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1

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA  

MedlinePLUS

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA On this page: Description Genetic changes ... definitions Reviewed March 2015 What is hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA? Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is ...

2

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V  

MedlinePLUS

... to feel pain, heat, and cold. Deep pain perception, the feeling of pain from injuries to bones, ... gene ; growth factor ; hereditary ; inherited ; joint ; mutation ; neuropathy ; perception ; protein ; receptor ; recessive ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; tissue ; ...

3

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II  

MedlinePLUS

... nervous system ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; bud ; cell ; congenital ; digestion ; digestive ; esophagus ; gastroesophageal reflux ; gene ; hereditary ; inherited ; injury ; involuntary ; isoforms ; nervous system ; neuropathy ; prevalence ; protein ; recessive ; reflex ; sensory nerve ; sensory neuropathy ; sign ; spontaneous ; ...

4

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathological changes generally considered to distinguish chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) from hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) are: mononuclear cell infiltrates, prominent endoneurial oedema, and marked fascicle-to-fascicle variability. We evaluated the diagnostic significance of these pathological features which are suggestive of CIDP. Nerve biopsies from 42 dominant HMSN type I cases with a normal disease course were investigated

A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen; F. J. M. Gabreëls; J. E. Hoogendijk; P. A. Bolhuis; P. J. H. Jongen; H. M. Vingerhoets

1993-01-01

5

Hereditary Neuropathies  

MedlinePLUS

... appearance of an inverted champagne glass) or scoliosis (curvature of the spine). The symptoms of hereditary neuropathies ... Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Information Page Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disorder information page compiled by the National Institute of ...

6

[Developments in hereditary neuropathies].  

PubMed

Hereditary sensorimotor neuropathies, or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) comprise a group of diseases with heterogeneous clinical, electrophysiological and genetic expression. They are classified by the mode of inheritance (autosomal dominant, X-linked dominant, autosomal recessive) and their electrophysiological characteristics taking into account the speed of motor conduction of the median nerve (demyelinating, intermediary and axonal forms). Certain purely motor forms are called spinal CMT or hereditary distal motor neuropathy, or distal spinal amyotrophy. CMT involving an important sensorial component, trophic disorders, or signs of dysautonomia are included in the classification of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies. PMID:23153686

Dubourg, O

2012-12-01

7

Genes for Hereditary Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by axonal atrophy and degeneration, exclusively or predominantly affecting the sensory and autonomic neurons. So far, disease-associated mutations have been identified in seven genes: two genes for autosomal dominant ("SPTLC1"…

Rotthier, Annelies; Baets, Jonathan; De Vriendt, Els; Jacobs, An; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Levy, Nicolas; Bonello-Palot, Nathalie; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Weis, Joachim; Nascimento, Andres; Swinkels, Marielle; Kruyt, Moyo C.; Jordanova, Albena; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

2009-01-01

8

Clinical Features: Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum (HMSN/ACC) [OMIM #218000  

E-print Network

1/13 Clinical Features: Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus sensorimotor neuropathy resulting in hypotonia, areflexia and amyotrophy, variable degrees of dysgenesis Neuropathy with Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum #12;1/13 Prenatal testing for a known mutation Sample

Ober, Carole

9

Coenzyme Q10 therapy in hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type VI with novel mitofusin 2 mutation.  

PubMed

Hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type VI (HMSN VI) is hereditary neuropathy accompanied by optic neuropathy. The feasibility of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as a treatment for subacute visual impairment of HMSN VI was examined. A 37-year-old patient with HMSN VI with a novel mitofusin 2 mutation was treated with high dose of CoQ10 (200 mg/day) for eight months. Visual impairment was partially resolved after CoQ10 therapy. High dose CoQ10 therapy may improve the prognosis of subacute visual impairment in HMSN VI. To confirm the effectiveness of CoQ10 on HMSN VI, further studies are needed. PMID:22466841

Takahashi, Ryoichi; Ikeda, Tokuhei; Hamaguchi, Ayumi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Yamada, Masahito

2012-01-01

10

Talectomy for Equinovarus Deformity in Family Members with Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy Type I  

PubMed Central

The treatment of severe rigid neurogenic clubfoot deformities still remains a challenging problem in modern paediatric orthopaedics. In those cases, in spite of being a palliative procedure, talectomy has been advocated for the correction of the deformity thus providing a stable plantigrade foot which allows pain-free walking with standard footwear. Herein, we present the results after talectomy in two patients (brother and sister) affected by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I, with rigid severe pes equinovarus deformities. PMID:25610681

Georgiev, Hristo

2014-01-01

11

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy caused by a novel mutation in LITAF.  

PubMed

Hereditary motor-sensory neuropathy (HMSN) Type 1/CMT 1 is a disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The underlying genetic cause is heterogeneous, and mutations in LITAF (Lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha factor) represent a rare cause of CMT Type 1. In this report, a novel missense mutation is presented in the LITAF gene (c.430G>A p.V144M) in a German CMT family exhibiting typical electrophysiological features of a demyelinating neuropathy with conduction blocks and variable age at onset. Molecular genetic characterization of demyelinating HMSN should therefore include screening of the LITAF gene if typical signs of a non-homogenous demyelinating neuropathy combined with dominant familial occurrence are evident. PMID:19541485

Gerding, Wanda Maria; Koetting, Judith; Epplen, Jörg Thomas; Neusch, Clemens

2009-10-01

12

Neurofilament light mutation causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with pyramidal signs.  

PubMed

To identify novel mutations causing hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) with pyramidal signs, a variant of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), we screened 28 CMT and related genes in four members of an affected Japanese family. Clinical features included weakness of distal lower limb muscles, foot deformity, and mild sensory loss, then late onset of progressive spasticity. Electrophysiological studies revealed widespread neuropathy. Electron microscopic analysis showed abnormal mitochondria and mitochondrial accumulation in the neurons and Schwann cells. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an abnormally thin corpus callosum. In all four, microarrays detected a novel heterozygous missense mutation c.1166A>G (p.Y389C) in the gene encoding the light-chain neurofilament protein (NEFL), indicating that NEFL mutations can result in a HMSN with pyramidal signs phenotype. PMID:25583183

Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Higuchi, Yujiro; Nomura, Miwa; Nakamura, Tomonori; Arata, Hitoshi; Yuan, Junhui; Yoshimura, Akiko; Okamoto, Yuji; Matsuura, Eiji; Takashima, Hiroshi

2014-12-01

13

Hereditary optic neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims To provide a clinical update on the hereditary optic neuropathies.Methods Review of the literature.Results The hereditary optic neuropathies comprise a group of disorders in which the cause of optic nerve dysfunction appears to be hereditable, based on familial expression or genetic analysis. In some hereditary optic neuropathies, optic nerve dysfunction is typically the only manifestation of the disease. In

N J Newman; V Biousse

2004-01-01

14

X-linked hereditary motor sensory neuropathy (type 1) presenting with a stroke-like episode.  

PubMed

X-linked hereditary motor sensory neuropathy type 1 (CMTX 1) is caused by mutation in the GJB1 gene that codes for the connexin 32 protein. Central nervous system involvement with or without white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has rarely been reported in this condition. We report the case of a 7-year-old, previously well male who presented with a stroke-like episode that manifested as left hemiparesis and dysphasia. An initial brain MRI showed white matter signal changes affecting the corpus callosum and periventricular areas with a posterior predominance. Our patient made a complete clinical recovery in 36 hours. Clinical examination at this stage showed no evidence of a peripheral neuropathy. A repeat brain MRI 6 weeks later showed almost complete resolution of the changes seen initially. Subsequent investigations showed a Val177Ala mutation in the GJB1 gene. This mutation has so far not been described in the Caucasian population and has been only described once before. Electrophysiological studies showed a mixed demyelinating and axonal sensorimotor neuropathy in keeping with CMTX 1. Five months after the initial presentation our patient developed clinical evidence of a peripheral neuropathy in the form of absent ankle reflexes, weak dorsiflexors, and evertors of both feet. PMID:20491857

Anand, Geetha; Maheshwari, Nitin; Roberts, David; Padeniya, Anuruddha; Hamilton-Ayers, Michele; van der Knaap, Marjo; Fratter, Carl; Jayawant, Sandeep

2010-07-01

15

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V: Report of a rare case  

PubMed Central

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type V is a rare inherited disease caused by a mutation in the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor, type 1 gene located on chromosome 1 (1q21-q22). It is characterized by pain insensitivity, partial anhydrosis without mental retardation and unimpaired touch and pressure sensitivity. Self-mutilation injury involving the teeth, lips, tongue, ears, eyes, nose, and fingers are invariable feature of this disorder. The purpose of this paper was to discuss the diagnosis and oral management of 18-month-old girl with HSAN type V, having typical oral manifestation of bitten tongue and auto-extraction of primary teeth. Modified bite guard was given to the patient to prevent further self-mutilating injuries to the tongue. PMID:25684922

Kalaskar, Ritesh; Kalaskar, Ashita

2015-01-01

16

Immunological study of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1a (HMSN1a)  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Fifty three patients were studied to investigate whether autoimmune or inflammatory mechanisms could explain the phenotypic heterogeneity of patients with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1a (HMSN1a). Methods: Serum samples were examined for antibodies to peripheral nerve myelin protein 22 (PMP22), ganglioside GM1 and cauda equina homogenate, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF R1) concentrations. Serological results were compared with those from patients with other neuropathies (ONPs, n=30) and with normal subjects (n=51). Results: In the group as a whole, no relation emerged between clinical severity and any immune parameters. Immunohistochemical examination of four sural nerve biopsies did not show significant inflammatory infiltration. In a subset of 12 patients who experienced stepwise progression of disease, there was a trend towards a higher proportion having anti-PMP22 antibodies (33% v 15% of those with gradual disease progression, 3% ONPs, and no normal controls) and complement fixing antibodies to human cauda equina (25% v 5% with gradual progression, 8.6% ONPs, 3.9% normal controls, p=0.07). Conclusions: Patients with HMSN1a and a stepwise disease progression may have an inflammatory, autoimmune component superimposed on the genetic condition. PMID:11796774

Gabriel, C; Gregson, N; Wood, N; Hughes, R

2002-01-01

17

Varying occurrence of vocal cord paralysis in a family with autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A white British family with the axonal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN, type II) contained one member\\u000a who developed a recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy at the age of 41 years, in addition to 4 years of symptomatic polyneuropathy\\u000a and an abducens nerve palsy. Neither of the other family members (the mother and sister) with electrophysiologically confirmed\\u000a polyneuropathy

Michael Donaghy; Robin Kennett

1999-01-01

18

Misclassification and linkage of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Type 2B  

SciTech Connect

Recently Kwon et al. published in the Journal their work describing linkage of a single large family with an inherited axonal neuropathy to chromosome 3, which they suggest is a second locus for Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 2 and subsequently named {open_quotes}CMT2B.{close_quotes} We think that the diagnostic classification of this family as CMT2 is incorrect, since the subjects have a severe sensory neuropathy that fits within the hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type 1 classification of Dyck (1993). Abnormal sensory findings in CMT2 separate it from distal spinal muscular atrophy but are a minor component of clinical symptoms in most CMT patients, as CMT is primarily a motor neuropathy. When Kwon et al. state that {open_quotes}all [patients] had characteristic findings in their physical examinations, including... evidence of foot sores that were slow to heal, or amputated limbs related to the poorly healing foot ulcers,{close_quotes} it suggests that a different diagnosis is more appropriate. In our experience collecting data on >950 individuals in >60 CMT1, CMT2, CMTX and CMT4 families, we have not seen foot ulcers, osteomyelitis, or amputations. Ulcerations leading to osteomyelitis and amputations are usually associated with severe sensory neuropathies. 16 refs., 1 tab.

Vance, J.M.; Speer, M.C.; Stajich, J.M. [Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

1996-07-01

19

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies or Charcot-Marie-Tooth diseases: an update.  

PubMed

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) diseases are the most common degenerative disorders of the peripheral nervous system. However, the frequency of the different subtypes varies within distinct populations. Although more than seventy clinical and genetic forms are known to date, more than 80% of CMT patients in Western countries have genetic abnormalities associated with PMP22, MPZ, MFN2 and GJB1. Given the considerable genetic heterogeneity of CMT, we emphasize the interest of both clinical and pathological specific features such that focused genetic testing could be performed. In this regard, peripheral nerve lesions in GDAP1 mutations (AR CMT1A), such as mitochondrial abnormalities, have been newly demonstrated. Otherwise, while demyelinating autosomal recessive CMT used to be classified as CMT4 (A, B, C …), we propose a simplified classification such as AR CMT1 (A, B, C …), and AR CMT2 for axonal forms. Also, we stress that next generation sequencing techniques, now considered to be the most efficient methods of genetic testing in CMT, will be helpful in molecular diagnosis and research of new genes involved. Finally, while no effective therapy is known to date, ongoing new therapeutic trials such as PXT3003 (a low dose combination of the three already approved drugs baclofen, naltrexone, and D-sorbitol) give hopes for potential curative treatment. PMID:25454638

Tazir, Meriem; Hamadouche, Tarik; Nouioua, Sonia; Mathis, Stephane; Vallat, Jean-Michel

2014-12-15

20

Disturbances in affective touch in hereditary sensory & autonomic neuropathy type III.  

PubMed

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type III (HSAN III, Riley-Day syndrome, Familial Dysautomia) is characterised by elevated thermal thresholds and an indifference to pain. Using microelectrode recordings we recently showed that these patients possess no functional stretch-sensitive mechanoreceptors in their muscles (muscle spindles), a feature that may explain their lack of stretch reflexes and ataxic gait, yet patients have apparently normal low-threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptors. The density of C-fibres in the skin is markedly reduced in patients with HSAN III, but it is not known whether the C-tactile afferents, a distinct type of low-threshold C fibre present in hairy skin that is sensitive to gentle stroking and has been implicated in the coding of pleasant touch are specifically affected in HSAN III patients. We addressed the relationship between C-tactile afferent function and pleasant touch perception in 15 patients with HSAN III and 15 age-matched control subjects. A soft make-up brush was used to apply stroking stimuli to the forearm and lateral aspect of the leg at five velocities: 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 30 cm/s. As demonstrated previously, the control subjects rated the slowest and highest velocities as less pleasant than those applied at 1-10 cm/s, which fits with the optimal velocities for exciting C-tactile afferents. Conversely, for the patients, ratings of pleasantness did not fit the profile for C-tactile afferents. Patients either rated the higher velocities as more pleasant than the slow velocities, with the slowest velocities being rated unpleasant, or rated all velocities equally pleasant. We interpret this to reflect absent or reduced C-tactile afferent density in the skin of patients with HSAN III, who are likely using tactile cues (i.e. myelinated afferents) to rate pleasantness of stroking or are attributing pleasantness to this type of stimulus irrespective of velocity. PMID:24726998

Macefield, Vaughan G; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Löken, Line; Axelrod, Felicia B; Kaufmann, Horacio

2014-07-01

21

A Locus for Hereditary Sensory Neuropathy with Cough and Gastroesophageal Reflux on Chromosome 3p22-p24  

PubMed Central

Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a group of dominantly inherited degenerative disorders of peripheral nerve in which sensory features are more prominent than motor involvement. We have described a new form of HSN I that is associated with cough and gastroesophageal reflux. To map the chromosomal location of the gene causing the disorder, a 10-cM genome screen was undertaken in a large Australian family. Two-point analysis showed linkage to chromosome 3p22-p24 (Zmax=3.51 at recombination fraction (?) 0.0 for marker D3S2338). A second family with a similar phenotype shares a different disease haplotype but segregates at the same locus. Extended haplotype analysis has refined the region to a 3.42-cM interval, flanked by markers D3S2336 and D3S1266. PMID:12870133

Kok, C.; Kennerson, M. L.; Spring, P. J.; Ing, A. J.; Pollard, J. D.; Nicholson, G. A.

2003-01-01

22

[Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy].  

PubMed

Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease characterized by subacute severe visual loss in both eyes, which usually manifests in young adulthood. The disease has maternal inheritance due to mitochondrial DNA mutation. The final diagnosis is genetic. There is still no proven treatment, but there is significant progress in developments on the genetics of the disease to reach gene therapy. In this article we review the latest literature relevant to this disease. PMID:24167936

Hilo, Wasseem; Jabaly-Habib, Haneen; Modi, Naftali; Briscoe, Daniel

2013-08-01

23

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals

Penelope J. Spring; Cindy Kok; Garth A. Nicholson; Alvin J. Ing; Judith M. Spies; Mark L. Bassett; John Cameron; Paul Kerlin; Simon Bowler; Roger Tuck; John D. Pollard

2005-01-01

24

Diagnosis of hereditary neuropathies in adult patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper reviews the clinical diagnostic approach to hereditary neuropathies in adults by analysing: elements that point\\u000a to a neuropathy of inherited origin, different modalities of presentation, laboratory and instrumental diagnostic tests, including\\u000a molecular tests, symptoms and signs of involvement of other organs. Different phenotypes may be identified according to: disease\\u000a course; involvement of motor, sensory, autonomic fibres; site

Davide Pareyson

2003-01-01

25

Early-onset severe hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 with S331F SPTLC1 mutation.  

PubMed

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN I) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by prominent sensory impairment, resulting in foot ulcers or amputations and has a juvenile to adult onset. The major underlying causes of HSAN I are mutations in SPTLC1, which encodes the first subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). To date, there have been no reports with regard to an HSAN patient of Korean origin. In this report we discussed an HSAN I patient with a missense mutation in SPTLC1 (c.992C>T: p.S331F). The patient had noticed frequent falls, lower leg weakness and hand tremors at age five. The patient also presented with foot ulcers, muscle hypotrophy, cataracts, hoarseness, vocal cord palsy and respiratory difficulties and succumbed to the condition at the age of 28 years. In accordance with previous reports, a mutation in Ser331 in the present patient was associated with early-onset and a severe phenotype. Therefore, Ser331 in SPTLC1 is a crucial amino acid, which characterizes the HSAN I phenotype. PMID:24247255

Suh, Bum Chun; Hong, Young Bin; Nakhro, Khriezhanuo; Nam, Soo Hyun; Chung, Ki Wha; Choi, Byung-Ok

2014-02-01

26

Biochemical characterization of mutants in chaperonin proteins CCT4 and CCT5 associated with hereditary sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed

Hereditary sensory neuropathies are a class of disorders marked by degeneration of the nerve fibers in the sensory periphery neurons. Recently, two mutations were identified in the subunits of the eukaryotic cytosolic chaperonin TRiC, a protein machine responsible for folding actin and tubulin in the cell. C450Y CCT4 was identified in a stock of Sprague-Dawley rats, whereas H147R CCT5 was found in a human Moroccan family. As with many genetically identified mutations associated with neuropathies, the underlying molecular basis of the mutants was not defined. We investigated the biochemical properties of these mutants using an expression system in Escherichia coli that produces homo-oligomeric rings of CCT4 and CCT5. Full-length versions of both mutant protein chains were expressed in E. coli at levels approaching that of the WT chains. Sucrose gradient centrifugation revealed chaperonin-sized complexes of both WT and mutant chaperonins, but with reduced recovery of C450Y CCT4 soluble subunits. Electron microscopy of negatively stained samples of C450Y CCT4 revealed few ring-shaped species, whereas WT CCT4, H147R CCT5, and WT CCT5 revealed similar ring structures. CCT5 complexes were assayed for their ability to suppress aggregation of and refold the model substrate ?d-crystallin, suppress aggregation of mutant huntingtin, and refold the physiological substrate ?-actin in vitro. H147R CCT5 was not as efficient in chaperoning these substrates as WT CCT5. The subtle effects of these mutations are consistent with the homozygous disease phenotype, in which most functions are carried out during development and adulthood, but some selective function is lost or reduced. PMID:25124038

Sergeeva, Oksana A; Tran, Meme T; Haase-Pettingell, Cameron; King, Jonathan A

2014-10-01

27

Varying occurrence of vocal cord paralysis in a family with autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed

A white British family with the axonal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN, type II) contained one member who developed a recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy at the age of 41 years, in addition to 4 years of symptomatic polyneuropathy and an abducens nerve palsy. Neither of the other family members (the mother and sister) with electrophysiologically confirmed polyneuropathy had any neuropathic symptoms in the limbs or laryngeal or respiratory muscle involvement. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance is likely. This is a second report of this rare form of HMSN (type IIC) in which there is associated laryngeal or respiratory muscle weakness. This family differs from the two previously reported pedigrees in which laryngeal or diaphragm weakness had commenced within the first two decades. The discovery of asymptomatic family members attests to the diagnostic value of clinical and electrophysiological study of first-degree relatives when laryngeal or bulbar symptoms develop in the context of chronic axonal polyneuropathy. HMSN type IIC should be distinguished from the more common forms of HMSN - type IIA, in which axonal polyneuropathy is restricted to the limbs, and type IIB, which is of early onset and associated with foot ulceration. PMID:10463355

Donaghy, M; Kennett, R

1999-07-01

28

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy with chronic cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux: clinical features in two families linked to chromosome 3p22-p24.  

PubMed

Autosomal dominant hereditary sensory neuropathy (HSN I) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders, and in some families it is due to mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPTLC1) gene. We have characterized two families with HSN I associated with cough and gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). From a large Australian family, 27 individuals and from a smaller family, 11 individuals provided clinical information and blood for genetic analysis. Affected individuals had an adult onset of paroxysmal cough, GOR and distal sensory loss. Cough could be triggered by noxious odours or by pressure in the external auditory canal (Arnold's ear-cough reflex). Other features included throat clearing, hoarse voice, cough syncope and sensorineural hearing loss. Neurophysiological and pathological studies demonstrated a sensory axonal neuropathy. Gastric emptying studies were normal, and autonomic function and sweat tests were either normal or showed distal hypohidrosis. Cough was likely to be due to a combination of denervation hypersensitivity of the upper airways and oesophagus, and prominent GOR. Most affected individuals were shown on 24 h ambulatory oesophageal pH monitoring to have multiple episodes of GOR, closely temporally associated with coughing. Hoarse voice was probably attributable to acid-induced laryngeal damage, and there was no evidence of vocal cord palsy. No other cause for cough was found on most respiratory or otorhinological studies. Linkage to chromosome 3p22-p24 has been found in both families, with no evidence of linkage to loci for known HSN I, autosomal dominant hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, hereditary GOR or triple A syndrome. These families represent a genetically novel variant of HSN I, with a distinctive cough owing to involvement of the upper aerodigestive tract. PMID:16311270

Spring, Penelope J; Kok, Cindy; Nicholson, Garth A; Ing, Alvin J; Spies, Judith M; Bassett, Mark L; Cameron, John; Kerlin, Paul; Bowler, Simon; Tuck, Roger; Pollard, John D

2005-12-01

29

Mitochondrial cytopathy presenting as hereditary sensory neuropathy with progressive external ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and fatal myoclonic epileptic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We present six adult patients from three separate families, with a remarkably uniform heredo-ataxic syndrome, developing in three stages and ending in early death. The initial stage is determined by severe sensory neuropathy. The second stage is characterized further by progressive external ophthalmo- plegia (PEO), probably caused by ocular myopathy, and progressive ataxia. During a short last stage there

A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen; F. J. M. Gabreëls; I. F. M. de Coo; W. Ruitenbeek; P. Wesseling; H. J. ter Laak

1996-01-01

30

Electromyographic mixed nerve and cutaneous silent period in evaluating the A-delta fibres in a patient with hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate A-delta fibre function in a patient with hereditary sensory-autonomic neuropathy (HSAN). We used the mixed and cutaneous silent period techniques in addition to a conventional electromyographic investigation in a patient with type 2 HSAN, a rare disease characterised by wide-spread sensory and variable autonomic dysfunction caused by incomplete development of sensory and autonomic neurons. Whereas the stimulation of one digital nerve did not show any evidence of silent period in either the left or the right hand, the simultaneous stimulation of two digital nerves, as well as the stimulation of a mixed nerve, revealed a measurable delayed and shortened silent period. These data suggest that a spatial summation mediated by A-delta fibres was required for generation of the silent period in this patient and that combining the CSP and MNSP may be of practical use in evaluating impairment of the small myelinated fibres. PMID:12086110

Corsi, Fablo Maria; Fausti, Silvia; Serrao, Mariano; Casali, Carlo; Parisi, Leoluca; Piazza, Giuseppe

2002-01-01

31

HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. Methods: The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ? 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Results: Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts (<200) were noted in 24 patients (13 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Clinically, the patients were classified as asymptomatic (n=34) and symptomatic (n=16). Among the symptomatic patients, nine were on antiretroviral therapy since less than one year (seven of these were on regimen containing stavudine). Ten patients aged more than 40-years had symptomatic neuropathy. No significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy (p=0.21). Impaired vibration (100%) and absent ankle jerks (75%) were commoner than reduced pin sensitivity (46.6%). Twenty two patients had abnormal NCS results (18 of these were on antiretroviral therapy). Axonal distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in 14 patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Subclinical involvement as evidenced by abnormal NCSs was noted in 5 asymptomatic patients who were all on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion: Symptomatic neuropathy was seen predominantly in HIV patients who were on antiretroviral therapy. All patients receiving stavudine containing regimen had severe symptomatic neuropathy within 1 year. There was an increase in the likelihood of symptomatic neuropathy among patients aged > 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy. PMID:25177587

S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

2014-01-01

32

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder catalog Conditions > Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... 2007 What is hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies? Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies ...

33

[A case of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV diagnosed following the development of acute encephalopathy due to heat stroke].  

PubMed

A fourteen-month-old girl, who had shown remittent fever frequently from the neonatal period, hypohidrosis, frequent change of face color and self-mutilation of the 1st and 2nd fingers of both hands and tongue in the first months of her life, developed an acute encephalopathy with generalized tonic convulsion outdoors on a sunny hot day. Generalized tonic convulsion subsided within two days, but doll's eye phenomenon, loss of pupillary reaction to light, palpebral myoclonus, and ballismus of arms and legs followed L-dopa showed some effect on the ballismus 1 month after the attack. During the hospital stay, biopsy of sural nerve was performed. Morphometric and ultrastructural studies of the sural nerve demonstrated decreased numbers of unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers. Skin biopsy of the leg revealed sweat glands with no nerve terminals, axons and Schwann cells around them. She was diagnosed as having hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV based on the histological and clinical findings. After discharge, bone fracture was found three times without any evidence of trauma. Acute encephalopathy, probably produced in relation to the underlying neuropathy, was considered to be due to heat stroke. PMID:9146033

Juri, T; Higuchi, R; Shirai, T; Miyashiro, E; Muta, Y; Ohnishi, A

1997-05-01

34

Genetics of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease in the Spanish Gypsy population: the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Russe in depth.  

PubMed

Four private mutations responsible for three forms demyelinating of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) or hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) have been associated with the Gypsy population: the NDRG1 p.R148X in CMT type 4D (CMT4D/HMSN-Lom); p.C737_P738delinsX and p.R1109X mutations in the SH3TC2 gene (CMT4C); and a G>C change in a novel alternative untranslated exon in the HK1 gene causative of CMT4G (CMT4G/HMSN-Russe). Here we address the findings of a genetic study of 29 Gypsy Spanish families with autosomal recessive demyelinating CMT. The most frequent form is CMT4C (57.14%), followed by HMSN-Russe (25%) and HMSN-Lom (17.86%). The relevant frequency of HMSN-Russe has allowed us to investigate in depth the genetics and the associated clinical symptoms of this CMT form. HMSN-Russe probands share the same haplotype confirming that the HK1 g.9712G>C is a founder mutation, which arrived in Spain around the end of the 18th century. The clinical picture of HMSN-Russe is a progressive CMT disorder leading to severe weakness of the lower limbs and prominent distal sensory loss. Motor nerve conduction velocity was in the demyelinating or intermediate range. PMID:22978647

Sevilla, T; Martínez-Rubio, D; Márquez, C; Paradas, C; Colomer, J; Jaijo, T; Millán, J M; Palau, F; Espinós, C

2013-06-01

35

Genetics Home Reference: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about ...

36

Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited blinding disease with variable penetrance. Three primary\\u000a mitochondrial DNA mutations, affecting the respiratory complex I, are necessary but not sufficient to cause blindness. Reduced\\u000a efficiency of ATP synthesis and increased oxidative stress are believed to sensitize the retinal ganglion cells to apoptosis.\\u000a Different therapeutic strategies are considered to counteract this

Alfredo A. Sadun; Chiara La Morgia; Valerio Carelli

2011-01-01

37

[Review of the recent literature on hereditary neuropathies].  

PubMed

The recent literature included interesting reports on the pathogenic mechanisms of hereditary neuropathies. The axonal traffic and its abnormalities in some forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease were particularly reviewed by Bucci et al. Many genes related to CMT disease code for proteins that are involved directly or not in intracellular traffic. KIF1B controls vesicle motility on microtubules. MTMR2, MTMR13 and FIG4 regulate the metabolism of phosphoinositide at the level of endosomes. The HSPs are involved in the proteasomal degradation. GDAP1 and MFN2 regulate the mitochondrial fission and fusion respectively and the mitochondial transport within the axon. Pareyson et al. reported a review on peripheral neuropathies in mitochondrial disorders. They used the term of "mitochondrial CMT" for the forms of CMT with abnormal mitochondrial dynamic or structure. Among the new entities, we can draw the attention to a proximal form of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with autosomal dominant inheritance, which is characterized by motor deficit with cramps and fasciculations predominating in proximal muscles. Distal sensory deficit can be present. The gene TFG on chromosome 3 has been recently identified to be responsible for this form. Another rare form of axonal autosomal recessive neuropathy due to HNT1 gene mutation is characterized by the presence of hands myotonia that appears later than neuropathy but constitute an interesting clinical hallmark to orientate the diagnosis of this form. In terms of differential diagnosis, CMT4J due to FIG4 mutation can present with a rapidly progressive and asymmetric weakness that resembles CIDP. Bouhy et al. made an interesting review on the therapeutic trials, animal models and the future therapeutic strategies to be developed in CMT disease. PMID:25459128

Birouk, N

2014-12-01

38

Reduced numbers of calcitonin gene-related peptide-(CGRP-) and tachykinin-immunoreactive sensory neurones associated with greater enkephalin immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of a mutant rat with hereditary sensory neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutilated foot rat is a mutant with autosomal recessive sensory neuropathy and frequent mutilation of the hindlimbs. Decreased numbers of dorsal root ganglion cells and diminished sensitivity to painful stimuli are characteristics of these animals. By use of immunocytochemistry, changes in the distributions of peptides involved in sensory and\\/or autonomic regulation, i.e. calcitonin generelated peptide (CGRP), tachykinins, enkephalin and

Satyabrata Kar; Sally J. Gibson; Francesco Scaravilli; Jean M. Jacobs; Victor R. Aber; Julia M. Polak

1989-01-01

39

Progressive auditory neuropathy in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate auditory neural involvement in patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods: Auditory assessment was undertaken in two patients with LHON. One was a 45 year old woman with Harding disease (multiple-sclerosis-like illness and positive 11778mtDNA mutation) and mild auditory symptoms, whose auditory function was monitored over five years. The other was a 59 year old man with positive 11778mtDNA mutation, who presented with a long standing progressive bilateral hearing loss, moderate on one side and severe to profound on the other. Standard pure tone audiometry, tympanometry, stapedial reflex threshold measurements, stapedial reflex decay, otoacoustic emissions with olivo-cochlear suppression, auditory brain stem responses, and vestibular function tests were undertaken. Results: Both patients had good cochlear function, as judged by otoacoustic emissions (intact outer hair cells) and normal stapedial reflexes (intact inner hair cells). A brain stem lesion was excluded by negative findings on imaging, recordable stapedial reflex thresholds, and, in one of the patients, olivocochlear suppression of otoacoustic emissions. The deterioration of auditory function implied a progressive course in both cases. Vestibular function was unaffected. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with auditory neuropathy—a lesion of the cochlear nerve presenting with abnormal auditory brain stem responses and with normal inner hair cells and the cochlear nucleus (lower brain stem). The association of auditory neuropathy, or any other auditory dysfunction, with LHON has not been recognised previously. Further studies are necessary to establish whether this is a consistent finding. PMID:15026512

Ceranic, B; Luxon, L

2004-01-01

40

Experimental therapeutics in hereditary neuropathies: the past, the present, and the future.  

PubMed

Hereditary neuropathies represent approximately 40% of undiagnosed neuropathies in a tertiary clinic setting. The Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathies (CMT) are the most common. Mutations in more than 40 genes have been identified to date in CMT. Approximately 50% of CMT cases are accounted for by CMT type 1A, due to a duplication within the peripheral myelin protein 22 gene (PMP22). Mutations in the gap junction beta 1 gene (GJB1), the myelin protein zero gene (MPZ), and the mitofusin 2 gene (MFN2) account for a substantial proportion of other genetically definable CMT. Some 15% of demyelinating CMT and 70% of axonal CMT await genetic clarification. Other hereditary neuropathies include the hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies, the familial amyloid polyneuropathies, and multisystem disorders (e.g., lipid storage diseases and inherited ataxias) that have peripheral neuropathy as a major or minor component. This review surveys the challenges of developing effective therapies for hereditary neuropathies in terms of past, present, and future experimental therapeutics in CMT. PMID:19019301

Herrmann, David N

2008-10-01

41

Distal hereditary motor neuropathy type II (distal HMN II): mapping of a locus to chromosome 12q24  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distal hereditary motor neuropathy (distal HMN) or the spinal form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is an exclusively motor disorder of the peripheral nerv- ous system. The disorder clinically resembles the her- editary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) type I and type II or CMT type 1 and type 2. Distal HMN might also be related to the spinal muscular

Vincent Timmerman; Peter De Jonghe; Sandra Simokovic; Ann Löfgren; Joke Beuten; Eva Nelis; Chantal Ceuterick; Jean-Jacques Martin; Christine Van Broeckhoven

1996-01-01

42

Inflammation and neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To study the role of mechanical, infectious, and inflammatory factors inducing neuropathic attacks in hereditary brachial plexus neuropathy (HBPN), an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by attacks of pain and weakness, atrophy, and sensory alterations of the shoulder girdle and upper limb muscles. Methods: Four patients from separate kindreds with HBPN were evaluated. Upper extremity nerve biopsies were obtained during attacks from a person of each kindred. In situ hybridisation for common viruses in nerve tissue and genetic testing for a hereditary tendency to pressure palsies (HNPP; tomaculous neuropathy) were undertaken. Two patients treated with intravenous methyl prednisolone had serial clinical and electrophysiological examinations. One patient was followed prospectively through pregnancy and during the development of a stereotypic attack after elective caesarean delivery. Results: Upper extremity nerve biopsies in two patients showed prominent perivascular inflammatory infiltrates with vessel wall disruption. Nerve in situ hybridisation for viruses was negative. There were no tomaculous nerve changes. In two patients intravenous methyl prednisolone ameliorated symptoms (largely pain), but with tapering of steroid dose, signs and symptoms worsened. Elective caesarean delivery did not prevent a typical postpartum attack. Conclusions: Inflammation, probably immune, appears pathogenic for some if not all attacks of HBPN. Immune modulation may be useful in preventing or reducing the neuropathic attacks, although controlled trials are needed to establish efficacy, as correction of the mutant gene is still not possible. The genes involved in immune regulation may be candidates for causing HBPN disorders. PMID:12082044

Klein, C; Dyck, P; Friedenberg, S; Burns, T; Windebank, A; Dyck, P

2002-01-01

43

Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies characterized by chronic motor and sensory  

E-print Network

6/11 Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies characterized by chronic motor and sensory neuropathy resulting in progressive distal muscle weakness.smeyers@ua.ac.be The Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation 1751 2nd Ave Suite 103 New York NY 10128 Phone: 877-463-1287; 212

Ober, Carole

44

Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies characterized by chronic motor and sensory  

E-print Network

1/13 Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies characterized by chronic motor and sensory neuropathy resulting in progressive distal muscle weakness.smeyers@ua.ac.be The Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation 1751 2nd Ave Suite 103 New York NY 10128 Phone: 877-463-1287; 212

Ober, Carole

45

Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies characterized by chronic motor and sensory  

E-print Network

10/08 Clinical Features: Charcot Marie Tooth Disease is a group of inherited neuropathies characterized by chronic motor and sensory neuropathy resulting in progressive distal muscle weakness.smeyers@ua.ac.be The Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation 1751 2nd Ave Suite 103 New York NY 10128 Phone: 877-463-1287; 212

Gilad, Yoav

46

Severe ataxia with neuropathy in hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis.  

PubMed

Hereditary gelsolin amyloidosis (AGel amyloidosis) is a systemic disorder caused by a G654A or G654T gelsolin mutation, reported from Europe, North America, and Japan. Principal clinical signs are corneal lattice dystrophy, cutis laxa and cranial neuropathy, often deleterious at advanced age. Peripheral neuropathy, if present, is usually mild. We report a 78- year old male Finnish patient who presented with ataxia and mainly sensory peripheral polyneuropathy (PNP) signs, causing severe disability and ambulation loss. Electrophysiological studies showed severe generalized chronic mainly axonal sensorimotor PNP with facial paralysis. In magnetic resonance imaging proximal lower limb and axial muscle atrophy with fatty degeneration as well as moderate spinal cord atrophy were seen. A G654A gelsolin mutation was demonstrated but no other possible causes of his disability were found. At age 79 he became bedridden and died of pulmonary embolism. Neuropathological examination revealed marked gelsolin amyloid deposition at vascular and connective tissue sites along the entire length of the peripheral nerves extending to the spinal nerve roots, associated with severe degeneration of nerve fibers and posterior columns. Our report shows that advanced AGel amyloidosis due to degeneration of central and distal sensory nerve projections results in deleterious ataxia with fatal outcome. Severe posterior column atrophy may reflect radicular AGel deposition, although even altered gelsolin - actin interactions in neural cells possibly contribute to neurodegeneration with successive ataxia in carriers of a G654A gelsolin mutation. PMID:19557557

Tanskanen, Maarit; Paetau, Anders; Salonen, Oili; Salmi, Tapani; Lamminen, Antti; Lindsberg, Perttu; Somer, Hannu; Kiuru-Enari, Sari

2009-06-25

47

Episodic neurological dysfunction in hereditary peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Episodic transient neurological symptoms are an important set of problems presenting to a neurologist in his routine practice. Occasionally, detailed clinical history including past and family history supplemented with focused examination can bring out a rare cause for such symptoms. We describe in this report in a young male presenting with episodic focal neurological dysfunction, with family history of similar episodes in mother and brother. Examination showed features of pes cavus and peripheral neuropathy for which patient was asymptomatic. Mother and brother were established cases of hereditary neuropathy. Imaging on multiple occasions showed reversible white matter abnormalities. Clinical suspicion of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1X) was confirmed with detection of mutation in Gap Junction B1 (GJB1) gene, which codes for connexin 32 protein (c.425G>A; p.R142Q hemizygous mutation). Though this mutation has been already reported in CMTX patients, it has not been associated with transient neurological dysfunctions. This is probably the first reported case of CMTX patient with transient neurological dysfunction from India, whose family members had similar episodes.

Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Mailankody, Pooja; Isnwara, Pawanraj Palu; Prasad, Chandrajit; Mustare, Veerendrakumar

2015-01-01

48

Goiter and Laryngeal Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm3, with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm3. The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population. PMID:23818901

Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T.

2013-01-01

49

Goiter and laryngeal sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed

Objective. Examining the prevalence of laryngeal sensory neuropathy (LSN) in goiter patients versus a control group. Study Design. Cross-sectional study. Methods. 33 Goiter patients were enrolled versus 25 age-matched controls. TSH levels, size of thyroid gland, and presence or absence of thyroid nodules were reported. Subjects were asked about the presence or absence of any of the following symptoms: cough, globus pharyngeus, and/or throat clearing that persistented for more than 6 weeks. The presence of one or more of these symptoms for at least six weeks in the absence of LPRD, allergy, asthma, ACE inhibitor intake, and psychogenic disorder was defined as LSN. Results. For goitrous patients mean age (years) was (41.73 ± 9.47) versus (37.44 ± 10.89) for controls. 82% goitrous patients had known nodules and 27% carried a simultaneous diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Among those with documented size (61%), mean total thyroid volume was 26.996 ± 14.852?cm(3), with a range from 9.430 to 67.022?cm(3). The overall prevalence of LSN among goitrous patients was 42% versus 12% among controls (P = 0.0187). There was no correlation between LSN, size of thyroid gland, and TSH level. Conclusion. The prevalence of LSN in goitrous patients is significantly higher than that in a nongoitrous population. PMID:23818901

Hamdan, Abdul Latif; Jabour, Jad; Azar, Sami T

2013-01-01

50

Genetics Home Reference: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V  

MedlinePLUS

... and transport. This accumulation likely damages and kills motor neurons (specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that control muscle movement), leading to muscle weakness in the hands and ... to distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type V. The mutations probably reduce the ...

51

Visual Rehabilitation of Persons with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents results of a noncontrolled clinical study of 20 persons with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy who were treated from 1976 to 1990 at the Low Vision Centre of the Finnish Federation of the Visually Handicapped. The importance of early functional visual rehabilitation is emphasized, as is the use of low vision aids to help…

Rudanko, S.-L.

1995-01-01

52

Inherited Neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Inherited peripheral neuropathies are among the most common hereditary diseases of the nervous system. Charcot-Marie-Tooth\\u000a (CMT) disease, also known from previous classifications as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN), is certainly the\\u000a most common inherited neuropathy. In the past several years, various treatments for CMT have been proposed, although specific\\u000a therapies are not yet available. In clinical practice, rehabilitative

Angelo Schenone; Lucilla Nobbio; Margherita Monti Bragadin; Giulia Ursino; Marina Grandis

2011-01-01

53

A reversible functional sensory neuropathy model.  

PubMed

Small-fiber neuropathy was induced in young adult mice by intraperitoneal injection of resiniferatoxin (RTX), a TRPV1 agonist. At day 7, RTX induced significant thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia. At day 28, mechanical and thermal nociception were restored. No nerve degeneration in skin was observed and unmyelinated nerve fiber morphology and density in sciatic nerve were unchanged. At day 7, substance P (SP) was largely depleted in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, although calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was only moderately depleted. Three weeks after, SP and CGRP expression was restored in DRG neurons. At the same time, CGRP expression remained low in intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) whereas SP expression had improved. In summary, RTX induced in our model a transient neuropeptide depletion in sensory neurons without nerve degeneration. We think this model is valuable as it brings the opportunity to study functional nerve changes in the very early phase of small fiber neuropathy. Moreover, it may represent a useful tool to study the mechanisms of action of therapeutic strategies to prevent sensory neuropathy of various origins. PMID:24792390

Danigo, Aurore; Magy, Laurent; Richard, Laurence; Sturtz, Franck; Funalot, Benoît; Demiot, Claire

2014-06-13

54

Dermatomyositis-associated sensory neuropathy: a unifying pathogenic hypothesis.  

PubMed

Neuropathy as extramuscular manifestation of dermatomyositis (DM) is controversial due to uncommon occurrence, heterogeneity of associated nerve pathology, and lack of unifying pathogenetic mechanism(s). We describe a patient with classic manifestations of DM and extramuscular manifestation of neuropathy. Nerve pathology showed deposits of terminal complement complex (C5b-9). Her examination showed mild proximal weakness, rash, and sensory impairment in fingertips, toes, and nose. EMG/NCS revealed irritable myopathy and mild sensory neuropathy. Muscle biopsy showed features suggestive of DM, including deposition of C5b-9. CK was elevated to 214 and ANA was positive at 1:160. Etiological work up for neuropathy, including diabetes, was negative. Sural nerve biopsy at light level revealed very mild large fiber sensory neuropathy. EM showed moderately severe involvement of small sensory fibers. Neuropathy may be an underrecognized manifestation of DM. Nerve pathology demonstrating complement-mediated damage could be a unifying mechanism of muscle and nerve injury. PMID:25137509

Nguyen, Thy P; Bangert, Carolyn; Biliciler, Suur; Athar, Parveen; Sheikh, Kazim

2014-09-01

55

Sympathetic skin response in acute sensory ataxic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sympathetic skin response (SSR) is a recently described objective method of studying sudomotor sympathetic nerve function and has been studied in a variety of peripheral neuropathies. We report SSR changes in nine patients with acute sensory ataxic neuropathy (ASAN). All had severe sensory and mild motor nerve conduction abnormalities; five had dysautonomia. SSR, elicited by electric shock and cough stimuli,

G. R. Arunodaya; A. B. Taly; H. S. Swamy

1995-01-01

56

PMP22 related neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A and Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies  

PubMed Central

PMP22 related neuropathies comprise (1) PMP22 duplications leading to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), (2) PMP22 deletions, leading to Hereditary Neuropathy with liability to Pressure Palsies (HNPP), and (3) PMP22 point mutations, causing both phenotypes. Overall prevalence of CMT is usually reported as 1:2,500, epidemiological studies show that 20-64% of CMT patients carry the PMP22 duplication. The prevalence of HNPP is not well known. CMT1A usually presents in the first two decades with difficulty walking or running. Distal symmetrical muscle weakness and wasting and sensory loss is present, legs more frequently and more severely affected than arms. HNPP typically leads to episodic, painless, recurrent, focal motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy, preceded by minor compression on the affected nerve. Electrophysiological evaluation is needed to determine whether the polyneuropathy is demyelinating. Sonography of the nerves can be useful. Diagnosis is confirmed by finding respectively a PMP22 duplication, deletion or point mutation. Differential diagnosis includes other inherited neuropathies, and acquired polyneuropathies. The mode of inheritance is autosomal dominant and de novo mutations occur. Offspring of patients have a chance of 50% to inherit the mutation from their affected parent. Prenatal testing is possible; requests for prenatal testing are not common. Treatment is currently symptomatic and may include management by a rehabilitation physician, physiotherapist, occupational therapist and orthopaedic surgeon. Adult CMT1A patients show slow clinical progression of disease, which seems to reflect a process of normal ageing. Life expectancy is normal. PMID:24646194

2014-01-01

57

Mitochondrial DNA Mutation Associated with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited disease resulting in optic nerve degeneration and cardiac dysrhythmia. A mitochondrial DNA replacement mutation was identified that correlated with this disease in multiple families. This mutation converted a highly conserved arginine to a histidine at codon 340 in the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene and eliminated an Sfa NI site, thus providing a simple diagnostic test. This finding demonstrated that a nucleotide change in a mitochondrial DNA energy production gene can result in a neurological disease.

Wallace, Douglas C.; Singh, Gurparkash; Lott, Marie T.; Hodge, Judy A.; Schurr, Theodore G.; Lezza, Angela M. S.; Elsas, Louis J.; Nikoskelainen, Eeva K.

1988-12-01

58

Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies: Case Report and Discussion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an uncommon diagnosis that should be considered in patients\\u000a with multiple compressive neuropathies. We present the case of a woman who presented with bilateral hand numbness and weakness.\\u000a Electrodiagnostic testing revealed bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, bilateral ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, left peroneal\\u000a neuropathy at the fibular head, and a primarily

Marc J. Grossman; Joseph Feinberg; Edward F. DiCarlo; Sherri B. Birchansky; Scott W. Wolfe

2007-01-01

59

Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy: A Recurrent and Bilateral Foot Drop Case Report  

PubMed Central

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy is characterized by acute, painless, recurrent mononeuropathies secondary to minor trauma or compression. A 16-year-old boy had the first episode of right foot drop after minor motorcycle accident. Electromyography revealed conduction block and slowing velocity conduction of the right deep peroneal nerve at the fibular head. After motor rehabilitation, he fully recovered. Six months later he had the second episode of foot drop in the opposite site after prolonged squatting position. Electromyography revealed sensorimotor polyneuropathy of left peroneal, sural, posterior tibial, and deep peroneal nerves and also of ulnar, radial, and median nerves of both upper limbs. Histological examination revealed sensory nerve demyelination and focal thickenings of myelin fibers. The diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy was confirmed by PMP22 deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. He started motor rehabilitation and avoidance of stressing factors with progressive recovery. After one-year followup, he was completely asymptomatic. Recurrent bilateral foot drop history, “sausage-like” swellings of myelin in histological examination, and the results of electromyography led the authors to consider the diagnosis despite negative family history. The authors highlight this rare disease in pediatric population and the importance of high index of clinical suspicion for its diagnosis. PMID:24251057

Flor-de-Lima, Filipa; Taipa, Ricardo; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Rodrigues, Maria Lurdes

2013-01-01

60

Trigeminal sensory neuropathy with abnormal taste following acute sinusitis.  

PubMed

We report a case of isolated trigeminal sensory neuropathy associated with impairment of taste sensation following acute sinusitis. Sensory disturbance was distributed mainly in the ophthalmic division, and partly in the maxillary and mandibular divisions. No other cranial nerves were involved. An otological procedure resulted in complete recovery. The unique combination of trigeminal neuropathy and abnormal taste seemed to be caused by the infectious process involving the gasserian ganglion of the trigeminal nerve. PMID:8187388

Okuda, B; Tachibana, H; Sugita, M

1994-02-01

61

Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: The Mitochondrial Connection Revisited  

PubMed Central

Our current understanding of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)-mitochondrial connection falls short of comprehensive. Twenty years of intensive investigation have yielded a wealth of information about mitochondria, the mitochondrial genome, the metabolism of the optic nerve and other structures, and the phenotypic variability of classic LHON. However, we still cannot completely explain how primary LHON mutations injure the optic nerve or why the optic nerve is particularly at risk. We cannot explain the incomplete penetrance or the male predominance of LHON, the typical onset in young adult life without warning, or the synchronicity of visual loss. Moreover, primary LHON mutations clearly are not present in every family with the LHON phenotype (including multigenerational maternal inheritance), and they are present in only a minority of individuals who have the LHON optic neuropathy phenotype without a family history. All lines of evidence point to abnormalities of the mitochondria as the direct or indirect cause of LHON. Therefore, the mitochondria-LHON connection needs to be revisited and examined closely. This review will attempt to do that and provide an update on various aspects of LHON. PMID:21572729

Abu-Amero, Khaled K.

2011-01-01

62

Extensive investigation of a large Brazilian pedigree of 11778\\/haplogroup J Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo conduct systematic epidemiologic, neuro-ophthalmologic, psychophysical, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic examinations on a newly identified pedigree with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).

Alfredo A Sadun; Valerio Carelli; Solange R Salomao; Adriana Berezovsky; Peter A Quiros; Federico Sadun; Anna-Maria DeNegri; Rafael Andrade; Milton Moraes; Angelo Passos; PatrÍcia Kjaer; Josenilson Pereira; Maria Lucia Valentino; Stan Schein; Rubens Belfort

2003-01-01

63

Ophthalmologic findings in a large pedigree of 11778\\/Haplogroup J Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeTo report the ophthalmologic characteristics of a newly identified seven-generation pedigree of 11778\\/Haplogroup J Leber hereditary optic neuropathy consisting of 328 living individuals, 111 of whom are maternally related.

Federico Sadun; Anna Maria De Negri; Valerio Carelli; Solange R. Salomao; Adriana Berezovsky; Rafael Andrade; Milton Moraes; Angelo Passos; Rubens Belfort; Arlon Bastos Da Rosa; Peter Quiros; Alfredo A. Sadun

2004-01-01

64

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies: case report and discussion.  

PubMed

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an uncommon diagnosis that should be considered in patients with multiple compressive neuropathies. We present the case of a woman who presented with bilateral hand numbness and weakness. Electrodiagnostic testing revealed bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, bilateral ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, left peroneal neuropathy at the fibular head, and a primarily demyelinating generalized sensorimotor neuropathy. Subsequent genetic testing identified a deletion at chromosome 17p11.2 to confirm the diagnosis of HNPP. Treatment of this largely self-limiting disease is controversial, and this patient suffered minimal disability with treatment including splinting and surgical releases. PMID:18751796

Grossman, Marc J; Feinberg, Joseph; DiCarlo, Edward F; Birchansky, Sherri B; Wolfe, Scott W

2007-09-01

65

Assessment of sensory neuropathy in patients with diabetic foot problems  

PubMed Central

Our aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of three different modalities for testing sensory neuropathy in diabetic patients with and without diabetic foot problems. The three devices used included the pin-prick testing using the Neurotip® (PPT), the Semmes–Weinstein 5.07/10 g monofilament testing (SWMT), and the rapid-current perception threshold (R-CPT) measurements using the Neurometer® testing. Our study population consisted of 54 patients (108 feet) with diabetic foot problems treated at the National University Hospital in Singapore by our multi-disciplinary diabetic foot care team. Our results showed no difference in sensory neuropathy detected by PPT and 5.07/10 g SWMT in both the pathological and normal foot. In the pathological foot, there was significant increase in sensory neuropathy detected by the Neurometer® device at both the big toe and ankle sites as compared to PPT and 5.07/10 g SWMT. In the normal foot, there was a significant increase in sensory neuropathy detected by the Neurometer® device at the big toe site only as compared to PPT and 5.07/10 g SWMT. Finally, the Neurometer® measurements detected a statistically higher proportion of feet with sensory neuropathy as compared to detection by the PPT or 5.07/10 g SWMT. PMID:22396819

Nather, Aziz; Keng Lin, Wong; Aziz, Zameer; HJ Ong, Christine; MC Feng, Bernard; B Lin, Clarabelle

2011-01-01

66

[Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy - phenotype, genetics, therapeutic options].  

PubMed

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is a rare genetic disorder affecting the retinal ganglion cells leading to a persistent severe bilateral loss of visual acuity within weeks or months. Males are much more likely to be affected than females, disease onset in most cases takes place between age 15 and 35 years. The disease is caused by point mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. The penetrance of the disease is incomplete, i.e., not all mutation carriers develop clinical symptoms. The phenotype is relatively uniform, but age at onset, severity and prognosis may vary even within the same family. Environmental and endocrine factors, optic disc anatomy as well as mitochondrial and nuclear genetic factors are discussed to influence penetrance as well as interindividual and intrafamilial variability. However, only cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol consumption have been shown to trigger disease onset. The disease is characterised by a central visual field defect, impaired colour vision and fundoscopically a peripapillary microangiopathy in the acute phase. Most patients end up after some months with a severe visual loss below 0.1 and in most cases there is no significant improvement of visual acuity in the course. In rare cases patients experience a mostly partial visual recovery which depends on the type of mutation. For confirmation of the diagnosis a detailed ophthalmological examination with fundoscopy, family history and genetic analysis of the mitochondrial DNA is needed. To date, there is no proven causal therapy, but at early disease stages treatment with idebenone can be tried. PMID:24658858

Gallenmüller, C; Klopstock, T

2014-03-01

67

Sensory Neuropathy Due to Loss of Bcl-w  

PubMed Central

Small fiber sensory neuropathy is a common disorder in which progressive degeneration of small diameter nociceptors causes decreased sensitivity to thermal stimuli and painful sensations in the extremities. In the majority of patients, the cause of small fiber sensory neuropathy is unknown, and treatment options are limited. Here, we show that Bcl-w (Bcl-2l2) is required for the viability of small fiber nociceptive sensory neurons. Bcl-w ?/? mice demonstrate an adult-onset progressive decline in thermosensation and a decrease in nociceptor innervation of the epidermis. This denervation occurs without cell body loss, indicating that lack of Bcl-w results in a primary axonopathy. Consistent with this phenotype, we show that Bcl-w, in contrast to the closely related Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, is enriched in axons of sensory neurons and that Bcl-w prevents the dying back of axons. Bcl-w ?/? sensory neurons exhibit mitochondrial abnormalities, including alterations in axonal mitochondrial size, axonal mitochondrial membrane potential, and cellular ATP levels. Collectively, these data establish bcl-w ?/? mice as an animal model of small fiber sensory neuropathy, and provide new insight regarding the role of bcl-w and of mitochondria in preventing axonal degeneration. PMID:21289171

Courchesne, Stephanie L.; Karch, Christoph; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Segal, Rosalind A.

2010-01-01

68

Pyridoxine-induced sensory ataxic neuronopathy and neuropathy: revisited.  

PubMed

High dose pyridoxine is neurotoxic. Previous case reports were sparse and little is known about the clinical and electrodiagnostic findings. Three patients with pyridoxine-induced sensory ataxic neuropathy were studied and a review of the involved literature was performed. Three patients, aged 80, 83 and 83 years old, presented with sensory ataxia for 3-8 months. Examination showed signs of polyneuropathy and sensory ataxia. Six hundred milligrams of pyridoxine was consumed each day for 3-10 years, in the form of vitamin B1-6-12 combination tablet. Investigations for other causes of neuropathy were unremarkable. Blood levels of vitamin B6 were markedly elevated at 104.6, 81.4 and 66.9 times of upper normal limits. Electrodiagnostic tests showed symmetric axonal sensory polyneuropathy in two patients. Two years after vitamin discontinuation, all patients showed no significant improvement in the neuropathy and gait. In conclusion, consumption of high dose pyridoxine can cause sensory neuronopathy and axonal sensorimotor polyneuropathy, leading to sensory ataxia which may not be reversible. PMID:25056196

Kulkantrakorn, Kongkiat

2014-11-01

69

Evidence for retrochiasmatic tissue loss in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) have loss of central vision with severe damage of small-caliber fibers of the papillomacular bundle and optic nerve atrophy. The aim of this study was to define the presence and topographical distribution of brain grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) injury in LHON patients using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The correlation of such changes with neuro-ophthalmologic findings and measurements of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography (OCT) was also assessed. Dual-echo and fast-field echo scans were acquired from 12 LHON patients and 12 matched controls. VBM analysis was performed using SPM5 and an ANCOVA model. A complete neuro-ophthalmologic examination, including standardized automated Humphrey perimetry as well as average and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements were obtained in all the patients. Compared with controls, average peripapillary RNFL thickness was significantly decreased in LHON patients. LHON patients also had significant reduced GM volume in the bilateral primary visual cortex, and reduced WM volume in the optic chiasm, optic tract, and several areas located in the optic radiations (OR), bilaterally. Visual cortex and OR atrophy were significantly correlated with average and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness (P < 0.001; r values ranging from 0.76 to 0.89). Brain damage in patients with LHON is not limited to the anterior visual pathways, but extends posteriorly to the OR and the primary visual cortex. Such a damage to the posterior parts of the visual pathways may be due either to trans-synaptic degeneration secondary to neuroaxonal damage in the retina and optic nerve or to local mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:20827728

Barcella, Valeria; Rocca, Maria A; Bianchi-Marzoli, Stefania; Milesi, Jacopo; Melzi, Lisa; Falini, Andrea; Pierro, Luisa; Filippi, Massimo

2010-12-01

70

Novel use of idebenone in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in Hong Kong.  

PubMed

We report a case of a young Chinese male presenting with sequential, painless, bilateral visual loss in Hong Kong. He was diagnosed to have Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy with genetic workup showing G11778A mutation with over 80% heteroplasmy. He was started on idebenone treatment 11 months after onset of the binocular disease. To our best knowledge, this is the first case of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy treated with idebenone in Hong Kong. The recent evidence of the diagnosis and treatment of this devastating disease is reviewed. PMID:25307075

Cheng, S W; Ko, C H; Yau, S K; Mak, Chloe; Yuen, Y F; Lee, C Y

2014-10-01

71

A VERY LARGE BRAZILIAN PEDIGREE WITH 11778 LEBER'S HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: We conducted extensive epidemiological, neuro-ophthalmological, psychophysical, and blood examinations on a newly discovered, very large pedigree with molecular analysis showing mtDNA mutation for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods: Four patients representing four index cases from a remote area of Brazil were sent to Sao Paulo, where complete ophthalmological examinations strongly suggested LHON. Molecular analysis of their blood demonstrated

Alfredo A. Sadun; Valerio Carelli; Solange R. Salomao; Adriana Berezovsky; Peter Quiros; Federico Sadun; Anna-Maria DeNegri; Rafael Andrade; Stan Schein; Rubens Belfort

72

Plasmapheresis in the Treatment of Ataxic Sensory Neuropathy Associated with Sjögren’s Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) is an important but poorly recognized cause of peripheral neuropathy. Several forms of peripheral nerve dysfunction occur, including trigeminal sensory neuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy and pure sensory neuronopathy. The pathological findings vary and the definite treatment is not known. Here we present 4 cases of acute ataxic sensory polyneuropathy with SS, and the experience of

Wei-Hung Chen; Jiann-Horng Yeh; Hou-Chang Chiu

2001-01-01

73

Genetics Home Reference: Distal hereditary motor neuropathy, type II  

MedlinePLUS

... to toxins, elevated temperature, injury, and disease. They block signals that lead to programmed cell death. In ... motor neuropathy, type II change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the protein sequence. If either ...

74

Clinical Expression of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Is Affected by the Mitochondrial DNA–Haplogroup Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is due primarily to one of three common point mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), but the incomplete penetrance implicates additional genetic or environmental factors in the pathophysiology of the disorder. Both the 11778G-->A and 14484T-->C LHON mutations are preferentially found on a specific mtDNA genetic background, but 3460G-->A is not. However, there is no clear

Gavin Hudson; Valerio Carelli; Liesbeth Spruijt; Mike Gerards; Catherine Mowbray; Alessandro Achilli; Angela Pyle; Joanna Elson; Neil Howell; Chiara La Morgia; Maria Lucia Valentino; Kirsi Huoponen; Marja-Liisa Savontaus; Eeva Nikoskelainen; Alfredo A. Sadun; Solange R. Salomao; Rubens Belfort; Philip Griffiths; Patrick Yu Wai Man; Rene F. M. de Coo; Rita Horvath; Massimo Zeviani; Hubert J. T. Smeets; Antonio Torroni; Patrick F. Chinnery

2007-01-01

75

Reduced penetrance in hereditary motor neuropathy caused by TRPV4 Arg269Cys mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incomplete penetrance has rarely been reported in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease. Our aim is to describe reduced penetrance in\\u000a a hereditary motor neuropathy pedigree due to mutation in the transient receptor potential vallinoid 4 (TRPV4) gene. The pedigree comprised two affected members, the proband aged 44 years and her affected daughter aged 7 years, and\\u000a seven additional related subjects, three of whom were

José Berciano; Jonathan Baets; Elena Gallardo; Magdalena Zimo?; Antonio García; Eduardo López-Laso; Onofre Combarros; Jon Infante; Vincent Timmerman; Albena Jordanova; Peter De Jonghe

76

Efficient mitochondrial biogenesis drives incomplete penetrance in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy is a maternally inherited blinding disease caused as a result of homoplasmic point mutations in complex I subunit genes of mitochondrial DNA. It is characterized by incomplete penetrance, as only some mutation carriers become affected. Thus, the mitochondrial DNA mutation is necessary but not sufficient to cause optic neuropathy. Environmental triggers and genetic modifying factors have been considered to explain its variable penetrance. We measured the mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass indicators in blood cells from affected and carrier individuals, screening three large pedigrees and 39 independently collected smaller families with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy, as well as muscle biopsies and cells isolated by laser capturing from post-mortem specimens of retina and optic nerves, the latter being the disease targets. We show that unaffected mutation carriers have a significantly higher mitochondrial DNA copy number and mitochondrial mass compared with their affected relatives and control individuals. Comparative studies of fibroblasts from affected, carriers and controls, under different paradigms of metabolic demand, show that carriers display the highest capacity for activating mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore we postulate that the increased mitochondrial biogenesis in carriers may overcome some of the pathogenic effect of mitochondrial DNA mutations. Screening of a few selected genetic variants in candidate genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis failed to reveal any significant association. Our study provides a valuable mechanism to explain variability of penetrance in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy and clues for high throughput genetic screening to identify the nuclear modifying gene(s), opening an avenue to develop predictive genetic tests on disease risk and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24369379

Iommarini, Luisa; Giordano, Luca; Maresca, Alessandra; Pisano, Annalinda; Valentino, Maria Lucia; Caporali, Leonardo; Liguori, Rocco; Deceglie, Stefania; Roberti, Marina; Fanelli, Francesca; Fracasso, Flavio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; D’Adamo, Pio; Hudson, Gavin; Pyle, Angela; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Zeviani, Massimo; Salomao, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Belfort, Rubens; Ventura, Dora Fix; Moraes, Milton; Moraes Filho, Milton; Barboni, Piero; Sadun, Federico; De Negri, Annamaria; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Tancredi, Andrea; Mancini, Massimiliano; d’Amati, Giulia; Loguercio Polosa, Paola; Cantatore, Palmiro

2014-01-01

77

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IE  

MedlinePLUS

... which transmit information about sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch. Sensations in the feet and legs ... are carried out or suppressed (gene silencing), regulating reactions involving proteins and fats (lipids), and controlling the ...

78

Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies  

PubMed Central

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5?Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis. PMID:25506001

Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Sang Guk; Yang, Jin-Young

2014-01-01

79

Mouse mtDNA mutant model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

An animal model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was produced by introducing the human optic atrophy mtDNA ND6 P25L mutation into the mouse. Mice with this mutation exhibited reduction in retinal function by elecroretinogram (ERG), age-related decline in central smaller caliber optic nerve fibers with sparing of larger peripheral fibers, neuronal accumulation of abnormal mitochondria, axonal swelling, and demyelination. Mitochondrial analysis revealed partial complex I and respiration defects and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, whereas synaptosome analysis revealed decreased complex I activity and increased ROS but no diminution of ATP production. Thus, LHON pathophysiology may result from oxidative stress. PMID:23129651

Lin, Chun Shi; Sharpley, Mark S; Fan, Weiwei; Waymire, Katrina G; Sadun, Alfredo A; Carelli, Valerio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N; Baciu, Peter; Sung, Eric; McManus, Meagan J; Pan, Billy X; Gil, Daniel W; Macgregor, Grant R; Wallace, Douglas C

2012-12-01

80

Mouse mtDNA mutant model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

An animal model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) was produced by introducing the human optic atrophy mtDNA ND6 P25L mutation into the mouse. Mice with this mutation exhibited reduction in retinal function by elecroretinogram (ERG), age-related decline in central smaller caliber optic nerve fibers with sparing of larger peripheral fibers, neuronal accumulation of abnormal mitochondria, axonal swelling, and demyelination. Mitochondrial analysis revealed partial complex I and respiration defects and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, whereas synaptosome analysis revealed decreased complex I activity and increased ROS but no diminution of ATP production. Thus, LHON pathophysiology may result from oxidative stress. PMID:23129651

Lin, Chun Shi; Sharpley, Mark S.; Fan, Weiwei; Waymire, Katrina G.; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Carelli, Valerio; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Baciu, Peter; Sung, Eric; McManus, Meagan J.; Pan, Billy X.; Gil, Daniel W.; MacGregor, Grant R.; Wallace, Douglas C.

2012-01-01

81

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with sensory neuropathy: part of a multisystem disorder?  

PubMed Central

Sensory involvement is thought not to be a feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, in the setting of a specialist motor neuron disease clinic, we have identified five patients with sporadic ALS and a sensory neuropathy for which an alternative cause could not be identified. In three individuals, sensory nerve biopsy was performed, demonstrating axonal loss without features of an alternative aetiology. These findings support the hypothesis that ALS is a multisystem neurodegenerative disorder that may occasionally include sensory neuropathy among its non?motor features. PMID:17575021

Isaacs, Jeremy D; Dean, Andrew F; Shaw, Christopher E; Al?Chalabi, Ammar; Mills, Kerry R; Leigh, P Nigel

2007-01-01

82

Trigeminal small-fiber sensory neuropathy causes burning mouth syndrome.  

PubMed

Burning mouth syndrome is a common disorder that frequently affects women in the 5th-7th decade. It is characterized by persisting painful symptoms mainly involving the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. For several years it has been attributed to psychological causes. We investigated the innervation of the epithelium of the tongue to assess whether damage of peripheral nerve fibers underlies the pathogenesis of the disease. We examined 12 patients with clinically definite burning mouth syndrome for at least 6 months. We obtained superficial biopsies of the lateral aspect of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue from all patients and nine healthy controls. Immunohistochemical and confocal microscope co-localization studies were performed with cytoplasmatic, cytoskeletric, Schwann cell, and myelin markers for pathological changes. The density of epithelial nerve fibers was quantified. Patients showed a significantly lower density of epithelial nerve fibers than controls, with a trend toward correlation with the duration of symptoms. Epithelial and sub-papillary nerve fibers showed diffuse morphological changes reflecting axonal degeneration. Our study demonstrates that burning mouth syndrome is caused by a trigeminal small-fiber sensory neuropathy and that superficial biopsy of the tongue can be helpful in assessing the diagnosis. These findings shed light into the pathogenesis of this common disorder and could contribute to evaluate targeted therapies in patients. PMID:15911160

Lauria, Giuseppe; Majorana, Alessandra; Borgna, Monica; Lombardi, Raffaella; Penza, Paola; Padovani, Alessandro; Sapelli, Pierluigi

2005-06-01

83

Haplogroup Effects and Recombination of Mitochondrial DNA: Novel Clues from the Analysis of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Pedigrees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 87 index cases with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) sequentially diagnosed in Italy, including an extremely large Brazilian family of Italian maternal ancestry, was evaluated in detail. Only seven pairs and three triplets of identical haplotypes were observed, attesting that the large majority of the LHON mutations were due to independent mutational events. Assignment of

Valerio Carelli; Alessandro Achilli; Maria Lucia Valentino; Chiara Rengo; Ornella Semino; Maria Pala; Anna Olivieri; Marina Mattiazzi; Francesco Pallotti; Franco Carrara; Massimo Zeviani; Vincenzo Leuzzi; Carla Carducci; Giorgio Valle; Barbara Simionati; Luana Mendieta; Solange Salomao; Rubens Belfort; Alfredo A. Sadun; Antonio Torroni

2006-01-01

84

Relative Contribution of Mutations in Genes for Autosomal Dominant Distal Hereditary Motor Neuropathies: A Genotype-Phenotype Correlation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distal hereditary motor neuropathy (HMN) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders affecting spinal alpha-motor neurons. Since 2001, mutations in six different genes have been identified for autosomal dominant distal HMN; "glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS)," "dynactin 1 (DCTN1)," "small heat shock 27 kDa protein 1 (HSPB1),"…

Dierick, Ines; Baets, Jonathan; Irobi, Joy; Jacobs, An; De Vriendt, Els; Deconinck, Tine; Merlini, Luciano; Van den Bergh, Peter; Rasic, Vedrana Milic; Robberecht, Wim; Fischer, Dirk; Morales, Raul Juntas; Mitrovic, Zoran; Seeman, Pavel; Mazanec, Radim; Kochanski, Andrzej; Jordanova, Albena; Auer-Grumbach, Michaela; Helderman-van den Enden, A. T. J. M.; Wokke, John H. J.; Nelis, Eva; De Jonghe, Peter; Timmerman, Vincent

2008-01-01

85

Single-cell analysis of intercellular heteroplasmy of mtDNA in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated the distribution of mutant mtDNA molecules in single cells from a patient with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). LHON is a maternally inherited disease that is characterized by a sudden-onset bilateral loss of central vision, which typically occurs in early adulthood. More than 50% of all LHON patients carry an mtDNA mutation at nucleotide position 11778. This nucleotide change converts a highly conserved arginine residue to histidine at codon 340 in the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit 4 (ND4) gene of mtDNA. In the present study, the authors used PCR amplification of mtDNA from lymphocytes to investigate mtDNA heteroplasmy at the single-cell level in a LHON patient. They found that most cells were either homoplasmic normal or homoplasmic mutant at nucleotide position 11778. Some (16%) cells contained both mutant and normal mtDNA.

Kobayashi, Y.; Sharpe, H.; Brown, N.

1994-07-01

86

Evidence against an X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

SciTech Connect

Pedigree analysis of British families with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) closely fits a model in which a pathogenic mtDNA mutation interacts with an X-linked visual loss susceptibility locus (VLSL). This model predicts that 60% of affected females will show marked skewing of X inactivation. Linkage analysis in British and Italian families with genetically proven LHON has excluded the presence of such a VLSL over 169 cM of the X chromosome both when all families were analyzed together and when only families with the bp 11778 mutation were studied. Further, there was no excess skewing of X inactivation in affected females. There was no evidence for close linkage to three markers in the pseudoautosomal region of the sex chromosomes. The mechanism of incomplete penetrance and male predominance in LHON remains unclear. 27 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Chalmers, R.M.; Davis, M.B.; Sweeney, M.G.; Wood, N.W.; Harding, A.E. [Inst. of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)

1996-07-01

87

Long-term evaluation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy-like symptoms in rotenone administered rats.  

PubMed

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an inherited disorder affecting the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons that lead to the loss of central vision. This study is aimed at evaluating the LHON symptoms in rats administered with rotenone microspheres into the superior colliculus (SC). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) analysis showed substantial loss of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in rotenone injected rats. Optokinetic testing in rotenone treated rats showed decrease in head-tracking response. Electrophysiological mapping of the SC surface demonstrated attenuation of visually evoked responses; however, no changes were observed in the ERG data. The progressive pattern of disease manifestation in rotenone administered rats demonstrated several similarities with human disease symptoms. These rats with LHON-like symptoms can serve as a model for future investigators to design and implement reliable tests to assess the beneficial effects of therapeutic interventions for LHON disease. PMID:25481764

Zhang, Li; Liu, Laura; Philip, Ann L; Martinez, Juan C; Guttierez, Juan C; Marella, Mathieu; Patki, Gaurav; Matsuno-Yagi, Akemi; Yagi, Takao; Thomas, Biju B

2015-01-12

88

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy presenting with hand drop in a young child.  

PubMed

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) results from the deletion of the PMP22 gene in chromosome 17p11.2. Clinically, it presents with painless pressure palsies, typically in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life, being a rare entity in childhood. We present the case study of a six-year-old male child who presented with left hand drop that he kept for over four weeks. Electrophysiological studies suggested HNPP and genetic studies confirmed it. With this paper, we pretend to create awareness to this entity as a diagnosis to be considered in a child with painless monoparesis and to emphasize the importance of electrophysiological studies in the diagnosis. PMID:22953141

Sobreira, Inês; Sousa, Cátia; Raposo, Ana; Soares, M Rita; Soudo, Ana; Dias, Ana Isabel

2012-01-01

89

Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy Presenting with Hand Drop in a Young Child  

PubMed Central

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) results from the deletion of the PMP22 gene in chromosome 17p11.2. Clinically, it presents with painless pressure palsies, typically in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life, being a rare entity in childhood. We present the case study of a six-year-old male child who presented with left hand drop that he kept for over four weeks. Electrophysiological studies suggested HNPP and genetic studies confirmed it. With this paper, we pretend to create awareness to this entity as a diagnosis to be considered in a child with painless monoparesis and to emphasize the importance of electrophysiological studies in the diagnosis. PMID:22953141

Sobreira, Inês; Sousa, Cátia; Raposo, Ana; Soares, M. Rita; Soudo, Ana; Dias, Ana Isabel

2012-01-01

90

A distinct congenital motor and sensory neuropathy (neuronal type) with dysmorphic features in a father and two sons. A variant of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.  

PubMed

A 37-year-old male had clinical and electrophysiological features of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (neuronal type) with onset in infancy, as well as histological picture of neurogenic myopathy. Two sons, aged 2 and 3 4/12 years, showed congenital contraction deformities of feet, delayed motor development, and electrophysiological features similar to those of the father. All three also presented laryngeal abnormalities, peculiar facies, short neck, narrow shoulders and protruding chest. The authors conclude that this aggregate of anomalies constitutes a "new" syndrome probably due to an autosomal dominant gene. PMID:3470161

Ruiz, C; Rivas, F; Ramírez-Casillas, G; Vázquez-Santana, R; Mendoza-Chalita, B; Feria-Velasco, A; Tapia-Arizmendi, G; Cantú, J M

1987-02-01

91

Axonal degeneration in peripheral nerves in a case of Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic disorder characterized by profound bilateral loss of central vision due to selective loss of retinal ganglion cells. Most patients with LHON do not have complaints related to the peripheral nervous system. We investigated possible qualitative and quantitative histological changes in the peripheral nerve of a patient with LHON as compared to normal controls. Methods Brachial plexus specimens were obtained at necropsy from an LHON patient carrying the 3460/ND1 mtDNA mutation and age-matched controls without known history of neurological disease. The nerves were evaluated by light microscopy coupled to a digital camera based morphometric analysis and electron microscopy. Results Extensive axonal degeneration of the large heavily myelinated fibers was found in the brachial plexus from the LHON patient. In LHON nerve fascicles we counted over ten times as many degenerated profiles as found in control nerve fascicles. Conclusion Microscopic examination of the brachial plexus in this LHON patient clearly demonstrated a significant pattern of neurodegeneration. Our study suggests that peripheral neuropathy may be a subclinical feature associated with LHON. PMID:21139512

Mnatsakanyan, Lilit; Ross-Cisneros, Fred N.; Carelli, Valerio; Wang, Michelle Y.; Sadun, Alfredo A.

2010-01-01

92

Isolated trigeminal sensory neuropathy: early manifestation of mixed connective tissue disease.  

PubMed

A young woman with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) had an isolated trigeminal sensory neuropathy as an early manifestation of the disease. Raynaud phenomenon occurred almost synchronously with the onset of trigeminal neuropathy and was followed by myositis, diffuse hand swelling, synovitis, and increased ribonucleoprotein antibody. Mixed connective tissue disease has overlapping features of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, and polymyositis, and is differentiated from them by high-titer antibody to ribonucleoprotein. PMID:215941

Searles, R P; Mladinich, E K; Messner, R P

1978-12-01

93

A placebo-controlled trial of gabapentin for painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathies (HIV-SN) are a common complication of HIV infection. The pathogenesis is unknown and the treatment very limited. Gabapentin (GBP) is effective in painful diabetic neuropathy and postherpetic neuralgia and its effectiveness on painful HIV-SN has been reported anecdotally. Design: Multicenter, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Methods: Patients were followed for a 1-week screening, a 4-week

K. Hahn; G. Arendt; J. S. Braun; H.-J von Giesen; I. W. Husstedt; M. Maschke; M. E. Straube; E. Schielke

2004-01-01

94

Arnold’s nerve cough reflex: evidence for chronic cough as a sensory vagal neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Arnold’s nerve ear-cough reflex is recognised to occur uncommonly in patients with chronic cough. In these patients, mechanical stimulation of the external auditory meatus can activate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (Arnold’s nerve) and evoke reflex cough. This is an example of hypersensitivity of vagal afferent nerves, and there is now an increasing recognition that many cases of refractory or idiopathic cough may be due to a sensory neuropathy of the vagus nerve. We present two cases where the cause of refractory chronic cough was due to sensory neuropathy associated with ear-cough reflex hypersensitivity. In both cases, the cough as well as the Arnold’s nerve reflex hypersensitivity were successfully treated with gabapentin, a treatment that has previously been shown to be effective in the treatment of cough due to sensory laryngeal neuropathy (SLN). PMID:25383210

Gibson, Peter G.; Birring, Surinder S.

2014-01-01

95

Arnold's nerve cough reflex: evidence for chronic cough as a sensory vagal neuropathy.  

PubMed

Arnold's nerve ear-cough reflex is recognised to occur uncommonly in patients with chronic cough. In these patients, mechanical stimulation of the external auditory meatus can activate the auricular branch of the vagus nerve (Arnold's nerve) and evoke reflex cough. This is an example of hypersensitivity of vagal afferent nerves, and there is now an increasing recognition that many cases of refractory or idiopathic cough may be due to a sensory neuropathy of the vagus nerve. We present two cases where the cause of refractory chronic cough was due to sensory neuropathy associated with ear-cough reflex hypersensitivity. In both cases, the cough as well as the Arnold's nerve reflex hypersensitivity were successfully treated with gabapentin, a treatment that has previously been shown to be effective in the treatment of cough due to sensory laryngeal neuropathy (SLN). PMID:25383210

Ryan, Nicole M; Gibson, Peter G; Birring, Surinder S

2014-10-01

96

Vascularization of the dorsal root ganglia and peripheral nerve of the mouse: Implications for chemical-induced peripheral sensory neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a variety of industrial chemicals, as well as several chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer or HIV, preferentially induce a peripheral sensory neuropathy what remains unclear is why these agents induce a sensory vs. a motor or mixed neuropathy. Previous studies have shown that the endothelial cells that vascularize the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which houses the primary afferent

Juan M Jimenez-Andrade; Monica B Herrera; Joseph R Ghilardi; Marina Vardanyan; Ohannes K Melemedjian; Patrick W Mantyh

2008-01-01

97

A locus for axonal motor-sensory neuropathy with deafness and mental retardation maps to Xq24-q26  

SciTech Connect

DNA markers on the X chromosome were used to map the locus for an unusual form of X-linked recessive hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with associated deafness and mental retardation in a three-generation family that was originally reported by Towchock et al. This family included seven affected males, three obligate carrier females, and four unaffected males. The patients were severely affected within the first few years of life with distal weakness, muscle atrophy, sensory loss, areflexia, pes cavus, and hammer toes. Five of the seven affected males showed associated deafness, and three of these five individuals also presented with mental retardation or social development delay. Motor nerve conduction velocitites in affected males were normal to mildly delayed, and sensory conduction was markedly abnormal. Heterozygous females were asymptomatic. Close linkage to the Xg blood group locus (Xp22) and the PGK locus (Xq13) was previously excluded in this family, while weak linkage of the disease gene to DXYS1 (Xq21.3) was suggested. Our current linkage studies and haplotype analysis of 19 microsatellite markers on the long arm of the X chromosome demonstrate that DXS425 (Xq24) and HPRT (Xq26.1) are flanking markers and that the disease gene is closely linked to the markers DSX1122, DXS994, DXS737, DXS100, DXS1206, and DXS1047. 27 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Priest, J.M.; Nouri, N.; Keats, B.J.B. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

1995-09-20

98

Diagnostic challenges in movement disorders: Sensory Ataxia Neuropathy Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) syndrome.  

PubMed

A woman in her early 60s presented to our Movement Disorders Centre with a 5-year history of progressive peripheral neuropathy, gait instability with falls, blurred vision, cognitive impairment and tremors. The patient was found to have profound sensory ataxia, chronic ophthalmoplegia, dementia with significant deficits in registration and construction and bilateral resting tremor of the hands. Investigations revealed an unremarkable MRI of the brain, negative cerebrospinal fluid studies, and unremarkable chemistries. Nerve conduction studies found a severe sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy. Genetic testing revealed a compound heterozygous mutation in the POLG1 gene consistent with the diagnosis of Sensory Ataxia Neuropathy Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) syndrome. PMID:23997076

Lovan, Alyson; Ihtsham ul Haq; Balakrishnan, Nikhil

2013-01-01

99

A locus for axonal motor-sensory neuropathy with deafness and mental retardation maps to Xq26-q27  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-two DNA markers spanning the X chromosome have been analyzed for linkage to the locus causing an unusual form of X-linked recessive hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy in a Pennsylvania family of Italian ancestry. This 3 generation family which was originally reported by Cowchock includes 7 affected males, 3 obligate carrier females, and 4 unaffected males. Males are severely affected at birth or within the first few years of life with areflexia, slowly progressive axonal atrophy, and absence of large myelinated fibers, and they all develop pes cavus and hammer toes. Five of the 7 affected males show associated deafness and 3 of these 5 individuals also presented with mental retardation or social developmental delay. Motor nerve conduction velocities in affected males are normal to mildly delayed and sensory conduction velocities are markedly abnormal. Heterozygous females are asymptomatic. Close linkage to the Xg blood group locus (Xp22) was previously excluded in this family while weak linkage of the disease gene to DXYS1 (Xq13-q21) was suggested. The current study excludes the short arm and the proximal long arm of the X chromosome. Haplotype analysis of markers on the long arm demonstrates that HPRT is a proximal flanking marker and that the disease gene is closely linked to the marker DXS984. Further microsatellite markers are being studied in order to refine the region of the distal long arm of the X chromosome containing the gene causing the motor-sensory neuropathy in this family. This is the first such gene assigned to the distal region of Xq.

Priest, J.M.; Nouri, N.; Keats, B.J.B. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

100

Sensory neuropathy in patients with cryoglobulin negative hepatitis-C infection.  

PubMed

There is growing evidence that hepatitis-C virus (HCV) infection might cause peripheral neuropathy. We aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical and electrophysiological features of sensory neuropathy in patients with cryoglobulin negative HCV infection. We studied 46 consecutive cryoglobulin negative HCV positive patients (24 of them with and 22 without neuropathic symptoms, NS) and compared to 28 age and gender matched controls. In all patients and controls, clinical neuropathy symptom (NSS) and neuropathy deficit scores (NDS) were assessed and standard nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) and pain related-evoked potentials (PREP) were recorded. Both, SNCV and PREP were abnormal in 13 NS positive patients (13/46, 28%). Abnormal PREP but normal SNCV were found in 5 (5/46, 11%) NS positive and in 2 NS negative patients (2/46, 4%). PREP abnormalities correlated positive with both clinical neuropathy scores (NSS r=0.62; p<0.001; NDS r=0.57; p<0.001), but not with the duration of the disease, current viral load, or the virus subtype. PREP abnormalities were more frequent (16/33, 48.5%) in HCV patients treated with interferon than in therapy naïve patients (4/13, 30.8%); the difference was, however, not significant. In our present study (1) all virus subtypes are capable of inducing neuropathy, (2) no differences were found between interferon therapy and treatment naive patients, (3) the prevalence of peripheral sensory neuropathy including small sensory fibers (20/46, 43.5%) is higher than previously reported and (4) we found that detection of HCV associated neuropathy depends on the evaluation method. PMID:20683606

Yoon, Min-Suk; Obermann, Mark; Dockweiler, Christina; Assert, Roland; Canbay, Ali; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Katsarava, Zaza

2011-01-01

101

[A case with posterior column ataxia associated with cerebellar ataxia and sensory neuropathy].  

PubMed

The patient was a 72-year-old man who had a history of subtotal gastrectomy for gastric ulcer at age of 37 years. He had no familial history of hereditary disorders. In 1980 he noticed mild ataxic gait which exaggerated while he closed eyes. The symptoms increased gradually, and four years later he noticed hypoesthesia of his soles. In 1983 he was admitted to the National Center Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders for the first time. Neurological examination revealed dysarthria, ataxic gait, disturbance of coordination to a slight degree, and muscle strength of the upper and lower limbs were in normal range. Mild hypoesthesia of pain and temperature sensation, and marked decrease of deep sensation and vibration of the lower extremities were demonstrated. Romberg sign was positive. EMG studies revealed low amplitude of action potential and normal motor nerve conduction velocity. Biopsy of the sural nerve showed marked decrease of both large and small myelinated fibers. In 1998 he was admitted second time for the further examination. Laboratory examination including routine blood examination, blood chemistry including CRP, TPHA, vitamin B1, B2, B12, A, E, K, hexosaminidase A in leucocyte were in normal range. CSF was normal. Genetic studies including SCA 1, 2, 3, 6, DRPLA, CMT1A, CMTX 1 were all negative. MCV of lower limbs was in normal range, though SCV was not evoked in the upper and lower limbs. MRI studies showed mild atrophy of the bilateral lobulus of the cerebellum which was not so much changed in the last 5 years. The clinical symptoms revealed dominant posterior column disturbance, ataxia and sensory neuropathy. These combination was not described in the previous literature, and this case may be a new variant of the spinocerebellar degeneration. PMID:10614159

Kikuchi, Y; Ogawa, M; Shigetoh, H; Kawai, M; Satoyoshi, E

1999-09-01

102

Respiratory function in cybrid cell lines carrying European mtDNA haplogroups: implications for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that some combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms, previously associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), may affect mitochondrial respiratory function was tested in osteosarcoma-derived transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). In this cellular system, in the presence of the same nuclear background, different exogenous mtDNAs are used to repopulate a parental cell line previously devoid of its original mtDNA. No detectable

Valerio Carelli; Lodovica Vergani; Barbara Bernazzi; Claudia Zampieron; Laura Bucchi; Maria Lucia Valentino; Chiara Rengo; Antonio Torroni; Andrea Martinuzzi

2002-01-01

103

Lack of Association between Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Primary Point Mutations and Multiple Sclerosis in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that mitochondrial genes may implicate susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) is supported by an increasing number of case reports on Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)-associated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations in patients with MS. A number of mtDNA mutations with primary pathogenic significance for LHON, a maternally inherited disease causing severe bilateral visual loss predominantly in young men,

M. Houshmand; M.-H. Sanati; I. Rashedi; F. Sharifpanah; E. Asghari; J. Lotfi

2004-01-01

104

Visual Electrophysiologic Findings in Patients From an Extensive Brazilian Family with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Visual electrophysiology in LHON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disease, associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations and characterized by bilateral, usually sequential, rapid loss of central vision. The purpose of this study was to investigate electrophysiologically a small cohort of members from an extensive Brazilian family affected by LHON. Pattern-reversal visual evoked potentials (PVEP), and full-field electroretinograms (ERG) were

Solange R. Salomão; Adriana Berezovsky; Rafael E. Andrade; Rubens Belfort Jr.; Valerio Carelli; Alfredo A. Sadun

2004-01-01

105

Genetic and biochemical impairment of mitochondrial complex I activity in a family with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and hereditary spastic dystonia  

SciTech Connect

A rare form of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) that is associated with hereditary spastic dystonia has been studied in a large Dutch family. Neuropathy and ophthalmological lesions were present together in some family members, whereas only one type of abnormality was found in others. mtDNA mutations previously reported in LHON were not present. Sequence analysis of the protein-coding mitochondrial genes revealed two previously unreported mtDNA mutations. A heteroplasmic A{yields}G transition at nucleotide position 11696 in the ND4 gene resulted in the substitution of an isoleucine for valine at amino acid position 312. A second mutation, a homoplasmic T{yields}A transition at nucleotide position 14596 in the ND6 gene, resulted in the substitution of a methionine for the isoleucine at amino acid residue 26. Biochemical analysis of a muscle biopsy revealed a severe complex I deficiency, providing a link between these unique mtDNA mutations and this rare, complex phenotype including Leber optic neuropathy. 80 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

De Vries, D.D.; Oost, B.A. van [Univ. Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands); Went, L.N.; Bruyn, G.W. [Univ. of Leiden (Netherlands)] [and others

1996-04-01

106

Dynein mutations associated with hereditary motor neuropathies impair mitochondrial morphology and function with age  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the tail domain of dynein heavy chain (DYNC1H1) cause two closely related human motor neuropathies, dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and lead to sensory neuropathy and striatal atrophy in mutant mice. Dynein is the molecular motor carrying mitochondria retrogradely on microtubules, yet the consequences of dynein mutations on mitochondrial physiology have not been explored. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts bearing heterozygous or homozygous point mutation in the tail domain of dynein, similar to human mutations, show profoundly abnormal mitochondrial morphology associated with loss of mitofusin 1. Furthermore, heterozygous dynein mutant mice display mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues and mitochondria progressively increase in size and invade sarcomeres in muscles. As a likely consequence of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, dynein mutant mice develop hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and progress to glucose intolerance with age. Last, similar defects in mitochondrial morphology and mitofusin levels are observed in fibroblasts from patients with SMA-LED. Our results show that dynein function is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function with ageing and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to dyneindependent neurological diseases, such as SMA-LED. PMID:23742762

Eschbach, Judith; Sinniger, Jérome; Bouitbir, Jamal; Fergani, Anissa; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard; Rene, Frédérique; Larmet, Yves; Baloh, Robert H.; Harms, Matthew B.; Shy, Michael E.; Messadeq, Nadia; Weydt, Patrick; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C.; Dupuis, Luc

2013-01-01

107

Dynein mutations associated with hereditary motor neuropathies impair mitochondrial morphology and function with age.  

PubMed

Mutations in the DYNC1H1 gene encoding for dynein heavy chain cause two closely related human motor neuropathies, dominant spinal muscular atrophy with lower extremity predominance (SMA-LED) and axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, and lead to sensory neuropathy and striatal atrophy in mutant mice. Dynein is the molecular motor carrying mitochondria retrogradely on microtubules, yet the consequences of dynein mutations on mitochondrial physiology have not been explored. Here, we show that mouse fibroblasts bearing heterozygous or homozygous point mutation in Dync1h1, similar to human mutations, show profoundly abnormal mitochondrial morphology associated with the loss of mitofusin 1. Furthermore, heterozygous Dync1h1 mutant mice display progressive mitochondrial dysfunction in muscle and mitochondria progressively increase in size and invade sarcomeres. As a likely consequence of systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, Dync1h1 mutant mice develop hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia and progress to glucose intolerance with age. Similar defects in mitochondrial morphology and mitofusin levels are observed in fibroblasts from patients with SMA-LED. Last, we show that Dync1h1 mutant fibroblasts show impaired perinuclear clustering of mitochondria in response to mitochondrial uncoupling. Our results show that dynein function is required for the maintenance of mitochondrial morphology and function with aging and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to dynein-dependent neurological diseases, such as SMA-LED. PMID:23742762

Eschbach, Judith; Sinniger, Jérôme; Bouitbir, Jamal; Fergani, Anissa; Schlagowski, Anna-Isabel; Zoll, Joffrey; Geny, Bernard; René, Frédérique; Larmet, Yves; Marion, Vincent; Baloh, Robert H; Harms, Matthew B; Shy, Michael E; Messadeq, Nadia; Weydt, Patrick; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe; Ludolph, Albert C; Dupuis, Luc

2013-10-01

108

A Female Patient with Down Syndrome and Low-Penetrance Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

We present the case of a 19-year-old female with a history of Down syndrome (DS) who was referred to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic for evaluation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The patient's family history was significant for a known G11778A mutation in a maternal relative, consistent with LHON. The patient was also positive for the G11778A mutation; however, the genotype demonstrated low penetrance in the pedigree, with only 1 out of 10 adult male offspring showing signs or symptoms of the disease. Mitochondrial mutations implicated in LHON have been shown to impair complex I of the electron transport chain and thereby reducing the effective generation of adenosine triphosphate and increasing the production of toxic reactive oxygen species. Although the partial or complete triplicate of chromosome 21 constitutes the etiology of DS, some of the pleiotropic phenotypes of the syndrome have been attributed to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Given the low penetrance of the mutation and the patient's sex, this case illustrates the possibility that the mitochondrial mutation demonstrated increased penetrance due to pre-existing mitochondrial dysfunction related to DS. PMID:25566062

Frousiakis, Starleen E.; Pouw, Andrew E.; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A.

2014-01-01

109

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with mitochondrial ND1 T3394C mutation  

SciTech Connect

We report here the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of four Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). There were variable severity and age-of-onset in visual impairment among these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the homoplasmic T3394C (Y30H) mutation, which localized at a highly conserved tyrosine at position 30 of ND1, and distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphisms belonging to haplogroups D4b and M9a. The occurrence of T3394C mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by visual impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of visual impairment. However, there was the absence of functionally significant mtDNA mutations in these four Chinese pedigrees carrying the T3394C mutation. Therefore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s) may play a role in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated T3394C mutation.

Liang, Min [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Guan, Minqiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhao, Fuxing; Zhou, Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yuan, Meixia [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Tong, Yi [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005 (China); Yang, Li [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)] [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Wei, Qi-Ping; Sun, Yan-Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Lu, Fan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qu, Jia, E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); and others

2009-06-05

110

Pitfalls in the molecular genetic diagnosis of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)  

SciTech Connect

Pathogenetic mutations in mtDNA are found in the majority of patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), and molecular genetic techniques to detect them are important for diagnosis. A false-positive molecular genetic error has adverse consequences for the diagnosis of this maternally inherited disease. The authors found a number of mtDNA polymorphisms that occur adjacent to known LHON-associated mutations and that confound their molecular genetic detection. These transition mutations occur at mtDNA nt 11779 (SfaNI site loss, 11778 mutation), nt 3459 (BsaHI site loss, 3460 mutation), nt 15258 (AccI site loss, 15257 mutation), nt 14485 (mismatch primer Sau3AI site loss, 14484 mutation), and nt 13707 (BstNI site loss, 13708 mutation). Molecular genetic detection of the most common pathogenetic mtDNA mutations in LHON, using a single restriction enzyme, may be confounded by adjacent polymorphisms that occur with a false-positive rate of 2%-7%. 19 refs.

Johns, D.R. (Beth Israel Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)); Neufeld, M.J. (Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States))

1993-10-01

111

Mitochondrial ND3 as the novel causative gene for Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dystonia.  

PubMed

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dystonia (LDYT) is a mitochondrial disorder associated with variable combinations of vision loss and progressive generalized dystonia. LDYT is a unique oxidative phosphorylation disorder caused by mutations in mitochondrial ND6 or ND4 gene. In this paper, we describe a Chinese family with 18 LDYT patients. The comprehensive nucleotide sequence analysis of the entire mitochondrial genome using resequencing microarray revealed a mutation (mtND3*10197A (m.10197G>A)) substituting a threonine for a highly conserved alanine at codon 47 of MTND3 on the background of haplogroup D4b. Quantitative analysis of the heteroplasmy of the mutation revealed a homoplasmy in the leukocytes of all the affected individuals on the maternal side. This is the first description of the ND3 mutation causing LDYT. The mtND3*10197A (m.10197G>A) mutation has recently been described in French and Korean patients with Leigh syndrome. These findings suggest that the clinical presentations associated with the mtND3*10197A (m.10197G>A) mutation (ND3) are much wider, encompassing those of LDYT and Leigh syndrome. PMID:19458970

Wang, Kang; Takahashi, Yuji; Gao, Zong-Liang; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Chen, Xian-Wen; Goto, Jun; Lou, Jin-Ning; Tsuji, Shoji

2009-10-01

112

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with mitochondrial ND6 T14502C mutation  

SciTech Connect

We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of three Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). There were variable severity and age of onset in visual impairment among these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the homoplasmic T14502C (I58V) mutation, which localized at a highly conserved isoleucine at position 58 of ND6, and distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphisms belonging to haplogroups M10a, F1a1, and H2. The occurrence of T14502C mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by visual impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of visual impairment. Here, mtDNA variants I187T in the ND1, A122V in CO1, S99A in the A6, and V254I in CO3 exhibited an evolutionary conservation, indicating a potential modifying role in the development of visual impairment associated with T14502C mutation in those families. Furthermore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s) may play a role in the phenotypic manifestation of the LHON-associated T14502C mutation in these Chinese families.

Zhao, Fuxin [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Guan, Minqiang [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhou, Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yuan, Meixia; Liang, Ming [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Liu, Qi [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)] [Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yongmei [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yang, Li [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)] [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Tong, Yi [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350005 (China); Wei, Qi-Ping; Sun, Yan-Hong [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China)] [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Qu, Jia, E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); and others

2009-11-20

113

A Female Patient with Down Syndrome and Low-Penetrance Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.  

PubMed

We present the case of a 19-year-old female with a history of Down syndrome (DS) who was referred to our neuro-ophthalmology clinic for evaluation of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The patient's family history was significant for a known G11778A mutation in a maternal relative, consistent with LHON. The patient was also positive for the G11778A mutation; however, the genotype demonstrated low penetrance in the pedigree, with only 1 out of 10 adult male offspring showing signs or symptoms of the disease. Mitochondrial mutations implicated in LHON have been shown to impair complex I of the electron transport chain and thereby reducing the effective generation of adenosine triphosphate and increasing the production of toxic reactive oxygen species. Although the partial or complete triplicate of chromosome 21 constitutes the etiology of DS, some of the pleiotropic phenotypes of the syndrome have been attributed to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Given the low penetrance of the mutation and the patient's sex, this case illustrates the possibility that the mitochondrial mutation demonstrated increased penetrance due to pre-existing mitochondrial dysfunction related to DS. PMID:25566062

Frousiakis, Starleen E; Pouw, Andrew E; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A

2014-09-01

114

Chronic cough as a sign of laryngeal sensory neuropathy: diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Chronic cough is often attributed to reflux, postnasal drip, or asthma. We present 28 patients who had chronic cough or throat-clearing as a manifestation of sensory neuropathy involving the superior or recurrent laryngeal nerve. They had been identified as having sudden-onset cough, laryngospasm, or throat-clearing after viral illness, surgery, or an unknown trigger. Cough and laryngospasm were the most common complaints. Seventy-one percent of the patients had concomitant superior laryngeal nerve or recurrent laryngeal nerve motor neuropathy documented by laryngeal electromyography or videostroboscopy. After a negative workup for reflux, asthma, or postnasal drip, these patients were treated with gabapentin at 100 to 900 mg/d. Symptomatic relief was achieved in 68% of the patients. Sensory neuropathy of the recurrent laryngeal nerve or superior laryngeal nerve should be considered in the workup for chronic cough or larynx irritability. Symptomatic management of patients with cough and laryngospasm due to a suspected sensory neuropathy may include the use of antiseizure medications such as gabapentin. PMID:15895778

Lee, Bryant; Woo, Peak

2005-04-01

115

Sarcoma Excision and Pattern of Complicating Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

A potential complication of sarcoma excision surgery is a sensory neurological dysfunction around the surgical scar. This study utilised both objective and subjective sensation assessment modalities, to evaluate 22 patients after sarcoma surgery, for a sensory deficit. 93% had an objective sensory deficit. Light touch is less likely to be damaged than pinprick sensation, and two-point discrimination is significantly reduced around the scar. Results also show that an increased scar size leads to an increased light touch and pinprick deficit and that two-point discriminatory ability around the scar improves as time after surgery elapses. 91% had a subjective deficit, most likely tingling or pain, and numbness was most probable with lower limb sarcomas. Results also demonstrated that there were no significant relationships between any specific subjective and objective deficits. In conclusion, sensory disturbance after sarcoma surgery is common and debilitating. Efforts to minimize scar length are paramount in the prevention of sensory deficit. Sensation may also recover to an extent; thus, sensory reeducation techniques must become an integral aspect of management plans. Finally to obtain a comprehensive assessment of sensory function, both objective and subjective assessment techniques must be utilised. PMID:25101182

Wickramasinghe, Neil R.; Clement, Nicholas D.; Porter, Daniel E.

2014-01-01

116

Safety and effects of the vector for the Leber hereditary optic neuropathy gene therapy clinical trial.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE We developed a novel strategy for treatment of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) caused by a mutation in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit IV (ND4) mitochondrial gene. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate the safety and effects of the gene therapy vector to be used in a proposed gene therapy clinical trial. DESIGN AND SETTING In a series of laboratory experiments, we modified the mitochondrial ND4 subunit of complex I in the nuclear genetic code for import into mitochondria. The protein was targeted into the organelle by agency of a targeting sequence (allotopic expression). The gene was packaged into adeno-associated viral vectors and then vitreally injected into rodent, nonhuman primate, and ex vivo human eyes that underwent testing for expression and integration by immunohistochemical analysis and blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. During serial follow-up, the animal eyes underwent fundus photography, optical coherence tomography, and multifocal or pattern electroretinography. We tested for rescue of visual loss in rodent eyes also injected with a mutant G11778A ND4 homologue responsible for most cases of LHON. EXPOSURE Ocular infection with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors containing a wild-type allotopic human ND4 gene. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Expression of human ND4 and rescue of optic neuropathy induced by mutant human ND4. RESULTS We found human ND4 expressed in almost all mouse retinal ganglion cells by 1 week after injection and ND4 integrated into the mouse complex I. In rodent eyes also injected with a mutant allotopic ND4, wild-type allotopic ND4 prevented defective adenosine triphosphate synthesis, suppressed visual loss, reduced apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells, and prevented demise of axons in the optic nerve. Injection of ND4 in the ex vivo human eye resulted in expression in most retinal ganglion cells. Primates undergoing vitreal injection with the ND4 test article and followed up for 3 months had no serious adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Expression of our allotopic ND4 vector in the ex vivo human eye, safety of the test article, rescue of the LHON mouse model, and the severe irreversible loss of visual function in LHON support clinical testing with mutated G11778A mitochondrial DNA in our patients. PMID:24457989

Koilkonda, Rajeshwari D; Yu, Hong; Chou, Tsung-Han; Feuer, William J; Ruggeri, Marco; Porciatti, Vittorio; Tse, David; Hauswirth, William W; Chiodo, Vince; Boye, Sanford L; Lewin, Alfred S; Neuringer, Martha; Renner, Lauren; Guy, John

2014-04-01

117

Characterization of macular thickness changes in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy by optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Background To characterize macular thickness (MT) changes in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients by cirrus HD-optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to study the correlation between MT and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA). Methods Fifty-two eyes from 52 consecutive LHON patients and 14 eyes from 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were scanned by OCT. Affected eyes were classified into five groups according to disease duration (1st group: ?3 months; 2nd group: 3–6 months; 3rd group: 6–9 months; 4th group: 9–12 months; and 5th group: >12 months). MT was compared and analyzed. The correlation between BCVA and MT was calculated. Results Less than six months after LHON onset, the cube average thickness (CAT) and the MT in the superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal quadrants of the inner ring and the MT in the nasal quadrant of the outer ring were decreased (P?

2014-01-01

118

Pedigree analysis in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy families with a pathogenic mtDNA mutation.  

PubMed Central

Eighty-nine index patients from 85 families were defined as having Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) by the presence of one of the mtDNA mutations at positions 11778 (66 families), 3460 (8 families), or 14484 (11 families). There were 62 secondary cases. Overall, 64% of index cases had a history of similarly affected relatives. The ratios of affected males to affected females were 3.7:1 (11778), 4.3:1 (3460), and 7.7:1 (14484). The 95th centile for age at onset of symptoms was close to 50 years in index, secondary, male, and female patients. There were no differences in the distributions of age at onset between different mutation groups, between index and secondary cases, or between males and females, apart from this being slightly later in all female patients than in male 11778 patients. There was no significant correlation between age at onset in index cases and that in their affected siblings or cousins. Heteroplasmy (< 96% mutant mtDNA) was detected in 4% of affected subjects (67%-90% mutant mtDNA) and in 13.6% of 140 unaffected relatives (< 5%-90% mutant mtDNA). Analysis of all pedigrees, excluding sibships < 50 years of age and index cases, indicated recurrence risks of 30%, 8%, 46%, 10%, 31%, and 6%, respectively, to the brothers, sisters, nephews, nieces, and male and female matrilineal first cousins of index cases. Affected females were more likely to have affected children, particularly daughters, than were unaffected female carriers. The pedigree data were entirely compatible with the previously proposed X-linked susceptibility locus, with a gene frequency of .08, penetrance of .11 in heterozygous females, and 40% of affected females being homozygous, the remainder being explained by heterozygosity and disadvantageous X inactivation. PMID:7611298

Harding, A E; Sweeney, M G; Govan, G G; Riordan-Eva, P

1995-01-01

119

Point mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy in a Latvian population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To study mutations associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) in patients suspected of having this mitochondrial disorder in a Latvian population. Additional aims were to determine the heteroplasmy status of all non-synonymous polymorphisms identified in the current study and to identify the mitochondrial haplogroups of the studied participants because these factors may contribute to the manifestation of LHON. Methods Twelve patients, including patients in two families, were enrolled in the current study. LHON was suspected based on the findings of ophthalmologic examinations. In clinically affected individuals, the presence of all previously reported LHON-associated mutations was assessed with sequencing analysis. Additionally, the SURVEYOR endonuclease assay was used to detect heteroplasmy. The mitochondrial haplogroups were identified with restriction analysis and the sequencing of hypervariable segment 1. Results In one family (mother and son), there was one primary LHON-associated mutation, G11778A. In addition, one rare previously reported LHON-associated polymorphism, A13637G, was detected in two unrelated patients. A non-synonymous polymorphism at T6253C was found in one individual. This mutation was reported in the background of the 3460 mutation among LHON patients in a Chinese population. No non-synonymous point mutations in mitochondrial DNA were found in five of the study participants. Conclusions Molecular analysis of 12 patients with suspected LHON confirmed the diagnosis in four patients and allowed the use of appropriate prophylactic measures and treatment. Further investigations and additional studies of different populations are necessary to confirm the role of the non-synonymous polymorphisms A13637G and T6253C in the manifestation of LHON and the associations of these polymorphisms with mitochondrial haplogroups and heteroplasmy. PMID:24319328

Baumane, Kristine; Zalite, Solveiga; Ranka, Renate; Zole, Egija; Pole, Ilva; Sepetiene, Svetlana; Laganovska, Guna; Baumanis, Viesturs; Pliss, Liana

2013-01-01

120

Mitochondrial DNA variant associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and high-altitude Tibetans.  

PubMed

The distinction between mild pathogenic mtDNA mutations and population polymorphisms can be ambiguous because both are homoplasmic, alter conserved functions, and correlate with disease. One possible explanation for this ambiguity is that the same variant may have different consequences in different contexts. The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) nucleotide 3394 T > C (Y30H) variant is such a case. This variant has been associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and it reduces complex I activity and cellular respiration between 7% and 28% on the Asian B4c and F1 haplogroup backgrounds. However, complex I activity between B4c and F1 mtDNAs, which harbor the common 3394T allele, can also differ by 30%. In Asia, the 3394C variant is most commonly associated with the M9 haplogroup, which is rare at low elevations but increases in frequency with elevation to an average of 25% of the Tibetan mtDNAs (odds ratio = 23.7). In high-altitude Tibetan and Indian populations, the 3394C variant occurs on five different macrohaplogroup M haplogroup backgrounds and is enriched on the M9 background in Tibet and the C4a4 background on the Indian Deccan Plateau (odds ratio = 21.9). When present on the M9 background, the 3394C variant is associated with a complex I activity that is equal to or higher than that of the 3394T variant on the B4c and F1 backgrounds. Hence, the 3394C variant can either be deleterious or beneficial depending on its haplogroup and environmental context. Thus, this mtDNA variant fulfills the criteria for a common variant that predisposes to a "complex" disease. PMID:22517755

Ji, Fuyun; Sharpley, Mark S; Derbeneva, Olga; Alves, Leonardo Scherer; Qian, Pin; Wang, Yaoli; Chalkia, Dimitra; Lvova, Maria; Xu, Jiancheng; Yao, Wei; Simon, Mariella; Platt, Julia; Xu, Shiqin; Angelin, Alessia; Davila, Antonio; Huang, Taosheng; Wang, Ping H; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Moore, Lorna G; Qian, Guisheng; Wallace, Douglas C

2012-05-01

121

Mitochondrial DNA variant associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and high-altitude Tibetans  

PubMed Central

The distinction between mild pathogenic mtDNA mutations and population polymorphisms can be ambiguous because both are homoplasmic, alter conserved functions, and correlate with disease. One possible explanation for this ambiguity is that the same variant may have different consequences in different contexts. The NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) nucleotide 3394 T > C (Y30H) variant is such a case. This variant has been associated with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and it reduces complex I activity and cellular respiration between 7% and 28% on the Asian B4c and F1 haplogroup backgrounds. However, complex I activity between B4c and F1 mtDNAs, which harbor the common 3394T allele, can also differ by 30%. In Asia, the 3394C variant is most commonly associated with the M9 haplogroup, which is rare at low elevations but increases in frequency with elevation to an average of 25% of the Tibetan mtDNAs (odds ratio = 23.7). In high-altitude Tibetan and Indian populations, the 3394C variant occurs on five different macrohaplogroup M haplogroup backgrounds and is enriched on the M9 background in Tibet and the C4a4 background on the Indian Deccan Plateau (odds ratio = 21.9). When present on the M9 background, the 3394C variant is associated with a complex I activity that is equal to or higher than that of the 3394T variant on the B4c and F1 backgrounds. Hence, the 3394C variant can either be deleterious or beneficial depending on its haplogroup and environmental context. Thus, this mtDNA variant fulfills the criteria for a common variant that predisposes to a “complex” disease. PMID:22517755

Ji, Fuyun; Sharpley, Mark S.; Derbeneva, Olga; Alves, Leonardo Scherer; Qian, Pin; Wang, Yaoli; Chalkia, Dimitra; Lvova, Maria; Xu, Jiancheng; Yao, Wei; Simon, Mariella; Platt, Julia; Xu, Shiqin; Angelin, Alessia; Davila, Antonio; Huang, Taosheng; Wang, Ping H.; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Moore, Lorna G.; Qian, Guisheng; Wallace, Douglas C.

2012-01-01

122

SUBCLINICAL CARRIERS AND CONVERSIONS IN LEBER HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY: A PROSPECTIVE PSYCHOPHYSICAL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Purpose The authors previously presented the results of their 2001 field investigation to rural Brazil to investigate a 336-member pedigree of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The present work describes the yearly field investigations 2001 to 2005, utilizing a variety of highly sophisticated psychophysical and electrophysiologic procedures, in asymptomatic LHON carriers, some of whom converted to affected status. Methods Careful, repeated examinations of 75 carriers of homoplasmic 11778 LHON mtDNA J-haplogroup mutants were performed as part of the field investigation of this pedigree. All subjects underwent a detailed neuro-ophthalmologic investigation, including formal visual fields (Humphrey; HVF) and fundus photography. In addition, many subjects underwent rigorous psychophysical examination, including Cambridge Research Systems color vision and contrast sensitivity testing, OCT, GDx, and multifocal visual evoked response (mfVER) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). Two patients followed as nonsymptomatic LHON carriers converted to affected status. Results Many LHON carriers did, in fact, show subclinical or occult abnormalities. Focal edema was often seen involving the arcuate nerve fiber bundles, and this corresponded with areas of relative paracentral or arcuate scotomas on HVF testing. Compared to controls, LHON carriers had significant losses in color vision affecting mostly the red-green system and reduction in spatial but not temporal contrast sensitivity. The mfVER and mfERG data showed that most carriers had depressed central responses and abnormal interocular asymmetries. Conclusions In this very large pedigree of 11778 LHON, the carriers frequently showed manifestations of optic nerve impairments. Their occult disease reflected low-grade compromise that waxed and waned. In two cases, these changes led to a crescendo of dramatic impairments that characterize conversion to affected status. PMID:17471325

Sadun, Alfredo A.; Salomao, Solange R.; Berezovsky, Adriana; Sadun, Federico; DeNegri, Anna Maria; Quiros, Peter A.; Chicani, Filipe; Ventura, Dora; Barboni, Piero; Sherman, Jerome; Sutter, Erich; Belfort, Rubens; Carelli, Valerio

2006-01-01

123

Trial End Points and Natural History in Patients With G11778A Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Establishing the natural history of G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is important to determine the optimal end points to assess the safety and efficacy of a planned gene therapy trial. OBJECTIVE To use the results of the present natural history study of patients with G11778A LHON to plan a gene therapy clinical trial that will use allotopic expression by delivering a normal nuclear-encoded ND4 gene into the nuclei of retinal ganglion cells via an adeno-associated virus vector injected into the vitreous. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective observational study initiated in 2008 was conducted in primary and referral institutional practice settings. Participants included 44 individuals with G11778A LHON, recruited between September 2008 and March 2012, who were evaluated every 6 months and returned for 1 or more follow-up visits (6–36 months) as of August 2012. EXPOSURES Complete neuro-ophthalmic examination and main measures. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visual acuity, automated visual field testing, pattern electroretinogram, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. RESULTS Clinical measures were stable during the follow-up period, and visual acuity was as good as or better than the other visual factors used for monitoring patients. Based on a criterion of 15 or more letters from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, 13 eyes of 8 patients (18%) improved, but 24 months after the onset of symptoms, any further improvements were to no better than 20/100. Acuity recovery occurred in some patients despite continued marked retinal nerve fiber layer thinning indistinguishable from that in patients who did not recover visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Spontaneous improvement of visual acuity in patients with G11778A LHON is not common and is partial and limited when it occurs, so improvements in vision with adeno-associated virus–mediated gene therapy of a synthetic wild-type ND4 subunit gene should be possible to detect with a reasonable sample size. Visual acuity appears to be the most suitable primary end point for the planned clinical trial. PMID:24525545

Lam, Byron L.; Feuer, William J.; Schiffman, Joyce C.; Porciatti, Vittorio; Vandenbroucke, Ruth; Rosa, Potyra R.; Gregori, Giovanni; Guy, John

2014-01-01

124

The Role of Advanced Glycation Endproducts and Glyoxalase I in Diabetic Peripheral Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes mellitus with over half of all patients developing altered sensation as a result of damage to peripheral sensory neurons. Hyperglycemia results in altered nerve conduction velocities, loss of epidermal innervation, and the development of painful or painless signs and symptoms in the feet and hands. Current research has been unable to determine if a patient will develop insensate or painful neuropathy or be protected from peripheral nerve damage all together. One of the mechanisms that has been recognized to have a role in the pathogenesis of sensory neuron damage is the process of reactive dicarbonyls forming advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) as a direct result of hyperglycemia. The glyoxalase system, composed of the enzymes glyoxalase I (GLO1) and glyoxalase II, is the main detoxification pathway involved in breaking down toxic reactive dicarbonyls before producing carbonyl stress and forming AGEs on proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids. This review discusses AGEs, GLO1, their role in diabetic neuropathy, and potential therapeutic targets of the AGE pathway. PMID:22500508

Jack, M.M.; Wright, D.E.

2012-01-01

125

Neurofibromatous sensory neuropathy of the thigh in a 7-year-old boy.  

PubMed

Neuropathy is considered to be an unusual complication of neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1). Neurofibromatous neuropathy is extremely rare in the setting of paediatric age group, pure sensory mononeuropathy and NF1. The following is a description of a 7-year-old boy who presented with complains of discomfort and parasthesia on the anterior aspect of his left thigh which is an unusual mode of presentation and site of involvement. Clinical examination and imaging revealed an isolated sensory neuropathy of the left anterior femoral cutaneous nerve of the thigh secondary to plexiform neurofibromatosis involving the L1-L4 nerve roots and the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve of thigh. The main abnormality in this patient was segmental hypertrophy of the left lower limb and dilatation of left lumbar neural foramens. Subtotal excision of the neurofibromas of the anterior femoral cutaneous nerve was performed and the patient was asymptomatic at the end of 27 months (2.25 years) of followup. Although the result of treatment in this case was good, long-term followup is necessary in view of greater risk of malignant transformation and development of spinal deformity and overall long-term poor prognosis in this particular patient subgroup of NF1. PMID:17929043

Shetty, Gautam M; Murari, Ashok Shyam; Song, Hae-Ryong; Lee, Seok Hyun; Yang, Jae Hyuk

2008-10-01

126

Axonal neuropathy with optic atrophy is caused by mutations in mitofusin 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy with visual impairment due to optic atrophy has been designated as hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type VI (HMSN VI). Reports of affected families have indicated autosomal dominant and recessive forms, but the genetic cause of this disease has remained elusive. Methods: Here, we describe six HMSN VI families with a subacute onset of optic atrophy

S. Zuchner; Peter De Jonghe; Albena Jordanova; Kristl G. Claeys; Velina Guergueltcheva; Sylvia Cherninkova; Steven R. Hamilton; Greg Van Stavern; Karen M. Krajewski; Jeffery Stajich; Ivajlo Tournev; Kristien Verhoeven; Christine T. Langerhorst; Marianne de Visser; Frank Baas; Thomas Bird; Vincent Timmerman; Michael Shy; Jeffery M. Vance

2006-01-01

127

Orbital high resolution magnetic resonance imaging with fast spin echo in the acute stage of Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some evidence suggests that the primary locus of the lesion in Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) may be intraocular rather than retrobulbar. To clarify this issue, the condition of the retrobulbar portion of the optic nerve was evaluated in patients with the acute stage of LHON. High resolution MRI with fast spin echo sequences of the optic nerve complex in

Yukihiko Mashima; Kazuhiro Oshitari; Yutaka Imamura; Suketaka Momoshima; Hayao Shiga; Yoshihisa Oguchi

1998-01-01

128

X Chromosome-Linked and Mitochondrial Gene Control of Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: Evidence from Segregation Analysis for Dependence on X Chromosome Inactivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has been shown to involve mutation(s) of mitochondrial DNA, yet there remain several confusing aspects of its inheritance not explained by mitochondrial inheritance alone, including male predominance, reduced penetrance, and a later age of onset in females. By extending segregation analysis methods to disorders that involve both a mitochondrial and a nuclear gene locus, we

Xiangdong Bu; Jerome I. Rotter

1991-01-01

129

The relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory function in entrapment neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Surprisingly little is known about the impact of entrapment neuropathy on target innervation and the relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory symptoms and signs. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy; the aim of this study was to investigate its effect on the morphology of small unmyelinated as well as myelinated sensory axons and relate such changes to somatosensory function and clinical symptoms. Thirty patients with a clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome [17 females, mean age (standard deviation) 56.4 (15.3)] and 26 age and gender matched healthy volunteers [18 females, mean age (standard deviation) 51.0 (17.3)] participated in the study. Small and large fibre function was examined with quantitative sensory testing in the median nerve territory of the hand. Vibration and mechanical detection thresholds were significantly elevated in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (P < 0.007) confirming large fibre dysfunction and patients also presented with increased thermal detection thresholds (P < 0.0001) indicative of C and A?-fibre dysfunction. Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were comparable between groups (P > 0.13). A skin biopsy was taken from a median nerve innervated area of the proximal phalanx of the index finger. Immunohistochemical staining for protein gene product 9.5 and myelin basic protein was used to evaluate morphological features of unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fibre density showed a striking loss in patients (P < 0.0001) confirming a significant compromise of small fibres. The extent of Meissner corpuscles and dermal nerve bundles were comparable between groups (P > 0.07). However, patients displayed a significant increase in the percentage of elongated nodes (P < 0.0001), with altered architecture of voltage-gated sodium channel distribution. Whereas neither neurophysiology nor quantitative sensory testing correlated with patients’ symptoms or function deficits, the presence of elongated nodes was inversely correlated with a number of functional and symptom related scores (P < 0.023). Our findings suggest that carpal tunnel syndrome does not exclusively affect large fibres but is associated with loss of function in modalities mediated by both unmyelinated and myelinated sensory axons. We also document for the first time that entrapment neuropathies lead to a clear reduction in intraepidermal nerve fibre density, which was independent of electrodiagnostic test severity. The presence of elongated nodes in the target tissue further suggests that entrapment neuropathies affect nodal structure/myelin well beyond the focal compression site. Interestingly, nodal lengthening may be an adaptive phenomenon as it inversely correlates with symptom severity. PMID:25348629

Schmid, Annina B.; Bland, Jeremy D. P.; Bhat, Manzoor A.

2014-01-01

130

The relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory function in entrapment neuropathy.  

PubMed

Surprisingly little is known about the impact of entrapment neuropathy on target innervation and the relationship of nerve fibre pathology to sensory symptoms and signs. Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common entrapment neuropathy; the aim of this study was to investigate its effect on the morphology of small unmyelinated as well as myelinated sensory axons and relate such changes to somatosensory function and clinical symptoms. Thirty patients with a clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome [17 females, mean age (standard deviation) 56.4 (15.3)] and 26 age and gender matched healthy volunteers [18 females, mean age (standard deviation) 51.0 (17.3)] participated in the study. Small and large fibre function was examined with quantitative sensory testing in the median nerve territory of the hand. Vibration and mechanical detection thresholds were significantly elevated in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (P<0.007) confirming large fibre dysfunction and patients also presented with increased thermal detection thresholds (P<0.0001) indicative of C and A?-fibre dysfunction. Mechanical and thermal pain thresholds were comparable between groups (P>0.13). A skin biopsy was taken from a median nerve innervated area of the proximal phalanx of the index finger. Immunohistochemical staining for protein gene product 9.5 and myelin basic protein was used to evaluate morphological features of unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Evaluation of intraepidermal nerve fibre density showed a striking loss in patients (P<0.0001) confirming a significant compromise of small fibres. The extent of Meissner corpuscles and dermal nerve bundles were comparable between groups (P>0.07). However, patients displayed a significant increase in the percentage of elongated nodes (P<0.0001), with altered architecture of voltage-gated sodium channel distribution. Whereas neither neurophysiology nor quantitative sensory testing correlated with patients' symptoms or function deficits, the presence of elongated nodes was inversely correlated with a number of functional and symptom related scores (P<0.023). Our findings suggest that carpal tunnel syndrome does not exclusively affect large fibres but is associated with loss of function in modalities mediated by both unmyelinated and myelinated sensory axons. We also document for the first time that entrapment neuropathies lead to a clear reduction in intraepidermal nerve fibre density, which was independent of electrodiagnostic test severity. The presence of elongated nodes in the target tissue further suggests that entrapment neuropathies affect nodal structure/myelin well beyond the focal compression site. Interestingly, nodal lengthening may be an adaptive phenomenon as it inversely correlates with symptom severity. PMID:25348629

Schmid, Annina B; Bland, Jeremy D P; Bhat, Manzoor A; Bennett, David L H

2014-12-01

131

A peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst counteracts sensory neuropathy in streptozotocin-diabetic mice  

PubMed Central

Whereas an important role of free radicals and oxidants in peripheral diabetic neuropathy is well established, the contribution of nitrosative stress and, in particular, of the highly reactive oxidant peroxynitrite, has not been properly explored. Our previous findings implicate peroxynitrite in diabetes-associated motor and sensory nerve conduction deficits and peripheral nerve energy deficiency and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation associated with Type 1 diabetes. In this study the role of nitrosative stress in diabetic sensory neuropathy is evaluated. The peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst Fe(III) tetrakis-2-(N-triethylene glycol monomethyl ether)pyridyl porphyrin (FP15) was administered to control and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice at the dose of 5 mg kg?1 day?1 (FP15), for 3 weeks after initial 3 weeks without treatment. Mice with 6-week duration of diabetes developed clearly manifest thermal hypoalgesia (paw withdrawal, tail-flick, and hot plate tests), mechanical hypoalgesia (tail pressure Randall–Sellito test), tactile allodynia (flexible von Frey filament test), and ~38% loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers. They also had increased nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) immunofluorescence in the sciatic nerve, grey matter of spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglion neurons. FP15 treatment was associated with alleviation of thermal and mechanical hypoalgesia. Tactile response threshold tended to increase in response to peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst treatment, but still remained ~59% lower compared with non-diabetic controls. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density was 25% higher in FP15-treated than in untreated diabetic rats, but the difference between two groups did not achieve statistical significance (p=0.054). Nitrotyrosine and poly(ADP-ribose) immunofluorescence in sciatic nerve, spinal cord, and dorsal root ganglion neurons of peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst-treated diabetic mice were markedly reduced. In conclusion, nitrosative stress plays an important role in sensory neuropathy associated with Type 1 diabetes. The findings provide rationale for further studies of peroxynitrite decomposition catalysts in a long-term diabetic model. PMID:17644085

Drel, Viktor R.; Pacher, Pal; Vareniuk, Igor; Pavlov, Ivan; Ilnytska, Olga; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V.; Tibrewala, Jyoti; Groves, John T.; Obrosova, Irina G.

2008-01-01

132

Medical marijuana for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: legal and ethical issues.  

PubMed

The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory. PMID:25299291

Larriviere, Daniel G

2014-10-01

133

Features of mtDNA mutation patterns in European pedigrees and sporadic cases with leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

SciTech Connect

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is maternally transmitted and is characterized by bilateral loss of central vision in young adults as a result of optic nerve degeneration. Fifteen transition mutations located in different genes for the mitochondrially encoded subunits of respiratory chain complexes have been associated thus far with the disease. Genetic studies have led to the classification of the pathogenic significance of these different mutations. However, more research is required to determine the causality of the mutations and the penetrance of the disease. The present study compares studies of populations of different ethnic origins, namely European LHON pedigrees and sporadic cases, in order to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms involved. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Obermaier-Kusser, B.; Schubring, S.; Paprotta, A.; Meitinger, T.; Jaksch, M.; Gerbitz, K.D. [Univ. of Munich (Germany); Lorenz, B. [Univ. of Rogensburgh (Germany); Zerres, K. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Meire, F. [Univ. of Ghent (Belgium); Cochaux, P. [Univ. of Brussels (Belgium)] [and others

1994-11-01

134

Respiratory function in cybrid cell lines carrying European mtDNA haplogroups: implications for Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

The possibility that some combinations of mtDNA polymorphisms, previously associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), may affect mitochondrial respiratory function was tested in osteosarcoma-derived transmitochondrial cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). In this cellular system, in the presence of the same nuclear background, different exogenous mtDNAs are used to repopulate a parental cell line previously devoid of its original mtDNA. No detectable differences in multiple parameters exploring respiratory function were observed when mtDNAs belonging to European haplogroups X, H, T and J were used. Different possible explanations for the previously established association between haplogroup J and LHON 11778/ND4 and 14484/ND6 pathogenic mutations are discussed, including the unconventional proposal that mtDNA haplogroup J may exert a protective rather than detrimental effect. PMID:12379308

Carelli, Valerio; Vergani, Lodovica; Bernazzi, Barbara; Zampieron, Claudia; Bucchi, Laura; Valentino, Maria; Rengo, Chiara; Torroni, Antonio; Martinuzzi, Andrea

2002-10-01

135

Sonographic Evaluation of the Peripheral Nerves in Hereditary Neuropathy With Liability to Pressure Palsies: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that affects peripheral nerves by repeated focal pressure. HNPP can be diagnosed by clinical findings, electrodiagnostic studies, histopathological features, and genetic analysis. Ultrasonography is increasingly used for the diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases; however, sonographic features of HNPP have not been clearly defined. We report the sonographic findings and comparative electrodiagnostic data in a 73-year-old woman with HNPP, confirmed by genetic analysis. The cross-sectional areas of peripheral nerves were enlarged at typical nerve entrapment sites, but enlargement at non-entrapment sites was uncommon. These sonographic features may be helpful for diagnosis of HNPP when electrodiagnostic studies are suspicious of HNPP and/or gene study is not compatible. PMID:24639934

Kim, Se Hwa; Yoon, Joon Shik; Park, Bum Jun

2014-01-01

136

Gene therapy for mitochondrial diseases: Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy as the first candidate for a clinical trial.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial disorders cannot be ignored anymore in most medical disciplines; indeed their minimum estimated prevalence is superior to 1 in 5000 births. Despite the progress made in the last 25 years on the identification of gene mutations causing mitochondrial pathologies, only slow progress was made towards their effective treatments. Ocular involvement is a frequent feature in mitochondrial diseases and corresponds to severe and irreversible visual handicap due to retinal neuron loss and optic atrophy. Interestingly, three clinical trials for Leber Congenital Amaurosis due to RPE65 mutations are ongoing since 2007. Overall, the feasibility and safety of ocular Adeno-Associated Virus delivery in adult and younger patients and consistent visual function improvements have been demonstrated. The success of gene-replacement therapy for RPE65 opens the way for the development of similar approaches for a broad range of eye disorders, including those with mitochondrial etiology such as Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON). PMID:24702846

Cwerman-Thibault, Hélène; Augustin, Sébastien; Ellouze, Sami; Sahel, José-Alain; Corral-Debrinski, Marisol

2014-03-01

137

Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25221597

Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

2014-01-01

138

Mutations in VRK1 Associated With Complex Motor and Sensory Axonal Neuropathy Plus Microcephaly  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Patients with rare diseases and complex clinical presentations represent a challenge for clinical diagnostics. Genomic approaches are allowing the identification of novel variants in genes for very rare disorders, enabling a molecular diagnosis. Genomics is also revealing a phenotypic expansion whereby the full spectrum of clinical expression conveyed by mutant alleles at a locus can be better appreciated. OBJECTIVE To elucidate the molecular cause of a complex neuropathy phenotype in 3 patients by applying genomic sequencing strategies. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Three affected individuals from 2 unrelated families presented with a complex neuropathy phenotype characterized by axonal sensorimotor neuropathy and microcephaly. They were recruited into the Centers for Mendelian Genomics research program to identify the molecular cause of their phenotype. Whole-genome, targeted whole-exome sequencing, and high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays were performed in genetics clinics of tertiary care pediatric hospitals and biomedical research institutions. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing identified the variants responsible for the patients’ clinical phenotype. RESULTS We identified compound heterozygous alleles in 2 affected siblings from 1 family and a homozygous nonsense variant in the third unrelated patient in the vaccinia-related kinase 1 gene (VRK1). In the latter subject, we found a common haplotype on which the nonsense mutation occurred and that segregates in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE We report the identification of disease-causing alleles in 3 children from 2 unrelated families with a previously uncharacterized complex axonal motor and sensory neuropathy accompanied by severe nonprogressive microcephaly and cerebral dysgenesis. Our data raise the question of whether VRK1 mutations disturb cell cycle progression and may result in apoptosis of cells in the nervous system. The application of unbiased genomic approaches allows the identification of potentially pathogenic mutations in unsuspected genes in highly genetically heterogeneous and uncharacterized neurological diseases. PMID:24126608

Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia; Lotze, Timothy; Jamal, Leila; Penney, Samantha; Campbell, Ian M.; Pehlivan, Davut; Hunter, Jill V.; Woodbury, Suzanne L.; Raymond, Gerald; Adesina, Adekunle M.; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Reid, Jeffrey G.; Muzny, Donna M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Lupski, James R.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wiszniewski, Wojciech

2014-01-01

139

Ankle ROM and stiffness measured at rest and during gait in individuals with and without diabetic sensory neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: The purpose of our study was to examinethe relationship between ankledorsiflexion(DF) range of motion (ROM) and stiffness measured at rest (passively) and plantar loading during gait in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) and sensory neuropathy. Specifically, we sought to address three questions for this at-risk patient population: (1) Does peak passive DF ROM predict ankle DF ROM

Smita Rao; Charles Saltzman; H. John Yack

2006-01-01

140

Quantitative thermal sensory testing — value of testing for both cold and warm sensation detection in evaluation of small fiber neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Small fiber neuropathy is a common neurological disorder, often missed or ignored by physicians, since examination and routine nerve conduction studies are usually normal in this condition. Many methods including quantitative thermal sensory testing are currently being used for early detection of this condition, so as to enable timely investigation and treatment. This study was conducted to assess the yield

Garima Shukla; Manvir Bhatia; Madhuri Behari

2005-01-01

141

Sensory neuropathy and signs of central sensitization in patients with peripheral arterial disease.  

PubMed

Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) may develop a broad range of peripheral nerve dysfunctions including pain and sensory deficiencies due to chronic ischemia mostly involving the lower limbs. To investigate the degree of sensory abnormalities in such patients quantitative sensory testing (QST) might be a useful tool. Forty-five patients and 20 controls were enrolled in the present study and underwent QST according to the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain. PAD was graded according to the Rutherford classification. PAD patients were divided into two groups: 16 patients with critical limb ischemia (severe PAD) and 29 patients with intermittent claudication (moderate PAD). QST revealed impaired cold and warm detection, increased mechanical and vibration detection thresholds, and increased perceptual wind-up on the affected leg (all p<0.001). Paradoxical heat sensation (p<0.05) and dynamic mechanical allodynia (p<0.01) were also observed. Subgroup analysis of patients without diabetes (control n=20, moderate PAD n=21, severe PAD n=8) confirmed most of these findings. In patients with severe PAD, sensory deficits were more pronounced than in patients with moderate PAD and were detected even in the face. These data indicate that QST can detect sensory abnormalities in PAD patients. While the pattern of decreased perception suggests deafferentation for Abeta-, Adelta-, and C-fiber inputs, the presence of allodynia suggests that central sensitization also plays a role in the pain state of PAD patients. Subgroup analysis points towards a PAD-associated peripheral neuropathy independent of diabetes. PMID:16716518

Lang, Philip M; Schober, Gabriel M; Rolke, Roman; Wagner, Susanne; Hilge, Robert; Offenbächer, Martin; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Hoffmann, Ulrich; Irnich, Dominik

2006-09-01

142

Hyperglycemia- and neuropathy-induced changes in mitochondria within sensory nerves  

PubMed Central

Objective This study focused on altered mitochondrial dynamics as a potential mechanism for diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). We employed both an in vitro sensory neuron model and an in situ analysis of human intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) from cutaneous biopsies to measure alterations in the size distribution of mitochondria as a result of hyperglycemia and diabetes, respectively. Methods Neurite- and nerve-specific mitochondrial signals within cultured rodent sensory neurons and human IENFs were measured by employing a three-dimensional visualization and quantification technique. Skin biopsies from distal thigh (DT) and distal leg (DL) were analyzed from three groups of patients; patients with diabetes and no DPN, patients with diabetes and confirmed DPN, and healthy controls. Results This analysis demonstrated an increase in mitochondria distributed within the neurites of cultured sensory neurons exposed to hyperglycemic conditions. Similar changes were observed within IENFs of the DT in DPN patients compared to controls. This change was represented by a significant shift in the size frequency distribution of mitochondria toward larger mitochondria volumes within DT nerves of DPN patients. There was a length-dependent difference in mitochondria within IENFs. Distal leg IENFs from control patients had a significant shift toward larger volumes of mitochondrial signal compared to DT IENFs. Interpretation The results of this study support the hypothesis that altered mitochondrial dynamics may contribute to DPN pathogenesis. Future studies will examine the potential mechanisms that are responsible for mitochondrial changes within IENFs and its effect on DPN pathogenesis. PMID:25493271

Hamid, Hussein S; Mervak, Colin M; Münch, Alexandra E; Robell, Nicholas J; Hayes, John M; Porzio, Michael T; Singleton, J Robinson; Smith, A Gordon; Feldman, Eva L; Lentz, Stephen I

2014-01-01

143

Molecular genetic analysis of the 17p11.2 region in patients with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is in most cases associated with an interstitial deletion of the same 1.5-Mb region at 17p11.2 that is duplicated in Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) patients. Unequal crossing-over following misalignment at flanking repeat sequences (CMT1A-REP), either leads to tandem duplication in CMT1A patients or deletion in HNPP patients. With the use of polymorphic

Vincent Timmerman; Ann Löfgren; Eric Guern; Ping Liang; Peter Jonghe; Jean-Jacques Martin; Damienne Verhalle; Wim Robberecht; Riadh Gouider; Alexis Brice; Christine Broeckhoven

1996-01-01

144

Sensory ataxic neuropathy with dysarthria/dysphagia and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). Two case reports.  

PubMed

Case histories of two unrelated patients suffering from sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria/dysphagia and external ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) are reported. Both patients showed compound heterozygosity for POLG1 gene mutations, and presented with symptom of the clinical characteristics of SANDO. A patient with a p.A467T and p.W748S, well-known mutations showed a progressive course with early onset and multisystem involvement, including symptoms characteristics for mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). The second patient showed a less well-known p.T251I and p.G848S mutations with late onset and dysphagia/dysarthria dominated, moderate symptoms. This later is the second published case history, when these POLG1 gene mutations are the possible background of late onset SANDO, dominantly presenting with bulbar symptoms. PMID:22616202

Gáti, István; Danielsson, Olof; Jonasson, Jon; Landtblom, Anne-Marie

2011-12-01

145

Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy associated with active systemic lupus erythematosus and anticardiolipin antibodies.  

PubMed

Acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) is an axonal variant of Guillian-Barré syndrome (GBS) that presents with acute ascending quadriparesis. This has generally been described in association with Campylobacter jejuni infections or with anti-ganglioside antibodies. Known cases have shown a slow recovery and a poor prognosis. We report a case with clinical and electrophysiological evidence of AMSAN in association with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and anticardiolipin antibodies but not the other associations, with a rapid response to combination immunosuppressant and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy. The association between AMSAN and SLE has not been previously described. This case illustrates that early recognition and the utilization of electrophysiologic techniques may be beneficial in the diagnosis and management of GBS associated with SLE. Fulminant or rapidly progressive cases should be managed in specialized intensive care units. Combination therapy of immunosuppressants and IVIg may be beneficial in non-vasculitic axonal radiculo-neuropathies associated with SLE, resulting in good outcomes. PMID:17039164

Ubogu, E E; Zaidat, O O; Suarez, J I

2001-10-01

146

Placental growth factor-2 gene transfer by electroporation restores diabetic sensory neuropathy in mice.  

PubMed

Placental growth factor-2 (PlGF-2) exhibits neurotrophic activity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons through the neuropilin-1 (NP-1) receptor in vitro. To examine the potential utility of PlGF-2 therapy for treating diabetic neuropathy, we performed intramuscular PlGF-2 gene transfer by electroporation, and examined its effects on sensory neuropathy in diabetic mice. PlGF-2 was overexpressed in the tibial anterior (TA) muscles of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with hypoalgesia using a PlGF-2 plasmid injection with electroporation. The nociceptive threshold was measured using a paw-pressure test. In addition, we overexpressed PlGF-1, an isoform of PlGF that does not bind NP-1. The sciatic nerve and skin were examined 3weeks after PlGF-2 electro-gene transfer. The overexpression and secretion of PlGF-2 in TA muscles were confirmed by an increase in PlGF levels in TA muscles and plasma, and strongly PlGF positive myofibers in TA muscles. Two weeks after electro-gene transfer into the bilateral TA muscles, the previously elevated nociceptive threshold was found to be significantly decreased in all treated mice. PlGF-1 gene transfer by electroporation did not significantly decrease the nociceptive threshold in diabetic mice. No increase in the number of endoneurial vessels in the sciatic nerve was found in the PlGF-2 plasmid-electroporated mice. A reduction of area of immunoreactivity in epidermal nerves in diabetic mice was restored by PlGF-2 gene transfer. These findings suggest that PlGF-2 electro-gene therapy can significantly ameliorate sensory deficits (i.e. hypoalgesia) in diabetic mice through NP-1 in DRG and peripheral nerves. PMID:21056561

Murakami, Tatsufumi; Imada, Yoshimi; Kawamura, Mai; Takahashi, Tomoko; Fujita, Yoshiaki; Sato, Eiji; Yoshitomi, Hironori; Sunada, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Akihiro

2011-01-01

147

A variant of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy characterized by recovery of vision and by an unusual mitochondrial genetic etiology  

SciTech Connect

The Tas2 and Vic2 Australian families are affected with a variant of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). The risk of developing the optic neuropathy shows strict maternal inheritance, and the opthalmological changes in affected family members are characteristic of LHON. However, in contrast to the common form of the disease, members of these two families show a high frequency of vision recovery. To ascertain the mitochondrial genetic etiology of the LHON in these families, both (a) the nucleotide sequences of the seven mitochondrial genes encoding subunits of respiratory-chain complex I and (b) the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene were determined for representatives of both families. Neither family carries any of the previously identified primary mitochondrial LHON mutations: ND4/11778, ND1/3460, or ND1/4160. Instead, both LHON families carry multiple nucleotide changes in the mitochondrial complex I genes, which produce conservative amino acid changes. From the available sequence data, it is inferred that the Vic2 and Tas2 LHON families are phylogenetically related to each other and to a cluster of LHON families in which mutations in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene have been hypothesized to play a primary etiological role. However, sequencing analysis establishes that the Vic2 and Tas2 LHON families do not carry these cytochrome b mutations. There are two hypotheses to account for the unusual mitochondrial genetic etiology of the LHON in the Tas2 and Vic2 LHON families. One possibility is that there is a primary LHON mutation within the mitochondrial genome but that it is at a site that was not included in the sequencing analyses. Alternatively, the disease in these families may result from the cumulative effects of multiple secondary LHON mutations that have less severe phenotypic consequences. 29 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Mackey, D. (Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne (Australia)); Howell, N. (Univ. of Texas, Galveston (United States))

1992-12-01

148

Autonomic neuropathy, II: Specific peripheral neuropathies.  

PubMed

Autonomic dysfunction is a common complication of peripheral neuropathies. It is often of little clinical importance, but some conditions may cause profound disturbance of autonomic function. These conditions include acute dysautonomia, diabetes, primary and familial amyloidosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, porphyria, and some inherited neuropathies. A wide range of neuropathies are associated with lesser degrees of autonomic dysfunction. These include hereditary neuropathies, and neuropathies associated with metabolic disturbances, alcohol abuse, malignancy, medications, infections, and connective tissue disorders. PMID:8791232

McDougall, A J; McLeod, J G

1996-06-01

149

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with the mitochondrial ND6 T14484C mutation in three Chinese families  

SciTech Connect

We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of three Chinese families with maternally transmitted Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Clinical and genetic evaluations revealed the variable severity and age-of-onset in visual impairment in these families. In the affected matrilineal relatives, the loss of central vision is bilateral, the fellow eye becoming affected either simultaneously (45%) or sequentially (55%). The penetrances of vision loss in these pedigrees were 27%, 50%, and 60%, respectively. The age-at-onset of vision loss in these families was 14, 19, and 24 years, respectively. Furthermore, the ratios between affected male and female matrilineal relatives were 1:1, 1:1.2, and 1:2, respectively. Mutational analysis of mitochondrial DNA revealed the presence of homoplasmic ND6 T14484C mutation, which has been associated with LHON. The incomplete penetrance and phenotypic variability implicate the involvement of nuclear modifier gene(s), environmental factor(s) or mitochondrial haplotype(s) in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated T14484C mutation in these Chinese pedigrees.

Sun Yanhong [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Wei Qiping [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Zhou Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qian Yaping [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Zhou Jian [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Lu Fan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qu Jia [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]. E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net; Guan Minxin [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States) and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)]. E-mail: min-xin.guan@cchmc.org

2006-08-18

150

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy is associated with the mitochondrial ND4 G11696A mutation in five Chinese families  

SciTech Connect

We report here the clinical, genetic, and molecular characterization of five Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Clinical and genetic evaluations revealed the variable severity and age-of-onset in visual impairment in these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these Chinese families. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees showed the distinct sets of mtDNA polymorphism, in addition to the identical ND4 G11696A mutation associated with LHON. Indeed, this mutation is present in homoplasmy only in the maternal lineage of those pedigrees but not other members of these families. In fact, the occurrence of the G11696A mutation in these several genetically unrelated subjects affected by visual impairment strongly indicates that this mutation is involved in the pathogenesis of visual impairment. Furthermore, the N405D in the ND5 and G5820A in the tRNA{sup Cys}, showing high evolutional conservation, may contribute to the phenotypic expression of G11696A mutation in the WZ10 pedigree. However, there was the absence of functionally significant mtDNA mutations in other four Chinese pedigrees carrying the G11696A mutation. Therefore, nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s) may play a role in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated G11696A mutation in these Chinese pedigrees.

Zhou Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]|[Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Wei Qiping [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing Univ. of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Yang Li [Div. of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Tong Yi [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]|[First Affiliated Hospital, Fujian Medical Univ., Fuzhou, Fujian 350005 (China); Zhao Fuxin [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Lu Chunjie [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qian Yaping [Div. of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Sun Yanghong [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing Univ. of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Lu Fan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qu Jia [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]|[Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]. E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net; Guan Minxin [Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab. of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]|[Div. of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)]|[Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)]. E-mail: min-xin.guan@cchmc.org

2006-02-03

151

Characteristic features of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) presenting with brachial plexopathy in soldiers.  

PubMed

A brachial plexus lesion is not common in hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP). We report the clinical and electrodiagnostic features of young soldiers with HNPP presenting with brachial plexopathy. By reviewing 2year medical records from Korean military hospitals, we identified soldiers with brachial plexus lesions. Among them, patients diagnosed with HNPP were determined and clinical and electrophysiological findings were compared between HNPP and non-HNPP patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Thirteen patients (6.8%) were diagnosed with HNPP among 189 patients with a brachial plexus lesion. Push-ups, as either a punishment or an exercise, was the most frequent preceding event in HNPP patients (76.9%), whereas it was rare in non-HNPP patients. The distal motor latency of the median nerve showed the highest sensitivity (90.9%) and specificity (100%) for HNPP in patients with a brachial plexus lesion. In conclusion, HNPP should be suspected in patients with brachial plexopathy if brachial plexopathy develops after push-ups or if the distal motor latency of median nerves is prolonged. PMID:25175852

Kim, Kyoung-Eun

2014-11-15

152

Noninvasive Peroneal Sensory and Motor Nerve Conduction Recordings in the Rabbit Distal Hindlimb: Feasibility, Variability and Neuropathy Measure  

PubMed Central

The peroneal nerve anatomy of the rabbit distal hindlimb is similar to humans, but reports of distal peroneal nerve conduction studies were not identified with a literature search. Distal sensorimotor recordings may be useful for studying rabbit models of length-dependent peripheral neuropathy. Surface electrodes were adhered to the dorsal rabbit foot overlying the extensor digitorum brevis muscle and the superficial peroneal nerve. The deep and superficial peroneal nerves were stimulated above the ankle and the common peroneal nerve was stimulated at the knee. The nerve conduction studies were repeated twice with a one-week intertest interval to determine measurement variability. Intravenous vincristine was used to produce a peripheral neuropathy. Repeat recordings measured the response to vincristine. A compound muscle action potential and a sensory nerve action potential were evoked in all rabbits. The compound muscle action potential mean amplitude was 0.29 mV (SD ± 0.12) and the fibula head to ankle mean motor conduction velocity was 46.5 m/s (SD ± 2.9). The sensory nerve action potential mean amplitude was 22.8 ?V (SD ± 2.8) and the distal sensory conduction velocity was 38.8 m/s (SD ± 2.2). Sensorimotor latencies and velocities were least variable between two test sessions (coefficient of variation ?=? 2.6–5.9%), sensory potential amplitudes were intermediate (coefficient of variation ?=? 11.1%) and compound potential amplitudes were the most variable (coefficient of variation ?=?19.3%). Vincristine abolished compound muscle action potentials and reduced sensory nerve action potential amplitudes by 42–57% while having little effect on velocity. Rabbit distal hindlimb nerve conduction studies are feasible with surface recordings and stimulation. The evoked distal sensory potentials have amplitudes, configurations and recording techniques that are similar to humans and may be valuable for measuring large sensory fiber function in chronic models of peripheral neuropathies. PMID:24658286

Hotson, John R.

2014-01-01

153

Role of TNF block genetic variants in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy in black Southern Africans.  

PubMed

HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common neurological complication of HIV infection. The TNF block is a region within the central MHC that contains many immunoregulatory genes. Polymorphisms and haplotypes of the TNF block have been associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians and whites. Here we investigated genetic associations with HIV-SN in 342 black Southern Africans (190 cases and 152 neuropathy-free controls) using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the TNF block and a set of haplotypes defined by 31 SNPs in Asian and white populations (denoted FVa). We included population-appropriate tagSNPs derived from an African population (Yoruban, YRI, HapMap) and derived extended haplotypes comprising 61 SNPs (denoted FVa_ext b). We found no association between HIV-SN and carriage of two SNPs (TNF-1031/rs1799964*C and BAT1 (intron10)/rs9281523*C) associated with HIV-SN in whites and Asians. Additionally, a haplotype containing TNF-1031/rs1799964*C associated with increased risk of HIV-SN in Asians, but was not present in this African population. However, alleles of seven SNPs associated with reduced risk of HIV-SN (corrected for age, height and multiple comparisons). These were rs11796*A, rs3130059*G, rs2071594*C, NFKBIL1-62/rs2071592*A, rs2071591*A, LTA+252/rs909253*G, rs1041981*C. One haplotype (FV18_ext1), not containing these alleles, was associated with increased risk of HIV-SN after correction for age, height and multiple comparisons. Our results confirm the involvement of genes in the TNF block in altering risk for HIV-SN, but genotypes critical in this African population differed from those affecting HIV-SN in whites and Asians. These differences support the need for genetic association studies in diverse populations. PMID:24896147

Wadley, Antonia L; Hendry, Liesl M; Kamerman, Peter R; Chew, Constance Sn; Price, Patricia; Cherry, Catherine L; Lombard, Zané

2015-03-01

154

A comparison of nerve conduction velocities and current perception thresholds as correlates of clinical severity of diabetic sensory neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) are the standard measurements used to confirm the presence or absence of diabetic neuropathy. NCVs were contrasted with the newer technique of measurement of alternating current perception thresholds (CPTs) in assessing the quantitative level of correlation with severity of diabetic sensory neuropathy. A very detailed, scored neurological history (symptoms) and physical examination, emphasising sensory assessment, was conducted on 71 individuals with diabetic neuropathy of varying degrees of severity. Sensory and motor NCVs and CPTs at 5, 250, and 2000 Hz of the upper and lower extremities were determined for these individuals. In addition, vibration thresholds (VTs) were measured as a third modality. Twenty eight individuals underwent repeated evaluations at 2, 6, 10 and 12 months after the initial procedures. Using the results of 169 complete evaluations, correlations were determined between physical scores (PS) and symptoms scores (SS) and NCVs. NCV correlations with the SS were weaker than with the PS. The strongest of the correlations were found between the PS and motor NCVs of the median nerve (rho = 0.29) and the tibial nerve (rho = 0.38). Normal NCVs were present in the face of very significant historical and physical abnormality. Correlations of the SS and PS with both VTs and CPTs were higher than with the NCVs. CPTs proved the more effective as predictors of both symptomatic and physical impairment. NCVs appear to lack the resolving power necessary to evaluate subtle differences in clinical state of diabetic sensory neuropathy. The supplementary use of current perception testing may improve the quantitative assessment of this condition. PMID:2738593

Rendell, M S; Katims, J J; Richter, R; Rowland, F

1989-01-01

155

Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study.  

PubMed

HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n=28), of whom 75% (n=21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

Phillips, Tudor J C; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W; Williams, Amanda C de C; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L H; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K; Rice, Andrew S C

2014-09-01

156

Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study  

PubMed Central

HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7 day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n = 28), of whom 75% (n = 21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN. PMID:24973717

Phillips, Tudor J.C.; Brown, Matthew; Ramirez, Juan D.; Perkins, James; Woldeamanuel, Yohannes W.; Williams, Amanda C. de C.; Orengo, Christine; Bennett, David L.H.; Bodi, Istvan; Cox, Sarah; Maier, Christoph; Krumova, Elena K.; Rice, Andrew S.C.

2014-01-01

157

Clustering of Caucasian Leber hereditary optic neuropathy patients containing the 11778 or 14484 mutations on an mtDNA lineage  

SciTech Connect

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a type of blindness caused by mtDNA mutations. Three LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, and 14484 are specific for LHON and account for 90% of worldwide cases and are thus designated as {open_quotes}primary{close_quotes} LHON mutations. Fifteen other {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} LHON mtDNA mutations have been identified, but their pathogenicity is unclear. mtDNA haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of the primary LHON mutations in North American Caucasian patients and controls has shown that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, which are distributed throughout the European-derived (Caucasian) mtDNA phylogeny, patients containing the 14484 mutation tended to be associated with European mtDNA haplotype J. To investigate this apparent clustering, we performed {chi}{sup 2}-based statistical analyses to compare the distribution of LHON patients on the Caucasian phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, the 14484 mutation was not distributed on the phylogeny in proportion to the frequencies of the major Caucasian mtDNA haplogroups found in North America. The 14484 mutation was next shown to occur on the haplogroup J background more frequently that expected, consistent with the observation that {approximately}75% of worldwide 14484-positive LHON patients occur in association with haplogroup J. The 11778 mutation also exhibited a moderate clustering on haplogroup J. These observations were supported by statistical analysis using all available mutation frequencies reported in the literature. This paper thus illustrates the potential importance of genetic background in certain mtDNA-based diseases, speculates on a pathogenic role for a subset of LHON secondary mutations and their interaction with primary mutations, and provides support for a polygenic model for LHON expression in some cases. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

Brown, M.D.; Sun, F.; Wallace, D.C. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1997-02-01

158

Longitudinal study of a heteroplasmic 3460 Leber hereditary optic neuropathy family by multiplexed primer-extension analysis and nucleotide sequencing  

SciTech Connect

Nucleotide-sequencing and multiplexed primer-extension assays have been used to quantitate the mutant-allele frequency in 14 maternal relatives, spanning three generations, from a family that is heteroplasmic for the primary Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutation at nucleotide 3460 of the mitochondrial genome. There was excellent agreement between the values that were obtained with the two different methods. The longitudinal study shows that the mutant-allele frequency was constant within individual family members over a sampling period of 3.5 years. Second, although there was an overall increase in the mutant-allele frequency in successive generations, segregation in the direction of the mutant allele was not invariant, and there was one instance in which there was a significant decrease in the frequency from parent to offspring. From these two sets of results, and from previous studies of heteroplasmic LHON families, we conclude that there is no evidence for a marked selective pressure that determines the replication, segregation, or transmission of primary LHON mutations to white blood cells and platelets. Instead, the mtDNA molecules are most likely to replicate and segregate under conditions of random drift at the cellular level. Finally, the pattern of transmission in this maternal lineage is compatible with a developmental bottleneck model in which the number of mitochondrial units of segregation in the female germ line is relatively small in relation to the number of mtDNA molecules within a cell. However, this is not an invariant pattern for humans, and simple models of mitochondrial gene transmission are inappropriate at the present time. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Ghosh, S.S.; Fahy, E. [Applied Genetics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bodis-Wollner, I. [State Univ. of New York College of Optometry, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-02-01

159

Diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic neuropathy (DN) refers to symptoms and signs of neuropathy in a patient with diabetes in whom other causes of neuropathy have been excluded. Distal symmetrical neuropathy is the commonest accounting for 75% DN. Asymmetrical neuropathies may involve cranial nerves, thoracic or limb nerves; are of acute onset resulting from ischaemic infarction of vasa nervosa. Asymmetric neuropathies in diabetic patients should be investigated for entrapment neuropathy. Diabetic amyotrophy, initially considered to result from metabolic changes, and later ischaemia, is now attributed to immunological changes. For diagnosis of DN, symptoms, signs, quantitative sensory testing, nerve conduction study, and autonomic testing are used; and two of these five are recommended for clinical diagnosis. Management of DN includes control of hyperglycaemia, other cardiovascular risk factors; ? lipoic acid and L carnitine. For neuropathic pain, analgesics, non?steroidal anti?inflammatory drugs, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are recommended. The treatment of autonomic neuropathy is symptomatic. PMID:16461471

Bansal, V; Kalita, J; Misra, U K

2006-01-01

160

HEREDITARY MYELOPATHIES  

PubMed Central

Hereditary myelopathies are a diverse group of disorders in which major aspects of the clinical syndrome involve spinal cord structures. Hereditary myelopathic syndromes can be recognized as four clinical paradigms: (1) spinocerebellar ataxia, (2) motor neuron disorder, (3) leukodystrophy, and (4) distal motor-sensory axonopathy. This review illustrates these hereditary myelopathy paradigms with clinical examples with an emphasis on clinical recognition and differential diagnosis. PMID:20148180

Fink, John K.

2009-01-01

161

[Following sensory neuropathy, anti-Hu antibody-positive paraneoplastic neurological syndrome presenting with limbic encephalitis occurs after complete remission].  

PubMed

Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare neurological disorder that frequently precedes the detection of malignancy. We report the case of a 68-year-old male with small-cell lung cancer who developed paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with presence of the anti-Hu antibody, after achieving complete remission of the tumor by chemotherapy. The patient visited our hospital because of progressive sensory disturbance of the distal extremities at 65 years of age. Though paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy was suspected, we could not find any tumor and he did not improve with steroids or immunoglobulin therapy. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed large mediastinal lymphadenopathy. He was subsequently diagnosed with small cell lung cancer at one year and three months after the neurological symptoms occurred. As his serum analysis was positive for the anti-Hu antibody, we diagnosed paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy. The lung cancer disappeared with chemotherapy, but he had developed short-term memory loss six months later. Brain fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging showed an abnormal high-intensity lesion in the left medial temporal lobe including the hippocampus. We therefore made the diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis following subacute sensory neuropathy associated with the anti-Hu antibody. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient presenting with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in which limbic encephalitis developed after tumor disappearance. So we must recognize the possibility of neurological symptoms occurring during remission. As the mechanism of pathogenesis, delayed neuronal cell damage due to immune responses against the tumor is implicated. PMID:23603543

Fukami, Yuki; Umemura, Toshitaka; Shimono, Tetufumi; Yokoi, Takamasa; Kamijo, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Toshimasa

2013-01-01

162

Association of self-reported painful symptoms with clinical and neurophysiologic signs in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common cause of pain in HIV-infected people. Establishing a diagnosis of HIV-SN is important, especially when contemplating opioid use in high risk populations. However physical findings of HIV-SN may be subtle, and sensitive diagnostic tools require specialized expertise. We investigated the association between self-report of distal neuropathic pain and/or paresthesias (DNPP) and objective signs of HIV-SN. Data were obtained from the Central Nervous System HIV Antiretroviral Therapy Effects Research (CHARTER) study. Out of 237 participants, 101 (43%) reported DNPP. Signs of HIV-SN were measured by a modified Total Neuropathy Score (TNS), composed of 6 objective sensory subscores (pin sensibility, vibration sensibility, deep tendon reflexes, quantitative sensory testing for cooling and vibration, and sural sensory amplitude). Self-report of DNPP was associated with all 6 TNS items in univariate analysis and with 4 TNS items in multivariate analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of self-report of DNPP in detecting the presence of a sensory abnormality was 52% and 92% respectively with a PPV of 96% and a NPV of 34%. Increasing intensity of pain measured on a visual analog scale was associated with increasing severity of sensory abnormality. In summary, our results suggest that HIV-infected patients reporting symptoms consistent with HIV-SN, such as tingling, pins and needles, or aching or stabbing pain in the distal lower extremities, usually have objective evidence of HIV-SN on neurologic examination or with neurophysiologic testing. This finding holds true regardless of demographic factors, depression or substance use history. PMID:20851521

Robinson-Papp, J.; Morgello, S.; Vaida, F.; Fitzsimons, C.; Simpson, D.M.; Elliott, K.J.; Al-Lozi, M.; Gelman, B.B.; Clifford, D.; Marra, C.M.; McCutchan, J.A.; Atkinson, J.H.; Dworkin, R.H.; Grant, I.; Ellis, R.

2010-01-01

163

A mitochondrial DNA mutation at nucleotide pair 14459 of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 gene associated with maternally inherited Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dystonia.  

PubMed Central

A five-generation Hispanic family expressing maternally transmitted Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and/or early-onset dystonia associated with bilateral basal ganglia lesions was studied. Buffy coat mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from a severely affected child was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and greater than 90% sequenced. The mtDNA proved to be a Native American haplogroup D genotype and differed from the standard "Cambridge" sequence at 40 nucleotide positions. One of these variants, a G-to-A transition at nucleotide pair (np) 14459, changed a moderately conserved alanine to a valine at NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) residue 72. The np 14459 variant was not found in any of 38 Native American haplogroup D mtDNAs, nor was it detected in 108 Asian, 103 Caucasian, or 99 African mtDNAs. Six maternal relatives in three generations were tested and were found to harbor the mutation, with one female affected with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy being heteroplasmic. Thus, the np 14459 G-to-A missense mutation is specific to this family, alters a moderately conserved amino acid in a complex I gene, is a unique mtDNA variant in Native American haplogroup D, and is heteroplasmic, suggesting that it is the disease-causing mutation. Images PMID:8016139

Jun, A S; Brown, M D; Wallace, D C

1994-01-01

164

Disturbed sensory perception of changes in thermoalgesic stimuli in patients with small fiber neuropathies.  

PubMed

The assessment of functional deficits in small fibre neuropathies (SFN) requires using ancillary tests other than conventional neurophysiological techniques. One of the tests with most widespread use is thermal threshold determination, as part of quantitative sensory testing. Thermal thresholds typically reflect one point in the whole subjective experience elicited by a thermal stimulus. We reasoned that more information could be obtained by analyzing the subjective description of the ongoing sensation elicited by slow temperature changes (dynamic thermal testing, DTT). Twenty SFN patients and 20 healthy subjects were requested to describe, by using an electronic visual analog scale system, the sensation perceived when the temperature of a thermode was made to slowly change according to a predetermined pattern. The thermode was attached to the left ventral forearm or the distal third of the left leg and the stimulus was either a monophasic heat or cold stimuli that reached 120% of pain threshold and reversed to get back to baseline at a rate of 0.5 °C/s. Abnormalities seen in patients in comparison to healthy subjects were: (1) delayed perception of temperature changes, both at onset and at reversal, (2) longer duration of pain perception at peak temperature, and (3) absence of an overshoot sensation after reversal, ie, a transient perception of the opposite sensation before the temperature reached again baseline. The use of DTT increases the yield of thermal testing for clinical and physiological studies. It adds information that can be discriminant between healthy subjects and SFN patients and shows physiological details about the process of activation and inactivation of temperature receptors that may be abnormal in SFN. PMID:23806653

Medici, Conrado; Barraza, Gonzalo; Castillo, Carlos D; Morales, Merche; Schestatsky, Pedro; Casanova-Mollà, Jordi; Valls-Sole, Josep

2013-10-01

165

Early onset (childhood) monogenic neuropathies.  

PubMed

Hereditary neuropathies (HN) with onset in childhood are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission and, in selected cases, pathological findings. Especially relevant to pediatrics are the items "secondary" versus "primary" neuropathy, "syndromic versus nonsyndromic," and "period of life." Different combinations of these parameters frequently point toward specific monogenic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first concern in pediatrics. As a rule, metabolic diseases include additional, orienting symptoms or signs, and their biochemical diagnosis is based on logical algorithms. Primary, motor sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating autosomal dominant (AD) forms (CMT1). Other forms include demyelinating autosomal recessive (AR) forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Peripheral motor neuron disorders are dominated by AR SMN-linked spinal muscular atrophies. (Distal) hereditary motor neuropathies represent <10% of HN but exhibit large clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Sensory/dysautonomic HN involves five classic subtypes, each one related to specific genes. However, genetic heterogeneity is larger than initially suspected. Syndromic HN distinguish "purely neurological syndromes", which are multisystemic, such as spinocerebellar atrophies +, spastic paraplegias +, etc. Peripheral neuropathy is possibly the presenting feature, including in childhood. Autosomal recessive forms, on average, start more frequently in childhood. "Multiorgan syndromes", on the other hand, are more specific to Pediatrics. AR forms, which are clearly degenerative, prompt the investigation of a large set of pleiotropic genes. Other syndromes expressed in the perinatal period are mainly developmental disorders, and can sometimes be related to specific transcription factors. Systematic malformative workup and ethical considerations are necessary. Altogether, >40 genes with various biological functions have been found to be responsible for primary HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait, and some for various types of transmission. PMID:23931819

Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan

2013-01-01

166

AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of many of the systemic amyloidoses. Although the cause of neuropathy is not entirely clear, it is likely related to amyloid deposition within the nerve. This may lead to focal, multifocal, or diffuse neuropathies involving sensory, motor and/or autonomic fibers. The presenting symptoms depend on the distribution of nerves affected. One of the most common phenotypes is sensorimotor polyneuropathy, which is characterized by symptoms of neuropathic pain, numbness, and in advanced cases weakness. Symptoms begin in the feet and ultimately progress to the proximal legs and hands. The most common focal neuropathy is a median neuropathy at the wrist, or clinically known as carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel symptoms may include pain and sensory disturbances in the lateral palm and fingers; hand weakness may ensue if the focal neuropathy is severe. Autonomic neuropathy may affect a variety of organ systems such as the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems. Symptoms may be non-specific making the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy more difficult to identify. However, it is important to recognize and distinguish autonomic neuropathy from diseases of the end-organs themselves. This chapter reviews the inherited and acquired amyloidoses that affect the peripheral nervous system including familial amyloid polyneuropathy, and primary, secondary and senile amyloidosis. We emphasize the clinical presentation of the neurologic aspects of these diseases, physical examination findings, appropriate diagnostic evaluation, treatment and prognosis. PMID:23239211

Shin, Susan C.; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

2012-01-01

167

Heat Shock Protein 70 Is Necessary to Improve Mitochondrial Bioenergetics and Reverse Diabetic Sensory Neuropathy following KU-32 Therapy  

PubMed Central

Impaired neuronal mitochondrial bioenergetics contributes to the pathophysiologic progression of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and may be a focal point for disease management. We have demonstrated that modulating heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 and Hsp70 with the small-molecule drug KU-32 ameliorates psychosensory, electrophysiologic, morphologic, and bioenergetic deficits of DPN in animal models of type 1 diabetes. The current study used mouse models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes to determine the relationship of changes in sensory neuron mitochondrial bioenergetics to the onset of and recovery from DPN. The onset of DPN showed a tight temporal correlation with a decrease in mitochondrial bioenergetics in a genetic model of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, sensory hypoalgesia developed 10 weeks before the occurrence of significant declines in sensory neuron mitochondrial bioenergetics in the type 1 model. KU-32 therapy improved mitochondrial bioenergetics in both the type 1 and type 2 models, and this tightly correlated with a decrease in DPN. Mechanistically, improved mitochondrial function following KU-32 therapy required Hsp70, since the drug was ineffective in diabetic Hsp70 knockout mice. Our data indicate that changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics may rapidly contribute to nerve dysfunction in type 2 diabetes, but not type 1 diabetes, and that modulating Hsp70 offers an effective approach toward correcting sensory neuron bioenergetic deficits and DPN in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24263156

Ma, Jiacheng; Farmer, Kevin L.; Pan, Pan; Urban, Michael J.; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S. J.

2014-01-01

168

Evidence against an X-linked locus close to DXS7 determining visual loss susceptibility in British and Italian families with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

SciTech Connect

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is associated with mutations of mtDNA, but two features of LHON pedigrees are not explicable solely on the basis of mitochondrial inheritance. There is a large excess of affected males, and not all males at risk develop the disease. These observations could be explained by the existence of an X-linked visual loss susceptibility gene. This hypothesis was supported by linkage studies in Finland, placing the susceptibility locus at DXS7, with a maximum lod score of 2.48 at a recombination fraction of 0. Linkage studies in 1 Italian and 12 British families with LHON, analyzed either together or separately depending on the associated mtDNA mutation, have excluded the presence of such a locus from an interval of about 30 cM around DXS7 in these kindreds, with a total lod score of -26.51 at a recombination fraction of 0. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Sweeney, M.G.; Davis, M.B.; Lashwood, A.; Brockington, M.; Harding, A.E. (Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London (United Kingdom)); Toscano, A. (Clinica Neurologica, Messina (Italy))

1992-10-01

169

Detection of the mtDNA 14484 mutation on an African-specific haplotype: Implications about its role in causing Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

SciTech Connect

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally transmitted disease whose primary clinical manifestation is acute or subacute bilateral loss of central vision leading to central scotoma and blindness. To date, LHON has been associated with 18 mtDNA missense mutations, even though, for many of these mutations, it remains unclear whether they cause the disease, contribute to the pathology, or are nonpathogenic mtDNA polymorphisms. On the basis of numerous criteria, which include the specificity for LHON, the frequency in the general population, and the penetrance within affected pedigrees, the detection of associated defects in the respiratory chain, mutations at three nucleotide positions (nps), 11778 (G{r_arrow}A), 3460 (G{r_arrow}A), and 14484 (T{r_arrow}C) have been classified as high-risk and primary LHON mutations. Overall, these three mutations encompass {ge}90% of the LHON cases. 29 refs., 1 fig.

Torroni, A.; Petrozzi, M.; Terracina, M. [Universita` di Roma (Italy)] [and others

1996-07-01

170

Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy with Olivocerebellar Degeneration due to G11778A and T3394C Mutations in the Mitochondrial DNA  

PubMed Central

Background Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disorder with optic nerve atrophy. Although there are no other associated neurological abnormalities in most cases of LHON, cases of "LHON plus" have been reported. Case Report The proband was a 37-year-old man who had visual and gait disturbances that had first appeared at 10 years of age. He showed horizontal gaze palsy, gaze-evoked nystagmus, dysarthria, and cerebellar ataxia. Brain and orbit MRI disclosed atrophy of the optic nerve and cerebellum, and degenerative changes in the bilateral inferior olivary nucleus. Mutational analyses of mitochondrial DNA identified the coexistence of heteroplasmic G11778A and homoplasmic T3394C mutations. Conclusions These results suggest that the combination of G11778A and T3394C mutations leads to an atypical LHON phenotype. PMID:23091534

Adachi, Yoshiki; Fusayasu, Emi; Doi, Koji; Imamura, Keiko; Yasui, Kenichi; Nakashima, Kenji

2012-01-01

171

Mitochondrial Gene Therapy Improves Respiration, Biogenesis, and Transcription in G11778A Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and T8993G Leigh's Syndrome Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Many incurable mitochondrial disorders result from mutant mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and impaired respiration. Leigh's syndrome (LS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of infants, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) causes blindness in young adults. Treatment of LHON and LS cells harboring G11778A and T8993G mutant mtDNA, respectively, by >90%, with healthy donor mtDNA complexed with recombinant human mitochondrial transcription factor A (rhTFAM), improved mitochondrial respiration by ?1.2-fold in LHON cells and restored >50% ATP synthase function in LS cells. Mitochondrial replication, transcription, and translation of key respiratory genes and proteins were increased in the short term. Increased NRF1, TFAMB1, and TFAMA expression alluded to the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis as a mechanism for improving mitochondrial respiration. These results represent the development of a therapeutic approach for LHON and LS patients in the near future. PMID:22390282

Bergquist, Kristen; Young, Kisha; Gnaiger, Erich; Rao, Raj R.

2012-01-01

172

4Hydroxy2-Nonenal Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Aberrant Axonal Outgrowth in Adult Sensory Neurons that Mimics Features of Diabetic Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of proteins by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) has been proposed to cause neurotoxicity in a number of neurodegenerative\\u000a diseases, including distal axonopathy in diabetic sensory neuropathy. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of cultured adult\\u000a rat sensory neurons to 4-HNE would result in the formation of amino acid adducts on mitochondrial proteins and that this process\\u000a would be associated with impaired

Eli Akude; Elena Zherebitskaya; Subir K. Roy Chowdhury; Kimberly Girling; Paul Fernyhough

2010-01-01

173

Simultaneous occurrence of the 11778 (ND4) and the 9438 (COX III) mtDNA mutations in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: Molecular, biochemical, and clinical findings  

SciTech Connect

Three mtDNA point mutations at nucleotide position (np) 3460, at np 11778 and at np 14484, are thought to be of primary importance in the pathogenesis of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), a maternally inherited disease characterized by subacute central vision loss. These mutations are present in genes coding for subunits of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) of the respiratory chain, occur exclusively in LHON maternal pedigrees, and have never been reported to occur together. Johns and Neufeld postulated that an mtDNA mutation at np 9438, in the gene coding for one of the subunits (COX III) of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase), was also of primary importance. Johns and Neufeld (1993) found this mutation, which changed a conserved glycine to a serine, in 5 unrelated LHON probands who did not carry one of the presently known primary mutations, but they did not find it in 400 controls. However, the role of this sequence variant has been questioned in the Journal when it has been found to occur in apparently healthy African and Cuban individuals. Subsequently, Johns et al. described this mutation in two Cuban individuals presenting with optic and peripheral neuropathy. 22 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Oostra, R.J.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E.M.; Zwart, R. [Ophthalmic Research Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

1995-10-01

174

Motor and sensory neuropathy due to myelin infolding and paranodal damage in a transgenic mouse model of Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1C  

PubMed Central

Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1C (CMT1C) is a dominantly inherited motor and sensory neuropathy. Despite human genetic evidence linking missense mutations in SIMPLE to CMT1C, the in vivo role of CMT1C-linked SIMPLE mutations remains undetermined. To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying CMT1C pathogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing either wild-type or CMT1C-linked W116G human SIMPLE. Mice expressing mutant, but not wild type, SIMPLE develop a late-onset motor and sensory neuropathy that recapitulates key clinical features of CMT1C disease. SIMPLE mutant mice exhibit motor and sensory behavioral impairments accompanied by decreased motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity and reduced compound muscle action potential amplitude. This neuropathy phenotype is associated with focally infolded myelin loops that protrude into the axons at paranodal regions and near Schmidt–Lanterman incisures of peripheral nerves. We find that myelin infolding is often linked to constricted axons with signs of impaired axonal transport and to paranodal defects and abnormal organization of the node of Ranvier. Our findings support that SIMPLE mutation disrupts myelin homeostasis and causes peripheral neuropathy via a combination of toxic gain-of-function and dominant-negative mechanisms. The results from this study suggest that myelin infolding and paranodal damage may represent pathogenic precursors preceding demyelination and axonal degeneration in CMT1C patients. PMID:23359569

Lee, Samuel M.; Sha, Di; Mohammed, Anum A.; Asress, Seneshaw; Glass, Jonathan D.; Chin, Lih-Shen; Li, Lian

2013-01-01

175

Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Is Associated with the T3866C Mutation in Mitochondrial ND1 Gene in Three Han Chinese Families  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the pathophysiology of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Methods. Seventy-one subjects from three Chinese families with LHON underwent clinical, genetic, molecular, and biochemical evaluations. Biochemical characterizations included the measurements of the rates of endogenous, substrate-dependent respirations, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and generation of reactive oxygen species using lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from five affected matrilineal relatives of these families and three control subjects. Results. Ten of 41 matrilineal relatives exhibited variable severity and age at onset of optic neuropathy. The average age at onset of optic neuropathy in matrilineal relatives of the three families was 5, 11, and 24 years, respectively. Molecular analysis identified the ND1 T3866C (I187T) mutation and distinct sets of polymorphisms belonging to the Eastern Asian haplogroups D4a, M10a, and R, respectively. The I187T mutation is localized at the highly conserved isoleucine at a transmembrane domain of the ND1 polypeptide. The marked reductions in the rate of endogenous, malate/glutamate-promoted and succinate/glycerol-3-phosphate-promoted respiration were observed in mutant cell lines carrying the T3866C mutation. The deficient respiration is responsible for the reduced ATP synthesis and increased generation of reactive oxygen species. Conclusions. Our data convincingly show that the ND1 T3866C mutation leads to LHON. This mutation may be insufficient to produce a clinical phenotype. Other modifier factors may contribute to the phenotypic manifestation of the T3866C mutation. The T3866C mutation should be added to the list of inherited factors for molecular diagnosis of LHON. Thus, our findings may provide new insights into the understanding of pathophysiology and valuable information on the management of LHON. PMID:22577081

Zhou, Xiangtian; Qian, Yaping; Zhang, Juanjuan; Tong, Yi; Jiang, Pingping; Liang, Min; Dai, Xianning; Zhou, Huihui; Zhao, Fuxin; Ji, Yanchun; Mo, Jun Qin; Qu, Jia; Guan, Min-Xin

2012-01-01

176

Role of the DNA Base Excision Repair Protein, APE1 in Cisplatin, Oxaliplatin, or Carboplatin Induced Sensory Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Although chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting side effect of platinum drugs, the mechanisms of this toxicity remain unknown. Previous work in our laboratory suggests that cisplatin-induced CIPN is secondary to DNA damage which is susceptible to base excision repair (BER). To further examine this hypothesis, we studied the effects of cisplatin, oxaliplatin, and carboplatin on cell survival, DNA damage, ROS production, and functional endpoints in rat sensory neurons in culture in the absence or presence of reduced expression of the BER protein AP endonuclease/redox factor-1 (APE1). Using an in situ model of peptidergic sensory neuron function, we examined the effects of the platinum drugs on hind limb capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation. Exposing sensory neurons in culture to the three platinum drugs caused a concentration-dependent increase in apoptosis and cell death, although the concentrations of carboplatin were 10 fold higher than cisplatin. As previously observed with cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin also increased DNA damage as indicated by an increase in phospho-H2AX and reduced the capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP from neuronal cultures. Both cisplatin and oxaliplatin increased the production of ROS as well as 8-oxoguanine DNA adduct levels, whereas carboplatin did not. Reducing levels of APE1 in neuronal cultures augmented the cisplatin and oxaliplatin induced toxicity, but did not alter the effects of carboplatin. Using an in vivo model, systemic injection of cisplatin (3 mg/kg), oxaliplatin (3 mg/kg), or carboplatin (30 mg/kg) once a week for three weeks caused a decrease in capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation, which was delayed in onset. The effects of cisplatin on capsaicin-evoked vasodilatation were attenuated by chronic administration of E3330, a redox inhibitor of APE1 that serendipitously enhances APE1 DNA repair activity in sensory neurons. These outcomes support the importance of the BER pathway, and particularly APE1, in sensory neuropathy caused by cisplatin and oxaliplatin, but not carboplatin and suggest that augmenting DNA repair could be a therapeutic target for CIPN. PMID:25188410

Kelley, Mark R.; Jiang, Yanlin; Guo, Chunlu; Reed, April; Meng, Hongdi; Vasko, Michael R.

2014-01-01

177

The Role of Cutaneous Innervation in the Sensory Abnormalities Associated with Diabetic Neuropathy  

E-print Network

Diabetes-induced nerve damage results in cutaneous denervation, nerve conduction slowing, suppressed regenerative responses, and debilitating painful or insensate sensory symptoms. The increasing prevalence of diabetic ...

Johnson, Megan Sarah

2008-05-05

178

Inherited mitochondrial neuropathies.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) occasionally manifest as polyneuropathy either as the dominant feature or as one of many other manifestations (inherited mitochondrial neuropathy). MIDs in which polyneuropathy is the dominant feature, include NARP syndrome due to the transition m.8993T>, CMT2A due to MFN2 mutations, CMT2K and CMT4A due to GDAP1 mutations, and axonal/demyelinating neuropathy with external ophthalmoplegia due to POLG1 mutations. MIDs in which polyneuropathy is an inconstant feature among others is the MELAS syndrome, MERRF syndrome, LHON, Mendelian PEO, KSS, Leigh syndrome, MNGIE, SANDO; MIRAS, MEMSA, AHS, MDS (hepato-cerebral form), IOSCA, and ADOA syndrome. In the majority of the cases polyneuropathy presents in a multiplex neuropathy distribution. Nerve conduction studies may reveal either axonal or demyelinated or mixed types of neuropathies. If a hereditary neuropathy is due to mitochondrial dysfunction, the management of these patients is at variance from non-mitochondrial hereditary neuropathies. Patients with mitochondrial hereditary neuropathy need to be carefully investigated for clinical or subclinical involvement of other organs or systems. Supportive treatment with co-factors, antioxidants, alternative energy sources, or lactate lowering agents can be tried. Involvement of other organs may require specific treatment. Mitochondrial neuropathies should be included in the differential diagnosis of hereditary neuropathies. PMID:21402391

Finsterer, Josef

2011-05-15

179

[Sjogren's syndrome-associated neuropathy].  

PubMed

Sjogren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by xerophthalmia and xerostomia; it is associated with widespread systemic visceral involvement. A wide variety of neurological complications are characteristic features of Sjogren's syndrome, of which peripheral neuropathy is a major neurological manifestation. Based on the predominant neuropathic symptoms, patients can be considered to have several forms of neuropathies, including sensory ataxic neuropathy, painful sensory neuropathy without sensory ataxia, multiple mononeuropathy, multiple cranial neuropathy, trigeminal neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and radiculoneuropathy. Acute or subacute onset is observed more frequently in multiple mononeuropathy and multiple cranial neuropathies, whereas disease progression is usually chronic in other forms of neuropathies. Sensory symptoms without substantial motor involvement are observed predominantly in sensory ataxic, painful sensory, trigeminal, and autonomic neuropathies. In contrast, motor impairment is apparent in multiple mononeuropathy, multiple cranial neuropathy, and radiculoneuropathy. Autonomic symptoms such as abnormal pupils and orthostatic hypotension are particularly noted in patients with sensory ataxic, painful, trigeminal, and autonomic neuropathies. Sural nerve biopsy specimens reveal predominantly large fiber loss in sensory ataxic neuropathy and predominantly small fiber loss in painful sensory neuropathy. Vasculitis is observed most frequently in multiple mononeuropathy. The autopsy findings of patients with sensory ataxic and painful neuropathies demonstrate neuronal loss in the dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia with CD8-positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Differential therapeutic responses to corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin can be seen among the various neuropathic forms. In conclusion, the clinicopathological features of neuropathies associated with Sjogren's syndrome are highly variable. The neuropathy classification is important from a therapeutic point of view. PMID:24200611

Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

2013-11-01

180

Painful Peripheral Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases affecting peripheral nerves. The causes are multiple: hereditary, metabolic, infectious, inflammatory, toxic, traumatic. The temporal profile includes acute, subacute and chronic conditions. The majority of peripheral neuropathies cause mainly muscle weakness and sensory loss, positive sensory symptoms and sometimes pain. When pain is present, however, it is usually extremely intense and among the most disabling symptoms for the patients. In addition, the neurological origin of the pain is often missed and patients receive inadequate or delayed specific treatment. Independently of the disease causing the peripheral nerve injury, pain originating from axonal pathology or ganglionopathy privileges neuropathies affecting smaller fibres, a clinical observation that points towards abnormal activity within nociceptive afferents as a main generator of pain. Natural activation of blood vessels or perineurial nociceptive network by pathology also causes intense pain. Pain of this kind, i.e. nerve trunk pain, is among the heralding symptoms of inflammatory or ischemic mononeuropathy and for its intensity represents itself a medical emergency. Neuropathic pain quality rekindles the psychophysical experience of peripheral nerves intraneural microstimulation i.e. a combination of large and small fibres sensation temporally distorted compared to physiological perception evoked by natural stimuli. Pins and needles, burning, cramping mixed with numbness, and tingling are the wording most used by patients. Nociceptive pain instead is most often described as aching, deep and dull. Good command of peripheral nerve anatomy and pathophysiology allows timely recognition of the different pain components and targeted treatment, selected according to intensity, type and temporal profile of the pain. PMID:18615140

Marchettini, P; Lacerenza, M; Mauri, E; Marangoni, C

2006-01-01

181

A 1.5-Mb deletion in 17p11.2-p12 is frequently observed in Italian families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies  

SciTech Connect

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mononeuropathies. A 1.5-Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-p12 has been associated with HNPP. Duplication of the same 1.5-Mb region is known to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1A), a more severe peripheral neuropathy characterized by symmetrically slowed nerve conduction velocity (NCV). The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion appear to be the reciprocal products of a recombination event involving a repeat element (CMT1A-REP) that flanks the 1.5-Mb region involved in the duplication/deletion. Patients from nine unrelated Italian families who were diagnosed with HNPP on the basis of clinical, electrophysiological, and histological evaluations were analyzed by molecular methods for DNA deletion on chromosome 17p. In all nine families, Southern analysis using a CMT1A-REP probe detected a reduced hybridization signal of a 6.0-kb EcoRI fragment mapping within the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating deletion of one copy of CMT1A-REP in these HNPP patients. Families were also typed with a polymorphic (CA){sub n} repeat and with RFLPs corresponding to loci D17S122, D17S125, and D17S61, which all map within the deleted region. Lack of allelic transmission from affected parent to affected offspring was observed in four informative families, providing an independent indication for deletion. Furthermore, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of SacII-digested genomic DNA detected junction fragments specific to the 1.5-Mb HNPP deletion in seven of nine Italian families included in this study. These findings suggest that a 1.5-Mb deletion on 17p11.2-p12 is the most common mutation associated with HNPP. 51 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Lorenzetti, D.; Pandolfo, M. [Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy)]|[Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Pareyson, D.; Sghirlanzoni, A.; Di Donato, S. [Istituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan (Italy); Roa, B.B.; Abbas, N.E.; Lupski, J.R. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-01-01

182

Fast capillary electrophoresis-laser induced fluorescence analysis of ligase chain reaction products: human mitochondrial DNA point mutations causing Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

High speed capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) has been used to separate and detect point mutations using the ligase chain reaction (LCR). The method utilizes short capillary columns (7.5 cm effective length) and fields of 400 V/cm to analyze DNA-ethidium bromide complexes using an He/Ne laser. The method was first demonstrated with a commercially available kit for LCR based on a lacI gene fragment inserted in a Bluescript II phagemid. LCR-CE-LIF was then applied to detect point mutations in human mitochondrial DNA, resulting in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Three severe mutations were analyzed in which the original base is substituted by a thymidine base at positions 3460, 11778 and 14459. Appropriate primers were designed with polyT tails for length discrimination of pooled samples. Successful detection of mutated samples was achieved, with appropriate correction for small amounts of nonspecific ligated product. The method is rapid, easy to implement, and automatable. PMID:9034769

Muth, J; Williams, P M; Williams, S J; Brown, M D; Wallace, D C; Karger, B L

1996-12-01

183

X chromosome-linked and mitochondrial gene control of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: Evidence from segregation analysis for dependence on X chromosome inactivation  

SciTech Connect

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has been shown to involve mutation(s) of mitochondrial DNA, yet there remain several confusing aspects of its inheritance not explained by mitochondrial inheritance alone, including male predominance, reduced penetrance, and a later age of onset in females. By extending segregation analysis methods to disorders that involve both a mitochondrial and a nuclear gene locus, the authors show that the available pedigree data for LHON are most consistent with a two-locus disorder, with one responsible gene being mitochondrial and the other nuclear and X chromosome-linked. Furthermore, they have been able to extend the two-locus analytic method and demonstrate that a proportion of affected females are likely heterozygous at the X chromosome-linked locus and are affected due to unfortunate X chromosome inactivation, thus providing an explanation for the later age of onset in females. The estimated penetrance for a heterozygous female is 0.11{plus minus}0.02. The calculated frequency of the X chromosome-linked gene for LHON is 0.l08. Among affected females, 60% are expected to be heterozygous, and the remainder are expected to be homozygous at the responsible X chromosome-linked locus.

Xiangdong Bu; Rotter, J.I. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1991-09-15

184

X-inactivation patterns in female Leber`s hereditary optic neuropathy patients do not support a strong X-linked determinant  

SciTech Connect

Leber`s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) accounts for about 3% of the cases of blindness in young adult males. The underlying mitochondrial pathogenesis of LHON has been well studied, with specific mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations of structural genes described and well characterized. However, enigmatic aspects of the disease are not explained by mutation data, such as the higher proportion of affected males, the later onset of the disease in females, and the presence of unaffected individuals with a high proportion of mutant mtDNA. A hypothesis which has been put forward to explain the unusual disease expression is a dual model of mtDNA and X-linked nuclear gene inheritance. If a nuclear X-linked modifier gene influences the expression of the mitochondrial-linked mutant gene then the affected females should be either homozygous for the nuclear determinant, or if heterozygous, lyonization should favor the mutant X. In order to determine if an X-linked gene predisposes to LHON phenotype we studied X-inactivation patterns in 35 females with known mtDNA mutations from 10 LHON pedigrees. Our results do not support a strong X-linked determinant in LHON cause: 2 of the 10 (20%) manifesting carriers showed skewing of X-inactivation, as did 3 of the 25 (12%) nonmanifesting carriers. 39 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Pegoraro, E.; Hoffman, E.P. [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States)] [Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (United States); Carelli, V.; Cortelli, P. [Univ. of Bologna (Italy)] [and others] [Univ. of Bologna (Italy); and others

1996-02-02

185

Cell therapy using retinal progenitor cells shows therapeutic effect in a chemically-induced rotenone mouse model of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Primary mitochondrial disorders occur at a prevalence of one in 10?000; ?50% of these demonstrate ocular pathology. Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is the most common primary mitochondrial disorder. LHON results from retinal ganglion cell pathology, which leads to optic nerve degeneration and blindness. Over 95% of cases result from one of the three common mutations in mitochondrial genes MTND1, MTND4 and MTND6, which encode elements of the complex I respiratory chain. Various therapies for LHON are in development, for example, intravitreal injection of adeno-associated virus carrying either the yeast NDI1 gene or a specific subunit of mammalian Complex I have shown visual improvement in animal models. Given the course of LHON, it is likely that in many cases prompt administration may be necessary before widespread cell death. An alternative approach for therapy may be the use of stem cells to protect visual function; this has been evaluated by us in a rotenone-induced model of LHON. Freshly dissected embryonic retinal cells do not integrate into the ganglion cell layer (GCL), unlike similarly obtained photoreceptor precursors. However, cultured retinal progenitor cells can integrate in close proximity to the GCL, and act to preserve retinal function as assessed by manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, optokinetic responses and ganglion cell counts. Cell therapies for LHON therefore represent a promising therapeutic approach, and may be of particular utility in treating more advanced disease. PMID:24569607

Mansergh, Fiona C; Chadderton, Naomi; Kenna, Paul F; Gobbo, Oliviero L; Farrar, G Jane

2014-11-01

186

Hip dysplasia associated with a hereditary sensorimotor polyneuropathy mimics a myopathic process.  

PubMed

Some orthopedic complications have been reported in the hereditary neuropathies. However, the association of the hip dysplasia with this category of neuropathy is rarely recognized. We present a 13-year-old boy with the progressive weakness of the lower extremities, difficulty in walking, climbing stairs, and rising from floor; a wide-based, hyper-extended and waddling gait similar to a myopathic process. Hip radiography showed dysplastic acetabulae with hip subluxation, broken Shenton's lines, and valgus femoral necks. In electrodiagnosis, there was a significant neuropathic process (absent all evoked sensory potentials, abnormal evoked motor responses, and neurogenic electeromyography) which eventually was found to be a hereditary mixed axonal and demyelinating sensorimotor polyneuropathy with concomitant hip dysplasia confirmed with thorough physical examination and the electrodiagnostic study. In patients with gait difficulties such as waddling gait mimicking a myopathic process, hereditary polyneuropathy complicated with hip dysplasia should be considered as well. PMID:22919197

Hadianfard, Mohammad Javad; Ashraf, Alireza

2012-07-01

187

Severe sensory and sympathetic neuropathies in mice carrying a disrupted Trk\\/NGF receptor gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

NERVE growth factor (NGF) induces neurite outgrowth and promotes survival of embryonic sensory and sympathetic neurons in culture1,2. In vivo, NGF decreases the extent of naturally occurring cell death in developing sympathetic ganglia and protects cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and caudatoputamen1-3. NGF interacts with the low-affinity p75 receptor and with Trk, a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by the

Richard J. Smeyne; Rüdiger Klein; Andreas Schnapp; Linda K. Long; Sherri Bryant; Anne Lewin; Sergio A. Lira; Mariano Barbacid

1994-01-01

188

Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy in Golden Retriever Dogs Is Caused by a Deletion in the Mitochondrial tRNATyr Gene  

PubMed Central

Sensory ataxic neuropathy (SAN) is a recently identified neurological disorder in golden retrievers. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected dogs belong to one maternal lineage, and a statistical analysis showed that the disorder has a mitochondrial origin. A one base pair deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene was identified at position 5304 in affected dogs after re-sequencing the complete mitochondrial genome of seven individuals. The deletion was not found among dogs representing 18 different breeds or in six wolves, ruling out this as a common polymorphism. The mutation could be traced back to a common ancestor of all affected dogs that lived in the 1970s. We used a quantitative oligonucleotide ligation assay to establish the degree of heteroplasmy in blood and tissue samples from affected dogs and controls. Affected dogs and their first to fourth degree relatives had 0–11% wild-type (wt) sequence, while more distant relatives ranged between 5% and 60% wt sequence and all unrelated golden retrievers had 100% wt sequence. Northern blot analysis showed that tRNATyr had a 10-fold lower steady-state level in affected dogs compared with controls. Four out of five affected dogs showed decreases in mitochondrial ATP production rates and respiratory chain enzyme activities together with morphological alterations in muscle tissue, resembling the changes reported in human mitochondrial pathology. Altogether, these results provide conclusive evidence that the deletion in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene is the causative mutation for SAN. PMID:19492087

Baranowska, Izabella; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin; Nennesmo, Inger; Holmqvist, Erik; Heidrich, Nadja; Larsson, Nils-Göran; Andersson, Göran; Wagner, E. Gerhart H.; Hedhammar, Åke; Wibom, Rolf; Andersson, Leif

2009-01-01

189

Serial magnetic resonance images in a patient with congenital sensory neuropathy with anhidrosis and complications resembling heat stroke.  

PubMed

We report the results of serial computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a 9-month-old Japanese girl with the rare disorder, congenital sensory neuropathy with anhidrosis (CSNA). She developed a prolonged high fever, anorexia, and weight loss with laboratory findings of hemoconcentration and elevated levels of GOT, LDH and creatine phosphokinase (CK) in May 1995, and was hospitalized. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was normal on admission. Elevation of CSF myelin basic protein on the 16th hospital day suggested a destruction of the myelin sheath. The first MRI performed on the 16th hospital day revealed no marked abnormalities when the patient exhibited a high fever, generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, and impaired consciousness. The patient had a persistent high fever, and developed a second generalized tonic clonic convulsion and became comatose. A second MRI on the 20th hospital day showed a bilateral symmetrical paracentral hypo-intensity of the white matter with occipital hypo-intensity on T2-weighted images. MRI findings were considered to represent the complications of the high fever with a loss of water from the cerebral cortices and deep white matter. MRI and CSF findings indicated the presence of brain damage due to the high fever. PMID:8902724

Iwanaga, R; Matsuishi, T; Ohnishi, A; Nakashima, M; Abe, T; Ohtaki, E; Kojima, K; Nagamitsu, S; Ohbu, K; Kato, H

1996-10-01

190

Two siblings with triple A syndrome and novel mutation presenting as hereditary polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical and molecular data on triple A syndrome in two siblings (girl 3.5 years and boy 5.5 years at presentation) with\\u000a early onset of neurological dysfunction are described. Both patients showed delayed developmental milestones and neurological\\u000a dysfunctions (motor and sensory demyelinating neuropathy, marked hyperreflexia, calves hypothrophy, pes cavus, gait disturbance)\\u000a in early childhood, when erroneously diagnosed with hereditary polyneuropathy, most likely

Miroslav Dumi?; Nina Bariši?; Nataša Rojni?-Putarek; Vesna Kušec; Andrija Stanimirovi?; Katrin Koehler; Angela Huebner

2011-01-01

191

Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) in a 15-year-old boy presenting with severe pain and distal muscle weakness.  

PubMed

Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) is a recently described subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome characterized by acute onset of distal weakness, loss of deep tendon reflexes and sensory symptoms. Electrophysiological studies show mildly reduced nerve conduction velocities combined with a marked reduction of muscle action and sensory nerve action potentials. Here, we report a 15-year-old boy who suffered from severe burning and knife-like pain that increased over a period of three months and resulted in a disrupted sleep pattern and suicidal intentions as well as marked loss of weight. In addition, he developed muscle weakness in his hands and feet. Neurophysiological and histopathological studies revealed AMSAN. Marked improvement of his condition was achieved by treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, high-dose methylprednisolone, and a combination of gabapentin, antidepressants, and an oral morphine. PMID:16138251

Rostásy, K M; Huppke, P; Beckers, B; Brockmann, K; Degenhardt, V; Wesche, B; König, F; Gärtner, J

2005-08-01

192

Fifteen novel mutations in the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, 2, 3, 4, 4L, 5 and 6 genes from Iranian patients with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).  

PubMed

Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an optic nerve dysfunction resulting from mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is transmitted in a maternal pattern of inheritance. It is caused by three primary point mutations: G11778A, G3460A and T14484C; in the mitochondrial genome. These mutations are sufficient to induce the disease, accounting for the majority of LHON cases, and affect genes that encode for the different subunits of mitochondrial complexes I and III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Other mutations are secondary mutations associated with the primary mutations. The purpose of this study was to determine MT-ND variations in Iranian patients with LHON. In order to determine the prevalence and distribution of mitochondrial mutations in the LHON patients, their DNA was studied using PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Sequencing of MT-ND genes from 35 LHON patients revealed a total of 44 nucleotide variations, in which fifteen novel variations-A14020G, A13663G, C10399T, C4932A, C3893G, C10557A, C12012A, C13934T, G4596A, T12851A, T4539A, T4941A, T13255A, T14353C and del A 4513-were observed in 27 LHON patients. However, eight patients showed no variation in the ND genes. These mutations contribute to the current database of mtDNA polymorphisms in LHON patients and may facilitate the definition of disease-related mutations in human mtDNA. This research may help to understand the disease mechanism and open up new diagnostic opportunities for LHON. PMID:24158608

Rezvani, Zahra; Didari, Elmira; Arastehkani, Ahoura; Ghodsinejad, Vadieh; Aryani, Omid; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Houshmand, Massoud

2013-12-01

193

Complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequence variation of Chinese families with mutation m.3635G>A and Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The majority of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) cases are caused by one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) primary mutations (m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C). In recent studies, we and others have shown that mutation m.3635G>A is a primary LHON mutation, particularly in Chinese. The purpose of this study was to perform a thorough analysis for the complete mtDNA genome sequence variation in Chinese patients with m.3635G>A and to identify potentially functional variants cosegregated with m.3635G>A. Methods The complete mtDNA genomes of five Chinese patients with LHON carrying m.3635G>A were determined. A phylogenetic tree was constructed to distinguish the private and ancestral mtDNA variants in each lineage. Previously unreported variants in each mtDNA were defined with a web-based and database search. mtDNA variants that changed the structure of the membrane-spanning region of the protein were also evaluated, together with evolutionary conservation analysis, to predict their potential pathogenicity. Results The five patients with LHON sequenced in this study belonged to haplogroups M7b4 (Le131), F1a (Le329 and Le337), B5b (Le569), and M7b6 (Le834), which suggested multiple origins of m.3635G>A. Private variants m.12811T>C, m.14063T>C, m.15237T>C, and m.9071C>T in these patients were predicted to change the structure of the membrane-spanning region of the respective proteins. Conclusions Mutation m.3635G>A had multiple origins in Chinese patients with LHON. We also identified several potentially functional variants cosegregated with m.3635G>A. PMID:23304069

Bi, Rui; Zhang, A-Mei; Jia, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qingjiong

2012-01-01

194

Trial end points and natural history in patients with G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy : preparation for gene therapy clinical trial.  

PubMed

IMPORTANCE Establishing the natural history of G11778A Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is important to determine the optimal end points to assess the safety and efficacy of a planned gene therapy trial. OBJECTIVE To use the results of the present natural history study of patients with G11778A LHON to plan a gene therapy clinical trial that will use allotopic expression by delivering a normal nuclear-encoded ND4 gene into the nuclei of retinal ganglion cells via an adeno-associated virus vector injected into the vitreous. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective observational study initiated in 2008 was conducted in primary and referral institutional practice settings. Participants included 44 individuals with G11778A LHON, recruited between September 2008 and March 2012, who were evaluated every 6 months and returned for 1 or more follow-up visits (6-36 months) as of August 2012. EXPOSURES Complete neuro-ophthalmic examination and main measures. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visual acuity, automated visual field testing, pattern electroretinogram, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. RESULTS Clinical measures were stable during the follow-up period, and visual acuity was as good as or better than the other visual factors used for monitoring patients. Based on a criterion of 15 or more letters from the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart, 13 eyes of 8 patients (18%) improved, but 24 months after the onset of symptoms, any further improvements were to no better than 20/100. Acuity recovery occurred in some patients despite continued marked retinal nerve fiber layer thinning indistinguishable from that in patients who did not recover visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Spontaneous improvement of visual acuity in patients with G11778A LHON is not common and is partial and limited when it occurs, so improvements in vision with adeno-associated virus-mediated gene therapy of a synthetic wild-type ND4 subunit gene should be possible to detect with a reasonable sample size. Visual acuity appears to be the most suitable primary end point for the planned clinical trial. PMID:24525545

Lam, Byron L; Feuer, William J; Schiffman, Joyce C; Porciatti, Vittorio; Vandenbroucke, Ruth; Rosa, Potyra R; Gregori, Giovanni; Guy, John

2014-04-01

195

A pilot study of a plantar sensory evaluation system for early screening of diabetic neuropathy in a weight-bearing position.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to develop smart equipment to quantify plantar tactile sensibility for the early diagnosis and tracking of peripheral neuropathy caused by diabetes mellitus. In this paper, we offer a new testing system that is composed of a plantar tactile stimulation platform with a small moving contactor to stretch the skin tangentially, a response switch for each tactile stimulus, a motor control box, and a personal computer (PC) for psychophysical data processing. This quantitative sensory testing system has detailed measurements available and is easy to use compared with the conventional testing devices, such as von Frey monofilaments, pin-prick testing devices, and current perception threshold testers. When using our testing system in a weight-bearing position, we observed that the plantar tactile thresholds for the tangential stretching stimulus on the plantar surface of the foot ranged from approximately 10 um to 30 um for healthy subjects. However, the threshold for a subject with diabetes was nearly three times higher than that for healthy subjects. The significant difference between these values suggests that the plantar sensory evaluation system using the lateral skin stretch stimulation can be used for early diagnosis, for the accurate staging of diabetic neuropathy, and for evaluating its progression noninvasively in a clinic and at home. PMID:25570747

Ino, Shuichi; Chikai, Manabu; Takahashi, Noriyo; Ohnishi, Tadasuke; Doi, Kohki; Nunokawa, Kiyohiko

2014-01-01

196

Experimental diabetic neuropathy: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic neuropathy consists of several clinical syndromes affecting motor, sensory and autonomic nerves. Of these the most\\u000a common is distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy usually referred to as diabetic neuropathy. Animal studies, mainly in diabetic\\u000a rodents, have contributed tremendously to our understanding of this disease. From these it is clear that the pathogenesis\\u000a of diabetic neuropathy is multifactorial involving sequentially occurring

A. A. F. Sima; K. Sugimoto

1999-01-01

197

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction of peripheral neuropathy is a common factor in limiting therapy with chemotherapeutic drugs. Little is known\\u000a about the mechanisms responsible for the development of neuropathy. Depending on the substance used, a pure sensory and painful\\u000a neuropathy (with cisplatin, oxaliplatin, carboplatin) or a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy with or without involvement of the\\u000a autonomic nervous system (with vincristine, taxol, suramin)

Stefan Quasthoff; Hans Peter Hartung

2002-01-01

198

[Screening for hereditary neuromuscular disorders with molecular genetic methods in the Roma population of Hungary].  

PubMed

Recent medical genetic research has identified a number of novel, or previously known, but rare conditions, caused by private founder mutations. The Finnish and Ashkenazi Jew populations provide the best examples for identifying genes in unique genetic disorders. In these populations, research efforts and high-level medical services resulted in intense improvements of medical care and in organization of population-based screening programs. Hereditary disorders of the Roma populations are known for a long time. The genetic background of these diseases has been established by extensive molecular genetic studies. The Romas represent 6% of the Hungarian population and live under extremely bad health conditions. Therefore, our aim was to map the incidence of the hereditary neuromuscular disorders among the Hungarian Roma population. Moreover, we intended to provide proper information, genetic counseling and possible prevention strategies for the families at risk, which should represent a primer task in public health. Because of our experience in neuromuscular disorders, we choose six, frequent, autosomal recessive disorders for these clinical and genetic studies: hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Lom (HMSNL), hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type Russe (HMSNR), congenital cataracts facial dysmorphism syndrome (CCFDN), limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2C (LGMD2C), congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Following identification of the founder mutations, the possibility of prenatal diagnosis and carrier screening for family members will contribute to the decrease of the recurrence risk for these severe, mostly untreatable disorders. PMID:19070320

Herczegfalvi, Agnes; Pikó, Henriett; Karcagi, Veronika

2008-11-30

199

Recommendations to enable drug development for inherited neuropathies: Charcot-Marie-Tooth and Giant Axonal Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Approximately 1 in 2500 Americans suffer from Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. The underlying disease mechanisms are unique in most forms of CMT, with many point mutations on various genes causing a toxic accumulation of misfolded proteins. Symptoms of the disease often present within the first two decades of life, with CMT1A patients having reduced compound muscle and sensory action potentials, slow nerve conduction velocities, sensory loss, progressive distal weakness, foot and hand deformities, decreased reflexes, bilateral foot drop and about 5% become wheelchair bound. In contrast, the ultra-rare disease Giant Axonal Neuropathy (GAN) is frequently described as a recessively inherited condition that results in progressive nerve death. GAN usually appears in early childhood and progresses slowly as neuronal injury becomes more severe and leads to death in the second or third decade. There are currently no treatments for any of the forms of CMTs or GAN. We suggest that further clinical studies should analyse electrical impedance myography as an outcome measure for CMT. Further, additional quality of life (QoL) assessments for these CMTs are required, and we need to identify GAN biomarkers as well as develop new genetic testing panels for both diseases. We propose that using the Global Registry of Inherited Neuropathy (GRIN) could be useful for many of these studies. Patient advocacy groups and professional organizations (such as the Hereditary Neuropathy Foundation (HNF), Hannah's Hope Fund (HHF), The Neuropathy Association (TNA) and the American Association of Neuromuscular and Electrodiagnostic Medicine (AANEM) can play a central role in educating clinicians and patients. Undertaking these studies will assist in the correct diagnosis of disease recruiting patients for clinical studies, and will ultimately improve the endpoints for clinical trials. By addressing obstacles that prevent industry investment in various forms of inherited neuropathies, we can envision treatment options for these rare diseases in the near future. PMID:24860645

Sames, Lori; Moore, Allison; Arnold, Renee; Ekins, Sean

2014-01-01

200

Concordance between epidermal nerve fiber density and sensory examination in patients with symptoms of idiopathic small fiber neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitation of epidermal nerve fiber (ENF) density is an objective diagnostic test of small fiber neuropathy (SFN). For a diagnostic test to be clinically useful it should correspond well with clinically meaningful physical findings. We performed a retrospective analysis of the concordance between foot ENF density and clinical findings in all patients seen at our institution with possible idiopathic SFN

David Walk; Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb; Cynthia Davey; William R. Kennedy

2007-01-01

201

Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To determine the relationships among large, small, and autonomic fiber neurophysiological measures in a cross-sectional study of patients with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We assessed 130 individuals: 25 healthy subjects and 105 subjects with diabetes. Subjects were classified by the presence or absence of neuropathy by physical examination. All subjects underwent autonomic testing, nerve conduction studies, quantitative sensory testing, and nerve-axon reflex vasodilation in addition to quantifiable neurological examination and symptom scores. Correlation and cluster analysis were used to determine relationships between and among different neurophysiological testing parameters. RESULTS Results of neurophysiological tests were abnormal in patients with clinical evidence of diabetic neuropathy compared with results in healthy control subjects and in those without neuropathy (P < 0.01, all tests). The correlations among individual tests varied widely, both within (r range <0.5–>0.9, NS to <0.001) and between test groups (r range <0.2–>0.5, NS to <0.01). A two-step hierarchical cluster analysis revealed that neurophysiological tests do not aggregate by typical “small,” “large,” or “autonomic” nerve fiber subtypes. CONCLUSIONS The modest correlation coefficients seen between the different testing modalities suggest that these techniques measure different neurophysiological parameters and are therefore not interchangeable. However, the data suggest that only a small number of neurophysiological tests are actually required to clinically differentiate individuals with neuropathy from those without. The natural clustering of both patients and healthy control subjects suggests that variations in the population will need to be considered in future studies of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:20805259

Gibbons, Christopher H.; Freeman, Roy; Veves, Aristidis

2010-01-01

202

[Dysglobulinemic neuropathies].  

PubMed

Monoclonal gammopathies are frequently associated with peripheral neuropathies of which clinical, electrophysiological, pathological and possibly pathogenetical aspects are heterogeneous. Nevertheless some clinico-biological entities, which account for the majority of cases, have been recently recognized: 1) The IgM neuropathy is a chronic demyelinating sensori-motor polyneuropathy with tremor and ataxia as prominent features. It can be either associated with MGUS or Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia. The light chain of the gammopathy is kappa in a majority of cases. Numerous reports have demonstrated specific antibody activities supported by the M-protein and directed against various peripheral nerve antigens, usually myelin components such as the myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG). The ultrastructural evidence of widely spaced myelin is suggestive of the diagnosis but is not consistent. Treatment directed towards the gammopathy is occasionally associated with improvement of the symptoms. 2) The neuropathy of the osteosclerotic myelomas and solitary plasmacytomas present as a chronic sensori-motor polyradiculoneuropathy with conspicuous demyelination and may be associated with one or more of the systemic clinical features of the Crow-Fukase or POEMS syndrome (Polyneuropathy, Organomegaly, Endocrinopathy, M-protein, Skin changes). The POEMS syndrome may also be associated with "benign" monoclonal or even polyclonal dysproteinemias. The M-proteins are almost all IgG or IgA with lambda light chains. There are some relations between POEMS syndrome and Castleman's disease. The pathogenesis of both disorders remains obscure. Treatment is most favorable in case of solitary plasmacytomas, which may be completely removed. 3) The neuropathy observed in patients with primary AL amyloidosis or amylosis associated with malignant plasma-cell dyscrasias is rare. Sensory deficit and autonomic dysfunction are related to a prominent involvement of small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers. A clinical and/or electro-physiological carpal tunnel syndrome is frequent. In a majority of cases the light chain of the M-protein is lambda. Amyloid deposits are observed on nerve biopsy. Treatment is inefficient. 4) The neuropathy associated with cryoglobulinemias may be asymmetric, painful, cryosensitive and associated with cutaneous purpura and neuromuscular vasculitis. In fact, in a majority of cases the symptoms are less suggestive raising the problem of an incidental laboratory finding. 5) A motoneuron disease-like syndrome may develop in patients with various types of monoclonal gammopathies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2847276

Gherardi, R; Zuber, M; Viard, J P

1988-01-01

203

Diabetic Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Diabetic Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Is there any treatment? ... Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Diabetic Neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy is a peripheral nerve disorder caused ...

204

Japanese neuropathy patients with peripheral myelin protein-22 gene aneuploidy  

SciTech Connect

Peripheral myelin protein (PMP-22) gene aneuploidy results in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Type 1A (CMT1A) and the Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsy (HNPP) in Japanese patients as well as Caucasian Americans. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most common genetic neuropathy, results when expression of one of at least seven genes is defective. CMT1A, about half of all CMT mutations, is usually associated with a duplication spanning the peripheral myelin protein-22 gene on distal chromosome band 17p11.2. Autosomal dominant HNPP (hereditary pressure and sensory neuropathy, HPSN) results from a deletion of the CMT1A gene region. Multicolor in situ hybridization with PMP-22 gene region probe characterized HNPP deletion reliably and detected all different size duplications reported previously. In summary, 72% of 28 Japanese CMT1 (HMSNI) patients tested had the CMT1A duplication, while none of the CMT2 (HMSNII) or CMT3 (HMSNIII) patients had a duplication. Three cases of HNPP were identified by deletion of the CMT1A gene region on chromosome 17p. HNPP and CMT1A have been reported to result simultaneously from the same unequal recombination event. The lower frequency of HNPP compared to CMT1A suggests that HNPP patients have a lower reproductive fitness than CMT1A patients. This result, along with a CMT1A duplication found in an Asian Indian family, demonstrates the broad geographic distribution and high frequency of PMP-22 gene aneuploidy.

Lebo, R.V.; Li, L.Y.; Flandermeyer, R.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

205

Overlap phenotype between CMT1A and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies caused by the novel small in-frame deletion c.407_418del12 in PMP22 gene.  

PubMed

We report monozygotic twins, who presented with a clinical picture of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1) with bilateral foot drop, pes cavus, thoracic kyphosis, and scoliosis. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) showed up in one of them. Neurography showed demyelinating neuropathy, typical for CMT1, and transient conduction block in the ulnar nerve correlating with clinical ulnar palsy due to minor mechanical stress in only one of them. Genetic analysis revealed novel small de novo deletion c.407_418del12 in the PMP22 gene. Our patient shows the rarely reported combination of CMT1A and HNPP, caused by an in-frame deletion in the PMP22 gene. HNPP is in the majority of cases correlated with heterozygous deletion of the whole PMP22 gene or other mutations leading to functional haploinsufficiency. The cases give further evidence that pathogenesis of HNPP is not completely understood and can obviously result from existence of a defective protein, too. The intrafamiliar phenotypic variability, even in monozygotic twins, confirms the well-known fact that factors apart from genetics contribute to the clinical course. PMID:25265422

Vill, Katharina; Kuhn, Marius; Gläser, Dieter; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang

2015-02-01

206

Clinical, electrophysiological and morphological findings of Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy with vocal cord palsy and mutations in the GDAP1 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three Spanish families with an autosomal recessive severe hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, show- ing mutations in the ganglioside-induced-differentiation- associated protein 1 (GDAP1) gene in the Charcot- Marie-Tooth (CMT) type 4A locus were studied. The disorder started in the neonatal period or early infancy with weakness and wasting of the feet and, sub- sequently, involvement of the hands, causing

Teresa Sevilla; Ana Cuesta; Maria JoseChumillas; Fernando Mayordomo; Laia Pedrola; Francesc Palau; Juan J. Vilchez

2003-01-01

207

Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory  

E-print Network

Reduced intraepidermal nerve fiber density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy M. Polydefkis, MD nerve fiber (IENF) density in HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) to measurements of neuropathy density determination has emerged as a diagnostic test for patients with small-fiber sensory neuropathy

Steinbach, Joe Henry

208

Misonidazole neuropathy.  

PubMed

Neurotoxic side effects of misonidazole with peripheral neuropathy was investigated in two series of patients. The first series consisted of eight patients with carcinoma of the pharynx, larynx or lung who, during treatment with misonidazole, developed peripheral neuropathy dominated by severe sensory symptoms and signs localized mainly to the lower extremities. Misonidazole was given for three to seven weeks in a total dose of 9.6 - 12.6 g/m2 (11 g/m2 or more in four of the patients). The symptoms subsided partially within a few months after cessation of the therapy. Electrophysiological and histological findings indicated axonal neuropathy with loss of large fibres and secondary demyelination. The second series consisted of 70 patients with carcinoma of the pharynx or larynx who, in addition to radiotherapy, were given either placebo or misonidazole over four weeks in a total dose of 11 g/m2. Fourteen patients out of 36 receiving misonidazole (38%) developed peripheral polyneuropathy, mostly in the feet, while this occurred in only two of the 34 patient placebo group. PMID:6091392

Paulson, O B; Melgaard, B; Hansen, H S; Kamieniecka, Z; Køhler, O; Hansen, J M; Pedersen, A G; Tang, X; Trojaborg, W

1984-01-01

209

Treatments for diabetic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The management of symptomatic diabetic sensory neuropathy presents a therapeutic challenge to the practicing physician. Two\\u000a approaches are outlined in this article. First, symptomatic therapies, which will not influence the natural history of painful\\u000a neuropathy, are discussed. These include, in addition to the stable glycemic control, tricyclic drugs, a number of anticonvulsant\\u000a and antiarrhythmic agents, and opioid-like medications. Topical therapies

Andrew J. M. Boulton

2001-01-01

210

Hereditary and Acquired Polyneuropathy Conditions of the Peripheral Nerves: Clinical Considerations and MR Neurography Imaging.  

PubMed

Polyneuropathies can be classified as either primarily demyelinating or axonal, and further as hereditary or acquired. It is important to recognize acquired neuropathies because some are amenable to treatment. Clinical findings and electrophysiology are used in the routine diagnosis of these conditions. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a helpful supplementary diagnostic tool. This article discusses the typical clinical findings, electrophysiology findings, and MRN appearances of common hereditary or acquired neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and postsurgical neuropathy. PMID:25764237

Trivedi, Jaya R; Phillips, Lauren; Chhabra, Avneesh

2015-04-01

211

A 1.5 Mb submicroscopic deletion in 17p11.2-p12 is frequently observed in Italian families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies  

SciTech Connect

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mononeuropathies that was recently associated with a 1.5 Mb deletion in chromosome 17p11.2-p12. Duplication of the same region is known to be associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A), a more severe peripheral neuropathy characterized by symmetrically slowed nerve conduction velocity. The CMT1A duplication and HNPP deletion are reciprocal recombination products involving a repeat element (CMT1A-REP) which flanks the 1.5 Mb region involved in the duplication/deletion. Patients from 9 unrelated HNPP Italian families were clinically, electrophysiologically and histologically evaluated. Families were typed with a polymorphic (CA){sub n} repeat and with RFLPs corresponding to loci D17S122, D17S125 and D17S61, which all map within the deleted region. Lack of allelic transmission from affected parent to affected offspring was observed in four informative families, suggesting the presence of deletion. Southern blot analysis of EcoRI digested genomic DNA from HNPP patients and control subjects was performed using a probe mapping within the CMT1A-REP elements. A reduced hybridization signal of a 6.0 kb EcoRI fragment, mapping within the distal CMT1A-REP, was observed in all HNPP patients suggesting the loss of one copy of this fragment in the HNPP-deleted chromosome. PFGE analysis of SacII digested genomic DNA from selected HNPP subjects showed the presence of a junction fragment which has previously been found in association with the 1.5 Mb HNPP deletion. Evidence for deletion could be demonstrated in all 9 families suggesting that the 17p11.2-p12 deletion is commonly associated with HNPP.

Lorenzetti, D.; Roa, B.B.; Abbas, N.E. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

212

Metabolic neuropathies  

MedlinePLUS

Neuropathy - metabolic ... can be caused by many different things. Metabolic neuropathy may be caused by: A problem with the ... one of the most common causes of metabolic neuropathies. People who are at the highest risk of ...

213

Neuropathy Association  

MedlinePLUS

... Neuropathy More Attention November 12: "Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy" Facebook Chat November 6: "TTR-FAP--The Link Between ... Neuropathy Association Celebrates "20,000 Likes" Milestone on Facebook! NEW! The Latest Addition To Our Educational Toolkit -- ...

214

Lateral plantar neuropathy.  

PubMed

We report 8 cases of lateral plantar neuropathy (LPN). All had sensory impairment over the territory of the lateral plantar nerve. Near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction study (NCS) of the plantar nerves showed abnormality confined to the lateral plantar nerve, confirming LPN. The most common cause for LPN was trauma and the most common site of injury was at the passage of the lateral plantar nerve through the abductor tunnel at the instep of the foot. PMID:10454719

Oh, S J; Kwon, K H; Hah, J S; Kim, D E; Demirci, M

1999-09-01

215

The coexistence of mitochondrial ND6 T14484C and 12S rRNA A1555G mutations in a Chinese family with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and hearing loss  

SciTech Connect

We report here the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of one three-generation Han Chinese family with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and hearing loss. Four of 14 matrilineal relatives exhibited the moderate central vision loss at the average age of 12.5 years. Of these, one subject exhibited both LHON and mild hearing impairment. Sequence analysis of the complete mitochondrial genomes in the pedigree showed the presence of homoplasmic LHON-associated ND6 T14484C mutation, deafness-associated 12S rRNA A1555 mutation and 47 other variants belonging to Eastern Asian haplogroup H2. None of other mitochondrial variants was evolutionarily conserved and functional significance. Therefore, the coexistence of the A1555G mutation and T14484C mutations in this Chinese family indicate that the A1555G mutation may play a synergistic role in the phenotypic manifestation of LHON associated ND6 T14484C mutation. However, the incomplete penetrance of vision and hearing loss suggests the involvement of nuclear modifier genes and environmental factors in the phenotypic expression of these mtDNA mutations.

Wei Qiping [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Zhou Xiangtian [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Yang Li [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Sun Yanhong [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Zhou Jian [Department of Ophthalmology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, Beijing 100078 (China); Li Guang [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Jiang, Robert [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States); Lu Fan [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China); Qu Jia [School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China)]. E-mail: jqu@wzmc.net; Guan Minxin [Division of Human Genetics, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States) and Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Genetics, School of Life Sciences, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang 325003 (China) and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45229 (United States)]. E-mail: min-xin.guan@cchmc.org

2007-06-15

216

Clinical course of a cohort in the Cuban epidemic optic and peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Nearly 51,000 Cubans were afflicted during an outbreak of an optic neuropathy (ON) and peripheral neuropathy (PN) between 1991 and 1993. We re-examined 14 of 20 affected individuals 16 months after an initial evaluation. The optic features were painless symmetric vision loss with poor visual acuity, color vision loss, central or cecocentral scotoma, optic disc pallor, and nerve fiber layer drop-out. The neurologic symptoms included stocking-glove sensory changes, hearing loss, leg cramps, sensory ataxia, hyperactive or absent reflexes, and complaints of memory loss. Two of 11 ON probands tested harbored Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON)-associated mitochondrial DNA mutations. All patients had received multivitamin therapy. We performed comparisons using the paired two-tailed t test. On re-examination, 12 of 14 patients demonstrated improvement. One patient remained unchanged. One woman with the nt-3460 mtDNA mutation showed a decline in vision. In patients not harboring mtDNA mutations, overall visual acuity, color vision, and peripheral neuropathy manifestations improved significantly (p < 0.001 for each manifestation). Most of the patients with Cuban ON and PN improved on multivitamin therapy. The significance of the mtDNA mutations is unclear. In the 2 LHON patients, manifestation of the disease may have been precipitated by nutritional deficiency. Patients with poor recovery or further deterioration should be evaluated for other factors, including poor vitamin therapy compliance and alternative diagnoses. PMID:9008487

Mojon, D S; Kaufmann, P; Odel, J G; Lincoff, N S; Márquez-Fernandez, M; Santiesteban, R; Fuentes-Pelier, D; Hirano, M

1997-01-01

217

Yield of the sural/radial ratio versus the medial plantar nerve in sensory neuropathies with a normal sural response.  

PubMed

The electrodiagnostic yield of the medial plantar nerve action potential (NAP) amplitude versus the sural/radial amplitude ratio (SRAR) was determined in 110 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed distal sensory polyneuropathy (SN) and normal sural responses. Forty-five consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed lumbosacral radiculopathy served as disease controls. Of the 110 SN patients, 32 were classified clinically as SN with large-fiber involvement (SN-LFI), whereas 78 had clinically pure small-fiber SN. Plantar NAP amplitudes were abnormal in 18 of 32 patients (56%) with SN-LFI, and 15 of 78 (19%) with small-fiber SN. A SRAR <0.21 (fifth percentile of normal) was found in 7 of 32 patients (22%) with SN-LFI and 8 of 78 (10%) with small-fiber SN. In the control group, the medial plantar NAP was normal in all 45 subjects (100%), whereas the SRAR was >0.21 in 43 subjects (96%). Thus, for a 50% pretest probability of SN-LFI, the positive predictive value of an abnormal medial plantar was 100% versus 85% for a SRAR <0.21. The medial plantar NAP amplitude is a more useful measure of SN, than is the SRAR, in patients under age 70, with suspected SN-LFI. The yield of the SRAR and plantar NAP amplitude is poor when clinical signs of large-fiber sensory dysfunction are lacking. PMID:18340276

Sullivan, John P; Logigian, Eric L; Kocharian, Naira; Herrmann, David N

2008-04-01

218

TRPV4-pathy manifesting both skeletal dysplasia and peripheral neuropathy: a report of three patients.  

PubMed

Heterozygous missense mutations of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channel (TRPV4) cause a spectrum of skeletal disorders, including brachyolmia, spondylometaphyseal dysplasia Kozlowski type, metatropic dysplasia, parastremmatic dysplasia, and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Maroteaux type. Similarly, heterozygous missense mutations of TRPV4 cause a spectrum of peripheral neuropathy, including hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type IIC, congenital spinal muscular atrophy, and scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. There are no apparent differences in the amino acid positions affected or type of change predicted by the TRPV4 mutations responsible for the two disease spectrums; nevertheless, no fundamental phenotypic overlap has been shown between the two spectrums. Here, we report on three patients who had both skeletal dysplasia and peripheral neuropathy caused by heterozygous TRPV4 missense mutations. The skeletal and neurologic phenotypes of these patients covered the wide spectrum of reported TRPV4-pathies (disease caused by TRPV4 mutations). The molecular data are complementary, proving that "neuropathic" mutations can cause skeletal dysplasia but also the "skeletopathic" mutations can lead to neuropathies. Our findings suggest that pathogenic mechanisms of TRPV4-pathies in skeletal and nervous systems are not always mutually exclusive and provide further evidence that there is no clear genotype-phenotype correlation for either spectrum. Co-occurrence of skeletal dysplasia and degenerative neuropathy should be kept in mind in clinical practice including diagnostic testing, surgical evaluation, and genetic counseling. PMID:22419508

Cho, Tae-Joon; Matsumoto, Kazu; Fano, Virginia; Dai, Jin; Kim, Ok-Hwa; Chae, Jong Hee; Yoo, Won Joon; Tanaka, Yuji; Matsui, Yoshito; Takigami, Iori; Monges, Soledad; Zabel, Bernhard; Shimizu, Katsuji; Nishimura, Gen; Lausch, Ekkehart; Ikegawa, Shiro

2012-04-01

219

Mitochondrial protein alterations in a familial peripheral neuropathy caused by the V144D amino acid mutation in the sphingolipid protein, SPTLC1.  

PubMed

Axonal degeneration is the final common path in many neurological disorders. Subsets of neuropathies involving the sensory neuron are known as hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSNs). Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN-I) is the most common subtype of HSN with autosomal dominant inheritance. It is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) with clinical symptom onset between the second or third decade of life. Heterozygous mutations in the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) long chain subunit 1 (SPTLC1) gene were identified as the pathogenic cause of HSN-I. Ultrastructural analysis of mitochondria from HSN-I patient cells has displayed unique morphological abnormalities that are clustered to the perinucleus where they are wrapped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This investigation defines a small subset of proteins with major alterations in abundance in mitochondria harvested from HSN-I mutant SPTLC1 cells. Using mitochondrial protein isolates from control and patient lymphoblasts, and a combination of 2D gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, we have shown the increased abundance of ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1, an electron transport chain protein, as well as the immunoglobulin, Ig kappa chain C. The regulation of these proteins may provide a new route to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying HSN-I. PMID:25584079

Stimpson, Scott E; Coorssen, Jens R; Myers, Simon J

2015-01-01

220

Comparison of different modalities for detection of small fiber neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: In general, large fiber sensory function is easier to assess than small fiber function both clinically and electrophysiologically. Therefore, small fiber sensory neuropathies are more difficult to diagnose. The relative sensitivities of different electrodiagnostic tests for small fiber neuropathy are not known. We sought to determine and compare the sensitivities of quantitative thermal sensory testing (QST), quantitative sudomotor axon

Karen Tobin; Michael J Giuliani; David Lacomis

1999-01-01

221

Lowering plasma 1-deoxysphingolipids improves neuropathy in diabetic rats.  

PubMed

1-Deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs) are atypical neurotoxic sphingolipids that are formed by the serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT). Pathologically elevated 1-deoxySL concentrations cause hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 1 (HSAN1), an axonal neuropathy associated with several missense mutations in SPT. Oral L-serine supplementation suppressed the formation of 1-deoxySLs in patients with HSAN1 and preserved nerve function in an HSAN1 mouse model. Because 1-deoxySLs also are elevated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, L-serine supplementation could also be a therapeutic option for diabetic neuropathy (DN). This was tested in diabetic STZ rats in a preventive and therapeutic treatment scheme. Diabetic rats showed significantly increased plasma 1-deoxySL concentrations, and L-serine supplementation lowered 1-deoxySL concentrations in both treatment schemes (P < 0.0001). L-serine had no significant effect on hyperglycemia, body weight, or food intake. Mechanical sensitivity was significantly improved in the preventive (P < 0.01) and therapeutic schemes (P < 0.001). Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) significantly improved in only the preventive group (P < 0.05). Overall NCV showed a highly significant (P = 5.2E-12) inverse correlation with plasma 1-deoxySL concentrations. In summary, our data support the hypothesis that 1-deoxySLs are involved in the pathology of DN and that an oral L-serine supplementation could be a novel therapeutic option for treating DN. PMID:25277395

Othman, Alaa; Bianchi, Roberto; Alecu, Irina; Wei, Yu; Porretta-Serapiglia, Carla; Lombardi, Raffaella; Chiorazzi, Alessia; Meregalli, Cristina; Oggioni, Norberto; Cavaletti, Guido; Lauria, Giuseppe; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Hornemann, Thorsten

2015-03-01

222

Profiling the Mitochondrial Proteome of Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) in Thailand: Down-Regulation of Bioenergetics and Mitochondrial Protein Quality Control Pathways in Fibroblasts with the 11778G>A Mutation  

PubMed Central

Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is one of the commonest mitochondrial diseases. It causes total blindness, and predominantly affects young males. For the disease to develop, it is necessary for an individual to carry one of the primary mtDNA mutations 11778G>A, 14484T>C or 3460G>A. However these mutations are not sufficient to cause disease, and they do not explain the characteristic features of LHON such as the higher prevalence in males, incomplete penetrance, and relatively later age of onset. In order to explore the roles of nuclear encoded mitochondrial proteins in development of LHON, we applied a proteomic approach to samples from affected and unaffected individuals from 3 pedigrees and from 5 unrelated controls. Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by MS/MS analysis in the mitochondrial lysate identified 17 proteins which were differentially expressed between LHON cases and unrelated controls, and 24 proteins which were differentially expressed between unaffected relatives and unrelated controls. The proteomic data were successfully validated by western blot analysis of 3 selected proteins. All of the proteins identified in the study were mitochondrial proteins and most of them were down regulated in 11778G>A mutant fibroblasts. These proteins included: subunits of OXPHOS enzyme complexes, proteins involved in intermediary metabolic processes, nucleoid related proteins, chaperones, cristae remodelling proteins and an anti-oxidant enzyme. The protein profiles of both the affected and unaffected 11778G>A carriers shared many features which differed from those of unrelated control group, revealing similar proteomic responses to 11778G>A mutation in both affected and unaffected individuals. Differentially expressed proteins revealed two broad groups: a cluster of bioenergetic pathway proteins and a cluster involved in protein quality control system. Defects in these systems are likely to impede the function of retinal ganglion cells, and may lead to the development of LHON in synergy with the primary mtDNA mutation. PMID:25215595

Tun, Aung Win; Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Kaewsutthi, Supannee; Katanyoo, Wanphen; Chuenkongkaew, Wanicha; Kuwano, Masayoshi; Tomonaga, Takeshi; Peerapittayamongkol, Chayanon; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Lertrit, Patcharee

2014-01-01

223

Use of transmitochondrial cybrids to assign a complex I defect to the mitochondrial DNA-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 gene mutation at nucleotide pair 14459 that causes Leber hereditary optic neuropathy and dystonia.  

PubMed Central

A heteroplasmic G-to-A transition at nucleotide pair (np) 14459 within the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) gene has been identified as the cause of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and/or pediatric-onset dystonia in three unrelated families. This ND6 np 14459 mutation changes a moderately conserved alanine to a valine at amino acid position 72 of the ND6 protein. Enzymologic analysis of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase (complex I) with submitochondrial particles isolated from Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblasts revealed a 60% reduction (P < 0.005) of complex I-specific activity in patient cell lines compared with controls, with no differences in enzymatic activity for complexes II plus III, III and IV. This biochemical defect was assigned to the ND6 np 14459 mutation by using transmitochondrial cybrids in which patient Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblast cell lines were enucleated and the cytoplasts were fused to a mtDNA-deficient (p 0) lymphoblastoid recipient cell line. Cybrids harboring the np 14459 mutation exhibited a 39% reduction (p < 0.02) in complex I-specific activity relative to wild-type cybrid lines but normal activity for the other complexes. Kinetic analysis of the np 14459 mutant complex I revealed that the Vmax of the enzyme was reduced while the Km remained the same as that of wild type. Furthermore, specific activity was inhibited by increasing concentrations of the reduced coenzyme Q analog decylubiquinol. These observations suggest that the np 14459 mutation may alter the coenzyme Q-binding site of complex I. PMID:8622678

Jun, A S; Trounce, I A; Brown, M D; Shoffner, J M; Wallace, D C

1996-01-01

224

Hereditary Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  The term “hereditary pancreatitis,” as it is currently used and understood, should probably be amended to “autosomal dominant\\u000a hereditary pancreatitis.” The recent discovery of the association between minor variants of the CFTR gene and chronic pancreatitis\\u000a without significant pulmonary pathology has introduced the concept of autosomal recessive hereditary pancreatitis. The autosomal\\u000a dominant form is relatively rare. It is characterized

Lawrence K. Gates

1999-01-01

225

Properties of human skin mechanoreceptors in peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the properties of mechanoreceptors in patients with peripheral neuropathy. The skin mechanoreceptor is a terminal organ of the primary sensory neuron, which is likely to be affected earlier and more severely than is the nerve trunk by peripheral neuropathies.Methods: Single sensory unit responses to air-puff and electric stimulation were recorded using the microneurographic technique in the glabrous

K Mizobuchi; S Kuwabara; S Toma; Y Nakajima; K Ogawara; T Hattori

2002-01-01

226

Paraproteinemic neuropathies.  

PubMed

The paraproteinemias are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which monoclonal plasma cells cause the proliferation of monoclonal proteins. They are of importance to clinicians because they often occur in association with neuropathies. Neurologists play a particularly important role when the neuropathy is the presenting feature, in which case they may uncover clinical, laboratory, radiologic, electrodiagnostic, or biopsy findings that lead to identification of the underlying paraproteinemia. The frequency of neuropathies in these patients, and the extent to which such neuropathies dominate the clinical picture, varies significantly between the different paraproteinemias. Treatments may be aimed specifically at the neuropathy, or against the underlying hematologic disorder. In all patients with paraproteinemias, the neurologist can work collaboratively with the hematologist to formulate therapeutic plans and goals and can provide follow-up and monitoring to determine the response of the neuropathy to treatment. PMID:25288371

Raheja, Divisha; Specht, Charles; Simmons, Zachary

2015-01-01

227

Improved inherited peripheral neuropathy genetic diagnosis by whole-exome sequencing.  

PubMed

Inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs) are a group of related diseases primarily affecting the peripheral motor and sensory neurons. They include the hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN), hereditary motor neuropathies (HMN), and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Using whole-exome sequencing (WES) to achieve a genetic diagnosis is particularly suited to IPNs, where over 80 genes are involved with weak genotype-phenotype correlations beyond the most common genes. We performed WES for 110 index patients with IPN where the genetic cause was undetermined after previous screening for mutations in common genes selected by phenotype and mode of inheritance. We identified 41 missense sequence variants in the known IPN genes in our cohort of 110 index patients. Nine variants (8%), identified in the genes MFN2, GJB1, BSCL2, and SETX, are previously reported mutations and considered to be pathogenic in these families. Twelve novel variants (11%) in the genes NEFL, TRPV4, KIF1B, BICD2, and SETX are implicated in the disease but require further evidence of pathogenicity. The remaining 20 variants were confirmed as polymorphisms (not causing the disease) and are detailed here to help interpret sequence variants identified in other family studies. Validation using segregation, normal controls, and bioinformatics tools was valuable as supporting evidence for sequence variants implicated in disease. In addition, we identified one SETX sequence variant (c.7640T>C), previously reported as a putative mutation, which we have confirmed as a nonpathogenic rare polymorphism. This study highlights the advantage of using WES for genetic diagnosis in highly heterogeneous diseases such as IPNs and has been particularly powerful in this cohort where genetic diagnosis could not be achieved due to phenotype and mode of inheritance not being previously obvious. However, first tier testing for common genes in clinically well-defined cases remains important and will account for most positive results. PMID:25802885

Drew, Alexander P; Zhu, Danqing; Kidambi, Aditi; Ly, Carolyn; Tey, Shelisa; Brewer, Megan H; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Nicholson, Garth A; Kennerson, Marina L

2015-03-01

228

Improved inherited peripheral neuropathy genetic diagnosis by whole-exome sequencing  

PubMed Central

Inherited peripheral neuropathies (IPNs) are a group of related diseases primarily affecting the peripheral motor and sensory neurons. They include the hereditary sensory neuropathies (HSN), hereditary motor neuropathies (HMN), and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). Using whole-exome sequencing (WES) to achieve a genetic diagnosis is particularly suited to IPNs, where over 80 genes are involved with weak genotype–phenotype correlations beyond the most common genes. We performed WES for 110 index patients with IPN where the genetic cause was undetermined after previous screening for mutations in common genes selected by phenotype and mode of inheritance. We identified 41 missense sequence variants in the known IPN genes in our cohort of 110 index patients. Nine variants (8%), identified in the genes MFN2, GJB1, BSCL2, and SETX, are previously reported mutations and considered to be pathogenic in these families. Twelve novel variants (11%) in the genes NEFL, TRPV4, KIF1B, BICD2, and SETX are implicated in the disease but require further evidence of pathogenicity. The remaining 20 variants were confirmed as polymorphisms (not causing the disease) and are detailed here to help interpret sequence variants identified in other family studies. Validation using segregation, normal controls, and bioinformatics tools was valuable as supporting evidence for sequence variants implicated in disease. In addition, we identified one SETX sequence variant (c.7640T>C), previously reported as a putative mutation, which we have confirmed as a nonpathogenic rare polymorphism. This study highlights the advantage of using WES for genetic diagnosis in highly heterogeneous diseases such as IPNs and has been particularly powerful in this cohort where genetic diagnosis could not be achieved due to phenotype and mode of inheritance not being previously obvious. However, first tier testing for common genes in clinically well-defined cases remains important and will account for most positive results.

Drew, Alexander P; Zhu, Danqing; Kidambi, Aditi; Ly, Carolyn; Tey, Shelisa; Brewer, Megan H; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Nicholson, Garth A; Kennerson, Marina L

2015-01-01

229

Hereditary Hemochromatosis  

MedlinePLUS

... high iron levels may have skin with a bronze or gray color. Their lab tests may be ... recommended for children younger than 18 years of age. Treatment How is hereditary hemochromatosis treated? The goal ...

230

Auditory Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... the brain, where the impulses are interpreted as sound. Top Are there risk factors for auditory neuropathy? Several factors have been linked to auditory neuropathy in children. However, a clear cause and effect relationship has not been proven. Some children who ...

231

[Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy].  

PubMed

The typical clinical manifestation of vasculitic peripheral neuropathy is sensory-dominant multiple mononeuropathy, although it can progress to distal-dominant sensorimotor polyneuropathy. It is painful in most cases. Peripheral nerves may be the most prone to produce symptoms of the vasculitis. Nerve conduction studies show reduced amplitude of M wave or sensory nerve action potential, which depends on the degree of injury of a nerve examined. Wallerian degeneration can cause pseudo-conduction block in the acute stage and temporal dispersion in the chronic stage. However, a definite diagnosis requires histological confirmation. Combined biopsy of the sural nerve and the peroneus brevis muscle can be performed by a single incision. Skin biopsy can also be performed. To increase the diagnostic yield, biopsy specimens are prepared in different manners to observe as many cross sections as possible: frozen unfixed, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded, and glutaraldehyde-fixed epon embedded specimens, as well as teased fiber preparation of a nerve. Vasculitic peripheral neuropathy usually results from small-vessel vasculitis. There are still controversies regarding the classification of vasculitides. Differential diagnosis of vasculitis includes infection and lymphoma. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of neuropathy result in the impairment of ADL and QOL. Recovery from axonal degeneration usually takes time and is not always possible. Treatment includes corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide, and intravenous immunoglobulin administration; however, the intensity of treatment depends on the disease activity of vasculitis. PMID:24200608

Oya, Yasushi

2013-11-01

232

[Sarcoid neuropathy].  

PubMed

Sarcoid neuropathy, a rare condition which is seen in 1% of patients with sarcoidosis, often emerges as one of the differential diagnoses of neuropathies with an unknown origin. Recent studies have revealed that sarcoid neuropathy shows a broader spectrum of clinical characteristics than previously expected, including a Guillain-Barré- or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy-like presentation, small fiber neuropathy, and typical subacute multiple mononeuropathy. This makes the diagnosis difficult in certain cases. Due to the lack of diagnostic markers for this condition, neurological, laboratory, neurophysiological, and image analyses are all necessary to evaluate the probability of sarcoid neuropathy during differential diagnosis. This review mentions several cues for guiding the diagnosis, and diagnostic criteria. PMID:25082319

Koga, Michiaki

2014-08-01

233

Peripheral neuropathy in HIV: an analysis of evidence-based approaches.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is a common and vexing symptom for people living with HIV infection (PLWH). Neuropathy occurs in several different syndromes and is identified in the literature as distal sensory polyneuropathy or distal sensory peripheral neuropathy. More recently, the HIV literature has focused on the syndrome as painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy, addressing the symptom rather than the underlying pathophysiology. Assessment of neuropathy in PLWH is critical and must be incorporated into nursing practice for each visit. Neuropathy has been attributed to the direct effects of HIV, exposure to antiretroviral medications (particularly the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), advanced immune suppression, and comorbid tuberculosis infection and exposure to antituberculosis medications. Evidence supports the importance of addressing neuropathy in PLWH with pharmacologic treatment regimens and complementary/alternative approaches. This paper examines the pathophysiology, evidence, and approaches to managing peripheral neuropathy. A case study has been included to illustrate a patient's experience with neuropathy symptoms. PMID:24698331

Nicholas, Patrice K; Corless, Inge B; Evans, Linda A

2014-01-01

234

Hereditary hemochromatosis.  

PubMed

Hereditary hemochromatosis is an autosomal recessive disorder that disrupts the body's regulation of iron. It is the most common genetic disease in whites. Men have a 24-fold increased rate of iron-overload disease compared with women. Persons who are homozygous for the HFE gene mutation C282Y comprise 85 to 90 percent of phenotypically affected persons. End-organ damage or clinical manifestations of hereditary hemochromatosis occur in approximately 10 percent of persons homozygous for C282Y. Symptoms of hereditary hemochromatosis are nonspecific and typically absent in the early stages. If present, symptoms may include weakness, lethargy, arthralgias, and impotence. Later manifestations include arthralgias, osteoporosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular cancer, cardiomyopathy, dysrhythmia, diabetes mellitus, and hypogonadism. Diagnosis requires confirmation of increased serum ferritin levels and transferrin saturation, with or without symptoms. Subtyping is based on genotypic expression. Serum ferritin measurement is the most useful prognostic indicator of disease severity. Liver biopsy is performed to stage the degree of fibrosis with severe ferritin elevation or transaminitis, or to diagnose nonclassical hereditary hemochromatosis in patients with other genetic defects. Treatment of hereditary hemochromatosis requires phlebotomy, and the frequency is guided by serial measurements of serum ferritin levels and transferrin saturation. Iron avidity can result from overtreatment. If iron avidity is not suspected, it may mimic undertreatment with persistently elevated transferrin saturation. Dietary modification is generally unnecessary. Universal screening for hereditary hemochromatosis is not recommended, but testing should be performed in first-degree relatives of patients with classical HFE-related hemochromatosis, those with evidence of active liver disease, and patients with abnormal iron study results. Screening for hepatocellular carcinoma is reserved for those with hereditary hemochromatosis and cirrhosis. PMID:23418762

Crownover, Brian K; Covey, Carlton J

2013-02-01

235

Asymptomatic small fiber neuropathy in diabetes mellitus: investigations with intraepidermal nerve fiber density, quantitative sensory testing and laser-evoked potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at evaluating the performance of a battery of morphological and functional tests for the assessment of small\\u000a nerve fiber loss in asymptomatic diabetic neuropathy (DNP). Patients diagnosed for ?10 years with type 1 (n = 10) or type 2 (n = 13) diabetes mellitus (DM) without conventional symptoms or signs of DNP were recruited and compared with healthy controls\\u000a (n = 18) and patients

Michael Ragé; Nathalie Van Acker; Michiel W. M. Knaapen; Maarten Timmers; Johannes Streffer; Michel P. Hermans; Christian Sindic; Theo Meert; Léon Plaghki

236

Pathology and functional diagnosis of small-fiber painful neuropathy.  

PubMed

Small-fiber sensory neuropathy with neuropathic pain had been a diagnostic challenge for neurologists. We and several groups have developed skin biopsy with quantitation of intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF) density as a diagnostic approach. In the skin with small-fiber sensory neuropathy, there are pathological hallmarks: reduced IENF density with degeneration of subepidermal nerve plexuses and dermal nerves. Skin denervation is a major presentation of diabetic neuropathy and inflammatory neuropathies including Guillain-Barr syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. The skin biopsy approach also provides an opportunity to examine dermal vasculature and inflammatory vasculopathy is demonstrated in vasculitic neuropathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, and eosinophilia-associated neuropathy. In addition to neuropahtologic evidence, the functional consequences of cutaneous nerve degeneration can be assessed with quantitative sensory testing (QST), contact heat evoked potential (CHEP), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). One major etiology of small-fiber sensory neuropathy is familial amyloid polyneuropathy caused by mutations of transthyretin (TTR). We recently conducted studies on a large cohort of unique TTR mutation on Ala97Ser in Taiwan. These patients had significant skin denervation in addition to motor and autonomic neuropathy. Taken together, the skin biopsy with quantitation of IENF density provides diagnostic utility for small-fiber sensory neuropathy and the combination of psychophysical, physiological, and neuroimaging examinations offer comprehensive assessments for patients with neuropathic pain due o cutaneous nerve degeneration. PMID:20714957

Hsieh, Sung-Tsang

2010-06-01

237

Hereditary Pheochromocytoma.  

PubMed

Introduction. Pheochromocytomas (PHEO) and paragangliomas (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors with an estimated occurrence of 2 to 5 patients per million per year and an incidence of about 1 per 100 000 in the general population. These tumors may arise sporadically or be associated to various syndromes, namely multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, neurofibromatosis type 1, Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndromes. Objectives. This article aims to review the current epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and genetic aspects of syndromes associated with hereditary PHEO/PGL. Methods. The literature research, conducted at PubMed database, included review articles, published from February 2009 to February 2014, written in English or Portuguese, using as query: "Hereditary AND Pheochromocytoma." Conclusion. These tumors can be part of a myriad hereditary conditions that are not yet fully understood. Nevertheless, important systemic symptoms and even fatal outcomes can occur. Knowledge of these hereditary conditions can ensure a more efficient detection, treatment, and even prevention of these neuroectodermal tumors, thus new tests and studies should be conducted. PMID:24903423

Santos, Pedro; Pimenta, Tiago; Taveira-Gomes, Antonio

2014-06-01

238

Autonomic neuropathies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A limited autonomic neuropathy may underlie some unusual clinical syndromes, including the postural tachycardia syndrome, pseudo-obstruction syndrome, heat intolerance, and perhaps chronic fatigue syndrome. Antibodies to autonomic structures are common in diabetes, but their specificity is unknown. The presence of autonomic failure worsens prognosis in the diabetic state. Some autonomic neuropathies are treatable. Familial amyloid polyneuropathy may respond to liver transplantation. There are anecdotal reports of acute panautonomic neuropathy responding to intravenous gamma globulin. Orthostatic hypotension may respond to erythropoietin or midodrine.

Low, P. A.

1998-01-01

239

Peripheral Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... to identify substances that will block the brain chemicals that generate pain signals, while others are investigating the pathways by which pain signals reach the brain. NIH Patient Recruitment for Peripheral Neuropathy ...

240

Diabetic Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... need to be treated at a hospital. In severe cases, you may need to have your foot amputated (removed). Because diabetes makes ... What can I do to avoid diabetic neuropathy? The most important thing is to keep ...

241

Acute motor neuropathy with pure distal involvement--a case report of multifocal motor neuropathy.  

PubMed

Multifocal motor neuropathy is an acquired pure motor neuropathy seen principally in adults and usually responds to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. We report a 12 year old boy with marked distal weakness in both upper and lower limbs with no proximal involvement. These clinical features appear to be distinct from more common inflammatory childhood neuropathies and are in keeping with a diagnosis of Multifocal Motor Neuropathy. Confirming the diagnosis, serial nerve conduction studies showed a pattern of pure motor conduction block with normal sensory potentials. To our knowledge this is only the second case report of this condition occurring in childhood. PMID:23416060

Ramdas, Sithara; Prasad, Manish; Spillane, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Martin

2013-07-01

242

Estimation of the size of the chromosome 17p11.2 duplication in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1a (CMT1a). HMSN Collaborative Research Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously shown a duplication in 17p11.2 with probe pVAW409R3 (D17S122) in 12 families with hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type I (HMSN I) or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1). In this study we aimed to estimate the size of the duplication using additional polymorphic DNA markers located in 17p11.2-p12. Two other 17p11.2 markers, pVAW412R3 (D17S125) and pEW401 (D17S61),

P Raeymaekers; V Timmerman; E Nelis; W Van Hul; P De Jonghe; J J Martin; C Van Broeckhoven

1992-01-01

243

Hereditary Hyperlipoproteinemias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence and research indicate that the majority of cases of coronary artery disease represent familial disorders which are best explained by a polygenic hereditary predisposition interacting with emotional triggers such as diet and stress. Early identification is judged necessary. (Authors/JA)

Nora, James J.; And Others

1973-01-01

244

[Hereditary hemochromatosis].  

PubMed

Hereditary hemochromatosis is an inherited disorder of iron metabolism in the Caucasian population with an autosomal recessive inheritance and a prevalence between 1 in 200 and 1 in 500. Until the discovery of HFE gene the diagnosis of hemochromatosis required documentation of iron overload or family linkage using HLA testing. The discovery of HFE gene has established the foundation for a better understanding of iron homeostasis and has changed hemochromatosis management: liver biopsy, gold standard diagnostic, was replaced by genetic test and it was suggested that population screening using genetic testing might be ideal for HFE related hemochromatosis. Considered for long time a unitary disease, a monogenic disorder characterized by excess tissue deposits of iron and subsequently organ damage, hemochromatosis is in fact a polygenic disease with many faces. The Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database has lists four types of hereditary hemochromatosis, each of them caused by a different gene mutation (hepcidine, hemojuvelin, transferring receptor 2, ferroportin). The basic features shared by iron overload disorders associated with mutation in HFE, hepcidine, hemojuvelin, transferring receptor 2, ferroportin gene indicate that they are genetic variation of the same syndrome. Hereditary hemochromatosis must be distinguished from the other syndrome of iron overload and the classic term hereditary hemochromatosis should be reserved only for HFE related hemochromatosis. PMID:18293685

Cojocariu, Camelia; Trifan, Anca; Stanciu, C

2007-01-01

245

Cryptogenic sensory polyneuropathy.  

PubMed

Chronic sensory or sensorimotor polyneuropathy is a common cause for referral to neurologists. Despite extensive diagnostic testing, up to one-third of these patients remain without a known cause, and are referred to as having cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms progress slowly. On examination, there may be additional mild toe flexion and extension weakness. Electrophysiologic testing and histology reveals axonal neuropathy. Prognosis is usually favorable, as most patients maintain independent ambulation. Besides patient education and reassurance, management is focused on pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain and physical therapy for balance training, and, occasionally, assistive devices. PMID:23642719

Pasnoor, Mamatha; Dimachkie, Mazen M; Barohn, Richard J

2013-05-01

246

Threshold for detection of diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy using a range of research grade monofilaments in persons with Type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To identify the threshold of reduced sensory perception in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM) using a range of research grade monofilaments. METHODS: Three groups of participants were recruited into a between subject, cross-sectional study. Group 1(NEW), persons with Type 2 DM diagnosed for less than 2 years (n = 80); Group 2 (EST) persons with Type 2

Mary P Thomson; Julia Potter; Paul M Finch; Richard B Paisey

2008-01-01

247

The spectrum of diabetic neuropathies.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is associated with many different neuropathic syndromes, ranging from a mild sensory disturbance as can be seen in a diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, to the debilitating pain and weakness of a diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. The etiology of these syndromes has been studied extensively, and may vary among metabolic, compressive, and immunological bases for the different disorders, as well as mechanisms yet to be discovered. Many of these disorders of nerve appear to be separate conditions with different underlying mechanisms, and some are caused directly by diabetes mellitus, whereas others are associated with it but not caused by hyperglycemia. This article discusses a number of the more common disorders of nerve found with diabetes mellitus. It discusses the symmetrical neuropathies, particularly generalized diabetic polyneuropathy, and then the focal or asymmetrical types of diabetes-associated neuropathy. PMID:18194747

Tracy, Jennifer A; Dyck, P James B

2008-02-01

248

The Spectrum of Diabetic Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is associated with many different neuropathic syndromes, ranging from a mild sensory disturbance as can be seen in a diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy, to the debilitating pain and weakness of a diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. The etiology of these syndromes has been extensively studied, and may vary among metabolic, compressive, and immunological bases for the different disorders, as well as mechanisms yet to be discovered. Many of these disorders of nerve appear to be separate conditions with different underlying mechanisms, and some are directly caused by diabetes mellitus, whereas others are associated with it but not caused by hyperglycemia. We discuss a number of the more common disorders of nerve found with diabetes mellitus. We discuss the symmetrical neuropathies, particularly generalized diabetic polyneuropathy, and then the focal or asymmetrical types of diabetes-associated neuropathy. PMID:18194747

Tracy, Jennifer A.; Dyck, P. James B.

2009-01-01

249

Animal models of HIV peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

The use of animal models in the study of HIV and AIDS has advanced our understanding of the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of infection. Of the multitude of HIV disease manifestations, peripheral neuropathy remains one of the most common long-term side effects. Several of the most important causes of peripheral neuropathy in AIDS patients include direct association with HIV infection with or without antiretroviral medication and infection with opportunistic agents. Because the pathogeneses of these diseases are difficult to study in human patients, animal models have allowed for significant advancement in the understanding of the role of viral infection and the immune system in disease genesis. This review focuses on rodent, rabbit, feline and rhesus models used to study HIV-associated peripheral neuropathies, focusing specifically on sensory neuropathy and antiretroviral-associated neuropathies. PMID:25214880

Burdo, Tricia H; Miller, Andrew D

2014-01-01

250

Auditory neuropathy.  

PubMed

Neural disorders of the auditory nerve are associated with particular disorders of auditory perceptions dependent on processing of acoustic temporal cues. These include: (1) speech perception; (2) localizing a sound's origin in space; and (3) identifying sounds in background noise. Auditory neuropathy (AN) is a consequence of: (1) presynaptic disorders affecting inner hair cell ribbon synapses; (2) postsynaptic disorders of auditory nerve dendrites; and (3) postsynaptic disorders of auditory nerve axons. The etiologies of these disorders are diverse, similar to other cranial or peripheral neuropathies. The pathologies cause attenuated and dyssynchronous auditory nerve discharges. Therapies and management of patients with AN are reviewed. PMID:25726287

Starr, Arnold; Rance, Gary

2015-01-01

251

Diabetic cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy: a distinct syndrome expanding the spectrum of diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies.  

PubMed

Diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy is a subacute painful, asymmetrical lower limb neuropathy due to ischaemic injury and microvasculitis. The occurrence of a cervical diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathy has been postulated. Our objective was to characterize the clinical features and pathological alterations of diabetic cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy, to see if they are similar to diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy and due to ischaemic injury and microvasculitis. We identified patients with diabetic cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy by review of the Mayo Clinic database from 1996 to 2008. We systematically reviewed the clinical features, laboratory studies, neurophysiological findings, neuroimaging and pathological features and compared the findings with a previously published diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy cohort. Eighty-five patients (56 males, 67 with Type 2 diabetes mellitus) were identified. The median age was 62 years (range 32-83). The main presenting symptom was pain (53/85). At evaluation, weakness was the most common symptom (84/85), followed by pain (69/85) and numbness (56/85). Neuropathic deficits were moderate (median motor neuropathy impairment score 10.0 points) and improved at follow-up. Upper, middle and lower brachial plexus segments were involved equally and pan-plexopathy was not unusual (25/85). Over half of patients (44/85) had at least one additional body region affected (30 contralateral cervical, 20 lumbosacral and 16 thoracic) as is found in diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy. Recurrent disease occurred in 18/85. Neurophysiology showed axonal neuropathy (80/80) with paraspinal denervation (21/65), and abnormal autonomic (23/24) and sensory testing (10/13). Cerebrospinal fluid protein was elevated (median 70 mg/dl). Magnetic resonance imaging showed brachial plexus abnormality in all (38/38). Nerve biopsies (11 upper and 11 lower limbs) showed ischaemic injury (axonal degeneration, multifocal fibre loss 15/22, focal perineurial thickening 16/22, injury neuroma 5/22) and increased inflammation (epineural perivascular inflammation 22/22, haemosiderin deposition 6/22, vessel wall inflammation 14/22 and microvasculitis 5/22). We therefore conclude that (i) diabetic cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy is a predominantly monophasic, upper limb diabetic neuropathy with pain followed by weakness and involves motor, sensory and autonomic fibres; (ii) the neuropathy begins focally and often evolves into a multifocal or bilateral condition; (iii) the pathology of diabetic cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy demonstrates ischaemic injury often from microvasculitis; and (iv) diabetic cervical radiculoplexus neuropathy shares many of the clinical and pathological features of diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy, providing evidence that these conditions are best categorized together within the spectrum of diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies. PMID:23065793

Massie, Rami; Mauermann, Michelle L; Staff, Nathan P; Amrami, Kimberly K; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Dyck, Peter J; Klein, Christopher J; Dyck, P James B

2012-10-01

252

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is common in patients receiving anticancer treatment and can affect survivability and long-term quality of life of the patient following treatment. The symptoms of CIPN primarily include abnormal sensory discrimination of touch, vibration, thermal information, and pain. There is currently a paucity of pharmacological agents to prevent or treat CIPN. The lack of efficacious therapeutics is due, at least in part, to an incomplete understanding of the mechanisms by which chemotherapies alter the sensitivity of sensory neurons. Although the clinical presentation of CIPN can be similar with the various classes of chemotherapeutic agents, there are subtle differences, suggesting that each class of drugs might induce neuropathy via different mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the development and maintenance of neuropathy; however, most pharmacological agents generated from preclinical experiments have failed to alleviate the symptoms of CIPN in the clinic. Further research is necessary to identify the specific mechanisms by which each class of chemotherapeutics induces neuropathy. PMID:25744683

Fehrenbacher, Jill C

2015-01-01

253

Peripheral Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... or wrist. Diseases or disorders and their related processes (such as inflammation) can be associated with peripheral neuropathy. Metabolic and endocrine disorders impair the body’s ability to transform nutrients into energy and process waste products, and this can lead ...

254

Recombination hot spot in 3.2-kb region of the Charcot-Marie Tooth type 1A repeat sequences: New tools for molecular diagnosis of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies and of Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A  

SciTech Connect

Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1A (CMT1A) disease and hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) are autosomal dominant neuropathies, associated, respectively, with duplications and deletions of the same 1.5-Mb region on 17p11.2-p12. These two rearrangements are the reciprocal products of an unequal meiotic crossover between the two chromosome 17 homologues, caused by the misalignment of the CMT1A repeat sequences (CMT1A-REPs), the homologous sequences flanking the 1.5-Mb CMT1A/HNPP monomer unit. In order to map recombination breakpoints within the CMT1A-REPs, a 12.9-kb restriction map was constructed from cloned EcoRI fragments of the proximal and distal CMT1A-REPs. Only 3 of the 17 tested restriction sites were present in the proximal CMT1A-REP but absent in the distal CMT1A-REP, indicating a high degree of homology between these sequences. The rearrangements were mapped in four regions of the CMT1A-REPs by analysis of 76 CMT1A index cases and 38 HNPP patients, who were unrelated. A hot spot of crossover breakpoints located in a 3.2-kb region accounted for three-quarters of the rearrangements, detected after EcoRI/SacI digestion, by the presence of 3.2-kb and 7.8-kb junction fragments in CMT1A and HNPP patients, respectively. These junction fragments, which can be detected on classical Southern blots, permit molecular diagnosis. Other rearrangements can also be detected by gene dosage on the same Southern blots. 25 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Lopes, J.; LeGuern, E.; Gouider, R.; Tardieu, S.; Abbas, N. [Hopital de la Salpetriere, Paris (France)] [and others

1996-06-01

255

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multifocal Motor Neuropathy Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump ... done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multifocal Motor Neuropathy? Multifocal motor neuropathy is a progressive muscle disorder ...

256

Diabetic Neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic neuropathies (DN) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that include a wide range of abnormalities. They can be\\u000a focal or diffuse, proximal or distal, affecting both peripheral and autonomic nervous systems, causing morbidity with significant\\u000a impact on the quality of life of the person with diabetes, resulting in early mortality. Distal symmetric polyneuropathy,\\u000a the most common form of DN,

Aaron I. Vinik

257

Perineural invasion of sinonasal lymphoma: a rare cause of trigeminal neuropathy.  

PubMed

Trigeminal neuropathy is characterized by sensory disturbance of the division of trigeminal nerve, and sometimes is associated with pain. Trigeminal neuropathy secondary to perineural invasion of sinonasal lymphoma is extremely rare. Likewise, sinonasal lymphoma is infrequently demonstrated initially with cranial neuropathy. The present case served to broaden the differential diagnosis of secondary trigeminal neuropathy and to alert clinicians to cautiously assess perineural spread of occult neoplasm in sinonasal tract and larynx or pharynx for cases with evolving trigeminal neuropathy or even other cranial nerve neuropathy in which no definite cause is identified. PMID:17300375

Liang, Chih-Wei; Chen, Ying-Lin

2007-02-01

258

[Applications of 'quantitative sensory testing'].  

PubMed

Quantitative sensory testing (QST) consists of several non-invasive, standardised tests aimed at examining different aspects of the entire somatosensory nervous system. Important advantages of QST over existing supplementary tests such as electromyography are the ability to test the function of thin and unmyelinated nerve fibres as well as the subjective sensation of a somatosensory stimulus. QST is validated in diagnosing small fibre neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain. In scientific research, QST is useful in the study into pathophysiological mechanisms of diseases and syndromes with sensory symptoms and in the evaluation of the effect of analgesic treatment on the function of the somatosensory nervous system. In the future, QST could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic test in more forms of neuropathy and in other clinical conditions such as chronic unexplained pain syndromes (e.g. fibromyalgia and whiplash-associated disorder. PMID:23369816

Verberne, Wouter R; Snijders, Tom J; Liem, K Seng; Baakman, Anne Catrien; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S

2013-01-01

259

[Painful ischemic neuropathy].  

PubMed

Chronic ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) represents a common medical problem. Neuropathic changes and pain caused by chronic ischemia are often found in the lower extremities of these patients. Pain in patients with chronic critical limb ischemia fulfill the criteria of neuropathic pain. Diagnostic tools besides medical history and examination are questionnaires, quantitative sensory testing (QST) and measuring intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) when indicated. A pharmacological approach with non-opioids and opioids as well as antidepressive and anticonvulsive drugs (according to the recommendations for the therapy of neuropathic pain) seems to be indicated for treating painful ischemic neuropathy. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) provides the best evidence for invasive procedures in treating chronic ischemic pain. PMID:25620734

Lang, P M

2015-02-01

260

[Painful neuropathies and small fiber involvement].  

PubMed

It is customary to consider that a purely sensory and painful neuropathy accompanied by normal electroneuromyographic examination may be or must be a small fiber neuropathy. This leads to perform specific tests, such as measuring the intra-epidermal nerve fiber density on skin biopsy or neurophysiological tests, such as evoked potentials to noxious stimuli (laser) or quantification of thermal sensory thresholds. However, these tests are only sensitive to the loss of small fibers (A-delta and C), which does not reflect the mechanisms responsible for peripheral neuropathic pain. Selective loss of small sensory fibers inherently generates a sensory deficit that does not necessarily present a painful character. Also, assigning the cause of a painful neuropathy to a small fiber neuropathy has no pathophysiological sense, although there are indirect links between these two conditions. In fact, it is not possible to explain univocally peripheral neuropathic pain, which reflects complex and diverse mechanisms, involving different types of nerve fibers. In this context, the clinical and laboratory approach must be improved to better understand the underlying mechanisms. It is imperative to interpret the data provided by laboratory tests and to correlate these data to the clinical signs and symptoms presented by the patients. Thus, one must go beyond many a priori and misinterpretations that unfortunately exist in this area at present and are not based on any solid pathophysiological basis. PMID:25459125

Lefaucheur, J-P

2014-12-01

261

Prevention of paclitaxel-evoked painful peripheral neuropathy by acetyl-L-carnitine: Effects on axonal mitochondria, sensory nerve fiber terminal arbors, and cutaneous Langerhans cells  

PubMed Central

Prophylactic treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) prevents the neuropathic pain syndrome that is evoked by the chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel. The paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is associated with degeneration of the intraepidermal terminal arbors of primary afferent neurons, with the activation of cutaneous Langerhans cells, and with an increased incidence of swollen and vacuolated axonal mitochondria in A-fibers and C-fibers. Previous work suggests that ALCAR is neuroprotective in other nerve injury models and that it improves mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, we examined whether the prophylactic efficacy of ALCAR was associated with the prevention of intraepidermal terminal arbor degeneration, the inhibition of Langerhans cell activation, or the inhibition of swelling and vacuolation of axonal mitochondria. In animals with a confirmed ALCAR effect, we found no evidence of a neuroprotective effect on the paclitaxel-evoked degeneration of sensory terminal arbors or an inhibition of the paclitaxel-evoked activation of Langerhans cells. However, ALCAR treatment completely prevented the paclitaxel-evoked increase in the incidence of swollen and vacuolated C-fiber mitochondria, while having no effect on the paclitaxel-evoked changes in A-fiber mitochondria. Our results suggest that the efficacy of prophylactic ALCAR treatment against the paclitaxel-evoked pain may be related to a protective effect on C-fiber mitochondria. PMID:18078936

Jin, Hai Wei; Flatters, Sarah J.L.; Xiao, Wen Hua; Mulhern, Howard L.; Bennett, Gary J.

2008-01-01

262

Management of Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of neuropathy worldwide. Diabetic neuropathy (DN) develops in about 4–10% of diabetic patients after 5 years and in 15% after 20 years. Four main mechanisms have been postulated to underlie the pathogenesis of DN. Diabetic neuropathy can be divided into symmetrical and asymmetrical neuropathies. Diabetic Autonomic Neuropathy (DAN) parallels the severity of DSN, and affects primarily the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary and integumentary systems. The cornerstone of treatment of diabetic neuropathy is optimization of glycaemic control. Future treatments for diabetic neuropathy should address the underlying pathogenesis. PMID:23386794

Ali, Raymond Azman

2003-01-01

263

Nerve biopsy and conduction studies in diabetic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphological findings in sural nerves were related to nerve conduction in 12 patients with diabetic neuropathy, five with mainly sensory involvement, four with severe, symmetrical sensory-motor polyneuropathy, and three with multiple mononeuropathy. All had loss of large and small myelinated and of unmyelinated fibres, even early in the disease; segmental remyelination was the most prominent myelin alteration in teased fibres,

F Behse; F Buchthal; F Carlsen

1977-01-01

264

Hereditary coproporphyria.  

PubMed

Hereditary coproporphyria (HC) is a rare acute hepatic porphyria. Attacks may be precipitated by certain drugs, alcohol, infections, or low caloric intake. HC is caused by defects in the enzyme coproporphyrinogen III oxidase (copro-ox) which converts coproporphyrinogen III (coprogen) to protoporphyrinogen IX (protogen). Coprogen is made mainly in the liver and is excreted predominantly in the feces. The dramatic increase in coproporphyrin III (copro) excretion (10-200 times compared with the control value) with intensive red fluorescence under UV light is a specific and easily detectable marker for diagnosis of acute attacks of HC. HC is inherited as an autosomally dominant genetic defect. The cDNA and gene encoding copro-ox have been isolated recently and mutations have been identified, providing critical information concerning molecular heterogeneity and the potential for molecular diagnosis. In this review, we describe 10 mutations in the copro-ox gene which are spread along six exons. It is postulated that DNA analysis of gene carriers and the use of heme arginate for specific treatment will improve the care of HC patients dramatically. PMID:9516675

Martásek, P

1998-01-01

265

Clinical features of taxane neuropathy.  

PubMed

Sensory neuropathy is the dose-limiting toxicity of paclitaxel and also impacts on the use of docetaxel and other taxanes. The cause of this adverse effect has to do with their mechanism of action against microtubules and its interaction with neuronal cytoskeletal components. The variability of this toxicity is defined by several factors including disease type, taxane class, schedule and dose of the specific drug, patient demographics, and use of taxanes in combination regimens (especially with the platinums that are also neurotoxic). Prevention of life-long neuropathy is only produced if the causative drug is halted--treatments to reverse toxicity have shown only minimal improvement. This review investigates trials defining the clinical factors that determine the therapeutic window of taxanes and the enhanced susceptibility to this toxicity. In addition, case vignettes illustrate the range of clinical manifestations of this toxicity during taxane administration. PMID:24300917

Kudlowitz, David; Muggia, Franco

2014-05-01

266

POEMS Syndrome Diagnosed 10?Years after Disabling Peripheral Neuropathy.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is characterized as a generalized, relatively homogeneous process affecting many peripheral nerves and predominantly affecting distal nerves. The epidemiology of peripheral neuropathy is limited since the disease presents with varying etiology, pathology, and severity. Toxic, inflammatory, hereditary, and infectious factors can cause damage to the peripheral nerves resulting in peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is most commonly caused by diabetes, alcohol, HIV infection, and malignancy. We report a case of a 42-year-old female with 10-year history of progressively worsening peripheral neuropathy, hypothyroidism, and skin changes who presents with dyspnea secondary to recurrent pleural and pericardial effusions. Prior to her arrival, her peripheral neuropathy was believed to be secondary to chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CDIP) given elevated protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) which was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Unfortunately, her peripheral neuropathy did not have any improvement. Incidentally, patient was found to have splenomegaly and papilledema on physical exam. Serum protein electrophoresis showed a monoclonal pattern of IgA lambda. Patient met the diagnostic criteria for POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes) syndrome. An underlying diagnosis of POEMS syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic debilitating neuropathy and an elevated protein in the CSF. PMID:22013451

Nguyen, Viet H

2011-01-01

267

POEMS Syndrome Diagnosed 10?Years after Disabling Peripheral Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Peripheral neuropathy is characterized as a generalized, relatively homogeneous process affecting many peripheral nerves and predominantly affecting distal nerves. The epidemiology of peripheral neuropathy is limited since the disease presents with varying etiology, pathology, and severity. Toxic, inflammatory, hereditary, and infectious factors can cause damage to the peripheral nerves resulting in peripheral neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy is most commonly caused by diabetes, alcohol, HIV infection, and malignancy. We report a case of a 42-year-old female with 10-year history of progressively worsening peripheral neuropathy, hypothyroidism, and skin changes who presents with dyspnea secondary to recurrent pleural and pericardial effusions. Prior to her arrival, her peripheral neuropathy was believed to be secondary to chronic demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (CDIP) given elevated protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) which was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and corticosteroids. Unfortunately, her peripheral neuropathy did not have any improvement. Incidentally, patient was found to have splenomegaly and papilledema on physical exam. Serum protein electrophoresis showed a monoclonal pattern of IgA lambda. Patient met the diagnostic criteria for POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes) syndrome. An underlying diagnosis of POEMS syndrome should be considered in patients with chronic debilitating neuropathy and an elevated protein in the CSF. PMID:22013451

Nguyen, Viet H.

2011-01-01

268

Is Pancreatic Cancer Hereditary?  

MedlinePLUS

... Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Is pancreatic cancer hereditary? Cancer of the pancreas is a genetic ... found in cigarette smoke. The genetics of hereditary pancreatic cancer is a focus of research at Johns Hopkins. ...

269

Fetal akinesia in metatropic dysplasia: The combined phenotype of chondrodysplasia and neuropathy?  

PubMed

Dominant mutations in the receptor calcium channel gene TRPV4 have been associated with a family of skeletal dysplasias (metatropic dysplasia, pseudo-Morquio type 2, spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type, brachyolmia, and familial digital arthropathy) as well as with dominantly inherited neuropathies (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy 2C, scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy, and congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy). While there is phenotypic overlap between the various members of each group, the two groups were considered to be totally separate with the former being strictly a structural skeletal condition and the latter group being confined to the peripheral nervous system. We report here on fetal akinesia as the presenting feature of severe metatropic dysplasia, suggesting that certain TRPV4 mutations can cause both a skeletal and a neuropathic phenotype. Three cases were detected on prenatal ultrasound because of absent movements in the second trimester. Case 4 presented with multiple joint contractures and absent limb movements at birth and was diagnosed with "fetal akinesia syndrome". Post-interruption and post-natal X-rays showed typical features of metatropic dysplasia in all four. Sequencing of the TRPV4 gene confirmed the presence of de novo heterozygous mutations predicting G78W (Case 1), T740I (Cases 2 and 3), and K276E (Case 4). Although some degree of restriction of movements is not uncommon in fetuses with skeletal dysplasia, akinesia as leading sign is unusual and suggests that certain TRPV4 mutations produce both chondrodysplasia and a peripheral neuropathy resulting in a severe "overlap" phenotype. PMID:21964829

Unger, Sheila; Lausch, Ekkehart; Stanzial, Franco; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Stefanova, Irina; Di Stefano, Cristina Maria; Bertini, Enrico; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Nilius, Bernd; Zabel, Bernhard; Superti-Furga, Andrea

2011-11-01

270

Idiopathic Small Fiber Neuropathy: Phenotype, Etiologies, and the Search for Fabry Disease  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose The etiology of small fiber neuropathy (SFN) often remains unclear. Since SFN may be the only symptom of late-onset Fabry disease, it may be underdiagnosed in patients with idiopathic polyneuropathy. We aimed to uncover the etiological causes of seemingly idiopathic SFN by applying a focused investigatory procedure, to describe the clinical phenotype of true idiopathic SFN, and to elucidate the possible prevalence of late-onset Fabry disease in these patients. Methods Forty-seven adults younger than 60 years with seemingly idiopathic pure or predominantly small fiber sensory neuropathy underwent a standardized focused etiological and clinical investigation. The patients deemed to have true idiopathic SFN underwent genetic analysis of the alpha-galactosidase A gene (GLA) that encodes the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (Fabry disease). Results The following etiologies were identified in 12 patients: impaired glucose tolerance (58.3%), diabetes mellitus (16.6%), alcohol abuse (8.3%), mitochondrial disease (8.3%), and hereditary neuropathy (8.3%). Genetic alterations of unknown clinical significance in GLA were detected in 6 of the 29 patients with true idiopathic SFN, but this rate did not differ significantly from that in healthy controls (n=203). None of the patients with genetic alterations in GLA had significant biochemical abnormalities simultaneously in blood, urine, and skin tissue. Conclusions A focused investigation may aid in uncovering further etiological factors in patients with seemingly idiopathic SFN, such as impaired glucose tolerance. However, idiopathic SFN in young to middle-aged Swedish patients does not seem to be due to late-onset Fabry disease. PMID:24829596

Kostulas, Konstantinos; Vrethem, Magnus; Rolfs, Arndt; Press, Rayomand

2014-01-01

271

The phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4C due to SH3TC2 mutations and possible predisposition to an inflammatory neuropathy.  

PubMed

Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies. The locus responsible for CMT4C was previously assigned to the chromosome 5q23 region by homozygosity mapping and mutations in the SH3TC2 (KIAA1985) gene have been subsequently identified mainly in families around the Mediterranean basin but also frequently in European Gypsies. No English families have been reported to date. To determine the frequency, phenotype and neuropathology of CMT due to SH3TC2 mutations we screened 23 English autosomal recessive (AR) demyelinating CMT families. Five families with AR demyelinating CMT and SH3TC2 mutations were identified, four families were homozygous for the R954X mutation and the fifth family was compound heterozygous for the R954X and E657K mutations. There was significant clinical variation between these families with some cases presenting with a severe childhood onset neuropathy with respiratory and cranial nerve involvement, compared to other families with mild scoliosis and foot deformity. Characteristic sural nerve neuropathology was seen in three families with frequent demyelinating fibres surrounded by excess Schwann cell lamellae forming basal lamina onion bulbs and abnormally long and attenuated Schwann cell processes. One patient homozygous for the R954X mutation had a 20-year history of an inflammatory neuropathy that was superimposed onto the hereditary form, indicating that structural alterations to the SH3TC2 gene could possibly predispose to peripheral nerve inflammation. PMID:19272779

Houlden, Henry; Laura, Matilde; Ginsberg, Lionel; Jungbluth, Heinz; Robb, Stephanie A; Blake, Julian; Robinson, Susan; King, Rosalind H M; Reilly, Mary M

2009-04-01

272

Peripheral neuropathies of rheumatologic disease and gluten-related disorders.  

PubMed

Peripheral nervous system disease is a common and often debilitating feature of many systemic rheumatologic disorders. Such involvement takes many forms, reflecting the variety of underlying pathophysiology, though most patients present with painful multifocal neuropathy (usually vasculitic) or a distal sensory more than motor peripheral neuropathy (sometimes vasculitic and nearly always axonal). The presence of peripheral nervous system involvement is often an early signal of the generalization of inflammatory disease in blood vessels or extravascular tissues, though peripheral neuropathy is not itself an independent predictor of mortality. Nonetheless, progressive multifocal neuropathy, motor neuropathy, small fiber neuropathy, and sensory neuronopathy should be treated early and aggressively with immunosuppression (or the gluten-free diet in appropriate situations) to limit morbidity. Given the rapidly evolving therapeutic landscape, partnership with a rheumatologist is essential. Treatment is usually sustained for 1 to 2 years, and remission is possible in many cases within 6 to 12 months, with variable rates of relapse and treatment resistance. Patients should be meticulously monitored for relapse with serial laboratory testing, electrodiagnostic studies, and clinical examination. Functional rating scores, such as the neuropathy impairment scale and the total neuropathy score are useful for longitudinal assessment. PMID:25369437

Reda, Haatem; Chin, Russell L

2014-09-01

273

Retinitis pigmentosa, ataxia, and peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

The clinical features of four patients with retinitis pigmentosa, ataxia and peripheral neuropathy but with no increase in serum phytanic acid are reported. Three patients also had sensorineural deafness and radiological evidence of cerebellar atrophy. Nerve conduction studies revealed abnormalities of sensory conduction and normal or only mild slowing of motor conduction velocity. Sural nerve biopsy demonstrated a reduction in the density of myelinated fibres. There were no onion bulb formations. These cases clinically resemble Refsum's disease, but differ in having no detectable biochemical abnormality, and a peripheral neuropathy which is not hypertrophic in type. They may represent unusual cases of spinocerebellar degeneration. Images PMID:6302225

Tuck, R R; McLeod, J G

1983-01-01

274

Giant Axonal Neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... What is Giant Axonal Neuropathy? Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare inherited genetic disorder that affects ... peripheral nervous systems. The majority of children with GAN will begin to show symptoms of the disease ...

275

Neuropathy secondary to drugs  

MedlinePLUS

Neuropathy secondary to drugs is a loss of sensation or movement in a part of the body ... weakness. Many medications may affect the development of neuropathy, including: Heart or blood pressure medications Amiodarone Hydralazine ...

276

Inherited Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

With a prevalence of 1 in 2500 people, inherited peripheral nerve diseases, collectively called Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), are among the most common inherited neurologic disorders. Patients with CMT typically present with chronic muscle weakness and atrophy in limbs, sensory loss in the feet and hands, and foot deformities. Clinical similarities between patients often require genetic testing to achieve a precise diagnosis. In this article, the author reviews the clinical and pathologic features of CMT, and demonstrates how electrodiagnostic and genetic tools are used to assist in the diagnosis and symptomatic management of the diseases. Several cases are presented to illustrate the diagnostic processes. PMID:23117945

Li, Jun

2013-01-01

277

Peripheral neuropathy in diabetes.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is common complication of diabetes. The prevalence of peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients on the basis of loss of vibration sensation had been studied. Detailed clinical history of each patient including age, gender, duration of diabetes, foot ulcer and biothesiometry was recorded in 211 diabetic patients between 20 and 80 years of age. It was observed that all patients under 30 years age (n = 8) felt vibration below 15 volts (no risk zone); 77% (24 out of 31) of the patients in the age group of 30-39 years were in the no risk zone, and 23% (n = 7) had mild peripheral neuropathy. Sixty per cent of the patients between 40 and 50 years (n = 44) were in the no risk zone, while 32% (n = 24) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 5% (n = 4) had moderate neuropathy and 3% (n = 2) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Amongst patients above 50 years of age, 31% (n = 31) were in no risk zone, 34% (n = 34) had mild peripheral neuropathy, 22% (n = 20) had moderate peripheral neuropathy and 13% (n = 13) had severe peripheral neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for less than 5 years, 58% had no neuropathy, and only 3% had severe neuropathy. Of the patients with diabetes for 5 to 15 years, 50% had no neuropathy, 30% had mild, and 10% had severe peripheral neuropathy. When patients with diabetes for over 15 years were studied, only 6% had no neuropathy and 19% had severe peripheral neuropathy. The study re-establishes that the severity of peripheral neuropathy increases with age and vibration perception decreses progressively with increased duration of diabetes. Vibration perception threshold testing helps to identify the high risk subjects who require special counselling and education to protect their feet. PMID:24761495

Majumder, A; Chatterjee, S; Maji, D

2013-06-01

278

[Metabolic and nutritional neuropathy].  

PubMed

We assessed whether postgastrectomy polyneuropathy associated with thiamine deficiency is clinicopathologically identical to beriberi neuropathy, including a biochemical determination of thiamine status. The typical presentation for the two etiologies was as a symmetric sensorimotor polyneuropathy predominantly involving the lower limbs. In both groups, the main electrophysiologic findings were those of axonal neuropathy, most prominently in the lower limbs. Sural nerve biopsy specimens also indicated axonal degeneration in both groups. Subperineurial edema was commonly observed. Thiamine-deficiency neuropathies due to gastrectomy and dietary imbalance are identical despite variability in their clinicopathologic features and suggested that thiamine deficiency can be a major cause of postgastrectomy polyneuropathy. Characteristics of alcoholic neuropathy have been obscured by difficulty in isolating them from features of thiamine-deficiency neuropathy. We assessed 64 patients with alcoholic neuropathy including subgroups without and with coexisting thiamine deficiency. Thirty-two patients with nonalcoholic thiamine-deficiency neuropathy also were investigated for comparison. We concluded that pure-form of alcoholic neuropathy was distinct from pure-form of thiamine-deficiency neuropathy, supporting the view that alcoholic neuropathy can be caused by direct toxic effect of ethanol or its metabolites. However, features of alcoholic neuropathy is influenced by concomitant thiamine-deficiency state, having so far caused the obscure clinicopathological entity of alcoholic neuropathy. PMID:19198152

Hattori, Naoki; Koike, Haruki; Sobue, Gen

2008-11-01

279

Evaluation of thermal and vibration sensation in diabetic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Sensory evaluation of diabetic neuropathy was undertaken by a new technique for assessment of thermal sensitivity. The method is simple and reproducible, and the mean normal value of the lateral border of the foot was 6.0 °C (3.6–9.8 °C, 95% confidence limits). Four groups of patients with diabetic neuropathy were examined: 22 with neuropathic ulcers and\\/or Charcot joints (groups 1

R. J. C. Guy; C. A. Clark; P. N. Malcolm; P. J. Watkins

1985-01-01

280

Misonidazole Neuropathy: a clinical, electrophysiological, and histological study.  

PubMed

We studied eight patients with carcinoma of the pharynx and larynx (five cases) or lungs (three cases) who, during treatment with the radiosensitizing drug misonidazole, developed peripheral neuropathy dominated by severe sensory symptoms and signs mainly localized to the lower extremities. The symptoms partially subsided within months after cessation of therapy. Electrophysiological and histological findings indicated an axonal neuropathy with loss of large fibers and secondary demyelination. The neurotoxic property of misonidazole limits its therapeutic use. PMID:7114817

Melgaard, B; Hansen, H S; Kamieniecka, Z; Paulson, O B; Pedersen, A G; Tang, X; Trojaborg, W

1982-07-01

281

A model of toxic neuropathy in Drosophila reveals a role for MORN4 in promoting axonal degeneration.  

PubMed

Axonal degeneration is a molecular self-destruction cascade initiated following traumatic, toxic, and metabolic insults. Its mechanism underlies a number of disorders including hereditary and diabetic neuropathies and the neurotoxic side effects of chemotherapy drugs. Molecules that promote axonal degeneration could represent potential targets for therapy. To identify such molecules, we designed a screening platform based on intoxication of Drosophila larvae with paclitaxel (taxol), a chemotherapeutic agent that causes neuropathy in cancer patients. In Drosophila, taxol treatment causes swelling, fragmentation, and loss of axons in larval peripheral nerves. This axonal loss is not due to apoptosis of neurons. Taxol-induced axonal degeneration in Drosophila shares molecular execution mechanisms with vertebrates, including inhibition by both NMNAT (nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase) expression and loss of wallenda/DLK (dual leucine zipper kinase). In a pilot RNAi-based screen we found that knockdown of retinophilin (rtp), which encodes a MORN (membrane occupation and recognition nexus) repeat-containing protein, protects axons from degeneration in the presence of taxol. Loss-of-function mutants of rtp replicate this axonal protection. Knockdown of rtp also delays axonal degeneration in severed olfactory axons. We demonstrate that the mouse ortholog of rtp, MORN4, promotes axonal degeneration in mouse sensory axons following axotomy, illustrating conservation of function. Hence, this new model can identify evolutionarily conserved genes that promote axonal degeneration, and so could identify candidate therapeutic targets for a wide-range of axonopathies. PMID:22496551

Bhattacharya, Martha R C; Gerdts, Josiah; Naylor, Sarah A; Royse, Emily X; Ebstein, Sarah Y; Sasaki, Yo; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; DiAntonio, Aaron

2012-04-11

282

Microvasculitis in diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy.  

PubMed

We present a case of a 60-year-old man with mild type 2 diabetes mellitus and step-wise progression of bilateral lower limb weakness, numbness, and pain over a 1-year period. At the time of evaluation, he used a walker. He had elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein, abnormal cooling and heat-pain thresholds on quantitative sensory testing, and nerve conduction studies/electromyography consistent with bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathies. Because it was not clear whether the disease was still active, a right superficial peroneal nerve biopsy was performed and showed evidence of active axonal degeneration, ischemic injury, and microvasculitis. On the basis of these results, the patient was diagnosed with diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy and was treated with weekly intravenous methylprednisolone with marked improvement of neurologic symptoms and signs. This case illustrates the typical clinical, electrophysiologic, and pathologic features of diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy and the utility of nerve biopsy to judge ongoing disease activity. PMID:19730021

Tracy, Jennifer A; Engelstad, JaNean K; Dyck, P James B

2009-09-01

283

Pupillary signs in diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed Central

Pupillary function was investigated in 36 insulin-dependent diabetics and 36 controls matched for age and sex. About half of the diabetics had evidence of peripheral somatic or autonomic neuropathy, or both. The diabetic patients had abnormally small pupil diameters in the dark and less fluctuation in pupil size (hippus) during continuous illumination than the controls. They also had reduced reflex responses to light flashes of an intensity adjusted for individual retinal sensitivities. The pupillary findings were compared with results of five tests of cardiovascular function and five tests of peripheral sensory and motor nerve function. Almost all the patients with autonomic neuropathy had pupillary signs, which we therefore conclude are a common manifestation of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. PMID:709128

Smith, S E; Smith, S A; Brown, P M; Fox, C; Sönksen, P H

1978-01-01

284

Surgical decompression in lower-extremity diabetic peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy can be a devastating complication of diabetes mellitus. This article describes surgical decompression as a means of restoring sensation and relieving painful neuropathy symptoms. A prospective study was performed involving patients diagnosed as having type 1 or type 2 diabetes with lower-extremity peripheral neuropathy. The neuropathy diagnosis was confirmed using quantitative sensory testing. Visual analog scales were used for subjective assessment before and after surgery. Treatment consisted of external and as-needed internal neurolysis of the common peroneal, deep peroneal, tibial, medial plantar, lateral plantar, and calcaneal nerves. Subjective pain perception and objective sensibility were significantly improved in most patients who underwent the described decompression. Surgical decompression of multiple peripheral nerves in the lower extremities is a valid and effective method of providing symptomatic relief of neuropathy pain and restoring sensation. PMID:16166461

Rader, Andrew J

2005-01-01

285

Optic nerve degeneration and mitochondrial dysfunction: genetic and acquired optic neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective degeneration of the smallest fibers (papillo-macular bundle) of the human optic nerve occurs in a large number of optic neuropathies characterized primarily by loss of central vision. The pathophysiology that underlies this peculiar pattern of cell involvement probably reflects different forms of genetic and acquired mitochondrial dysfunction.Maternally inherited Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON), dominant optic atrophy (Kjer disease), the

Valerio Carelli; Fred N. Ross-Cisneros; Alfredo A. Sadun

2002-01-01

286

Somatic and autonomic small fiber neuropathy induced by bortezomib therapy: an immunofluorescence study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bortezomib is a new chemotherapeutic agent approved for the treatment of relapsed\\/refractory and newly diagnosed multiple\\u000a myeloma. One of the major side effects of bortezomib is a peripheral length-dependent sensory axonal neuropathy and, less\\u000a frequently, a small fiber neuropathy. Autonomic symptoms like postural dizziness, syncope, diarrhoea, ileus, impotence and\\u000a urinary disturbances have been reported, nevertheless, autonomic neuropathy has never been

Maria Pia Giannoccaro; Vincenzo Donadio; Carolina Gomis Pèrez; Walter Borsini; Vitantonio Di Stasi; Rocco Liguori

2011-01-01

287

[Original articles on axonal neuropathy in 2010].  

PubMed

During 2010, 15 articles were published which focused on chronic sensorimotor axonal neuropathy; some will be discussed in this review. Clinical diagnosis from signs and symptoms seems to be excessively variable, often overestimating the incidence of diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy. Long-term use of Metformin is associated with malabsorption of vitamin B12. Metformin exposure may be a iatrogenic cause for exacerbation of peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. The neuroprotective role of vitamin E against cisplatinperipheral neurotoxicity has been suggested by a phase III study. Metallosis after hip arthroplasty with a cobalt-chromium alloy prosthesis can cause progressive sensory disturbance, hearing loss and hypothyroidism. The effects of electrical stimulation on neuromuscular recovery after nerve crush injury in rats do not support a benefit of the tested protocol using electrical stimulation during the period of motor nerve recovery following injury. The rate of motor vehicle accidents in patients with neuropathy, based on surveys from 260 subjects, demonstrated that 40.6% were involved in traffic accidents. Accident frequency and discomfort with driving are higher in neuropathy patients compared to age-matched national statistics. Peripheral neuropathy in primary (AL) amyloidosis may be the cause of stepwise progressive, multiple upper limb mononeuropathies. PMID:22100324

Attarian, S

2011-12-01

288

Entrapment neuropathies III: lower limb.  

PubMed

Clinicians frequently encounter compressive neuropathies of the lower extremity. The clinical history and physical examination, along with electrodiagnostic testing and imaging studies, lead to the correct diagnosis. The imaging characteristics of the compression neuropathies can include acute and chronic changes in the nerves and the muscles they innervate. We provide a detailed review of compression neuropathies of the lower extremity with an emphasis on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging characteristics. We discuss the clinical presentation, etiology, anatomical location, and MR imaging appearance of these neuropathies, including the piriformis syndrome, iliacus syndrome, saphenous neuropathy, obturator neuropathy, lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy (meralgia paresthetica), proximal tibial neuropathy, common peroneal neuropathy, deep peroneal neuropathy, superficial peroneal neuropathy, tarsal tunnel syndrome, Baxter's neuropathy, jogger's foot, sural neuropathy, and Morton's neuroma. PMID:21072728

Beltran, Luis S; Bencardino, Jenny; Ghazikhanian, Varand; Beltran, Javier

2010-11-01

289

Cutaneous silent period changes in Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with small fiber neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveSmall myelinated (A-?) and unmyelinated (C) somatic sensory fibers are initially affected and may be the earliest exhibited sign of neuropathy in glucose dysmetabolism. Cutaneous silent period (CSP) is an inhibitory spinal reflex and its afferents consist of A-? nerve fibers. The aim of this study was to evaluate CSP changes in Type 2 diabetic patients with small fiber neuropathy.

M. R. Onal; U. H. Ulas; O. Oz; V. S. Bek; M. Yucel; A. Tasl?p?nar; Z. Odabas?

2010-01-01

290

Small fiber neuropathy following vaccination for rabies, varicella or Lyme disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropathy following vaccination has been reported; however, biopsy-confirmed small fiber neuropathy has not been described. We report five patients who developed paresthesias within one day to two months following vaccination for rabies, varicella zoster, or Lyme disease. On examination, there was mild sensory loss in distal extremities, preserved strength, normal or minimally abnormal electrodiagnostic findings, and decreased epidermal nerve fiber

Nizar Souayah; Senda Ajroud-Driss; Howard W. Sander; Thomas H. Brannagan; Arthur P. Hays; Russell L. Chin

2009-01-01

291

HIV neuropathy: Insights in the pathology of HIV peripheral nerve disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-associated neuropathies (HIV-N) have become the most frequent neuro- logical disorder associated with HIV infection. The most common forms of HIV-N are the distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) and antiretroviral toxic neuropathies (ATN), disorders characterized mostly by sensory symptoms that include spontaneous or evoked pain that follow a subacute or chronic course. The main pathological features that characterize DSP and ATN

Carlos A. Pardo; Justin C. McArthur; John W. Griffin

2001-01-01

292

Assessment of Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Who Complain of Neurologic Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) having neuropathic symptoms, and to investigate the relationship between electrophysiological findings of peripheral neuropathy and clinical findings of RA. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of RA and who had tingling or burning sensation in any extremity were electrophysiologically examined for evidence of peripheral neuropathy. Study parameters, including age, gender, laboratory parameters, duration of RA, and medication, were recorded. The symptoms and signs of neuropathy were quantified with the neuropathy symptom score, and the functional statuses of these patients were assessed. Results Out of a total of 30 RA patients, 10 (33%) had peripheral neuropathy: 2 had bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), 5 had unilateral CTS, 1 had sensory polyneuropathy, and 2 had motor-sensory polyneuropathy. The mean ages of the patients with and without peripheral neuropathy were 69.4 and 56.5 years, respectively (p<0.05). A significant relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody. However, no relationship was found between peripheral neuropathy and the type of medication, RA duration, the patients' functional status, neuropathic symptoms, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein values. Conclusion Neuropathic symptoms are common in RA patients, and it is difficult to distinguish peripheral neuropathy symptoms from those of arthritis. Patients with RA, particularly elderly patients and anti-CCP antibody positive patients who complain of neuropathic symptoms should undergo electrophysiological examination. PMID:24855620

Sim, Mi Kyung; Yoon, Jisun; Park, Dae Hwan; Kim, Yong-Gil

2014-01-01

293

Hereditary Congenital External Ophthalmoplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several members of a large pedigree suffering from hereditary congenital external ophthalmoplegia, an autosomal hereditary disorder of ocular movements, were examined and surgically treated. From nystagmographic findings it was concluded that the main cause of this disorder is of supranuclear origin. Specimen of the inferior oblique muscle revealed no abnormalities or showed decrease of type I muscle fibers.

W. A. Houtman; T. W. van Weerden; P. H. Robinson; B. de Vries; Tj. U. Hoogenraad

1986-01-01

294

Peripheral neuropathies in Sjögren's syndrome: a critical update on clinical features and pathogenetic mechanisms.  

PubMed

Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease that, apart from exocrine glands, may affect every organ or system. Involvement of different sections of the peripheral nervous system results in a wide spectrum of neuropathic manifestations. Based on distinct clinical, electrophysiological and histological criteria, the types of neuropathies seen in Sjögren's syndrome include: a) pure sensory which presents with distal symmetric sensory loss due to axonal degeneration of sensory fibers; sensory ataxia due to loss of proprioceptive large fibers (ganglionopathy); or with painful dysethesias (small fiber sensory neuropathy) due to degeneration of cutaneous axons. The latter appears to be the most common neuropathy in Sjögren's syndrome and requires skin biopsy for diagnosis to document loss or reduction of nerve fiber density; b) sensorimotor polyneuropathy affecting sensory and motor axons, often associated with severe systemic or pro-lymhomatous manifestations, such as palpable purpura and cryoglobulinemia, and c) rare types that include autoimmune demyelinating neuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex and autonomic neuropathy. In this review, the frequency, prevalence and diagnostic criteria for each neuropathy subset are discussed and possible pathogenetic mechanisms are outlined. PMID:22318209

Pavlakis, P P; Alexopoulos, H; Kosmidis, M L; Mamali, I; Moutsopoulos, H M; Tzioufas, A G; Dalakas, M C

2012-08-01

295

Inherited Peripheral Neuropathies  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Charcot Marie Tooth disease (CMT) is a heterogeneous group of inherited peripheral neuropathies in which the neuropathy is the sole or primary component of the disorder, as opposed to diseases in which the neuropathy is part of a more generalized neurological or multisystem syndrome. Due to the great genetic heterogeneity of this condition, it can be challenging for the general neurologist to diagnose patients with specific types of CMT. Here, we review the biology of the inherited peripheral neuropathies, delineate major phenotypic features of the CMT subtypes and suggest strategies for focusing genetic testing. PMID:23642725

Saporta, Mario A.; Shy, Michael E.

2013-01-01

296

Etiologic spectrum of biopsy-proven peripheral neuropathies in childhood from a resource-poor setting.  

PubMed

There are only a few studies describing the etiologic spectrum of biopsy-proven peripheral neuropathies in children. This study reviewed the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathologic profile of 239 children (?18 years of age) who have undergone nerve biopsy in a tertiary care centre for neurologic disorders and analyzed the etiologic spectrum and utility of nerve biopsy. The clinical profile, neuropathologic findings, and other investigations were combined to infer the final diagnosis. Neuropathy was detected in 199 biopsies; axonal pathology in 43%; demyelination in 41%; mixed pattern in 8%; and nonspecific findings in 8%. The major diagnostic categories included hereditary neuropathies (48%), heredodegenerative and metabolic disorders (27%), and inflammatory neuropathies (12%). Nerve biopsy proved most helpful in diagnosis of demyelinating and inflammatory neuropathies, reiterating its usefulness in specific situations. PMID:25038122

Krishnan, Pramod; Mahadevan, Anita; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Chickabasaviah, Yasha T; Taly, Arun B

2015-05-01

297

Giant axonal neuropathy: a rare inherited neuropathy with simple clinical clues.  

PubMed

Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterised by accumulation of excess neurofilaments in the axons of peripheral and central nervous systems, which hampers signal transmission. It usually manifests in infancy and early childhood and is slowly progressive. Those affected with GAN have characteristic curly kinky hair, everted feet and a crouched gait, which suggest the diagnosis in most cases. We describe twin children who presented with difficulty in walking and an abnormal gait since they began walking; clinical clues such as hair changes led us to the final diagnosis. PMID:25216920

Kamate, Mahesh; Ramakrishna, Shashikala; Kambali, Shweta; Mahadevan, Anita

2014-01-01

298

Early Electrophysiological Abnormalities and Clinical Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to elucidate whether subclinical nerve dysfunction as reflected by neurophysiological testing predicts the development of clinical neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fifty-nine patients were studied twice with neurophysiological measurements at baseline and at follow-up. At baseline, patients were 15.5 ± 3.22 years (range 7–22 years) of age, and duration of diabetes was 6.8 ± 3.3 years. At follow-up, patients were 20–35 years of age, and disease duration was 20 ± 5.3 years (range 10–31 years). RESULTS At baseline, patients showed modestly reduced nerve conduction velocities and amplitudes compared with healthy subjects, but all were free of clinical neuropathy. At follow-up, clinical neuropathy was present in nine (15%) patients. These patients had a more pronounced reduction in peroneal motor nerve conduction velocity (MCV), median MCV, and sural sensory nerve action potential at baseline (P < 0.010–0.003). In simple logistic regression analyses, the predictor with the strongest association with clinical neuropathy was baseline HbA1c (R2 = 48%, odds ratio 7.9, P < 0.002) followed by peroneal MCV at baseline (R2 = 38%, odds ratio 0.6, P < 0.006). With the use of a stepwise forward analysis that included all predictors, first baseline HbA1c and then only peroneal MCV at baseline entered significantly (R2 = 61%). Neuropathy impairment assessment showed a stronger correlation with baseline HbA1c (? = 0.40, P < 0.002) than with follow-up HbA1c (? = 0.034, P < 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Early defects in nerve conduction velocity predict the development of diabetic neuropathy. However, the strongest predictor was HbA1c during the first years of the disease. PMID:23723354

Hyllienmark, Lars; Alstrand, Nils; Jonsson, Björn; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Cooray, Gerald; Wahlberg-Topp, Jeanette

2013-01-01

299

Diabetic neuropathies: components of etiology.  

PubMed

This review examines the putative role of glucose in the etiology of diabetic neuropathies. Excessive glucose generates several secondary metabolic anomalies - principally oxidative stress (via both the polyol pathway and glucoxidation) and non-enzymic glycation of macromolecules. The latter is also facilitated by glucoxidation. These metabolic deviations trigger cellular responses that are inappropriate to normal function. Principal among these are neurotrophic deficits and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Downstream of these events are aberrant ion channel function and disordered gene expression, leading to changes in cellular phenotype. This leads directly to disordered nerve conduction, a recognised early clinical sign, and indirectly, via as yet undisclosed links, to sensory loss and axonopathy. Recent work also links MAPK activation to the development of neuropathic pain. PMID:18601656

Tomlinson, David R; Gardiner, Natalie J

2008-06-01

300

[Diagnosis of hereditary angioedema].  

PubMed

Hereditary angioedema is a rare disease, potentially life-threatening. It requires a specific treatment. Angioedema without wheals associated with abdominal attacks are very specific of this disease. Antigenemy and functional C1Inhibitor assays are necessary for the diagnosis. The hereditary angioedema with normal C1Inh (type III) is a diagnostic challenge. Bradykinin, secondary to kallikrein-kinin system activation is the key mediator of hereditary angioedema. Female are more symptomatic. Attacks can be induced by menstruations, pregnancies or contraceptive pills. PMID:25511656

Bouillet, Laurence

2015-01-01

301

The natural history of acute painful neuropathy in diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations have been made on nine cases of painful diabetic neuropathy of acute onset. All cases were male and all were associated with and preceded by precipitous and severe weight loss. The pain was of a continuous burning quality and experienced mainly in the legs, especially distally. Contact discomfort of the skin was often a troublesome feature, but sensory loss

A G Archer; P J Watkins; P K Thomas; A K Sharma; J Payan

1983-01-01

302

Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy with multiple nerve roots enlargement and hypomyelination associated with a missense mutation of the transmembrane domain of MPZ/P0.  

PubMed

In a patient affected with a slowly progressive, severe form of Dejerine-Sottas syndrome, symmetric enlargement of cranial nerves and focal hypertrophy of cervical and caudal roots were detected following MRI. Neuropathological features of the sural nerve disclosed a dramatic loss of myelinated fibres, with skewed-to-the-left, unimodal distribution of the few residual fibres, consistent with the diagnosis of congenital hypomyelination neuropathy. Genetic analysis revealed this condition to be associated with a heterozygous G to A transition at codon 167 in the exon 4 of the MPZ/P0 gene causing a Gly138Arg substitution in the transmembrane domain of the mature MPZ/P0 protein. Focal enlargement of the nerve trunks in demyelinating, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies (HMSN) was previously reported in both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases with root compression, but peculiar to this case is the diffuse involvement of both cranial and spinal nerves. We believe that the relevance of nerve trunk hypertrophy in HMSN is probably underevaluated: therefore MRI investigation of the head and spine should be included in the diagnostic study of selected HMSN patients. Molecular analysis of peripheral myelin genes will help to rule out misdiagnosed cases. PMID:12242557

Simonati, Alessandro; Fabrizi, Gian Maria; Taioli, Federica; Polo, Alberto; Cerini, Roberto; Rizzuto, Nicolò

2002-09-01

303

Ischemic optic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ischemic optic neuropathy (ION), based on vascular anatomy of the optic nerve, pathogenesis and clinical picture, consists of two distinct entities: anterior (AION) and posterior (PION) ischemic optic neuropathies. AION is due to interference with posterior ciliary artery supply to the optic nerve head and retrolaminar part of the optic nerve; it initially presents with visual loss and optic disc

Sohan Singh Hayreh

1978-01-01

304

Evaluation of neuropathy during intensive vincristine chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Back ground: Vincristine (VCR), is a chemotherapy drug, useful in the treatment of leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumor and it is a potent neurotoxin and sensory neuropathy drug which a common behavioral toxicity of this drug. Neuropathy is common squeal of intensive chemotherapy protocols that contain vincristine and corticosteroids. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective and descriptive study of neuropathy during in chemotherapy program with vincristine for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Data was analyzed by spss Version16 software. Results: From total of 51 cases, 23 patients had vincristine neuropathy (45%). Patients with visceral neuropathy have shown ileus, constipation in 13 patients (25%), occasionally severe diarrhea 11 (21%), mild diarrhea 7 (13.7%) and transient diarrhea in 16 patients (31%). Motor neuropathy were found in one patient with Bell, s palsy (1.9%) and one patient with Hoarseness. 12 patients (23.5%) had some type of complication together with sensory peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion: Almost half of patients with vincristin chemotherapy had neuropathy and the mean age of patients with neuropathy was 12.3 years. PMID:24575286

Dorchin, M; Masoumi Dehshiri, R; Soleiman, S; Manashi, M

2013-01-01

305

Hereditary Hemochromatosis (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... buildup can be prevented. Doctors usually diagnose iron overload with these blood tests: serum ferritin : measures the ... disease. Back Continue Treatment Doctors treat the iron overload from hereditary hemochromatosis by regularly drawing blood to ...

306

Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Case studies of two siblings suffering from a gum disorder in which enlargement of the gingival mucosa is caused by a fibrosis. The disorder in the two children was felt to be an hereditary recessive trait. (CD)

Nevin, N. C.

1971-01-01

307

Cognition in hereditary ataxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apart from motor control the cerebellum has been implicated in higher cortical functions such as memory, fronto-executive\\u000a functions, visuoconstructive skills and emotion. Clinical descriptions of hereditary ataxias mention cognitive impairment\\u000a to a variable extent. Systematic neuropsychological studies are limited. Regarding the neuropathological pattern in different\\u000a SCA types, cognitive deficits in hereditary ataxias are not likely to be contingent upon cerebellar

Katrin Burk

2007-01-01

308

[Hereditary optic neuropathies: from clinical signs to diagnosis].  

PubMed

Inherited optic atrophy must be considered when working up any optic nerve involvement and any systemic disease with signs of optic atrophy, even with a negative family history. There are two classical forms: dominant optic atrophy, characterized by insidious, bilateral, slowly progressive visual loss and temporal disc pallor, and Leber's optic atrophy, characterized by acute loss of central vision followed by the same event in the fellow eye within a few weeks to months, with disc hyperemia in the acute phase. Family history is critical for diagnosis. In the absence of family history, the clinician must rule out an identifiable acquired cause, i.e. toxic, inflammatory, perinatal injury, traumatic or tumoral, with orbital and brain imaging (MRI). Recessive optic atrophies are more rare and more severe and occur as part of multisystemic disorders, particularly Wolfram syndrome (diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and hearing loss). Effective treatments are limited; alcohol and smoking should be avoided. A cyclosporine trial (taken immediately upon visual loss in the first eye) is in progress in Leber's optic atrophy to prevent involvement of the fellow eye. PMID:24161764

Meunier, I; Lenaers, G; Hamel, C; Defoort-Dhellemmes, S

2013-12-01

309

Microvasculitis in Diabetic Lumbosacral Radiculoplexus Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

We present a case of a 60-year-old man with mild type 2 diabetes mellitus and step-wise progression of bilateral lower limb weakness, numbness and pain over a one year period. At the time of evaluation, he used a walker. He had elevated CSF protein, abnormal cooling and heat-pain thresholds on quantitative sensory testing, and NCS/EMG consistent with bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathies. Because it was not clear if the disease was still active, a right superficial peroneal nerve biopsy was performed and showed evidence of active axonal degeneration, ischemic injury, and microvasculitis. Based on these results, the patient was diagnosed with diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN) and was treated with weekly intravenous methylprednisolone with marked improvement of neurological symptoms and signs. This case illustrates the typical clinical, electrophysiologic and pathological features of DLRPN and the utility of nerve biopsy to judge ongoing disease activity. PMID:19730021

Tracy, Jennifer A.; Engelstad, JaNean K.; Dyck, P. James B.

2009-01-01

310

Role of nitrosative and oxidative stress in neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Evidences of oxidative and/or nitrosative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in experimental and human studies. This study is aimed to assess the serum peroxynitrite and oxidized lipoproteins in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with clinical and laboratory evidences of peripheral neuropathy. Materials and Methods: Eighty four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (51 of them had neuropathy) and 31 apparent healthy subjects were studied in the unit of neurophysiology at the University Hospital of Medical College, Al-Nahrin University in Baghdad, Iraq. Neuropathy total symptom score (NTSS), neuropathy impairment score in the lower leg (NIS-LL), and nerve conduction velocity of sensory (ulnar and sural) and motor (ulnar and common peroneal) nerves were used to assess the neuropathy. Fasting venous blood was obtained from each participant for the determination of serum glucose and oxidized lipoproteins. Results: The electrophysiology study revealed significant decrease in conduction velocity of ulnar (sensory and motor components), sural, and common peroneal nerves in diabetic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy and healthy subjects. Significant high level of serum peroxynitrite was found in diabetic patients with or without neuropathy compared with non-diabetics. The changes in serum-oxidized lipoproteins in patients with diabetics with or without neuropathy were non-significantly differed from healthy subjects. Neither nitrosative stress nor oxidative stress indices correlated with the variables that are related to the neuropathy. Conclusion: It concludes that evidence of nitrosative and to less extent the oxidative stress is associated with neuropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus and their indices not correlated with variables related to neuropathy. PMID:22346190

Al-Nimer, Marwan S; Al-Ani, Fakhir S; Ali, Fatima S

2012-01-01

311

Controversial entrapment neuropathies.  

PubMed

There is no significant disagreement about the major common entrapment neuropathies, such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), ulnar neuropathy at the elbow, and peroneal neuropathy at the knee. In contrast, there is a group of entrapment syndromes about which there is major disagreement, including whether or not they even exist. There are other entrapment syndromes about which clinical questions arise on a regular basis, and which are the subject of this discussion. These include thoracic outlet syndrome, radial tunnel syndrome, ulnar nerve entrapment at the arcade of Struthers, piriformis syndrome, and tarsal tunnel syndrome. PMID:19010284

Campbell, William W; Landau, Mark E

2008-10-01

312

Peripheral neuropathy after hair dye exposure: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a case of length-dependent sensory axonal polyneuropathy due to lead exposure from a cosmetic product. Serial follow-ups showed a direct relationship between the lead level, clinical symptoms, and the polyneuropathy. Our patient had a relatively short-term exposure to lead after misusing a hair dye on his beard. Nerve conduction studies showed a predominantly axonal sensory neuropathy that correlated with lead blood levels and reached 3 times the upper limit of normal. The patient had an unexpected sensory predominant neuropathy. He had a full recovery after stopping the lead-containing product. Blood lead levels were noted to be below previously reported toxic levels. No other systemic signs of lead toxicity were noted. This could be related to the mucosal route of absorption inducing a reversible injury at lower than previously reported lead levels and after a shorter duration of exposure. PMID:24872215

Deeb, Wissam; Cachia, David; Quinn, Colin; Salameh, Johnny

2014-06-01

313

Dystonin/Bpag1 is a necessary endoplasmic reticulum/nuclear envelope protein in sensory neurons  

SciTech Connect

Dystonin/Bpag1 proteins are cytoskeletal linkers whose loss of function in mice results in a hereditary sensory neuropathy with a progressive loss of limb coordination starting in the second week of life. These mice, named dystonia musculorum (dt), succumb to the disease and die of unknown causes prior to sexual maturity. Previous evidence indicated that cytoskeletal defects in the axon are a primary cause of dt neurodegeneration. However, more recent data suggests that other factors may be equally important contributors to the disease process. In the present study, we demonstrate perikaryal defects in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons at stages preceding the onset of loss of limb coordination in dt mice. Abnormalities include alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein expression, indicative of an ER stress response. Dystonin in sensory neurons localized in association with the ER and nuclear envelope (NE). A fusion protein ofthe dystonin-a2 isoform, which harbors an N-terminal transmembrane domain, associated with and reorganized the ER in cell culture. This isoform also interacts with the NE protein nesprin-3{alpha}, but not nesprin-3{beta}. Defects in dt mice, as demonstrated here, may ultimately result in pathogenesis involving ER dysfunction and contribute significantly to the dt phenotype.

Young, Kevin G. [Ottawa Health Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H 8L6 (Canada); University of Ottawa Center for Neuromuscular Disease, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Kothary, Rashmi [Ottawa Health Research Institute, 501 Smyth Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H 8L6 (Canada); University of Ottawa Center for Neuromuscular Disease, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: rkothary@ohri.ca

2008-09-10

314

[Occupational toxic neuropathies: morphology in peripheral nerve biopsies].  

PubMed

Many peripheral neuropathies are caused by the (acute or chronic) toxic action of metals, solvents, pesticides, and other occupational and environmental contaminants. These agents often reproduce the anatomoclinical pictures of hereditary (e.g., Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease), autoimmune (Guillain-Barrè syndrome), or dysmetabolic (thiamine deficiency, diabetic neuropathy) forms. Toxic peripheral neuropathies can be classified on the basis of etiology, clinical features (sensitive, motor, sensitive-motor), or histopathology: neuronopathies (uncommon, mostly secondary to retrograde axonal degeneration; e.g., arsenic, thallium), axonopathies (acrylamide, esacarbons, CS2, organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy), myelinopathies (trichloroethylene), mixed forms (axonal and demyelinating: lead). For many substances, experimental research has led to the identification of the molecular and cellular targets of neurotoxicity. Several compounds are active by biotransformation (e.g., the esacarbons n-hexane and MnBK are neurotoxic since they are metabolized to 2,5-hexanedione), Genetic, physiological and environmental factors determine the individual metabolic set-up, and they may give origin to differences in the workers' sensitivity. Cessation of exposure is often followed by (microscopically observable) regenerative phenomena and clinical improvement. The morphology of neuropathies can be studied through peripheral nerve biopsy. Samples of sural nerve (or other nervous trunks of the limbs), adequately fixed, sectioned, and stained, allow the observation of alterations in axonal fibres (e.g., giant-axonal neuropathy, dying back neuropathy), myelin (demyelination), Schwann cells, interstitium, and blood vessels; possible inflammatory infiltrates; fibre density; regenerative phenomena (growth cone, remyelination). In occupational medicine, biopsy is indicated when the anamnestic-clinical picture, laboratory tests, and instrumental exams leave doubts about the nature, type, and entity of the neurological damage. In such cases, current optical and electron microscopy techniques can be very useful for injury evaluation, prognosis, and follow-up. PMID:23477107

Scelsi, Roberto; Candura, Stefano M

2012-01-01

315

Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?  

PubMed

Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms. PMID:22623149

Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

2012-08-01

316

Diminished Superoxide Generation Is Associated With Respiratory Chain Dysfunction and Changes in the Mitochondrial Proteome of Sensory Neurons From Diabetic Rats  

E-print Network

OBJECTIVE Impairments in mitochondrial function have been proposed to play a role in the etiology of diabetic sensory neuropathy. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial dysfunction in axons of sensory neurons in type 1 diabetes is due...

Akude, Eli; Zherebitskaya, Elena; Chowdhury, Subir K. Roy; Smith, Darrell R.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.; Fernyhough, Paul

2011-09-28

317

POI12 Electrophysiological sensory demyelination in typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundElectrophysiological demyelination of sensory nerves is not routinely assessed in the evaluation of suspected chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Its usefulness is unknown.MethodsWe compared in 19 patients with typical chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and 26 controls with distal large fibre sensory axonal neuropathy, forearm median sensory conductions, sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) amplitudes and durations, and sensory nerve conduction

S Samarasekera; Y A Rajabally

2010-01-01

318

Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy (CHN)  

MedlinePLUS

... Progress Search form Search Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Congenital Hypomyelinating Neuropathy (CHN) What is Congenital Hypomyelinating ... is a subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), a genetic, neurological disorder that causes damage to ...

319

[Paraneoplastic neuropathy with positive anti-Hu].  

PubMed

The case of a 72-year-old woman presenting sensory neuropathy and anti-Hu antibodies is reported. She was admitted in November 1995 with a one year history of sensory neuropathy. Her first symptoms were painful numbness and dysesthesias in both feet. She experienced progression of the sensory symptoms affecting upper limbs, and clumsiness of gait. One month before admission she complained of diminished strength in both hands. The neurologic examination showed anicocoric fixed pupils, with no reaction to light; convergence miosis was evident in the right eye (Argyll-Robertson pupil). In the lower limbs she had very mild distal weakness, and tendon reflexes were universally abolished. Pin and touch sensation, position sense and pallesthesia were absent in all four limbs. Romberg test was elicited, and a tabetic gait was patent. Pseudoathetotic movements were observed in hands and feet. An ulcer was present in the fifth finger of the right foot. Routine blood biochemistry and hematology showed a ESR of 105 and an increased IgG in the immune-electrophoretic run. Neurophysiologic evaluation disclosed a mild demyelinating neuropathy. Positive anti-Hu antibodies were found in the serum (Western blot - Athena Diagnostics); CSF was normal but not tested for anit-Hu. An abdominal CT scan disclosed multiple hypodense nodules in liver, right adrenal gland and peritoneum. A chest CT scan showed a hyperdense mass in the lower right pulmonary lobe and enlarged retrocava-pretracheal lymph nodes. A biopsy of the peritoneal nodule was performed, showing a metastatic small cell carcinoma. The patient died eight days after discharge. Although multiple organs were affected, she was independent until death, showing an indolent clinical course. PMID:9706256

Casas Parera, I; Fischman, D; Paz, L; Lehkuniec, E; Muchnik, S

1998-01-01

320

Neuropathological alterations in diabetic truncal neuropathy: evaluation by skin biopsy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To describe the neuropathological features in skin biopsies from patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy.?METHODS—Three patients with diabetic truncal neuropathy underwent skin biopsies from both symptomatic and asymptomatic regions of the chest and trunk. After local anaesthesia, biopsies were performed using a 3 mm diameter punch device (Acupunch). Intraepidermal nerve fibres (IENFs), the most distal processes of small myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibres, were identified after staining with PGP 9.5 as previously described.?RESULTS—Diabetes was diagnosed at the time of the neurological presentation in two, and one was a known diabetic patient. All three had associated sensory-motor polyneuropathy. In all, skin biopsies showed a marked reduction of both epidermal and dermal nerve fibres in the symptomatic dermatomes, compared with skin from asymptomatic truncal areas. In one patient, a follow up skin biopsy when symptoms had improved showed a return of IENFs.?CONCLUSIONS—In diabetic truncal neuropathy, skin biopsies from symptomatic regions show a loss of IENFs. After clinical recovery, there is a return of the IENF population, suggesting that improvement occurs by nerve regeneration. These findings suggest that sensory nerve fibre injury in diabetic truncal neuropathy is distal to or within the sensory ganglia. Skin biopsy provides a possible tool for understanding the pathophysiology of the disease.?? PMID:9810952

Lauria, G.; McArthur, J.; Hauer, P.; Griffin, J.; Cornblath, D.

1998-01-01

321

[Diabetes mellitus and autoimmune neuropathy].  

PubMed

The term "diabetic neuropathy" refers to many varieties of neuropathies, including diabetic peripheral neuropathies (DPNs). DPNs are categorized into generalized and focal/multifocal varieties. Diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) and diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) are typical DPNs, and their development is clearly linked to hyperglycemia and subsequent metabolic and ischemic change. On the other hand, other forms of neuropathy, including multifocal diabetic neuropathies (e.g., lumbosacral, thoracic, and cervical radiculoplexus neuropathies) are thought to be associated with inflammatory or immune processes. Diabetic patients can also develop chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). CIDP in diabetic patients (DM-CIDP) should be ruled out, especially in patients with advanced DSPN. Recently, it was reported that diabetic radiculoplexus neuropathies as well as CIDP respond favorably to immunotherapy. Thus, these immune-mediated diabetic neuropathies are treatable, and should be differentiated from advanced DSPN. PMID:24523312

Deguchi, Takahisa; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Takashima, Hiroshi

2014-02-01

322

Inherited mitochondrial neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) occasionally manifest as polyneuropathy either as the dominant feature or as one of many other manifestations (inherited mitochondrial neuropathy). MIDs in which polyneuropathy is the dominant feature, include NARP syndrome due to the transition m.8993T>, CMT2A due to MFN2 mutations, CMT2K and CMT4A due to GDAP1 mutations, and axonal\\/demyelinating neuropathy with external ophthalmoplegia due to POLG1 mutations.

Josef Finsterer

2011-01-01

323

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy is a common dose-limiting toxicity of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN)\\u000a causes numerous debilitating symptoms, impairs functional capacity, and results in dose reductions or possible cessation of\\u000a chemotherapy. Analgesic or neurotropic agents are only modestly effective in treating neuropathic symptoms. Animal and human\\u000a studies into the pathogenesis of CIPN have demonstrated heterogeneity in the mechanism(s) of nerve injury

Anjali Bhagra; Ravi D. Rao

2007-01-01

324

Ischemic Optic Neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Ischemic optic neuropathy is classified by location as anterior or posterior and by etiology as arteritic or nonarteritic.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) presents with rapid, usually painless, monocular visual field loss in the presence\\u000a of optic disc edema. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? Arteritic AION is typically more severe and more frequently bilateral than nonarteritic AION, and is associated with severe

Anthony C. Arnold

325

Painful diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a worldwide epidemic, and associated neuropathy is its most costly and disabling complication. Given the rising prevalence of painful diabetic neuropathy, it is increasingly important that we understand the best ways to diagnose and treat this condition. Diagnostic tests in this field are evolving rapidly. These include the use of skin biopsies to measure small unmyelinated fibers, as well as even newer techniques that can measure both small unmyelinated fibers and large myelinated fibers in the same biopsy. The main treatments for painful diabetic neuropathy remain management of the underlying diabetes and drugs for the relief of pain. However, emerging evidence points to major differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes, including the ability of glycemic control to prevent neuropathy. Enhanced glucose control is much more effective at preventing neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes than in those with type 2 disease [corrected]. This dichotomy emphasizes the need to study the pathophysiologic differences between the two types of diabetes, because different treatments may be needed for each condition. The impact of the metabolic syndrome on neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes may account for the difference between the two types of diabetes and requires further study. Finally, neuropathic pain is under-recognized and undertreated despite an ever evolving list of effective drugs. Evidence exists to support several drugs, but the optimal sequence and combination of these drugs are still to be determined. PMID:24803311

Peltier, Amanda; Goutman, Stephen A; Callaghan, Brian C

2014-01-01

326

The Association between Autoantibodies and Peripheral Neuropathy in Lupus Nephritis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim. The sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers used for predicting peripheral neuropathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and nephritis (SLE-LN) remain unsatisfactory. This study aimed to determine the autoantibodies levels in SLE-LN patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods. Data of 559 SLE-LN patients were collected retrospectively, including titers of autoantibodies, electrodiagnostic studies, and clinical manifestations. Results. The neurologic manifestations of the SLE-LN patients were diverse and nonspecific. The prevalence rate of peripheral polyneuropathy was 2.68%, of which about 73.33% was mixed sensory-motor polyneuropathy. Numbness and functional gastrointestinal problems were the most prevalent symptoms and these were noted in every subtype of peripheral neuropathy. Among all the serology markers, anti-Ro was significantly associated with neuropathy related to SLE (P = 0.009). Conclusion. Peripheral neuropathy among LN patients is rare and may be easily overlooked. This study demonstrated that positive anti-Ro antibody may imply neuropathy in LN patients. Thus, anti-Ro can be considered a biomarker that should be added to the panel of conventional autoantibodies in LN patients. PMID:24864250

Su, Yu-Jih; Huang, Chi-Ren; Chang, Wen-Neng; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Kung, Chia-Te; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Su, Chih-Min; Cheng, Ben-Chung; Chang, Ya-Ting; Lu, Cheng-Hsien

2014-01-01

327

Comparison of Efficiencies of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument, Neurothesiometer, and Electromyography for Diagnosis of Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Aim. This study compares the effectiveness of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (MNSI), neurothesiometer, and electromyography (EMG) in detecting diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes type 2. Materials and Methods. 106 patients with diabetes type 2 treated at the outpatient clinic of Ankara Numune Education and Research Hospital Department of Endocrinology between September 2008 and May 2009 were included in this study. Patients were evaluated by glycemic regulation tests, MNSI (questionnaire and physical examination), EMG (for detecting sensorial and motor defects in right median, ulnar, posterior tibial, and bilateral sural nerves), and neurothesiometer (for detecting alterations in cold and warm sensations as well as vibratory sensations). Results. According to the MNSI score, there was diabetic peripheral neuropathy in 34 (32.1%) patients (score ?2.5). However, when the patients were evaluated by EMG and neurothesiometer, neurological impairments were detected in 49 (46.2%) and 79 (74.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusion. According to our findings, questionnaires and physical examination often present lower diabetic peripheral neuropathy prevalence. Hence, we recommend that in the evaluation of diabetic patients neurological tests should be used for more accurate results and thus early treatment options to prevent neuropathic complications. PMID:23818897

Mete, Turkan; Aydin, Yusuf; Saka, Mustafa; Cinar Yavuz, Halise; Bilen, Sule; Yalcin, Yavuz; Arli, Berna; Berker, Dilek; Guler, Serdar

2013-01-01

328

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with varying penetrance and expressivity. Some of the most devastating consequences of this disease result from cerebral vascular malformations that manifest themselves in either arteriovenous fistulae (AVF), small nidus-type arteriovenous malformations (AVM) or micro- AVMs with a nidus less than 1 cm in size. HHT displays an age-related penetrance

Timo Krings; Augustin Ozanne; Soke M. Chng; Hortensia Alvarez; Georges Rodesch; Pierre L. Lasjaunias

2006-01-01

329

Hereditary etiologies of hypomagnesemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnesium ions are essential to all living cells. As the second most abundant intracellular cation, magnesium has a crucial role in fundamental metabolic processes such as DNA and protein synthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme function, ion channel regulation, and neuromuscular excitability. After presenting an overview of magnesium homeostasis, we review the etiologies of hypomagnesemia, with an emphasis on hereditary causes.

Robert F Reilly; Amir Said Alizadeh Naderi

2008-01-01

330

Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange  

MedlinePLUS

... Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset peripheral neuropathy is related to their exposure to Agent Orange or other herbicides during service when the disease ...

331

Genotypic and phenotypic correlation in an Italian population of hereditary amyloidosis TTR-related (HA-TTR): clinical and neurophysiological aids to diagnosis and some reflections on misdiagnosis.  

PubMed

131 HA-TTR patients from a single referral centre presented at onset five major clinical syndromes: (1) the typical "Portuguese variant" axonal polyneuropathy with dissociated (syringomyelic like) sensory loss and autonomic dysfunction; (2) bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome; (3) restless leg syndrome with impotence and unexplained loss of weight; (4) pure motor neuropathy without autonomic abnormalities; (5) recurrent small brain or spinal cord ischemia or haemorrhages with leptomeningeal amyloid deposition (and late superficial siderosis of the central nervous system) and vitreous deposits. Some patients in our population presented a "pseudodemyelinating" onset of the somatic neuropathy, as well as atypical motor neuropathy simulating lower motor neuron disease. The five syndromes can overlap in advanced stages of the disease. Genetic screening of HA-TTR could be worthwhile in any idiopathic progressive axonal peripheral neuropathy, as well as in drug resistant demyelinating sensory-motor neuropathy or in pure motor neuropathy, when multi-organ involvement is present. PMID:22620967

Salvi, Fabrizio; Pastorelli, Francesca; Plasmati, Rosaria; Bartolomei, Illaria; Dall'Osso, Daniela; Rapezzi, Claudio

2012-06-01

332

Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy: A comprehensive survey.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a potentially dose limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents like taxanes, vinca-alkaloids, platinum compounds, bortezomib and thalidomide. Supposed pathogenetic mechanisms of CIPN are axonopathy through dying back axon damage and neuronopathy in which the cell bodies of the dorsal root ganglia are involved. The exact pathophysiology however is not clear and different underlying mechanisms have been proposed for different classes of anti-cancer drugs. Sensory symptoms, like pain, numbness and tingling are most common, but motor weakness, autonomic dysfunction and even cranial nerve involvement may occur. CIPN can be painful and/or disabling, causing significant loss of functional abilities and decreasing quality of life. This can lead to dose reductions, discontinuation of treatment and may thus, ultimately, affect survival. Risk factors for CIPN include dose per cycle, cumulative dose, treatment schedule, duration of infusion, administration of other chemotherapeutics, comorbidity and pre-existing peripheral neuropathy. The exploration of polymorphisms in genes associated with incidence or severity of neuropathy might result in identifying individuals being at higher risk of neurotoxicity. An update on genes possibly associated with CIPN is given. CIPN may be reversible or be more or less permanent. Many preventive and treatment strategies have been explored, without significant efficacy up till now. In this review we describe the different drug-related characteristics of CIPN, pharmacogenomic studies, neurophysiological findings, treatment and outcome, and neuroprotective strategies. PMID:24830939

Miltenburg, N C; Boogerd, W

2014-08-01

333

Inherited peripheral neuropathies due to mitochondrial disorders.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial disorders (MIDs) are frequently responsible for neuropathies with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PNP) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. The last years have seen a growing list of evidence demonstrating that mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics might be dysfunctional in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT2), and these mechanisms might present a common link between dissimilar CMT2-causing genes. PMID:24768438

Cassereau, J; Codron, P; Funalot, B

2014-05-01

334

Focal peripheral neuropathies in instrumental musicians.  

PubMed

Instrumental musicians often seek medical consultation for symptoms suggestive of nerve entrapment. About 20% of those seen in the author's performing artists' clinic were diagnosed with a focal neuropathy. In general, neuropathies that are most common in the overall population tend also to be most common among musicians, although some expectations exist, including, for example, localized peri-oral sensory syndromes associated with playing a brass instrument, and, possibly, ulnar neuropathies related to the playing position of bowed string players. The diagnosis is made, as always, by careful clinical assessment, including observation of the instrumentalist playing, with ancillary procedures such as nerve conduction studies and needle electromyography adding to the accuracy of the diagnosis. Treatment is similar to that used in nonmusicians, but certain factors, including the musician's requirement for extraordinary neuromuscular dexterity, may influence the therapeutic decisions. Very limited long-term outcome results are available, and additional studies in musicians would be helpful in determining the most appropriate therapeutic approaches. Virtually no longitudinal studies have been performed to look at methods for preventing these disorders. PMID:17097478

Lederman, Richard J

2006-11-01

335

Infantile peripheral neuropathy, deafness, and proximal tubulopathy associated with a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes are a group of autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by reduction of the amount of mitochondrial DNA in the affected tissue (muscle, liver, brain, or kidneys). We report a case of an infant with myopathy, deafness, peripheral neuropathy, nephrocalcinosis, proximal renal tubulopathy, moderate lactic acidosis, and a novel mutation of the RRM2B gene. PMID:24382854

Stojanovi?, Vesna; Mayr, Johannes A.; Sperl, Wolfgang; Bariši?, Nenad; Doronjski, Aleksandra; Milak, Gordana

2013-01-01

336

Multifocal Motor Neuropathy: Update on Clinical Characteristics, Pathophysiological Concepts and Therapeutic Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is an acquired immune-mediated neuropathy characterized by chronic or stepwise progressive asymmetrical limb weakness without sensory deficits. The upper extremities are more often affected than the lower extremities with distal paresis dominating over proximal paresis. Important diagnostic features are persistent multifocal partial conduction blocks (CBs) and the presence of high-titer anti-GM1 serum antibodies. Motor neuron disease,

Sven G. Meuth; Christoph Kleinschnitz

2010-01-01

337

Threshold dose for peripheral neuropathy following intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) in a large animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation injury to peripheral nerve is a dose-limiting toxicity in the clinical application of intraoperative radiotherapy, particularly for pelvic and retroperitoneal tumors. Intraoperative radiotherapy-related peripheral neuropathy in humans receiving doses of 20-25 Gy is manifested as a mixed motor-sensory deficit beginning 6-9 months following treatment. In a previous experimental study of intraoperative radiotherapy-related neuropathy of the lumbro-sacral plexus, an approximate

Timothy J. Kinsella; Anne Marie Deluca; Margaret Barnes; William Anderson; Richard Terrill; William F. Sindelar

1991-01-01

338

A Case of Diabetic Neuropathy Combined with Guillain-Barre Syndrome  

PubMed Central

A 59-year-old man was admitted with numbness, pain, and a tingling sensation in both lower legs. He was initially diagnosed with diabetic peripheral neuropathy based on a symptom questionnaire and a quantitative sensory test. Despite symptomatic treatment of diabetic neuropathy, he complained of worsening sensory symptoms and additional motor weakness in both lower extremities. As the motor weakness of both extremities became more aggravated over time, brain and spine imaging tests and a nerve conduction test were performed. The nerve conduction study revealed motor and sensory axonal neuropathy. In his cerebrospinal analysis, albumino-cytologic dissociation, which is compatible to the Gillian-Barre syndrome, was found. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed albumino-cytologic dissociation. He was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and his neurologic deficits were gradually improved. PMID:20526398

Jin, Heung-Yong; Lee, Kyung-Ae; Kim, So-Young; Park, Ji-Hyun; Baek, Hong-Sun

2010-01-01

339

Rodent models of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is a common and dose-limiting side effect of many chemotherapeutic drugs. These include platinum compounds, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, proteasome inhibitors, and others such as thalidomide and suramin. Although many rodent models have been developed using either mice or rats, there is limited consistency in the dose or mode of delivery of the drug; the sex, age, and genetic background of the animal used in the study; and the outcome measures used in evaluation of the peripheral neuropathy. Behavioral assays are commonly used to evaluate evoked sensory responses but are unlikely to be a good representation of the spontaneous sensory paresthesias that the patients experience. Electrophysiologic tests evaluate the integrity of large myelinated populations and are useful in drugs that cause either demyelination or degeneration of large myelinated axons but are insensitive to degeneration of unmyelinated axons in early stages of neuropathy. Histopathologic tools offer an unbiased way to evaluate the degree of axonal degeneration or changes in neuronal cell body but are often time consuming and require processing of the tissue after the study is completed. Nevertheless, use of drug doses and mode of delivery that are relevant to the clinical protocols and use of outcome measures that are both sensitive and objective in evaluation of the length-dependent distal axonal degeneration seen in most chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathies may improve the translational utility of these rodent models. PMID:24615440

Höke, Ahmet; Ray, Mitali

2014-01-01

340

[Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis].  

PubMed

Hereditary amyloidosis is an autosomal dominant fatal multisystem disease caused by extracellular deposition of misfolded proteins and, therefore represents a hereditary protein folding or deposition disease that leads to progressive organ damage and eventually death. In most instances mutations within the transthyretin gene are the underlying cause. The main manifestation is a rapidly progressing axonal sensorimotor and autonomic polyneuropathy (familial amyloid polyneuropathy, FAP). Cardiac involvement is frequent in FAP and additional manifestations include the gastrointestinal tract and the eyes. A second manifestation type is cardiomyopathy with little or no polyneuropathy (familial amyloid cardiomyopathy, FAC). For therapy, orthotopic liver transplantation has been established for 25 years. Recently, the oral agent tafamidis, a transthyretin stabilizer, was licensed for treatment of stage 1 polyneuropathy. Additional treatment options are currently being studied. PMID:25123367

Hund, E

2014-10-01

341

[Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia].  

PubMed

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome) is a development disorder of the vasculature characterized by telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations in specific locations. Among monogenic disorders, it is one of the most common, though affected individuals are widely underdiagnosed. The most common features of this disorder, nosebleeds, and telangiectases on the lips, hands, and oral mucosa are often quite subtle. Mutations in at least five genes may result in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, but mutations in two genes (ENG and ACVRL1/ALK1) account for approximately 85% of cases. Optimal management requires understanding the specific clinical patterns of these vascular malformations, especially their locations and timing during life. Therapeutic modulation of angiogenesis may be an effective therapy. PMID:23517771

Duffau, P; Lazarro, E; Viallard, J-F

2014-01-01

342

Hereditary Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous basal and squamous cell carcinomas are among the most frequent malignancies in the white population, with the annual incidence estimates ranging from 1 million to 3.5 million cases in the United States. These tumors can occur either sporadically or in the context of hereditary genodermatoses with cancer predisposition, such as basal cell nevus syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum, epidermolysis bullosa, or oculocutaneous albinism. Different genes and signaling pathways have been shown to play a central role in the development and growth of these tumors. This article overviews the clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and the most recent data on genetic routes of the major hereditary syndromes predisposed to the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer. PMID:23174490

Nikolaou, Vasiliki; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Tsao, Hensin

2013-01-01

343

CaV3.2 T-Type Calcium Channels in Peripheral Sensory Neurons Are Important for Mibefradil-Induced Reversal of Hyperalgesia and Allodynia in Rats with Painful Diabetic Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

We recently showed that streptozotocin (STZ) injections in rats lead to the development of painful peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN) accompanied by enhancement of CaV3.2 T-type calcium currents (T-currents) and hyperexcitability in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Here we used the classical peripherally acting T-channel blocker mibefradil to examine the role of CaV3.2 T-channels as pharmacological targets for treatment of painful PDN. When administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), at clinically relevant doses, mibefradil effectively alleviated heat, cold and mechanical hypersensitivities in STZ-treated diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner. We also found that CaV3.2 antisense (AS)-treated diabetic rats exhibit a significant decrease in painful PDN compared with mismatch antisense (MIS)-treated diabetic rats. Co-treatment with mibefradil (9 mg/kg i.p.) resulted in reversal of heat, cold and mechanical hypersensitivity in MIS-treated but not in AS-treated diabetic rats, suggesting that mibefradil and CaV3.2 AS share the same cellular target. Using patch-clamp recordings from acutely dissociated DRG neurons, we demonstrated that mibefradil similarly blocked T-currents in diabetic and healthy rats in a voltage-dependent manner by stabilizing inactive states of T-channels. We conclude that antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects of mibefradil in PDN are at least partly mediated by inhibition of CaV3.2 channels in peripheral nociceptors. Hence, peripherally acting voltage-dependent T-channel blockers could be very useful in the treatment of painful symptoms of PDN. PMID:24705276

Obradovic, Aleksandar Lj.; Hwang, Sung Mi; Scarpa, Joseph; Hong, Sung Jun; Todorovic, Slobodan M.; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

2014-01-01

344

Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is one of two distinct inherited colorectal cancer syndromes with known\\u000a genetic defects. It is estimated to account for approximately 5% of all large bowel cancers. Originally called Lynch syndrome\\u000a after Dr. Henry Lynch, it is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a\\u000a predilection for colorectal cancer and other secondary cancers in affected individuals. Although

W. Donald Buie; Anthony R. MacLean

345

Hereditary Channelopathies in Neurology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ion channelopathies are caused by malfunction or altered regulation of ion channel proteins due to hereditary or acquired\\u000a protein changes. In neurology, main phenotypes include certain forms of epilepsy, ataxia, migraine, neuropathic pain, myotonia,\\u000a and muscle weakness including myasthenia and periodic paralyses. The total prevalence of monogenic channelopathies in neurology\\u000a is about 35:100,000. Susceptibility-related mutations further increase the relevance of

Karin Jurkat-Rott; Holger Lerche; Yvonne Weber; Frank Lehmann-Horn

346

The Hereditary Syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the ambit of multiple tumors, an important issue is that of already identified hereditary syndromes, a group of anatomical-clinical\\u000a entities that have been well distinguished and studied for years. Such diseases have a common etiopathogenetic mechanism,\\u000a mostly represented by a genetic mutation. It is easy to understand how a patient, who has in his or her genetic history a

Nicola Carlomagno; Luigi Pelosio; Akbar Jamshidi; Marius Yabi; Francesca Duraturo; Paola Izzo; Andrea Renda

347

The two locus control of Leber hereditary optic neurophathy and a high penetrance in Japanese pedigrees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The maternal transmission of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) can be explained by the mitochondrial DNA mutation. However, the characteristic mode of inheritance, i.e. male predominance and reduced penetrance with late onset in females, suggests the simultaneous involvement of an X-linked gene in development of optic atrophy. We have assessed such a two-locus model of mitocnondrial and X-linked genes in

Makoto Nakamura; Yoshisada Fujiwara; Misao Yamamoto

1993-01-01

348

Periaxin mutations cause a broad spectrum of demyelinating neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have demonstrated that apparent loss-of-function mutations in the periaxin gene cause autosomal re- cessive Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy or severe demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. In this report, we extend the associated phenotypes with the identification of two additional families with novel periaxin gene mutations (C715X and R82fsX96) and provide detailed neuropathology. Each patient had marked sensory involvement; two siblings with a

Hiroshi Takashima; Cornelius F. Boerkoel; Peter De Jonghe; Chantal Ceuterick; Jean-Jacques Martin; Thomas Voit; Anna Williams; Peter J. Brophy; Vincent Timmerman; James R. Lupski

2002-01-01

349

Prevalence of somatic small fiber neuropathy in obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Somatic cutaneous small sensory fiber neuropathy (SSFN) can be an early manifestation of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus and\\/or insulin resistance among obese subjects and is often associated with pain, wound occurrence and impaired wound healing. It is yet unclear as to whether SSFN is prevalent among obese individuals without glucose and\\/or insulin dysregulation despite abundant evidence of delayed

R M Herman; J B Brower; D G Stoddard; A R Casano; J H Targovnik; J H Herman; P Tearse

2007-01-01

350

Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

14 cases of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION) were clinically analyzed, in whom we excluded known etiologies of optic nerve disturbances and confirmed the decreased blood supply to the posterior portion of the optic nerve. On the basis of our clinical findings, we have proposed the following criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic PION: (1) sudden onset of unilateral visual

Y. Isayama; T. Takahashi; M. Inoue; T. Jimura

1983-01-01

351

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This review attempts to outline the present understanding of diabetic autonomic neuropathy. The clinical features have been increasingly recognised but knowledge of the localization and morphology of the lesions and their pathogenesis remains fragmentary. A metabolic causation as postulated in somatic nerves accords best with clinical observations. Most bodily systems, particularly the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and urogenital, are involved with added

B. F. Clarke; D. J. Ewing; I. W. Campbell

1979-01-01

352

Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment  

PubMed Central

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side effect that occurs in many patients undergoing chemotherapy. It is often irreversible and frequently leads to early termination of treatment. In this study, we have identified two compounds, lithium and ibudilast, that when administered as a single prophylactic injection prior to paclitaxel treatment, prevent the development of CIPN in mice at the sensory-motor and cellular level. The prevention of neuropathy was not observed in paclitaxel-treated mice that were only prophylactically treated with a vehicle injection. The coadministration of lithium with paclitaxel also allows for administration of higher doses of paclitaxel (survival increases by 60%), protects against paclitaxel-induced cardiac abnormalities, and, notably, does not interfere with the antitumor effects of paclitaxel. Moreover, we have determined a mechanism by which CIPN develops and have discovered that lithium and ibudilast inhibit development of peripheral neuropathy by disrupting the interaction between paclitaxel, neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1), and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) to prevent treatment-induced decreases in intracellular calcium signaling. This study shows that lithium and ibudilast are candidate therapeutics for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy and could enable patients to tolerate more aggressive treatment regimens.—Mo, M., Erdelyi, I., Szigeti-Buck, K., Benbow, J. H., Ehrlich, B. E. Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment. PMID:22889832

Mo, Michelle; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Benbow, Jennifer H.; Ehrlich, Barbara E.

2012-01-01

353

Unusual manifestations of hereditary angioedema.  

PubMed

Hereditary angioedema is a hereditary disorder transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, characterized by reduced plasma concentration of C1 esterase inhibitor (type 1) or the presence of non functional C1 esterase inhibitor (type 2). We describe and discuss the case of a 35-year-old man who presented two unusual clinical manifestations of type 2 hereditary angioedema causing diverse emergency situations: acute abdomen and parasellar oedema. PMID:11132070

Neri, S; Ierna, D; Sfogliano, L

2000-06-01

354

Idiopathic neuropathy, prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peripheral neuropathy is a common problem encountered by neurologists and primary care physicians. While there are many causes for peripheral neuropathy, none can be identified in a large percentage of patients (“idiopathic neuropathy”). Despite its high prevalence, idiopathic neuropathy is poorly studied and understood. There is evolving evidence that impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes) is associated with idiopathic neuropathy. Preliminary data

A. Gordon Smith; J. Robinson Singleton

2006-01-01

355

Treatment of Diabetic Sensory Polyneuropathy  

PubMed Central

Opinion statement No current disease-modifying treatments have been shown definitively in randomized clinical trials to reduce or reverse diabetic sensory polyneuropathy (DSP). It is increasingly recognized that individuals with “prediabetes” or impaired glucose regulation can already have a “small-fiber” neuropathy, or mild DSP, in which sensory axons of both small and larger diameter are damaged. Small-fiber neuropathy is frequently associated with pain, and these patients may present to a neurologist for evaluation before the underlying glucose dysregulation has been diagnosed. It is important to identify these individuals, because aggressive diabetic control and lifestyle interventions can delay the onset of diabetes and may reverse small-fiber neuropathy associated with early diabetes mellitus. Although treatment currently focuses on pain associated with DSP, attention should be paid to potential risk factors for neuropathy. For example, glycemic control and hyperlipidemia should be improved with diet, exercise, and medications. Hypertension that is a risk marker for more severe neuropathy should be treated. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers not only treat hypertension but also may directly reduce the progression of neuropathy. Class I or II clinical studies support the use of sodium valproate, pregabalin, duloxetine, amitriptyline, gabapentin, venlafaxine, opioids, and topical capsaicin in treating diabetic neuropathic pain. Pregabalin and gabapentin are relatively well tolerated and have few medication interactions. Sodium valproate has been shown to be effective but is not recommended for use in women of childbearing potential, and patients must be monitored for hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia. Tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline are often used for nocturnal pain but require caution in the elderly or anyone with cardiac disease. Venlafaxine and duloxetine successfully treat neuropathic pain independently of their effect on depression. Opioid medications are associated with a high rate of adverse effects but with careful monitoring, they can be effective in treating resistant neuropathic pain. Capsaicin is an effective topical treatment that lacks systemic side effects. The lidocaine patch is effective in relieving pain associated with postherpetic neuralgia, but only class III evidence supports its use for diabetic neuropathic pain. No current Class I or II studies support other treatment modalities. PMID:21274758

Zilliox, Lindsay; Russell, James W.

2011-01-01

356

Pupil abnormalities in 131 cases of genetically defined inherited peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo investigate and correlate the frequency and types of pupil abnormalities that are associated with hereditary peripheral neuropathy in a large cohort of patients prospectively examined.MethodsA prospective study between 1998 and 2007. Patients were enrolled and examined after being seen in the neurology clinic. Data were collected on demographics, family and medical history. Patients had eye and pupillography testing carried

H Houlden; M M Reilly; S Smith

2009-01-01

357

Genetics Home Reference: Giant axonal neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Giant axonal neuropathy On this page: Description Genetic changes ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed October 2007 What is giant axonal neuropathy? Giant axonal neuropathy is an inherited ...

358

Detecting hereditary hemochromatosis.  

PubMed

Hereditary hemochromatosis is the most commonly inherited autosomal recessive disorder. Hemochromatosis is a current or potential progression of abnormally high accumulations of iron in the liver. If left untreated, the condition can lead to chronic or irreversible hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, arthritis, and organ failure. Common signs and symptoms seen in the primary care setting include fatigue, weakness, abdominal pain, palpitations, skin pigmentation changes, and arthropathy, but any symptom associated with organ damage may be reported. Because prompt intervention can cease or reverse the debilitating effects of iron overload, prompt disease diagnosis and treatments are imperative. PMID:10916830

Stephenson, D

2000-07-01

359

Pathophysiology of Hereditary Angioedema  

PubMed Central

The genetic deficiency of the C1 inhibitor is responsible for hereditary angioedema (HAE), which is a disease transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. More than 200 point mutations in the C1 inhibitor gene have been found to be associated with HAE. Patients with this disease suffer from recurrent angioedema, which is mediated by bradykinin derived from activation of the contact system. This system is physiologically controlled at several steps by the C1 inhibitor. In this review, we describe known mechanisms for the development of angioedema in patients with C1 inhibitor deficiency. PMID:25538858

Caccia, Sonia; Suffritti, Chiara

2014-01-01

360

Pediatric hereditary angioedema  

PubMed Central

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a lifelong illness characterized by recurrent swelling of the skin, intestinal tract, and, ominously, the upper airway. It is caused by inadequate activity of the protein C1-inhibitor, with dysfunction in the kallikrein/bradykinin pathway underlying the clinical symptoms. In addition to the physical symptoms, patients experience significant decrements in vocational and school achievement as well as in overall quality of life. Symptoms often begin in childhood and occur by age 20 in most patients, but life-threatening attacks are uncommon in the pediatric population. The availability of new therapies has transformed the management of HAE. PMID:24313851

MacGinnitie, Andrew J

2014-01-01

361

Diabetic Neuropathy: Mechanisms to Management  

PubMed Central

Neuropathy is the most common and debilitating complication of diabetes and results in pain, decreased motility, and amputation. Diabetic neuropathy encompasses a variety of forms whose impact ranges from discomfort to death. Hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress in diabetic neurons and results in activation of multiple biochemical pathways. These activated pathways are a major source of damage and are potential therapeutic targets in diabetic neuropathy. Though therapies are available to alleviate the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy, few options are available to eliminate the root causes. The immense physical, psychological, and economic cost of diabetic neuropathy underscores the need for causally targeted therapies. This review covers the pathology, epidemiology, biochemical pathways, and prevention of diabetic neuropathy, as well as discusses current symptomatic and causal therapies and novel approaches to identify therapeutic targets. PMID:18616962

Edwards, James L.; Vincent, Andrea; Cheng, Thomas; Feldman, Eva L.

2014-01-01

362

Management of Hereditary Hypercoagulable Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The clinical management of individuals with hereditary hypercoaguable disorders has evolved from initial broad recommendations of lifelong anticoagulation after first event of venous thromboembolism to a more intricate individualized risk-benefit analysis as studies have begun to delineate the complexity of interactions of acquired and hereditary factors which determine the predilection to thrombosis. The contri- bution of thrombophilic disorders to risk

Paula L. Bockenstedt

363

Searching for the Hereditary Molecule  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How was the hereditary molecule isolated and identified? What decisions do we need to make as we recreate the lab work of researchers like Oswald Avery and his colleagues? Using the simulation Searching for the Hereditary Molecule, we can manipulate virtual tubes of bacteria in a virtual lab to discover the transforming principle ourselves. * recreate classic experiments in the discovery of DNA

Marion Fass (Beloit College; Biology)

2006-05-20

364

Canine inherited hypertrophic neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recessively inherited hypertrophic neuropathy was discovered in Tibetan Mastiff dogs. Affected pups developed a generalized weakness with hyporeflexia shortly after weaning. Diagnostic findings in 10–18-week-old pups included: moderate to severe reduction in nerve conduction velocities, infrequent denervation potentials, and inconstant elevation in CSF protein. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of peripheral nerves and roots revealed widespread demyelination and primitive onion

J. F. Cummings; B. J. Cooper; A. Lahunta; T. J. Winkle

1981-01-01

365

Inherited Optic Neuropathies  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Inherited optic neuropathies are a diverse group of conditions presenting with mild to severe visual loss, colour vision\\u000a deficits, central\\/paracentral visual field defects, optic disc pallor and in many cases a positive family history. \\u000a \\u000a ? Modes of inheritance are dominant, recessive, X-linked and mitochondrial. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a ? The absence of a family history does not exclude this diagnosis as there are

Marcela Votruba

366

Median neuropathy at the wrist as an early manifestation of diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Aims/Introduction To elucidate the clinical significance of median neuropathy at the wrist (MN) in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods In total, 340 patients with diabetes who were hospitalized for glycemic control were enrolled in the present study. The diagnoses of MN and diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) were based on electrophysiological criteria. A total of 187 patients were divided into four subgroups: patients without MN or DPN; patients with MN without DPN; patients with MN and DPN; and patients with DPN without MN. Intergroup comparisons of clinical characteristics and results of nerve conduction studies were carried out. Results A total of 71 patients had neither MN nor DPN; 25 had MN, but no DPN; 55 had MN and DPN; and 36 had DPN, but no MN. In comparison with the MN and DPN group, the MN without DPN group included more patients in the early phase of diabetes (diagnosed within the past 5 years) and fewer patients with diabetic microangiopathy. Comparative median nerve conduction studies showed significantly lower motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, longer F-wave latencies, and smaller sensory nerve action potentials in patients with MN and DPN than in those without DPN. Conclusions MN in patients with diabetes could be attributed to an impairment in axonal function at common entrapment sites, and could be used to identify an early manifestation of diabetic neuropathy. PMID:25422772

Horinouchi, Shuji; Deguchi, Takahisa; Arimura, Kimiyoshi; Arimura, Aiko; Dochi, Yukari; Uto, Tadashi; Nakamura, Tomonori; Arimura, Yumiko; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Takashima, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

367

Optic neuropathy caused by Propionibacterium acnes pachymeningitis.  

PubMed

We describe a patient with vision loss from an optic neuropathy caused by Propionibacterium acnes pachymeningitis. The patient's optic neuropathy was stabilized with appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:24614085

Adesina, Ore-Ofe O; Stagg, Brian C; Digre, Kathleen B; Katz, Bradley J; Quigley, Edward P; Palmer, Cheryl A; Warner, Judith E A

2014-09-01

368

Inflammatory autoimmune neuropathy, presumably induced by bortezomib, in a patient suffering from multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor demonstrating substantial activity in multiple myeloma. One of its key toxicities is peripheral neuropathy, which is reversible in most patients. The possibility that bortezomib might in rare cases induce severe neuropathies by auto-inflammatory mechanisms remains controversial. We report here the case of a 65-year-old female myeloma patient who was initially treated with bortezomib, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone (PAD). At the end of the second cycle of PAD, the patient presented with a rapid and severe onset of paresis of the left arm, accompanied by progressive sensory neuropathy and increasing neuropathic pain. After an extensive neurological work-up, including electrophysiological and laboratory evaluations as well as magnet resonance tomography imaging, we diagnosed an inflammatory autoimmune neuropathy, presumably induced by bortezomib, with accentuation of the left arm nerve plexus. We subsequently initiated regular treatment with polyvalent immunoglobulins, which gradually improved the neurological symptoms. In conclusion, the identification of an inflammatory autoimmune neuropathy, presumably associated with bortezomib, is a rare but important complication. An extensive neurological examination should be performed in patients who develop severe or unusual sensory or motor deficits under therapy with bortezomib, so as to differentiate autoimmune from toxic neuropathies, as therapeutic strategies differ for each. PMID:21553020

Schmitt, Stefan; Goldschmidt, H; Storch-Hagenlocher, B; Pham, M; Fingerle-Rowson, G; Ho, A D; Neben, K

2011-06-01

369

Effect of High-Fat Diet on Peripheral Neuropathy in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective. Dyslipidemia may contribute to the development of peripheral neuropathy, even in prediabetics; however, few studies have evaluated vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress in patients with peripheral neuropathy. Methods. Using high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced prediabetic C57BL/6 mice, we assessed motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV) using a BIOPAC System and thermal algesia with a Plantar Test (Hargreaves' method) Analgesia Meter. Intraepidermal nerve fiber density and mean dendrite length were tested following standard protocols. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, respectively. Results. HFD-fed mice showed deficits in motor and sensory NCV, thermal hyperalgesia, reduced mean dendrite length, and VEGF-A expression in the plantar skin and increased 12/15-LOX in the sciatic nerve (P < 0.05 compared with controls). Conclusion. HFD may cause large myelinated nerve and small sensory nerve fiber damage, thus leading to neuropathy. The mean dendrite length may be a more sensitive marker for early detection of peripheral neuropathy. Reduced blood supply to the nerves and increased oxidative stress may contribute to the development and severity of peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25404943

Xu, Lingling; Tang, Dou; Guan, Meiping; Xie, Cuihua; Xue, Yaoming

2014-01-01

370

Therapy for vasculitic neuropathies.  

PubMed

The term vasculitis refers to a pathologic condition defined by inflammatory cell infiltration and destruction of blood vessels. Systemic vasculitis is classified as primary (eg, polyarteritis nodosa, Churg-Strauss syndrome) or secondary, the latter associated with connective tissue disorders, infections, medications, and rarely, as a paraneoplastic phenomenon. Neuropathy is a common complication of systemic vasculitis and is related to ischemic nerve fiber damage with axon loss. Peripheral neuropathy may be the sole manifestation of vasculitis, a condition termed nonsystemic vasculitic neuropathy (NSVN). Treatment of vasculitic neuropathy requires long-term immunosuppressive therapies with potential side effects. The diagnosis of vasculitis should be established by tissue (preferably nerve) biopsy. High-dose prednisone is the standard platform therapy for patients with systemic and NSVN; for those with systemic vasculitis, at least 3 to 12 months of treatment with cyclophosphamide (monthly intravenous pulse or daily oral therapy) is also necessary to sustain remission and allow successful prednisone tapering. The use of cyclophosphamide in patients with NSVN is controversial, but recent retrospective data suggest that those treated with prednisone and cyclophosphamide from the outset fare better than those initially treated only with prednisone. If prednisone is administered as monotherapy, cyclophosphamide should be added after several months if there is no improvement or relapse occurs with tapering of prednisone. Intravenous pulse and daily oral cyclophosphamide probably offer similar efficacy, although the risk of complications is greater with oral therapy. Azathioprine can be safely substituted for cyclophosphamide after 3 months without an increased relapse rate. Azathioprine, methotrexate, intravenous immune globulin, mycophenolate mofetil, plasma exchange, and rituximab can be offered to patients who are intolerant or have a contraindication to cyclophosphamide. However, efficacy is unproven for any of these therapies. Interferon-alpha, sometimes combined with plasma exchange, is used to treat vasculitis associated with hepatitis B infection. Some patients also may improve with corticosteroids. The classification of diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy as a vasculitic disorder remains controversial. However, there is compelling pathological evidence that this condition represents a T-cell-mediated microvasculitis. Some patients treated with intravenous corticosteroids may have greater recovery and improved pain control. PMID:16464407

Gorson, Kenneth C

2006-03-01

371

Hereditary spastic paraplegia: clinico-pathologic features and emerging molecular mechanisms.  

PubMed

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a syndrome designation describing inherited disorders in which lower extremity weakness and spasticity are the predominant symptoms. There are more than 50 genetic types of HSP. HSP affects individuals of diverse ethnic groups with prevalence estimates ranging from 1.2 to 9.6 per 100,000. Symptoms may begin at any age. Gait impairment that begins after childhood usually worsens very slowly over many years. Gait impairment that begins in infancy and early childhood may not worsen significantly. Postmortem studies consistently identify degeneration of corticospinal tract axons (maximal in the thoracic spinal cord) and degeneration of fasciculus gracilis fibers (maximal in the cervico-medullary region). HSP syndromes thus appear to involve motor-sensory axon degeneration affecting predominantly (but not exclusively) the distal ends of long central nervous system (CNS) axons. In general, proteins encoded by HSP genes have diverse functions including (1) axon transport (e.g. SPG30/KIF1A, SPG10/KIF5A and possibly SPG4/Spastin); (2) endoplasmic reticulum morphology (e.g. SPG3A/Atlastin, SPG4/Spastin, SPG12/reticulon 2, and SPG31/REEP1, all of which interact); (3) mitochondrial function (e.g. SPG13/chaperonin 60/heat-shock protein 60, SPG7/paraplegin; and mitochondrial ATP6); (4) myelin formation (e.g. SPG2/Proteolipid protein and SPG42/Connexin 47); (5) protein folding and ER-stress response (SPG6/NIPA1, SPG8/K1AA0196 (Strumpellin), SGP17/BSCL2 (Seipin), "mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia" owing to CcT5 mutation and presumably SPG18/ERLIN2); (6) corticospinal tract and other neurodevelopment (e.g. SPG1/L1 cell adhesion molecule and SPG22/thyroid transporter MCT8); (7) fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism (e.g. SPG28/DDHD1, SPG35/FA2H, SPG39/NTE, SPG54/DDHD2, and SPG56/CYP2U1); and (8) endosome membrane trafficking and vesicle formation (e.g. SPG47/AP4B1, SPG48/KIAA0415, SPG50/AP4M1, SPG51/AP4E, SPG52/AP4S1, and VSPG53/VPS37A). The availability of animal models (including bovine, murine, zebrafish, Drosophila, and C. elegans) for many types of HSP permits exploration of disease mechanisms and potential treatments. This review highlights emerging concepts of this large group of clinically similar disorders. PMID:23897027

Fink, John K

2013-09-01

372

Hereditary spastic paraplegia: clinico-pathologic features and emerging molecular mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a syndrome designation describing inherited disorders in which lower extremity weakness and spasticity are the predominant symptoms. There are more than 50 genetic types of HSP. HSP affects individuals diverse ethnic groups with prevalence estimates ranging from 1.2 to 9.6 per 100,000 [39, 70, 77, 154, 185]. Symptoms may begin at any age. Gait impairment that begins after childhood usually worsens very slowly over many years. Gait impairment that begins in infancy and early childhood may not worsen significantly. Post mortem studies consistently identify degeneration of corticospinal tract axons (maximal in the thoracic spinal cord) and degeneration of fasciculus gracilis fibers (maximal in the cervico-medullary region). HSP syndromes thus appear to involve motor-sensory axon degeneration affecting predominantly (but not exclusively) the distal ends of long central nervous system (CNS) axons. In general, proteins encoded by HSP genes have diverse functions including axon transport (e.g. SPG30/KIF1A, SPG10/KIF5A and possibly SPG4/Spastin); endoplasmic reticulum morphology (e.g. SPG3A/Atlastin, SPG4/Spastin, SPG12/reticulon 2, and SPG31/REEP1, all of which interact); mitochondrial function (e.g. SPG13/chaperonin 60/heat shock protein 60, SPG7/paraplegin; and mitochondrial ATP6; 4) myelin formation (e.g. SPG2/Proteolipid protein and SPG42/Connexin 47); 5) protein folding and ER-stress response (SPG6/NIPA1, SPG8/K1AA0196 (Strumpellin), SGP17/BSCL2 (Seipin) [113-115], “mutilating sensory neuropathy with spastic paraplegia” due to CcT5 mutation and presumably SPG18/ERLIN2); 6) corticospinal tract and other neurodevelopment (e.g. SPG1/L1 cell adhesion molecule and SPG22/thyroid transporter MCT8); 7) fatty acid and phospholipid metabolism (e.g. SPG28/DDHD1, SPG35/FA2H, SPG39/NTE, SPG54/DDHD2, and SPG56/CYP2U1); and 8) endosome membrane trafficking and vesicle formation (e.g. SPG47/AP4B1, SPG48/KIAA0415, SPG50/AP4M1, SPG51/AP4E, SPG52/AP4S1, and VSPG53/VPS37A). The availability of animal models (including bovine, murine, zebrafish, Drosophila, and C. elegans) for many types of HSP permits exploration of disease mechanisms and potential treatments. This review highlights emerging concepts of this large group of clinically similar disorders. For recent review of HSP including historical descriptions, differential diagnosis, and additional references see [78]. PMID:23897027

Fink, John K.

2014-01-01

373

Entrapment neuropathies of the lower extremity.  

PubMed

Neuropathies that affect the lower limbs are often encountered after trauma or iatrogenic injury or by entrapment at areas of anatomic restriction. Symptoms may initially be masked by concomitant trauma or recovery from surgical procedures. The nerves that serve the lower extremities arise from the lumbosacral plexus, formed by the L2-S2 nerve roots. The major nerves that supply the lower extremities are the femoral, obturator, lateral femoral cutaneous, and the peroneal (fibular) and tibial, which arise from the sciatic nerve, and the superior and inferior gluteal nerves. An understanding of the motor and sensory functions of these nerves is critical in recognizing and localizing nerve injury. Electrodiagnostic studies are an important diagnostic tool. A well-designed electromyography study can help confirm and localize a nerve lesion, assess severity, and evaluate for other peripheral nerve lesions, such as plexopathy or radiculopathy. PMID:23542774

Craig, Anita

2013-05-01

374

[Peripheral neuropathies due to mitochondrial disorders].  

PubMed

Involvement of peripheral nerves is frequent in mitochondrial disorders but with variable severity. Mitochondrial diseases causing peripheral neuropathies (PN) may be due to mutations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), as is the case in MERRF and MELAS syndromes, or to mutations of nuclear genes. Secondary abnormalities of mtDNA (such as multiple deletions of muscle mtDNA) may result from mitochondrial disorders due to mutations in nuclear genes involved in mtDNA maintenance. This is the case in several syndromes caused by impaired mtDNA maintenance, such as Sensory Ataxic Neuropathy, Dysarthria and Ophthalmoplegia (SANDO) due to recessive mutations in the POLG gene, which encodes the catalytic subunit of mtDNA polymerase (DNA polymerase gamma), or Mitochondrial Neuro-Gastro-Intestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), due to recessive mutations in the TYMP gene, which encodes thymidine phosphorylase. Genetically-determined PN due to mutations of mitofusin 2, a GTPase involved in the fusion of external mitochondrial membranes, were identified during the last few years. Characteristic ultrastructural lesions (abnormalities of axonal mitochondria) are observed on longitudinal sections of nerve biopsies in patients with PN due to mitofusin 2 mutations. PMID:19942242

Funalot, B

2009-12-01

375

Deletion of KCC3 in parvalbumin neurons leads to locomotor deficit in a conditional mouse model of peripheral neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum.  

PubMed

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC or ACCPN) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the disruption of the SLC12A6 gene, which encodes the K-Cl cotransporter-3 (KCC3). A ubiquitous deletion of KCC3 in mice leads to severe locomotor deficits similar to ACCPN patients. However, the underlying pathological mechanism leading to the disease remains unclear. Even though a recent study suggests that the neuropathic features of ACCPN are mostly due to neuronal loss of KCC3, the specific cell type responsible for the disease is still unknown. Here we established four tissue specific KCC3 knockout mouse lines to explore the cell population origin of ACCPN. Our results showed that the loss of KCC3 in parvalbumin-positive neurons led to significant locomotor deficit, suggesting a crucial role of these neurons in the development of the locomotor deficit. Interestingly, mice in which KCC3 deletion was driven by the neuron-specific enolase (NSE) did not develop any phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nociceptive neurons targeted with Nav1.8-driven CRE and Schwann cells targeted with a desert hedgehog-driven CRE were not involved in the development of ACCPN. Together, these results establish that the parvalbumin-positive neuronal population is an important player in the pathogenic development of ACCPN. PMID:25116249

Ding, Jinlong; Delpire, Eric

2014-11-01

376

Acupuncture treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy – a case series  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) occurs in 10 to 20% of cancer patients treated with neurotoxic chemotherapy. A mixture of sensory, sensorimotor and autonomic nervous system dysfunction can occur, resulting in deterioration in function and worsened quality of life. A major feature is discomfort and pain. Early termination of treatment and dose reduction of chemotherapy may be necessary. The clinical

Raimond Wong; Stephen Sagar

2006-01-01

377

Reversible axonal neuropathy from the treatment of AIDS and related disorders with 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC).  

PubMed

A total of 20 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex (ARC) received the anti-retroviral drug 2',3',dideoxycytidine in a phase I study at doses ranging from 0.03 mg/kg every 8 hours to 0.25 mg/kg every 8 hours. Of the 11 patients who participated in the study for more than 5 weeks, 9 developed symptoms and signs of a mainly sensory painful neuropathy that was confirmed by electromyography to be mixed sensory and motor neuropathy of axonal type. The neuropathy which developed on dideoxycytidine occurred between 9 and 12 weeks of treatment. One patient, who had the drug stopped at 3 weeks owing to thrombocytopenia, developed a similar clinical picture of a sensory peripheral neuropathy after 2 weeks off dideoxycytidine. However, he did not have electromyographic evidence of a neuropathy, and he subsequently returned to normal clinically while taking a lower dose of dideoxycytidine in an alternating regimen. Five patients were withdrawn from the study because of the neuropathy. The pattern of this neuropathy was different from that of the slowly progressive painful neuropathy of AIDS, in that there was (1) a sudden onset of intense burning discomfort in both feet sparing the hands at about the tenth week (mean 10.4 weeks) of treatment, (2) there was motor involvement in some patients without progression, and (3) onset of the neuropathy was temporally related to the administration of dideoxycytidine and began to resolve 3-5 weeks after its discontinuation. We believe that dideoxycytidine can be an axonal toxin, especially when given in high dose continuous regimens.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2558314

Dubinsky, R M; Yarchoan, R; Dalakas, M; Broder, S

1989-10-01

378

Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia  

PubMed Central

Background: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder, which affects various internal organs and has a tendency for bleeding. It has a classic triad of mucocutaneous telangiectasias, recurrent hemorrhages and positive familial history of first-degree relative. Epistaxis or gastrointestinal telangiectasia can be fatal in a small number of cases. Case Report: A 44-year-old woman came with complaints of recurrent episodes of hematemesis and epistaxis. Patient had a family history of similar complaints. Patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), which revealed telangiectasia in the stomach. Imaging of the abdomen showed features suggestive of arteriovenous shunting. Conclusion: HHT can remain undiagnosed for a long time, and is rarely being reported in the literature with management needing a multidisciplinary approach with early inputs from a gastroenterologist.

Kamath, Nagesh; Bhatia, Sumit; Singh, Harneet; Shetty, Anurag; Shetty, Shiran

2015-01-01

379

[Pathogenesis of hereditary angioedema].  

PubMed

The hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant transduced illness. Patients suffer from severe attacks with circumscribed swellings of the skin, or of the gastro-intestinal mucosa, or of whole organs. Laryngeal edema is responsible for airway obstruction and often for sudden death. Very often the abdominal symptoms are leading to false diagnosis and treatment. The diagnosis is proved by estimation of lowered C1-inhibitor (C1-INH) activity. The defect of C1-INH is responsible for the activation of the start phases of the complement system and of the kinin system. The liberation of vasoactive peptides and kinins induces the edematous swellings and severe pain. The acute symptoms of HAE are promptly resolved by intravenous application of C1-inhibitor concentrate. PMID:3617844

Reimold, W V

1987-06-01

380

[Hereditary hemochromatosis in children.  

PubMed

Iron is a micronutrient which is essential for the existence of organisms. This element participates in oxygen transport, as well as energetic, metabolic and immunologiocal processes. Disturbances of iron homeostasis lead to multiorgan dysfunction. Iron deficiency anemia is a common disorder in childhood, while iron overload is rarely observed in the developmental age. There are primary and secondary reasons for iron overload. Hereditary hemochromatosis is a metabolic disorder caused by the mutations of genes that control iron metabolism leading to increased intestinal absorption. Secondary hemochromatosis is caused by multiple transfusions, chronic hemolysis, or iron pills and iron-rich food intake. The article reviews the literature devoted to primary iron overload in childhood. PMID:25182268

Kaczorowska-Ha?, Barbara; My?liwiec, Ma?gorzata; Adamkiewicz-Dro?y?ska, El?bieta; Mi?osz, Ewa

2014-01-01

381

The natural history of acute painful neuropathy in diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed Central

Observations have been made on nine cases of painful diabetic neuropathy of acute onset. All cases were male and all were associated with and preceded by precipitous and severe weight loss. The pain was of a continuous burning quality and experienced mainly in the legs, especially distally. Contact discomfort of the skin was often a troublesome feature, but sensory loss was mild or absent, and reflex loss or depression not invariable. There were no accompanying motor signs. Depression and impotence were constant features. The weight loss responded to adequate control of the diabetes with insulin and was followed by improvement in the neuropathy. The severe manifestations subsided in all cases within 10 months, and in most cases within 6 months, and later resolved completely in all except one. No recurrences were observed after follow-up periods of up to 6 years. Abnormalities of nerve conduction were mild or even lacking. Sural nerve biopsies from three cases taken in the acute stage showed evidence of active degeneration of myelinated nerve fibres of all diameters and also degeneration of unmyelinated axons. There was a mild degree of demyelination. It is concluded that acute painful diabetic neuropathy is a distinct syndrome, occurring in insulin or noninsulin dependent patients of any duration, and unrelated to other diabetic complications. It is separable from other types of painful diabetic sensory polyneuropathy that have been described. PMID:6875582

Archer, A G; Watkins, P J; Thomas, P K; Sharma, A K; Payan, J

1983-01-01

382

[Surgical therapy for entrapment neuropathy].  

PubMed

Entrapment neuropathy is not uncommon, and surgical treatment is followed by favorite result. Therefore, to obtain an accurate diagnosis based on precise knowledge of the peripheral nervous system is very important. The most popular and useful symptoms and signs of the entrapment neuropathy is paresthesia, dysesthesia and Tinel's like sign at the lesion site. Nerve conduction study is also valuable for the accurate diagnosis. For the last 30 years, the author operated on 1,399 lesions of entrapment neuropathy. They consist of 877 carpal tunnel syndrome (63%), 284 tarsal tunnel syndrome (20%), 135 ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (10%), 53 piriformis syndrome (4%), 15 thoracic outlet syndrome (1%), and others. From the pathophysiological point to view, except for the carpal tunnel syndrome, several locations and factors come into play producing the entrapment of the nerve. The author would like to stress that the entrapment neuropathy is not severe disease, though, it strongly insult the patient's quality of life. PMID:23196438

Tachibana, Shigekuni

2012-01-01

383

Toxic peripheral neuropathy associated with commonly used chemotherapeutic agents.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy ranks among the most common non-haematological adverse effects of a number of effective chemotherapeutic agents, including platinum compounds, taxanes and vinca alkaloids. Newer agents, such as bortezomib, thalidomide and lenalidomide, frequently exert similar neurotoxic effects on peripheral nerves. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) may result from a variety of mechanisms and may be related to causal factors, such as single dose per course, cumulative dose and risk factors including treatment schedule, prior or concomitant administration of other neurotoxic agents, age and pre-existing peripheral neuropathy of other causes. The symptoms usually begin during chemotherapy and they may even worsen after cessation of treatment. In most of the cases, patients experience positive (pain, paresthesias) or negative (numbness) sensory symptoms in distal extremities in a stocking-and-glove distribution with less prominent motor and autonomic involvement. To date, several neuroprotective agents including thiols, neurotrophic factors, anticonvulsants and antioxidants have been tested in preclinical models and clinical open label or randomized controlled trials for their ability to prevent or treat symptoms of CIPN. Although several of these agents hold promise as possible neuroprotective factors, clinical data are still controversial and none have as yet robustly been proven effective against CIPN. This review critically looks at the pathogenesis, incidence, risk factors, diagnosis, characteristics and management of peripheral neuropathy associated with commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. We also highlight areas of future research to pursue. PMID:20941808

Argyriou, A A; Zolota, V; Kyriakopoulou, O; Kalofonos, H P

2010-01-01

384

Experimental diabetes in neonatal mice induces early peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy.  

PubMed

Animal models of diabetes do not reach the severity of human diabetic neuropathy but relatively mild neurophysiological deficits and minor morphometric changes. The lack of degenerative neuropathy in diabetic rodent models seems to be a consequence of the shorter length of the axons or the shorter animal life span. Diabetes-induced demyelination needs many weeks or even months before it can be evident by morphometrical analysis. In mice myelination of the peripheral nervous system starts at the prenatal period and it is complete several days after birth. Here we induced experimental diabetes to neonatal mice and we evaluated its effect on the peripheral nerve 4 and 8 weeks after diabetes induction. Neurophysiological values showed a decline in sensory nerve conduction velocity at both time-points. Morphometrical analysis of the tibial nerve demonstrated a decrease in the number of myelinated fibers, fiber size and myelin thickness at both time-points studied. Moreover, aldose reductase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activities were increased even if the amount of the enzyme was not affected. Thus, type 1 diabetes in newborn mice induces early peripheral neuropathy and may be a good model to assay pharmacological or gene therapy strategies to treat diabetic neuropathy. PMID:24846610

Ariza, L; Pagès, G; García-Lareu, B; Cobianchi, S; Otaegui, P J; Ruberte, J; Chillón, M; Navarro, X; Bosch, A

2014-08-22

385

Prevention of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by lithium pretreatment.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating side effect that occurs in many patients undergoing chemotherapy. It is often irreversible and frequently leads to early termination of treatment. In this study, we have identified two compounds, lithium and ibudilast, that when administered as a single prophylactic injection prior to paclitaxel treatment, prevent the development of CIPN in mice at the sensory-motor and cellular level. The prevention of neuropathy was not observed in paclitaxel-treated mice that were only prophylactically treated with a vehicle injection. The coadministration of lithium with paclitaxel also allows for administration of higher doses of paclitaxel (survival increases by 60%), protects against paclitaxel-induced cardiac abnormalities, and, notably, does not interfere with the antitumor effects of paclitaxel. Moreover, we have determined a mechanism by which CIPN develops and have discovered that lithium and ibudilast inhibit development of peripheral neuropathy by disrupting the interaction between paclitaxel, neuronal calcium sensor 1 (NCS-1), and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R) to prevent treatment-induced decreases in intracellular calcium signaling. This study shows that lithium and ibudilast are candidate therapeutics for the prevention of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy and could enable patients to tolerate more aggressive treatment regimens. PMID:22889832

Mo, Michelle; Erdelyi, Ildiko; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Benbow, Jennifer H; Ehrlich, Barbara E

2012-11-01

386

Subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical, electrophysiologic, autonomic, and neuropathologic characteristics and the natural history of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy and its response to immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For the 12-year period from 1983 to 1995, we conducted a retrospective review of medical records of Mayo Clinic patients with diabetes who had subacute onset and progression of proximal weakness. The responses of treated versus untreated patients were compared statistically. RESULTS: During the designated study period, 44 patients with subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy were encountered. Most patients were middle-aged or elderly, and no sex preponderance was noted. The proximal muscle weakness often was associated with reduced or absent lower extremity reflexes. Associated weight loss was a common finding. Frequently, patients had some evidence of demyelination on nerve conduction studies, but it invariably was accompanied by concomitant axonal degeneration. The cerebrospinal fluid protein concentration was usually increased. Diffuse and substantial autonomic failure was generally present. In most cases, a sural nerve biopsy specimen suggested demyelination, although evidence of an inflammatory infiltrate was less common. Of 12 patients who received treatment (with prednisone, intravenous immune globulin, or plasma exchange), 9 had improvement of their conditions, but 17 of 29 untreated patients (59%) with follow-up also eventually had improvement, albeit at a much slower rate. Improvement was usually incomplete. CONCLUSION: We suggest that the entity of subacute diabetic proximal neuropathy is an extensive and severe variant of bilateral lumbosacral radiculoplexopathy, with some features suggestive of an immune-mediated cause. It differs from chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in that most cases have a more restricted distribution and seem to be monophasic and self-limiting. The efficacy of immunotherapy is unproved, but such intervention may be considered in the severe and progressive cases or ones associated with severe neuropathic pain.

Pascoe, M. K.; Low, P. A.; Windebank, A. J.; Litchy, W. J.

1997-01-01

387

Painful neuropathy: Mechanisms.  

PubMed

Painful neuropathy, like the other complications of diabetes, is a growing healthcare concern. Unfortunately, current treatments are of variable efficacy and do not target underlying pathogenic mechanisms, in part because these mechanisms are not well defined. Rat and mouse models of type 1 diabetes are frequently used to study diabetic neuropathy, with rats in particular being consistently reported to show allodynia and hyperalgesia. Models of type 2 diabetes are being used with increasing frequency, but the current literature on the progression of indices of neuropathic pain is variable and relatively few therapeutics have yet been developed in these models. While evidence for spontaneous pain in rodent models is sparse, measures of evoked mechanical, thermal and chemical pain can provide insight into the pathogenesis of the condition. The stocking and glove distribution of pain tantalizingly suggests that the generator site of neuropathic pain is found within the peripheral nervous system. However, emerging evidence demonstrates that amplification in the spinal cord, via spinal disinhibition and neuroinflammation, and also in the brain, via enhanced thalamic activity or decreased cortical inhibition, likely contribute to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy. Several potential therapeutic strategies have emerged from preclinical studies, including prophylactic treatments that intervene against underlying mechanisms of disease, treatments that prevent gains of nociceptive function, treatments that suppress enhancements of nociceptive function, and treatments that impede normal nociceptive mechanisms. Ongoing challenges include unraveling the complexity of underlying pathogenic mechanisms, addressing the potential disconnect between the perceived location of pain and the actual pain generator and amplifier sites, and finding ways to identify which mechanisms operate in specific patients to allow rational and individualized choice of targeted therapies. PMID:25410243

Lee-Kubli, Corinne A; Calcutt, Nigel A

2014-01-01

388

Sciatic Injection Neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Prevention of sciatic injection neuropathy can best be accomplished by teaching that the injection should be made into the gluteal mass in the upper outer quadrant rather than the buttock, and that the needle should be introduced in a plane perpendicular to the surface of the bed when the patient is lying prone. Failing prevention, one must strive for early and correct diagnosis, especially in infants, and carry out exploration with internal and external neurolysis if there is no evidence of improvement within two to three months. PMID:4639840

Brown, Barton A.

1972-01-01

389

The adjuvant effect of hypertension upon diabetic peripheral neuropathy in experimental type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes (DM) is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy in the Western world. A comorbidity, hypertension, has been speculated to contribute to initiation or worsening of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We studied adult rat models using genetic strains with DM (Zucker Diabetic Fat rats)±hypertension (HTN (ZSF-1 rats)) to investigate the relative contributions of DM and HTN and the potential for additive effects of HTN upon existing DM for the development of peripheral neuropathy. Long duration sensorimotor behavioral and electrophysiological testing was complemented by histological and molecular methods. Only DM led to tactile and thermal hyperalgesia and affected motor nerve electrophysiology. Although DM led to marked loss of sensory amplitudes and to sensory conduction slowing, a mild additive effect from HTN contributed after 6months of DM with worsening of slowing of sensory nerve conduction velocities, but without effect upon sensory amplitudes. At the sensory dominant sural nerve, mild (<10%) but greater degrees of myelin thinning were noted with DM and HTN combined, suggesting a mild additive effect. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression was increased only at the sural nerve in the presence of HTN with co-localization to Schwann cells and myelin. The effects of DM and HTN upon peripheral nerve are dissimilar, with HTN contributing to MMP upregulation at the sites of myelin thinning at sensory nerve fibers, potentially worsening comorbid DM. Together, our results indicate that HTN has a mild additive contribution to diabetic peripheral neuropathy at sensory peripheral nerve fibers manifesting with the loss of myelin thickness. PMID:23938761

De Visser, Adriena; Hemming, Amanda; Yang, Christina; Zaver, Shaila; Dhaliwal, Raj; Jawed, Zaid; Toth, Cory

2014-02-01

390

Genetics Home Reference: Hereditary angioedema  

MedlinePLUS

... C1 inhibitor, excessive amounts of a protein fragment (peptide) called bradykinin are generated. Bradykinin promotes inflammation by ... edema ; erythema ; gene ; hereditary ; inflammation ; inherited ; mutation ; obstruction ; peptide ; protein ; puberty ; stress ; trauma You may find definitions ...

391

Hereditary Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma  

MedlinePLUS

... increases the risk for this hereditary cancer syndrome. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a medical procedure done ... a complex procedure with financial, physical, and emotional factors for couples to consider before starting. For more ...

392

Marie-Unna Hereditary Hypotrichosis  

PubMed Central

Marie-Unna type of hereditary hypotrichosis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that has a distinctive type of hair loss pattern that varies with child's age. It is characterized by sparse or absent hair at birth with regrowth of coarse, wiry twisted hair from childhood, followed by progressive loss on approaching puberty. We report a 12-year-old male child with characteristic clinical features suggestive of hereditary hypotrichosis of Marie-Unna type. PMID:25368478

Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

2014-01-01

393

Marie-unna hereditary hypotrichosis.  

PubMed

Marie-Unna type of hereditary hypotrichosis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder that has a distinctive type of hair loss pattern that varies with child's age. It is characterized by sparse or absent hair at birth with regrowth of coarse, wiry twisted hair from childhood, followed by progressive loss on approaching puberty. We report a 12-year-old male child with characteristic clinical features suggestive of hereditary hypotrichosis of Marie-Unna type. PMID:25368478

Srinivas, Sahana M; Hiremagalore, Ravi

2014-10-01

394

Anticonvulsant peripheral neuropathy: a clinical and electrophysiological study of patients on single drug treatment with phenytoin, carbamazepine or barbiturates.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies of phenytoin neuropathy in selected groups of chronic epileptic patients on polytherapy have indicated a widely varying incidence of clinical or electrophysiological abnormalities. In 51 previously untreated epileptic patients followed prospectively on phenytoin or carbamazepine monotherapy, assisted by blood level monitoring, for 1-5 years we found no clinical evidence of neuropathy. Eighteen per cent of the phenytoin group and none of the carbamazepine group had mild electrophysiological changes (abnormalities of sensory action potentials or sensory conduction). In the former group the occurrence of the electrophysiological abnormalities was possibly related to previous exposure to high phenytoin or low folate levels or both. In 10 chronic epileptic patients we demonstrated reversible slowing of sensory nerve conduction during phenytoin intoxication. In six selected epileptic patients on chronic barbiturate monotherapy we found clinical evidence of neuropathy in two and electrophysiological abnormalities in five, including reversible slowing of sensory conduction during intoxication in one. This suggests that barbiturate drugs may, like phenytoin, also contribute to anticonvulsant neuropathy. Careful monitoring of single drug therapy with avoidance of acute toxicity may reduce the risk of chronic anticonvulsant neuropathy. PMID:6288881

Shorvon, S D; Reynolds, E H

1982-01-01

395

Neuropathy target esterase.  

PubMed Central

Neuropathy target esterase (NTE) is an integral membrane protein present in all neurons and in some non-neural-cell types of vertebrates. Recent data indicate that NTE is involved in a cell-signalling pathway controlling interactions between neurons and accessory glial cells in the developing nervous system. NTE has serine esterase activity and efficiently catalyses the hydrolysis of phenyl valerate (PV) in vitro, but its physiological substrate is unknown. By sequence analysis NTE has been found to be related neither to the major serine esterase family, which includes acetylcholinesterase, nor to any other known serine hydrolases. NTE comprises at least two functional domains: an N-terminal putative regulatory domain and a C-terminal effector domain which contains the esterase activity and is, in part, conserved in proteins found in bacteria, yeast, nematodes and insects. NTE's effector domain contains three predicted transmembrane segments, and the active-site serine residue lies at the centre of one of these segments. The isolated recombinant domain shows PV hydrolase activity only when incorporated into phospholipid liposomes. NTE's esterase activity appears to be largely redundant in adult vertebrates, but organophosphates which react with NTE in vivo initiate unknown events which lead, after a delay of 1-3 weeks, to a neuropathy with degeneration of long axons. These neuropathic organophosphates leave a negatively charged group covalently attached to the active-site serine residue, and it is suggested that this may cause a toxic gain of function in NTE. PMID:10585848

Glynn, P

1999-01-01

396

Metabolic neuropathies and myopathies.  

PubMed

Inborn errors of metabolism may impact on muscle and peripheral nerve. Abnormalities involve mitochondria and other subcellular organelles such as peroxisomes and lysosomes related to the turnover and recycling of cellular compartments. Treatable causes are ?-oxidation defects producing progressive neuropathy; pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, porphyria, or vitamin B12 deficiency causing recurrent episodes of neuropathy or acute motor deficit mimicking Guillain-Barré syndrome. On the other hand, lysosomal (mucopolysaccharidosis, Gaucher and Fabry diseases), mitochondriopathic (mitochondrial or nuclear mutations or mDNA depletion), peroxisomal (adrenomyeloneuropathy, Refsum disease, sterol carrier protein-2 deficiency, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, ?-methylacyl racemase deficiency) diseases are multisystemic disorders involving also the heart, liver, brain, retina, and kidney. Pathophysiology of most metabolic myopathies is related to the impairment of energy production or to abnormal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Main symptoms are exercise intolerance with myalgias, cramps and recurrent myoglobinuria or limb weakness associated with elevation of serum creatine kinase. Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency, followed by acid maltase deficiency, and lipin deficiency, are the most common cause of isolated rhabdomyolysis. Metabolic myopathies are frequently associated to extra-neuromuscular disorders particularly involving the heart, liver, brain, retina, skin, and kidney. PMID:23622366

D'Amico, Adele; Bertini, Enrico

2013-01-01

397

Supporting sensory transduction: cochlear fluid homeostasis and the endocochlear potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exquisite sensitivity of the cochlea, which mediates the transduction of sound waves into nerve impulses, depends on the endocochlear potential and requires a highly specialized environment that enables and sustains sensory function. Disturbance of cochlear homeostasis is the cause of many forms of hearing loss including the most frequently occurring syndromic and non-syndromic forms of hereditary hearing loss, Pendred

Philine Wangemann

2006-01-01

398

Persistence of tropical ataxic neuropathy in a Nigerian community  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—The term tropical ataxic neuropathy (TAN) is currently used to describe several neurological syndromes attributed to toxiconutritional causes. However, TAN was initially proposed to describe a specific neurological syndrome seen predominantly among the Ijebu speaking Yorubas in south western Nigeria. In this study, the prevalence of TAN was determined in Ososa, a semiurban community in south western Nigeria described as endemic for TAN in 1969, and its neurological features were compared with Strachan's syndrome, prisoners of war neuropathy, the epidemic neuropathy in Cuba, and konzo.?METHODS—A census of Ososa was followed by door to door screening of all subjects aged 10 years and above with a newly designed screening instrument. Subjects who screened positive had a neurological examination, and the diagnosis of TAN was made if any two or more of bilateral optic atrophy, bilateral neurosensory deafness, sensory gait ataxia, or distal symmetric sensory polyneuropathy were present.?RESULTS—A total of 4583 inhabitants were registered in the census. Of these, 3428 subjects aged 10 years and above were screened. The diagnosis of TAN was made in 206 of 323 subjects who screened positive for TAN. The prevalence of TAN was 6.0%, 3.9% in males and 7.7% in females. The highest age specific prevalence was 24% in the 60-69 years age group in women.?CONCLUSION—The occurrence of TAN in Ososa continues at a higher prevalence than was reported 30 years ago. Its neurological features and natural history do not resemble those described for Strachan syndrome, epidemic neuropathy in Cuba, or konzo. The increasing consumption of cassava foods linked to its causation makes TAN of public health importance in Nigeria, the most populous African country.?? PMID:10864612

Oluwole, O; Onabolu, A; Link, H.; Rosling, H.

2000-01-01

399

CMT1-CMT2  

MedlinePLUS

... brain. What is the status of research on CMT? CMT research is focused on exploring the effects of ... effects. Disease: Peripheral Neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth ...

400

CMT4  

MedlinePLUS

... development. What is the status of research on CMT? CMT research is focused on exploring the effects of ... effects. Disease: Peripheral Neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth ...

401

CMTX  

MedlinePLUS

... slow. What is the status of research on CMT? CMT research is focused on exploring the effects of ... effects. Disease: Peripheral Neuropathies Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Hereditary Motor and Sensory Neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth ...

402

Genetics Home Reference: Refsum disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Refsum disease? adult Refsum disease ARD classic Refsum disease CRD hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy Type IV heredopathia atactica ... Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding Refsum disease? acids ; anosmia ; ... leukodystrophy ; motor ; neuropathy ; oxidation ; peripheral ; peroxisomes ; ...

403

Genetics Home Reference: Andermann syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... neuropathy agenesis of corpus callosum with polyneuropathy Charlevoix disease hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum HMSN/ACC For more information about naming genetic ... Rare Diseases Information Center . Where can I find general information ...

404

Hereditary fructose intolerance.  

PubMed Central

Hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI, OMIM 22960), caused by catalytic deficiency of aldolase B (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, EC 4.1.2.13), is a recessively inherited condition in which affected homozygotes develop hypoglycaemic and severe abdominal symptoms after taking foods containing fructose and cognate sugars. Continued ingestion of noxious sugars leads to hepatic and renal injury and growth retardation; parenteral administration of fructose or sorbitol may be fatal. Direct detection of a few mutations in the human aldolase B gene on chromosome 9q facilitates the genetic diagnosis of HFI in many symptomatic patients. The severity of the disease phenotype appears to be independent of the nature of the aldolase B gene mutations so far identified. It appears that hitherto there has been little, if any, selection against mutant aldolase B alleles in the population: in the UK, approximately 1.3% of neonates harbour one copy of the prevalent A149P disease allele. The ascendance of sugar as a major dietary nutrient, especially in western societies, may account for the increasing recognition of HFI as a nutritional disease and has shown the prevalence of mutant aldolase B genes in the general population. The severity of clinical expression correlates well with the immediate nutritional environment, age, culture, and eating habits of affected subjects. Here we review the biochemical, genetic, and molecular basis of human aldolase B deficiency in HFI, a disorder which responds to dietary therapy and in which the principal manifestations of disease are thus preventable. Images PMID:9610797

Ali, M; Rellos, P; Cox, T M

1998-01-01

405

Icatibant for hereditary angioedema.  

PubMed

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant, potentially life-threatening disease, characterized by recurrent self-limiting bouts of edema mainly involving the extremities, genitalia, face, intestines and airways. The prevalence of HAE in the general population has been estimated to be in the range of 1:10,000 to 1:150,000. Currently, acute attacks of HAE are treated mainly symptomatically, with poor outcomes. Recently, it has been demonstrated that bradykinin (BK) is responsible for most of the symptoms of HAE. Icatibant (Firazyr, HOE 140, JE049) is a potent, specific and selective B2 BK receptor antagonist that has recently been approved by the EMEA for the treatment of HAE. In phase III clinical trials, 30 mg of subcutaneous icatibant demonstrated rapid and stable relief from symptoms in cutaneous, abdominal or laryngeal HAE attacks. Local site reactions after subcutaneous injection of icatibant were observed, however, these reactions were mild to moderate in severity and resolved spontaneously and quickly. Icatibant is a new, safe and effective treatment for acute attacks of HAE. PMID:20135020

Gras, Jordi

2009-12-01

406

Hereditary Renal Cancer Syndromes  

PubMed Central

Inherited susceptibility to kidney cancer is a fascinating and complex topic. Our knowledge about types of genetic syndromes associated with an increased risk of disease is continually expanding. Currently, there are 10 syndromes associated with an increased risk of all types of renal cancer, which are reviewed herein. Clear cell renal cancer is associated with von Hippel Lindau disease, chromosome 3 translocations, PTEN hamartomatous syndrome and mutations in BAP1, as well as several of the genes encoding the proteins comprising the succinate dehydrogenase complex (SDHB/C/D). Type 1 papillary renal cancers arise in conjunction with germline mutations in MET and type 2 as part of Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (FH mutations). Chromophone and oncocytic renal cancers are predominantly associated with Birt Hogg Dubé syndrome. Angiomyolipomas are commonly and their malignant counterpart epitheliod angiomyolipomas rarely are found in patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. The targeted therapeutic options for the renal cancer associated with these diseases are just starting to expand, and are an area of active clinical research. PMID:24359990

Haas, Naomi B.

2013-01-01

407

Diabetic autonomic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Autonomic neuropathy, once considered to be the Cinderella of diabetes complications, has come of age. The autonomic nervous system innervates the entire human body, and is involved in the regulation of every single organ in the body. Thus, perturbations in autonomic function account for everything from abnormalities in pupillary function to gastroparesis, intestinal dysmotility, diabetic diarrhea, genitourinary dysfunction, amongst others. "Know autonomic function and one knows the whole of medicine!" It is now becoming apparent that before the advent of severe pathological damage to the autonomic nervous system there may be an imbalance between the two major arms, namely the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibers that innervate the heart and blood vessels, resulting in abnormalities in heart rate control and vascular dynamics. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) has been linked to resting tachycardia, postural hypotension, orthostatic bradycardia and orthostatic tachycardia (POTTS), exercise intolerance, decreased hypoxia-induced respiratory drive, loss of baroreceptor sensitivity, enhanced intraoperative or perioperative cardiovascular lability, increased incidence of asymptomatic ischemia, myocardial infarction, and decreased rate of survival after myocardial infarction and congestive heart failure. Autonomic dysfunction can affect daily activities of individuals with diabetes and may invoke potentially life-threatening outcomes. Intensification of glycemic control in the presence of autonomic dysfunction (more so if combined with peripheral neuropathy) increases the likelihood of sudden death and is a caveat for aggressive glycemic control. Advances in technology, built on decades of research and clinical testing, now make it possible to objectively identify early stages of CAN with the use of careful measurement of time and frequency domain analyses of autonomic function. Fifteen studies using different end points report prevalence rates of 1% to 90%. CAN may be present at diagnosis, and prevalence increases with age, duration of diabetes, obesity, smoking, and poor glycemic control. CAN also cosegregates with distal symmetric polyneuropathy, microangiopathy, and macroangiopathy. It now appears that autonomic imbalance may precede the development of the inflammatory cascade in type 2 diabetes and there is a role for central loss of dopaminergic restraint on sympathetic overactivity. Restoration of dopaminergic tone suppresses the sympathetic dominance and reduces cardiovascular events and mortality by close to 50%. Cinderella's slipper can now be worn! PMID:24095132

Vinik, Aaron I; Erbas, Tomris

2013-01-01

408

Mitochondrial optic neuropathies – Disease mechanisms and therapeutic strategies  

PubMed Central

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal-dominant optic atrophy (DOA) are the two most common inherited optic neuropathies in the general population. Both disorders share striking pathological similarities, marked by the selective loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and the early involvement of the papillomacular bundle. Three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations; m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C account for over 90% of LHON cases, and in DOA, the majority of affected families harbour mutations in the OPA1 gene, which codes for a mitochondrial inner membrane protein. Optic nerve degeneration in LHON and DOA is therefore due to disturbed mitochondrial function and a predominantly complex I respiratory chain defect has been identified using both in vitro and in vivo biochemical assays. However, the trigger for RGC loss is much more complex than a simple bioenergetic crisis and other important disease mechanisms have emerged relating to mitochondrial network dynamics, mtDNA maintenance, axonal transport, and the involvement of the cytoskeleton in maintaining a differential mitochondrial gradient at sites such as the lamina cribosa. The downstream consequences of these mitochondrial disturbances are likely to be influenced by the local cellular milieu. The vulnerability of RGCs in LHON and DOA could derive not only from tissue-specific, genetically-determined biological factors, but also from an increased susceptibility to exogenous influences such as light exposure, smoking, and pharmacological agents with putative mitochondrial toxic effects. Our concept of inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies has evolved over the past decade, with the observation that patients with LHON and DOA can manifest a much broader phenotypic spectrum than pure optic nerve involvement. Interestingly, these phenotypes are sometimes clinically indistinguishable from other neurodegenerative disorders such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, hereditary spastic paraplegia, and multiple sclerosis, where mitochondrial dysfunction is also thought to be an important pathophysiological player. A number of vertebrate and invertebrate disease models has recently been established to circumvent the lack of human tissues, and these have already provided considerable insight by allowing direct RGC experimentation. The ultimate goal is to translate these research advances into clinical practice and new treatment strategies are currently being investigated to improve the visual prognosis for patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathies. PMID:21112411

Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Griffiths, Philip G.; Chinnery, Patrick F.

2011-01-01

409

Effect of Atibalamula and Bhumyamalaki on thirty-three patients of diabetic neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Diabetic neuropathy is a relatively early and common complication affecting approximately 30% of diabetic patients. According to Ayurvedic principles there is involvement of Vata and Pitta Dosa in diabetic neuropathy. Bhumyamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri) is a plant which shows possibility to pacify these two Dosas. Another plant Atibala (Abutilon indicum) has also Vata pacifying qualities. Present study has been carried out to study the effects of Bhumyamalaki and Atibala on 33 patients of diabetic neuropathy. All the patients have been given Bhumyamalaki Churna 3 g twice a day and decoction of 10 g of Atibala-mula twice a day for 30 days. Neuropathy analyzer machine has been used for exact recording of sensory perception of vibration, cold and hot sensations before and after treatment. Changes in numbness, tingling, burning sensation and pain in lower limbs have also been assessed before and after treatment. Results have been analyzed statistically by applying the ‘t’ test. It can be stated from the results that use of Bhumyamalaki and Atibalamula in the patients of diabetic neuropathy can revert the diminished sensory perception and can reduce the symptoms significantly. PMID:22529650

Patel, Kalapi; Patel, Manish; Gupta, S N

2011-01-01

410

Effect of Atibalamula and Bhumyamalaki on thirty-three patients of diabetic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathy is a relatively early and common complication affecting approximately 30% of diabetic patients. According to Ayurvedic principles there is involvement of Vata and Pitta Dosa in diabetic neuropathy. Bhumyamalaki (Phyllanthus niruri) is a plant which shows possibility to pacify these two Dosas. Another plant Atibala (Abutilon indicum) has also Vata pacifying qualities. Present study has been carried out to study the effects of Bhumyamalaki and Atibala on 33 patients of diabetic neuropathy. All the patients have been given Bhumyamalaki Churna 3 g twice a day and decoction of 10 g of Atibala-mula twice a day for 30 days. Neuropathy analyzer machine has been used for exact recording of sensory perception of vibration, cold and hot sensations before and after treatment. Changes in numbness, tingling, burning sensation and pain in lower limbs have also been assessed before and after treatment. Results have been analyzed statistically by applying the 't' test. It can be stated from the results that use of Bhumyamalaki and Atibalamula in the patients of diabetic neuropathy can revert the diminished sensory perception and can reduce the symptoms significantly. PMID:22529650

Patel, Kalapi; Patel, Manish; Gupta, S N

2011-07-01

411

Giant axonal neuropathy: clinical and genetic study in six cases  

PubMed Central

Background: Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a severe recessive disorder characterised by variable combination of progressive sensory motor neuropathy, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, and "frizzly" hair. The disease is caused by GAN gene mutations on chromosome 16q24.1. Aims: To search for GAN gene mutations in Turkish patients with GAN and characterise the phenotype associated with them. Methods: Linkage and mutation analyses were performed in six affected patients from three consanguineous families. These patients were also investigated by cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). Electromyography (EMG) was performed in heterozygous carriers from family 1 and family 3. Results: Linkage to 16q24.1 was confirmed by haplotype analysis. GAN mutations were identified in all families. Family 1 had the R293X mutation, previously reported in another Turkish family. Families 2 and 3, originating from close geographical areas, shared a novel mutation, 1502+1G>T, at the donor splice site of exon 9. All patients displayed a common phenotype, including peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and frizzly hair. Cranial MRI showed diffuse white matter abnormalities in two patients from family 1 and the patient from family 3, and minimal white matter involvement in the patient from family 2. EMG of a heterozygous R293X mutation carrier showed signs of mild axonal neuropathy, whereas a 1502+1G>T mutation carrier had normal EMG. EEG abnormalities were found in three patients. Conclusion: These findings highlight the association of CNS involvement, in particular white matter abnormalities, with peripheral neuropathy in GAN. The phenotypical consequences of both mutations (when homozygous) were similar. PMID:15897506

Demir, E; Bomont, P; Erdem, S; Cavalier, L; Demirci, M; Kose, G; Muftuoglu, S; Cakar, A; Tan, E; Aysun, S; Topcu, M; Guicheney, P; Koenig, M; Topaloglu, H

2005-01-01

412

Radiation optic neuropathy  

SciTech Connect

Following surgery for pituitary adenoma, radiation therapy is an accepted treatment in reducing tumor recurrence. However, a potential therapeutic complication is delayed radionecrosis of perisellar neural structures, including the optic nerves and chiasm. This particular cause of visual loss, radiation optic neuropathy (RON), has not been emphasized in the ophthalmologic literature. Four cases of RON seen in the past five years are reported. Diagnostic criteria include: (1) acute visual loss (monocular or binocular), (2) visual field defects indicating optic nerve or chiasmal dysfunction, (3) absence of optic disc edema, (4) onset usually within three years of therapy (peak: 1-1 1/2 years), and (5) no computed tomographic evidence of visual pathway compression. Pathologic findings, differential diagnosis and therapy will be discussed in outlining the clinical profile of RON.

Kline, L.B.; Kim, J.Y.; Ceballos, R.

1985-08-01

413

Compression and entrapment neuropathies.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerve entrapments are frequent. They usually appear in anatomical tunnels such as the carpal tunnel. Nerve compressions may be due to external pressure such as the fibular nerve at the fibular head. Malignant or benign tumors may also damage the nerve. For each nerve from the upper and lower limbs, detailed clinical, electrophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic aspects are described. In the upper limbs, carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow are the most frequent manifestations; the radial nerve is less frequently involved. Other nerves may occasionally be damaged and these are described also. In the lower limbs, the fibular nerve is most frequently involved, usually at the fibular head by external compression. Other nerves may also be involved and are therefore described. The clinical and electrophysiological examination are very important for the diagnosis, but imaging is also of great use. Treatments available for each nerve disease are discussed. PMID:23931789

Bouche, P

2013-01-01

414

[Ulnar entrapment neuropathy].  

PubMed

Ulnar nerve entrapment is one of the most common entrapment neuropathies in the upper limb. The most frequent location of this syndrome is behind the elbow. The clinical picture is associated with the localization of the entrapment but usually consists of an altered sensation at the fourth and fifth digits and a weakness of the intrinsic muscles of the palm. The most constructive tool in making the diagnosis and in assessing the treatment's efficacy is the physical examination. Treatment alternatives depend on entrapment location. Conservative treatment options such as rest, a change in the work environment and patterns as well as splints are all accepted modalities. A lack of improvement following conservative treatment or a deteriorating nerve function is an indication for surgical intervention. This includes procedures comprised of decompression of the ulnar nerve alone or those which combine its transposition. PMID:20549929

Blecher, Ronen; Loebenberg, Mark; Oron, Amir

2010-02-01

415

Canine inherited hypertrophic neuropathy.  

PubMed

A recessively inherited hypertrophic neuropathy was discovered in Tibetan Mastiff dogs. Affected pups developed a generalized weakness with hyporeflexia shortly after weaning. Diagnostic findings in 10-18-week-old pups included: moderate to severe reduction in nerve conduction velocities, infrequent denervation potentials, and inconstant elevation in CSF protein. Light- and electron-microscopic studies of peripheral nerves and roots revealed widespread demyelination and primitive onion bulb formation with relatively little degeneration of axons. Myelin changes often were most striking in the cytoplasmic regions of the sheaths and consisted of separations at the major dense lines, anomalous incisure patterns, and marked filamentous accumulations in the inner spirals and adaxonal cytoplasm. The results of these initial studies suggest an inborn defect in the Schwann cell's ability to form or maintain a stable myelin sheath. PMID:6259873

Cummings, J F; Cooper, B J; de Lahunta, A; van Winkle, T J

1981-01-01

416

Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy  

Cancer.gov

The pain and discomfort caused by peripheral neuropathy is one of the most common reasons that cancer patients stop their treatment early. Researchers are working to improve new screening, treatment, and prevention options for patients.

417

Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II Inhibition Behaviorally and Physiologically Improves Pyridoxine-Induced Neuropathy in Rats  

PubMed Central

Pyridoxine is used as a supplement for treating conditions such as vitamin deficiency as well as neurological disorders such as depression, epilepsy and autism. A significant neurologic complication of pyridoxine therapy is peripheral neuropathy thought to be a result of long-term and high dose usage. Although pyridoxine-induced neuropathy is transient and can remit after its withdrawal, the process of complete recovery can be slow. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCP II) inhibition has been shown to improve symptoms of both chemotherapy- and diabetic-induced neuropathy. This study evaluated if GCP II inhibition could behaviorally and physiologically improve pyridoxine-induced neuropathy. In the current study, high doses of pyridoxine (400 mg/kg, twice a day for seven days) were used to induce neuropathy in rats. An orally bioavailable GCP II inhibitor, 2-(3-mercaptopropyl) pentanedioic acid (2-MPPA), was administered daily at a dose of 30 mg/kg starting from the onset of pyridoxine injections. Body weight, motor coordination, heat sensitivity, electromyographical (EMG) parameters and nerve morphological features were monitored. The results show beneficial effects of GCP II inhibition including normalization of hot plate reaction time, foot fault improvements and increased open field distance travelled. H wave frequency, amplitude and latency as well as sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV) were also significantly improved by 2-MPPA. Lastly, GCP II inhibition resulted in morphological protection in the spinal cord and sensory fibers in the lumbar region dorsal root ganglia (DRG). In conclusion, inhibition of GCP II may be beneficial against the peripheral sensory neuropathy caused by pyridoxine. PMID:25254647

Potter, Michelle C.; Wozniak, Krystyna M.; Callizot, Noelle; Slusher, Barbara S.

2014-01-01

418

Medication-induced peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although not very common, medication-induced neuropathy is a treatable condition and, therefore, is important to identify.\\u000a Medications continue to grow in number and expand in usage; consequently, toxic neuropathy continues to be relevant to neurologists.\\u000a Many agents have toxicities that are tolerated because the treatments are necessary, such as therapies for HIV and malignancy.\\u000a Additional agents to prevent or ameliorate

Louis H. Weimer

2003-01-01

419

SENSORY NEURON INSULIN SIGNALING AND ITS ROLE IN DIABETIC NEUROPATHY  

E-print Network

....................................................... 151 15. SNIRKO mice do not have significantly altered lumbar DRG TRPV1 expression. ............ 153 Tables 1. SNIRKO SHIRPA data. ........................................................................................................ 127 2..., mechanical, or chemical insults [29, 30]. The most well characterized of these receptors is the transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 was cloned in 1997 [31] and is a ligand gated non-selective cation channel. When activated, TRPV...

Grote, Caleb W.

2013-05-31

420

Trigeminal small-fiber sensory neuropathy causes burning mouth syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burning mouth syndrome is a common disorder that frequently affects women in the 5th–7th decade. It is characterized by persisting painful symptoms mainly involving the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. For several years it has been attributed to psychological causes. We investigated the innervation of the epithelium of the tongue to assess whether damage of peripheral nerve fibers underlies the

Giuseppe Lauria; Alessandra Majorana; Monica Borgna; Raffaella Lombardi; Paola Penza; Alessandro Padovani; Pierluigi Sapelli

2005-01-01