presents the first investigation of a novel approach to automatically identify the pressure points on a given patient's foot for the examination of sensory neuropathy via optical image processing incorporating plantar anthropometry. The method automatically selects suitable test points on the plantar surface that correspond to those repeatedly chosen by a trained podiatrist. The proposed system automatically identifies the specific pressure points at different locations, namely the toe (hallux), metatarsal heads and heel (Calcaneum) areas. The approach is generic and has shown 100% reliability on the available database used. The database consists of Chinese, Asian, African, and Caucasian foot images. PMID:26186748

  7. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  8. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    2010-01-01

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary hemochromatosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... giant cell ; hepatitis ; hereditary ; inheritance ; inheritance pattern ; inherited ; iron ; joint ; juvenile ; menopause ; menses ; menstruation ; metabolism ; mode of inheritance ; neonatal ; pancreas ; progression ; puberty ; recessive ; ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... Reviewed January 2014 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  11. Abnormal small heat shock protein interactions involving neuropathy-associated HSP22 (HSPB8) mutants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marc Fontaine; Xiankui Sun; Adam D. Hoppe; Stephanie Simon; Patrick Vicart; Michael J. Welsh; Rainer Benndorf

    2006-01-01

    Two mutations (K141E, K141N) in the small heat shock protein (sHSP) HSP22 (HSPB8) are associated with the inherited peripheral motor neuron disorders distal hereditary motor neuropathy type II and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2L. HSP22 is known to form homodimers, heterodimers with other sHSPs, and larger oligomers. In an effort to elucidate the cellular basis for these diseases, we have

  12. Leber’s optic neuropathy associated with disseminated white matter disease: A case report and review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Perez; O. Anne; S. Debruxelles; P. Menegon; V. Lambrecq; D. Lacombe; M. L. Martin-Negrier; B. Brochet; C. Goizet

    2009-01-01

    Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a mitochondrial disease, is clinically characterized by a bilateral subacute loss of central vision consecutive to optic nerve involvement. In some cases of LHON, neurological features are reported including multiple sclerosis-like (MSL) phenotype. We report one additional male patient displaying LHON-MSL associated with the prevalent G11778A mutation and review the cases with expendable data published

  13. Diabetic Neuropathy: Mechanisms to Management

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, James L.; Vincent, Andrea; Cheng, Thomas; Feldman, Eva L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in pain, decreased motility, and amputation. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a variety of forms whose impact ranges from discomfort to death. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic neurons and results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways. These activated pathways are a major source of damage and are potential therapeutic targets in diabetic neuropathy. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, few options are available to eliminate the root causes. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscores the need for causally targeted therapies. This review covers the pathology, epidemiology, biochemical pathways, and prevention of diabetic neuropathy, as well as discusses current symptomatic and causal therapies and novel approaches to identify therapeutic targets. PMID:18616962

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Giant axonal neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Giant axonal neuropathy On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed October 2007 What is giant axonal neuropathy? Giant axonal neuropathy is an inherited condition involving ...

  15. Treatment of Diabetic Sensory Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zilliox, Lindsay; Russell, James W.

    2011-01-01

    Opinion statement No current disease-modifying treatments have been shown definitively in randomized clinical trials to reduce or reverse diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). It is increasingly recognized that individuals with “prediabetes” or impaired glucose regulation can already have a “small-fiber” neuropathy, or mild DSP, in which sensory axons of both small and larger diameter are damaged. Small-fiber neuropathy is frequently associated with pain, and these patients may present to a neurologist for evaluation before the underlying glucose dysregulation has been diagnosed. It is important to identify these individuals, because aggressive diabetic control and lifestyle interventions can delay the onset of diabetes and may reverse small-fiber neuropathy associated with early diabetes mellitus. Although treatment currently focuses on pain associated with DSP, attention should be paid to potential risk factors for neuropathy. For example, glycemic control and hyperlipidemia should be improved with diet, exercise, and medications. Hypertension that is a risk marker for more severe neuropathy should be treated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers not only treat hypertension but also may directly reduce the progression of neuropathy. Class I or II clinical studies support the use of sodium valproate, pregabalin, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, venlafaxine, opioids, and topical capsaicin in treating diabetic neuropathic pain. Pregabalin and gabapentin are relatively well tolerated and have few medication interactions. Sodium valproate has been shown to be effective but is not recommended for use in women of childbearing potential, and patients must be monitored for hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia. Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline are often used for nocturnal pain but require caution in the elderly or anyone with cardiac disease. Venlafaxine and duloxetine successfully treat neuropathic pain independently of their effect on depression. Opioid medications are associated with a high rate of adverse effects but with careful monitoring, they can be effective in treating resistant neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is an effective topical treatment that lacks systemic side effects. The lidocaine patch is effective in relieving pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia, but only class III evidence supports its use for diabetic neuropathic pain. No current Class I or II studies support other treatment modalities. PMID:21274758

  16. Autonomic Neuropathy - Diagnosis and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Prendergast

    Recent research indicates that autonomic neuropathy's most common and life-threatening consequences may be cardiac. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy can affect both heart rate control and cardiovascular dynamics. Add these effects to the already-serious tendency of diabetes to raise blood lipids and you have a condition ripe for disaster. Studies indicate that the onset of later-stage, symptomatic diabetic autonomic neuropathy is associated

  17. Canine inherited hypertrophic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Cummings; B. J. Cooper; A. Lahunta; T. J. Winkle

    1981-01-01

    A recessively inherited hypertrophic neuropathy was discovered in Tibetan Mastiff dogs. Affected pups developed a generalized weakness with hyporeflexia shortly after weaning. Diagnostic findings in 10–18-week-old pups included: moderate to severe reduction in nerve conduction velocities, infrequent denervation potentials, and inconstant elevation in CSF protein. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of peripheral nerves and roots revealed widespread demyelination and primitive onion

  18. The role of aberrant mitochondrial bioenergetics in diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Subir K Roy; Smith, Darrell R; Fernyhough, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a neurological complication of diabetes that causes significant morbidity and, because of the obesity-driven rise in incidence of type 2 diabetes, is becoming a major international health problem. Mitochondrial phenotype is abnormal in sensory neurons in diabetes and may contribute to the etiology of diabetic neuropathy where a distal dying-back neurodegenerative process is a key component contributing to fiber loss. This review summarizes the major features of mitochondrial dysfunction in neurons and Schwann cells in human diabetic patients and in experimental animal models (primarily exhibiting type 1 diabetes). This article attempts to relate these findings to the development of critical neuropathological hallmarks of the disease. Recent work reveals that hyperglycemia in diabetes triggers nutrient excess in neurons that, in turn, mediates a phenotypic change in mitochondrial biology through alteration of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) signaling axis. This vital energy sensing metabolic pathway modulates mitochondrial function, biogenesis and regeneration. The bioenergetic phenotype of mitochondria in diabetic neurons is aberrant due to deleterious alterations in expression and activity of respiratory chain components as a direct consequence of abnormal AMPK/PGC-1? signaling. Utilization of innovative respirometry equipment to analyze mitochondrial function of cultured adult sensory neurons from diabetic rodents shows that the outcome for cellular bioenergetics is a reduced adaptability to fluctuations in ATP demand. The diabetes-induced maladaptive process is hypothesized to result in exhaustion of the ATP supply in the distal nerve compartment and induction of nerve fiber dissolution. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the etiology of diabetic neuropathy is compared with other types of neuropathy with a distal dying-back pathology such as Friedreich ataxia, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 and human immunodeficiency virus-associated distal-symmetric neuropathy. PMID:22446165

  19. Carcinoma associated paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathies in patients with and without anti-onconeural antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, J.; Mosnier, J.; Absi, L.; Convers, P.; Honnorat, J.; Michel, D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—When to suspect a paraneoplastic disorder is a puzzling problem that has not recently been studied in a large series of patients referred for peripheral neuropathy.?METHODS—From 422 consecutive patients with peripheral neuropathy, 26 were analysed who concomitantly had carcinoma but no tumorous infiltration, drug toxicity, or cachexia. Their clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological data were analysed according to the presence of anti-onconeural antibodies, the latency between presentation and cancer diagnosis, and the incidence of carcinoma in the corresponding types of neuropathy of the population of 422patients.?RESULTS—Seven patients (group I) had anti-onconeural antibodies (six anti-Hu, one anti-CV2) and 19 did not (groups IIA and B). In group I, subacute sensory neuropathy (SSN) was the most frequent but other neuropathies including demyelinating neuropathies were present. Patients in group II A had a short latency (mean 7.88months), and a rapidly and usually severe neuropathy which corresponded in 11/14 to an established inflammatory disorder including neuropathy with encephalomyelitis, mononeuritis multiplex, and acute or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Patients in group IIB had a long latency (mean 8.4 years) and a very chronic disorder corresponding in four of five to an axonal non-inflammatory polyneuropathy. In this population, the incidence of carcinoma occurring with a short latency was 47% in sensory neuronopathy, 1.7% in Guillain-Barré syndrome, 10% in mononeuritis multiplex and CIDP, and 4.5% in axonal polyneuropathy.?CONCLUSIONS—Paraneoplastic neuropathies associated with carcinoma are heterogeneous disorders. Neuropathies occurring with a long latency with tumours probably resulted from a coincidental association. Neuropathies which occurred within a few years of the tumour evolved rapidly and corresponded mostly to inflammatory disorders. As dysimmune neuropathies are probably paraneoplastic in a limited number of cases, patients with these disorders should probably not be investigated systematically for carcinoma in the absence of anti-onconeural antibodies, except when the neuropathy is associated with encephalomyelitis and probably with vasculitis. Questions remain concerning CIDP.?? PMID:10369814

  20. Optic neuropathy caused by Propionibacterium acnes pachymeningitis.

    PubMed

    Adesina, Ore-Ofe O; Stagg, Brian C; Digre, Kathleen B; Katz, Bradley J; Quigley, Edward P; Palmer, Cheryl A; Warner, Judith E A

    2014-09-01

    We describe a patient with vision loss from an optic neuropathy caused by Propionibacterium acnes pachymeningitis. The patient's optic neuropathy was stabilized with appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:24614085

  1. Inflammatory autoimmune neuropathy, presumably induced by bortezomib, in a patient suffering from multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Stefan; Goldschmidt, H; Storch-Hagenlocher, B; Pham, M; Fingerle-Rowson, G; Ho, A D; Neben, K

    2011-06-01

    Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor demonstrating substantial activity in multiple myeloma. One of its key toxicities is peripheral neuropathy, which is reversible in most patients. The possibility that bortezomib might in rare cases induce severe neuropathies by auto-inflammatory mechanisms remains controversial. We report here the case of a 65-year-old female myeloma patient who was initially treated with bortezomib, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (PAD). At the end of the second cycle of PAD, the patient presented with a rapid and severe onset of paresis of the left arm, accompanied by progressive sensory neuropathy and increasing neuropathic pain. After an extensive neurological work-up, including electrophysiological and laboratory evaluations as well as magnet resonance tomography imaging, we diagnosed an inflammatory autoimmune neuropathy, presumably induced by bortezomib, with accentuation of the left arm nerve plexus. We subsequently initiated regular treatment with polyvalent immunoglobulins, which gradually improved the neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the identification of an inflammatory autoimmune neuropathy, presumably associated with bortezomib, is a rare but important complication. An extensive neurological examination should be performed in patients who develop severe or unusual sensory or motor deficits under therapy with bortezomib, so as to differentiate autoimmune from toxic neuropathies, as therapeutic strategies differ for each. PMID:21553020

  2. Effect of High-Fat Diet on Peripheral Neuropathy in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lingling; Tang, Dou; Guan, Meiping; Xie, Cuihua; Xue, Yaoming

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Dyslipidemia may contribute to the development of peripheral neuropathy, even in prediabetics; however, few studies have evaluated vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods. Using high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced prediabetic C57BL/6 mice, we assessed motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV) using a BIOPAC System and thermal algesia with a Plantar Test (Hargreaves' method) Analgesia Meter. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density and mean dendrite length were tested following standard protocols. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. Results. HFD-fed mice showed deficits in motor and sensory NCV, thermal hyperalgesia, reduced mean dendrite length, and VEGF-A expression in the plantar skin and increased 12/15-LOX in the sciatic nerve (P < 0.05 compared with controls). Conclusion. HFD may cause large myelinated nerve and small sensory nerve fiber damage, thus leading to neuropathy. The mean dendrite length may be a more sensitive marker for early detection of peripheral neuropathy. Reduced blood supply to the nerves and increased oxidative stress may contribute to the development and severity of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25404943

  3. Hereditary spastic paraplegia: clinico-pathologic features and emerging molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fink, John K

    2013-09-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a syndrome designation describing inherited disorders in which lower extremity weakness and spasticity are the predominant symptoms. There are more than 50 genetic types of HSP. HSP affects individuals of diverse ethnic groups with prevalence estimates ranging from 1.2 to 9.6 per 100,000. Symptoms may begin at any age. Gait impairment that begins after childhood usually worsens very slowly over many years. Gait impairment that begins in infancy and early childhood may not worsen significantly. Postmortem studies consistently identify degeneration of corticospinal tract axons (maximal in the thoracic spinal cord) and degeneration of fasciculus gracilis fibers (maximal in the cervico-medullary region). HSP syndromes thus appear to involve motor-sensory axon degeneration affecting predominantly (but not exclusively) the distal ends of long central nervous system (CNS) axons. In general, proteins encoded by HSP genes have diverse functions including (1) axon transport (e.g. SPG30/KIF1A, SPG10/KIF5A and possibly SPG4/Spastin); (2) endoplasmic reticulum morphology (e.g. SPG3A/Atlastin, SPG4/Spastin, SPG12/reticulon 2, and SPG31/REEP1, all of which interact); (3) mitochondrial function (e.g. SPG13/chaperonin 60/heat-shock protein 60, SPG7/paraplegin; and mitochondrial ATP6); (4) myelin formation (e.g. SPG2/Proteolipid protein and SPG42/Connexin 47); (5) protein folding and ER-stress response (SPG6/NIPA1, SPG8/K1AA0196 (Strumpellin), SGP17/BSCL2 (Seipin), "mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia" owing to CcT5 mutation and presumably SPG18/ERLIN2); (6) corticospinal tract and other neurodevelopment (e.g. SPG1/L1 cell adhesion molecule and SPG22/thyroid transporter MCT8); (7) fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism (e.g. SPG28/DDHD1, SPG35/FA2H, SPG39/NTE, SPG54/DDHD2, and SPG56/CYP2U1); and (8) endosome membrane trafficking and vesicle formation (e.g. SPG47/AP4B1, SPG48/KIAA0415, SPG50/AP4M1, SPG51/AP4E, SPG52/AP4S1, and VSPG53/VPS37A). The availability of animal models (including bovine, murine, zebrafish, Drosophila, and C. elegans) for many types of HSP permits exploration of disease mechanisms and potential treatments. This review highlights emerging concepts of this large group of clinically similar disorders. PMID:23897027

  4. The pattern and diagnostic criteria of sensory neuronopathy: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe; Jousserand, Guillemette; Ferraud, Karine; Vial, Christophe; Petiot, Philippe; Honnorat, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    Acquired sensory neuronopathies encompass a group of paraneoplastic, dysimmune, toxic or idiopathic disorders characterized by degeneration of peripheral sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia. As dorsal root ganglia cannot easily be explored, the clinical diagnosis of these disorders may be difficult. The question as to whether there exists a common clinical pattern of sensory neuronopathies, allowing the establishment of validated and easy-to-use diagnostic criteria, has not yet been addressed. In this study, logistic regression was used to construct diagnostic criteria on a retrospective study population of 78 patients with sensory neuronopathies and 56 with other sensory neuropathies. For this, sensory neuronopathy was provisionally considered as unambiguous in 44 patients with paraneoplastic disorder or cisplatin treatment and likely in 34 with a dysimmune or idiopathic setting who may theoretically have another form of neuropathy. To test the homogeneity of the sensory neuronopathy population, likely candidates were compared with unambiguous cases and then the whole population was compared with the other sensory neuropathies population. Criteria accuracy was checked on 37 prospective patients referred for diagnosis of sensory neuropathy. In the study population, sensory neuronopathy showed a common clinical and electrophysiological pattern that was independent of the underlying cause, including unusual forms with only patchy sensory loss, mild electrical motor nerve abnormalities and predominant small fibre or isolated lower limb involvement. Logistic regression allowed the construction of a set of criteria that gave fair results with the following combination: ataxia in the lower or upper limbs + asymmetrical distribution + sensory loss not restricted to the lower limbs + at least one sensory action potential absent or three sensory action potentials <30% of the lower limit of normal in the upper limbs + less than two nerves with abnormal motor nerve conduction study in the lower limbs. PMID:19506068

  5. Revisiting the evidence for neuropathy caused by pyridoxine deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Ghavanini, Amer A; Kimpinski, Kurt

    2014-09-01

    Pyridoxine deficiency and excess have been implicated as a cause for peripheral neuropathy. As a result, unrelated neuropathies are often treated with pyridoxine based on questionable evidence. However, neurological practitioners frequently discourage patients from taking pyridoxine in excess of 50 mg/d given concerns around the development of a toxic sensory neuronopathy. There is no systematic review to support either of the 2 practices. To address this gap in knowledge, we reviewed the available literature on neuropathy attributed to pyridoxine deficiency and excess. Based on the current limited data, it can be concluded that very low doses of daily pyridoxine are required to prevent peripheral neuropathy. There is inadequate evidence to support routine pyridoxine supplementation in patients with disorders of peripheral nervous system. Supplementation with pyridoxine at doses greater than 50 mg/d for extended duration may be harmful and should be discouraged. PMID:25137514

  6. Entrapment neuropathy in laparoscopic herniorrhaphy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Seid; E. Amos

    1994-01-01

    In laparoscopic hernia repairs, the staples used to affix prosthetic mesh have resulted in entrapment neuropathies. This paper describes the diagnosis and treatment of nine cases of entrapment neuropathy. Injuries to all the branches of the lumbar plexus, with the exception of the obdurator nerve, have been treated. Generally, the entrapments are self-limiting, but chronic disability requiring surgical intervention can

  7. Peripheral neuropathy and solitary plasmacytoma.

    PubMed Central

    Read, D; Warlow, C

    1978-01-01

    Three patients with peripheral neuropathy and a solitary plasmacytoma are presented, and the literature is reviewed. It is suggested that middle-aged men with an obscure progressive sensorimotor neuropathy, a raised CSF protein, and otherwise negative investigations should have a full skeletal survey since irradiation of a plasmacytoma may lead to a considerable improvement in the associated neurological disability. Images PMID:204745

  8. Etude quantitative et en microscopie electronique du nerf dans sept cas de neuropathie sensitive idiopathique sporadique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Guimaraes; J. J. Hauw; R. Escourolle

    1979-01-01

    An electron microscope study and quantitation of myelinated and unmyelinated fibers of seven nerve biopsies performed in sporadic cases of idiopathic sensory neuropathy is reported. The number of myelinated fibers is markedly decreased or absent in every case. On the contrary, the unmyelinated fiber numbers are normal or increased. In most cases, the small diameter myelinated and unmyelinated fibers proportions

  9. Implication of insulin-like growth factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas N. Ishii

    1995-01-01

    Neuropathy can be a highly debilitating complication for about 10–15% of diabetic individuals. Unfortunately, the complex syndrome has proven difficult to explain and a consensus as to its cause has not emerged. It has recently come to light that insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) have neurotrophic actions on sensory, sympathetic and motor neurons. These are the main types of

  10. Upper Extremity Multifocal Neuropathy in a 10-Year-Old Boy Associated With NS6S Disaccharide Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Frederick; Naddaf, Elie; Waclawik, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    We present a 10-year-old boy with a predominantly motor multifocal neuropathy with demyelinating and axonal changes with sensory involvement, affecting only one upper extremity. Laboratory studies revealed an elevated titer of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against the NS6S antigen. He responded to treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins. Focal or multifocal immune-mediated neuropathies are not common in children and may be underdiagnosed. PMID:25038124

  11. Sympathetic blocks provided sustained pain relief in a patient with refractory painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianguo; Daftari, Anuj; Zhou, Lan

    2012-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has been implicated in pain associated with painful diabetic neuropathy. However, therapeutic intervention targeted at the sympathetic nervous system has not been established. We thus tested the hypothesis that sympathetic nerve blocks significantly reduce pain in a patient with painful diabetic neuropathy who has failed multiple pharmacological treatments. The diagnosis of small fiber sensory neuropathy was based on clinical presentations and confirmed by skin biopsies. A series of 9 lumbar sympathetic blocks over a 26-month period provided sustained pain relief in his legs. Additional thoracic paravertebral blocks further provided control of the pain in the trunk which can occasionally be seen in severe diabetic neuropathy cases, consequent to extensive involvement of the intercostal nerves. These blocks provided sustained and significant pain relief and improvement of quality of life over a period of more than two years. We thus provided the first clinical evidence supporting the notion that sympathetic nervous system plays a critical role in painful diabetic neuropathy and sympathetic blocks can be an effective management modality of painful diabetic neuropathy. We concluded that the sympathetic nervous system is a valuable therapeutic target of pharmacological and interventional modalities of treatments in painful diabetic neuropathy patients. PMID:22606406

  12. Hereditary pancreatitis for the endoscopist.

    PubMed

    Patel, Milan R; Eppolito, Amanda L; Willingham, Field F

    2013-03-01

    Hereditary pancreatitis shares a majority of clinical and morphologic features with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, but may present at an earlier age. The term hereditary pancreatitis has primarily been associated with mutations in the serine protease 1 gene (PRSS1) which encodes for cationic trypsinogen. PRSS1 mutations account for approximately 68-81% of hereditary pancreatitis. Mutations in other genes, primarily serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1) and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are also associated with hereditary pancreatitis. While chronic alcoholic pancreatitis may develop in the fourth or fifth decades, patients with hereditary pancreatitis may develop symptoms in the first or second decades of life. Hereditary pancreatitis is diagnosed either by detecting a causative gene mutation or by the presence of chronic pancreatitis in two first-degree or three second-degree relatives, in two or more generations, without precipitating factors and with a negative workup for known causes. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis may have recurrent acute pancreatitis and may develop pancreatic exocrine and endocrine insufficiency. Hereditary pancreatitis may involve premature trypsinogen activation or decreased control of trypsin. Recurrent inflammation can lead to acute pancreatitis and subsequently to chronic pancreatitis with parenchymal calcification. There is a markedly increased risk of pancreatic carcinoma compared with the general population. Patients are often referred for evaluation of pancreatitis, biliary or pancreatic ductal dilatation, jaundice, biliary obstruction, pancreatic duct stone or stricture, pancreatic pseudocysts, and for evaluation for malignancy. Medical treatment includes pancreatic enzyme supplementation, nutritional supplementation, diabetes management, and palliation of pain. Patients should avoid tobacco use and alcohol exposure. Hereditary pancreatitis is reviewed and recommendations for genetic testing are discussed. PMID:23503650

  13. Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

  14. Sensory Nerve Conduction in Demyelinating and Axonal Guillain-Barré Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Kuwabara; Kazue Ogawara; Sonoko Misawa; Keiko Mizobuchi; Jia-Ying Sung; Yukiko Kitano; Masahiro Mori; Takamichi Hattori

    2004-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is divided into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) based on motor nerve conduction studies. We investigated whether sensory nerve conduction studies contribute to the electrodiagnosis of AIDP and AMAN. In consecutive 59 patients with AIDP (n = 26) or AMAN (n = 33), results of sensory nerve conduction studies in the median,

  15. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chaurasia, Akhilanand

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is a rare condition that can occur as an isolated disease, chromosomal abnormality, or as part of a number of syndromes. The gingival enlargement in HGF can be so severe that it can cover the crowns of teeth completely, causing severe functional derangement and facial disfigurement. Through review of literature revealed that HGF is usually an autosomal dominant condition, however the recessive forms are also reported. The hyperplastic gingiva is firm on palpation and has normal color with abundant stippling on the adjacent gingiva. The buccal and lingual gingiva may be involved in both the mandible and maxilla. The degrees of gingival enlargement show both intra- and interindividual variations. Here, an interesting case report of massive HGF has been presented. PMID:25298717

  16. Hereditary papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Carina; Bragg, Jennifer; Soldano, Anthony C; Cohen, David; Soter, Nicholas A

    2008-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman presented with a history of peeling of the palms and soles that began in young adulthood, with exacerbation after exposure to water. Her mother, 2 sisters, and a female maternal cousin have similar symptoms. Physical examination showed scale and hyperlinearity of the palms. Brief exposure to water initiated the development of 1-to 2-mm, translucent, white papules that were distributed diffusely on the palmar surface, with a concentration at the palmar margins and pressure points. Histopathologic examination showed an acanthotic epidermis with a central depression that was filled with compact orthokeratosis. The physical examination and histopathologic findings are consistent with a diagnosis of hereditary papulotranslucent acrokeratoderma. PMID:18627739

  17. A novel mitochondrial mutation m.8989G>C associated with neuropathy, ataxia, retinitis pigmentosa - the NARP syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duno, Morten; Wibrand, Flemming; Baggesen, Kirsten; Rosenberg, Thomas; Kjaer, Niels; Frederiksen, Anja L

    2013-02-25

    The archetypal NARP syndrome is almost exclusively associated with the m.8993T>C/G mutation in the sixth subunit of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, whereas other mutations in the MT-ATP6 gene primarily associate with Leigh syndrome or Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). We report a novel mitochondrial point mutation, m.8989G>C, in a patient presenting with neuropathy, ataxia and retinitis pigmentosa constituting the classical NARP phenotype. This mutation alters the amino acid right next to canonical NARP mutation. We suggest that classic NARP syndrome relates to a defined dysfunction of p.MT-ATP6. PMID:23266623

  18. Metabolic neuropathies and myopathies.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Inborn errors of metabolism may impact on muscle and peripheral nerve. Abnormalities involve mitochondria and other subcellular organelles such as peroxisomes and lysosomes related to the turnover and recycling of cellular compartments. Treatable causes are ?-oxidation defects producing progressive neuropathy; pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, porphyria, or vitamin B12 deficiency causing recurrent episodes of neuropathy or acute motor deficit mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. On the other hand, lysosomal (mucopolysaccharidosis, Gaucher and Fabry diseases), mitochondriopathic (mitochondrial or nuclear mutations or mDNA depletion), peroxisomal (adrenomyeloneuropathy, Refsum disease, sterol carrier protein-2 deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, ?-methylacyl racemase deficiency) diseases are multisystemic disorders involving also the heart, liver, brain, retina, and kidney. Pathophysiology of most metabolic myopathies is related to the impairment of energy production or to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Main symptoms are exercise intolerance with myalgias, cramps and recurrent myoglobinuria or limb weakness associated with elevation of serum creatine kinase. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency, followed by acid maltase deficiency, and lipin deficiency, are the most common cause of isolated rhabdomyolysis. Metabolic myopathies are frequently associated to extra-neuromuscular disorders particularly involving the heart, liver, brain, retina, skin, and kidney. PMID:23622366

  19. Diabetic corneal neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R O; Peters, M A; Sobocinski, K; Nassif, K; Schultz, K J

    1983-01-01

    Corneal epithelial lesions can be found in approximately one-half of asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus. These lesions are transient and clinically resemble the keratopathy seen in staphylococcal keratoconjunctivitis. Staphylococcal organisms, however, can be isolated in equal percentages from diabetic patients without keratopathy. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy was found to be related to the presence of diabetic keratopathy after adjusting for age with analysis of covariance. The strongest predictor of both keratopathy and corneal fluorescein staining was vibration perception threshold in the toes (P less than 0.01); and the severity of keratopathy was directly related to the degree of diminution of peripheral sensation. Other predictors of keratopathy were: reduced tear breakup time (P less than 0.03), type of diabetes (P less than 0.01), and metabolic status as indicated by c-peptide fasting (P less than 0.01). No significant relationships were found between the presence of keratopathy and tear glucose levels, endothelial cell densities, corneal thickness measurements, the presence of S epidermidis, or with duration of disease. It is our conclusion that asymptomatic epithelial lesions in the nontraumatized diabetic cornea can occur as a manifestation of generalized polyneuropathy and probably represent a specific form of corneal neuropathy. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:6676964

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary spherocytosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eyes and skin (jaundice), and an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly). Most newborns with hereditary spherocytosis have severe anemia, ... it improves after the first year of life. Splenomegaly can occur anytime from early childhood to adulthood. ...

  1. Dejerine-Sottas Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the genes for proteins found in myelin, a coating on axons that insulates and nourishes them. DS ... combat these effects. Disease: Peripheral Neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy (Charcot- ...

  2. CMT4

    MedlinePLUS

    ... defects in the genes that affect myelin, a coating that insulates and nourishes axons (fibers that carry ... combat these effects. Disease: Peripheral Neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy (Charcot- ...

  3. Mitochondrial optic neuropathies – Disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Griffiths, Philip G.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2011-01-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (DOA) are the two most common inherited optic neuropathies in the general population. Both disorders share striking pathological similarities, marked by the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the early involvement of the papillomacular bundle. Three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations; m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C account for over 90% of LHON cases, and in DOA, the majority of affected families harbour mutations in the OPA1 gene, which codes for a mitochondrial inner membrane protein. Optic nerve degeneration in LHON and DOA is therefore due to disturbed mitochondrial function and a predominantly complex I respiratory chain defect has been identified using both in vitro and in vivo biochemical assays. However, the trigger for RGC loss is much more complex than a simple bioenergetic crisis and other important disease mechanisms have emerged relating to mitochondrial network dynamics, mtDNA maintenance, axonal transport, and the involvement of the cytoskeleton in maintaining a differential mitochondrial gradient at sites such as the lamina cribosa. The downstream consequences of these mitochondrial disturbances are likely to be influenced by the local cellular milieu. The vulnerability of RGCs in LHON and DOA could derive not only from tissue-specific, genetically-determined biological factors, but also from an increased susceptibility to exogenous influences such as light exposure, smoking, and pharmacological agents with putative mitochondrial toxic effects. Our concept of inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies has evolved over the past decade, with the observation that patients with LHON and DOA can manifest a much broader phenotypic spectrum than pure optic nerve involvement. Interestingly, these phenotypes are sometimes clinically indistinguishable from other neurodegenerative disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and multiple sclerosis, where mitochondrial dysfunction is also thought to be an important pathophysiological player. A number of vertebrate and invertebrate disease models has recently been established to circumvent the lack of human tissues, and these have already provided considerable insight by allowing direct RGC experimentation. The ultimate goal is to translate these research advances into clinical practice and new treatment strategies are currently being investigated to improve the visual prognosis for patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathies. PMID:21112411

  4. Tissue distribution of pathological lesions and Hu antigen expression in paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miyuki Ichimura; Masahiko Yamamoto; Yasushi Kobayashi; Osamu Kawakami; Yuki Niimi; Naoki Hattori; Masaaki Nagamatsu; Yoshio Hashizume; Gen Sobue

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the distribution of lesions and Hu antigen expression in two autopsied cases of anti-Hu antibody-positive\\u000a paraneoplastic sensory neuronopathy (carcinomatous subacute sensory neuropathy). Pathological changes in both patients were\\u000a limited to the primary sensory neurons, some of the sympathetic ganglia and hippocampal regions. The lesions showed a multifocal\\u000a distribution that differed among the spinal segmental levels and in the

  5. Myelin-associated glycoprotein-related neuropathy associated with psoriasis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Psoriasis vulgaris is a common inflammatory disease of the skin, and myelin-associated glycoprotein-related neuropathy is a chronic sensory-predominant polyneuropathy. Although both of these diseases are considered autoimmune diseases, psoriasis with concomitant myelin-associated glycoprotein-related neuropathy is very rare. Here, we report a case of myelin-associated glycoprotein-related neuropathy associated with psoriasis. Case presentation A 66-year-old Japanese man, having experienced sternocostoclavicular pain for ten years, was admitted to our hospital because of gait disturbance and numbness of the limbs. Our patient had normal cranial nerve function and normal limb muscle strength. His vibratory and position sense was severely impaired and his touch, temperature and pinprick sensations were mildly disturbed in a glove and stocking distribution. A myelin-associated glycoprotein western blot analysis showed the presence of a 91 to 94kDa band using purified human myelin-associated glycoprotein antigen. His skin lesions were moderately pruritic and Auspitz’s sign was positive. Our patient also showed osteitis of his clavicle and manubrium. We diagnosed our patient with myelin-associated glycoprotein-related neuropathy associated with psoriatic arthritis. Five days after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, his deep sensory impairment began to improve and his sternocostoclavicular pain diminished dramatically. Conclusions Because myelin-associated glycoprotein-related neuropathy and psoriatic arthritis are both considered autoimmune diseases, we conclude that intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is very effective for patients with an association of these diseases. PMID:23286283

  6. Canine inherited hypertrophic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J; de Lahunta, A; van Winkle, T J

    1981-01-01

    A recessively inherited hypertrophic neuropathy was discovered in Tibetan Mastiff dogs. Affected pups developed a generalized weakness with hyporeflexia shortly after weaning. Diagnostic findings in 10-18-week-old pups included: moderate to severe reduction in nerve conduction velocities, infrequent denervation potentials, and inconstant elevation in CSF protein. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of peripheral nerves and roots revealed widespread demyelination and primitive onion bulb formation with relatively little degeneration of axons. Myelin changes often were most striking in the cytoplasmic regions of the sheaths and consisted of separations at the major dense lines, anomalous incisure patterns, and marked filamentous accumulations in the inner spirals and adaxonal cytoplasm. The results of these initial studies suggest an inborn defect in the Schwann cell's ability to form or maintain a stable myelin sheath. PMID:6259873

  7. Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Cancer.gov

    The pain and discomfort caused by peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common reasons that cancer patients stop their treatment early. Researchers are working to improve new screening, treatment, and prevention options for patients.

  8. Hereditary fructose intolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Ali, M; Rellos, P; Cox, T M

    1998-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, OMIM 22960), caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, EC 4.1.2.13), is a recessively inherited condition in which affected homozygotes develop hypoglycaemic and severe abdominal symptoms after taking foods containing fructose and cognate sugars. Continued ingestion of noxious sugars leads to hepatic and renal injury and growth retardation; parenteral administration of fructose or sorbitol may be fatal. Direct detection of a few mutations in the human aldolase B gene on chromosome 9q facilitates the genetic diagnosis of HFI in many symptomatic patients. The severity of the disease phenotype appears to be independent of the nature of the aldolase B gene mutations so far identified. It appears that hitherto there has been little, if any, selection against mutant aldolase B alleles in the population: in the UK, approximately 1.3% of neonates harbour one copy of the prevalent A149P disease allele. The ascendance of sugar as a major dietary nutrient, especially in western societies, may account for the increasing recognition of HFI as a nutritional disease and has shown the prevalence of mutant aldolase B genes in the general population. The severity of clinical expression correlates well with the immediate nutritional environment, age, culture, and eating habits of affected subjects. Here we review the biochemical, genetic, and molecular basis of human aldolase B deficiency in HFI, a disorder which responds to dietary therapy and in which the principal manifestations of disease are thus preventable. Images PMID:9610797

  9. Therapy-related peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma patients.

    PubMed

    Morawska, Marta; Grzasko, Norbert; Kostyra, Magdalena; Wojciechowicz, Jolanta; Hus, Marek

    2014-11-14

    This review discusses the most common issues concerning multiple myeloma (MM)-related peripheral neuropathy (PN). This is an important MM complication, observed in up to 54% of newly diagnosed patients, caused by the disease itself or its treatment. Although its aetiology is largely unknown, a number of mechanisms are suspected. It is important to know the neurological status of a patient, as many new antimyeloma medicines can trigger or exacerbate any pre-existing neuropathy. Examples include thalidomide-induced and bortezomib-induced PN (TiPN and BiTN, respectively), which are key MM treatment options. TiPN is usually sensory and sensorimotor, whereas BiPN is typically sensory. The mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced neurotoxicity in MM are well known; thalidomide seems to induce PN through its antiangiogenic properties, whereas bortezomib neurotoxicity is connected with disrupted calcium homeostasis. TiPN incidence ranges from 25% to 75%, and its prevalence and severity appears to be dose-dependent. BiPN incidence is almost 40% and is dose-related as well. Poor (25%) reversibility of TiPN prompted the recommendations for dose and exposure reduction, whereas BiPN cases are mostly reversible (64%). Peripheral sensory neuropathy is very rare in patients receiving bendamustine monotherapy. Because of this favourable toxicity profile, bendamustine may be considered a promising option for combination therapies in pre-existing PN in myeloma patients. Considering the lack of curative therapy for treatment-emergent PN, prevention is a key management strategy in MM patients. All patients should be evaluated for PN before the administration of a neurotoxic drug, and those under treatment should be closely monitored by a neurologist. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25399783

  10. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II inhibition behaviorally and physiologically improves pyridoxine-induced neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Potter, Michelle C; Wozniak, Krystyna M; Callizot, Noelle; Slusher, Barbara S

    2014-01-01

    Pyridoxine is used as a supplement for treating conditions such as vitamin deficiency as well as neurological disorders such as depression, epilepsy and autism. A significant neurologic complication of pyridoxine therapy is peripheral neuropathy thought to be a result of long-term and high dose usage. Although pyridoxine-induced neuropathy is transient and can remit after its withdrawal, the process of complete recovery can be slow. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II) inhibition has been shown to improve symptoms of both chemotherapy- and diabetic-induced neuropathy. This study evaluated if GCP II inhibition could behaviorally and physiologically improve pyridoxine-induced neuropathy. In the current study, high doses of pyridoxine (400 mg/kg, twice a day for seven days) were used to induce neuropathy in rats. An orally bioavailable GCP II inhibitor, 2-(3-mercaptopropyl) pentanedioic acid (2-MPPA), was administered daily at a dose of 30 mg/kg starting from the onset of pyridoxine injections. Body weight, motor coordination, heat sensitivity, electromyographical (EMG) parameters and nerve morphological features were monitored. The results show beneficial effects of GCP II inhibition including normalization of hot plate reaction time, foot fault improvements and increased open field distance travelled. H wave frequency, amplitude and latency as well as sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) were also significantly improved by 2-MPPA. Lastly, GCP II inhibition resulted in morphological protection in the spinal cord and sensory fibers in the lumbar region dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In conclusion, inhibition of GCP II may be beneficial against the peripheral sensory neuropathy caused by pyridoxine. PMID:25254647

  11. Medication-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis H. Weimer

    2003-01-01

    Although not very common, medication-induced neuropathy is a treatable condition and, therefore, is important to identify.\\u000a Medications continue to grow in number and expand in usage; consequently, toxic neuropathy continues to be relevant to neurologists.\\u000a Many agents have toxicities that are tolerated because the treatments are necessary, such as therapies for HIV and malignancy.\\u000a Additional agents to prevent or ameliorate

  12. Distinct lymphocytes subsets in IgM-related neuropathy: clinical-immunological correlations.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Raffaele; Sabatelli, Mario; Del Grande, Alessandra; Bisogni, Giulia; Damato, Valentina; Plantone, Domenico; Marti, Alessandro; Frisullo, Giovanni; Romano, Angela; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Luigetti, Marco

    2015-02-01

    IgM-related neuropathy generally presents as a late-onset demyelinating polyneuropathy with predominant sensory loss and ataxia. However, we recently reported the clinical, neurophysiological and pathological findings from our cohort and identified in about a third of patients an atypical phenotype. We analyzed by flow cytometry the different lymphocytes subsets in the peripheral blood of patients affected by IgM-related neuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and healthy subjects, to investigate whether different immunological patterns may differentiate the classical phenotype from atypical forms. IFN-gamma producing CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells expressing T-bet (T-helper type 1, Th1) were increased in CIDP patients. The percentage of circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells producing IL-10 as well as the percentage of CD19+ cells expressing Blimp-1 were higher in patients with IgM-neuropathy. We did not find any significant differences in the different lymphocytes subsets in the IgM-related neuropathy between patients with classical and atypical phenotype. Th1 cells are increased in CIDP patients while a T helper type 2-phenotype seems to prevail in patients with IgM-neuropathy. Further studies involving a larger patient population are needed to evaluate if different lymphocytes subset may be involved in different clinical phenotypes of IgM-related neuropathy. PMID:25192662

  13. Trigeminal small-fiber sensory neuropathy causes burning mouth syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Lauria; Alessandra Majorana; Monica Borgna; Raffaella Lombardi; Paola Penza; Alessandro Padovani; Pierluigi Sapelli

    2005-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a common disorder that frequently affects women in the 5th–7th decade. It is characterized by persisting painful symptoms mainly involving the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. For several years it has been attributed to psychological causes. We investigated the innervation of the epithelium of the tongue to assess whether damage of peripheral nerve fibers underlies the

  14. Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Vinik, Aaron I; Maser, Raelene E; Mitchell, Braxton D; Freeman, Roy

    2003-05-01

    Diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is a serious and common complication of diabetes. Despite its relationship to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and its association with multiple symptoms and impairments, the significance of DAN has not been fully appreciated. The reported prevalence of DAN varies widely depending on the cohort studied and the methods of assessment. In randomly selected cohorts of asymptomatic individuals with diabetes, approximately 20% had abnormal cardiovascular autonomic function. DAN frequently coexists with other peripheral neuropathies and other diabetic complications, but DAN may be isolated, frequently preceding the detection of other complications. Major clinical manifestations of DAN include resting tachycardia, exercise intolerance, orthostatic hypotension, constipation, gastroparesis, erectile dysfunction, sudomotor dysfunction, impaired neurovascular function, "brittle diabetes," and hypoglycemic autonomic failure. DAN may affect many organ systems throughout the body (e.g., gastrointestinal [GI], genitourinary, and cardiovascular). GI disturbances (e.g., esophageal enteropathy, gastroparesis, constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence) are common, and any section of the GI tract may be affected. Gastroparesis should be suspected in individuals with erratic glucose control. Upper-GI symptoms should lead to consideration of all possible causes, including autonomic dysfunction. Whereas a radiographic gastric emptying study can definitively establish the diagnosis of gastroparesis, a reasonable approach is to exclude autonomic dysfunction and other known causes of these upper-GI symptoms. Constipation is the most common lower-GI symptom but can alternate with episodes of diarrhea. Diagnostic approaches should rule out autonomic dysfunction and the well-known causes such as neoplasia. Occasionally, anorectal manometry and other specialized tests typically performed by the gastroenterologist may be helpful. DAN is also associated with genitourinary tract disturbances including bladder and/or sexual dysfunction. Evaluation of bladder dysfunction should be performed for individuals with diabetes who have recurrent urinary tract infections, pyelonephritis, incontinence, or a palpable bladder. Specialized assessment of bladder dysfunction will typically be performed by a urologist. In men, DAN may cause loss of penile erection and/or retrograde ejaculation. A complete workup for erectile dysfunction in men should include history (medical and sexual); psychological evaluation; hormone levels; measurement of nocturnal penile tumescence; tests to assess penile, pelvic, and spinal nerve function; cardiovascular autonomic function tests; and measurement of penile and brachial blood pressure. Neurovascular dysfunction resulting from DAN contributes to a wide spectrum of clinical disorders including erectile dysfunction, loss of skin integrity, and abnormal vascular reflexes. Disruption of microvascular skin blood flow and sudomotor function may be among the earliest manifestations of DAN and lead to dry skin, loss of sweating, and the development of fissures and cracks that allow microorganisms to enter. These changes ultimately contribute to the development of ulcers, gangrene, and limb loss. Various aspects of neurovascular function can be evaluated with specialized tests, but generally these have not been well standardized and have limited clinical utility. Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is the most studied and clinically important form of DAN. Meta-analyses of published data demonstrate that reduced cardiovascular autonomic function as measured by heart rate variability (HRV) is strongly (i.e., relative risk is doubled) associated with an increased risk of silent myocardial ischemia and mortality. The determination of the presence of CAN is usually based on a battery of autonomic function tests rather than just on one test. Proceedings from a consensus conference in 1992 recommended that three tests (R-R variation, Valsalva maneuver, and postural blood pressure

  15. Pattern of myelinated fibre loss in the sural nerve in neuropathy related to Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Llewelyn; P. K. Thomas; S. G. Gilbey; P. J. Watkins; J. R. Muddle

    1988-01-01

    Summary  Sural nerve biopsies were obtained from 17 diabetic patients with neuropathy. All patients except three had both a symmetric distal sensory and autonomic polyneuropathy related to Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus; 3 patients had a purely sensory polyneuropathy. Mean age was 34.5 years (range 18–53 years). The biopsies were compared with specimens from an age-matched control series. Myelinated fibre loss

  16. Development of animal model for vasculatic neuropathy: Induction by ischemic-reperfusion in the rat femoral artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arunachalam Muthuraman; Muthusamy Ramesh; Shailja Sood

    2010-01-01

    Ischemic-reperfusion (I\\/R) is common in various pathological conditions like diabetic complication, complex regional pain syndrome type II (CRPS II), necrotizing vascular occlusive disease and trauma. We have developed an animal model of ischemic-reperfusion injury induced nociceptive sensory neuropathy in rats. The model was validated after 2, 4 and 6h of ischemia followed by prolonged reperfusion. The sensory behavioral assessment revealed

  17. Large and small fiber neuropathy in chronic alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Zambelis, Thomas; Karandreas, Nikos; Tzavellas, Elias; Kokotis, Panagiotis; Liappas, John

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of large and small fiber neuropathy among alcohol-dependent subjects and to correlate neuropathy with the pattern of alcohol abuse, age of the subjects, nutritional status, and biochemical parameters. The study sample comprised 98 consecutive alcohol-dependent subjects without signs of malnutrition treated for detoxification voluntarily in the specialized unit of the Athens University Psychiatric Clinic in an inpatient basis. Polyneuropathy (PN) was graded using the neuropathy symptoms score and neurologic disability score, conduction velocity studies, and quantitative sensory tests. Seventy-seven men and 21 women aged 27-70 years took part in the study. PN was diagnosed in 57 subjects (58.2%). PN of both large and small fibers was found in 25 patients (25.5%); exclusively small fiber neuropathy was observed in 12 (12.2%) and exclusively large fiber neuropathy in 20 patients (20.4%). Neuropathy was significantly correlated with the age of the subjects, duration of alcohol abuse, liver dysfunction, macrocytosis, and blood sugar levels upon admission. PN was significantly more frequent in males than in females. The two groups of exclusively large and exclusively small fiber neuropathy did not differ significantly in any clinical and laboratory parameter. Subclinical neuropathy (stage 1) was observed in 11.2%, which also did not differ significantly in any clinical and laboratory parameter from the stage 2 PN group subjects. Our findings indicate the direct toxic effect of alcohol on peripheral nerve fibers as the main etiologic factor of alcoholic PN. Long-standing hyperglycemia may be another contributing factor. Impaired vitamin B(12) utilization may be also involved. PMID:16279987

  18. Mixed or immune complex cryoglobulinaemia and neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Cream, J. J.; Hern, J. E. C.; Hughes, R. A. C.; Mackenzie, I. C. K.

    1974-01-01

    Three patients with peripheral neuropathy and mixed or immune complex cryoglobulinaemia are reported. The significance of mixed cryoglobulinaemia and the pathogenesis of the peripheral neuropathy are discussed. Images PMID:4360402

  19. Diagnosis, epidemiology and treatment of inflammatory neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Baig, Fahd; Knopp, Michael; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2012-07-01

    This article reviews the main diagnostic, epidemiological and therapeutic issues relating to the three main inflammatory neuropathies: Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy. The current knowledge base and recent developments are described. PMID:22875431

  20. About Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... worst cases, you can end up in a wheelchair. Some neuropathies can be fatal. Peripheral neuropathy symptoms ... drop in blood pressure and, consequently, dizziness when standing up; intestinal difficulties such as constipation or diarrhea; ...

  1. Update on medication-induced peripheral neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis H. Weimer; Noor Sachdev

    2009-01-01

    Despite improvements in the identification of causes of peripheral neuropathy, idiopathic polyneuropathy remains common. Medication\\u000a and toxic neuropathy account for a small but important percentage of potentially preventable or reversible causes of neuropathy.\\u000a New drugs that can induce neuropathy have been approved over the past several years, including the anticancer agents bortezomib,\\u000a ixabepilone, and oxaliplatin. We review the neurotoxic effects

  2. Optic nerve degeneration and mitochondrial dysfunction: genetic and acquired optic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Carelli, Valerio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2002-05-01

    Selective degeneration of the smallest fibers (papillo-macular bundle) of the human optic nerve occurs in a large number of optic neuropathies characterized primarily by loss of central vision. The pathophysiology that underlies this peculiar pattern of cell involvement probably reflects different forms of genetic and acquired mitochondrial dysfunction. Maternally inherited Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), dominant optic atrophy (Kjer disease), the optic atrophy of Leigh's syndrome, Friedreich ataxia and a variety of other conditions are examples of inherited mitochondrial disorders with different etiologies. Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia (TAA), the Cuban epidemic of optic neuropathy (CEON) and other dietary (Vitamins B, folate deficiencies) optic neuropathies, as well as toxic optic neuropathies such as due to chloramphenicol, ethambutol, or more rarely to carbon monoxide, methanol and cyanide are probably all related forms of acquired mitochondrial dysfunction. Biochemical and cellular studies in LHON point to a partial defect of respiratory chain function that may generate either an ATP synthesis defect and/or a chronic increase of oxidative stress. Histopathological studies in LHON cases and a rat model mimicking CEON revealed a selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the corresponding axons, particularly in the temporal-central part of the optic nerve. Anatomical peculiarities of optic nerve axons, such as the asymmetric pattern of myelination, may have functional implications on energy dependence and distribution of mitochondrial populations in the different sections of the nerve. Histological evidence suggests impaired axonal transport of mitochondria in LHON and in the CEON-like rat model, indicating a possible common pathophysiology for this category of optic neuropathies. Histological evidence of myelin pathology in LHON also suggests a role for oxidative stress, possibly affecting the oligodendrocytes of the optic nerves. PMID:11850115

  3. Drug therapy for hereditary cancers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Tumors arising in patients with hereditary cancer syndromes may have distinct drug sensitivity as compared to their sporadic counterparts. Breast and ovarian neoplasms from BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers are characterized by deficient homologous recombination (HR) of DNA, that makes them particularly sensitive to platinum compounds or inhibitors of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Outstandingly durable complete responses to high dose chemotherapy have been observed in several cases of BRCA-related metastatic breast cancer (BC). Multiple lines of evidence indicate that women with BRCA1-related BC may derive less benefit from taxane-based treatment than other categories of BC patients. There is virtually no reports directly assessing drug response in hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) patients; studies involving non-selected (i.e., both sporadic and hereditary) CRC with high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-H) suggest therapeutic advantage of irinotecan. Celecoxib has been approved for the treatment of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Hereditary medullary thyroid cancers (MTC) have been shown to be highly responsive to a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib, which exerts specific activity towards mutated RET receptor. Given the rapidly improving accessibility of DNA analysis, it is foreseen that the potential predictive value of cancer-associated germ-line mutations will be increasingly considered in the future studies. PMID:21819606

  4. Immunophenotyping of hereditary breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. van der Groep

    2009-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several family members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 which account for about 5% of all breast cancers. However, mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 may be missed, and small families and sometimes insufficient medical records may cause

  5. [Metabolic neuropathies: overview in 2011].

    PubMed

    Franques, J; Verschueren, A

    2012-12-01

    Metabolic diseases constitute a frequent etiologic group of axonal and small-fiber neuropathies. Recent works in this field are dominated by diabetic neuropathy (clinical presentation, prognostic factors) because of its prevalence. Vitamin B12 deficiency aroused several studies in 2011. This renewed interest for this well known entity ensues from the lack of sensibility of its biological markers underestimating its prevalence, its clinical spectrum and therefore, access to its therapy. Finally, 2011 highlighted the growing interest of the measure of the intra-epidermic nerve fibers density by skin biopsy for some metabolic disorders such as infra-clinical hypothyroďdism, chronic renal failure or Fabry disease. PMID:23107883

  6. Small fiber dysfunction predominates in Fabry neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dütsch, M; Marthol, H; Stemper, B; Brys, M; Haendl, T; Hilz, M J

    2002-12-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked recessive disease with a reduction of lysosomal alpha galactosidase A and consecutive storage of glycolipids e.g., in the brain, kidney, skin, and nerve fibers. Cardinal neurologic findings are hypohidrosis, painful episodes, and peripheral neuropathy. So far, the neurophysiological findings regarding the extent of large and small fiber dysfunction are contradictory. This study evaluated large and small nerve fiber function in a homogeneous group of Fabry patients. In 24 of 30 Fabry patients with creatinine below 194.7 mmol/L the authors assessed median, ulnar, and peroneal motor conduction velocity (MCV) and median, ulnar, and sural sensory conduction velocity (SCV) nerve conduction to study the function of thickly myelinated nerve fibers. In addition, the authors studied sympathetic skin responses (SSR) at both hands and feet in 24 patients. To evaluate A beta nerve fiber function, the authors determined vibratory detection thresholds (VDT) at the first toe in 30 patients. Function of A delta and C fibers was assessed by quantitative sensory testing of cold detection threshold (CDT) and heat-pain detection thresholds (HPDT). Nerve conduction studies showed significantly decreased amplitudes of MCVs and SCVs in Fabry patients as compared to controls. However, individual results of MCV and SCV studies were only mildly impaired. SSRs were present in all tested patients but SSR amplitudes were significantly decreased in Fabry patients in comparison to controls. VDT, CDT, and HPDT were significantly elevated in Fabry patients as compared to controls. However, only six patients had pathologic VDT, 19 had increased CDT, and 25 had elevated HPDT at a high level of stimulation. In Fabry patients, small fiber dysfunction is more prominent than large fiber dysfunction, confirming previous findings of sural nerve biopsies. The results suggest a higher vulnerability of small-diameter nerve fibers than of the thickly myelinated fibers. PMID:12488789

  7. Subclinical peripheral neuropathy is a common finding in colorectal cancer patients prior to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Boyette-Davis, Jessica A.; Eng, Cathy; Wang, Xin S.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Wendelschafer-Crabb, Gwen; Kennedy, William R.; Simone, Donald A.; Zhang, Haijun; Dougherty, Patrick M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Of the numerous complications associated with cancer and cancer treatment, peripheral neuropathy is a deleterious and persistent patient complaint commonly attributed to chemotherapy. The present study investigated the occurrence of subclinical peripheral neuropathy in patients with colorectal cancer prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. Experimental Design Fifty-two (52) patients underwent extensive quantitative sensory testing (QST) prior to receiving chemotherapy. Changes in multiple functions of primary afferent fibers were assessed and compared to a group of healthy control subjects. Skin temperature, sensorimotor function, sharpness detection, and thermal detection were measured, as was touch detection, using both conventional (von Frey monofilaments) and novel (Bumps detection test) methodology. Results Patients had subclinical deficits, especially in sensorimotor function, detection of thermal stimuli, and touch detection that were present prior to the initiation of chemotherapy. The measured impairment in touch sensation was especially pronounced when using the Bumps detection test. Conslusions The colorectal cancer patients in this study exhibited deficits in sensory function prior to undergoing chemotherapy treatment, implicating the disease itself as a contributing factor in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. The widespread nature of the observed deficits further indicated that cancer is affecting multiple primary afferent subtypes. Specific to the finding of impaired touch sensation, results from this study highlight the use of newly employed methodology, the Bumps detection test, as a sensitive and useful tool in the early detection of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:22496202

  8. Micturition disturbance in acute idiopathic autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, R; Uchiyama, T; Asahina, M; Suzuki, A; Yamanishi, T; Hattori, T

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the nature of micturition disturbance in patients with acute idiopathic autonomic neuropathy (AIAN). Methods: Micturitional symptoms were observed during hospital admissions and the in outpatient clinics in six patients with clinically definite AIAN (typical form in four, cholinergic variant in one, autonomic-sensory variant in one). Urodynamic studies included medium-fill water cystometry, external sphincter electromyography, and a bethanechol test. Results: Four patients had urinary retention and two had voiding difficulty as the initial presentation. Patients with retention became able to urinate within a week (two to seven days). The major symptoms at the time of urodynamic studies (three weeks to four months after disease onset in most cases) were voiding difficulty and nocturnal frequency. None had urinary incontinence. Complete recovery from the micturition disturbance took from three months to >18 years. The recovery period was shorter in a patient with cholinergic variant, and it was longer in two patients who had a longer duration of initial urinary retention. Micturition disturbance tended to improve earlier than orthostatic hypotension. The major urodynamic abnormalities were detrusor areflexia on voiding (5), denervation supersensitivity to bethanechol (3); low compliance detrusor (1); and impaired bladder sensation (2). None had neurogenic motor unit potentials of the external sphincter muscles. Conclusions: In patients with AIAN, urinary retention and voiding difficulty are common initial presentations. The underlying mechanisms seem to be pre- and postganglionic cholinergic dysfunction with preservation of somatic sphincter function. The bladder problems tend to improve earlier than orthostatic hypotension. PMID:14742606

  9. Hereditary motor neuron disease in a large Norwegian family with a "H46R" substitution in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene.

    PubMed

    Řstern, Rune; Fagerheim, Toril; Řrstavik, Kristin; Holmřy, Trygve; Heiberg, Arvid; Lund-Petersen, Inger; Strom, Tim M; Nilssen, Řivind; Dahl, Arve

    2012-06-01

    Mutant genes associated with Charcot Marie Tooth type 2, distal hereditary motor neuropathy and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may cause overlapping clinical phenotypes. We performed whole genome linkage analysis, haplotype analysis, sequencing and detailed clinical and neurophysiological investigations in a large Norwegian kindred with a condition that clinically had been classified as Charcot Marie Tooth type 2. The mutation c.140A>G, p.His47Arg (alias p.His46Arg or H46R) in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1) segregated with the disease. The patients present a hereditary motor neuropathy-like clinical picture and long survival (mean 29years). To our knowledge, this is the first extensive report describing a large non-Japanese kindred. The prognostic implications of the condition seen in this family have little in common with what is normally associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and illustrates the complexity of the genetic etiology of lower motor neuron disease. PMID:22475618

  10. Peripheral Neuropathy Following Chloroquine Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Loftus, Lawrence R.

    1963-01-01

    Four patients were observed who developed similar episodes of peripheral neuropathy following prolonged treatment with chloroquine phosphate. This previously unreported toxic reaction consisted of bilateral loss of knee and ankle reflexes and weakness of the quadriceps muscles. Gradual return to normal followed withdrawal of the chloroquine. Other toxic reactions to the drug are reviewed. PMID:14052974

  11. Disruption of nodal architecture in skin biopsies of patients with demyelinating neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Doppler, Kathrin; Werner, Christian; Sommer, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    Cutaneous nerves represent the most distal part of the sensory nervous system. We took advantage of the good discernibility of longitudinal myelinated fibers in skin biopsies to analyze the distribution of nodal and paranodal proteins in neuropathies and to assess nodal disorganization as a diagnostic marker of demyelinating neuropathy (NP). We analyzed myelinated nerve fibers in skin biopsies from the finger and the proximal leg of 52 prospectively recruited patients with different peripheral neuropathies and 17 controls. We performed immunohistochemical double labeling with anti-MBP, anti-PGP9.5, anti-caspr, anti-pan-neurofascin, and anti-pan-sodium-channel. Three potential features of demyelinating NP could be established: elongated nodes of Ranvier and dispersion of contactin-associated protein (caspr) staining were found more often in demyelinating than in axonal neuropathies (p < 0.05) and were not detectable in normal controls. Broadening of neurofascin staining was detectable more often in demyelinating neuropathies compared with normal controls (p < 0.05). Our data suggest that pathological changes of nodal architecture can be visualized in skin biopsies and that the detection of elongated nodes of Ranvier and alterations in the distribution of paranodal proteins may be useful in the diagnostic assessment of peripheral NP. PMID:23781964

  12. Significant response to lacosamide in a patient with severe chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Samar A; Albany, Zhanna; Albany, Constantine

    2015-05-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a major dose-limiting toxicity of potentially curative cancer therapy regimens. Cisplatin is the class of chemotherapy agent that has a broad spectrum of activity against several solid tumors, but it induces sensory neuropathy of upper and lower extremities. Cisplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy is usually in a "gloves and socks" distribution that can persist for months or years after completion of chemotherapy treatment. If the pain is severe, it affects the patient's long-term quality of life and can potentially result in chemotherapy dose reduction or treatment discontinuation. The mechanism of CIPN is not well understood, and a number of pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed to explain the phenomenon. Although many therapies have been investigated for the prevention or treatment of CIPN, there is currently no accepted proven therapy. Here we report a case in which lacosamide alleviated painful CIPN symptoms. Lacosamide is an anticonvulsant drug that blocks the voltage-gated sodium channels in the neurons and may also be a promising novel candidate for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Preclinical data support the role of lacosamide protective effect in a rat model of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, randomized clinical trial is needed. PMID:26029937

  13. Dorsal root ganglia microenvironment of female BB Wistar diabetic rats with mild neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Zochodne, D W; Ho, L T; Allison, J A

    1994-12-01

    Abnormalities in the microenvironment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) might play a role in the pathogenesis of sensory abnormalities in human diabetic neuropathy. We examined aspects of DRG microenvironment by measuring local blood flow and oxygen tension in the L4 dorsal root ganglia of female BB Wistar (BBW) diabetic rats with mild neuropathy. The findings were compared with concurrent measurements of local sciatic endoneurial blood flow and oxygen tension. Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and underwent electrophysiological, blood flow and oxygen tension measurements at either 7-11 or 17-23 weeks after the development of glycosuria. Nondiabetic female BB Wistar rats from the same colony served as controls. At both ages, BBW diabetic rats had significant abnormalities in sensory, but not motor conduction compared to nondiabetic controls. Sciatic endoneurial blood flow in the diabetic rats of both ages was similar to control values, but the older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW diabetic rats had a selective reduction in DRG blood flow. Sciatic endoneurial oxygen tensions were not significantly altered in the diabetic rats. DRG oxygen tension appeared lowered in younger (7-11 week diabetic) but not older (17-23 week diabetic) BBW rats. Our findings indicate that there are important changes in the DRG microenvironment of diabetic rats with selective sensory neuropathy. PMID:7699389

  14. Pathology of hereditary breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra van der Groep; Elsken van der Wall; Paul J. van Diest

    2011-01-01

    Background  Hereditary breast cancer runs in families where several members in different generations are affected. Most of these breast\\u000a cancers are caused by mutations in the high penetrance genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 accounting for about 5% of all breast cancers. Other genes that include CHEK2, PTEN, TP53, ATM, STK11\\/LKB1, CDH1, NBS1, RAD50, BRIP1 and PALB2 have been described to be high

  15. The Role of Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Neuropathy in Koreans with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 6-Year Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yu Na; Lee, Kee Ook; Jeong, Julie; Park, Hyung Jun; Kim, Seung-Min; Shin, Ha Young; Hong, Ji-Man; Ahn, Chul Woo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported that insulin resistance, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and glycaemic exposure Index are independently associated with peripheral neuropathy in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We followed the patients who participated in that study in 2006 for another 6 years to determine the relationship between insulin resistance and neuropathy. Materials and Methods This study involved 48 of the original 86 Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were referred to the Neurology clinic for the assessment of diabetic neuropathy from January 2006 to December 2006. These 48 patients received management for glycaemic control and prevention of diabetic complications in the outpatient clinic up to 2012. We reviewed blood test results and the nerve conduction study findings of these patients, taken over a 6-year period. Results Low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides significantly influenced the development of diabetic neuropathy. Kitt value (1/insulin resistance) in the previous study affected the occurrence of neuropathy, despite adequate glycaemic control with HbA1c <7%. Insulin resistance affected the development of diabetic neuropathy after 6 years: insulin resistance in 2006 showed a positive correlation with a change in sural sensory nerve action potential in 2012. Conclusion Diabetic neuropathy can be affected by previous insulin resistance despite regular glycaemic control. Dyslipidaemia should be controlled in patients who show high insulin resistance because HDL cholesterol and triglycerides are strongly correlated with later development of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24719137

  16. Enriching the diet with menhaden oil improves peripheral neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Coppey, Lawrence J; Davidson, Eric P; Obrosov, Alexander; Yorek, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Menhaden oil is a natural source for n-3 fatty acids, which have been shown to have beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease and other morbidities. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were used to examine the influence of supplementing their diet with 25% menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy. Both prevention and intervention protocols were used. Endpoints included motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity, thermal and mechanical sensitivity, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and hindpaw. Diabetic neuropathy as evaluated by the stated endpoints was found to be progressive. Menhaden oil did not improve elevated HbA1C levels or serum lipid levels. Diabetic rats at 16-wk duration were thermal hypoalgesic and had reduced motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and innervation and sensitivity of the cornea and skin were impaired. These endpoints were significantly improved with menhaden oil treatment following the prevention or intervention protocol. We found that supplementing the diet of type 1 diabetic rats with menhaden oil improved a variety of endpoints associated with diabetic neuropathy. These results suggest that enriching the diet with n-3 fatty acids may be a good treatment strategy for diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25376787

  17. Clinical phenotype of patients with neuropathy associated with monoclonal gammopathy: a comparative study and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stork, Abraham C J; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Franssen, Hessel; Jacobs, Bart C; Notermans, Nicolette C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate if the clinical and electrophysiological phenotype of patients with polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy (IgM-PNP) is related to the presence of antibodies against gangliosides or myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG). We compared clinical and nerve conduction study (NCS) characteristics of 11 IgM-PNP patients with antibodies against asialo-GM1 or gangliosides (GM1, GD1a, GD1b, GM2 or GQ1b) to 11 consecutive IgM-PNP patients with anti-MAG neuropathy and to 9 IgM-PNP patients without antibodies against either MAG or gangliosides. Patients with anti-ganglioside antibodies could not be differentiated from those with anti-MAG antibodies based on clinical characteristics. However, within the group of anti-ganglioside antibody positive patients, antibodies against GD1b and GQ1b were associated with a purely sensory neuropathy (p = 0.002), while asymmetric weakness with symmetric sensory loss was associated with anti-asialo-GM1 antibodies. In conclusion, polyneuropathy associated with IgM monoclonal gammopathy and anti-ganglioside antibodies clinically resembles anti-MAG neuropathy. Pure sensory neuropathy and marked asymmetry may suggest the presence of anti-ganglioside rather than anti-MAG antibodies. PMID:24781837

  18. Alcoholism, peripheral neuropathy (PNP) and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN).

    PubMed

    Agelink, M W; Malessa, R; Weisser, U; Lemmer, W; Zeit, T; Majewski, T; Klieser, E

    1998-12-11

    In contrast to diabetic autonomic neuropathy, cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in long-term alcoholics has been studied rarely. Using both standardized bedside tests and computer-assisted analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), we prospectively compared autonomic neurocardial function between 35 strictly selected, detoxified alcoholics (DSM-III-R), and 80 well matched healthy controls. Evidence for a potential CAN was found in 25.7% of all the alcoholics studied and in 41% of those with clinically manifest PNP (n=22). Overall, our results demonstrated a significant association between the presence of a CAN and peripheral neuropathy (PNP) amongst chronic alcoholics (chi-square test P<0.05); there was no evidence of a CAN in any of the alcoholics without a clinically manifest PNP. The CAN was characterized by a dissociated appearance of parasympathetic and sympathetic disorders. Our findings provide reason to suspect that the total lifetime dose of alcohol and the duration of alcohol dependence are the most important factors contributing to the pathogenesis of both PNP and sympathetic dysfunction. As is the case with diabetics, computer-assisted measurements of HRV including spectral analysis appear to be far superior to conventional bedside tests for detecting evidence of cardiovagal dysfunction in long-term alcoholics. PMID:9879694

  19. Why Are Sensory Axons More Vulnerable for Ischemia than Motor Axons?

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeijer, Jeannette; Franssen, Hessel; van Schelven, Leonard J.; van Putten, Michel J. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective In common peripheral neuropathies, sensory symptoms usually prevail over motor symptoms. This predominance of sensory symptoms may result from higher sensitivity of sensory axons to ischemia. Methods We measured median nerve compound sensory action potentials (CSAPs), compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), and excitability indices in five healthy subjects during forearm ischemia lasting up to disappearance of both CSAPs and CMAPs. Results Ischemia induced: (1) earlier disappearance of CSAPs than CMAPs (mean ± standard deviation 30±5 vs. 46±6 minutes), (2) initial changes compatible with axonal depolarization on excitability testing (decrease in threshold, increase in strength duration time constant (SDTC) and refractory period, and decrease in absolute superexcitability) which were all more prominent in sensory than in motor axons, and (3) a subsequent decrease of SDTC reflecting a decrease in persistent Na+ conductance during continuing depolarisation. Interpretation Our study shows that peripheral sensory axons are more vulnerable for ischemia than motor axons, with faster inexcitability during ischemia. Excitability studies during ischemia showed that this was associated with faster depolarization and faster persistent Na+ channel inactivation in sensory than in motor axons. These findings might be attributed to differences in ion channel composition between sensory and motor axons and may contribute to the predominance of sensory over motor symptoms in common peripheral neuropathies. PMID:23840596

  20. Not all neuropathy in diabetes is of diabetic etiology: Differential diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is the most common peripheral neuropathy in the developed world; however, not all patients\\u000a with diabetes and peripheral nerve disease have a peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes. Several (although not all) studies\\u000a have drawn attention to the presence of other potential causes of a neuropathy in individuals with diabetes; 10% to 50% of\\u000a individuals with diabetes may

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Reviewed September 2014 What is autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia? Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia ...

  2. Postvaccinal inflammatory neuropathy: peripheral nerve biopsy in 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Vital, Claude; Vital, Anne; Gbikpi-Benissan, Georges; Longy-Boursier, Maďté; Climas, Marie-Thérčse; Castaing, Yves; Canron, Marie-Hélčne; Le Bras, Michel; Petry, Klaus

    2002-09-01

    Autoimmune inflammatory polyneuropathy (PN) can be triggered by vaccination. We report 3 such cases. A 36-year-old female nurse presented 15 days after a hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) with acute sensory disturbances in the lower limbs. She had severe ataxia but no weakness. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level was 84 mg/100 mL, with 3 lymphocytes. A 66-year-old man presented 21 days after HBV with severe motor and sensory PN involving all 4 limbs. A 66-year-old man presented 15 days after a yellow fever vaccination with progressive motor and sensory PN involving all 4 limbs and bilateral facial paralysis. CSF protein level was 300 mg/100 mL, with 5 lymphocytes. Six weeks later, a tracheostomy was performed. In these 3 patients, the nerve deficits lasted for months. In each case, peripheral nerve biopsy showed KP1-positive histiocytes but no T-lymphocytes in the endoneurium. On ultrastructural examination, there was axonal degeneration in the first 2 cases; in case 2, a few myelinated fibers exhibited an intra-axonal macrophage but the myelin sheath was preserved. There was only 1 example of macrophage-associated demyelination in case 2, but these were numerous in case 3. It is likely that in the first 2 cases, an autoimmune reaction against some axonal or neuronal components was triggered by HBV. It induced an acute sensory ataxic PN in case 1 and an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) in case 2. The third patient had a chronic inflammatory demyelinating PN, likely triggered by yellow fever vaccination. PMID:12365564

  3. The Influence of Peripheral Neuropathy, Gender, and Obesity on the Postural Stability of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Rangel, Aline; Aranda-Moreno, Catalina; Mantilla-Ochoa, Teresa; Zainos-Saucedo, Lylia; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To assess the influence of peripheral neuropathy, gender, and obesity on the postural stability of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods. 151 patients with no history of otology, neurology, or orthopaedic or balance disorders accepted to participate in the study. After a clinical interview and neuropathy assessment, postural stability was evaluated by static posturography (eyes open/closed on hard/soft surface) and the “Up & Go” test. Results. During static posturography, on hard surface, the length of sway was related to peripheral neuropathy, gender, age, and obesity; on soft surface, the length of sway was related to peripheral neuropathy, gender, and age, the influence of neuropathy was larger in males than in females, and closing the eyes increased further the difference between genders. The mean time to perform the “Up & Go” test was 11.6 ± 2.2 sec, with influence of peripheral neuropathy, gender, and age. Conclusion. In order to preserve the control of static upright posture during conditions with deficient sensory input, male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with no history of balance disorders may be more vulnerable than females, and obesity may decrease the static postural control in both males and females. PMID:25258716

  4. AIDS and AIDS-treatment neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Williams; Anthony Geraci; David M. Simpson

    2002-01-01

    AIDS and AIDS-treatment neuropathies are common in individuals infected with HIV. As patients live longer due to improved\\u000a antiretroviral therapies, the impact of painful neuropathy on patients’ lives may increase. Several antiretroviral medications\\u000a are known to cause toxic neuropathy in patients with AIDS, but this may be outweighed by the beneficial effects of viral suppression.\\u000a Current theories on the pathogenesis

  5. Pathogenesis of Human Diabetic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rayaz Ahmed Malik; Aristides Veves

    Experimental studies have provided multiple mechanisms for the development of diabetic neuropathy, yet very few findings have\\u000a been replicated in patients. Hyperglycemia mediated nerve damage may begin very early even prior to overt diabetes as evidenced\\u000a by several recent studies in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Polyol pathway abnormalities have been exhaustively\\u000a explored in animals, but studies in man are

  6. Treatment of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. M. Boulton

    Up to 50% of patients with chronic sensorimotor diabetic neuropathy will experience painful or uncomfortable symptoms, and\\u000a of these a significant minority may require pharmacological therapy. As painful symptomatology may be worsened by a sudden\\u000a change in glycaemic control, the first step in management should be the quest for stable, near normal glycaemic control avoiding\\u000a glycaemic flux. Of all the

  7. Novel systems for in vivo monitoring and microenvironmental investigations of diabetic neuropathy in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Amit, Sharon; Yaron, Avraham

    2012-11-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a devastating complication of diabetes conferring vast morbidity and mortality. Despite prolonged efforts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying diabetic related neuropathic phenomena and develop effective therapies, current treatment is for the most part glycemic control and symptomatic care. This is partially due to the intricate pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy and the scarcity of valid experimental models. The aim of the study was to establish novel systems enabling monitoring and dissection of significant processes in the development of diabetic neuropathy. In a non-invasive in vivo model, two-photon microscopy is applied to evaluate mechanoreceptors (Meissner corpuscles) within an intact footpad of transgenic mice expressing a fluorescent neuronal tracer. By applying this advanced technology, which couples potent tissue penetration with superb resolution, we documented qualitative and quantitative diabetes-specific alterations in these sensory structures. Detection of such changes previously required laborious invasive histopathological techniques. In parallel, we present an ex vivo system that mimics the native microenvironment of the nerve ending via a unique co-culture of primary sensory neurons and thin skin slices. In conjunction with innovative high-throughput digital axonal measurements and computerized quantification tools, this method enables an unbiased exploration of neuronal autonomous and non-autonomous malfunctions. Using this setup we demonstrate that while the diabetic nerve retains a near-normal growth and regeneration capacities, the diabetic skin exhibits a decreased ability to support axonal outgrowth. Thus, an early target organ failure rather than intrinsic neuronal failure may initiate the neuropathy. Overall, the illustrated experimental platforms may greatly facilitate the holistic investigation of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22592935

  8. GRS defective axonal distribution as a potential contributor to distal spinal muscular atrophy type V pathogenesis in a new model of GRS-associated neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ah Jung; Park, Byung Sun; Jung, Junyang

    2014-11-01

    Distal spinal muscular atrophy type V (dSMA-V), a hereditary axonal neuropathy, is a glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GRS)-associated neuropathy caused by a mutation in GRS. In this study, using an adenovirus vector system equipped with a neuron-specific promoter, we constructed a new GRS-associated neuropathy mouse model. We found that wild-type GRS (WT) is distributed in peripheral axons, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell bodies, central axon terminals and motor neuron cell bodies in the mouse model. In contrast, the L129P mutant GRS was localized in DRG and motor neuron cell bodies. Thus, we propose that the disease-causing L129P mutant is linked to a distribution defect in peripheral nerves in vivo. PMID:25218976

  9. Hereditary thyroid cancer syndromes and genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Kathryn J; Moley, Jeffrey F

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on both hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) and hereditary nonmedullary thyroid cancer (NMTC) and discusses the genetics, clinical diagnosis and evaluation, and surgical approach to treatment of these malignancies. Areas of innovation as well as areas of debate are highlighted and management recommendations are made. PMID:25351655

  10. GRAPH LIMITS AND HEREDITARY PROPERTIES SVANTE JANSON

    E-print Network

    Janson, Svante

    GRAPH LIMITS AND HEREDITARY PROPERTIES SVANTE JANSON Abstract. We collect some general results on graph limits associated to hereditary classes of graphs. As examples, we consider some classes defined by forbidden subgraphs and some classes of intersection graphs, including triangle­free graphs, chordal graphs

  11. GRAPH LIMITS AND HEREDITARY PROPERTIES SVANTE JANSON

    E-print Network

    Janson, Svante

    GRAPH LIMITS AND HEREDITARY PROPERTIES SVANTE JANSON Abstract. We collect some general results on graph limits associated to hereditary classes of graphs. As examples, we consider some classes defined by forbidden subgraphs and some classes of intersection graphs, including triangle-free graphs, chordal graphs

  12. Lynch Syndrome (Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer) Diagnostics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristina Lagerstedt Robinson; Tao Liu; Jana Vandrovcova; Britta Halvarsson; Mark Clendenning; Thierry Frebourg; Nickolas Papadopoulos; Kenneth W. Kinzler; Bert Vogelstein; Päivi Peltomäki; Richard D. Kolodner; Mef Nilbert; Annika Lindblom

    Background Preventive programs for individuals who have high lifetime risks of colorectal cancer may reduce disease morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that are associated with hereditary colorec- tal cancer and to monitor the effects of tailored surveillance. In particular, patients with Lynch syndrome, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), have an increased risk to develop

  13. [New trends in neuropathy practice: clinical approach to CIDP].

    PubMed

    Baba, M

    2001-12-01

    Our recent study showed that the overall prevalence of CIDP was estimated as 2.2 per 100,000 population in Aomori Prefecture, in Northan Honshu of Japan. In our series of more than 80 cases with CIDP, a chronic acquired inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, nearly 30% showed clear laterality of weakness, and electrophysiologic laterality or multifocality was apparent in almost all cases. Nearly 90% of patients were able to walk without walking aids or other assistance. Sixty% showed distal dominant muscular weakness. In 12 patients with age of onset under 15, pes cavus deformity was seen in 5. Two thirds complained numbness in the extremities during progressive phase. Four cases initially showed severe sensory ataxia associated with motor conduction block. It should be, thus, reminded that clinical spectrum of CIDP is enormously wide: chronic acquired demyelinating multiple mononeuropathy showing asymmetric involvement (Lewis-Summer syndrome) should be put on one side of the clinical presentation of CIDP. Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is, on the other hand, an unique syndrome mimicking amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). There may be, however, true association syndrome of CIDP and ALS presenting both peripheral nerve demyelination and pyramidal sign with progressive bulbar involvement. Recently, several atypical varieties of CIDP showing only one-limb involvement, upper limb weakness rather than lower limb power loss, or proximal weakness, etc ... have been reported in the literature. To realize such clinical variations of chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathy is important for early diagnosis and commencement of treatment of CIDP. Clinical guideline for suspicion of CIDP could be useful for general physicians and neurologists unfamiliar to peripheral neuropathies. PMID:12235840

  14. Pain in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy--more than neuropathic?

    PubMed

    Geber, Christian; Breimhorst, Markus; Burbach, Berenike; Egenolf, Christina; Baier, Bernhard; Fechir, Marcel; Koerber, Juergen; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vogt, Thomas; Birklein, Frank

    2013-12-01

    Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIN) is an adverse effect of chemotherapy. Pain in CIN might comprise neuropathic and nonneuropathic (ie, musculoskeletal) pain components, which might be characterized by pain patterns, electrophysiology, and somatosensory profiling. Included were 146 patients (100 female, 46 male; aged 56 ± 0.8 years) with CIN arising from different chemotherapy regimens. Patients were characterized clinically through nerve conduction studies (NCS) and quantitative sensory testing (QST). Questionnaires for pain (McGill) and anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) were supplied. Patients were followed-up after 17 days. Large- (61%) and mixed- (35%) fibre neuropathies were more frequent than small-fibre neuropathy (1.4%). The 5 major chemotherapeutic regimens impacted differently on large- but not on small-fibre function and did not predict painfulness. Chronic pain associated with CIN was reported in 41.7%. Painless and painful CIN did not differ in QST profiles or electrophysiological findings, but different somatosensory patterns were found in CIN subgroups (pain at rest [RestP], n = 25; movement-associated pain [MovP], n = 15; both pain characteristics [MovP+RestP], n = 21; or no pain [NonP], n = 85): small-fibre function (cold-detection threshold, CDT: z score: -1.46 ± 0.21, P < 0.01) was most impaired in RestP; mechanical hyperalgesia was exclusively found in MovP (z score: +0.81 ± 0.30, P < 0.05). "Anxiety" discriminated between painful and painless CIN; "CDT" and "anxiety" discriminated between patients with ongoing (RestP) and movement-associated pain (MovP) or pain components (MovP+RestP). The detrimental effect of chemotherapy on large fibres failed to differentiate painful from painless CIN. Patients stratified for musculoskeletal or neuropathic pain, however, differed in psychological and somatosensory parameters. This stratification might allow for the application of a more specific therapy. PMID:23999056

  15. Peripheral Neuropathy: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Loss of balance and coordination Muscle weakness Difficulty walking or moving the arms Unusual sweating Abnormalities in blood pressure ... nerve damage can lead to muscle weakness, difficulty walking or moving the arms, cramps and spasms. Sensory nerves send ...

  16. Placebo-controlled trial of rituximab in IgM anti-myelin–associated glycoprotein neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Viala, Karine; Nicolas, Guillaume; Créange, Alain; Vallat, Jean-Michel; Pouget, Jean; Clavelou, Pierre; Vial, Christophe; Steck, Andreas; Musset, Lucile; Marin, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether rituximab 375 mg/m2 was efficacious in patients with immunoglobulin M (IgM) anti-myelin–associated glycoprotein antibody demyelinating neuropathy (IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy). Methods: Fifty-four patients with IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy were enrolled in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The inclusion criteria were inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) sensory score (ISS) ?4 and visual analog pain scale >4 or ataxia score ?2. The primary outcome was mean change in ISS at 12 months. Results: Twenty-six patients were randomized to a group receiving 4 weekly infusions of 375 mg/m2 rituximab, and 28 patients to placebo. Intention-to-treat analysis, with imputation of missing ISS values by the last observation carried forward method, showed a lack of mean change in ISS at 12 months, 1.0 ± 2.7 in the rituximab group, and 1.0 ± 2.8 in the placebo group. However, changes were observed, in per protocol analysis at 12 months, for the number of patients with an improvement of at least 2 points in the INCAT disability scale (p = 0.027), the self-evaluation scale (p = 0.016), and 2 subscores of the Short Form–36 questionnaire. Conclusions: Although primary outcome measures provide no evidence to support the use of rituximab in IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy, there were improvements in several secondary outcomes in per protocol analysis. Level of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that rituximab is ineffective in improving ISS in patients with IgM anti-MAG demyelinating neuropathy. PMID:23667063

  17. A new paradigm to understand and treat diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hidmark, A; Fleming, T; Vittas, S; Mendler, M; Deshpande, D; Groener, J B; Müller, B P; Reeh, P W; Sauer, S K; Pham, M; Muckenthaler, M U; Bendszus, M; Nawroth, P P

    2014-04-01

    The clinical symptoms of diabetic neuropathy (DN) manifest in a time dependent manner as a positive symptoms (i. e. pain, hypersensitivity, tingling, cramps, cold feet etc.) during its early stages and by a loss of function (i. e. loss of sensory perception, delayed wound healing etc.) predominating in the later stages. Elevated blood glucose alone cannot explain the development and progression of DN and the lowering of blood glucose is insufficient in preventing and/or reversing neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently it has been shown that the endogenous reactive metabolite methylglyoxal (MG) can contribute to the gain of function via post-translational modification in DN of neuronal ion channels involved in chemosensing and action potential generation in nociceptive nerve endings. Dicarbonyls, such as MG, that are elevated in diabetic patients, modify DNA as well as extra- and intracellular proteins, leading to the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). Increased formation of AGEs leads to increased cellular stress, dysfunction and ultimately cell death. The interaction of AGE-modified proteins through cell surface receptors, such as RAGE, can lead to increased cellular activation and sustained inflammatory responses, which are the molecular hallmarks of the later, degenerative, stages of DN. The direct and indirect effects of dicarbonyls on nerves or neuronal microvascular network provides a unifying mechanism for the development and progression of DN. Targeting the accumulation of MG and/or prevention of RAGE interactions may therefore provide new, more effective, therapeutic approaches for the treatment of DN. PMID:24623503

  18. Alteration of ganglioside biosynthesis responsible for complex hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Boukhris, Amir; Schule, Rebecca; Loureiro, José L; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Mundwiller, Emeline; Gonzalez, Michael A; Charles, Perrine; Gauthier, Julie; Rekik, Imen; Acosta Lebrigio, Rafael F; Gaussen, Marion; Speziani, Fiorella; Ferbert, Andreas; Feki, Imed; Caballero-Oteyza, Andrés; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Amri, Mohamed; Noreau, Anne; Forlani, Sylvie; Cruz, Vitor T; Mochel, Fanny; Coutinho, Paula; Dion, Patrick; Mhiri, Chokri; Schols, Ludger; Pouget, Jean; Darios, Frédéric; Rouleau, Guy A; Marques, Wilson; Brice, Alexis; Durr, Alexandra; Zuchner, Stephan; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2013-07-11

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) form a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. A whole-genome linkage mapping effort was made with three HSP-affected families from Spain, Portugal, and Tunisia and it allowed us to reduce the SPG26 locus interval from 34 to 9 Mb. Subsequently, a targeted capture was made to sequence the entire exome of affected individuals from these three families, as well as from two additional autosomal-recessive HSP-affected families of German and Brazilian origins. Five homozygous truncating (n = 3) and missense (n = 2) mutations were identified in B4GALNT1. After this finding, we analyzed the entire coding region of this gene in 65 additional cases, and three mutations were identified in two subjects. All mutated cases presented an early-onset spastic paraplegia, with frequent intellectual disability, cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy as well as cortical atrophy and white matter hyperintensities on brain imaging. B4GALNT1 encodes ?-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1 (B4GALNT1), involved in ganglioside biosynthesis. These findings confirm the increasing interest of lipid metabolism in HSPs. Interestingly, although the catabolism of gangliosides is implicated in a variety of neurological diseases, SPG26 is only the second human disease involving defects of their biosynthesis. PMID:23746551

  19. Alteration of Ganglioside Biosynthesis Responsible for Complex Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Boukhris, Amir; Schule, Rebecca; Loureiro, José L.; Lourenço, Charles Marques; Mundwiller, Emeline; Gonzalez, Michael A.; Charles, Perrine; Gauthier, Julie; Rekik, Imen; Acosta Lebrigio, Rafael F.; Gaussen, Marion; Speziani, Fiorella; Ferbert, Andreas; Feki, Imed; Caballero-Oteyza, Andrés; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Amri, Mohamed; Noreau, Anne; Forlani, Sylvie; Cruz, Vitor T.; Mochel, Fanny; Coutinho, Paula; Dion, Patrick; Mhiri, Chokri; Schols, Ludger; Pouget, Jean; Darios, Frédéric; Rouleau, Guy A.; Marques, Wilson; Brice, Alexis; Durr, Alexandra; Zuchner, Stephan; Stevanin, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) form a heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. A whole-genome linkage mapping effort was made with three HSP-affected families from Spain, Portugal, and Tunisia and it allowed us to reduce the SPG26 locus interval from 34 to 9 Mb. Subsequently, a targeted capture was made to sequence the entire exome of affected individuals from these three families, as well as from two additional autosomal-recessive HSP-affected families of German and Brazilian origins. Five homozygous truncating (n = 3) and missense (n = 2) mutations were identified in B4GALNT1. After this finding, we analyzed the entire coding region of this gene in 65 additional cases, and three mutations were identified in two subjects. All mutated cases presented an early-onset spastic paraplegia, with frequent intellectual disability, cerebellar ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy as well as cortical atrophy and white matter hyperintensities on brain imaging. B4GALNT1 encodes ?-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 1 (B4GALNT1), involved in ganglioside biosynthesis. These findings confirm the increasing interest of lipid metabolism in HSPs. Interestingly, although the catabolism of gangliosides is implicated in a variety of neurological diseases, SPG26 is only the second human disease involving defects of their biosynthesis. PMID:23746551

  20. Diagnosis and treatment in inflammatory neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M P T Lunn; H J Willison

    2009-01-01

    The inflammatory neuropathies are a large diverse group of immune-mediated neuropathies that are amenable to treatment and may be reversible. Their accurate diagnosis is essential for informing the patient of the likely course and prognosis of the disease, informing the treating physician of the appropriate therapy and informing the scientific community of the results of well-targeted, designed and performed clinical

  1. Peripheral Neuropathy – Clinical and Electrophysiological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae; Prasad, Kalpana; Lloyd, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a primer on the pathophysiology and clinical evaluation of peripheral neuropathy for the radiologist. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) has utility in the diagnosis of many focal peripheral nerve lesions. When combined with history, examination, electrophysiology, and laboratory data, future advancements in high-field MRN may play an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:24210312

  2. [Axonal involvement in dysimmune neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Vallat, J-M

    2007-09-01

    Dysimmune neuropathies, in common with other neuropathies, comprise an axonal impairment that it is primary or secondary to a demyelinating process. We consider here axonal impairment in the course of certain dysimmune neuropathies, such as the Guillain Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis and multiple conduction block neuropathy. We mention the fact that it is not always easy to evidence the axonal impairment, its severity and its potential for regeneration. The mechanisms of the axonal lesions stem essentially from the special and tight bonds between the axon and the Schwann cell, which in the central central nervous system are mirrored by the bonds between axons and oligodendrocytes. Indeed, myelinating Schwann cells modify the properties of the axon in the normal peripheral nervous system, and abnormal Schwann cells induce pathological modifications. The periods of appearance of the axonal impairment are nevertheless quite variable depending on the type of the dysimmune neuropathy: acute or chronic. Some Guillain-Barré syndromes may be distinguished by a severe axonal impairment, now well documented and referred to as AMSAN and AMAN. Various mechanisms of axonal impairment are discussed. The bond between axon and myelin means that any pathological process in Schwann cells leads to axonal impairment, with inflammatory processes having a direct impact on the axon: mechanism of typical 'by-stander effect', repressive role of endoneurial edema, direct dysimmune attack on axonal epitopes on the corresponding axolemma, especially on the GM1 gangliosides, intra-axonal accumulation of sodium and calcium due to disruption the voltage-dependent sodium/potassium ion channels, slow retrograde progression to anterior horn neurons and possibly also to posterior spinal cords. The treatment of the axonal impairment is not straightforward; it is based, in a first instance, on the direct relation between the severity of the demyelinating lesions and the axonal impairment. For the acute forms of typical Guillain-Barré syndrome, the value of plasma exchanges and intravenous immunoglobulins has demonstrated in double blind, randomized trials. For the chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyradiculoneuritis, corticotherapy, along with plasma exchange and the immunoglobulins, have also been shown to be effective. Immunosuppressor treatment has benefits, but it is hard to prove objectively. It is generally recognized that it is only useful if applied for a period of weeks, although this is currently a matter of debate. Other therapeutic options have been discussed and proposed, although to date there is a lack of proven efficiency: such treatments include neuroprotective agents and drugs which block sodium/potassium ion channels. It is increasingly difficult to propose new treatments with validated efficiency, due to the small number of patients presenting dysimmune neuropathies of the type discussed here that are both typical and suitable for inclusion in medium to long term studies. PMID:18087224

  3. Symplectic structures, their Bäcklund transformations and hereditary symmetries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Fuchssteiner; A. S. Fokas

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that compatible symplectic structures lead in a natural way to hereditary symmetries. (We recall that a hereditary symmetry is an operator-valued function which immediately yields a hierarchy of evolution equations, each having infinitely many commuting symmetries all generated by this hereditary symmetry. Furthermore this hereditary symmetry usually describes completely the soliton structure and the conservation laws of

  4. CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    CANCER GENETICS & PREVENTION HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME (HBOC) ­ BRCA1 PATIENT INFORMATION What is Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome? Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer syndrome (HBOC) is the most common hereditary form of breast and ovarian cancer. About 2% of women

  5. Giant axonal neuropathy: MRS findings.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Alpay; Kutlu, Ramazan; Sigirci, Ahmet; Baysal, Tamer; Altinok, Tayfun; Yakinci, Cengiz

    2003-10-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare genetic disease of childhood involving the central and peripheral nervous systems. Axonal loss with several giant axons filled with neurofilaments is the main histopathological feature of peripheral nerve biopsies in this disease. Routine neuroimaging studies reveal diffuse hyperintensities in cerebral and cerebellar white matter. In this case report, the authors present the brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic features (normal N-acetylaspartate/creatine and increased choline/creatine and myoinositol/creatine ratios), which might indicate the absence of neuroaxonal loss and the presence of significant demyelination and glial proliferation in white matter, of an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with GAN. PMID:14569833

  6. Hereditary Multiple Exostoses with Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hadidy, Azmy M. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Jordan)], E-mail: ahadidy@ju.edu.jo; Al-Smady, Moa'ath M. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Vascular Surgery (Jordan); Haroun, Azmi A. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Jordan); Hamamy, Hanan A. [National Institute for Diabetes Endocrinology and Genetics (Jordan); Ghoul, Suha M. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Jordan); Shennak, Akram O. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Jordan)

    2007-06-15

    A 16-year-old male patient with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) was found to have a pseudoaneurysm of the left popliteal artery caused by osteochondroma in the lower femur. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography without the need to perform an angiogram. The osteochondroma was excised and the popliteal artery was repaired with a saphenous graft. Vascular complications are extremely rare in HME, pseudoaneurysm being the most common and mostly located in the popliteal artery. This complication should be considered in young HME patients with a mass at the knee region. The radiological spectrum of investigations allows the diagnosis of this complication with proper and less invasive management procedures for the patient.

  7. Eeyore: A Novel Mouse Model of Hereditary Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kerry A.; Williams, Louise H.; Dahl, Hans-Henrik M.; Manji, Shehnaaz S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models that recapitulate human disease are proving to be an invaluable tool in the identification of novel disease-associated genes. These models can improve our understanding of the complex genetic mechanisms involved in disease and provide a basis to guide therapeutic strategies to combat these conditions. We have identified a novel mouse model of non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss with linkage to a region on chromosome 18. Eeyore mutant mice have early onset progressive hearing impairment and show abnormal structure of the sensory epithelium from as early as 4 weeks of age. Ultrastructural and histological analyses show irregular hair cell structure and degeneration of the sensory hair bundles in the cochlea. The identification of new genes involved in hearing is central to understanding the complex genetic pathways involved in the hearing process and the loci at which these pathways are interrupted in people with a genetic hearing loss. We therefore discuss possible candidate genes within the linkage region identified in eeyore that may underlie the deafness phenotype in these mice. Eeyore provides a new model of hereditary sensorineural deafness and will be an important tool in the search for novel deafness genes. PMID:24086324

  8. [Subacute sensory neuronopathy associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung: a case report].

    PubMed

    Noto, Yuichi; Shiga, Kensuke; Fujinami, Jun; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Tanaka, Keiko

    2009-08-01

    We report a 59-year-old man who developed dysesthesia in all extremities with severe loss of deep sensation over three months. A radiating radicular pain was also noted in the extremities. The nerve conduction study barely elicited sensory nerve action potentials both in the median and in the sural nerve. An extensive search for anti-neuronal antibodies including anti-Hu and anti-CV2 antibody was negetive. The biopsy specimen of an enlarged tracheobronchial lymph node revealed squamous cell carcinoma. The subsequent chemotherapy and radiation therapy for the neoplasm improved the radicular pain and the deep sensation to a moderate extent, leading to the diagnosis of paraneoplastic subacute sensory neuropathy (SSN). In general, cases with paraneoplastic SSN are associated mostly with small cell lung cancer, and quite rarely with squamous cell lung cancer. The early detection and the treatment of the primary tumor are crucial in a patient with subacute progression of sensory-dominant neuropathy. PMID:19827601

  9. Congenital Cataracts – Facial Dysmorphism – Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kalaydjieva, Luba

    2006-01-01

    Congenital Cataracts Facial Dysmorphism Neuropathy (CCFDN) syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date, CCFDN has been found to occur exclusively in patients of Roma (Gypsy) ethnicity; over 100 patients have been diagnosed. Developmental abnormalities include congenital cataracts and microcorneae, primary hypomyelination of the peripheral nervous system, impaired physical growth, delayed early motor and intellectual development, mild facial dysmorphism and hypogonadism. Para-infectious rhabdomyolysis is a serious complication reported in an increasing number of patients. During general anaesthesia, patients with CCFDN require careful monitoring as they have an elevated risk of complications. CCFDN is a genetically homogeneous condition in which all patients are homozygous for the same ancestral mutation in the CTDP1 gene. Diagnosis is clinical and is supported by electrophysiological and brain imaging studies. The major differential diagnosis is Marinesco-Sjögren syndrome. The definitive diagnosis is molecular, based on homozygosity for the CTDP1 mutation. CTDP1 maps to 18qter and encodes a protein phosphatase whose only known substrate is the phosphorylated serine residues of the carboxy-terminal domain of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, indicating that CCFDN affects basic cellular processes of gene expression and developmental regulation. Families benefit from genetic counselling and predictive testing. Management includes surgical treatment of the cataracts, and rehabilitation and corrective orthopaedic surgery for the peripheral neuropathy. Thus, the most disabling manifestations, though not curable, are manageable, and allow an acceptable quality of life and everyday living. Current data indicate that patients survive well into adulthood. PMID:16939648

  10. Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Mutations Associated With Infantile-Onset Myoclonic Epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Frye

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy syndromes with onset in the first year of life, especially when they include myoclonic features, have special significance since they are associated with long-term developmental and neurological abnormalities. Dravet’s severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy is especially interesting as it is associated with fever-provoked seizures and mutations in the alpha subunit of the sodium channel (SCN1A) in about one-third of

  11. Hereditary female cancers: Breast, ovarian, and endometrial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Morgan Tucker; Botros Rizk

    Hereditary cancers breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers comprise a significant portion of cancers affecting women. This paper strives to review the genetics and current screening, prophylaxis, and treatment of these malignancies.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary multiple exostoses

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding hereditary multiple exostoses? autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

  13. Genetic Testing for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Genetic Testing for Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Language: English Espańol ( ... also at increased risk of having Lynch syndrome. Genetic Testing for Lynch Syndrome If you have colorectal ...

  14. Case of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Sadaf; Jadidi, Nima; Faraj, Sheila F.; Rodriguez, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of renal malignancy and it originates from the renal tubular epithelium. Due to the diversity in the histopathological and molecular characteristics, it is typically subclassified into five different categories. Papillary renal cell carcinoma is one subclassification and it includes two variants: sporadic and hereditary. Although the hereditary form comprises a smaller number of cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma, an understanding of the molecular pathways and genetic changes continues to play a significant role in the development of new targeted therapies. Along with recommending appropriate lifestyle modification, further investigation into the molecular pathogenesis of hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma will continue to be invaluable for the clinical management of renal cell carcinoma. In this article, we discuss a case of the hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma along with an overview of the disease. PMID:23882344

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nerves involved in hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy, called the brachial plexus, controls movement and sensation in the shoulders and ... of septin proteins seems to particularly affect the brachial plexus, but the reason for this is unknown. Because ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at high pressure into the thinner walled, less elastic veins. The extra pressure tends to strain and ... autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; capillaries ; cell ; chromosome ; compression ; deficiency ; elastic ; gastrointestinal ; gene ; hemorrhage ; hereditary ; incidence ; inherited ; juvenile ; oxygen ; ...

  17. Decreased serum vitamin D levels are associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a rural area of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Celikbilek, Asuman; Gocmen, Ayse Yesim; Tanik, Nermin; Borekci, Elif; Adam, Mehmet; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Suher, Murat; Delibas, Namik

    2015-03-01

    Data examining the association between vitamin D and diabetic peripheral neuropathy are limited. This study investigated the serum levels of vitamin D, vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in diabetics in the Yozgat region of Turkey, and assessed their relationships with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. 69 diabetic patients and 49 age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled in this clinical prospective study. All the diabetics underwent conventional sensory and motor nerve conduction studies, and diabetic peripheral neuropathy was confirmed or ruled out according to the electromyography findings and Douleur Neuropathique 4 questions. Serum vitamin D, VDBP and VDR levels were measured using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The serum vitamin D levels (p = 0.001) were significantly lower, while the VDR levels (p = 0.003) were higher, in diabetics than in controls. The serum VDBP levels were similar in both groups (p > 0.05). The serum vitamin D levels were significantly lower in diabetics with diabetic peripheral neuropathy than in those without (p = 0.032), whereas the serum VDBP and VDR levels were similar in these two groups (p > 0.05). The lower serum vitamin D levels in diabetics, especially in those with peripheral neuropathy, may suggest a neurotrophic effect of vitamin D. PMID:24841640

  18. The Dellon approach to neurolysis in the neuropathy patient with chronic nerve compression.

    PubMed

    Dellon, A L

    2008-12-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance creates a peripheral nervous system that is susceptible to chronic nerve compression. While it is accepted that surgical decompression of the median nerve at the wrist, for carpal tunnel syndrome, is appropriate in the diabetic, application of this concept to the lower extremity has not yet gained widespread recognition. Traditional electrodiagnostic studies demonstrate the presence of neuropathy, but usually are much less able to demonstrate superimposed nerve compression in the lower extremity in the presence of neuropathy. The clinician must rely upon the presence of a positive Hoffmann-Tinel sign to identify the patient with diabetic neuropathy and nerve compression. Combining sensory territories of common peroneal and tibial nerves gives a stocking pattern of sensory impairment. A positive Hoffmann-Tinel sign over the tibial nerve in the tarsal tunnel has a 90 % positive predictive value for the diabetic patient to recover sensibility in the foot after decompression of the four medial ankle tunnels. A meta-analysis of clinical studies that have decompressed the tibial nerve branches at the ankle in diabetics with neuropathy and tibial nerve compression demonstrate pain relief in 80 % of the patients from a mean of 8.5 on the VAS to 2.0, and demonstrate 80 % of the patients recover more than just protective sensation. With sensibility partially restored, ulceration and subsequent amputation can be prevented. Balance can recover, and with it, morbidity from falls/fracture can be prevented. Hospitalization for foot infection can be reduced. This review includes description of the surgical approaches to accomplish these outcomes. PMID:19051159

  19. Mitochondrial transcription factor A regulation of mitochondrial degeneration in experimental diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Krish; Anjaneyulu, Muragundla; Inoue, Tatsuya; Choi, Joungil; Sagi, Avinash Rao; Chen, Chen; Ide, Tamomi; Russell, James W

    2015-07-15

    Oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in peripheral neurons is considered to be important in the development of diabetic neuropathy. Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) wraps mtDNA and promotes mtDNA replication and transcription. We studied whether overexpression of TFAM reverses experimental peripheral diabetic neuropathy using TFAM transgenic mice (TFAM Tg) that express human TFAM (hTFAM). Levels of mouse mtDNA and the total TFAM (mouse TFAM + hTFAM) in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) increased by approximately twofold in the TFAM Tg mice compared with control (WT) mice. WT and TFAM Tg mice were made diabetic by the administration of streptozotocin. Neuropathy end points were motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, mechanical allodynia, thermal nociception, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). In the DRG neurons, mtDNA copy number and damage to mtDNA were quantified by qPCR, and TFAM levels were measured by Western blot. Mice with 16-wk duration of diabetes developed motor and sensory nerve conduction deficits, behavioral deficits, and intraepidermal nerve fiber loss. All of these changes were mostly prevented in diabetic TFAM Tg mice and were independent of changes in blood parameters. Mice with 16 wk of diabetes had a 40% decrease in mtDNA copy number compared with nondiabetic mice (P < 0.01). Importantly, the mtDNA copy number in diabetic TFAM Tg mice reached the same level as that of WT nondiabetic mice. In comparison, there was upregulation of mtDNA and TFAM in 6-wk diabetic mice, suggesting that TFAM activation could be a therapeutic strategy to treat peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25944881

  20. Diabetic neuropathy and surface sway-referencing disrupt somatosensory information for postural stability in stance.

    PubMed

    Horak, Fay B; Dickstein, Ruth; Peterka, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    In order to determine the type of somatosensory information for postural control that is most affected by neuropathy, we compared the relative effects of three methods of sway-referencing the surface in a group of subjects with profound loss of somatosensory function associated with sensory polyneuropathy from diabetes with age-matched control subjects. Sway-referencing disrupted somatosensory feedback for postural control by servo-controlling the dorsi- and plantar-flexion rotation of the support surface in proportion to anterior-posterior excursion of (1) ankle angle, (2) center of body mass (CoM) angle or (3) filtered center of pressure (CoP). Postural sway in subjects with somatosensory loss was significantly larger than normal on a firm surface but not on the sway-referenced surfaces, suggesting that sway-referencing disrupts somatosensory information for postural control already disrupted by neuropathy. Control subjects standing on any sway-referenced surface swayed significantly more than neuropathy subjects who stood on a firm surface, suggesting that sway-referencing disrupts more somatosensory information than disrupted by severe neuropathy. CoP sway-referencing was less sensitive than ankle or CoM sway-referencing for distinguishing postural sway in subjects with somatosensory loss from age-matched control subjects. Given that filtered CoP sway-referencing disrupts the ability to utilize somatosensory information related to surface reactive force to a greater extent than the other two methods of sway-referencing, then these results support the hypothesis that subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy have lost more CoP information, than ankle or CoM angle information, for controlling postural sway in stance. PMID:12590833

  1. Linezolid-induced optic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Karuppannasamy, Divya; Raghuram, Andavar; Sundar, Devisundaram

    2014-04-01

    Many systemic antimicrobials have been implicated to cause ocular adverse effects. This is especially relevant in multidrug therapy where more than one drug can cause a similar ocular adverse effect. We describe a case of progressive loss of vision associated with linezolid therapy. A 45-year-old male patient who was on treatment with multiple second-line anti-tuberculous drugs including linezolid and ethambutol for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) presented to us with painless progressive loss of vision in both eyes. Color vision was defective and fundus examination revealed optic disc edema in both eyes. Ethambutol-induced toxic optic neuropathy was suspected and tablet ethambutol was withdrawn. Deterioration of vision occurred despite withdrawal of ethambutol. Discontinuation of linezolid resulted in marked improvement of vision. Our report emphasizes the need for monitoring of visual function in patients on long-term linezolid treatment. PMID:24088636

  2. Congenital ring constrictions with entrapment neuropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Marlow; J Jarratt; G Hosking

    1981-01-01

    An eight year old boy with multiple simple congenital ring constrictions is described with peripheral nerve palsies caused by entrapment in the constrictions. It is suggested that ring constrictions should be considered in the differential diagnosis of entrapment neuropathy.

  3. [Herpes zoster-induced neuralgia (neuropathy)].

    PubMed

    Maksimova, M Yu; Sineva, N A; Vodopyanov, N P

    2014-01-01

    Neuralgia (neuropathy) is the most common manifestation of herpes zoster (HZ). In spinal and cranial neuralgia, there are 3 types of pain: 1) spontaneous, persistent, burning pain; 2) intermittent sharp pain; 3) pain occurring with nonpainful stimulation. The skin exhibits areas of hypesthesia, anesthesia, and dysesthesia. Ophthalmic neuralgia (of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve) is encountered in 20% of HZ cases. HZ of the auricle and external auditory meatus concurrent with facial and vestibulocochlear neuropathy is diagnosed as Ramsay Hunt syndrome. Postherpetic neuralgia (neuropathy) is characterized by pain present for 3 months or more after the appearance of herpetic eruptions. Combined therapy involving the earlier use of antiviral agents, tricyclic antidepressants, analgesics, and neuromidine is the most effective option for HZ-induced neuralgia (neuropathy). PMID:25715496

  4. Diabetic neuropathy: clinical manifestations and current treatments.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Brian C; Cheng, Hsinlin T; Stables, Catherine L; Smith, Andrea L; Feldman, Eva L

    2012-06-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a prevalent, disabling disorder. The most common manifestation is distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP), but many patterns of nerve injury can occur. Currently, the only effective treatments are glucose control and pain management. While glucose control substantially decreases the development of neuropathy in those with type 1 diabetes, the effect is probably much smaller in those with type 2 diabetes. Evidence supports the use of specific anticonvulsants and antidepressants for pain management in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. However, the lack of disease-modifying therapies for diabetic DSP makes the identification of new modifiable risk factors essential. Growing evidence supports an association between components of the metabolic syndrome, including prediabetes, and neuropathy. Studies are needed to further explore this association, which has implications for the development of new treatments for this common disorder. PMID:22608666

  5. INHERITED NEUROPATHIES: CLINICAL OVERVIEW AND UPDATE

    PubMed Central

    KLEIN, CHRISTOPHER J.; DUAN, XIAOHUI; SHY, MICHAEL E.

    2014-01-01

    Inherited neuropathy is a group of common neurologic disorders with heterogeneous clinical presentations and genetic causes. Detailed neuromuscular evaluations, including nerve conduction studies, laboratory testing, and histopathologic examination, can assist in identification of the inherited component beyond family history. Genetic testing increasingly enables definitive diagnosis of specific inherited neuropathies. Diagnosis, however, is often complex, and neurologic disability may have both genetic and acquired components in individual patients. The decision of which genetic test to order or whether to order genetic tests is often complicated, and the strategies to maximize the value of testing are evolving. Apart from rare inherited metabolic neuropathies, treatment approaches remain largely supportive. We provide a clinical update of the various types of inherited neuropathies, their differential diagnoses, and distinguishing clinical features (where available). A framework is provided for clinical evaluations, including the inheritance assessment, electrophysiologic examinations, and specific genetic tests. PMID:23801417

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Small fiber neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... disease or Sjogren syndrome, an inflammatory condition called sarcoidosis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Read more ... palpitations ; peripheral ; peripheral nervous system ; peripheral neuropathy ; prevalence ; sarcoidosis ; sensitivity ; sodium ; sodium channel ; subunit ; syndrome ; virus You ...

  7. Benign Hereditary Chorea: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Peall, Kathryn J.; Kurian, Manju A.

    2015-01-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC) is a childhood-onset, hyperkinetic movement disorder normally with little progression of motor symptoms into adult life. The disorder is caused by mutations to the NKX2.1 (TITF1) gene and also forms part of the “brain–lung–thyroid syndrome”, in which additional developmental abnormalities of lung and thyroid tissue are observed. In this review, we summarize the main clinical findings in “classical” BHC syndrome and discuss more recently reported atypical features, including non-choreiform movement phenotypes. We highlight additional non-motor characteristics such as cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms, while discussing the evidence for BHC as a developmental disorder involving impaired neural migration and other multisystem developmental abnormalities. Finally, we will discuss the efficacy of available therapies in both affected pediatric and adult cohorts. Delineation of the BHC disease spectrum will no doubt expand our understanding of this disorder, facilitating better targeting of genetic testing and establish a framework for future clinical trials. PMID:26196025

  8. Benign hereditary chorea: an update.

    PubMed

    Inzelberg, Rivka; Weinberger, Moran; Gak, Eva

    2011-06-01

    Benign hereditary chorea (BHC, MIM 118700) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder manifesting with chorea in conjunction with hypothyroidism and respiratory problems, a triad also named "brain-lung-thyroid syndrome". BHC is characterized by childhood onset with minimal or no progression into adult life and normal cognitive function. The genetic basis of BHC has been partially resolved, when mutations in the TTF1 gene on chromosome 14q13 encoding the thyroid transcription factor-1 have been identified in a number of BHC patients, suggesting that aberration of TTF1 transcriptional function or haploinsufficiency is associated with this disorder. TTF1 (also known as TITF1, TEBP or NKX2-1), belonging to the NKX2 homeodomain transcription factor family, has been implicated in several important molecular pathways essential for brain, thyroid and lung morphogenesis. Clinical evaluation of TTF1 gene mutations carrier patients exposed the involvement of each of the triad's components characterized by heterogeneity between index cases and even within families. This review highlights the current updates on expanded clinical aspects of BHC, imaging and treatment experience, its genetic markers, proposed molecular mechanisms, animal models and link to cancer. PMID:21292530

  9. Xerostomia in hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Juusela, Pirjo; Tanskanen, Maarit; Nieminen, Anja; Kari, Kirsti; Suominen, Liisa; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Kiuru-Enari, Sari

    2013-03-01

    Hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis) is a rare, dominantly inherited systemic disease with worldwide distribution, caused by c.654G > A or c.654G > T gelsolin gene mutation. The disease mainly manifests with late-onset dystrophy of the cornea, laxity of the skin and dysfunction of the cranial nerves whereas the oral manifestations have remained less-studied. To examine if AGel amyloidosis also affects salivary gland function, we studied 27 patients. In a questionnaire, 89% of them reported oral dryness, and 74% oral and ocular dryness. Unstimulated (UWS) and stimulated whole salivary flow (SWS) rates were measured, and salivary proteins were analyzed in the patients and controls. Hyposalivation according to UWS was detected in 67% of the patients, while decreased SWS occurred in 63% of the patients and 19% of the controls (p = 0.001). The secretion rates of salivary total protein and IgA were significantly lower in patients than controls. Histopathological analyses of labial salivary gland biopsies showed deposition of gelsolin amyloid, atrophy and inflammation. This study showed that AGel amyloidosis belongs to the differential diagnostic choices to be kept in mind in the patients presenting with xerostomia, low secretion rates of salivary total protein and IgA and/or deposition of amyloid in the minor salivary glands. AGel amyloidosis patients should be advised for efficient dental care. PMID:23356404

  10. The hereditary autoinflammatory disorders uncovered.

    PubMed

    Rigante, Donato; Vitale, Antonio; Lucherini, Orso Maria; Cantarini, Luca

    2014-09-01

    There is a thriving interest in the field of hereditary autoinflammatory disorders (HAID), a gamut of heterogeneous conditions deriving from an aberrant orchestration of innate immunity, unified by the common feature of seemingly unprovoked inflammation, which might be systemic or occur in localized niches of the organism. Recurrent fever and episodic inflammation in the joints, serosal membranes, skin, gut, and other organs are the common denominator of HAID. Mutations in the inflammasome-related genes have been associated with different HAID, showing the intimate link existing between interleukin-1 (IL-1)-structured inflammasome and their pathogenesis. Differential diagnosis of HAID can be challenging, as there are no universally accepted diagnostic protocols, and near half of patients may remain without any genetic abnormality identified. The use of IL-1-antagonists has been associated with beneficial effects in a large number of HAID associated with excessive IL-1 signalling, such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes, familial Mediterranean fever, and deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist. This review will discuss about the key-clues of HAID which might guide for an early recognition and drive decisions for treatment. PMID:25149390

  11. Chinese Medicine in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Experimental Research on Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Yuanlin; Liang, Xiaochun

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common complications of chronic diabetes mellitus. Pathological characteristics of DPN include axonal atrophy, nerve demyelination, and delayed regeneration of peripheral sensory nerve fibers. The goal of treatment in DPN is not only to ameliorate neurological symptoms but also to slow or reverse the underlying neurodegenerative process. Schwann cells and neurotrophic factors play important roles in the repair and regeneration of peripheral nerves. The present paper reviews current studies and evidence regarding the neurological effects of traditional Chinese medicine, with an emphasis on recent developments in the area of nerve repair and regeneration in DPN. PMID:22927874

  12. Diabetes and the plasticity of sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Zochodne, Douglas W

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus targets sensory neurons during the development of peripheral neuropathy. While polyneuropathy is often routinely considered as another 'microvascular' complication of diabetes mellitus, this concept may no longer address the complexities and unique qualities of direct neuronal involvement. The list of altered molecules and pathways in diabetic neurons continues to grow and includes those related to structure, neuronal 'stress', and protection. A role for abnormal direct neuronal insulin signaling has emerged as an important contributing factor in neurodegeneration. Finally, important molecular players that influence neuronal and axon growth, such as PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) are considered. A better mechanistic understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetic polyneuropathy may foster targeted therapies that reverse a long history of therapeutic failures. PMID:25445357

  13. Painful and non-painful neuropathy in HIV-infected patients: an analysis of somatosensory nerve function.

    PubMed

    Martin, Claes; Solders, Göran; Sönnerborg, Anders; Hansson, Per

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen to 50% of AIDS-patients suffer from distal predominantly sensory neuropathy (DSP), which is commonly associated with painful symptoms. In the present study, we have focused on the function of fine calibre nerve channels, in 36 consecutive HIV-1-infected patients with painful (PPN) (n=20; 54%) and non-painful (PN) (n=16) sensory neuropathy, assessed by clinical, quantitative thermal testing (QTT) (31/36), and peripheral nerve conduction examination (32/36). Control QTT data were obtained from 49 healthy subjects with a corresponding age- and sex distribution. Demographics, antiviral treatment, immunological status, and nerve conduction examination did not differ between patients with and without painful symptoms. Hypoaesthesia to warmth, cold, and heat pain was observed in both neuropathy groups when compared to healthy controls. However, the perception threshold to warmth was more often impaired (p<0.01) and the level of impairment was more pronounced (p<0.001) in patients with painful neuropathy. Furthermore, increased pain sensitivity to cold was found only in patients with painful symptoms (p<0.05). An abnormal outcome of any QTT parameter was found in all patients with pain, but only among 62% of patients without pain, p<0.01, and the cumulative frequency of abnormalities in any of the four thermal percepts (warmth, cold, heat pain, and cold pain) was higher in patients with painful symptoms, p<0.0001. This study demonstrates a more pronounced impairment of C-fibre-mediated innocuous warm perception in patients with painful neuropathy, which in the setting of impaired or absent heat pain perception suggests a more generalised loss of function in somatosensory C-fibre channels. PMID:12527314

  14. Pure sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    YANG, JINGJING; HUAN, MINGMING; JIANG, HUAJUN; SONG, CHUNLI; ZHONG, LIN; LIANG, ZHANHUA

    2014-01-01

    Sensory Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute demyelinating neuropathy that presents clinically with involvement of the sensory peripheral nerve only. To date, <10 cases of pure sensory GBS have been reported; thus, the clinical and pathological features of sensory variant GBS are yet to be well characterized. The current study reports the case of a 43-year-old female that presented with acute, symmetric and monophasic sensory neuropathy, without motor weakness. Patient history, clinical examination, routine nerve conduction studies and sural nerve biopsy were reviewed. All the observations were consistent with a diagnosis of pure sensory GBS. In particular, the pathological features of the sural nerve biopsy revealed that the form of regenerated nerve fibers have complete structure of myelinated nerve fascicles, and these myelinated nerve fibers are thicker than other parts of the biopsy. The patient received small-dose (20 mg/day) prednisone initially, but without any benefit. Satisfactory improvements were observed with one course of intravenous immunoglobulin. PMID:25289029

  15. Incident Neuropathy in HIV-Infected Patients on HAART

    PubMed Central

    McMurtray, Aaron; Davis, James; Valcour, Victor; Watters, Michael R.; Shiramizu, Bruce; Chow, Dominic C.; Kallianpur, Kalpana; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We determined the incidence of and risk factors for distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) in individuals on HAART. Sixty-one HIV-positive subjects on HAART for at least 6 months and neuropathy free were retrospectively selected. The study included subjects who had previously tolerated d-drugs without developing DSP. Neuropathy incidence over 4 years was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine risk factors associated with incident DSP. Nineteen subjects developed DSP over a mean follow-up of 2.4 years. Subjects never treated with a d-drug developed DSP at a rate of 21 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 8.9–33.7). Subjects with a history of d-drug treatment but not on a d-drug at enrollment developed DSP at a rate of 17 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 2.1–31.8). Those on d-drug treatment developed DSP at a rate of 25 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 8.7–41.6). Multivariable analysis identified age [hazard ratio (HR)?=?1.09; p?

  16. Incident neuropathy in HIV-infected patients on HAART.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Beau K; McMurtray, Aaron; Davis, James; Valcour, Victor; Watters, Michael R; Shiramizu, Bruce; Chow, Dominic C; Kallianpur, Kalpana; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2010-07-01

    We determined the incidence of and risk factors for distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) in individuals on HAART. Sixty-one HIV-positive subjects on HAART for at least 6 months and neuropathy free were retrospectively selected. The study included subjects who had previously tolerated d-drugs without developing DSP. Neuropathy incidence over 4 years was calculated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine risk factors associated with incident DSP. Nineteen subjects developed DSP over a mean follow-up of 2.4 years. Subjects never treated with a d-drug developed DSP at a rate of 21 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 8.9-33.7). Subjects with a history of d-drug treatment but not on a d-drug at enrollment developed DSP at a rate of 17 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 2.1-31.8). Those on d-drug treatment developed DSP at a rate of 25 cases per 100 person-years (95% CI, 8.7-41.6). Multivariable analysis identified age [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.09; p < 0.01] and low CD4(+) nadir [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.79; p = 0.03] as significant risk factors. Current or prior history of treatment with d-drug was not a significant risk factor for incident DSP in subjects who had previously tolerated d-drug treatment without developing a toxic DSP. Age and low CD4(+) are risk factors for incident DSP. However, current or prior history of d-drug treatment is not a significant risk factor for incident DSP in subjects who had previously tolerated d-drug treatment without developing a toxic DSP. PMID:20624077

  17. Juvenile polyposis occurring in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Matsumoto, T; Iida, M; Hoshika, K; Shimizu, M; Hisamoto, N; Kihara, T

    1999-01-01

    Various extraintestinal manifestations may occur in juvenile polyposis, but hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia has rarely been reported in this type of polyposis. The authors treated a 14-year-old girl with rectal bleeding and anemia who had multiple polyps of the colorectum. Large polyps were removed and histologically diagnosed as juvenile polyps. She was later diagnosed as having telangiectasia of the skin, and arteriovenous malformations in the lung and in the liver, all of which were compatible with the diagnosis of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. At age 32, she had multiple ulcers in the ileum and in the colon. The coexistence of juvenile polyposis and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia may be a clue for the understanding of the histopathogenesis of juvenile polyposis. PMID:9892274

  18. POLYNEUROPATHY + NEURONOPATHY: Points in Differential Diagnosis 1. Selective Functional Involvement

    E-print Network

    Baloh, Bob

    & IV; Tangier's, Fabry's; Indifference; Thermoanalgesia; Navajo HSN + Paraparesis (Cavanagh) Neuropathy; Lumbar Rule out: Joint pain; Myopathy Proximal Sensory Hereditary: Porphyria; Tangier Neuronopathy: Hu; Prion; ALS; Cowchock; NAD; Krabbe; MLD Face Bell's Palsy Melkersson; Tangier Polyradiculopathies

  19. Peripheral neuropathy in mice with neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vareniuk, Igor; Pacher, Pal; Pavlov, Ivan A; Drel, Viktor R; Obrosova, Irina G

    2009-05-01

    Evidence for the important role of the potent oxidant peroxynitrite in peripheral diabetic neuropathy and neuropathic pain is emerging. This study evaluated the contribution of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) to diabetes-induced nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve and dorsal root ganglia, and peripheral nerve dysfunction and degeneration. Control and nNOS-/- mice were made diabetic with streptozotocin, and maintained for 6 weeks. Peroxynitrite injury was assessed by nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) immunoreactivities. Peripheral diabetic neuropathy was evaluated by measurements of sciatic motor and hind-limb digital sensory nerve conduction velocities, thermal algesia, tactile allodynia, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density. Control nNOS-/- mice displayed normal motor nerve conduction velocity and thermal response latency, whereas sensory nerve conduction velocity was slightly lower compared with non-diabetic wild-type mice, and tactile response threshold and intraepidermal nerve fiber density were reduced by 47 and 38%, respectively. Both diabetic wild-type and nNOS-/- mice displayed enhanced nitrosative stress in peripheral nerve. In contrast to diabetic wild-type mice, diabetic nNOS-/- mice had near normal nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) immunofluorescence in dorsal root ganglia. Both diabetic wild-type and nNOS-/- mice developed motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity deficits and thermal hypoalgesia although nNOS gene deficiency slightly reduced severity of the three disorders. Tactile response thresholds were similarly decreased in control and diabetic nNOS-/- mice compared with non-diabetic wild-type mice. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density was lower by 27% in diabetic nNOS-/- mice compared with the corresponding non-diabetic group, and by 20% in diabetic nNOS-/- mice compared with diabetic wild-type mice. In conclusion, nNOS is required for maintaining the normal peripheral nerve function and small sensory nerve fibre innervation. nNOS gene deficiency does not protect from development of nerve conduction deficit, sensory neuropathy and intraepidermal nerve fiber loss. PMID:19360314

  20. PHENYLMETHYLSULFONYL FLUORIDE PROTECTS RATS FROM MIPAFOX-INDUCED DELAYED NEUROPATHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiation of organophosphorus-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is thought to consist of two molecular events involving the phosphorylation of the target enzyme, neurotoxic esterase or neuropathy target enzyme (NTE), and a subsequent 'aging' reaction which transforms the inhibi...

  1. Diagnosis and management of hereditary hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Salgia, Reena J; Brown, Kimberly

    2015-02-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis is a rare genetic disorder that can have significant clinical consequences. Hemochromatosis is associated with iron overload, and can initially be recognized through laboratory testing for serum ferritin and transferrin saturation. Genetic testing for the HFE mutation can be performed in patients with elevated iron indices and a suspicion for hemochromatosis or liver disease. The main pathway resulting in iron overload is through altered hepcidin levels. Treatment of patients with the clinical phenotype of hereditary hemochromatosis is commonly through phlebotomy for removal of excess iron stores. This article highlights the current information and data regarding the diagnosis and management of hemochromatosis. PMID:25454304

  2. Signaling by sensory receptors.

    PubMed

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  3. PDE5 inhibitors in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Hackett, G

    2006-09-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes. This paper reviews the case histories of five patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy or severe peripheral vascular disease who reported improvement in their symptoms when treated with regular or daily dosing with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is). These patients had been previously treated with PDE5Is for erectile dysfunction (ED) and not responded to on-demand therapy with a PDE5I at maximal recommended dose. This improvement is likely to be due to the known benefit of these drugs on endothelial dysfunction via an improvement of blood supply to the vasa nervorum. These cases suggest that further research is indicated to evaluate the potential use of PDE5Is in the treatment and prevention of diabetic peripheral neuropathy, particularly as these drugs are already licensed to treat ED, which occurs in around 50% of male diabetics. PMID:16939556

  4. Tactile directional sensibility and diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Norrsell, U; Eliasson, B; Frizell, M; Wallin, B G; Wesslau, C; Olausson, H

    2001-11-01

    Five different procedures used to diagnose neuropathy were compared in a "blind" study with diabetic patients. The aim was to evaluate tests of tactile directional sensibility. Three matched groups were examined, two groups with type I diabetes, either with or without suspected neuropathy, and one of healthy controls. Testing consisted of: (1) examination by a specialist in neurology, (2) electrophysiologic measurement of nerve conduction velocity and determination of cool sensitivity, and (3) determination of directional sensibility in two stages, with categorical and quantitative techniques. Abnormal test results were obtained for both groups of diabetic patients. Quantitatively measured directional sensibility had the highest sensitivity (89%) and specificity (85%) when calculated for patients who had received a diagnosis of neuropathy from the neurologist, despite one case of abnormal directional sensibility among the healthy controls. Conduction velocity testing was almost comparably sensitive (80%) and cool sensitivity, comparably specific (85%) when calculated in the same manner. PMID:11745952

  5. Diabetic neuropathy in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Daniela; Verrotti, Alberto; Salladini, Carmela; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) represents a major complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) but there is considerable uncertainty as to its incidence, prevalence, diagnosis and prognosis in pediatric population. Generally, DN is classified as polyneuropathy, focal neuropathy and autonomic neuropathy. The latter seems to be detectable even in asymptomatic children and adolescents with diabetes and is associated with the most serious consequences, such as hypoglycemia unawareness and cardiovascular dysfunction. A near-normal control of blood glucose in the early years after onset of diabetes may delay the development of clinically significant nerve impairment and, therefore, children and adolescents with diabetes represent a critical target for primary prevention of this complication. The aim of this review is to focus on the main clinical, epidemiological and prognostic aspects of DN in children and adolescents with T1DM. Etiopathogenetic theories and diagnostic tools are also reviewed from in a pediatric perspective. PMID:15043690

  6. From ophthalmoplegic migraine to cranial neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Förderreuther, Stefanie; Ruscheweyh, Ruth

    2015-06-01

    Ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM)/recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy (RPON) is a rare disease consisting of recurrent unilateral headache accompanied or followed by ipsilateral ophthalmoplegia. Because MRI findings suggest neuropathy and the relationship to typical migraine remains unclear, the disease has been renamed from "ophthalmoplegic migraine" to "recurrent painful oculomotor neuropathy" in the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD). However, it remains a fact that most cases of OM/RPON described in the literature have a history of migraine and that the headache during OM/RPON often has migrainous features. A more detailed clinical description of the headache during OM/RPON and additional results from imaging and possibly histology will be needed to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease and its relationship to typical migraine. PMID:26021754

  7. The chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy outcome measures standardization study: from consensus to the first validity and reliability findings

    PubMed Central

    Cavaletti, G.; Cornblath, D. R.; Merkies, I. S. J.; Postma, T. J.; Rossi, E.; Frigeni, B.; Alberti, P.; Bruna, J.; Velasco, R.; Argyriou, A. A.; Kalofonos, H. P.; Psimaras, D.; Ricard, D.; Pace, A.; Galič, E.; Briani, C.; Dalla Torre, C.; Faber, C. G.; Lalisang, R. I.; Boogerd, W.; Brandsma, D.; Koeppen, S.; Hense, J.; Storey, D.; Kerrigan, S.; Schenone, A.; Fabbri, S.; Valsecchi, M. G.; Mazzeo, A.; Pace, A.; Pessino, A.; Schenone, A.; Toscano, A.; Argyriou, A.A.; Brouwer, B.; Frigeni, B.; Piras, B.; Briani, C.; Dalla Torre, C.; Dominguez Gonzalez, C.; Faber, C. G.; Tomasello, C.; Binda, D.; Brandsma, D.; Cortinovis, D.; Psimaras, D.; Ricard, D.; Storey, D.; Cornblath, D.R.; Galič, E.; Lindeck Pozza, E.; Rossi, E.; Vanhoutte, E.K.; Lanzani, F.; Pastorelli, F.; Altavilla, G.; Cavaletti, G.; Granata, G.; Kalofonos, H.P.; Ghignotti, I.; Merkies, I.S.J.; Bruna, J.; Hense, J.; Heimans, J.J.; Mattavelli, L.; Padua, L.; Reni, L.; Bakkers, M.; Boogerd, M.; Campagnolo, M.; Cazzaniga, M.; Eurelings, M.; Leandri, M.; Lucchetta, M.; Penas Prado, M.; Russo, M.; Valsecchi, M.G.; Piatti, M.L.; Alberti, P.; Bidoli, P.; Grant, R.; Plasmati, R.; Velasco, R.; Lalisang, R.I.; Meijer, R.J.; Fabbri, S.; Dorsey, S. G.; Galimberti, S.; Kerrigan, S.; Koeppen, S.; Postma, T.J.; Boogerd, W.; Grisold, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating and dose-limiting complication of cancer treatment. Thus far, the impact of CIPN has not been studied in a systematic clinimetric manner. The objective of the study was to select outcome measures for CIPN evaluation and to establish their validity and reproducibility in a cross-sectional multicenter study. Patients and methods After literature review and a consensus meeting among experts, face/content validity were obtained for the following selected scales: the National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC), the Total Neuropathy Score clinical version (TNSc), the modified Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) group sensory sumscore (mISS), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, and CIPN20 quality-of-life measures. A total of 281 patients with stable CIPN were examined. Validity (correlation) and reliability studies were carried out. Results Good inter-/intra-observer scores were obtained for the TNSc, mISS, and NCI-CTC sensory/motor subscales. Test–retest values were also good for the EORTC QLQ-C30 and CIPN20. Acceptable validity scores were obtained through the correlation among the measures. Conclusion Good validity and reliability scores were demonstrated for the set of selected impairment and quality-of-life outcome measures in CIPN. Future studies are planned to investigate the responsiveness aspects of these measures. PMID:22910842

  8. [Juvenile polyposis coli associated with hereditary spherocytosis].

    PubMed

    Agnifili, A; Carducci, G; Gola, P; Mancini, E; Marino, M; Verzaro, R; Ibi, I

    1998-10-01

    The first case of colorectal juvenile polyposis associated with hereditary spherocytosis is reported. Symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of juvenile polyposis are described along with the associated syndromes reported in the literature. The scientific and clinical consequences of this association are discussed. PMID:9882972

  9. Hereditary Angioneurotic Edema: Two Genetic Variants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred S. Rosen; Patricia Charache; Jack Pensky; Virginia Donaldson

    1965-01-01

    Serums of patients with hereditary angioneurotic edema lack inhibitory activity against the esterase derived from the first component of complement. In one group of patients this lack appears to result from failure to synthesize the esterase inhibitor of the first component of complement, whereas in another group of patients an abnormal, nonfunctional protein is synthesized.

  10. Hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Reilly; Amir S. Alizadeh Naderi

    2010-01-01

    Inherited diseases of renal phosphate handling lead to urinary phosphate wasting and depletion of total body phosphorus stores. Clinical sequelae of inherited disorders that are associated with increased urinary phosphate excretion are deleterious and can lead to abnormal skeletal growth and deformities. This Review describes hereditary disorders of renal phosphate wasting taking into account developments in our understanding of renal

  11. Hepatic regenerating nodules in hereditary tyrosinemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Day; J. G. Letourneau; Bradford T. Allan; Harvey L. Sharp; Nancy Ascher; Louis P. Dehner; William M. Thompson

    1987-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia is an autosomal recessive, enzymatic disorder that results in micro- and macronodular cirrhosis in early childhood. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs in approximately one-third of affected children. We evaluated the imaging studies performed in five children with this disorder. Pathologic examination of all five of the livers revealed cirrhosis and multiple regenerating nodules; hepatocellular carcinoma was present in two of

  12. Abnormal interaction of motor neuropathy-associated mutant HspB8 (Hsp22) forms with the RNA helicase Ddx20 (gemin3)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiankui Sun; Jean-Marc Fontaine; Adam D. Hoppe; Serena Carra; Cheryl DeGuzman; Jody L. Martin; Stephanie Simon; Patrick Vicart; Michael J. Welsh; Jacques Landry; Rainer Benndorf

    2010-01-01

    A number of missense mutations in the two related small heat shock proteins HspB8 (Hsp22) and HspB1 (Hsp27) have been associated\\u000a with the inherited motor neuron diseases (MND) distal hereditary motor neuropathy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. HspB8 and\\u000a HspB1 interact with each other, suggesting that these two etiologic factors may act through a common biochemical mechanism.\\u000a However, their role in neuron

  13. Ischemic Neuropathy Associated with Livedoid Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jee-Eun; Park, Su-Yeon; Sinn, Dong In; Kim, Sung-Min; Hong, Yoon-Ho; Park, Kyung Seok; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Background Livedoid vasculitis is a chronic dermatological problem with an unclear etiology. Clinical findings are petechiae with painful ulcers in both lower extremities, which heal to become hyperpigmented and porcelain-white satellite lesions. There are only a few reported cases of livedoid vasculitis presenting in combination with peripheral neuropathy. Case Report We report the first case of a Korean patient presenting with mononeuritis multiplex combined with livedoid vasculitis, which was confirmed by electrophysiological and pathological studies. Conclusions Our report supports the possible vaso-occlusive etiology of livedoid vasculitis in multifocal ischemic neuropathy. PMID:22259622

  14. Sildenafil ameliorates long term peripheral neuropathy in type II diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Chopp, Michael; Szalad, Alexandra; Jia, LongFei; Lu, XueRong; Lu, Mei; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, RuiLan; Zhang, Zheng Gang

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of long-standing diabetes mellitus. To mimic clinical trials in which patients with diabetes enrolled have advanced peripheral neuropathy, we investigated the effect of sildenafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 enzyme, on long term peripheral neuropathy in middle aged male mice with type II diabetes. Treatment of diabetic mice (BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J, db/db) at age 36 weeks with sildenafil significantly increased functional blood vessels and regional blood flow in the sciatic nerve, concurrently with augmentation of intra-epidermal nerve fiber density in the skin and myelinated axons in the sciatic nerve. Functional analysis showed that the sildenafil treatment considerably improved motor and sensory conduction velocities in the sciatic nerve and peripheral thermal stimulus sensitivity compared with the saline treatment. In vitro studies showed that mouse dermal endothelial cells (MDE) cultured under high glucose levels exhibited significant down regulation of angiopoietin 1 (Ang1) expression and reduction of capillary-like tube formation, which were completely reversed by sildenafil. In addition, incubation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons with conditioned medium harvested from MDE under high glucose levels suppressed neurite outgrowth, where as conditional medium harvested from MDE treated with sildenafil under high glucose levels did not inhibit neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons. Moreover, blockage of the Ang1 receptor, Tie2, with a neutralized antibody against Tie2 abolished the beneficial effect of sildenafil on tube formation and neurite outgrowth. Collectively, our data indicate that sildenafil has a therapeutic effect on long term peripheral neuropathy of middle aged diabetic mice and that improvement of neurovascular dysfunction by sildenafil likely contributes to the amelioration of nerve function. The Ang1/Tie2 signaling pathway may play an important role in these restorative processes. PMID:25689401

  15. Bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy: an electrophysiological, behavioral, morphological and mechanistic study in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Carozzi, Valentina A; Renn, Cynthia L; Bardini, Michela; Fazio, Grazia; Chiorazzi, Alessia; Meregalli, Cristina; Oggioni, Norberto; Shanks, Kathleen; Quartu, Marina; Serra, Maria Pina; Sala, Barbara; Cavaletti, Guido; Dorsey, Susan G

    2013-01-01

    Bortezomib is the first proteasome inhibitor with significant antineoplastic activity for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma as well as other hematological and solid neoplasms. Peripheral neurological complications manifesting with paresthesias, burning sensations, dysesthesias, numbness, sensory loss, reduced proprioception and vibratory sensitivity are among the major limiting side effects associated with bortezomib therapy. Although bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy is clinically easy to diagnose and reliable models are available, its pathophysiology remains partly unclear. In this study we used well-characterized immune-competent and immune-compromised mouse models of bortezomib-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. To characterize the drug-induced pathological changes in the peripheral nervous system, we examined the involvement of spinal cord neuronal function in the development of neuropathic pain and investigated the relevance of the immune response in painful peripheral neuropathy induced by bortezomib. We found that bortezomib treatment induced morphological changes in the spinal cord, dorsal roots, dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and peripheral nerves. Neurophysiological abnormalities and specific functional alterations in A? and C fibers were also observed in peripheral nerve fibers. Mice developed mechanical allodynia and functional abnormalities of wide dynamic range neurons in the dorsal horn of spinal cord. Bortezomib induced increased expression of the neuronal stress marker activating transcription factor-3 in most DRG. Moreover, the immunodeficient animals treated with bortezomib developed a painful peripheral neuropathy with the same features observed in the immunocompetent mice. In conclusion, this study extends the knowledge of the sites of damage induced in the nervous system by bortezomib administration. Moreover, a selective functional vulnerability of peripheral nerve fiber subpopulations was found as well as a change in the electrical activity of wide dynamic range neurons of dorsal horn of spinal cord. Finally, the immune response is not a key factor in the development of morphological and functional damage induced by bortezomib in the peripheral nervous system. PMID:24069168

  16. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic patients with and without peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Siqi; Randall, David C; Knapp, Charles F; Patwardhan, Abhijit R; Nelson, Kevin R; Karounos, Dennis G; Evans, Joyce M

    2012-03-01

    Cardiac and vascular dysfunctions resulting from autonomic neuropathy (AN) are complications of diabetes, often undiagnosed. Our objectives were to: 1) determine sympathetic and parasympathetic components of compromised blood pressure (BP) regulation in patients with peripheral neuropathy and 2) rank noninvasive indexes for their sensitivity in diagnosing AN. We continuously measured electrocardiogram, arterial BP, and respiration during supine rest and 70° head-up tilt in 12 able-bodied subjects, 7 diabetics without, 7 diabetics with possible, and 8 diabetics with definite, sensory, and/or motor neuropathy (D2). During the first 3 min of tilt, systolic BP (SBP) of D2 decreased [-10.9 ± 4.5 (SE) mmHg] but increased in able-bodied (+4.8 ± 5.4 mmHg). Compared with able-bodied, D2 had smaller low-frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) spectral power of diastolic BP, lower baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI), and more SBP ramps. Except for low-frequency power of SBP, D2 had greater SBP and smaller RR interval harmonic and nonharmonic components at rest across the 0.003- to 0.45-Hz region. In addition, our results support previous findings of smaller HF RR interval power, smaller numbers of baroreflex sequences, and lower baroreflex sensitivity in D2. We conclude that diabetic peripheral neuropathy is accompanied by diminished parasympathetic and sympathetic control of heart rate and peripheral vasomotion and diminished baroreflex regulation. A novel finding of this study lies in the sensitivity of BEI to detect AN, presumably because of its combination of parameters that measure reductions in both sympathetic control of vasomotion and parasympathetic control of heart rate. PMID:22049233

  17. Organophosphates induce distal axonal damage, but not brain oedema, by inactivating neuropathy target esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Read, David J.; Li Yong [MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Chao, Moses V. [Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Cavanagh, John B. [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, London SE5 8AF (United Kingdom); Glynn, Paul, E-mail: pg8@le.ac.u [MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Single doses of organophosphorus compounds (OP) which covalently inhibit neuropathy target esterase (NTE) can induce lower-limb paralysis and distal damage in long nerve axons. Clinical signs of neuropathy are evident 3 weeks post-OP dose in humans, cats and chickens. By contrast, clinical neuropathy in mice following acute dosing with OPs or any other toxic compound has never been reported. Moreover, dosing mice with ethyloctylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF) - an extremely potent NTE inhibitor - causes a different (subacute) neurotoxicity with brain oedema. These observations have raised the possibility that mice are intrinsically resistant to neuropathies induced by acute toxic insult, but may incur brain oedema, rather than distal axonal damage, when NTE is inactivated. Here we provide the first report that hind-limb dysfunction and extensive axonal damage can occur in mice 3 weeks after acute dosing with a toxic compound, bromophenylacetylurea. Three weeks after acutely dosing mice with neuropathic OPs no clinical signs were observed, but distal lesions were present in the longest spinal sensory axons. Similar lesions were evident in undosed nestin-cre:NTEfl/fl mice in which NTE had been genetically-deleted from neural tissue. The extent of OP-induced axonal damage in mice was related to the duration of NTE inactivation and, as reported in chickens, was promoted by post-dosing with phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride. However, phenyldipentylphosphinate, another promoting compound in chickens, itself induced in mice lesions different from the neuropathic OP type. Finally, EOPF induced subacute neurotoxicity with brain oedema in both wild-type and nestin-cre:NTEfl/fl mice indicating that the molecular target for this effect is not neural NTE.

  18. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A165b prevents diabetic neuropathic pain and sensory neuronal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Hulse, Richard P; Beazley-Long, Nicholas; Ved, Nikita; Bestall, Samuel M; Riaz, Hamza; Singhal, Priya; Ballmer Hofer, Kurt; Harper, Steve J; Bates, David O; Donaldson, Lucy F

    2015-10-01

    Diabetic peripheral neuropathy affects up to half of diabetic patients. This neuronal damage leads to sensory disturbances, including allodynia and hyperalgesia. Many growth factors have been suggested as useful treatments for prevention of neurodegeneration, including the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. VEGF-A is generated as two alternative splice variant families. The most widely studied isoform, VEGF-A165a is both pro-angiogenic and neuroprotective, but pro-nociceptive and increases vascular permeability in animal models. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats develop both hyperglycaemia and many of the resulting diabetic complications seen in patients, including peripheral neuropathy. In the present study, we show that the anti-angiogenic VEGF-A splice variant, VEGF-A165b, is also a potential therapeutic for diabetic neuropathy. Seven weeks of VEGF-A165b treatment in diabetic rats reversed enhanced pain behaviour in multiple behavioural paradigms and was neuroprotective, reducing hyperglycaemia-induced activated caspase 3 (AC3) levels in sensory neuronal subsets, epidermal sensory nerve fibre loss and aberrant sciatic nerve morphology. Furthermore, VEGF-A165b inhibited a STZ-induced increase in Evans Blue extravasation in dorsal root ganglia (DRG), saphenous nerve and plantar skin of the hind paw. Increased transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel activity is associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy. VEGF-A165b also prevented hyperglycaemia-enhanced TRPA1 activity in an in vitro sensory neuronal cell line indicating a novel direct neuronal mechanism that could underlie the anti-nociceptive effect observed in vivo. These results demonstrate that in a model of Type I diabetes VEGF-A165b attenuates altered pain behaviour and prevents neuronal stress, possibly through an effect on TRPA1 activity. PMID:26201024

  19. Sulfatide levels correlate with severity of neuropathy in metachromatic leukodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Dali, Christine í; Barton, Norman W; Farah, Mohamed H; Moldovan, Mihai; Mĺnsson, Jan-Eric; Nair, Nitin; Dunř, Morten; Risom, Lotte; Cao, Hongmei; Pan, Luying; Sellos-Moura, Marcia; Corse, Andrea M; Krarup, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Objective Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder due to deficient activity of arylsulfatase A (ASA) that causes accumulation of sulfatide and lysosulfatide. The disorder is associated with demyelination and axonal loss in the central and peripheral nervous systems. The late infantile form has an early-onset, rapidly progressive course with severe sensorimotor dysfunction. The relationship between the degree of nerve damage and (lyso)sulfatide accumulation is, however, not established. Methods In 13 children aged 2–5 years with severe motor impairment, markedly elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and sural nerve sulfatide and lysosulfatide levels, genotype, ASA mRNA levels, residual ASA, and protein cross-reactive immunological material (CRIM) confirmed the diagnosis. We studied the relationship between (lyso)sulfatide levels and (1) the clinical deficit in gross motor function (GMFM-88), (2) median and peroneal nerve motor and median and sural nerve sensory conduction studies (NCS), (3) median and tibial nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), (4) sural nerve histopathology, and (5) brain MR spectroscopy. Results Eleven patients had a sensory-motor demyelinating neuropathy on electrophysiological testing, whereas two patients had normal studies. Sural nerve and CSF (lyso)sulfatide levels strongly correlated with abnormalities in electrophysiological parameters and large myelinated fiber loss in the sural nerve, but there were no associations between (lyso)sulfatide levels and measures of central nervous system (CNS) involvement (GMFM-88 score, SSEP, and MR spectroscopy). Interpretation Nerve and CSF sulfatide and lysosulfatide accumulation provides a marker of disease severity in the PNS only; it does not reflect the extent of CNS involvement by the disease process. The magnitude of the biochemical disturbance produces a continuously graded spectrum of impairments in neurophysiological function and sural nerve histopathology. PMID:26000324

  20. The clinical approach to small fibre neuropathy and painful channelopathy.

    PubMed

    Themistocleous, Andreas C; Ramirez, Juan D; Serra, Jordi; Bennett, David L H

    2014-12-01

    Small fibre neuropathy (SFN) is characterised by structural injury selectively affecting small diameter sensory and/or autonomic axons. The clinical presentation is dominated by pain. SFN complicates a number of common diseases such as diabetes mellitus and is likely to be increasingly encountered. The diagnosis of SFN is demanding as clinical features can be vague and nerve conduction studies normal. New diagnostic techniques, in particular measurement of intraepidermal nerve fibre density, have significantly improved the diagnostic efficiency of SFN. Management is focused on the treatment of the underlying cause and analgesia, as there is no neuroprotective therapy. A recent and significant advance is the finding that a proportion of cases labelled as idiopathic SFN are in fact associated with gain of function mutations of the voltage-gated sodium channels Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 (encoded by the genes SCN9A and SCN10A, respectively). There is a further group of heritable painful conditions in which gain of function mutations in ion channels alter excitability of sensory neurones but do not cause frank axon degeneration; these include mutations in Nav1.7 (causing erythromelalgia and paroxysmal extreme pain disorder) and TRPA1 (resulting in familial episodic pain disorder). These conditions are exceptionally rare but have provided great insight into the nociceptive system as well as yielding potential analgesic drug targets. In patients with no pre-existing risk factor, the investigation of an underlying cause of SFN should be systematic and appropriate for the patient population. In this review, we focus on how to incorporate recent developments in the diagnosis and pathophysiology of SFN into clinical practice. PMID:24778270

  1. [Sensory Systems of Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero To Three, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles: (1) "Early Flavor Experiences: When Do They Start?" Julie A. Mennella and Gary K. Beauchamp); (2) "Infant Massage" (Tiffany Field); (3) "The Infant's Sixth Sense: Awareness and Regulation of Bodily Processes" (Stephen W. Porges); (4) "Sensory Contributions to Action: A Sensory Integrative Approach" (Marie E.…

  2. Sensory nerves and pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingfu

    2014-01-01

    Sensory nerves are a kind of nerve that conduct afferent impulses from the periphery receptors to the central nervous system (CNS) and are able to release neuromediators from the activated peripheral endings. Sensory nerves are particularly important for microcirculatory response, and stimulation of pancreatic sensory nerves releases a variety of neuropeptides such as substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), etc., leading to neurogenic inflammation characterized as the local vasodilatation and plasma extravasation. Deactivation of sensory nerves often leads to the disturbances of pancreatic microcirculation. Pancreatitis is a common digestive disease that can lead to severe complications and even death if it goes untreated. Experimental studies in animals and tissue analysis in patients with pancreatitis have shown significant changes in sensory nerves supplying the pancreatic gland. Thus making clear the whole mechanism of pancreatitis is essential to treat and cure it. Sensory nerves may have a close correlation with the development of pancreatitis, and knowing more about the role of sensory nerve in pancreatitis is important for the treatment for pancreatitis. This review is aimed to summarize the relationship between sensory nerves and pancreatitis. PMID:25493260

  3. Diagnosis and therapeutic options for peripheral vasculitic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Vasculitis can affect the peripheral nervous system alone (nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy) or can be a part of primary or secondary systemic vasculitis. In cases of pre-existing systemic vasculitis, the diagnosis can easily be made, whereas suspected vasculitic neuropathy as initial or only manifestation of vasculitis requires careful clinical, neurophysiological, laboratory and histopathological workout. The typical clinical syndrome is mononeuropathia multiplex or asymmetric neuropathy, but distal-symmetric neuropathy can frequently be seen. Standard treatments include steroids, azathioprine, methotrexate and cyclophosphamide. More recently the B-cell antibody rituximab and intravenous immunoglobulins have shown to be effective in some vasculitic neuropathy types. PMID:25829955

  4. High doses of cobalt induce optic and auditory neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, Pietro; Catalani, Simona; Zaghini, Anna; Mariotti, Andrea; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Vielmi, Valentina; Semeraro, Francesco; Duse, Sarah; Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; Padovani, Alessandro; Rizzetti, Maria Cristina; De Caro, Raffaele

    2013-09-01

    The adverse biological effects of continuous exposure to cobalt and chromium have been well defined. In the past, this toxicity was largely an industrial issue concerning workers exposed in occupational setting. Nevertheless, recent reports have described a specific toxicity mediated by the high levels of cobalt and chromium released by metallic prostheses, particularly in patients who had received hip implants. Clinical symptoms, including blindness, deafness and peripheral neuropathy, suggest a specific neurotropism. However, little is known about the neuropathological basis of this process, and experimental evidence is still lacking. We have investigated this issue in an experimental setting using New Zealand White rabbits treated with repeated intravenous injections of cobalt and chromium, alone or in combination. No evident clinical or pathological alterations were associated after chromium administration alone, despite its high levels in blood and tissue while cobalt-chromium and cobalt-treated rabbits showed clinical signs indicative of auditory and optic system toxicity. On histopathological examination, the animals showed severe retinal and cochlear ganglion cell depletion along with optic nerve damage and loss of sensory cochlear hair cells. Interestingly, the severity of the alterations was related to dosages and time of exposure. These data confirmed our previous observation of severe auditory and optic nerve toxicity in patients exposed to an abnormal release of cobalt and chromium from damaged hip prostheses. Moreover, we have identified the major element mediating neurotoxicity to be cobalt, although the molecular mechanisms mediating this toxicity still have to be defined. PMID:23069009

  5. DIABETIC NEUROPATHY PART 1: OVERVIEW AND SYMMETRIC PHENOTYPES

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Kluding, Patricia; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy in US and neuropathies are the most common complication of diabetes mellitus affecting up to 50% of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Various types of neuropathies can be associated with diabetes mellitus.1 Symptoms usually include numbness, tingling, pain and weakness. Dizziness with postural changes can be seen with autonomic neuropathy. Metabolic, vascular and immune theories have been proposed for the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. Pathologically axonal damage and segmental demyelination can be seen with diabetic neuropathies. Management of diabetic neuropathy should begin at the initial diagnosis of diabetes and mainly requires tight and stable glycemic control. Many medications are available for the treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:23642717

  6. Nitrosative stress and peripheral diabetic neuropathy in leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice.

    PubMed

    Vareniuk, Igor; Pavlov, Ivan A; Drel, Viktor R; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V; Ilnytska, Olga; Bell, Seth R; Tibrewala, Jyoti; Groves, John T; Obrosova, Irina G

    2007-06-01

    Nitrosative stress contributes to nerve conduction slowing, thermal hypoalgesia, and impaired nitrergic innervation in animal models of Type 1 diabetes. The role for reactive nitrogen species in Type 2 diabetes-associated neuropathy remains unexplored. This study evaluated the role for nitrosative stress in functional and structural neuropathic changes in ob/ob mice, a model of Type 2 diabetes with mild hyperglycemia and obesity. Two structurally diverse peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts, Fe(III) tetrakis-2-(N-triethylene glycol monomethyl ether)-pyridyl porphyrin (FP15) and Fe(III) tetra-mesitylporphyrin octasulfonate (FeTMPS), were administered to control and 8-week-old ob/ob mice for 3 weeks at the doses of 5 mg kg(-1) day(-1) (FP15) and 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) day(-1) (FeTMPS). The 11-week-old ob/ob mice developed motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) and hind-limb digital sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) deficits, thermal hypoalgesia, tactile allodynia, and a remarkable ( approximately 78%) loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers. They also had increased nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) immunofluorescence in the sciatic nerve, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Treatment with two structurally diverse peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts was associated with restoration of normal MNCV and SNCV, and alleviation of thermal hypoalgesia. Tactile response thresholds increased in response to peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst treatment, but still remained approximately 2.7- to 3.2-fold lower compared with non-diabetic controls. Intraepidermal nerve fiber loss was not alleviated by either FP15 or FeTMPS. Nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) immunofluorescence in sciatic nerve, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglia of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst-treated ob/ob mice were essentially normal. In conclusion, nitrosative stress plays an important role in functional abnormalities associated with large motor, large sensory, and small sensory fiber neuropathy, but not in small sensory nerve fiber degeneration, in this animal model. Peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts alleviate Type 2 diabetes-associated sensory nerve dysfunction, likely by mechanism(s) not involving arrest of degenerative changes or enhanced regeneration of small sensory nerve fibers. PMID:17475250

  7. Painful peripheral neuropathy and sodium channel mutations.

    PubMed

    Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Faber, Catharina G; Merkies, Ingemar S J; Waxman, Stephen G

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy can lead to neuropathic pain in a subset of patients. Painful peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating disorder, reflected by a reduced quality of life. Therapeutic strategies are limited and often disappointing, as in most cases targeted treatment is not available. Elucidating pathogenetic factors for pain might provide a target for optimal treatment. Voltage-gated sodium channels NaV1.7-NaV1.9 are expressed in the small-diameter dorsal root ganglion neurons and their axons. By a targeted gene approach, missense gain-of-function mutations of NaV1.7-NaV1.9 have been demonstrated in painful peripheral neuropathy. Functional analyses have shown that these mutations produce a spectrum of pro-excitatory changes in channel biophysics, with the shared outcome at the cellular level of dorsal root ganglion hyperexcitability. Reduced neurite outgrowth may be another consequence of sodium channel mutations, and possible therapeutic strategies include blockade of sodium channels or block of reverse operation of the sodium-calcium exchanger. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of painful peripheral neuropathy offers new targets that may provide a basis for more effective treatment. PMID:25556685

  8. Chlamydia in Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pia V. Vécsei; Karl Kircher; Andreas Reitner; Gelas Khanakha; Gerold Stanek

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing body of evidence linking the common respiratory human pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae with atherosclerosis and other vascular disorders. Our research was designed to investigate the association of this organism with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION), representing an acute ischemic disorder of the optic nerve head. Sera were examined of 14 consecutive patients with AION and of 14

  9. Speech Perception in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Fan-Gang; Liu, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Speech perception in participants with auditory neuropathy (AN) was systematically studied to answer the following 2 questions: Does noise present a particular problem for people with AN: Can clear speech and cochlear implants alleviate this problem? Method: The researchers evaluated the advantage in intelligibility of clear speech over…

  10. Molecular cloning of neuropathy target esterase (NTE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Glynn; David J. Read; Michael J. Lush; Yong Li; Jane Atkins

    1999-01-01

    Covalent modification of NTE, a neuronal protein with serine esterase activity, by certain organophosphates (OP) initiates degeneration of long axons in the peripheral and central nervous system. Simple inhibition of NTE esterase activity does not initiate neuropathy; the latter requires aging of the OP bound to the catalytic serine residue so that a negatively-charged species is left attached to the

  11. Neuropathy target esterase and phospholipid deacylation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Glynn

    2005-01-01

    Certain organophosphates react with the active site serine residue of neuropathy target esterase (NTE) and cause axonal degeneration and paralysis. Cloning of NTE revealed the presence of homologues in eukaryotes from yeast to man and that the protein has both a catalytic and a regulatory domain. The latter contains sequences similar to the regulatory subunit of protein kinase A, suggesting

  12. Quantified sensory abnormalities in early genetically verified transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Heldestad, Victoria; Nordh, Erik

    2007-02-01

    Transthyretin amyloid neuropathy of type 1 (Swedish-Portuguese type) is an autosomally inherited progressive disease with a Val30Met mutation, causing generalized sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) quantifies thermal threshold changes in patients with manifest general polyneuropathy, but its applicability at an early clinical stage of a strict biochemically defined disease has not yet been shown. Thermal QST was performed in 23 patients having a positive Val30Met marker and clinical symptoms of peripheral small-fiber neuropathy but normal electrophysiological findings and compared to a reference group of 43 healthy volunteers, both subdivided into age groups < or =45 and >45 years. Significant differences between patients and controls were found at all test sites in both age groups, except for warm thresholds at the medial lower leg in those >45 years. QST thus demonstrated elevated thermal thresholds before the development of electrophysiological abnormalities, which indicate large-fiber involvement. These findings confirm that QST is a useful method for documentation of developing polyneuropathy. PMID:17094098

  13. Effects of treatments for symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy: systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Man-chun Wong; Joanne W Y Chung; Thomas K S Wong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of treatments for the symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy. Design Systematic review. Data sources Articles (English and full text) on double blind randomised trials found by searching with the key words anticonvulsant, antidepressant, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, tramadol, opioid, ion channel blocker, diabetic neuropathy, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, peripheral neuropathy, and neuropathy. The search included Medline, Embase,

  14. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia with Hepatic Vascular Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Yujiro; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary disease. Early diagnosis is important to avoid complications from vascular lesions, but diagnosis is difficult in asymptomatic patients. A 69-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our hospital for evaluation of hepatic vascular malformations. He had mild anemia with iron deficiency, and dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed significant arteriovenous and arterioportal shunts throughout the liver. Telangiectasia from the pharynx to the duodenum was confirmed by gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patient history revealed episodes of epistaxis as well as a family history of epistaxis. He was diagnosed with HHT, although no other family member had been diagnosed with definite HHT. A diagnosis of HHT must be considered in patients with hepatic vascular malformations.

  15. Hereditary characteristic of isolated congenital vomer aplasia.

    PubMed

    Verim, Ay?egül; Faruk Çal?m, Ömer; Yenigün, Alper; Kocagöz, Gamze Didem; Kökten, Numan; Özkul, Haluk

    2012-12-01

    Malformation of the inner nose is often found in conjunction with different types of cleft palate or may be seen with severe and complex craniofacial anomalies. Among such malformations, however, isolated vomer aplasia is rarely reported in the literature. This study sets forth our findings that congenital vomeral defect of the nasal septum is an isolated disorder with hereditary characteristics. Between 2001 and 2009, nine cases of isolated congenital vomeral bone defect were detected on endoscopic examination of patients referred to our clinic with nasal and otologic complaints. The files of these patients were reviewed and vomer aplasia was identified as an isolated hereditary condition with concomitant sinonasal symptoms. The defect of the posteroinferior part of the nasal septum was defined as a genetic disease presenting with no significant medical problems. Chromosomal analysis of these patients may help to reveal the relationship of this anomaly with different malformations of the maxillofacial complex. PMID:22484230

  16. Distal renal tubular acidosis with hereditary spherocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajiv; Agarwal, Indira; Bawazir, Waleed M; Bruce, Lesley J

    2013-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), although distinct entities, share the same protein i.e. the anion exchanger1 (AE1) protein. Despite this, their coexistence has been rarely reported. We hereby describe the largest family to date with co-existence of dRTA and HS and discuss the molecular basis for the co-inheritance of these conditions. PMID:23942433

  17. [New hereditary syndrome with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Marincheva, G S; Kupriianova, T A; Batienko, G S

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe a family where the mother and daughter had a number of somatic signs (cutis gyrata on the chin, abnormal growth of hair behind the ears, peculiar dilatation of the intracutaneous vein on the upper arm, etc). The daughter has oligophrenia of the debility type; mother is intellectually normal. It appears that here the authors have encountered a new dominant hereditary syndrome with multiple congenital abnormalities. PMID:3381618

  18. Hereditary auto-inflammatory disorders and biologics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leigh D. Church; Sarah M. Churchman; Philip N. Hawkins; Michael F. McDermott

    2006-01-01

    The term auto-inflammatory disorders has been coined to describe a group of conditions characterized by spontaneously relapsing and remitting bouts of systemic\\u000a inflammation without apparent involvement of antigen-specific T cells or significant production of auto-antibodies. The hereditary\\u000a periodic fever syndromes are considered as the prototypic auto-inflammatory diseases, and genetic studies have yielded important\\u000a new insights into innate immunity. DNA analysis

  19. Influence of hereditary factors in psychogenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H

    1995-01-01

    As part of a research project, a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of nonidentical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins, n = 100 test persons) was examined between 1963 and 1969 and recently, 20 years later, followed up. The index twins were drawn from among the patients making use of the services of an outpatient clinic; they had been diagnosed as having psychoneurotic, character-neurotic of psychosomatic disorders. The question again looked into was that of nature versus nurture: identical twins displayed significantly higher similarity with regard to both severity of their neuroses and manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did nonidentical twins. The hereditary factor proved to be of greater import for the continuing childhood neuroses than for the subsiding childhood neuroses. Yet a certain hereditary factor effect was observed for the neuroses which first manifest themselves in adulthood. Our findings indicate that the hereditary factor is not more pronounced in childhood than in adulthood; it is equally effective in adults. PMID:7480573

  20. The diagnostic criteria for small fibre neuropathy: from symptoms to neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Devigili, Grazia; Tugnoli, Valeria; Penza, Paola; Camozzi, Francesca; Lombardi, Raffaella; Melli, Giorgia; Broglio, Laura; Granieri, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Small fibre neuropathy (SFN), a condition dominated by neuropathic pain, is frequently encountered in clinical practise either as prevalent manifestation of more diffuse neuropathy or distinct nosologic entity. Aetiology of SFN includes pre-diabetes status and immune-mediated diseases, though it remains frequently unknown. Due to their physiologic characteristics, small nerve fibres cannot be investigated by routine electrophysiological tests, making the diagnosis particularly difficult. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) to assess the psychophysical thresholds for cold and warm sensations and skin biopsy with quantification of somatic intraepidermal nerve fibres (IENF) have been used to determine the damage to small nerve fibres. Nevertheless, the diagnostic criteria for SFN have not been defined yet and a ‘gold standard’ for clinical practise and research is not available. We screened 486 patients referred to our institutions and collected 124 patients with sensory neuropathy. Among them, we identified 67 patients with pure SFN using a new diagnostic ‘gold standard’, based on the presence of at least two abnormal results at clinical, QST and skin biopsy examination. The diagnosis of SFN was achieved by abnormal clinical and skin biopsy findings in 43.3% of patients, abnormal skin biopsy and QST findings in 37.3% of patients, abnormal clinical and QST findings in 11.9% of patients, whereas 7.5% patients had abnormal results at all the examinations. Skin biopsy showed a diagnostic efficiency of 88.4%, clinical examination of 54.6% and QST of 46.9%. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis confirmed the significantly higher performance of skin biopsy comparing with QST. However, we found a significant inverse correlation between IENF density and both cold and warm thresholds at the leg. Clinical examination revealed pinprick and thermal hypoesthesia in about 50% patients, and signs of peripheral vascular autonomic dysfunction in about 70% of patients. Spontaneous pain dominated the clinical picture in most SFN patients. Neuropathic pain intensity was more severe in patients with SFN than in patients with large or mixed fibre neuropathy, but there was no significant correlation with IENF density. The aetiology of SFN was initially unknown in 41.8% of patients and at 2-year follow-up a potential cause could be determined in 25% of them. Over the same period, 13% of SFN patients showed the involvement of large nerve fibres, whereas in 45.6% of them the clinical picture did not change. Spontaneous remission of neuropathic pain occurred in 10.9% of SFN patients, while it worsened in 30.4% of them. PMID:18524793