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Sample records for herniated nucleus pulposus

  1. The Factors Associated With the Successful Outcomes of Percutaneous Disc Decompression in Patients With Lumbar Herniated Nucleus Pulposus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Heon; Kim, Nack Hwan; Park, Hyeun Jun; Yoo, Hyun-Joon; Jo, Soo Yung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine clinical and radiological factors that predict the successful outcome of percutaneous disc decompression (PDD) in patients with lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP). Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and radiological features of patients who underwent lumbar PDD from April 2009 to March 2013. Sixty-nine patients with lumbar HNP were studied. Clinical outcome was assessed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess relationship among clinical and radiological factors and the successful outcome of the PDD. Results The VAS and the ODI decreased significantly at 1 year follow-up (p<0.01). One year after PDD, the reduction of the VAS (?VAS) was significantly greater in the patients with pain for <6 months (p=0.03) and subarticular HNP (p=0.015). The reduction of the ODI (?ODI) was significantly greater in the patients with high intensity zone (p=0.04). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed the following 5 factors that were associated with the successful outcome after PDD: pain duration for <6 months (odds ratio [OR]=14.036; p=0.006), positive straight leg raising test (OR=8.425, p=0.014), the extruded HNP (OR=0.106, p=0.04), the sequestrated HNP (OR=0.037, p=0.026), and the subarticular HNP (OR=10.876, p=0.012). Conclusion PDD provided significant improvement of pain and disability of patients. The results of the analysis indicated that the duration of pain <6 months, positive straight leg raising test, the subarticular HNP, and the protruded HNP were predicting factors associated with the successful response of PDD in patients with lumbar HNP. PMID:26605171

  2. Numerical analysis of the influence of nucleus pulposus removal on the biomechanical behavior of a lumbar motion segment.

    PubMed

    Huang, Juying; Yan, Huagang; Jian, Fengzeng; Wang, Xingwen; Li, Haiyun

    2015-01-01

    Nucleus replacement was deemed to have therapeutic potential for patients with intervertebral disc herniation. However, whether a patient would benefit from nucleus replacement is technically unclear. This study aimed to investigate the influence of nucleus pulposus (NP) removal on the biomechanical behavior of a lumbar motion segment and to further explore a computational method of biomechanical characteristics of NP removal, which can evaluate the mechanical stability of pulposus replacement. We, respectively, reconstructed three types of models for a mildly herniated disc and three types of models for a severely herniated disc based on a L4-L5 segment finite element model with computed tomography image data from a healthy adult. First, the NP was removed from the herniated disc models, and the biomechanical behavior of NP removal was simulated. Second, the NP cavities were filled with an experimental material (Poisson's ratio = 0.3; elastic modulus = 3 MPa), and the biomechanical behavior of pulposus replacement was simulated. The simulations were carried out under the five loadings of axial compression, flexion, lateral bending, extension, and axial rotation. The changes of the four biomechanical characteristics, i.e. the rotation degree, the maximum stress in the annulus fibrosus (AF), joint facet contact forces, and the maximum disc deformation, were computed for all models. Experimental results showed that the rotation range, the maximum AF stress, and joint facet contact forces increased, and the maximum disc deformation decreased after NP removal, while they changed in the opposite way after the nucleus cavities were filled with the experimental material. PMID:24893132

  3. Development of injectable hydrogels for nucleus pulposus replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jonathan D.

    Intervertebral disc degeneration has been reported as the underlying cause for 75% of cases of lower back pain and is marked by dehydration of the nucleus pulposus within the intervertebral disc. There have been many implant designs to replace the nucleus pulposus. Some researchers have proposed the replacement of the nucleus pulposus with hydrogel materials. The insertion of devices made from these materials further compromises the annulus of the disc. An ideal nucleus replacement could be injected into the disc space and form a solid in vivo. However, injectable replacements using curing elastomers and thermoplastic materials are not ideal because of the potentially harmful exothermic heat evolved from their reactions and the toxicity of the reactants used. We propose a hydrogel system that can be injected as a liquid at 25°C and solidified to yield a hydrogel within the intervertebral disc at 37°C. In aqueous solutions, these polymers have Lower Critical Solution Temperatures (LCST) between 25-37°C, making them unique candidate materials for this application. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) is the most widely studied LCST polymer due to its drastic transition near body temperature. However, by itself, pure PNIPAAm forms a hydrogel that has low water content and can readily undergo plastic deformation. To increase the water content and impart elasticity to PNIPAAm hydrogels, grafted and branched hydrogel systems were created that incorporated the thermogelling PNIPAAm and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). In this research, the effects of polymer composition and monomer to initiator ratio, which controls polymer MW, on the in vitro swelling properties (mass, chemical, and compressive mechanical stability) of hydrogels formed from aqueous solutions of these polymers were evaluated. Immersion studies were also conducted in solutions to simulate the osmotic environment of the nucleus pulposus. The effects of repeated compression and unloading cycles on the water content and dimensional recovery of hydrogels made from three candidate polymer formulations were also determined. Unlike PNIPAAm and PEG grafted PNIPAAm hydrogels, PEG branched hydrogels have covalently linked networks. Addition of 7 mol% PEG branches to PNIPAAm resulted in a hydrogel with a higher water content and better elastic recovery than hydrogels made from pure PNIPAAm. PEG branched PNIPAAm hydrogels were shown to have mass, chemical, and compressive mechanical stability in vitro. Furthermore, these hydrogels showed superior dimensional recovery after compressive cycling than pure PNIPAAm and PEG grafted PNIPAAm hydrogels. The 7 mol% PEG branched PNIPAAm hydrogels have suitable swelling and mechanical properties to potentially serve as a nucleus pulposus replacement.

  4. Adipose-derived stem cells improve the viability of nucleus pulposus cells in degenerated intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Song, Keran; Gu, Tao; Shuang, Feng; Tang, Jiaguang; Ren, Dongfeng; Qin, Jiang; Hou, Shuxun

    2015-09-01

    Patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) experience serious clinical symptoms, including chronic low back pain. A series of therapies have been developed to treat DDD, including physical therapy and surgical treatment. However, the therapeutic effect of such treatments has remained insufficient. Recently, stem cell?based therapy, in which stem cells are injected into the nucleus pulposus in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue, has appeared to be effective in the treatment of DDD. In the present study, the effect of adipose?derived stem cells on degenerated nucleus pulposus cells was investigated using a co?culture system to evaluate the biological activity of degenerated nucleus pulposus cells. Human degenerated nucleus pulposus tissue was obtained from surgical specimens and the adipose?derived stem cells were derived from adipose tissue. The degenerated nucleus pulposus cells were cultured in a mono?culture or in a co?culture with adipose?derived stem cells using 0.4?µm Transwell inserts. The results indicated that adipose?derived stem cells were able to stimulate matrix synthesis and the cell proliferation of degenerated nucleus pulposus cells, promoting the restoration of nucleus pulposus cells in the degenerated intervertebral disc. PMID:26059030

  5. Reduced tonicity stimulates an inflammatory response in nucleus pulposus tissue that can be limited by a COX-2-specific inhibitor.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Bart; Potier, Esther; van DIjk, Maarten; Langelaan, Marloes; Papen-Botterhuis, Nicole; Ito, Keita

    2015-11-01

    In intervertebral disc herniation with nucleus pulposus (NP) extrusion, the elicited inflammatory response is considered a key pain mechanism. However, inflammatory cytokines are reported in extruded herniated tissue, even before monocyte infiltration, suggesting that the tissue itself initiates the inflammation. Since herniated tissue swells, we investigated whether this simple mechanobiological stimulus alone could provoke an inflammatory response that could cause pain. Furthermore, we investigated whether sustained-release cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2) inhibitor would be beneficial in such conditions. Healthy bovine NP explants were allowed to swell freely or confined. The swelling explants were treated with Celecoxib, applied either as a bolus or in sustained-release. Swelling explants produced elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) for 28 days, while confined explants did not. Both a high concentration bolus and 10 times lower concentration in sustained release completely inhibited PGE2 production, but did not affect IL-6 production. Swelling of NP tissue, without the inflammatory system response, can trigger cytokine production and Celecoxib, even in bolus form, may be useful for pain control in extruded disc herniation. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1724-1731, 2015. PMID:25991050

  6. Physical analysis of collagen-GAG composite scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration

    E-print Network

    Simson, Jacob A

    2008-01-01

    In this study biomaterial scaffolds for regeneration of nucleus pulposus were developed by freeze drying slurries with different proportions of collagen II (CII), chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS), and hyaluronic acid (HA). The ...

  7. In vitro measurement of nucleus pulposus swelling pressure: A new technique for studies of spinal adaptation to gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Glover, M. G.; Mahmood, M. M.; Gott, S.; Garfin, S. R.; Ballard, R.; Murthy, G.; Brown, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Swelling of the intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus is altered by posture and gravity. We have designed and tested a new osmometer for in vitro determination of nucleus pulposus swelling pressure. The functional principle of the osmometer involves compressing a sample of nucleus pulposus with nitrogen gas until saline pressure gradients across a 0.45 microns Millipore filter are eliminated. Swelling pressure of both pooled dog and pooled pig lumbar disc nucleus pulposus were measured on the new osmometer and compared to swelling pressures determined using the equilibrium dialysis technique. The osmometer measured swelling pressures comparable to those obtained by the dialysis technique. This osmometer provides a rapid, direct, and accurate measurement of swelling pressure of the nucleus pulposus.

  8. MiR-27a Regulates Apoptosis in Nucleus Pulposus Cells by Targeting PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huajiang; Yuan, Wen; Wang, Jianxi; Tang, Xianye

    2013-01-01

    The precise role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) remains to be elucidated. We analyzed degenerative nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and found that the expression of miR-27a was increased. The overexpression of miR-27a was further verified using real-time RT-PCR. Bioinformatics target prediction identified phosphoinositide-3 kinases (PI3K) as putative targets of miR-27a. Furthermore, miR-27a inhibited PI3K expression by directly targeting their 3’-UTRs, and this inhibition was abolished by mutation of the miR-27a binding sites. Various cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation, migration and adhesion are regulated by activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and nucleus pulposus cells are known to strongly express the phosphorylated survival protein AKT. Our results identify PI3K as a novel target of miR-27a. Upregulation of miR-27a thus targets PI3K, initiating apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells. This present study revealed that downregulated miR-27a might develop a novel intervention for IDD treatment through the prevention of apoptosis in Nucleus pulposus Cells. PMID:24086481

  9. Determination and comparison of specifics of nucleus pulposus cells of human intervertebral disc in alginate and chitosan–gelatin scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Renani, Hamid Bahramian; Ghorbani, Masood; Beni, Batool Hashemibeni; Karimi, Z; Mirhosseini, MM; Zarkesh, H; Kabiri, A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Low back pain is a major economical and social problem nowadays. Intervertebral disc herniation and central degeneration of disc are two major reasons of low back pain that occur because of structural impairment of disc. The intervertebral disc contains three parts as follows : Annulus fibrosus, transitional region, and nucleus pulposus, which forms the central nucleus of the disc. The reduction of cell count and extracellular matrix, especially in nucleus pulposus, causes disc degeneration. Different scaffolds (natural and synthetic) have been used for tissue repairing and regeneration of the intervertebral disc in tissue engineering. Most scaffolds have biodegradable and biocompatible characteristics and also prepare a fine condition for proliferation and migration of cells. In this study, proliferation of NP cells of human intervertebral disc compromised in Chitosan-gelatin scaffold with alginate scaffold was studied. Materials and Methods: NP cells derived from nucleus pulposus by collagenase enzymatic hydrolysis. They were derived from patients who undergoing open surgery for discectomy in the Isfahan Alzahra hospital. Chitosan was blended with gelatin and glutaraldehyde was used for cross linking the two polymers. Then, alginate scaffold was prepared. Cellular suspension with 1 × 105 transferred to each scaffold and cultured for 21 days. Cell viability and proliferation investigated by trypan blue and (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to assert the porosity and to survey structure of scaffold. Results: MTT assay dem1onstrated that cell viability of third day had significant difference in contrast by first day in both scaffolds. Accordingly, there was a significant decreased in cellular viability from day 3 to 21. Results of the cell count showed a punctual elevation cell numbers for alginate scaffold but there was no similar result for chitosan–gelatin scaffold. Conclusion: Alginate scaffold prepared a better condition for proliferation of NP cells in comparison with chitosan–gelatin scaffold. Results of this study suggest that alginate scaffold could be useful in in vivo studies and treatment. PMID:23326811

  10. Expression and significance of telomerase in the nucleus pulposus tissues of degenerative lumbar discs

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XU; YANG, MING-KUN; LI, ZHOU; LIU, CHUAN; WU, JI-SHENG; WANG, JIE

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lumbar disc degeneration is extremely complex, and the expression and role of telomerase in degenerative lumbar disc tissues remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to detect telomerase expression in nucleus pulposus tissues of degenerative lumbar discs and to explore the correlation between telomerase expression and other factors typical of disc degeneration. A total of 8 patients with degenerative nucleus pulposus were included as the experimental group and compared with 8 control patients without evident lumbar disc degeneration. The expression of telomerase in nucleus pulposus tissues was detected by immunohistochemical staining. ELISA was performed to determine the differential expression of telomerase, type II collagen and chondroitin sulfate between the two groups. In addition, a correlation analysis was performed to form associations between these factors. Finally, 5 cases in the experimental group and 5 in the control group were involved in the analysis. Immunohistochemistry results showed that telomerase expression in the experimental group was significantly lower compared to the control group and the percentage in the unit field of view showed significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Similarly, the ELISA test results showed lower expression levels of telomerase, type II collagen and chondroitin sulfate in the experimental group when compared with the control group (P<0.05). The correlation analysis revealed that telomerase was positively correlated with type II collagen and chondroitin sulfate (correlation coefficients, 0.673 and 0.528, respectively; P<0.01). In conclusion, telomerase is involved in the degeneration process of nucleus pulposus tissue in lumbar discs and has a positive correlation with other factors typically associated with degeneration.

  11. Electrospun scaffold containing TGF-?1 promotes human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation towards a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiang; Liu, Minghan; Wang, Jiaxu; Zhou, Yue; Xiang, Qiang

    2015-04-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of electrospun scaffold containing TGF-?1 on promoting human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiation towards a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype under hypoxia. Two kinds of nanofibrous scaffolds containing TGF-?1 were fabricated using uniaxial electrospinning (Group I) and coaxial electrospinning (Group II). Human MSCs were seeded on both kinds of scaffolds and cultured in a hypoxia chamber (2% O2), and then the scaffolds were characterised. Cell proliferation and differentiation were also evaluated after 3 weeks of cell culture. Results showed that both kinds of scaffolds shared similar diameter distributions and protein release. However, Group I scaffolds were more hydrophilic than that of Group II. Both kinds of scaffolds induced the MSCs to differentiate towards the nucleus pulposus-type phenotype in vitro. In addition, the expression of nucleus pulposus-associated genes (aggrecan, type II collagen, HIF-1? and Sox-9) in Group I increased more than that of Group II. These results indicate that electrospinning nanofibrous scaffolds containing TGF-?1 supports the differentiation of MSCs towards the pulposus-like phenotype in a hypoxia chamber, which would be a more appropriate choice for nucleus pulposus regeneration. PMID:25829173

  12. HIF-1-PHD2 axis controls expression of syndecan 4 in nucleus pulposus cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hirose, Yuichiro; Tran, Cassie M.; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is the leading cause of chronic back pain. Recent studies show that raised level of SDC4, a cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, plays a role in pathogenesis of disc degeneration. However, in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of the healthy intervertebral disc, the mechanisms that control expression of SDC4 and its physiological function are unknown. Hypoxia induced SDC4 mRNA and protein expression by ?2.4- and 4.4-fold (P<0.05), respectively, in NP cells. While the activity of the SDC4 promoter containing hypoxia response element (HRE) was induced 2-fold (P<0.05), the HRE mutation decreased the activity by 40% in hypoxia. Transfections with plasmids coding prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) and ShPHD2 show that hypoxic expression of SDC4 mRNA and protein is regulated by PHD2 through controlling hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) levels. Although overexpression of HIF-1? significantly increased SDC4 protein levels, stable suppression of HIF-1? and HIF-1? decreased SDC4 expression by 50% in human NP cells. Finally, suppression of SDC4 expression, as well as HS function, resulted in an ?2-fold increase in sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 9 (Sox9) mRNA, and protein (P<0.05) and simultaneous increase in Sox9 transcriptional activity and target gene expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that in healthy discs, SDC4, through its HS side chains, contributes to maintenance of the hypoxic tissue niche by controlling baseline expression of Sox9.—Fujita, N., Hirose, Y., Tran, C. M., Chiba, K., Miyamoto, T., Toyama, Y., Shapiro, I. M., Risbud, M. V. HIF-1-PHD2 axis controls expression of syndecan 4 in nucleus pulposus cells. PMID:24558194

  13. Characterization and mechanical performance study of silk/PVA cryogels: towards nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Neo, Puay Yong; Shi, Pujiang; Goh, James Cho-Hong; Toh, Siew Lok

    2014-12-01

    Poly (vinyl) alcohol (PVA) cryogels are reported in the literature for application in nucleus pulposus (NP) replacement strategies. However, these studies are mainly limited to acellular approaches-in part due to the high hydrophilicity of PVA gels that renders cellular adhesion difficult. Silk is a versatile biomaterial with excellent biocompatibility. We hypothesize that the incorporation of silk with PVA will (i) improve the cell-hosting abilities of PVA cryogels and (ii) allow better tailoring of physical properties of the composite cryogels for an NP tissue engineering purpose. 5% (wt/vol) PVA is blended with 5% silk fibroin (wt/vol) to investigate the effect of silk?:?PVA ratios on the cryogels' physical properties. Results show that the addition of silk results in composite cryogels that are able to swell to more than 10 times its original dry weight and rehydrate to at least 70% of its original wet weight. Adding at least 20% silk significantly improves surface hydrophobicity and is correlated with an improvement in cell-hosting abilities. Cell-seeded cryogels also display an increment in compressive modulus and hoop stress values. In all, adding silk to PVA creates cryogels that can be potentially used as NP replacements. PMID:25329452

  14. 3D-Printed ABS and PLA Scaffolds for Cartilage and Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rosenzweig, Derek H.; Carelli, Eric; Steffen, Thomas; Jarzem, Peter; Haglund, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    Painful degeneration of soft tissues accounts for high socioeconomic costs. Tissue engineering aims to provide biomimetics recapitulating native tissues. Biocompatible thermoplastics for 3D printing can generate high-resolution structures resembling tissue extracellular matrix. Large-pore 3D-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds were compared for cell ingrowth, viability, and tissue generation. Primary articular chondrocytes and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured on ABS and PLA scaffolds for three weeks. Both cell types proliferated well, showed high viability, and produced ample amounts of proteoglycan and collagen type II on both scaffolds. NP generated more matrix than chondrocytes; however, no difference was observed between scaffold types. Mechanical testing revealed sustained scaffold stability. This study demonstrates that chondrocytes and NP cells can proliferate on both ABS and PLA scaffolds printed with a simplistic, inexpensive desktop 3D printer. Moreover, NP cells produced more proteoglycan than chondrocytes, irrespective of thermoplastic type, indicating that cells maintain individual phenotype over the three-week culture period. Future scaffold designs covering larger pore sizes and better mimicking native tissue structure combined with more flexible or resorbable materials may provide implantable constructs with the proper structure, function, and cellularity necessary for potential cartilage and disc tissue repair in vivo. PMID:26151846

  15. Systematic study of cell isolation from bovine nucleus pulposus: Improving cell yield and experiment reliability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juliana T Y; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Leung, Victor Y L

    2015-12-01

    Differences in matrix compositions in human nucleus pulposus (NP) clinical samples demand different cell isolation protocols for optimal results but there is no clear guide about this to date. Sub-optimal protocols may result in low cell yield, limited reliability of results or even failure of experiments. Cell yield, viability and attachment of cells isolated from bovine NP tissue with different protocols were estimated by cell counting, Trypan blue staining and cell culturing respectively. RNA was extracted from isolated cells and quantified by Nanodrop spectrometry and RT-qPCR. Higher collagenase concentration, longer digestion duration and pronase pre-treatment increased the cell yield. Cell viability remained high (<5% dead cells) even after 0.2% collagenase treatment for overnight. NP cells remained to have high ACAN, COL2A1, CDH2, KRT18, and KRT19 expression compared to muscle cells for different cell isolation conditions tested. Digestion by collagenase alone without the use of pronase could isolate cells from human degenerated NP tissue but clusters of cells were observed. We suggest the use of the disappearance of tissue as an indirect measure of cells released. This study provides a guide for researchers to decide the parameters involved in NP cell isolation for optimal outcome. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1743-1755, 2015. PMID:26036782

  16. Differentiation of immortalized human precartilaginous stem cells into nucleus pulposus-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Gu, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Li; Wang, Junfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore the differentiation of immortalized human precartilaginous stem cells (IPSCs) into nucleus pulposus (NP)-like cells induced by transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and examine its biological characteristics. Methods: The IPSCs were seeded onto chitosan/glycerophosphate (C/GP) scaffolds and induced into NP-like cells by adding TGF-?1 under hypoxic conditions. The growth and differentiation of IPSCs were observed, and the formation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the extracellular matrix of differentiating cells was detected by Alcian Blue staining. The expressions of type II collagen and aggrecan genes in NP-like cells were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expressions of Sox9 and ?-catenin were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: The IPSCs were observed to grow well on the C/GP scaffolds. After 7 days, Alcian Blue staining demonstrated the formation of GAG. The RT-PCR results showed that expression of type II collagen and aggrecan were upregulated compared with control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Likewise, western blotting results showed that the expression of Sox9 and ?-catenin was upregulated compared with control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that IPSCs could be differentiated into NP-like cells following induction by TGF-?1. PMID:26045789

  17. 3D-Printed ABS and PLA Scaffolds for Cartilage and Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Derek H; Carelli, Eric; Steffen, Thomas; Jarzem, Peter; Haglund, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    Painful degeneration of soft tissues accounts for high socioeconomic costs. Tissue engineering aims to provide biomimetics recapitulating native tissues. Biocompatible thermoplastics for 3D printing can generate high-resolution structures resembling tissue extracellular matrix. Large-pore 3D-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds were compared for cell ingrowth, viability, and tissue generation. Primary articular chondrocytes and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured on ABS and PLA scaffolds for three weeks. Both cell types proliferated well, showed high viability, and produced ample amounts of proteoglycan and collagen type II on both scaffolds. NP generated more matrix than chondrocytes; however, no difference was observed between scaffold types. Mechanical testing revealed sustained scaffold stability. This study demonstrates that chondrocytes and NP cells can proliferate on both ABS and PLA scaffolds printed with a simplistic, inexpensive desktop 3D printer. Moreover, NP cells produced more proteoglycan than chondrocytes, irrespective of thermoplastic type, indicating that cells maintain individual phenotype over the three-week culture period. Future scaffold designs covering larger pore sizes and better mimicking native tissue structure combined with more flexible or resorbable materials may provide implantable constructs with the proper structure, function, and cellularity necessary for potential cartilage and disc tissue repair in vivo. PMID:26151846

  18. Characterization of novel photocrosslinked carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels for encapsulation of nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Reza, Anna T; Nicoll, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    Back pain is a significant clinical concern often associated with degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Tissue engineering strategies may provide a viable IVD replacement therapy; however, an ideal biomaterial scaffold has yet to be identified. One candidate material is carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), a water-soluble derivative of cellulose. In this study, 90 and 250 kDa CMC polymers were modified with functional methacrylate groups and photocrosslinked to produce hydrogels at different macromer concentrations. At 7 days, bovine nucleus pulposus (NP) cells encapsulated in these hydrogels were viable, with values for the elastic modulus ranging from 1.07 + or - 0.06 to 4.29 + or - 1.25 kPa. Three specific formulations were chosen for further study based on cell viability and mechanical integrity assessments: 4% 90 kDa, 2% 250 kDa and 3% 250 kDa CMC. The equilibrium weight swelling ratio of these formulations remained steady throughout the 2 week study (46.45 + or - 3.14, 48.55 + or - 2.91 and 42.41 + or - 3.06, respectively). The equilibrium Young's modulus of all cell-laden and cell-free control samples decreased over time, with the exception of cell-laden 3% 250 kDa CMC constructs, indicating an interplay between limited hydrolysis of interchain crosslinks and the elaboration of a functional matrix. Histological analyses of 3% 250 kDa CMC hydrogels confirmed the presence of rounded cells in lacunae and the pericellular deposition of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a phenotypic NP marker. Taken together, these studies support the use of photocrosslinked CMC hydrogels as tunable biomaterials for NP cell encapsulation. PMID:19505596

  19. Degenerate Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells Promote Neurite Outgrowth in Neural Cells

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen M.; Purmessur, Devina; Baird, Pauline; Probyn, Ben; Freemont, Anthony J.; Hoyland, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Innervation of nociceptive nerve fibres into the normally aneural nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc (IVD) occurs during degeneration resulting in discogenic back pain. The neurotrophins nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which are associated with stimulation of axonal outgrowth and nociception by neuronal cells, are both expressed by NP cells, with BDNF levels increasing with disease severity. However the mechanism of interaction between human NP cells and neural cells has yet to be fully elucidated. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine whether non-degenerate or degenerate human NP cells inhibit or stimulate neural outgrowth and whether any outgrowth is mediated by NGF or BDNF. Human NP cells from non-degenerate and degenerate IVD were cultured in alginate beads then co-cultured for 48 hours with human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Co-culture of non-degenerate NP cells with neural cells resulted in both an inhibition of neurite outgrowth and reduction in percentage of neurite expressing cells. Conversely co-culture with degenerate NP cells resulted in an increase in both neurite length and percentage of neurite expressing cells. Addition of anti-NGF to the co-culture with degenerate cells resulted in a decrease in percentage of neurite expressing cells, while addition of anti-BDNF resulted in a decrease in both neurite length and percentage of neurite expressing cells. Our findings show that while non-degenerate NP cells are capable of inhibiting neurite outgrowth from human neural cells, degenerate NP cells stimulate outgrowth. Neurotrophin blocking studies demonstrated that both NGF and BDNF, secreted by degenerate NP cells, may play a role in this stimulation with BDNF potentially playing the predominant role. These findings suggest that NP cells are capable of regulating nerve ingrowth and that neoinnervation occurring during IVD degeneration may be stimulated by the NP cells themselves. PMID:23091643

  20. 3D segmentation of annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus from T2-weighted magnetic resonance images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Mateos, Isaac; Pozo, Jose M.; Eltes, Peter E.; Del Rio, Luis; Lazary, Aron; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2014-12-01

    Computational medicine aims at employing personalised computational models in diagnosis and treatment planning. The use of such models to help physicians in finding the best treatment for low back pain (LBP) is becoming popular. One of the challenges of creating such models is to derive patient-specific anatomical and tissue models of the lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs), as a prior step. This article presents a segmentation scheme that obtains accurate results irrespective of the degree of IVD degeneration, including pathological discs with protrusion or herniation. The segmentation algorithm, employing a novel feature selector, iteratively deforms an initial shape, which is projected into a statistical shape model space at first and then, into a B-Spline space to improve accuracy. The method was tested on a MR dataset of 59 patients suffering from LBP. The images follow a standard T2-weighted protocol in coronal and sagittal acquisitions. These two image volumes were fused in order to overcome large inter-slice spacing. The agreement between expert-delineated structures, used here as gold-standard, and our automatic segmentation was evaluated using Dice Similarity Index and surface-to-surface distances, obtaining a mean error of 0.68 mm in the annulus segmentation and 1.88 mm in the nucleus, which are the best results with respect to the image resolution in the current literature.

  1. Establishment of a promising human nucleus pulposus cell line for intervertebral disc tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Che; Chen, Wei-Hong; Wu, Ling-Chiao; Hsu, Wei-Che; Lo, Wen-Cheng; Yeh, Shauh-Der; Wang, Ming-Fu; Zeng, Rong; Deng, Win-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Low-back pain caused by intervertebral disc degeneration could be recovered by the regeneration of the nucleus pulposus (NP). This study aimed to establish a chondrogenic recovery model with promising a human NP (hNP) cell line, an immortalized hNP (ihNP), which could be a screening platform to identify regenerative drugs. The ihNP cells were created from primary human NP cells transfected with a retroviral vector-driven HPV16 E6/E7. Growth properties and characteristics of ihNP were evaluated by comparing with parental NP cells. Successful immortalization of ihNP cells stably expressed HPV 16 E6/E7 mRNA. The doubling time of ihNP was shortened to 53.16±2.63?h compared with parental hNP-P1. Cell cycle regulators, including p53, p21, and pRB were downregulated compared to parental hNP-P1. The in vivo neoplastic forming assay also demonstrated that the ihNP was nontumorigenic. After 25 generations of cell cultures, the ihNP cells, yet stably expressed chondrogenic genes, including (SOX9), type II collagen (Col II), aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, and versican. Higher expressions of chondrogenic proteins, including Col II, phosphorylated SOX9 (p-SOX9), and CD44 were also determined. Under the stressful inflammatory conditions induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS), the regenerative and anti-inflammatory potentials of ihNP in two-dimensional culture with the presence of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. PRP showed significant effects on restoring diminished chondrogenic markers and deleterious inflammatory responses induced by LPS in ihNP. The therapeutic potentials of ihNP in three-dimensional neocartilage model could also be exerted by PRP using histological evaluation and immunological staining. Hence, the established ihNP cells can provide a chondrogenic recovery model as a regenerative drug screening tool for further regenerative drug discovery and development. PMID:23675702

  2. Regeneration of nucleus pulposus tissue in an ovine intervertebral disc degeneration model by cell-free resorbable polymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Woiciechowsky, Christian; Abbushi, Alexander; Zenclussen, Maria L; Casalis, Pablo; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs) occurs frequently and is often associated with lower back pain. Recent treatment options are limited and treat the symptoms rather than regenerate the degenerated disc. Cell-free, freeze-dried resorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA)-hyaluronan implants were used in an ovine IVD degeneration model. The nucleus pulposus of the IVD was partially removed, endoscopically. PGA-hyaluronan implants were immersed in autologous sheep serum and implanted into the disc defect. Animals with nucleotomy only served as controls. The T2-weighted/fat suppression sequence signal intensity index of the operated discs, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showed that implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan implant improved (p = 0.0066) the MRI signal compared to controls at 6 months after surgery. Histological analysis by haematoxylin and eosin and safranin O staining showed the ingrowth of cells with typical chondrocytic morphology, even cell distribution, and extracellular matrix rich in proteoglycan. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan scaffolds improved (p = 0.027) the formation of regenerated tissue after nucleotomy. Disc heights remained stable in discs with nucleotomy only as well as after implantation of the implant. In conclusion, implantation of cell-free polymer-based implants after nucleotomy induces nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration and improves disc water content in the ovine model. PMID:22865642

  3. Differential expression of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) in normal and degenerated human nucleus pulposus tissues and cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Weiguo; Fang, Dejian; Ye, Dongping; Zou, Longqiang; Shen, Yan; Dai, Libing; Xu, Jiake

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • ERK5 involved in NP cells. • ERK5 involved in NP tissue. • It was important modulator. - Abstract: Extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and regulates a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, necrosis, apoptosis and degeneration. However, the expression of ERK5 and its role in degenerated human nucleus pulposus (NP) is hitherto unknown. In this study, we observed the differential expression of ERK5 in normal and degenerated human nucleus pulposus tissues by using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. Treatment of NP cells with Pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-? decreased ERK5 gene expression as well as NP marker gene expression; including the type II collagen and aggrecan. Suppression of ERK5 gene expression in NP cells by ERK5 siRNA resulted in decreased gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK5 activation by BIX02188 (5 ?M) decreased the gene expression of type II collagen and aggrecan in NP cells. Our results document the expression of ERK5 in degenerated nucleus pulposus tissues, and suggest a potential involvement of ERK5 in human degenerated nucleus pulposus.

  4. The avian intervertebral disc arises from rostral sclerotome and lacks a nucleus pulposus: Implications for evolution of the vertebrate disc

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Bradley J.; Maier, Jennifer A.; Mohiuddin, Yasmin S.; Powers, Rae; Lo, YinTing; Guimarães-Camboa, Nuno; Evans, Sylvia M.; Harfe, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Deterioration of the intervertebral discs is an unfortunate consequence of aging. The intervertebral disc in mammals is composed of three parts: a jelly-like center called the nucleus pulposus, the cartilaginous annulus fibrosus and anterior and posterior endplates that attach the discs to vertebrae. In order to understand the origin of the disc, we have investigated the intervertebral region of chickens. Surprisingly, our comparison of mouse and chicken discs revealed that chicken discs lack nuclei pulposi. In addition, the notochord, which in mice forms nuclei pulposi, was found to persist as a rod-like structure and express Shh throughout chicken embryogenesis. Our fate mapping data indicates that cells originating from the rostral half of each somite are responsible for forming the avian disc while cells in the caudal region of each somite form vertebrae. A histological analysis of mammalian and non-mammalian organisms suggests that nuclei pulposi are only present in mammals. PMID:22354863

  5. Oxidative stress inhibits the proliferation, induces premature senescence and promotes a catabolic phenotype in human nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells.

    PubMed

    Dimozi, A; Mavrogonatou, E; Sklirou, A; Kletsas, D

    2015-01-01

    Aged and degenerated intervertebral discs are characterised by a significant increase in the number of senescent cells, which may be associated with the deterioration of this tissue due to their catabolic phenotype. On the other hand, carboxymethyl-lysine has been found to be accumulated with ageing in the proteins of the disc, evidencing the existence of oxidative stress in this tissue. Accordingly, here we investigated the effect of oxidative stress on the physiology of human nucleus pulposus cells. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at subcytotoxic concentrations transiently increased the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species, activated the p38 MAPK, ERKs, JNKs and Akt signalling pathways and induced the nuclear translocation of NF-?? and Nrf2. It also provoked DNA damage and triggered a DNA repair response by activating the ATM-Chk2-p53-p21(WAF1)-pRb pathway, ultimately resulting in a G1 cell cycle delay and the decrease of cells' proliferation. Prolonged exposure to H2O2 led to premature cellular senescence, as characterised by the inhibition of proliferation, the enhanced senescence-associated ? galactosidase staining and the over-expression of known molecular markers, without though a significant decrease in the chromosome telomere length. H2O2-senescent cells were found to possess a catabolic phenotype, mainly characterised by the up-regulation of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes (MMP-1, -2, -9 and ADAMTS-5) and the down-regulation of their inhibitors (TIMPs), as well as of several proteoglycans, including aggrecan, the major component of the nucleus pulposus. The senescent phenotype could be reversed by N-acetyl-L-cysteine, supporting the use of antioxidants for the improvement of disc physiology and the deceleration of disc degeneration. PMID:26337541

  6. Survivin is expressed in degenerated nucleus pulposus cells and is involved in proliferation and the prevention of apoptosis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LIN, YAZHOU; YUE, BIN; XIANG, HONGFEI; LIU, YONG; MA, XUEXIAO; CHEN, BOHUA

    2016-01-01

    Survivin is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis, which is frequently present within degenerated human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Survivin has been extensively investigated using proliferation and apoptosis assays in tumor cells; however, studies conducted on survivin in degenerative NP cells remain limited to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate survivin expression and its effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of degenerated NP cells in vitro. The expression levels of survivin in the NP cells of patients (>45 years) with lumbar disc degenerative disease and the NP cells of patients (<25 years) with lumbar vertebra fracture were assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effects on in vitro proliferation and apoptosis were investigated through transfection with a specific small interfering (si)RNA. The results of the present study demonstrated that survivin was expressed in the degenerated NP cells, but was undetectable in normal NP cells at the mRNA level. Survivin suppression following transfection with a specific survivin-siRNA reduced the proliferation rate of NP cells and enhanced sensitization to pro-apoptotic stimuli. Therefore, survivin was shown to be expressed and exhibit an important role in the proliferation and prevention of apoptosis of degenerated NP cells. Studies on survivin in NP cells may aid in increasing the understanding of the complex processes underlying NP cell degeneration, and could provide fundamental information for gene therapy to inhibit this degeneration in vitro. PMID:26648308

  7. Lower crosslinking density enhances functional nucleus pulposus-like matrix elaboration by human mesenchymal stem cells in carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huizi A; Gupta, Michelle S; Varma, Devika M; Gilchrist, M Lane; Nicoll, Steven B

    2016-01-01

    Engineered constructs represent a promising treatment for replacement of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. Recently, photocrosslinked hydrogels comprised of methacrylated carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were shown to support chondrogenic differentiation of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and promote accumulation of NP-like extracellular matrix (ECM). The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of CMC crosslinking density, by varying macromer concentration and modification (i.e., methacrylation) percentage, on NP-like differentiation of encapsulated hMSCs. Constructs of lower macromer concentration (2%, w/v) exhibited significantly greater collagen II accumulation, more homogeneous distribution of ECM macromolecules, and a temporal increase in mechanical properties compared to hydrogels of higher macromer concentration (4%, w/v). Constructs of higher modification percentage (25%) gave rise to significantly elevated collagen II content and the formation of cell clusters within the matrix relative to samples of lower modification percentage (10% and 15%). These differences in functional ECM accumulation and distribution are likely attributed to the distinct crosslinked network structures of the various hydrogel formulations. Overall, CMC constructs of lower macromer concentration and modification percentage were most promising as scaffolds for NP tissue engineering based on functional ECM assembly. Optimization of such hydrogel fabrication parameters may lead to the development of clinically relevant tissue-engineered NP replacements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 165-177, 2016. PMID:26256108

  8. Assessment of compressive modulus, hydraulic permeability and matrix content of trypsin-treated nucleus pulposus using quantitative MRI.

    PubMed

    Périé, D; Iatridis, J C; Demers, C N; Goswami, T; Beaudoin, G; Mwale, F; Antoniou, J

    2006-01-01

    A clinical strength MRI and intact bovine caudal intervertebral discs were used to test the hypotheses that (1) mechanical loading and trypsin treatment induce changes in NMR parameters, mechanical properties and biochemical contents; and (2) mechanical properties are quantitatively related to NMR parameters. MRI acquisitions, confined compression stress-relaxation experiments, and biochemical assays were applied to determine the NMR parameters (relaxation times T1 and T2, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion trace (TrD)), mechanical properties (compressive modulus H(A0) and hydraulic permeability k(0)), and biochemical contents (H(2)O, proteoglycan and total collagen) of nucleus pulposus tissue from bovine caudal discs subjected to one of two injections and one of two mechanical loading conditions. Significant correlations were found between k(0) and T1 (r=0.75,p=0.03), T2 (r=0.78, p=0.02), and TrD (r=0.85, p=0.007). A trend was found between H(A0) and TrD (r=0.56, p=0.12). However, loading decreased these correlations (r=0.4, p=0.2). The significant effect of trypsin treatment on mechanical properties, but not on NMR parameters, may suggest that mechanical properties are more sensitive to the structural changes induced by trypsin treatment. The significant effect of loading on T1 and T2, but not on H(A0) or k(0), may suggest that NMR parameters are more sensitive to the changes in water content enhanced by loading. We conclude that MRI offers promise as a sensitive and non-invasive technique for describing alterations in material properties of intervertebral disc nucleus, and our results demonstrate that the hydraulic permeability correlated more strongly to the quantitative NMR parameters than did the compressive modulus; however, more studies are necessary to more precisely characterize these relationships. PMID:15970200

  9. Target radiofrequency combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis in the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daying; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhijian; Zhang, Xuexue; Sheng, Mulan

    2015-01-01

    Both target radiofrequency thermocoagulation and collagenase chemonucleolysis are effective micro-invasive therapy means for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. In order to analyze the clinical effects of target radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis on lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, the contents of hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan were measured and the histological changes of nucleus pulposus was detected in the vitro experiments. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation reduced the hydrolyzation of herniated nucleus pulposus caused by collagenase, as well as the content of hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan. Furthermore, 236 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated by target radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis. The efficiency was evaluated according to Macnab criteria, and the index of lumbar disc herniation (IDH) was compared pre-operation with 3 months post-operation. The post-operative good rate was 66.5% (157/236) at 2 weeks post-operation, and 88.1% (208/236) at 3 months post-operation. In the post-operative follow-up exam, 86.8% of the re-examined cases demonstrated smaller or ablated protrusion, with reduced IDH values from pre-operation, which was statistically significant. No serious complications were detected intra-operatively and post-operatively. In conclusion, target radiofrequency combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis was an effective and safe method for treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:25785026

  10. Target radiofrequency combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis in the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daying; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhijian; Zhang, Xuexue; Sheng, Mulan

    2015-01-01

    Both target radiofrequency thermocoagulation and collagenase chemonucleolysis are effective micro-invasive therapy means for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. In order to analyze the clinical effects of target radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis on lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, the contents of hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan were measured and the histological changes of nucleus pulposus was detected in the vitro experiments. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation reduced the hydrolyzation of herniated nucleus pulposus caused by collagenase, as well as the content of hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan. Furthermore, 236 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated by target radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis. The efficiency was evaluated according to Macnab criteria, and the index of lumbar disc herniation (IDH) was compared pre-operation with 3 months post-operation. The post-operative good rate was 66.5% (157/236) at 2 weeks post-operation, and 88.1% (208/236) at 3 months post-operation. In the post-operative follow-up exam, 86.8% of the re-examined cases demonstrated smaller or ablated protrusion, with reduced IDH values from pre-operation, which was statistically significant. No serious complications were detected intra-operatively and post-operatively. In conclusion, target radiofrequency combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis was an effective and safe method for treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:25785026

  11. Brain herniation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  12. The effects of epidural application of allografted nucleus pulposus in rats on cytokine expression, limb withdrawal and nerve root discharge.

    PubMed

    Kallakuri, Srinivasu; Takebayashi, Tsuneo; Ozaktay, A Cuneyt; Chen, Chaoyang; Yang, Shangyou; Wooley, Paul H; Cavanaugh, John M

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated cytokine expression, behavioral and neurophysiologic changes in Lewis rats whose lumbar nerve roots were exposed to nucleus pulposus (NP). Allografted NP or fat was implanted over the left L5 nerve root. Sham rats had no NP or fat implantation. Control rats had no surgery. Rats were allowed to survive for 7 days and were tested daily for hind-paw mechanical and thermal withdrawal response (TWR). Granulation tissue was processed by immunohistochemistry for cytokines--interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Neurophysiological response from the L5 nerve roots was also characterized after 7 days. Significant staining density for IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF was observed in NP granulation tissue compared with fat and sham (p<0.05). However, there were no significant thermal and mechanical behavioral changes. TWR data computed as percentage-difference scores indicated no significant changes in withdrawal response between the four groups, although NP-treated group showed a trend of decreasing withdrawal latency. Comparison of combined percentage-difference scores revealed increased sensitivity in the NP group on days 4, 5 and 6, 7 when compared with control rats only, with no significant changes in the percentage-difference scores of fat and sham rats when compared to control. Neurophysiologically, the percentage increase in discharge rate in NP-treated rats was higher than control (p<0.05) but not higher than fat and sham rats. These results support the inflammatory nature of NP but offer limited support to NP-mediated thermal behavioral changes. PMID:15290408

  13. Injectable hydrogels with high fixed charge density and swelling pressure for nucleus pulposus repair: biomimetic glycosaminoglycan analogues.

    PubMed

    Sivan, S S; Roberts, S; Urban, J P G; Menage, J; Bramhill, J; Campbell, D; Franklin, V J; Lydon, F; Merkher, Y; Maroudas, A; Tighe, B J

    2014-03-01

    The load-bearing biomechanical role of the intervertebral disc is governed by the composition and organization of its major macromolecular components, collagen and aggrecan. The major function of aggrecan is to maintain tissue hydration, and hence disc height, under the high loads imposed by muscle activity and body weight. Key to this role is the high negative fixed charge of its glycosaminoglycan side chains, which impart a high osmotic pressure to the tissue, thus regulating and maintaining tissue hydration and hence disc height under load. In degenerate discs, aggrecan degrades and is lost from the disc, particularly centrally from the nucleus pulposus. This loss of fixed charge results in reduced hydration and loss of disc height; such changes are closely associated with low back pain. The present authors developed biomimetic glycosaminoglycan analogues based on sulphonate-containing polymers. These biomimetics are deliverable via injection into the disc where they polymerize in situ, forming a non-degradable, nuclear "implant" aimed at restoring disc height to degenerate discs, thereby relieving back pain. In vitro, these glycosaminoglycan analogues possess appropriate fixed charge density, hydration and osmotic responsiveness, thereby displaying the capacity to restore disc height and function. Preliminary biomechanical tests using a degenerate explant model showed that the implant adapts to the space into which it is injected and restores stiffness. These hydrogels mimic the role taken by glycosaminoglycans in vivo and, unlike other hydrogels, provide an intrinsic swelling pressure, which can maintain disc hydration and height under the high and variable compressive loads encountered in vivo. PMID:24270091

  14. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation by percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD) and modified PLDD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiao fei; Li, Hong zhi; Wu, Ru zhou; Sui, Yun xian

    2005-07-01

    Objective: To study the micro-invasive operative method and to compare the effect of treatment of PLDD and modified PLDD for Lumbar Disc Herniation. Method: Vaporized part of the nucleus pulposus in single or multiple point after acupuncture into lumbar disc, to reach the purpose of the decompression of the lumbar disc. Result: Among the 19 cases of the regular PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 63.2%, and among the 40 cases of the modified PLDD group, the excellent and good rate was 82.5%. Conclusion: The modified PLDD has good effect on the treatment for lumbar disc herniation.

  15. Relationship between Initial Telomere Length, Initial Telomerase Activity, Age, and Replicative Capacity of Nucleus Pulposus Chondrocytes in Human Intervertebral Discs: What Is a Predictor of Replicative Potential?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun-Seok; Jeong, Seo-Won; Cho, Sung-Wook; Juhn, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Ki-Won

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and age are related to the replicative potential of human nucleus pulposus chondrocytes (NPCs). However, it has not yet been established if any of these factors can serve as predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs. To establish predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs, we evaluated potential relationships between replicative capacity of NPCs, initial TL (telomere length at the first passage), initial TA (telomerase activity at the first passage), and age. Nucleus pulposus specimens were obtained from 14 patients of various ages undergoing discectomy. NPCs were serially cultivated until the end of their replicative lifespans. Relationships among cumulative population doubling level (PDL), initial TL, initial TA, and age were analyzed. Initial TA was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.674, P = 0.008). However, no correlation between initial TL and age was observed. Cumulative PDL was also negatively correlated with age (r = -0.585, P = 0.028). Although the cumulative PDL appeared to increase with initial TL or initial TA, this trend was not statistically significant. In conclusion, age is the sole predictor of the replicative potential of human NPCs, and replicative potential decreases with age. Initial TL and initial TA are not predictors of replicative potential, and can serve only as reference values. PMID:26633809

  16. Expression of acid-sensing ion channels in nucleus pulposus cells of the human intervertebral disk is regulated by non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xue; Jin, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Qi, Lin; Braun, Frank Karl; Zhang, Xing-Ding; Xu, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are generally used in the treatment of inflammation and pain through cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibition. Mounting evidence has indicated additional COX-independent targets for NSAIDs including acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a and 3. However, detailed function and mechanism of ASICs still remain largely elusive. In this study, the impact of NSAIDs on ASICs in nucleus pulposus cells of the human intervertebral disk was investigated. Nucleus pulposus cells were isolated and cultured from protruded disk tissues of 40 patients. It was shown that ASIC1a and ASIC3 were expressed and functional in these cells by analyzing proton-gated currents after ASIC inhibition. We further investigated the neuroprotective capacity of ibuprofen (a COX inhibitor), psalmotoxin-1 (PcTX1, a tarantula toxin specific for homomeric ASIC1a), and amiloride (a classic inhibitor of the epithelial sodium channel ENaC/DEG family to which ASICs belong). PcTX1-containing venom has been shown to be comparable with amiloride in its neuroprotective features in rodent models of ischemia. Taken together, our data showed that amiloride, PcTX1, and ibuprofen decreased ASIC protein expression and thereby exerted protective effects from ASIC inhibition-mediated cell damage. PMID:25079679

  17. Deficiency in the ?1 subunit of Na+/K+-ATPase enhances the anti-proliferative effect of high osmolality in nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells.

    PubMed

    Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Urban, Jill P; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2015-12-01

    Intervertebral disc cells are constantly exposed to a hyperosmotic environment. Among cellular responses towards this stress is the inhibition of proliferation through the activation of p38 MAPK and p53. In an effort to further elucidate the biochemical pathways triggered by hyperosmotic stress, we assessed the high osmolality-induced transcriptional changes of bovine nucleus pulposus cells using whole-genome arrays. A 5- and a 24-h hyperosmotic treatment led to the differential expression of >100 and >200 genes, respectively, including nine genes encoding transporters (SLC4A11, SLC5A3, ATP1A1, SLC38A2, KCNK17, KCTD20, KCTD11, SLC7A5, and CLCA2). Differences in the transcriptional profile of these selected genes, as indicated by the microarrays experiments, were validated by qRT-PCR in 2D and 3D cell cultures, under hyperosmolar salt and sorbitol conditions, revealing the presence of a common triggering signal for osmotic adaptation. The key signaling molecules p38 MAPK and p53 were demonstrated to differently participate in the regulation of the aforementioned transporters. Finally, siRNA-mediated knocking-down of each one of the three transporters with the highest and sustained over-expression (i.e., SLC4A11, SLC5A3, and ATP1A1) had a distinct outcome on the transcriptional profile of the other transporters, on p38 MAPK and p53 phosphorylation and consequently on cell cycle progression. The inhibition of ATP1A1 had the most prominent effect on the transcription of the rest of the transporters and was found to enhance the anti-proliferative effect of hyperosmotic conditions through an increased G2/M cell cycle block, ascribing to this pump a central role in the osmoregulatory response of nucleus pulposus cells. PMID:25967398

  18. Paeoniflorin inhibits nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and caspase-9 in a rabbit model of intervertebral disc degeneration

    PubMed Central

    SHI, LIJUN; TENG, HONGLIN; ZHU, MINYU; LI, CHI; HUANG, KELUN; CHEN, BI; DAI, YUSEN; WANG, JING

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of internal disc disruption (IDD); therefore, the inhibition of apoptosis may offer a novel approach for treating IDD diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of paeoniflorin through the detection of relevant indicators in a rabbit model of IDD. In total, 144 rabbits were used in the study and divided into four groups (n=36 per group). Rabbits successfully modeled with IDD received an intragastric injection of 120 mg/kg·day paeoniflorin (high-dose group), 30 mg/kg·day paeoniflorin (low-dose group) or saline (model saline group), while rabbits without IDD were used as a normal control group. The apoptosis rate of disc nucleus pulposus cells was detected using flow cytometry. In addition, the expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-9 in the disc tissues were detected using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis prior to and following the treatment. The results indicated that the expression levels of Bax in the low- and high-dose paeoniflorin groups were significantly reduced, while the Bcl-2 expression levels were significantly increased when compared with the model saline group (P<0.01). In addition, the expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-9 were reduced in the low- and high-dose paeoniflorin groups, as compared with the model saline group (P<0.05). Furthermore, the average apoptotic index of the high- and low-dose paeoniflorin groups was decreased when compared with the model saline group (P<0.05). In conclusion, paeoniflorin was demonstrated to inhibit the apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 through the regulation of Bcl-2 family protein expression. These results provide an experimental basis for the future treatment of IDD with paeoniflorin. PMID:26170945

  19. Survivin is expressed in degenerated nucleus pulposus cells and is involved in proliferation and the prevention of apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yazhou; Yue, Bin; Xiang, Hongfei; Liu, Yong; Ma, Xuexiao; Chen, Bohua

    2016-01-01

    Survivin is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis, which is frequently present within degenerated human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Survivin has been extensively investigated using proliferation and apoptosis assays in tumor cells; however, studies conducted on survivin in degenerative NP cells remain limited to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate survivin expression and its effects on the proliferation and apoptosis of degenerated NP cells in vitro. The expression levels of survivin in the NP cells of patients (>45 years) with lumbar disc degenerative disease and the NP cells of patients (<25 years) with lumbar vertebra fracture were assessed by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effects on in vitro proliferation and apoptosis were investigated through transfection with a specific small interfering (si)RNA. The results of the present study demonstrated that survivin was expressed in the degenerated NP cells, but was undetectable in normal NP cells at the mRNA level. Survivin suppression following transfection with a specific survivin?siRNA reduced the proliferation rate of NP cells and enhanced sensitization to pro?apoptotic stimuli. Therefore, survivin was shown to be expressed and exhibit an important role in the proliferation and prevention of apoptosis of degenerated NP cells. Studies on survivin in NP cells may aid in increasing the understanding of the complex processes underlying NP cell degeneration, and could provide fundamental information for gene therapy to inhibit this degeneration in vitro. PMID:26648308

  20. Collagen-low molecular weight hyaluronic acid semi-interpenetrating network loaded with gelatin microspheres for cell and growth factor delivery for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsaryk, Roman; Gloria, Antonio; Russo, Teresa; Anspach, Laura; De Santis, Roberto; Ghanaati, Shahram; Unger, Ronald E; Ambrosio, Luigi; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2015-07-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is one of the main causes of low back pain. Current surgical treatments are complex and generally do not fully restore spine mobility. Development of injectable extracellular matrix-based hydrogels offers an opportunity for minimally invasive treatment of IVD degeneration. Here we analyze a specific formulation of collagen-low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (LMW HA) semi-interpenetrating network (semi-IPN) loaded with gelatin microspheres as a potential material for tissue engineering of the inner part of the IVD, the nucleus pulposus (NP). The material displayed a gel-like behavior, it was easily injectable as demonstrated by suitable tests and did not induce cytotoxicity or inflammation. Importantly, it supported the growth and chondrogenic differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and nasal chondrocytes (NC) in vitro and in vivo. These properties of the hydrogel were successfully combined with TGF-?3 delivery by gelatin microspheres, which promoted the chondrogenic phenotype. Altogether, collagen-LMW HA loaded with gelatin microspheres represents a good candidate material for NP tissue engineering as it combines important rheological, functional and biological features. PMID:25861947

  1. BMP3 Alone and Together with TGF-? Promote the Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into a Nucleus Pulposus-Like Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaopeng; Tao, Yiqing; Liang, Chengzhen; Zhang, Yujie; Li, Hao; Chen, Qixin

    2015-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into nucleus pulposus (NP)-like cells under specific stimulatory conditions. Thus far, the effects of bone morphogenetic protein 3 (BMP3) and the cocktail effects of BMP3 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-? on MSC proliferation and differentiation remain obscure. Therefore, this study was designed to clarify these unknowns. MSCs were cultured with various gradients of BMP3 and BMP3/TGF-?, and compared with cultures in basal and TGF-? media. Cell proliferation, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, gene expression, and signaling proteins were measured to assess the effects of BMP3 and BMP3/TGF-? on MSCs. Cell number and GAG content increased upon the addition of BMP3 in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of COL2A1, ACAN, SOX9, and KRT19 increased following induction with BMP3 and TGF-?, in contrast to that of COL1A1, ALP, OPN, and COMP. Smad3 phosphorylation was upregulated by BMP3 and TGF-?, but BMP3 did not affect the phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 or c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Our results reveal that BMP3 enhances MSC proliferation and differentiation into NP-like cells, as indicated by increased cell numbers and specific gene expressions, and may also cooperate with TGF-? induced positive effects. These actions are likely related to the activation of TGF-? signaling pathway. PMID:26343641

  2. Defining the Phenotype of Young Healthy Nucleus Pulposus Cells: Recommendations of the Spine Research Interest Group at the 2014 Annual ORS Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Risbud, Makarand V.; Schoepflin, Zachary R.; Mwale, Fackson; Kandel, Rita A.; Grad, Sibylle; Iatridis, James C.; Sakai, Daisuke; Hoyland, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a major physical and socioeconomic problem. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc and especially that of nucleus pulposus (NP) has been linked to low back pain. In spite of much research focusing on the NP, consensus among the research community is lacking in defining the NP cell phenotype. A consensus agreement will allow easier distinguishing of NP cells from annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and endplate chondrocytes, a better gauge of therapeutic success, and a better guidance of tissue-engineering-based regenerative strategies that attempt to replace lost NP tissue. Most importantly, a clear definition will further the understanding of physiology and function of NP cells, ultimately driving development of novel cell-based therapeutic modalities. The Spine Research Interest Group at the 2014 Annual ORS Meeting in New Orleans convened with the task of compiling a working definition of the NP cell phenotype with hope that a consensus statement will propel disc research forward into the future. Based on evaluation of recent studies describing characteristic NP markers and their physiologic relevance, we make the recommendation of the following healthy NP phenotypic markers: stabilized expression of HIF-1?, GLUT-1, aggrecan/collagen II ratio >20, Shh, Brachyury, KRT18/19, CA12, and CD24. PMID:25411088

  3. Cervical radiculopathy caused by neural foraminal migration of a herniated calcified intervertebral disk in childhood: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Min; Kim, Eun-Sang; Sung, Duk Hyun

    2005-11-01

    Childhood intervertebral disk calcification is a rare clinical entity. Although its clinical course is usually benign, nerve root irritation or spinal cord compression can occasionally occur. We present the clinical and radiologic findings of a 9-year-old boy with cervical radiculopathy due to a herniated calcified intervertebral disk, which developed suddenly after swimming for 1 hour. Radiologic findings indicated that a calcified nucleus pulposus at the C6-7 level herniated into the spinal canal and migrated far into the right C6-7 neural foramen. Surgical management was performed 8 weeks after the onset of symptoms, because the initial presenting symptoms persisted despite conservative treatment. In children, calcified intervertebral disks can cause cervical radiculopathy that requires surgical management when they herniate and migrate far into the neural foramen. PMID:16271574

  4. Three-dimensional hypoxic culture of human mesenchymal stem cells encapsulated in a photocurable, biodegradable polymer hydrogel: a potential injectable cellular product for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Gerges, Irini; Tamplenizza, Margherita; Lenardi, Cristina; Forsyth, Nicholas R; Liu, Yang

    2014-08-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue damage can induce detrimental mechanical stresses and strains on the intervertebral disc, leading to disc degeneration. This study demonstrates the potential of a novel, photo-curable, injectable, synthetic polymer hydrogel (pHEMA-co-APMA grafted with polyamidoamine (PAA)) to encapsulate and differentiate human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) towards a NP phenotype under hypoxic conditions which could be used to restore NP tissue function and mechanical properties. Encapsulated hMSC cultured in media (hMSC and chondrogenic) displayed good cell viability up to day 14. The genotoxicity effects of ultraviolet (UV) on hMSC activity confirmed the acceptability of 2.5min of UV light exposure to cells. Cytotoxicity investigations revealed that hMSC cultured in media containing p(HEMA-co-APMA) grafted with PAA degradation product (10% and 20%v/v concentration) for 14days significantly decreased the initial hMSC adhesion ability and proliferation rate from 24hrs to day 14. Successful differentiation of encapsulated hMSC within hydrogels towards chondrogenesis was observed with elevated expression levels of aggrecan and collagen II when cultured in chondrogenic media under hypoxic conditions, in comparison with culture in hMSC media for 14days. Characterization of the mechanical properties revealed a significant decrease in stiffness and modulus values of cellular hydrogels in comparison with acellular hydrogels at both day 7 and day 14. These results demonstrate the potential use of an in vivo photo-curable injectable, synthetic hydrogel with encapsulated hMSC for application in the repair and regeneration of NP tissue. PMID:24793656

  5. Autophagy attenuates the catabolic effect during inflammatory conditions in nucleus pulposus cells, as sustained by NF-?B and JNK inhibition

    PubMed Central

    XU, KANG; CHEN, WEIJIAN; WANG, XIAOFEI; PENG, YAN; LIANG, ANJING; HUANG, DONGSHENG; LI, CHUNHAI; YE, WEI

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycan degradation contributing to the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is induced by inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?). Cell autophagy exists in degenerative diseases, including osteoarthritis and inter-vertebral disc degeneration. However, the autophagy induced by TNF-? and IL-1? and the corresponding molecular mechanism appear to be cell-type dependent. The effect and mechanism of autophagy regulated by TNF-? and IL-1? in IVDs remains unclear. Additionally, the impact of autophagy on the catabolic effect in inflammatory conditions also remains elusive. In the present study, autophagy activator and inhibitor were used to demonstrate the impact of autophagy on the catabolic effect induced by TNF-?. A critical role of autophagy was identified in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells: Inhibition of autophagy suppresses, while activation of autophagy enhances, the catabolic effect of cytokines. Subsequently, the autophagy-related gene expression in rat NP cells following TNF-? and IL-1? treatment was observed using immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis; however, no association was present. In addition, nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors and TNF-? were used to determine the molecular mechanism of autophagy during the inflammatory conditions, and only the NF-?B and JNK inhibitor were found to enhance the autophagy of rat NP cells. Finally, IKK? knockdown was used to further confirm the effect of the NF-?B signal on human NP cells autophagy, and the data showed that IKK? knockdown upregulated the autophagy of NP cells during inflammatory conditions. PMID:26165348

  6. Functional nucleus pulposus-like matrix assembly by human mesenchymal stromal cells is directed by macromer concentration in photocrosslinked carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Michelle S; Nicoll, Steven B

    2014-11-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with several pathophysiologic changes of the IVD, including dehydration of the nucleus pulposus (NP). Tissue engineering strategies may be used to restore both biological and mechanical function of the IVD following removal of NP tissue during surgical intervention. Recently, photocrosslinked carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrogels were shown to support chondrogenic, NP-like extracellular matrix (ECM) elaboration by human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) when supplemented with TGF-?3; however, mechanical properties of these constructs did not reach native values. Fabrication parameters (i.e., composition, crosslinking density) can influence the bulk mechanical properties of hydrogel scaffolds, as well as cellular behavior and differentiation patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CMC macromer concentration (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % weight/volume) on bulk hydrogel properties and NP-like matrix elaboration by hMSCs. The lowest macromer concentration of 1.5 % exhibited the highest gene expression levels of aggrecan and collagen II at day 7, corresponding with the largest accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen II by day 42. The ECM elaboration in the 1.5 % constructs was more homogeneously distributed compared to primarily pericellular localization in 3.5 % gels. The 1.5 % gels also displayed significant improvements in mechanical functionality by day 42 compared to earlier time points, which was not seen in the other groups. The effects of macromer concentration on matrix accumulation and organization are likely attributed to quantifiable differences in polymer crosslinking density and diffusive properties between the various hydrogel formulations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that macromer concentration of CMC hydrogels can direct hMSC matrix elaboration, such that a lower polymer concentration allows for greater NP-like ECM assembly and improvement of mechanical properties over time. PMID:25092545

  7. Interleukin-2 is upregulated in patients with a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc and modulates cell proliferation, apoptosis and extracellular matrix metabolism of human nucleus pulposus cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHIRONG; WANG, GENLIN; ZHU, XUESONG; GENG, DECHUN; YANG, HUILIN

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression levels of cytokines are increased in degenerated intervertebral disc tissues, and several cytokines are associated with the pathogenesis of intervertebral disc degeneration. However, the role of interleukin (IL)-2 in the cellular functions of intervertebral disc tissues remains unreported. The present study aimed to determine the expression levels of IL-2 in the nucleus pulposus (NP) tissues of patients with a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc; and to observe the changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in human NP cells (HNPCs) following treatment with IL-2. The present study demonstrated that IL-2 expression levels were upregulated in the NP tissues of patients with a prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc; and a subsequent MTT assay demonstrated that IL-2 inhibits the proliferation of HNPCs in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, as demonstrated by the increased protein expression levels of Fas cell surface death receptor and the induction of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activity, the death receptor pathway was activated by IL-2 in the HNPCs in order to promote cell apoptosis. In addition, IL-2 promoted ECM degradation in the HNPCs, as demonstrated by an increase in the expression levels of type I collagen, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs and matrix metalloproteinases, and decreased aggrecan and type II collagen expression levels. Furthermore, phosphorylated-p38 was significantly increased in the HNPCs following IL-2 treatment. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that IL-2 inhibits cell proliferation, and induces cell apoptosis and ECM degradation, accompanied by the activation of p38 MAPK signaling in HNPCs. Therefore, IL-2 may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of degenerative disc disease.

  8. In Vitro Characterization of a Stem-Cell-Seeded Triple-Interpenetrating-Network Hydrogel for Functional Regeneration of the Nucleus Pulposus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lachlan J.; Gorth, Deborah J.; Showalter, Brent L.; Chiaro, Joseph A.; Beattie, Elizabeth E.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Mauck, Robert L.; Chen, Weiliam

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is implicated as a major cause of low-back pain. There is a pressing need for new regenerative therapies for disc degeneration that restore native tissue structure and mechanical function. To that end we investigated the therapeutic potential of an injectable, triple-interpenetrating-network hydrogel comprised of dextran, chitosan, and teleostean, for functional regeneration of the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc in a series of biomechanical, cytotoxicity, and tissue engineering studies. Biomechanical properties were evaluated as a function of gelation time, with the hydrogel reaching ?90% of steady-state aggregate modulus within 10?h. Hydrogel mechanical properties evaluated in confined and unconfined compression were comparable to native human NP properties. To confirm containment within the disc under physiological loading, toluidine-blue-labeled hydrogel was injected into human cadaveric spine segments after creation of a nucleotomy defect, and the segments were subjected to 10,000 cycles of loading. Gross analysis demonstrated no implant extrusion, and further, that the hydrogel interdigitated well with native NP. Constructs were next surface-seeded with NP cells and cultured for 14 days, confirming lack of hydrogel cytotoxicity, with the hydrogel maintaining NP cell viability and promoting proliferation. Next, to evaluate the potential of the hydrogel to support cell-mediated matrix production, constructs were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cultured under prochondrogenic conditions for up to 42 days. Importantly, the hydrogel maintained MSC viability and promoted proliferation, as evidenced by increasing DNA content with culture duration. MSCs differentiated along a chondrogenic lineage, evidenced by upregulation of aggrecan and collagen II mRNA, and increased GAG and collagen content, and mechanical properties with increasing culture duration. Collectively, these results establish the therapeutic potential of this novel hydrogel for functional regeneration of the NP. Future work will confirm the ability of this hydrogel to normalize the mechanical stability of cadaveric human motion segments, and advance the material toward human translation using preclinical large-animal models. PMID:24410394

  9. Gene therapy for nucleus pulposus regeneration by heme oxygenase-1 plasmid DNA carried by mixed polyplex micelles with thermo-responsive heterogeneous coronas.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ganjun; Chen, Hongying; Li, Junjie; Huang, Qiang; Gupte, Melanie J; Liu, Hao; Song, Yueming; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-06-01

    Safe and high-efficiency gene therapy for nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration was urgently desired to treat disc degeneration-associated diseases. In this work, an efficient nonviral cationic block copolymer gene delivery system was used to deliver therapeutic plasmid DNA (pDNA), which was prepared via complexation between the mixed cationic block copolymers, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly{N-[N-(2-aminoethyl)-2-aminoehtyl]aspartamide} [PEG-b-PAsp(DET)] and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-block-PAsp(DET) [PNIPAM-b-PAsp(DET)], and pDNA at 25 °C. The mixed polyplex micelles (MPMs) containing heterogeneous coronas with hydrophobic and hydrophilic microdomains coexisting could be obtained upon heating from 25 to 37 °C, which showed high tolerability against nuclease and strong resistance towards protein adsorption. The gene transfection efficiency of MPMs in NP cells was significantly higher than that of regular polyplex micelles prepared from sole block copolymer of PEG-b-PAsp(DET) (SPMs) in in vitro and in vivo evaluation due to the synergistic effect of improved colloidal stability and low cytotoxicity. High expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in NP cells transfected by MPMs loading HO-1 pDNA significantly decreased the expression activity of matrix metalloproteinases 3 (MMP-3) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) induced by interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and simultaneously increased the NP phenotype-associated genes such as aggrecan, type II collagen, and SOX-9. Moreover, the therapeutic effects of MPMs loading pDNA were tested to treat disc degeneration induced by stab injury. The results demonstrated that administration of HO-1 pDNA carried by MPMs in rat tail discs apparently reduced inflammatory responses induced by need stab and increased glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, finally achieving better therapeutic efficacy as compared with SPMs. Consequently, MPMs loading HO-1 pDNA were demonstrated to be potential as a safe and high-efficiency nonviral gene delivery system for retarding or regenerating the degenerative discs. PMID:25818409

  10. CCL20 Secretion from the Nucleus Pulposus Improves the Recruitment of CCR6-Expressing Th17 Cells to Degenerated IVD Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Xu-ping; Zhao, Hua; Dongol, Samina; Maharjan, Sailendra; Cheng, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies elucidated that Th17 cells are important contributors to the pathogenesis of many immune-mediated diseases, and IL-17A is present in pathologic intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues. However, the mechanisms, how these cells traffic into the degenerate discs are not clear. Materials and Methods The samples collected from 53 patients had been divided into 3 groups: Group P (annulus fibrosus was intact), Group E (annulus fibrosus was reptured) and normal control. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of CCL20, CCR6, IL-17A, TNF–? and CD4 in IVD tissues. Moreover, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells had been cultured in the presence and absence of Th17 associated cytokines. The supernatants were detected for CCL20 concentrations by ELISA, and the NP cells for the expression of CCL20 mRNA. Additionally, peripheral blood (PB) samples had undergone detection for the expression of CCR6 mRNA and the proportion of IL-17-producing cells, including the surface expression of CCR6. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed that CCL20 and TNF-? were expressed in degenerated NP cells. Double-labeled immunofluorescence elaborated, IL-17-producing cells (CD4+IL-17A+ and CD4+CCR6+) appeared in the Group E samples, but no traces or expression in Group P and normal control. IL-17A and TNF-?, alone or combined, could enhance CCL20 secretion in a dose-dependent manner, which was obtained through RT-PCR results. There was a notable difference of CCR6 mRNA expression between patients and normal controls. In comparison to controls, flow cytometry data indicated that the proportion of IL-17-producing cells and the CCR6 expression in PB were significantly increased. Conclusion Our results provide a potential explanation for involvement of the CCL20-CCR6 system in the trafficking of IL-17-producing cells to degenerated IVD tissues. Additionally, our results explain the contribution of Th17 associated cytokines to the development of degenerated discs via the up-regulation of CCL20 secretion from NP cells, which forms a positive chemotactic feedback loop. PMID:23823618

  11. Effect of lentivirus-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro

    PubMed Central

    MA, XUEXIAO; LIN, YAZHOU; YANG, KUN; YUE, BIN; XIANG, HONGFEI; CHEN, BOHUA

    2015-01-01

    Lower back pain is a common concern, and 40% of all cases involve the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). However, the excessive apoptosis of disc cells plays an important role in IVD degeneration, particularly in the nucleus pulposus (NP). Thus, anti-apoptotic gene therapy to attenuate or reverse the degenerative process within the NP is being developed. Survivin is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) and has been extensively investigated in cancer cells. However, little is known of the effects of survivin transfection on NP cells derived from degenerative human disc. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lentivirus (LV)-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of NP cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro. NP cells were transfected with LV-mediated survivin. Subsequently, cell morphology was observed and the survivin mRNA expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and by measuring caspase-3 activity. The results revealed that the morphology of the NP cells derived from degenerative human disc transfected with LV-mediated survivin was significantly altered as evidenced by cytomorphosis, the reduction of the cytoplasm and cell shrinkage. Following transfection, survivin gene expression significantly increased in the transfected cells and subsequent generation cells; however, no significant differences in the cell apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity were observed. We found that transfection of the survivin gene into NP cells led to the stable expression of survivin and induced marked changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, no significant anti-apoptotic effects were observed following LV-mediated survivin transfection. Overall, our findings demonstrate that LV carrying surviving may be used to successfully enforce the expression of survivin in NP cells. However, cell morphology was evidently altered, whereas the apoptotic rate did not decrease. Comprehensive studies on the feasibility of using survivin in gene therapy in an aim to attenuate disc degeneration are warranted. Further research on the mechanisms responsible for the changes in cell morphology and cell function are also required. PMID:26017192

  12. Role of interleukin-17 in chondrocytes of herniated intervertebral lumbar discs

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, PENG; LI, ZHI-JUN; FU, XIN; MA, XIN-LONG

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common cause of lumbosacral radiculopathy. An autoimmune response to a herniated nucleus pulposus (NP) has been suggested to play an important role in the initiation of radiculopathy. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a cytokine associated with inflammation and autoimmunity. The presence of IL-17 has been studied in patients with LDH; however, extensive investigation into the expression of IL-17 in different disc pathologies of LDH has not yet been conducted. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of neovascularization and hypertrophic chondrocytes in herniated intervertebral lumbar discs. Fifty-two intervertebral lumbar disc specimens were extracted from 46 patients with LDH and were subsequently classified as either contained or non-contained disc herniation (CDH and NCDH, respectively). The specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or toluidine blue, or were immunostained with polyclonal antibodies to IL-17 using the streptavidin-peroxidase method. The neovascular tissue and staining results were graded to establish the histological differences between the two herniation types. The intervertebral discs (IVDs) obtained from patients with NCDH showed significantly more neovascularization and granulation tissue than the discs obtained from patients with CDH (P<0.05). Furthermore, hypertrophic chondrocytes were more abundant in the NCDH specimens than in the CDH specimens (P<0.05). Similarly, the number of IL-17-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher in the NCDH specimens than that in the CDH specimens (P<0.01). In conclusion, local inflammation and autoreactive immune activation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of LDH. These results also suggest a role of chondrocytes in the repair of herniated IVDs. PMID:26170916

  13. Construction of collagen II/hyaluronate/chondroitin-6-sulfate tri-copolymer scaffold for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering and preliminary analysis of its physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Qing; Huang, Bo; Luo, Gang; Zhang, Chuan-Zhi; Zhuang, Ying; Zhou, Yue

    2010-02-01

    To construct a novel scaffold for nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering, The porous type II collagen (CII)/hyaluronate (HyA)-chondroitin-6-sulfate (6-CS) scaffold was prepared using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) cross-linking system. The physico-chemical properties and biocompatibility of CII/HyA-CS scaffolds were evaluated. The results suggested CII/HyA-CS scaffolds have a highly porous structure (porosity: 94.8 +/- 1.5%), high water-binding capacity (79.2 +/- 2.8%) and significantly improved mechanical stability by EDC/NHS crosslinking (denaturation temperature: 74.6 +/- 1.8 and 58.1 +/- 2.6 degrees C, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked; collagenase degradation rate: 39.5 +/- 3.4 and 63.5 +/- 2.0%, respectively, for the crosslinked scaffolds and the non-crosslinked). The CII/HyA-CS scaffolds also showed satisfactory cytocompatibility and histocompatibility as well as low immunogenicity. These results indicate CII/HyA-CS scaffolds may be an alternative material for NP tissue engineering due to the similarity of its composition and physico-chemical properties to those of the extracellular matrices (ECM) of native NP. PMID:19763796

  14. Can clinical and radiological findings predict surgery for lumbar disc herniation? A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    White, Andrew P.; Harrop, James; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    Study design:?Systematic review. Objective or clinical question:?What clinical and radiological findings in patients with lumbar-herniated nucleus pulposus can serve as predictors of surgical intervention? Methods:?Articles published between January 1975 and August 2011 were systematically reviewed using Pubmed, Cochrane, National Guideline Clearinghouse Databases, and bibliographies of key articles. Each article was subject to quality rating and was analyzed by two independent reviewers. Results:?From 123 citations, 21 underwent full-text review. Four studies met inclusion criteria. Only baseline disability as measured by the Roland Disability Index (RDI) or the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was consistently associated with a greater likelihood of having discectomy surgery across multiple studies. With the current literature, we were not able to find an association between surgery and several characteristics including smoking status, body mass index, neurological deficit, positive straight leg testing, and level of herniation. Conclusions:?From the limited data available, it appears that individual radiographic and clinical features are not able to predict the likelihood of surgical intervention. Higher baseline disability measurements (Oswestry and Roland) did correlate, however, with surgical treatment. PMID:23236305

  15. A history of lumbar disc herniation from Hippocrates to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Truumees, Eeric

    2015-06-01

    In ancient times, a supernatural understanding of the syndrome of lumbar radiculopathy often involved demonic forces vexing the individual with often crippling pain. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians began to take a more naturalistic view and, critically, suspected a relationship between lumbar spinal pathology and leg symptoms. Relatively little then changed for those with sciatica until the classic works by Cotugno and Kocher arrived in the late 18th century. Early lumbar canal explorations were performed in the late 1800s and early 1900s by MacEwen, Horsley, Krause, Taylor, Dandy, and Cushing, among others. In these cases, when compressive pathologies were found and removed, the lesions typically were (mis-)identified as enchondromas or osteochondritis dissecans. To better understand the history, learn more about the first treatments of lumbar disc herniation, and evaluate the impact of the early influences on modern spine practice, searches of PubMed and Embase were performed using the search terms discectomy, medical history, lumbar spine surgery, herniated disc, herniated nucleus pulposus, sciatica, and lumbar radiculopathy. Additional sources were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed papers. Many older and ancient sources including De Ischiade Nervosa are available in English translations and were used. When full texts were not available, English abstracts were used. The first true, intentional discectomy surgery was performed by Mixter and Barr in 1932. Early on, a transdural approach was favored. In 1938, Love described the intralaminar, extradural approach. His technique, although modified with improved lighting, magnification, and retractors, remains a staple approach to disc herniations today. Other modalities such as chymopapain have been investigated. Some remain a part of the therapeutic armamentarium, whereas others have disappeared. By the 1970s, CT scanning after myelography markedly improved the clinical evaluation of patients with lumbar disc herniation. In this era, use of discectomy surgery increased rapidly. Even patients with very early symptoms were offered surgery. Later work, especially by Weber and Hakelius, showed that many patients with lumbar disc herniation would improve without surgical intervention. In the ensuing decades, the debate over operative indications and timing continued, reaching another pivotal moment with the 2006 publication of the initial results of Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. PMID:24752913

  16. Herniated disk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... back to all of your activities without having pain or straining your back. People who work in jobs that involve heavy lifting ... a review of the evidence for an American Pain Society clinical practice ... of symptomatic lumbar disc herniations. Orthop Clin North ...

  17. The clinical study of percutaneous disc decompression of treating herniation of cervical disc with Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dianxue; Cheng, Hefu; Wang, Jindong

    2005-07-01

    Objective: The possibility of PLDD (percutaneous laser disc decompression) and an ideal non-operative method which is long everlasting effect for PLDD was investigated. Methods: 159 patients of Cervical Disc Herniation with PLDD were studied. All the herniated discs were irradiated with 10­15J/S Nd:YAG laser quantum through optical-fiber under the supervision of C-arm X-ray. Results: All the patients were followed and reexamined CT or MRI after one to six months of PLDD. The result of cured (67.92%), excellent (24.53%), moderation (5.66%), non-effect (1.88%) was got. The excellent rate was 88.24%. The effective rate was 97.65%. Non-effective rate was 2.35%. Conclusion: When irradiated with Nd:YAG laser, the nucleus pulposus was vapouring, charring and coagulating. The volume and inner-pressure of the disc decreased. So the symptoms and signs improved. The main value of this methods were micro-damage, non-operation, no bleeding, no bone injury, good therapy effect, quick recovery, lesser pain, safety and excellent long everlasting effect. It is an ideal non-operative method of treating PLDD.

  18. Idiopathic spinal cord herniation.

    PubMed

    Miura, Y; Mimatsu, K; Matsuyama, Y; Yoneda, M; Iwata, H

    1996-02-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare disease, few cases having been reported. We encountered a case of idiopathic spinal cord herniation presenting with severe spasticity in the right leg and urinary dysfunction. The spinal cord was herniated into a cavity created by duplication of the dura mater and resection of the inner layer improved the neurological deficits. MRI, myelography, and CT myelography were useful for diagnosing this disease. Four radiological signs of spinal cord herniation are described. PMID:8692428

  19. Assessing the Effect of Spaceflight on the Propensity for Astronauts to Develop Disc Herniation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A.; Mendez, C.; Somers, J.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study reported that the instantaneous risk of developing a Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP) was higher in astronauts who had flown at least one mission, as compared with those in the corps who had not yet flown. However, the study only analyzed time to HNP after the first mission (if any) and did not account for the possible effects of multiple missions. While many HNPs occurred well into astronauts' careers or in somecases years after retirement, the higher incidence of HNPs relatively soon after completion of space missions appears to indicate that spaceflight may lead to an increased risk of HNP. In addition, when an HNP occurs after spaceflight, is it related to previous spaceflight exposure? The purpose of this study was to investigate whether multiple missions, sex, age, vehicle landing dynamics, and flight duration affect the risk of developing an HNP usinga competing risks model. The outcome of the study will inform the Human System Risk Board assessment of back pain, inform the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, and update the previous dataset, which contained events up to December 31, 2006.

  20. Changes in the Expressions of Iba1 and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide in Adjacent Lumbar Spinal Segments after Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is commonly encountered in clinical practice and can induce sciatica due to mechanical and/or chemical irritation and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. However, symptoms are not confined to the affected spinal cord segment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether multisegmental molecular changes exist between adjacent lumbar spinal segments using a rat model of lumbar disc herniation. Twenty-nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a sham-operated group (n=10) or a nucleus pulposus (NP)-exposed group (n=19). Rats in the NP-exposed group were further subdivided into a significant pain subgroup (n=12) and a no significant pain subgroup (n=7) using mechanical pain thresholds determined von Frey filaments. Immunohistochemical stainings of microglia (ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1; Iba1), astrocytes (glial fibrillary acidic protein; GFAP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) was performed in spinal dorsal horns and dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) at 10 days after surgery. It was found immunoreactivity for Iba1-positive microglia was higher in the L5 (P=0.004) dorsal horn and in the ipsilateral L4 (P=0.009), L6 (P=0.002), and S1 (P=0.002) dorsal horns in the NP-exposed group than in the sham-operated group. The expression of CGRP was also significantly higher in ipsilateral L3, L4, L6, and S1 segments and in L5 DRGs at 10 days after surgery in the NP-exposed group than in the sham-operated group (P<0.001). Our results indicate that lumbar disc herniation upregulates microglial activity and CGRP expression in many adjacent and ipsilateral lumbar spinal segments. PMID:26713069

  1. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a herniated disc? Nonsurgical treatment Medication and pain management Surgery What can I expect after surgery? How ... program are important parts of treatment. Medication and pain management Medications used to control pain are called analgesics. ...

  2. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Akhaddar, Ali; Boulahroud, Omar; Elasri, Abad; Elmostarchid, Brahim; Boucetta, Mohammed

    2010-07-01

    Intraradicular lumbar disc herniation is a rare complication of disc disease that is generally diagnosed only during surgery. The mechanism for herniated disc penetration into the intradural space is not known with certainty, but adhesion between the radicular dura and the posterior longitudinal ligament was suggested as the most important condition. The authors report the first case of an intraradicular lumbar disc herniation without subdural penetration; the disc hernia was lodged between the two radicular dura layers. The patient, a 34-year-old soldier, was admitted with a 12-month history of low back pain and episodic left sciatica. Neurologic examination showed a positive straight leg raising test on the left side without sensory, motor or sphincter disturbances. Spinal CT scan and MRI exploration revealed a left posterolateral osteophyte formation at the L5-S1 level with an irregular large disc herniation, which migrated superiorly. An intradural extension was suspected. A left L5 hemilaminectomy and S1 foraminotomy were performed. The exploration revealed a large fragment of disc material located between the inner and outer layers of the left S1 radicular dura. The mass was extirpated without cerebrospinal fluid outflow. The postoperative course was uneventful. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation should be suspected when a swollen, hard and immobile nerve root is present intraoperatively. PMID:19888608

  3. Lipoxin A4 attenuates radicular pain possibly by inhibiting spinal ERK, JNK and NF-?B/p65 and cytokine signals, but not p38, in a rat model of non-compressive lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Miao, G-S; Liu, Z-H; Wei, S-X; Luo, J-G; Fu, Z-J; Sun, T

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory response induced by protrused nucleus pulposus (NP) has been shown to play a crucial role in the process of radicular pain. Lipoxins represent a unique class of lipid mediators that have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving action. The present study was undertaken to investigate if intrathecal lipoxin A4 (LXA4) could alleviate mechanical allodynia in the rat models of application of NP to the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Non-compressive models of application of NP to L5 DRG were established and intrathecal catheterization for drug administration was performed in rats. Daily intrathecal injection of vehicle or LXA4 (10ng or 100ng) was performed for three successive days post-operation. Mechanical thresholds were tested and the ipsilateral lumbar (L4-L6) segment of spinal dorsal horns were removed for the determination of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), IL-1?, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and IL-10 expression and NF-?B/p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38 expression. Application of NP to DRG in rats induced mechanical allodynia, increased the expression of pro-inflammatory factors (TNF-? and IL-1?), NF-?B/p65, the phosphorylated-ERK (p-ERK), -JNK (p-JNK) and -P38 (p-p38) and decreased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-?1 and IL-10) in the ipsilateral lumbar (L4-L6) segment of spinal dorsal horns. Intrathecal injection of LXA4 alleviated the development of neuropathic pain, inhibited the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?), upregulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-?1 and IL-10) and attenuated the activation of NF-?B/p65, p-ERK, p-JNK, but not p-p38, in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, we have demonstrated that LXA4 potently alleviate radicular pain in a rat model of non-compressive lumbar disc herniation. The anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution properties of LXA4 have shown a great promise for the management of radicular pain caused by intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:25943485

  4. Assessing the Effect of Spaceflight on the Propensity for Astronauts to Develop Disk Herniation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H.; Mendez, C. M.; Somers, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous study [1] reported that the instantaneous risk of developing a Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP) was higher in astronauts who had flown at least one mission, as compared with those in the corps who had not yet flown. However, the study only analyzed time to HNP after the first mission (if any) and did not account for the possible effects of multiple missions. While many HNP's occurred well into astronauts' careers or in some cases years after retirement, the higher incidence of HNPs relatively soon after completion of space missions appears to indicate that spaceflight may lead to an increased risk of HNP. The purpose of this study was to support the Human System Risk Board assessment of back pain, evaluate the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, and update the previous dataset which contained events up to December 31, 2006. METHODS: Data was queried from the electronic medical record and provided by the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health. The data included all 330 United States astronauts from 1959 through February 2014. Cases were confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computerized Tomography, Myelography, operative findings, or through clinical confirmation with a neurologist or neurosurgeon. In this analysis, astronauts who had an HNP at selection into the corps or had an HNP diagnosis prior to their first flight were excluded. The statistical challenges in using the available data to separate effects of spaceflight from those associated with general astronaut training and lifestyle on propensity to develop HNPs are many. The primary outcome is reported date of first HNP (if any), which at best is only an approximation to the actual time of occurrence. To properly analyze this data with a survival analysis model, one must also know the "exposure" time - i.e. how long each astronaut has been at risk for developing an HNP. If an HNP is reported soon after a mission, is it mission caused or general? If the former, exposure time should be counted from the time of landing (assuming the risk of HNP occurring during a mission is zero). If the latter, exposure time should be counted from the time of selection; however we can't directly know which one to use. In our analysis we take both of these possibilities into account with a competing risks model, wherein two distinct stochastic processes are going on: TG = time to HNP (general) and TS = time to HNP (spaceflight). Under this type of model, whichever of these occurs first is what we observe; in other words we don't observe TG or TS, only min(TG, TS). Here, we parameterized the model in terms of separate Weibull hazard functions for each process and estimated all parameters using maximum likelihood. In addition, we allowed for a "cured fraction" - i.e. the possibility that some astronauts may never develop an HNP. RESULTS: Results will include a depiction of the competing hazard functions as well as a probability curve for the relative likelihood that an HNP reported at a given time after a mission is actually mission caused. Other factors, such as dwell time in microgravity and vehicle landing environment will be explored. An overall assessment as to whether spaceflight truly exacerbates HNP risk will be made.

  5. The Actual Level of Symptomatic Soft Disc Herniation in Patients with Cervical Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su Yong; Kim, Woo Kyung; Son, Seong; Jeong, Tae Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to predict the relationship between the symptomatic disc herniation level and the osteophyte level or decreased disc height in patients with cervical disc herniation. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2012, 69 patients with an osteophyte of the cervical spine underwent surgery at a single center due to soft cervical disc herniation. Data including soft disc herniation level, osteophyte level in the posterior vertebral margin, Cobb's angle, and symptom duration were retrospectively assessed. The patients were divided into three groups according to the relationship between the degenerative change level and the level of reported symptoms. Results Among the 69 patients, 48 (69.6%) showed a match between osteophyte level and soft disc herniation level. Disc herniation occurred at the adjacent segment to degenerative osteophyte level in 12 patients (17.4%) and at both the adjacent and the osteophyte level in nine (13.0%). There was no significant difference in Cobb's angle or duration among the three groups. Osteophyte type was not significant. The mean disc height of the prominent degenerative change level group was lower than the adjacent segment level, but this was not significant. Conclusion Soft cervical disc herniation usually occurs at the level an osteophyte forms. However, it may also occur at segments adjacent to that of the osteophyte level. Therefore, in patients with cervical disc herniation, although a prominent osteophyte alone may appear on plain radiography, we must suspect the presence of soft disc herniation at other levels. PMID:26512266

  6. Trans-mediastinal herniation of bulla: Semilunar sign

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sheetu; Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Trans-mediastinal herniation of lung is seen occasionally but herniation of bulla across the mediastinum is rare. We report two cases with trans-mediastinal herniation of bullae leading to an unusual line appearing near the mediastinum. We propose the name ‘Semilunar sign’for this radiological sign because of its resemblance to the half-moon shape.

  7. Spinal cord herniation with characteristic bone change: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Tasuku; Nakane, Yukimi; Tachibana, Eiji; Ogura, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spinal cord herniation (SCH) is a rare disease characterized by herniation of the thoracic spinal cord through an anterior dural defect, presenting with progressive myelopathy. A case of a 69-year-old woman who presented with Brown-Sequard syndrome and a bone defect, in which an osteophyte created a hemisphere-like cavity with spinal cord herniation, is presented. The strangled spinal cord was released, and the defect was closed microsurgically using an artificial dural patch to prevent re-herniation. Postoperatively, the patient experienced gradual improvement in neurologic function. The SCH mechanism and surgical strategy are discussed. PMID:26412899

  8. [Repeated operations for recurrent lumbar disc herniations].

    PubMed

    Kloc, W; Imieli?ski, B L; Wasilewski, W; Jende, P; Puzyrewski, R

    1999-01-01

    A study of 73 patients who underwent reoperation for persistent or new complaints following initial lumbar discectomy is presented. 32 patients showed true recurrence of disc herniation (6 on the contralateral side) and 41 at a different level. 14 patients needed 3rd operation. Final results were evaluated using the Functional Economic Rating Scale elaborated by Prolo. Mean score for group operated on twice was 8.1 according to Prolo and 7.1 for group operated on 3 times. PMID:10791038

  9. Nucleus-nucleus potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Satchler, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    The significance of a nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed. Information about such potentials obtained from scattering experiments is reviewed, including recent examples of so-called rainbow scattering that probe the potential at smaller distances. The evidence for interactions involving the nuclear spins is summarized, and their possible origin in couplings to non-elastic channels. Various models of the potentials are discussed.

  10. Emergency Neurological Life Support: Intracranial Hypertension and Herniation.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Robert D; Shoykhet, Michael; Cadena, Rhonda

    2015-12-01

    Sustained intracranial hypertension and acute brain herniation are "brain codes," signifying catastrophic neurological events that require immediate recognition and treatment to prevent irreversible injury and death. As in cardiac arrest, a brain code mandates the organized implementation of a stepwise management algorithm. The goal of this emergency neurological life support protocol is to implement an evidence-based, standardized approach to the evaluation and management of patients with intracranial hypertension and/or herniation. PMID:26438459

  11. Percutaneous treatment of cervical and lumbar herniated disc.

    PubMed

    Kelekis, A; Filippiadis, D K

    2015-05-01

    Therapeutic armamentarium for symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation includes conservative therapy, epidural infiltrations (interlaminar or trans-foraminal), percutaneous therapeutic techniques and surgical options. Percutaneous, therapeutic techniques are imaging-guided, minimally invasive treatments for intervertebral disc herniation which can be performed as outpatient procedures. They can be classified in 4 main categories: mechanical, thermal, chemical decompression and biomaterials implantation. Strict sterility measures are a prerequisite and should include extensive local sterility and antibiotic prophylaxis. Indications include the presence of a symptomatic, small to medium sized contained intervertebral disc herniation non-responding to a 4-6 weeks course of conservative therapy. Contraindications include sequestration, infection, segmental instability (spondylolisthesis), uncorrected coagulopathy or a patient unwilling to provide informed consent. Decompression techniques are feasible and reproducible, efficient (75-94% success rate) and safe (>0.5% mean complications rate) therapies for the treatment of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation. Percutaneous, imaging guided, intervertebral disc therapeutic techniques can be proposed either as an initial treatment or as an attractive alternative prior to surgery for the therapy of symptomatic herniation in both cervical and lumbar spine. This article will describe the mechanism of action for different therapeutic techniques applied to intervertebral discs of cervical and lumbar spine, summarize the data concerning safety and effectiveness of these treatments, and provide a rational approach for the therapy of symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation in cervical and lumbar spine. PMID:24673977

  12. Tissue Engineering a Biological Repair Strategy for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Grace D.; Leach, J. Kent; Klineberg, Eric O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The intervertebral disc is a critical part of the intersegmental soft tissue of the spinal column, providing flexibility and mobility, while absorbing large complex loads. Spinal disease, including disc herniation and degeneration, may be a significant contributor to low back pain. Clinically, disc herniations are treated with both nonoperative and operative methods. Operative treatment for disc herniation includes removal of the herniated material when neural compression occurs. While this strategy may have short-term advantages over nonoperative methods, the remaining disc material is not addressed and surgery for mild degeneration may have limited long-term advantage over nonoperative methods. Furthermore, disc herniation and surgery significantly alter the mechanical function of the disc joint, which may contribute to progression of degeneration in surrounding tissues. We reviewed recent advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine strategies that may have a significant impact on disc herniation repair. Our review on tissue engineering strategies focuses on cell-based and inductive methods, each commonly combined with material-based approaches. An ideal clinically relevant biological repair strategy will significantly reduce pain and repair and restore flexibility and motion of the spine. PMID:26634189

  13. Assessing the Effect of Spaceflight on the Propensity for Astronauts to Develop Disk Herniation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Mendez, C. M.; Somers, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study [1] reported the instantaneous risk of developing a Herniated Nucleus Pulosus (HNP) was higher in astronauts who had flown at least one mission, as compared with those in the corps who had not yet flown. However, the study only analyzed time to HNP after the first mission (if any) and did not account for the possible effects of multiple missions. While many HNP's occurred well into astronauts' careers or in some cases years after retirement, the higher incidence of HNPs relatively soon after completion of space missions appears to indicate that spaceflight may lead to an increased risk of HNP. The purpose of this study was to support the Human System Risk Boards assessment of back pain, assess the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, and update the dataset analyzed which contained data through December 31, 2006.

  14. Concomitance of fibromyalgia syndrome and cervical disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Güler, Mustafa; Ayd?n, Teoman; Akgöl, Erdal; Ta?p?nar, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and cervical disc herniation (CDH) are a common diseases commonly encountered in physical therapy clinics. There are also patients who have both of these diseases. In this study we aim to investigated whether FMS is a risk factor for cervical disc herniation and the frequency of their coincident occurrence. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-five patients having a primary FMS diagnosis according to the American Rheumatism Association criteria are taken into consideration and a control group were the subjects of this study. The two groups were compared with respect to cervical disc hernia using cervical region MRI. [Results] The distribution of disc hernia of 6 fibromyalgia patients who had cervical discopathy was: 16.6% C2–3, 16.6% C5–6, 16.6% C6–7, 33.3% C4–5, C5–6 (two levels in two patients) and 16.6% C4–5, C5–6, C7–1 (three levels in one patient) . The herniation directions were given as: central in 5 levels, right paramedian in 1 level, and left paramedian disc hernia in 1 level. There were 4 cervical disk hernia in the control group. The herniation direction were central in two, right paramedian in one, and left paramedian in one patient. [Conclusion] In this study, the existence of cervical disc herniation in fibromyalgia patients was found to be not different from the normal population. PMID:25931731

  15. Internal herniation through a defect in the transverse mesocolon.

    PubMed

    Alaker, Medhat; Mathias, Jegadish

    2014-01-01

    Internal hernias are rare, constituting 5.8% of all intestinal obstruction cases. Congenital transverse mesocolon hernias in adults are specifically rare. We hereby present a case of an adult female presenting with acute intestinal obstruction. Her CT scan showed classic signs of internal herniations: 'Whirlpool sign', crowding of bowel loops in the upper compartment and the absence of caecum from the Right Iliac Fossa. At operation, she was found to have a congenital defect in the transverse mesocolon, through which have herniated the terminal ileum, caecum and the proximal half of the ascending colon. They have furthermore rotated 360° about the axis of the pedicle forming a volvulus. The bowel was viable. The herniated bowel was derotated, and reduced through the defect, the defect was closed with polydioxanone sutures, and the caecum and ascending colon was fixed to the lateral abdominal wall. PMID:24567183

  16. Treatment of lumbar disc herniation: Evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Weiner, Bradley K

    2010-01-01

    Clinical question: What is the best treatment for lumbar disc herniations? Results: For patients failing six weeks of conservative care, the current literature supports surgical intervention or prolonged conservative management as appropriate treatment options for lumbar radiculopathy in the setting of disc herniation. Surgical intervention may result in more rapid relief of symptoms and restoration of function. Implementation: While surgery appears to provide more rapid relief, many patients will gradually get better with continued nonoperative management; thus, patient education and active participation in decision-making is vital. PMID:20689695

  17. Standards of Practice: Quality Assurance Guidelines for Percutaneous Treatments of Intervertebral Discs

    SciTech Connect

    Kelekis, Alexis D. Filippiadis, Dimitris K.; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Brountzos, Elias

    2010-10-15

    Percutaneous treatments are used in the therapy of small- to medium-sized hernias of intervertebral discs to reduce the intradiscal pressure in the nucleus and theoretically create space for the herniated fragment to implode inward, thus reducing pain and improving mobility and quality of life. These techniques involve the percutaneous removal of the nucleus pulposus by using a variety of chemical, thermal, or mechanical techniques and consist of removal of all or part of nucleus pulposus to induce more rapid healing of the abnormal lumbar disc. These guidelines are written to be used in quality improvement programs for assessing fluoroscopy- and/or computed tomography-guided percutaneous intervertebral disc ablative techniques.

  18. SPORT Lumbar Intervertebral Disk Herniation and Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam M.; Blood, Emily A.; Frymoyer, John W.; Herkowitz, Harry; Abdu, William A.; Woodward, Randy; Longley, Michael; Emery, Sanford E.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Weinstein, James N.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Diskectomy candidates with at least 6 weeks of sciatica and confirmatory imaging were enrolled in a randomized or observational cohort. Objective This study sought to determine: (1) whether diskectomy resulted in greater improvement in back pain than nonoperative treatment, and (2) whether herniation location and morphology affected back pain outcomes. Summary of Background Data Previous studies have reported that lumbar diskectomy is less successful for relief of back pain than leg pain and patients with central disc herniations or protrusions have worse outcomes. Methods Patients underwent diskectomy or received “usual” nonoperative care. Data from the randomized cohort and observational cohort were combined in an as-treated analysis. Low back pain was recorded on a 0 to 6 point scale, and changes in low back pain were compared between the surgical and nonoperative treatment groups. The effects of herniation location and morphology on back pain outcomes were determined. Results The combined analysis included 1191 patients with 775 undergoing surgery within 2 years, whereas 416 remained nonoperative. Overall, leg pain improved more than back pain in both treatment groups. Back pain improved in both surgical and nonoperative patients, but surgical patients improved significantly more (treatment effect favoring surgery -0.9 at 3 months, -0.5 at 2 years, P < 0.001). Patients who underwent surgery were more likely to report no back pain than nonoperative patients at each follow-up period (28.0% vs. 12.0% at 3 months, P < 0.001, 25.5% vs. 17.6% at 2 years, P = 0.009). At baseline, central herniations were associated with more severe back pain than more lateral herniations (4.3 vs. 3.9, P = 0.012). Patients with central herniations and protrusions had a beneficial treatment effect from surgery similar to the overall surgical group. Conclusion Diskectomy resulted in greater improvement in back pain than nonoperative treatment, and this difference was maintained at 2 years for all herniation locations and morphologies. PMID:18277876

  19. Automatic diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation with shape and appearance features from MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alomari, Raja'S.; Corso, Jason J.; Chaudhary, Vipin; Dhillon, Gurmeet

    2010-03-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation is a major reason for lower back pain (LBP), which is the second most common neurological ailment in the United States. Automation of herniated disc diagnosis reduces the large burden on radiologists who have to diagnose hundreds of cases each day using clinical MRI. We present a method for automatic diagnosis of lumbar disc herniation using appearance and shape features. We jointly use the intensity signal for modeling the appearance of herniated disc and the active shape model for modeling the shape of herniated disc. We utilize a Gibbs distribution for classification of discs using appearance and shape features. We use 33 clinical MRI cases of the lumbar area for training and testing both appearance and shape models. We achieve over 91% accuracy in detection of herniation in a cross-validation experiment with specificity of 91% and sensitivity of 94%.

  20. Intermittent swelling in the chest; a case of spontaneous intermittent lung herniation

    PubMed Central

    Bangalore Lakshminarayana, Umesh; Cowen, Michael; Kastelik, Jack A; Morjaria, Jaymin B

    2013-01-01

    Herniation of the lung is uncommon and occurs due to protrusion of the lung beyond the confines of the thoracic cavity through an abnormal opening in the chest wall. Any condition associated with raised intrathoracic pressure or that which weakens the thoracic wall may result in lung herniation. We present a case of spontaneous lung herniation which was managed successfully by minimally invasive thoracic surgery. PMID:24177461

  1. Percutaneous breast implant herniation: a rare complication of miliary TB.

    PubMed

    Dale, Adam P; Dedicoat, Martin J; Saleem, Tausif; Moran, Ed

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a 46-year-old female patient treated for disseminated tuberculosis (TB) infection involving the lungs, urinary tract and skin. Following initiation of antituberculous therapy, the patient's right breast implant eroded through the overlying skin and was seen to be herniating through the resulting defect. The breast implant was removed under local anaesthetic and histological analysis of the resected tissue demonstrated granuloma formation consistent with periprosthetic TB. Wound healing following implant removal was poor and future breast augmentation surgery was only considered following completion of 12?months anti-TB treatment. This case constitutes the first report in the literature of percutaneous breast implant herniation resulting from periprosthetic infection with TB. A high index of suspicion is required to ensure early detection and timely management of TB and, in cases where periprosthetic pus aspirate is sterile, mycobacterial infection must be actively excluded. PMID:25568276

  2. Pancreatic herniation: a rare cause of acute pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prashant; Turp, Matthew; Fellows, Sarah; Ellis, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common and potentially fatal condition, with several well-known causes including gallstones, excessive alcohol consumption and specific medications. We report a case of an 89-year-old man presenting with acute pancreatitis, which we believe to be secondary to a diaphragmatic herniation of the pancreas. This extremely rare anatomical abnormality can be found incidentally in the asymptomatic patient or may present with a variety of acute symptoms. However, there have been only isolated reports of these cases presenting as acute pancreatitis. While the majority of acute pancreatitis cases can be explained by common causes, it is important that clinicians be aware of and should consider investigating for other more unusual possibilities, such as pancreatic herniation, before labelling an episode as ‘idiopathic’. PMID:24343805

  3. Jejunojejunal intussusception with internal herniation in the stomach.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Seema; Kumar, Dinesh; Khanna, Rahul; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Jejunojejunal intussusception with internal herniation of the stomach through a gastrojejunostomy stoma is one of the rarest complications of the previous gastric surgery. The incidence is reported to be less than 0.1 %. An elderly male presented to the emergency room with signs of intestinal obstruction for 1 day. There was also history of appearance of a lump in the mid-abdomen. A primarily healed midline scar of the previous surgery was present; the details of which were not known. X ray abdomen in the erect posture showed multiple air fluid levels. Ultrasonography (USG) revealed dilated stomach with central hyperechogenicity with a peripheral rim of decreased echogenecity. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan showed jejunojejunal intussusception with internal herniation of the stomach. On laparotomy, it was found that there was a previous gastrojejunostomy with jejunal invagination leading to gangrene of a segment. Resection anastomosis was done. The postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:24891784

  4. Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Identify Outcome Predictors of Caudal Epidural Steroid Injections for Lower Lumbar Radicular Pain Caused by a Herniated Disc

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Sung Oh; Jang, Chul Hoon; Hong, Jin Oh; Park, Joon Sang

    2014-01-01

    Objective We used lumbar magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings to determine possible outcome predictors of a caudal epidural steroid injection (CESI) for radicular pain caused by a herniated lumbar disc (HLD). Methods Ninety-one patients with radicular pain whose MRI indicated a HLD were enrolled between September 2010 and July 2013. The CESIs were performed using ultrasound (US). A responder was defined as having complete relief or at least a 50% reduction of pain as assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) and functional status on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ); responder (VAS n=61, RMDQ n=51), and non-responder (VAS n=30, RMDQ n=40). MRI findings were analyzed and compared between the two groups with regard to HLD level, HLD type (protrusion or exclusion), HLD zone (central, subarticular, foraminal, and extraforaminal), HLD volume (mild, moderate, or severe), relationship between HLD and nerve root (no contact, contact, displaced, or compressed), disc height loss (none, less than half, or more than half ), and disc degeneration grade (homogeneous disc structure or inhomogeneous disc structure-clear nucleus and height of intervertebral disc). Results A centrally located herniated disc was more common in the responder group than that in the non-responder group. Treatment of centrally located herniated discs showed satisfactory results. (VAS p=0.025, RMDQ p=0.040). Other factors, such as HLD level, HLD type, HLD volume, relationship to nerve root, disc height loss, and disc degeneration grade, were not critical. Conclusion The HLD zone was significant for pain reduction after CESI. A centrally located herniated disc was a predictor of a good clinical outcome. PMID:25566478

  5. Idiopathic Spinal Cord Herniation Presented as Brown-Sequard Syndrome : A Case Report and Surgical Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Min-Wook; Youm, Jin-Young; Kwon, Hyon-Jo

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord herniation is a rare condition that has become increasingly recognised in the last few years. The authors report a case of idiopathic spinal cord herniation in a 33 year old woman performed with progressive Brown-Sequard syndrome. The diagnosis was made on MR imaging. After repairing the herniation, the patient made a gradual improvement. Potential causes are discussed, including a possible role of dural defect. In conclusion, idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a potentially treatable condition that should be more readily diagnosed that increasing awareness and improved imaging techniques. PMID:26539277

  6. Cervical lung lobe herniation in dogs identified by fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nafe, Laura A.; Robertson, Ian D.; Hawkins, Eleanor C.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of cervical lung lobe herniation (CLLH) in dogs evaluated fluoroscopically and to identify associated characteristics. Reports of diagnostic procedures and patient summaries from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, body weight, duration of cough, presence of heart murmur and airway collapse, and radiographic findings were compared between dogs with and without CLLH. Of the 121 dogs that were examined, CLLH occurred in 85 (70%). The extra-thoracic trachea kinked during herniation in 33 (39%) dogs with CLLH. Collapse of the intra-thoracic trachea (assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically) and collapse of major bronchi (assessed fluoroscopically) were strongly associated with CLLH. Although redundant dorsal tracheal membrane on radiographs was associated with CLLH, extra-thoracic tracheal collapse, assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically, was not. No other associations were found. Cervical lung lobe herniation was present in most dogs evaluated during cough and was associated with intra-thoracic large airway collapse, but not duration of cough. PMID:24155415

  7. Anterior Herniation of Partially Calcified and Degenerated Cervical Disc Causing Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Cezmi Cagri; Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Dalgic, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of anterior cervical disc herniation associated with dysphagia. A 32-year-old man presented with complaints of dysphagia and concomitant pain in the right arm resistant to conservative therapy. On physical examination with respect to the muscle strength, the right shoulder abduction and flexion of the forearm were 3/5. Lateral X-ray revealed calcified osteophytes at the anterior C4-5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging showed soft disc herniation involving the right C6 root at the C5-6 level and anterior herniation of the C4-5 cervical disc. Anterior discectomies for C4-5 and C5-6 levels stabilized and ameliorated the dysphagia and pain. Cervical disc herniation usually presents with radicular findings. However, dysphagia may be an uncommon presentation. Anterior cervical disc herniation should be considered in a patient presenting with dysphagia. PMID:26240723

  8. Anterior Herniation of Partially Calcified and Degenerated Cervical Disc Causing Dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Ozdol, Cagatay; Turk, Cezmi Cagri; Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Dalgic, Ali

    2015-08-01

    We report a rare case of anterior cervical disc herniation associated with dysphagia. A 32-year-old man presented with complaints of dysphagia and concomitant pain in the right arm resistant to conservative therapy. On physical examination with respect to the muscle strength, the right shoulder abduction and flexion of the forearm were 3/5. Lateral X-ray revealed calcified osteophytes at the anterior C4-5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging showed soft disc herniation involving the right C6 root at the C5-6 level and anterior herniation of the C4-5 cervical disc. Anterior discectomies for C4-5 and C5-6 levels stabilized and ameliorated the dysphagia and pain. Cervical disc herniation usually presents with radicular findings. However, dysphagia may be an uncommon presentation. Anterior cervical disc herniation should be considered in a patient presenting with dysphagia. PMID:26240723

  9. A rare case of femoral herniation of female internal genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Ambedkar, Vivek; Singh, Abhilash; Bain, Jayanta; Singh, Lal Mani

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case with herniation of the uterus, fallopian tube, and ovary in a femoral hernia. A female patient was admitted with complain of the painful lump in the left groin. Clinical examination indicated strangulated femoral hernia, which necessitated an emergency surgery. During surgical procedure, the uterine tube, left fallopian tube and left ovary, were observed as the contents of the hernia. The contents were reduced back into the pelvic cavity, and the hernia was repaired. The patient made good recovery postsurgery. PMID:26283851

  10. Intervertebral disk (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are filled with a gelatinous substance, called the nucleus pulposus, which provides cushioning to the spinal column. ... fibrosus is a fibrocartilaginous ring that surrounds the nucleus pulposus, which keeps the nucleus pulposus in tact ...

  11. Symptomatic Thoracic Spinal Cord Herniation: Case Series and Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Ray, Wilson Z.; Wright, Neill M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is an uncommon condition located predominantly in the thoracic spine and often associated with a remote history of a major traumatic injury. ISCH has an incompletely described presentation and unknown etiology. There is no consensus on treatment algorithm and surgical technique, and there is little data on clinical outcomes. Clinical Presentation In this case series and technical report, we describe the atypical myelopathy presentation, remote history of traumatic injury, radiographic progression, treatment, and outcomes of 5 patients treated at Washington University for symptomatic ISCH. A video showing surgical repair is presented. In contrast to classic compressive myelopathy symptomology, ISCH patients presented with an atypical myelopathy, characterized by asymmetric motor and sensory deficits and early-onset urinary incontinence. Clinical deterioration correlated with progressive spinal cord displacement and herniation observed on yearly spinal imaging in a patient imaged serially due to multiple sclerosis. Finally compared to compressive myelopathy in the thoracic spine, surgical treatment of ISH led to rapid improvement despite long duration of symptoms. Conclusion Symptomatic ISCH presents with atypical myelopathy and slow temporal progression and can be successfully managed with surgical repair. PMID:24871148

  12. Occupational risk factors for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation; a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, A; Bolm-Audorff, U; Siol, T; Henkel, N; Fuchs, C; Schug, H; Leheta, F; Marquardt, G; Schmitt, E; Ulrich, P; Beck, W; Missalla, A; Elsner, G

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies mostly did not separate between symptomatic disc herniation combined with osteochondrosis/spondylosis of the lumbar spine and symptomatic disc herniation in radiographically normal intervertebral spaces. This may at least in part explain the differences in the observed risk patterns. Aims: To investigate the possible aetiological relevance of physical and psychosocial workload to lumbar disc herniation with and without concomitant osteochondrosis/spondylosis. Methods: A total of 267 cases with acute lumbar disc herniation (in two practices and four clinics) and 197 control subjects were studied. Data were gathered in a structured personal interview and analysed using logistic regression to control for age, region, nationality, and diseases affecting the lumbar spine. Cases without knowledge about osteochondrosis/spondylosis (n=42) were excluded from analysis. Risk factors were examined separately for those cases with (n=131) and without (n=94) radiographically diagnosed concomitant osteochondrosis or spondylosis. Results: There was a statistically significant positive association between extreme forward bending and lumbar disc herniation with, as well as without concomitant osteochondrosis/spondylosis. There was a statistically significant relation between cumulative exposure to weight lifting or carrying and lumbar disc herniation with, but not without, concomitant osteochondrosis/spondylosis. Cases with disc herniation reported time pressure at work as well as psychic strain through contact with clients more frequently than control subjects. Conclusions: Further larger studies are needed to verify the concept of distinct aetiologies of lumbar disc herniation in relatively younger persons with otherwise normal discs and of disc herniation in relatively older persons with structurally damaged discs. PMID:14573712

  13. Surgical vs Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disk Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Hanscom, Brett; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Herkowitz, Harry; Fischgrund, Jeffrey; Cammisa, Frank P.; Albert, Todd; Deyo, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Context For patients with lumbar disk herniation, the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) randomized trial intent-to-treat analysis showed small but not statistically significant differences in favor of diskectomy compared with usual care. However, the large numbers of patients who crossed over between assigned groups precluded any conclusions about the comparative effectiveness of operative therapy vs usual care. Objective To compare the treatment effects of diskectomy and usual care. Design, Setting, and Patients Prospective observational cohort of surgical candidates with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disk herniation who were treated at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states and who met the SPORT eligibility criteria but declined randomization between March 2000 and March 2003. Interventions Standard open diskectomy vs usual nonoperative care. Main Outcome Measures Changes from baseline in the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) bodily pain and physical function scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons/MODEMS version). Results Of the 743 patients enrolled in the observational cohort, 528 patients received surgery and 191 received usual nonoperative care. At 3 months, patients who chose surgery had greater improvement in the primary outcome measures of bodily pain (mean change: surgery, 40.9 vs nonoperative care, 26.0; treatment effect, 14.8; 95% confidence interval, 10.8-18.9), physical function (mean change: surgery, 40.7 vs nonoperative care, 25.3; treatment effect, 15.4; 95% CI, 11.6-19.2), and Oswestry Disability Index (mean change: surgery, ?36.1 vs nonoperative care, ?20.9; treatment effect, ?15.2; 95% CI, ?18.5. to ?11.8). These differences narrowed somewhat at 2 years: bodily pain (mean change: surgery, 42.6 vs nonoperative care, 32.4; treatment effect, 10.2; 95% CI, 5.9-14.5), physical function (mean change: surgery, 43.9 vs nonoperavtive care 31.9; treatment effect, 12.0; 95% CI; 7.9-16.1), and Oswestry Disability Index (mean change: surgery ?37.6 vs nonoperative care ?24.2; treatment effect, ?13.4; 95% CI, ?17.0 to ?9.7). Conclusions Patients with persistent sciatica from lumbar disk herniation improved in both operated and usual care groups. Those who chose operative intervention reported greater improvements than patients who elected nonoperative care. However, nonrandomized comparisons of self-reported outcomes are subject to potential confounding and must be interpreted cautiously. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000410 PMID:17119141

  14. Lumbar disc herniation with contralateral radiculopathy: do we neglect the epidural fat?

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Song; Zhang, Dong-Jie; Hao, Ding-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is the most common cause of radiculopathy, whose pathological entity underlying nerve root compression is usually on the same side as the symptoms. However, LDH causing contralateral radiculopathy are sometimes encountered by pain physicians. There have been tremendous developments in the treatment options for LDH; the situation of LDH causing contralateral radiculopathy is indeed a dilemma for some pain physicians. We will report a case of a patient with a L4-5 disc herniation whose left herniated disc caused radiculopathy on the right side. After a percutaneous lumbar endoscopic discectomy via the side ipsilateral to the symptomatic side, this case obtained a significant symptom remission. The migrated epidural fat is discussed as a cause of associated contralateral neurological deficit. Only via a surgical approach ipsilateral to the herniated side, could there be a clinical improvement postoperatively. PMID:25794228

  15. Histology of Herniations through the Body Wall and Cuticle of Zooplankton from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    E-print Network

    Histology of Herniations through the Body Wall and Cuticle of Zooplankton from the Laurentian Great a histologic and cyto- logic analysis of the protrusions and found that they are composed of apparently

  16. Plasma-mediated disc decompression for contained cervical disc herniation: results through 5 years.

    PubMed

    Cesaroni, Alessandro; Nardi, Pier Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    Conventional treatment for cervical disc herniations often defaults to open cervical discectomy, potentially supplemented by intervertebral fusion. Newer treatment strategies focus on percutaneous, minimally invasive procedures which are capable of resolving herniation pathology while offering decreased morbidity and convalescence time when compared to fusion. In cases where patients complain of radicular and neck pain symptoms related to a contained herniated disc, plasma disc decompression may be used as a minimally invasive treatment option on the cervical intervertebral discs.Three hundred and forty-nine patients who presented with a contained herniated cervical disc or focal protrusion causing pain associated with cervical nerve root compression were treated between January 2003 and May 2007. This case series study was conducted to evaluate clinical results through 1 year postoperatively. PMID:21107946

  17. Iliac Crest Herniation Secondary to Autogenous Bone Grafting Found on Osteopathic Examination.

    PubMed

    Ou, Christine J; Sternfeld, William C; Stausmire, Julie M

    2015-08-01

    Surgical repair of difficult or nonunion fractures is frequently performed with autogenous bone grafts, most commonly from the iliac crest. Complications from this procedure may include vessel injury, nerve injury, pelvic instability, bowel herniation, and ileus. The authors report a case of iliac crest herniation in a patient presenting with a small-bowel obstruction 2 years after anterior iliac crest graft harvest for an open reduction and internal fixation repair of a right humeral shaft fracture. An emergency operation revealed that the right colon had herniated through an opening in the right iliac crest. The appendix had adhered to new osseous bone formed postoperatively, requiring an appendectomy. The hernia defect was successfully repaired with polypropylene mesh. A high index of suspicion for graft site herniation is needed for patients with a history of iliac crest bone grafting who present with symptoms of abdominal pain, flank or hip pain, ileus, or small-bowel obstruction. PMID:26214826

  18. Surgical vs Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disk Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Hanscom, Brett; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Abdu, William A.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Boden, Scott D.; Deyo, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Context Lumbar diskectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed for back and leg symptoms in US patients, but the efficacy of the procedure relative to nonoperative care remains controversial. Objective To assess the efficacy of surgery for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. Design, Setting, and Patients The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial, a randomized clinical trial enrolling patients between March 2000 and November 2004 from 13 multidisciplinary spine clinics in 11 US states. Patients were 501 surgical candidates (mean age, 42 years; 42% women) with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disk herniation and persistent signs and symptoms of radiculopathy for at least 6 weeks. Interventions Standard open diskectomy vs nonoperative treatment individualized to the patient. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were changes from baseline for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey bodily pain and physical function scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons MODEMS version) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included sciatica severity as measured by the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index, satisfaction with symptoms, self-reported improvement, and employment status. Results Adherence to assigned treatment was limited: 50% of patients assigned to surgery received surgery within 3 months of enrollment, while 30% of those assigned to nonoperative treatment received surgery in the same period. Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated substantial improvements for all primary and secondary outcomes in both treatment groups. Between-group differences in improvements were consistently in favor of surgery for all periods but were small and not statistically significant for the primary outcomes. Conclusions Patients in both the surgery and the nonoperative treatment groups improved substantially over a 2-year period. Because of the large numbers of patients who crossed over in both directions, conclusions about the superiority or equivalence of the treatments are not warranted based on the intent-to-treat analysis. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000410 PMID:17119140

  19. Repeated microendoscopic discectomy for recurrent lumbar disk herniation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Tianyong; Zhou, Qiang; Dai, Fei; Luo, Fei; He, Qingyi; Zhang, Jinsong; Xu, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the microendoscopic discectomy technique and inclusion criteria for the treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation and to supply feasible criteria and technical notes to avoid complications and to increase the therapeutic effect. METHODS: A consecutive series of 25 patients who underwent posterior microendoscopic discectomy for recurrent lumbar disc herniation were included. The inclusion criteria were as follows: no severe pain in the lumbar region, no lumbar instability observed by flexion-extension radiography and no intervertebral discitis or endplate damage observed by magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were diagnosed by clinical manifestations and imaging examinations. RESULTS: Follow-up visits were carried out in all cases. Complications, such as nerve injuries, were not observed. The follow-up outcomes were graded using the MacNab criteria. A grade of excellent was given to 12 patients, good to 12 patients and fair to 1 patient. A grade of excellent or good occurred in 96% of cases. One patient relapsed 3 months after surgery and then underwent lumbar interbody fusion and inner fixation. The numerical rating scale of preoperative leg pain was 7.4± 1.5, whereas it decreased to 2.1±0.8 at 7 days after surgery. The preoperative Oswestry disability index of lumbar function was 57.5±10.0, whereas it was 26.0±8.5 at 7 days after surgery. CONCLUSION: In these cases, microendoscopic discectomy was able to achieve satisfactory clinical results. Furthermore, it has advantages over other methods because of its smaller incision, reduced bleeding and more efficient recovery. PMID:25789521

  20. Extraperitoneal inguinoscrotal herniation of the ureter: a rare case of recurrence after hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Golgor, E; Stroszczynski, C; Froehner, M

    2009-01-01

    Inguinoscrotal herniation of the ureter is a rare finding with the potential for serious surgical complications. Two anatomic forms are defined. In the more common paraperitoneal variant, the herniating peritoneal sac drags the ureter and sometimes other abdominal structures with it. The uncommon variant--extraperitoneal inguinal herniais without a peritoneal sac and consists of the ureter and fat tissue. We report a case of extraperitoneal inguinoscrotal hernia possibly due to a prior inguinal hernia repair. PMID:19641370

  1. Spontaneous intercostal lung herniation complicated by rib fractures: a therapeutic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Adil S.; Kalamkar, Prachi; Alhassan, Sulaiman; Farrell, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Lung herniation has been defined as a protrusion of lung tissue through its bounding structure. We present a case of spontaneous intercostal lung herniation following bouts of cough, which was complicated by multiple rib fractures, in which we had to adopt a non-surgical approach due to the clinical circumstance. Its understanding in the field of internal medicine is important as appropriate therapeutic judgment, and long-term follow-up is essential for full recovery. PMID:26719812

  2. Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad in 1 year old child: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gadipelly, Srinivas; Sudheer, M V S; Neshangi, Srisha; Harsha, G; Reddy, Vijaybaskar

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad (BFP) is very rare, usually seen in infants and young children ranging from 5 months to 12 years of age. Etiology will be blunt injury to buccal mucosa from foreign objects or trauma due to teeth and fall. The suckling activity in infants may also encourage the herniation following trauma. A minor injury or perforation to the buccal mucosa can cause herniation of BFP. The size of herniated mass is very large when compared to the size of the perforation. The history of trauma, absence of prolapse before the injury, its occurrence in infants and young children, specific anatomic sites and location of perforation in mucosa, histopathological appearance of adipose tissue are the characteristic features important for diagnosing the condition. The treatment options for the herniated BFP are usually excision. Alternative to excision is repositioning of the herniated fat in its anatomical location if noticed early. PMID:25848153

  3. Associations between Alpha Angle and Herniation Pit on MRI Revisited in 185 Asymptomatic Hip Joints

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunchae

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between alpha angle and herniation pit on MRI in asymptomatic hip joints and their associations with demographic variables. Materials and Methods Hip MRI of 185 asymptomatic hip joints of 105 adults (age 18 to 80 years) from September 2011 through December 2012 were retrospectively studied. Alpha angles were measured on oblique axial MR images by 2 observers. Herniation pit was determined by 1 observer. Size measures, prevalence, and statistical analyses were conducted regarding its association with age, gender, laterality (right or left hip). Intra- and inter-observer agreements were determined by intra-class correlation coefficient. Results The prevalence of herniation pit in asymptomatic hips was 21.6%. The range of alpha angle was 27.6-65.0 degrees. Seventeen and 16 out of 185 (9.1% and 8.6%) hip joints showed alpha angle of ? 55 degrees in first and second measurement sessions, respectively. There was no association between alpha angle ? 55 and presence of herniation pit. There was no association between alpha angle ? 55 and the size of herniation pit. Inter-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.485 between first measurements of first vs. second observer, respectively. Intra-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.654, respectively. Forty (21.6%) of 185 hip joints (35 of 105 patients, 33.3%) had herniation pit, with no difference according to age, gender, or laterality of hip joint. Conclusion There is no association between alpha angle ? 55 degrees and presence of herniation pit or demographic variables. PMID:26576122

  4. Who should have Surgery for an Intervertebral Disc Herniation?

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Adam; Lurie, Jon; Tosteson, Tor; Zhao, Wenyan; Abdu, William; Mirza, Sohail; Weinstein, James

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Combined prospective randomized controlled trial and observational cohort study of intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), an as-treated analysis. Objective To determine modifiers of the treatment effect (TE) of surgery (the difference between surgical and nonoperative outcomes) for intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) using subgroup analysis. Summary of Background Data SPORT demonstrated a positive surgical TE for IDH at the group level. However, individual characteristics may affect TE. No prior studies have evaluated TE modifiers in IDH. Methods IDH patients underwent either discectomy (n=788) or nonoperative care (n=404) and were analyzed according to treatment received. Thirty-seven baseline variables were used to define subgroups for calculating the time-weighted average TE for the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) over 4 years (TE=?ODIsurgery-?ODInonoperative). Variables with significant subgroup by* treatment interactions (p<0.1) were simultaneously entered into a multivariate model to select independent TE predictors. Results All analyzed subgroups improved significantly more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment (p<0.05). In minimally adjusted univariate analyses: being married, absence of joint problems, worsening symptom trend at baseline, high school education or less, older age, no worker’s compensation, longer duration of symptoms, and an SF-36 mental component score (MCS) less than 35 were associated with greater TEs. Multivariate analysis demonstrated: being married (TE ?15.8 vs. ?7.7 single, p<0.001), absence of joint problems (TE ?14.6 vs. ?10.3 joint problems, p=0.012), and worsening symptoms (TE ?15.9 vs. ?11.8 stable symptoms, p=0.032) were independent TE modifiers. TE’s were greatest in married patients with worsening symptoms (?18.3) vs. single patients with stable symptoms (?7.8). Conclusions IDH patients who met strict inclusion criteria improved more with surgery than with nonoperative treatment, regardless of specific characteristics. However, being married, without joint problems, and worsening symptom trend at baseline were associated with a greater treatment effect. PMID:21681140

  5. Higher preoperative Oswestry Disability Index is associated with better surgical outcome in upper lumbar disc herniations.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Hooshang; Isfahani, Arash Vatankhahan

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcome in terms of functional and subjective recovery, patients who needed discectomies at L1-L2, L2-L3 and L3-L4 levels were compared with an age and sex-matched group of patients who required L4-L5 and L5-S1 discectomies. We prospectively enrolled 50 consecutive patients, referred to our center, who had L1-L2, L2-L3 and L3-L4 herniations and required surgical intervention. Likewise, a comparative group of 50 consecutive patients with herniations at L4-L5 and L5-S1 were selected. All 100 patients were treated and followed for a 1 year period. Physical examination findings as well as Oswestry Disability Questionnaire before surgery were recorded. After 1 year, patients were requested to fill the same questionnaire. Significant decline in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores was considered to be a measure of functional improvement and recovery. The mean age of patients with upper lumbar disc herniation (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4) was 45.7 years and patients with lower lumbar disc herniation (L4-L5, L5-S1) had a mean age of 41.2 years. There was no statistically significant difference in age between the two groups. The preoperative Oswestry Disability (ODI) Index score had a statistically significant impact on ODI score improvement after surgery in both lower and upper lumbar disc groups. All 100 patients with either lower or upper lumbar disc herniation had statistically significant ODI change after surgical intervention (P < 0.0001 for both groups). However, patients with upper disc herniations and moderate preoperative disability (ODI of 21-40%) did not show significant improvement, while patients with ODI greater than 40% had significant reduction (P = 0.018). Surprisingly, as many as 25% of the former had even an increase in ODI scores after surgery. Gender was also a conspicuous factor in determining the surgical outcome of patients with upper lumbar disc herniation, and male patients had more reduction in ODI score than female patients (P = 0.007). Since the functional recovery in patients with herniated lumbar disc, especially upper lumbar herniation, is influenced by preoperative ODI scores, the use of ODI or any other standard pain assessment tool is a sensible consideration as an inherent investigative method to preclude unfavorable surgical outcome. PMID:17972115

  6. Higher preoperative Oswestry Disability Index is associated with better surgical outcome in upper lumbar disc herniations

    PubMed Central

    Isfahani, Arash Vatankhahan

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcome in terms of functional and subjective recovery, patients who needed discectomies at L1–L2, L2–L3 and L3–L4 levels were compared with an age and sex-matched group of patients who required L4–L5 and L5–S1 discectomies. We prospectively enrolled 50 consecutive patients, referred to our center, who had L1–L2, L2–L3 and L3–L4 herniations and required surgical intervention. Likewise, a comparative group of 50 consecutive patients with herniations at L4–L5 and L5–S1 were selected. All 100 patients were treated and followed for a 1 year period. Physical examination findings as well as Oswestry Disability Questionnaire before surgery were recorded. After 1 year, patients were requested to fill the same questionnaire. Significant decline in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores was considered to be a measure of functional improvement and recovery. The mean age of patients with upper lumbar disc herniation (L1–L2, L2–L3, L3–L4) was 45.7 years and patients with lower lumbar disc herniation (L4–L5, L5–S1) had a mean age of 41.2 years. There was no statistically significant difference in age between the two groups. The preoperative Oswestry Disability (ODI) Index score had a statistically significant impact on ODI score improvement after surgery in both lower and upper lumbar disc groups. All 100 patients with either lower or upper lumbar disc herniation had statistically significant ODI change after surgical intervention (P < 0.0001 for both groups). However, patients with upper disc herniations and moderate preoperative disability (ODI of 21–40%) did not show significant improvement, while patients with ODI greater than 40% had significant reduction (P = 0.018). Surprisingly, as many as 25% of the former had even an increase in ODI scores after surgery. Gender was also a conspicuous factor in determining the surgical outcome of patients with upper lumbar disc herniation, and male patients had more reduction in ODI score than female patients (P = 0.007). Since the functional recovery in patients with herniated lumbar disc, especially upper lumbar herniation, is influenced by preoperative ODI scores, the use of ODI or any other standard pain assessment tool is a sensible consideration as an inherent investigative method to preclude unfavorable surgical outcome. PMID:17972115

  7. Correction of true periorbital fat herniation in cosmetic lower lid blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sachs, M E; Bosniak, S L

    1986-01-01

    The presence of puffy, baggy lower eyelids is one of the first signs of the aging face. Baggy eyelids can result from excessive eyelid skin, hypertrophied orbicularis muscle, and/or periorbital fat herniation. An exact diagnosis of which components are contributing to the problem must be made in the preoperative period so that proper correction can be made during surgery. The concept of true periorbital fat herniation in the causation of baggy lower eyelids is presented. The surgical correction of this anatomic defect involves identification and approximation of the dehiscent orbital septum to the capsulopalpebral ligament. Thirty-five patients who presented with true lower eyelid fat herniation and who underwent direct suture repair are reviewed. PMID:3526832

  8. Generalized Joint Laxity is Associated with Primary Occurrence and Treatment Outcome of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Woo Jin; Kim, Hong-Bae; Lee, Gun Woo; Choi, Jung Heum; Jo, Won Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background We investigated relationships between generalized joint laxity and primary lumbar disc herniation occurrence and compared clinical outcomes after conservative treatment in lumbar disc herniation patients with and without generalized joint laxity. Methods The study group included 128 men, and the control group included 276 men matched for age and body mass index with the study group. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of generalized joint laxity using the Beighton scale. Clinical outcomes measured by the visual analog scale and the Oswestry disability index 2 years after conservative treatment were the secondary outcome measure. Results Generalized joint laxity prevalence was 13.2% in the study group and 5.1% in the control group, a significant difference (P=0.01). Spearman correlation analysis revealed that weight (r=0.162, P=0.03), body mass index (r=0.131, P=0.03), and generalized joint laxity (r=0.372, P<0.01) significantly correlated with lumbar disc herniation occurrence. In multivariate regression analysis, generalized joint laxity was the only significant lumbar disc herniation predictor (P=0.002; 95% confidence interval, 1.08 to 5.26). Generalized joint laxity in lumbar disc herniation patients was associated with worse clinical outcomes after conservative treatment measured by visual analog scale scores for lower extremity pain (P=0.02), lower back pain (P=0.03), and Oswestry disability index scores (P=0.03). Conclusion Generalized joint laxity might be associated with lumbar disc herniation occurrence and might also be a negative predictor of worse clinical outcomes after conservative treatment. PMID:26019764

  9. Minimally invasive tubular microdiscectomy for recurrent lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Hubbe, Ulrich; Franco-Jimenez, Pamela; Klingler, Jan-Helge; Vasilikos, Ioannis; Scholz, Christoph; Kogias, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of minimally invasive tubular microdiscectomy for the treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation (LDH). As opposed to endoscopic techniques, namely microendoscopic and endoscopic transforaminal discectomy, this microscopically assisted technique has never been used for the treatment of recurrent LDH. METHODS Thirty consecutive patients who underwent minimally invasive tubular microdiscectomy for recurrent LDH were included in the study. The preoperative and postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores for pain, the clinical outcome according to modified Macnab criteria, and complications were analyzed retrospectively. The minimum follow-up was 1.5 years. Student t-test with paired samples was used for the statistical comparison of pre- and postoperative VAS scores. A p value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS The mean operating time was 90 ± 35 minutes. The VAS score for leg pain was significantly reduced from 5.9 ± 2.1 preoperatively to 1.7 ± 1.3 postoperatively (p < 0.001). The overall success rate (excellent or good outcome according to Macnab criteria) was 90%. Incidental durotomy occurred in 5 patients (16.7%) without neurological consequences, CSF fistula, or negative influence to the clinical outcome. Instability occurred in 2 patients (6.7%). CONCLUSIONS The clinical outcome of minimally invasive tubular microdiscectomy is comparable to the reported success rates of other minimally invasive techniques. The dural tear rate is not associated to higher morbidity or worse outcome. The technique is an equally effective and safe treatment option for recurrent LDH. PMID:26384131

  10. Low back pain associated with lumbar disc herniation: role of moderately degenerative disc and annulus fibrous tears.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Liu, Hui; Li, Zemin; Zhang, Kuibo; Wang, Jianru; Wang, Hua; Zheng, Zhaomin

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is one of the most common spinal degenerative disorders which may lead to low back pain (LBP) and radicular leg pain. However, it remains difficult to diagnose a degenerative herniated disc as the LBP generator in clinical practice. The purpose of this study is to explore the characteristic changes of a herniated disc causing LBP on MRI and to clarify the underlying role of inflammatory mediators and annulus fibrous (AF) tears in LBP generation associated with disc herniation. We prospectively collected intervertebral disc specimens and MRI from 57 single-segment disc herniation patients with radiculopathy. All subjects were grouped according to LBP occurrence or disc degeneration severity for the comparison of inflammatory mediators' expression and AF tears occurrence (High Intensity Zone, HIZ, on MRI). LBP incidence under circumstances of different degeneration severity with or without HIZ was further analyzed. Both LBP incidence and Inflammatory mediators expression in moderately degenerated group was higher than mildly and severely degenerative groups. HIZ incidence was higher in moderately and severely degenerated groups. LBP incidence in the patients with both moderately degenerated discs and HIZ was 86.7%, much higher than the rest of the patient population. In conclusion, the high expression of inflammatory mediators with AF tears causes LBP associated with disc herniation. Moderately degenerative disc with HIZ is MRI morphological change of herniated disc causing LBP, which can be applied to diagnose LBP. PMID:25932092

  11. [Pain related impairment and the ability to function in herniated disc patients during rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Kitze, K; Rust, V; Angermeyer, M C

    2007-12-01

    Herniated discs usually occur in middle aged persons. For some the pain is so serious that an operation is necessary. Yet despite modern micro-surgical methods for operations, approximately one-third of the patients continue to report ongoing limitations. The reasons for insufficient success of therapy however lie not only in the illness as such. This study is intended to examine the changes in the subjective success parameters of pain-related impairment and the ability to function in herniated disc patients during rehabilitation. Using multivariate analyses, the influence of sociodemographic, illness-specific, work-related and mental variables on changes in goal variables is shown. 214 herniated disc patients were interviewed before the operation, after post-operative therapy, and six months after surgery. Before their operation, herniated disc patients experienced a severe limitation of activity and ability in everyday function due to pain. About three-fourth of the patients experienced significant improvement in both variables after the operation and post-operative therapy. The influence factors for a successful therapy outcome were male gender and higher educational level. Risk factors were increasing age, a desire for a pension, severe illness symptoms and severe pre-operative depression. In addition to somatic therapy, higher risk patients should receive psychological or social and employment counselling as a support to post-operative therapy. PMID:18188804

  12. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes Isolates from Surgically Excised Lumbar Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    Rollason, Jess; Albert, Hanne B.; Barnard, Emma; Worthington, Tony; Hilton, Anthony C.; Vernallis, Ann; Patrick, Sheila; Elliott, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods, 52% of the isolates were type II (50% of culture-positive patients), while type IA strains accounted for 28% of isolates (42% patients). Type III (11% isolates; 21% patients) and type IB strains (9% isolates; 17% patients) were detected less frequently. The MIC values for all isolates were lowest for amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin (?1mg/L). The MIC for fusidic acid was 1-2 mg/L. The MIC for trimethoprim and gentamicin was 2 to ?4?mg/L. The demonstration that type II and III strains, which are not frequently recovered from skin, predominated within our isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed. PMID:24066290

  13. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from surgically excised lumbar disc herniations.

    PubMed

    Rollason, Jess; McDowell, Andrew; Albert, Hanne B; Barnard, Emma; Worthington, Tony; Hilton, Anthony C; Vernallis, Ann; Patrick, Sheila; Elliott, Tom; Lambert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods, 52% of the isolates were type II (50% of culture-positive patients), while type IA strains accounted for 28% of isolates (42% patients). Type III (11% isolates; 21% patients) and type IB strains (9% isolates; 17% patients) were detected less frequently. The MIC values for all isolates were lowest for amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin (?1 mg/L). The MIC for fusidic acid was 1-2 mg/L. The MIC for trimethoprim and gentamicin was 2 to ?4 ?mg/L. The demonstration that type II and III strains, which are not frequently recovered from skin, predominated within our isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed. PMID:24066290

  14. Spontaneous Cervical Intradural Disc Herniation Associated with Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dachuan; Wang, Haifeng; Shen, Wun-Jer

    2014-01-01

    Intradural herniation of a cervical disc is rare; less than 35 cases have been reported to date. A 52-year-old man with preexisting ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament developed severe neck pain with Lt hemiparesis while asleep. Neurological exam was consistent with Brown-Séquard syndrome. Magnetic resonance images showed a C5-6 herniated disc that was adjacent to the ossified ligament and indenting the cord. The mass was surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity margin, and caudally the ventral dura line appears divided into two, consistent with the “Y-sign” described by Sasaji et al. Cord edema were noted. Because of preexisting canal stenosis and spinal cord at risk, a laminoplasty was performed, followed by an anterior C6 corpectomy. Spot-weld type adhesions of the posterior longitudinal ligament to the dura was noted, along with a longitudinal tear in the dura. An intradural extra-arachnoid fragment of herniated disc was removed. Clinical exam at 6 months after surgery revealed normal muscle strength but persistent mild paresthesias. It is difficult to make a definite diagnosis of intradural herniation preoperatively; however, the clinical findings and radiographic signs mentioned above are suggestive and should alert the surgeon to look for an intradural fragment. PMID:25295205

  15. BFKL Pomeron calculus: nucleus-nucleus scattering

    E-print Network

    Carlos Contreras; Eugene Levin; Jeremy S. Miller

    2011-12-19

    In this paper the action of the BFKL Pomeron calculus is re-written in momentum representation, and the equations of motion for nucleus-nucleus collisions are derived, in this representation. We found the semi-classical solutions to these equations, outside of the saturation domain. Inside this domain these equations reduce to the set of delay differential equations, and their asymptotic solutions are derived.

  16. Global Properties of Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    Michael Kliemant; Raghunath Sahoo; Tim Schuster; Reinhard Stock; ;

    2008-09-15

    In this lecture note, we discuss the global properties of nucleus-nucleus collisions. After a brief introduction to heavy-ion collisions, we introduce useful kinematics and then discuss the bulk hadron production in A+A collisions. At the end we discuss the hadronization and hadronic freeze-out in A+A collisions. We have tried to cover the topic from very fundamental arguments especially for the beginners in the field. We also give very useful formulae frequently used by experimentalists, from a first principle derivation.

  17. Fournier's gangrene secondary to an acutely inflamed appendix herniating into the deep inguinal ring.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Piyush B; Khan, Mashuk; Zilvetti, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) requires prompt recognition and management. We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with extensive pain and purple discolouration from the right iliac fossa to perineum. Computed tomography demonstrated gas within the right hemiscrotum extending into the inguinal canal and right buttock, with a right pelvic fluid and air collection. At debridement necrotic fluid was arising from the superficial inguinal ring so laparotomy was performed, revealing a grossly inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal; a right hemicolectomy was performed. Unfortunately, the patient went into cardiac arrest and passed away on the operating table. Histological analysis demonstrated acute-on-chronic inflammation involving the appendix. The condition where appendicitis is implicated in FG is usually due to retroperitoneal rupture and tracking into the perineal spaces. This is the first case reported of an inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal and thus causing FG. PMID:25829533

  18. Fournier's gangrene secondary to an acutely inflamed appendix herniating into the deep inguinal ring

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Piyush B.; Khan, Mashuk; Zilvetti, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Fournier's gangrene (FG) requires prompt recognition and management. We report the case of a 68-year-old man who presented with extensive pain and purple discolouration from the right iliac fossa to perineum. Computed tomography demonstrated gas within the right hemiscrotum extending into the inguinal canal and right buttock, with a right pelvic fluid and air collection. At debridement necrotic fluid was arising from the superficial inguinal ring so laparotomy was performed, revealing a grossly inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal; a right hemicolectomy was performed. Unfortunately, the patient went into cardiac arrest and passed away on the operating table. Histological analysis demonstrated acute-on-chronic inflammation involving the appendix. The condition where appendicitis is implicated in FG is usually due to retroperitoneal rupture and tracking into the perineal spaces. This is the first case reported of an inflamed appendix herniating into the inguinal canal and thus causing FG. PMID:25829533

  19. Perforation of the Pregnant Uterus during Laparoscopy for Suspected Internal Herniation after Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Harsem, N. K.; Røstad, S.; Mathisen, L. C.; Jacobsen, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    We report perforations of a pregnant uterus during laparoscopy for suspected internal herniation after gastric bypass at 24 weeks of gestation. Abdominal access and gas insufflation were achieved by the use of a 12 mm optic trocar. An additional 5 mm trocar was positioned. The perforations were handled by suturing following laparotomy and mobilisation of the high located uterus. The uterine fundus was located in the subcostal area. Internal herniation was not verified. A cesarean section was made 6 weeks later due to acute low abdominal pain. During delivery the uterus was found normal. At 5 months of age the child has developed normal and seems healthy. Optical trocars should be used with caution for abdominal access during laparoscopy in pregnancy. Open access should probably be preferred in most cases. Accidental perforations of the uterine cavity may be handled in selected cases with simple closure even following the use of large trocars under close postoperative surveillance throughout the pregnancy. PMID:25548693

  20. Blunt traumatic pericardial rupture and cardiac herniation with a penetrating twist: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Blunt Traumatic Pericardial Rupture (BTPR) with resulting cardiac herniation following chest trauma is an unusual and often fatal condition. Although there has been a multitude of case reports of this condition in past literature, the recurring theme is that of a missed injury. Its occurrence in severe blunt trauma is in the order of 0.4%. It is an injury that frequently results in pre/early hospital death and diagnosis at autopsy, probably owing to a combination of diagnostic difficulties, lack of familiarity and associated polytrauma. Of the patients who survive to hospital attendance, the mortality rate is in the order of 57-64%. Methods We present two survivors of BTPR and cardiac herniation, one with a delayed penetrating cardiac injury secondary to rib fractures. With these two cases and literature review, we hope to provide a greater awareness of this injury Conclusion BTPR and cardiac herniation is a complex and often fatal injury that usually presents under the umbrella of polytrauma. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion for BTPR but, even then, the diagnosis is fraught with difficulty. In blunt chest trauma, patients should be considered high risk for BTPR when presenting with: Cardiovascular instability with no obvious cause Prominent or displaced cardiac silhouette and asymmetrical large volume pneumopericardium Potentially, with increasing awareness of the injury and improved use and availability of imaging modalities, the survival rates will improve and cardiac Herniation could even be considered the 5th H of reversible causes of blunt traumatic PEA arrest. PMID:20003497

  1. Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Related to a Congenital Pericardial Defect and Left Atrial Appendage Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heemoon; Jeong, Dong Seop; Kim, In Sook; Park, Byung Jo

    2015-01-01

    Congenital pericardial defects (CPDs) are infrequent anomalies that are usually asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during unrelated interventions. Here we report the case of a CPD with herniation of an enlarged left atrial appendage identified during total thoracoscopic ablation (TTA) for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF). The persistent AF was successfully treated with a hybrid procedure, in which TTA was followed by an electrophysiological study. PMID:26665114

  2. The Impact of Epidural Steroid Injections on the Outcomes of Patients Treated for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Radcliff, Kristen; Hilibrand, Alan; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Delasotta, Lawrence; Rihn, Jeffrey; Zhao, Wenyan; Vaccaro, Alexander; Albert, Todd J.; Weinstein, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) is a prospective, multicenter study of operative versus nonoperative treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. It has been suggested that epidural steroid injections may help improve patient outcomes and lower the rate of crossover to surgical treatment. Methods: One hundred and fifty-four patients included in the intervertebral disc herniation arm of the SPORT who had received an epidural steroid injection during the first three months of the study and no injection prior to the study (the ESI group) were compared with 453 patients who had not received an injection during the first three months of the study or prior to the study (the No-ESI group). Results: There was a significant difference in the preference for surgery between groups (19% in the ESI group compared with 56% in the No-ESI group, p < 0.001). There was no difference in primary or secondary outcome measures at four years between the groups. A higher percentage of patients changed from surgical to nonsurgical treatment in the ESI group (41% versus 12% in the No-ESI, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with epidural steroid injection had no improvement in short or long-term outcomes compared with patients who were not treated with epidural steroid injection. There was a higher prevalence of crossover to nonsurgical treatment among surgically assigned ESI-group patients, although this was confounded by the increased baseline desire to avoid surgery among patients in the ESI group. Given these data, we concluded that more studies are necessary to establish the value of epidural steroid injection for symptomatic lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22739998

  3. Intradural lumbar disc herniations associated with epidural adhesion : report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Han, In-Ho; Kim, Keun-Su; Jin, Byung-Ho

    2009-08-01

    Intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is rare. In this report, authors present 2 cases of ILDHs associated with severe adhesion between the dural sac and posterior longitudinal ligament. In a 40-year-old man, ILDH occurred in association with epidural adhesion due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). In other 31-year-old man, ILDH occurred in presence of epidural adhesion due to previous spine surgery. PMID:19763222

  4. Intradural lumbar disc herniation after percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy: case report.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Yasuaki; Sakai, Toshinori; Miyagi, Ryo; Nakagawa, Takefumi; Shimakawa, Tateaki; Sairyo, Koichi; Chikawa, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    A 64-year-old man was referred to the authors with low-back pain (LBP) and right leg pain with a history of previously diagnosed lumbar disc herniation (LDH) at L4-5. He had undergone 2 percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomies (PELDs) for the herniation at another institution, and according to the surgical record of the second surgery, a dural tear occurred intraoperatively but was not repaired. Postoperative conservative treatments such as an epidural block and blood patch had not relieved his persistent LBP or right leg pain. Upon referral to the authors, MRI and myelography revealed an intradural LDH. The herniated mass was removed by durotomy, and posterior lumbar interbody fusion was performed. His symptoms were partially improved after surgery. Primary suture is technically difficult when a dural tear occurs during PELD. Therefore, close attention should be paid to avoiding such tears, and surgeons should increase their awareness of intradural LDH as a possible postoperative complication of PELD. PMID:26068274

  5. Chemonucleolysis for relief of sciatica due to a herniated intervertebral disc.

    PubMed Central

    McCulloch, J A

    1981-01-01

    Chemonucleolysis is the nonoperative chemical removal of displaced lumbar disc material. The enzyme chymopapain, which has a wide margin of safety between its effective therapeutic and toxic doses, is effective in the management of sciatica due to a herniated intervertebral disc. The patient will have leg pain as the dominant symptom and a 50% reduction in straight-leg raising with or without bowstring discomfort and crossover pain. Neurologic symptoms and signs are usual, as are abnormal results of contrast studies, which will verify the level of involvement. In 220 randomly selected patients who met criteria for the diagnosis of sciatica due to a herniated intervertebral disc and did not have psychogenic or nonorganic spinal pain, a spinal stenosis or a history of a previous, unsuccessful operation to relieve the sciatica, chemonucleolysis had a success rate of 80%. The only complications were a severe anaphylactic reaction in two patients and lesser, delayed reactions in five others. All of the reactions were successfully treated. Of the 45 patients in whom chemonucleolysis was unsuccessful, 38 underwent a laminectomy. In 3 of the 38 the results of chemonucleolysis were initially good, but later the disc herniation recurred; thus, the long-term treatment failure rate was 1.4%. PMID:7011530

  6. Against the Odds: Massive Lumbar Intradural Disk Herniation in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Orakcioglu, Berk; Dao Trong, Huy Philip; Jungk, Christine; Unterberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?Presentation of an unusual case of an elderly patient with massive intradural disk herniation at the L2–L3 level. Methods?Clinical and imaging data are presented after obtaining informed consent from the patient. Results?A 90-year-old man suffering from sudden-onset neurogenic bladder dysfunction and lower back pain but no further neurologic deficits initially presented with magnetic resonance imaging and laboratory values suggestive of an intraspinal infection. However, intraoperative inspection proved the unexpected finding of a large intradural lumbar disk herniation at the L2–L3 level. Conclusions?Lumbar soft disk herniation to the intradural space is a rare event and has never been described in a patient over the age of 75. This case of a 90-year-old man with acute-onset bladder dysfunction underlines the necessity to consider this as a differential diagnosis in the case of a newly diagnosed intradural mass. PMID:26430608

  7. Incarcerated herniation of the cervical spinal cord after laminectomy for an ossification of the yellow ligament.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2010-07-01

    A 74-year-old man showed a spastic gait and myelopathy in both the hands. Computed tomography revealed an OPLL on C3 and C4, bony spurs on the dorsal side of C4-C6, and an OYL on C3 and C4. We scheduled a two-stage decompression for both the OPLL and OYL. First, we performed laminectomy on the C3-C6 segments and resected the OYL. We did not observe any dural tear or CSF leakage in the dura. The patient's neurological symptoms improved. After the laminectomy, his myelopathy recurred. Postoperative MRI showed a spinal cord herniation. We had the C3/4 anterior cervical disectomy and fusion as we planned. In addition, we performed a surgery to repair the damaged dura mater at the site of spinal cord herniation at the same second surgery. The integrity of the arachnoid membrane was preserved. The patient's myelopathy gradually improved. There have been no reports on postoperative neurological deterioration caused by spinal cord herniation associated with a dural defect at the laminectomy site, without dural tear in the surgery after the resection of a posteriorly located cervical OYL. The possibility of a dural defect in OYL cases should be considered when planning a laminectomy for the resection of the OYL. PMID:19937353

  8. Retrolisthesis and lumbar disc herniation: a postoperative assessment of patient function

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kevin K.; Shen, Michael S.; Zhao, Wenyan; Lurie, Jon D.; Razi, Afshin E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT The presence of retrolisthesis has been associated with the degenerative changes of the lumbar spine. However, retrolisthesis in patients with L5–S1 disc herniation has not been shown to have a significant relationship with worse baseline pain or function. Whether it can affect the outcomes after discectomy, is yet to be established. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between retrolisthesis (alone or in combination with other degenerative conditions) and postoperative low back pain, physical function, and quality of life. This study was intended to be a follow-up to a previous investigation that looked at the preoperative assessment of patient function in those with retrolisthesis and lumbar disc herniation. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PATIENT SAMPLE Patients enrolled in SPORT (Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial) who had undergone L5–S1 discectomy and had a complete magnetic resonance imaging scan available for review (n=125). Individuals with anterolisthesis were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURES Time-weighted averages over 4 years for the Short Form (SF)-36 bodily pain scale, SF-36 physical function scale, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Sciatica Bothersomeness Index (SBI). METHODS Retrolisthesis was defined as a posterior subluxation of 8% or more. Disc degeneration was defined as any loss of disc signal on T2 imaging. Modic changes were graded 1 to 3 and collectively classified as vertebral end plate degenerative changes. The presence of facet arthropathy and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy was classified jointly as posterior degenerative changes. Longitudinal regression models were used to compare the time-weighted outcomes over 4 years. RESULTS Patients with retrolisthesis did significantly worse with regard to bodily pain and physical function over 4 years. However, there were no significant differences in terms of ODI or SBI. Similarly, retrolisthesis was not a significant factor in the operative time, blood loss, lengths of stay, complications, rate of additional spine surgeries, or recurrent disc herniations. Disc degeneration, modic changes, and posterior degenerative changes did not affect the outcomes. CONCLUSIONS Although retrolisthesis in patients with L5–S1 disc herniation did not affect the baseline pain or function, postoperative outcomes appeared to be somewhat worse. It is possible that the contribution of pain or dysfunction related to retrolisthesis became more evident after removal of the disc herniation. PMID:23201024

  9. Radiographic Markers of Femoroacetabular Impingement: Correlation of Herniation Pit and Femoral Bump with a Positive Cross-Over Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Scheyerer, Max J.; Copeland, Carol E.; Stromberg, Jeffrey; Ruckstuhl, Thomas; Werner, Clément M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of this study was to research the association of femoral bumps and herniation pits with the overlap-ratio of the cross-over sign. Methods. Pelvic X-rays and CT-scans of 2925 patients with good assessment of the anterior and the posterior acetabular wall and absence of neutral pelvic tilt were enrolled in the investigation. Finally pelvic X-rays were assessed for the presence of a positive cross-over sign, and CT-scans for a femoral bump or a herniation pit. Additionally, if a positive cross-over sign was discovered, the overlap-ratio was calculated. Results. A femoral bump was found in 53.3% (n = 1559), and a herniation pit in 27.2% (n = 796) of all hips. The overlap-ratio correlated positively with the presence of a femoral bump, while a negative correlation between the overlap-ratio and the presence of a herniation pit was found. The latter was significantly more often combined with a femoral bump than without. Conclusions. We detected an increased prevalence of femoral bump with increasing overlap-ratios of the cross-over sign indicating a relation to biomechanical stress. The observed decreased prevalence of herniation pits with increasing overlap-ratios could be explained by reduced mechanical stress due to nontightened iliofemoral ligament in the presence of retroversion of the acetabulum. PMID:24876972

  10. Difficult diagnosis: internal herniation of the terminal ileum through the foramen of Winslow into the lesser sac.

    PubMed

    Nazarian, Scarlet; Clegg, Daisy; Chang, Sebastian; Kuriakose, John

    2015-01-01

    Herniation of the bowel through the foramen of Winslow is rare and accounts for 8% of all internal herniae. It typically presents clinically and biochemically as small bowel obstruction. It carries a high mortality as diagnosis is often delayed, despite bowel strangulation, as clinical signs are not typical and imaging may not be diagnostic. In the case presented here, a healthy 25-year-old man was admitted with sudden onset right-sided abdominal and back pain. He denied vomiting, and had opened his bowels. His bloods were normal and venous lactate <2; CT was not diagnostic. At laparotomy, he was found to have internal herniation of the terminal ileum through the foramen of Winslow, which was gangrenous and required resection. This paper discusses the difficulty in diagnosing internal herniation and poses the question as to whether we are too dependent on CT findings in the setting of an acute abdomen. PMID:26682837

  11. Comparison of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Open Lumbar Microdiscectomy for Recurrent Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Yeob; Shim, Chan Shik; Ahn, Yong; Choi, Young-Geun; Kim, Ho Jin

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and open lumbar microdiscectomy (OLM) for recurrent disc herniation. Methods Fifty-four patients, who underwent surgery, either PELD (25 patients) or repeated OLM (29 patients), due to recurrent disc herniation at L4-5 level, were divided into two groups according to the surgical methods. Excluded were patients with sequestrated disc, calcified disc, severe neurological deficit, or instability. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiological variables were assessed using plain radiography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Results Mean operating time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in PELD group (45.8 minutes and 0.9 day, respectively) than OLM group (73.8 minutes and 3.8 days, respectively) (p < 0.001). Complications occurred in 4% in PELD group and 10.3% in OLM group in the perioperative period. At a mean follow-up duration of 34.2 months, the mean improvements of back pain, leg pain, and functional improvement were 4.0, 5.5, and 40.9% for PELD group and 2.3, 5.1, and 45.0% for OLM group, respectively. Second recurrence occurred in 4% after PELD and 10.3% after OLM. Disc height did not change after PELD, but significantly decreased after OLM (p = 0.0001). Neither sagittal rotation angle nor volume of multifidus muscle changed significantly in both groups. Conclusion Both PELD and repeated OLM showed favorable outcomes for recurrent disc herniation, but PELD had advantages in terms of shorter operating time, hospital stay, and disc height preservation. PMID:20062565

  12. Marathon related death due to brainstem herniation in rehydration-related hyponatraemia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Axel; Keir, Geoffrey; Appleby, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Identifying marathon runners at risk of neurological deterioration at the end of the race (within a large cohort complaining of exhaustion, dehydration, nausea, headache, dizziness, etc.) is challenging. Here we report a case of rehydration-related hyponatraemia with ensuing brain herniation. Case presentation We report the death of runner in his 30's who collapsed in the recovery area following a marathon. Following rehydration he developed a respiratory arrest in the emergency room. He was found to be hyponatraemic (130 mM). A CT brain scan showed severe hydrocephalus and brain stem herniation. Despite emergency insertion of an extraventricular drain, he was tested for brainstem death the following morning. Funduscopy demonstrated an acute-on-chronic papilledema; CSF spectrophotometry did not reveal any trace of oxyhemoglobin or bilirubin, but ferritin levels were considerably raised (530 ng/mL, upper reference value 12 ng/mL), consistent with a previous bleed. Retrospectively it emerged that the patient had suffered from a thunderclap headache some months earlier. Subsequently he developed morning headaches and nausea. This suggests that he may have suffered from a subarachnoid haemorrhage complicated by secondary hydrocephalus. This would explain why in this case the relatively mild rehydration-related hyponatremia may have caused brain swelling sufficient for herniation. Conclusion Given the frequency of hyponatraemia in marathon runners (serum Na <135 mM in about 13%), and the non-specific symptoms, we discuss how a simple screening test such as funduscopy may help to identify those who require urgent neuroimaging. PMID:18163909

  13. Intracranial hydatid cyst is a rare cause of midbrain herniation: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Duransoy, Yusuf Kurtulu?; Mete, Mesut; Barutçuo?lu, Mustafa; Ünsal, Ülkün Ünlü; Selçuki, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Hydatid disease is a parasitic infection affecting the brain in about 2% of the cases. Brain involvement is most commonly observed in children. Here, we report a 13-year-old male patient who presented with headache, nausea, and vomiting. Before cranial computed tomography (CT) was performed, the patient had generalized epileptic seizures. He was disoriented, and had anisocoria with dilatation of the right pupilla. CT showed a cystic lesion of 10-cm diameter in the right temporoparietal region that had caused a shift of the midline structures to the contralateral side; an urgent operation was performed as there were signs of midbrain herniation. PMID:24470819

  14. Recurrent pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle with subcutaneous herniation into the chest wall. A case report.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M S; Vaijyanath, P; Taneja, K; Dubey, B; Manchanda, S C; Venugopal, P

    1998-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle is rare, and recurrence is extremely rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old man who presented at our hospital with a painless pulsatile swelling in the left breast. He had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting and left-ventricular aneurysmectomy 14 years earlier. On investigation, the swelling was diagnosed to be a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle with subcutaneous herniation. The extreme rarity of this condition prompted us to report the case. The investigative techniques and the surgical strategy are discussed. Images PMID:9885110

  15. Recurrent lumbar disc herniation: A prospective comparative study of three surgical management procedures

    PubMed Central

    El Shazly, Ayman A.; El Wardany, Mohammed A.; Morsi, Ahmad M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The optimal surgical treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation is controversial. Aim: To compare prospectively the clinical outcomes of surgical treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation by three different methods; discectomy alone, discectomy with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and diecectomy with posterolateral fusion (PLF), regardless of the postoperative radiological findings. Study Design: This is a prospective, randomized, comparative study. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, comparative study on 45 patients with first time recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Patients were evaluated clinically by using the criteria of the Japanese Orthopedic Association's evaluation system for low back pain syndrome (JOA score). The patients were classified into three groups: Group A; patients who had revision discectomy alone, group B; patients who had revision discectomy with TLIF, and group C; patients who had revision discectomy with PLF. The mean follow-up period was 37 (±7.85 STD) months. Results: The mean overall recovery rate was 87.2% (±19.26 STD) and the satisfactory rate was 88.9%. Comparison between the three groups showed no significant difference with regard to the mean total postoperative JOA score, recovery rate, and satisfactory rate. However, the postoperative low back pain was significantly higher in group A than that of group B and C. Two patients in group A required further revision surgery. The incidences of dural tear and postoperative neurological deficit were higher in group A. The intraoperative blood loss and length of operation were significantly less in group A. The total cost of the procedure was significantly different between the three groups, being least in group A and highest in group B. There was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to the length of postoperative hospital stay. Conclusion: Revision discectomy is effective in patients with recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Fusion with revision discectomy improves the postoperative low back pain, decreases the intraoperative risk of dural tear or neural damage and decreases the postoperative incidence of mechanical instability or re-recurrence. TLIF and PLF have comparable results when used with revision discectomy, but PLF has significantly less total cost than TLIF. PMID:24403956

  16. Management of post-goniopuncture iris herniation: a two-step procedure.

    PubMed

    Martín-Moro, Julio González; Miguel, Yolanda Fernández

    2014-06-01

    A 38-year-old male presented to the emergency room suffering acute pain in his left eye. Two months before he had been submitted to uneventful non-penetrating deep sclerectomy and one month before to YAG-laser goniopuncture. Examination showed iris herniation into the trabeculo-descemet's window. Surgical reduction was carried out through a peripheral corneal incision, and a large air bubble was injected into the anterior chamber. Four days later a wide laser peripheral iridotomy was performed. This technique can transform a non-penetrating technique into a full-trabeculectomy, without reopening the superficial flap. PMID:23740144

  17. Onset of deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gazdzicki, M.; Gorenstein, M. I.; Seyboth, P.

    2012-05-15

    The energy dependence of hadron production in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions reveals anomalies-the kink, horn, and step. They were predicted as signals of the deconfinement phase transition and observed by the NA49 Collaboration in central PbPb collisions at the CERN SPS. This indicates the onset of the deconfinement in nucleus-nucleus collisions at about 30 A GeV.

  18. Treatment of localized neuropathic pain after disk herniation with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster

    PubMed Central

    Likar, Rudolf; Kager, Ingo; Obmann, Michael; Pipam, Wolfgang; Sittl, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess treatment with the 5% lidocaine medicated plaster for peripheral neuropathic pain after disk herniation. Study design Case series, single center, retrospective data. Patients and methods Data of 23 patients treated for neuropathic pain with the lidocaine plaster for up to 24 months after a protrusion or prolapse of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar vertebral disks were retrospectively analyzed. Changes in overall pain intensity, in intensity of different pain qualities and of allodynia and hyperalgesia were evaluated. Results Patients (14 female/nine male, mean age 53.5 ± 10.4 years) presented with radiating pain into the abdomen, back, neck, shoulder, or legs and feet with a mean pain intensity of 8.3 ± 1.5 on the 11-point Likert scale. Mean treatment duration was 7.6 months; 52% of the patients received lidocaine plaster as monotherapy. At the end of the observation, mean overall pain intensity had been reduced to 3.1 ± 1.8. All other parameters also improved. The treatment was well tolerated. Conclusion These results point to a safe and effective treatment approach with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster for localized neuropathic pain related to disk herniation. However, owing to the small sample size, further investigation in a larger-scale controlled trial is warranted. PMID:22973116

  19. Cervical lung herniation complicating a case of acute asphyxial asthma in a child.

    PubMed

    Martchek, Melissa A; Padilla, Benjamin E; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Friedlaender, Eron Y

    2015-04-01

    The abrupt onset of respiratory failure secondary to asthma, known as acute asphyxial asthma (AAA) in adults, is uncommonly reported in children. Here, we report a case of a child with the acute onset of respiratory failure consistent with AAA complicated by the finding of a neck mass during resuscitation. This 11-year-old boy with a history of asthma initially presented in respiratory failure with altered mental status after the complaint of difficulty in breathing minutes before collapsing at home. Initially, his respiratory failure was thought to be secondary to status asthmaticus, and treatment was initiated accordingly. However, a neck mass noted during the resuscitation was cause for concern, and other etiologies for his respiratory failure were considered, including an airway obstructing neck mass. After pediatric surgery and anesthesia consultation for intubation and possible tracheostomy placement, general anesthesia was induced in the operating room with an inhaled anesthetic, with prompt resolution of the bronchspasm and decompression of the neck mass. Review of the imaging and clinical course ultimately yielded a diagnosis of cervical lung herniation as the etiology of his neck mass. We report this case of AAA and cervical lung herniation and a review of the literature of these 2 uncommon phenomena in children. PMID:25831031

  20. Retrolisthesis and Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Pre-operative Assessment of Patient Function

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Michael; Razi, Afshin; Lurie, Jon D.; Hanscom, Brett; Weinstein, Jim

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Retrolisthesis is relatively rare but when present has been associated with increased back pain and impaired back function. Neither the prevalence of this condition in individuals with lumbar disc herniations nor its possible relation to pre-operative back pain and dysfunction has been well studied. PURPOSE The purposes of this study were as follows: 1) to determine the prevalence of retrolisthesis (alone or in combination with other degenerative conditions) in individuals with confirmed L5 – S1 disc herniation who later underwent lumbar discectomy; 2) to determine if there is any association between retrolisthesis and degenerative changes within the same vertebral motion segment; and 3) to determine the relation between retrolisthesis (alone or in combination with other degenerative conditions) and pre-operative low back pain, physical function, and quality of life. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING Cross-sectional study. PATIENT SAMPLE A total of 125 individuals were identified for incorporation into this study. All patients had confirmed L5-S1 disc herniation on MRI and later underwent L5-S1 discectomy. All patients were enrolled in the SPORT (Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial) study; data was obtained from the multi-institutional database comprised of SPORT patients from across the United States. OUTCOME MEASURES Retrolisthesis, Degenerative change on MRI, Modic Changes. METHODS MRI scans of the lumbar spine were assessed at spinal level L5–S1 for all 125 patients. Retrolisthesis was defined as posterior subluxation of 8% or more. Disc degeneration was defined as any loss of disc signal on T2 imaging. Modic changes were graded 1 – 3 and collectively classified as vertebral endplate degenerative changes. The presence of facet arthropathy and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy were classified jointly as posterior degenerative changes. RESULTS The overall incidence of retrolisthesis at L5-S1 in our study was 23.2%. Retrolisthesis combined with posterior degenerative changes, degenerative disc disease, or vertebral endplate changes had incidences of 4.8%, 16%, and 4.8% respectively. The prevalence of retrolisthesis did not vary by sex, age, race, smoking status, or education level when compared to individuals with normal sagittal alignment. However, individuals with retrolisthesis were more likely to be receiving worker compensation than those without retrolisthesis. Increased age was found to be associated with individuals having vertebral endplate degenerative changes (both alone and in conjunction with retrolisthesis) and degenerative disc disease. Individuals who had retrolisthesis with concomitant vertebral endplate degenerative changes were more often smokers and had no insurance. The presence of retrolisthesis was not associated with an increased incidence of having degenerative disc disease, posterior degenerative changes, or vertebral endplate changes. No statistical significance was found between the presence of retrolisthesis on the degree of patient pre-operative low back pain and physical function. Patients with degenerative disc disease were found to have increased leg pain compared to those patients without degenerative disc changes. CONCLUSIONS We found no significant relationship between retrolisthesis in patients with L5-S1 disc herniation and worse baseline pain or function. It is possible that the contribution of pain or dysfunction related to retrolisthesis was far overshadowed by the presence of symptoms due to the concomitant disc herniation. It remains to be seen whether retrolisthesis will affect outcome following discectomy in these patients. PMID:17630138

  1. Brain herniation through an internal subdural membrane: a rare complication seen with chronic subdural hematomas in children. Case report.

    PubMed

    Acakpo-Satchivi, Leslie; Luerssen, Thomas G

    2007-12-01

    The authors report an unusual case of cortical herniation into a chronic subdural hematoma (SDH). The patient was successfully treated with good outcome. A 4-month-old boy with a history of macrocrania and very large bilateral chronic SDHs underwent subduroperitoneal shunt treatment shortly after presentation. Eight months later he developed a new-onset seizure disorder, which was localized by electroencephalography to the right frontal region. Neuroimaging demonstrated the development of a focal herniation of the brain through a subdural membrane into the subdural space. The patient underwent a craniotomy to resect the seizure focus and the herniated cortex. The subdural shunt was subsequently replaced. After 2 years of follow-up, the patient remains free of seizures, is on no medication regimen, and is neurologically and developmentally normal. To the authors' knowledge, this is only the fourth report in the medical literature of cortical herniation through a chronic subdural membrane and the first in which successful treatment with a good outcome is described. PMID:18154018

  2. Changes in the Cross-Sectional Area of Multifidus and Psoas in Unilateral Sciatica Caused by Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Wook Ha; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2011-01-01

    Objective To quantitatively evaluate the asymmetry of the multifidus and psoas muscles in unilateral sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Seventy-six patients who underwent open microdiscectomy for unilateral L5 radiculopathy caused by disc herniation at the L4-5 level were enrolled, of which 39 patients (51.3%) had a symptom duration of 1 month or less (group A), and 37 (48.7%) had a symptom duration of 3 months or more (group B). The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the multifidus and psoas muscles were measured at the mid-portion of the L4-5 disc level on axial MRI, and compared between the diseased and normal sides in each group. Results The mean symptom duration was 0.6±0.4 months and 5.4±2.7 months for groups A and B, respectively (p<0.001). There were no differences in the demographics between the 2 groups. There was a significant difference in the CSA of the multifidus muscle between the diseased and normal sides (p<0.01) in group B. In contrast, no significant multifidus muscle asymmetry was found in group A. The CSA of the psoas muscle was not affected by disc herniation in either group. Conclusion The CSA of the multifidus muscle was reduced by lumbar disc herniation when symptom duration was 3 months or more. PMID:22102949

  3. Nonmedical methods to relieve low back pain caused by lumbar disc herniation: a descriptive study in northeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cilingir, Dilek; Hintistan, Sevilay; Yigitbas, Cagla; Nural, Nesrin

    2014-06-01

    Low back pain due to the effects of lumbar disc herniation is a common complaint of patients who often subsequently seek help from medical professionals. It is also a significant health problem which is quite difficult to treat. This descriptive study was conducted to determine nonmedical methods used by patients with lumbar disc herniation to relieve low back pain; the patients' intensity of low back pain when they were admitted to the hospital was also explored. Ninety-two patients with lumbar disc herniation participated in this study, which was carried out at a university hospital in northeastern Turkey. Data were collected using a patient information form and the visual analog scale (VAS). When the patients were admitted to hospital, their mean VAS score was 6.56 ± 2.45. The study results showed that as a first choice nearly all of the patients (94.6%) with lumbar disc herniation preferred consulting with their physicians before to obtain relief for low back pain. However, in addition to seeing their physician, more than one-half of these patients (57.6%) also used nonmedical methods. The primary nonmedical methods were hot/cold compresses, wrapping various substances on the back, and herbal preparations. An increase in pain was noted by 17.0% of patients after using nonmedical methods. Findings indicated that more than two-thirds of patients experienced either no change or an increase in pain after using nonmedical methods to find relief. PMID:24882024

  4. Gastrocnemius muscle herniation as a rare differential diagnosis of ankle sprain: case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscle herniation of the leg is a rare clinical entity. Yet, knowing this condition is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. In the extremities, muscle herniation most commonly occurs as a result of an acquired fascial defect, often due to trauma. Different treatment options for symptomatic extremity muscle herniation in the extremities, including conservative treatment, fasciotomy and mesh repair have been described. Case presentation We present the case of a patient who presented with prolonged symptoms after an ankle sprain. The clinical picture showed a fascial insufficiency with muscle bulging under tension. Ultrasound and MRI imaging confirmed the diagnosis of muscle hernia of the medial gastrocnemius on the right leg. Conservative treatment did not lead to success. Therefore, the fascial defect was treated surgically by repairing the muscle herniation using a synthetic vicryl propylene patch. Conclusions Muscle hernias should be taken into consideration as a rare differential diagnosis whenever patients present with persisting pain or soft tissue swelling after ankle sprain. Diagnosis is mainly based on clinical aspect and physical examination, but can be confirmed by radiologic imaging techniques, including (dynamic) ultrasound and MRI. If conservative treatment fails, we recommend the closure with mesh patches for large fascial defects. PMID:22417228

  5. Evolution of the nucleus?

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Damien P; Gräf, Ralph; Field, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus represents a major evolutionary transition. As a consequence of separating translation from transcription many new functions arose, which likely contributed to the remarkable success of eukaryotic cells. Here we will consider what has recently emerged on the evolutionary histories of several key aspects of nuclear biology; the nuclear pore complex, the lamina, centrosomes and evidence for prokaryotic origins of relevant players. PMID:24508984

  6. Antinucleon-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical results on anti p-nucleus interactions are reviewed. We focus on determinations of the anti p optical potential from elastic scattering, the use of (anti p, anti p') inelastic scattering to reveal aspects of the spin-isospin dependence of N anti N amplitudes, and some puzzling features of (anti p, anti n) charge exchange reactions on nuclei. 47 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Treatment of contained lumbar disc herniations using radiofrequency assisted micro-tubular decompression and nucleotomy: four year prospective study results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with radiculopathy caused by contained disc herniations are less likely to have good outcomes following discectomy surgery than patients with disc herniations that are not contained. The author presents his 4-year results from a prospective trial regarding the efficacy and safety of a tubular transforaminal radiofrequency-assisted manual decompression and annulus modulation of contained disc herniations in 58 patients. Methods Fifty-eight patients with lumbar radiculopathy due to a contained disc herniation were enrolled in a prospective clinical study. Visual analog scores (VAS) for back pain and leg pain, quality of life assessment, Macnab criteria, and SF-12 were collected from patients before treatment, at 2-years and 4-years post-treatment. Results At 4 years, results were obtained from 47 (81%) of patients. Compared to mean pre- treatment assessments, mean 4-year VAS for back pain improved from 8.6 to 2.3 points, and mean VAS for leg pain improved from 7.8 to 2.3. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they were “satisfied” or “very satisifed” with their quality of life at 4-years as per SF-12. At 4 years, recurrence was noted in 3 (6.4%) of respondents and no complications were reported. Conclusions The 2-year and 4-year study results are nearly identical, suggesting durable benefit out to 4 years. These results also suggest that in carefully selected patients with sustained contained disc herniations who have failed conservative treatments, manual decompression combined with radiofrequency-assisted decompression and annulus modulation are very likely to have good outcomes 4 years post-treatment. PMID:25694932

  8. Enhancing tissue repair in annulus fibrosus defects of the intervertebral disc: analysis of a bio-integrative annulus implant in an in-vivo ovine model.

    PubMed

    Hegewald, Aldemar Andres; Medved, Fabian; Feng, Daxiong; Tsagogiorgas, Charalambos; Beierfuß, Anja; Schindler, Genevieve Ama Kyremaa; Trunk, Marcus; Kaps, Christian; Mern, Demissew Shenegelegn; Thomé, Claudius

    2015-04-01

    Annulus fibrosus repair techniques for the intervertebral disc (IVD) address the unsolved problem of reherniation after IVD herniation and might facilitate the development of nucleus pulposus replacement techniques for IVD diseases. This study investigates the suitability of a bio-integrative annulus implant.Standardized box defects were applied to the annulus L3/4 and L4/5 of 16 sheep, followed by randomized insertion of the textile polyglycolic acid/polyvinylidene fluoride annulus implant in one of the defects. Explantation was conducted after 2, 6 and 12 weeks, followed by provocative pressure testing and histological analysis. At 2 weeks' follow-up, all specimens of the control defect group demonstrated uncontained herniated nucleus pulposus tissue in the annulus defects. For the treated specimens, the annulus implant consistently provided an effective barrier for herniating nucleus pulposus tissue, with no implant dislocation at all time-points. After 2 weeks, a homogeneous cell infiltration of the annulus implant was observed, leading to a progressive directional matrix build-up. Repair tissue thickness was significantly stronger with the annulus implant at all follow-ups (p < 0.01). No pronounced foreign body reaction and no difference in the amount of supra-annular scar tissue over the defect sites were observed. The implantation procedure inflicted annulus damage adjacent to the defect. At later time-points, however, no difference in comparison with the control defect group was evident. The investigated biointegrative annulus implant showed promising results with regard to biointegration, enhancement of repair tissue and function as a mechanical barrier in an ovine model. PMID:24227682

  9. Strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions: Experimental summary

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, G.

    1989-02-01

    Rather than attempt to give a complete review of strangeness production in all kinds of experiments, I will dwell on the most interesting and promising aspects of the experimental results from nucleus-nucleus (A + A) experiments, using p + p//bar p/ + p and p + A//bar p/ + A data only as reference when needed. In this paper I will try: to identify the important features of the reaction mechanism; to understand the mechanisms; to learn about quark-gluon plasma formation by comparing nucleus-nucleus collisions with p-nucleus, /bar p/-nucleus, p + p and /bar p/ + p collisions; to see if there is any definite evidence yet supporting quark-gluon plasma formation; and to suggest further needs for experimental and theoretical study. 32 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution

    E-print Network

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2015-02-04

    The full relaxed-density potential between spherical nuclei is considered as a sum of the macroscopic and shell-correction contributions. The macroscopic part of the potential is related to a nucleus-nucleus potential obtained in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach with the Skyrme and Coulomb forces and the relaxed-density ansatz for evaluation of proton and neutron densities of interacting nuclei. A simple prescription for the shell-correction part of the total potential is discussed. The parameters of the shell-correction and macroscopic parts of the relaxed-density potential are found by fitting the empirical barrier heights of the 89 nucleus-nucleus systems as well as macroscopic potentials evaluated for 1485 nucleus-nucleus systems at 12 distances around touching points.

  11. Amniotic Sac Herniation Through a Prior Cornual Scar in The Third Trimester

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Antonio F.; Costantine, Maged M.; Saade, George; Makhlouf, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction?Uterine rupture occurs in less than 0.1% of pregnancies. This complication can be detrimental to mother and fetus if not detected and managed in a timely manner. We report an unusual presentation of uterine scar rupture that was diagnosed on ultrasound in a completely stable patient with reassuring fetal status. Case Report?A 24-year-old Gravida 5, Para 3 with history of cornual resection for ectopic pregnancy and two previous uterine ruptures presented at 30 weeks' gestation with worsening abdominal pain. Ultrasound identified herniation of the amniotic sac with fetal parts. The patient underwent cesarean delivery and cornual defect repair. Conclusion?Close observation and early delivery remain vital to the patient's management. PMID:26495171

  12. Mechanical response of the herniated human abdomen to the placement of different prostheses.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gascón, Belén; Peña, Estefanía; Grasa, Jorge; Pascual, Gemma; Bellón, Juan M; Calvo, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a method designed to model the repaired herniated human abdomen just after surgery and examine its static mechanical response to the maximum intra-abdominal pressure provoked by a physiological movement (standing cough). The model is based on the real geometry of the human abdomen bearing a large incisional hernia with several anatomical structures differentiated by MRI. To analyze the outcome of hernia repair, the surgical procedure was simulated by modeling a prosthesis placed over the hernia. Three surgical meshes with different mechanical properties were considered: an isotropic heavy-weight mesh (Surgipro®), a slightly anisotropic light-weight mesh (Optilene®), and a highly anisotropic medium-weight mesh (Infinit®). Our findings confirm that anisotropic implants need to be positioned such that the most compliant axis of the mesh coincides with the craneo-caudal direction of the body. PMID:24231960

  13. The Influence of Obesity on the Outcome of Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Rihn, Jeffrey A.; Kurd, Mark; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Lurie, Jon; Zhao, Wenyan; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James

    2013-01-01

    Background: Questions remain as to the effect that obesity has on patients managed for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. The purpose of this study was to determine if obesity affects outcomes following the treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Methods: An as-treated analysis was performed on patients enrolled in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. A comparison was made between patients with a body mass index of <30 kg/m2 (nonobese) (n = 854) and those with a body mass index of ?30 kg/m2 (obese) (n = 336). Baseline patient demographic and clinical characteristics were documented. Primary and secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and at regular follow-up time intervals up to four years. The difference in improvement from baseline between operative and nonoperative treatment was determined at each follow-up period for both groups. Results: At the time of the four-year follow-up evaluation, improvements over baseline in primary outcome measures were significantly less for obese patients as compared with nonobese patients in both the operative treatment group (Short Form-36 physical function, 37.3 compared with 47.7 points [p < 0.001], Short Form-36 bodily pain, 44.2 compared with 50.0 points [p = 0.005], and Oswestry Disability Index, ?33.7 compared with ?40.1 points [p < 0.001]) and the nonoperative treatment group (Short Form-36 physical function, 23.1 compared with 32.0 points [p < 0.001] and Oswestry Disability Index, ?21.4 compared with ?26.1 points [p < 0.001]). The one exception was that the change from baseline in terms of the Short Form-36 bodily pain score was statistically similar for obese and nonobese patients in the nonoperative treatment group (30.9 compared with 33.4 points [p = 0.39]). At the time of the four-year follow-up evaluation, when compared with nonobese patients who had been managed operatively, obese patients who had been managed operatively had significantly less improvement in the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index and the Low Back Pain Bothersomeness Index, but had no significant difference in patient satisfaction or self-rated improvement. In the present study, 77.5% of obese patients and 86.9% of nonobese patients who had been managed operatively were working a full or part-time job. No significant differences were observed in the secondary outcome measures between obese and nonobese patients who had been managed nonoperatively. The benefit of surgery over nonoperative treatment was not affected by body mass index. Conclusions: Obese patients realized less clinical benefit from both operative and nonoperative treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Surgery provided similar benefit over nonoperative treatment in obese and nonobese patients. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23192403

  14. Herniation of transverse colon into mediastinum after pedicled omental grafting for mediastinitis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Yamauchi, Akihiko; Shimabuku, Masamori; Higami, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    We describe a rare complication and the treating experience of it after pedicled omental grafting for mediastinitis. The patient was diagnosed as an acute mediastinitis soon after the total arch replacement was performed. A two-staged strategy to treat postoperative mediastinitis was scheduled, i.e., the setting up of a vacuum-assisted closure system until the improvement of inflammation followed by wound closure with pedicled omental grafting. The treatment for acute mediastinitis was successful and the patient followed a favorable postoperative course. During the follow-up, chest X-ray film suggested the gradual enlargement of mediastinum and CT showed the herniation of transverse colon into mediastinum. Surgical correction for the hernia was scheduled and performed successfully by the laparoscopic procedure to prevent a possible cardiac and pulmonary dysfunction. PMID:24091537

  15. Lumbar Disk Herniation in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): Does Educational Attainment Impact Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Patrick R.; Lurie, Jon D.; Frymoyer, John; Walsh, Thomas; Zhao, Wenyan; Abdu, William A.; Weinstein, James N.

    2011-01-01

    Study Design Randomized trial with concurrent observational cohort. 1171 patients were divided into subgroups by educational attainment: high school or less, some college, and college degree or above. Objective To assess the influence of education level on outcomes for treatment of lumbar disk herniation. Summary of Background Data Educational attainment has been demonstrated to have an inverse relationship with pain perception, co-morbidities, and mortality. Methods The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial enrolled surgical candidates (imaging-confirmed disk herniation with at least 6 weeks of persistent signs and symptoms of radiculopathy) from 13 multidisciplinary spine clinics in 11 US states. Treatments were standard open diskectomy vs. non-operative treatment. Outcomes were changes from baseline for SF-36 bodily pain (BP) and physical function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly through 4 years. Results Substantial improvement was seen in all patient cohorts. Surgical outcomes did not differ by level of education. For non-operative outcomes, however, higher levels of education were associated with significantly greater overall improvement over 4 years in BP (p=0.007), PF (p=0.001) and ODI (p=0.003). At 4 years a “dose-response” type relationship was shown for BP (high school or less 25.5; some college 31; college graduate or above 36.3; p= 0.004); results were similar for PF and ODI. The success of non-operative treatment in the more educated cohort resulted in an attenuation of the relative benefit of surgery. Conclusions Patients with higher educational attainment demonstrated significantly greater improvement with non-operative treatment while educational attainment was not associated with surgical outcomes. PMID:21311402

  16. SPORT: Do outcomes vary across centers for surgery for lumbar disc herniation?

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Atman; Bekelis, Kimon; Ball, Perry A.; Lurie, Jon; Mirza, Sohail K.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Weinstein, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lumbar discectomy is the most common procedure performed in spine surgery. Different centers performing this procedure may have different outcomes. Objective To determine whether the choice of academic spine center in which surgery is performed affects outcome after lumbar discectomy. Methods Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) cohort participants with a confirmed diagnosis of intervertebral disc herniation (IDH) undergoing standard first-time open discectomy were followed from baseline at 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 12 months and yearly thereafter, at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Patient data were retrospectively reviewed. As of August 2009, the mean (SD) follow-up among all analyzed IDH patients was 41.3 (14.6) months. The median (range) follow-up time among all analyzed IDH patients was 47.4 (1.3, 95.3) months. Enrollment began in March 2000 and ended in November 2004. Results 792 patients underwent first-time lumbar discectomy. Significant differences were found amongst centers with regard to patient age and race, and in baseline levels of disability and treatment preferences. There were no significant differences among the study centers in other patient characteristics (e.g., sex, body mass index, the prevalence of smoking, diabetes or hypertension), or disease characteristics (herniation level or type). Some short-term outcomes varied significantly among centers, including operative duration and blood loss, the incidence of durotomy and the length of hospital stay. Unadjusted reoperation rates also varied across centers. There were no differences among the various centers in incidence of nerve root injury, post-operative mortality, SF-36 scores of body pain or physical function, or Oswestry Disability Index at 4 years. Conclusions Although mean operative blood loss, risk of durotomy and length of hospital stay vary across academic centers performing lumbar discectomy, there appears to be no difference in long-term functional outcomes. The role of different reoperation rates in producing similar outcomes remains unclear. PMID:22791040

  17. Nucleus from String Theory

    E-print Network

    Koji Hashimoto; Takeshi Morita

    2011-05-24

    In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass number (A) dependence r A^{1/3} for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multi-baryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1) x A^{1/3} [fm], which is consistent with experiments.

  18. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  19. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  20. Higgs-boson production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    Cross-section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two-photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two-photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  1. Networking the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Indika; Scalzo, David; Tapscott, Stephen J; Kosak, Steven T; Groudine, Mark

    2010-07-01

    The nuclei of differentiating cells exhibit several fundamental principles of self-organization. They are composed of many dynamical units connected physically and functionally to each other--a complex network--and the different parts of the system are mutually adapted and produce a characteristic end state. A unique cell-specific signature emerges over time from complex interactions among constituent elements that delineate coordinate gene expression and chromosome topology. Each element itself consists of many interacting components, all dynamical in nature. Self-organizing systems can be simplified while retaining complex information using approaches that examine the relationship between elements, such as spatial relationships and transcriptional information. These relationships can be represented using well-defined networks. We hypothesize that during the process of differentiation, networks within the cell nucleus rewire according to simple rules, from which a higher level of order emerges. Studying the interaction within and among networks provides a useful framework for investigating the complex organization and dynamic function of the nucleus. PMID:20664641

  2. Topics on Hydrodynamic Model of Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    Y. Hama; T. Kodama; O. Socolowski Jr

    2013-03-10

    A survey is given on the applications of hydrodynamic model of nucleus-nucleus collisons, focusing especially on i) the resolution of hydrodynamic equations for arbitrary configurations, by using the smoothed-particle hydrodynamic approach; ii) effects of the event-by-event fluctuation of the initial conditions on the observables; iii) decoupling criteria; iv) analytical solutions; and others.

  3. Classical initial conditions in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Yacine Mehtar-Tani

    2008-11-11

    An iterative proceedure is proposed to compute the classical gauge field produced in the collision of two heavy nuclei at high energy. The leading order is obtained by linearizing the Yang-Mills equations in the light-cone gauge, and provides a simple formula for gluon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions. At this order $k_t-$factorization breaks down.

  4. Meson multiplicity versus energy in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwater, T. W.; Freier, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic study of meson multiplicity as a function of energy at energies up to 100 GeV/u in nucleus-nucleus collisions has been made, using cosmic-ray data in nuclear emulsion. The data are consistent with simple nucleon-nucleon superposition models. Multiplicity per interacting nucleon in AA collisions does not appear to differ significantly from pp collisions.

  5. One stage laminoplasty and posterior herniotomy for the treatment of myelopathy caused by cervical stenosis with cervical disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Bin; Chen, Bohua; Ma, Xue-Xiao; Xi, Yong-Ming; Xiang, Hong-Fei; Hu, You-Gu; Zhang, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to introduce a method of one stage laminoplasty and posterior herniotomy for myelopathy caused by cervical stenosis with cervical disc herniation and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of this surgery. From 1999 to 2008, 18 patients with myelopathy caused by cervical stenosis with cervical disc herniation who underwent this procedure were included. The average age was 63 years (range 48-74 years), and the average follow-up period was 46 months (range 3-108 months). Neurologic status was evaluated using the JOA scoring system. Neurological symptoms improvement was seen in all patients after surgery. The average JOA score was 14.22±1.86 by final follow-up, which was higher than preoperative values (P<0.01), and the average improvement in neurological function was 76.63%. Neurologic examination showed that excellent results had been obtained by 10 patients, good results by 8 patients, with no fair or poor results. 2 patients developed cerebrospinal fluid leakage after surgery and recovered during the follow-up period. One patient with cervical disc herniation developed postoperative C5 palsy on the axle side on the third day after surgery. She completely recovered by 1 month after surgery. No other patients experienced postoperative neurologic complications. Complete anterior and posterior decompression of the spinal cord was achieved after surgery. We concluded that one stage laminoplasty and posterior herniotomy is an effective, reliable, and safe procedure for the treatment of myelopathy caused by cervical stenosis with cervical disc herniation. PMID:26309625

  6. Cervical myelopathy due to single level disc herniation presenting as intramedullary mass lesion: What to do first?

    PubMed

    Ek?i, Murat ?akir; Özcan Ek?i, Emel Ece; Y?lmaz, Baran; Tokta?, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy (CM) is mostly a degenerative process ending in myelopathic and/or radiculopathic syndromes. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CM appears as a hyperintense area near the spondylotic spine. This high intensity signal depends on the impact of outer forces and their duration. It also determines the prognosis of the surgical candidate. A 40-year-old male patient admitted to our clinic with right upper extremity weakness and hypoesthesia that had started 2 months earlier. On neurological examination there was 2/5 motor weakness of right biceps brachii, and hypoesthesia over right C6 dermatome. Right upper extremity deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive, but lower ones were hyperactive. After clinical and radiological work-up, preliminary diagnosis was directed to a spinal intramedullary tumor. Total resection of the herniated cervical disc fragment and the mass lesion was managed. Pathology of the mass lesion was compatible with subacute infarct tissue and inflammatory response. Final diagnosis was CM under effect of cervical disc herniation. Contrast-enhanced spinal cord myelopathic lesions are very rare and resemble much more tumors and inflammatory processes. However, the principal treatment approach totally differs depending on pathology. When there are both a disc herniation and a high clinical suspicion; biopsy should be delayed. The most probable solution will be surgery for the disc disease with thorough preoperative scanning of vascular malformations; clinical and radiological close follow-up after surgery. Biopsy or surgical resection can be performed if patient deteriorates despite the primary surgery. PMID:25972718

  7. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for a huge herniated disc causing acute cauda equina syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jha, Subash C; Tonogai, Ichiro; Takata, Yoichiro; Sakai, Toshinori; Higashino, Kosaku; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Goda, Yuichiro; Abe, Mitsunobu; Mineta, Kazuaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Nitta, Akihiro; Hama, Shingo; Higuchi, Tadahiro; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Microsurgery for lumbar disc herniation that requires surgical intervention has been well described. The methods vary from traditional open discectomy to minimally invasive techniques. All need adequate preanesthetic preparation of patients as general anesthesia is required for the procedure, and nerve monitoring is necessary to prevent iatrogenic nerve injury. Conventional surgical techniques sometimes require the removal of the corresponding lamina to assess the nerve root and herniated disc, and this may increase the risk for posterior instability of the vertebral body. Should this occur, fusion surgery may be needed, further increasing morbidity and cost. We present here a case of lumbar herniated disc fragments causing acute cauda equina syndrome that were endoscopically resected through a transforaminal approach in an awake patient under local anesthesia. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy under local anesthesia proved to be a better alternative to open back surgery as it made immediate intervention possible, was associated with fewer perioperative complications and morbidity, minimized soft tissue damage, and allowed early rehabilitation with a better outcome and greater patient satisfaction. In addition to these advantages, percutaneous endoscopic discectomy protects other approaches that may be needed in subsequent surgeries, whether open or minimally invasive. PMID:25817294

  8. Comparison of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Open Lumbar Surgery for Adjacent Segment Degeneration and Recurrent Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Hsun; Wei, Li; Lui, Tai-Ngar; Lin, Tien-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goal of the present study was to examine the clinical results of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and open lumbar surgery for patients with adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) and recurrence of disc herniation. Methods. From December 2011 to November 2013, we collected forty-three patients who underwent repeated lumbar surgery. These patients, either received PELD (18 patients) or repeated open lumbar surgery (25 patients), due to ASD or recurrence of disc herniation at L3-4, L4-5, or L5-S1 level, were assigned to different groups according to the surgical approaches. Clinical data were assessed and compared. Results. Mean blood loss was significantly less in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Hospital stay and mean operating time were shorter significantly in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Immediate postoperative pain improvement in VAS was 3.5 in the PELD group and ?0.56 in the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. For ASD and recurrent lumbar disc herniation, PELD had more advantages over open lumbar surgery in terms of reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, operating time, fewer complications, and less postoperative discomfort. PMID:25861474

  9. Prognostic factors for non-success in patients with sciatica and disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated prognostic factors for patients with sciatica, especially for patients treated without surgery. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with non-success after 1 and 2?years of follow-up and to test the prognostic value of surgical treatment for sciatica. Methods The study was a prospective multicentre observational study including 466 patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation. Potential prognostic factors were sociodemographic characteristics, back pain history, kinesiophobia, emotional distress, pain, comorbidity and clinical examination findings. Study participation did not alter treatment considerations for the patients in the clinics. Patients reported on the questionnaires if surgery of the disc herniation had been performed. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate factors associated with non-success, defined as Maine–Seattle Back Questionnaire score of ?5 (0–12) (primary outcome) and Sciatica Bothersomeness Index ?7 (0–24) (secondary outcome). Results Rates of non-success were at 1 and 2?years 44% and 39% for the main outcome and 47% and 42% for the secondary outcome. Approximately 1/3 of the patients were treated surgically. For the main outcome variable, in the final multivariate model non-success at 1?year was significantly associated with being male (OR 1.70 [95% CI; 1.06???2.73]), smoker (2.06 [1.31???3.25]), more back pain (1.0 [1.01???1.02]), more comorbid subjective health complaints (1.09 [1.03???1.15]), reduced tendon reflex (1.62 [1.03???2.56]), and not treated surgically (2.97 [1.75???5.04]). Further, factors significantly associated with non-success at 2?years were duration of back problems?>;?1?year (1.92 [1.11???3.32]), duration of sciatica?>;?3?months (2.30 [1.40???3.80]), more comorbid subjective health complaints (1.10 [1.03???1.17]) and kinesiophobia (1.04 [1.00???1.08]). For the secondary outcome variable, in the final multivariate model, more comorbid subjective health complaints, more back pain, muscular weakness at clinical examination, and not treated surgically, were independent prognostic factors for non-success at both 1 and 2?years. Conclusions The results indicate that the prognosis for sciatica referred to secondary care is not that good and only slightly better after surgery and that comorbidity should be assessed in patients with sciatica. This calls for a broader assessment of patients with sciatica than the traditional clinical assessment in which mainly the physical symptoms and signs are investigated. PMID:22999108

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Predictors of Surgical Outcome in Patients with Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Moses, Rachel A.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Carragee, Eugene J.; Carrino, John A.; Kaiser, Jay A.; Herzog, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective cohort design Objective To determine if baseline MRI findings including central/foraminal stenosis, Modic change, disc morphology, facet arthropathy, disc degeneration, nerve root impingement, and thecal sac compression are associated with differential surgical treatment effect. Summary of Background Data Intervertebral Disc Herniation (IDH)remains the most common source of lumbar radiculopathy treated either with discectomy or non-operative intervention. Although MRI remains the reliable gold standard for diagnosis, uncertainty surrounds the relationship between MRI findings and treatment outcomes. Methods Three-hundred-and-seven “complete” images from patients enrolled in a previous trial were de-identified and evaluated by one of 4 independent readers. Findings were compared to outcome measures including the Oswestry Disability Index. Differences in surgery and non-operative treatment outcomes were evaluated between image characteristic subgroups and TE determined by the difference in ODI scores. Results The cohort was comprised of 40% females with an average age of 41.5 (±11.6), 61% of which underwent discectomy for IDH. Patients undergoing surgery with Modic type I endplate changes had worse outcomes (?26.4 versus ?39.7 for none and ?39.2 for type 2, p=0.002) and smaller treatment effect (?3.5 versus ?19.3 for none and ?15.7 for type 2, p=0.003). Those with compression >=1/3 showed the greatest improvement within the surgical group (?41.9 for >=1/3 versus ?31.6 for none and ?38.1 for <1/3,p=0.007), and the highest TE (?23 compared to ?11.7 for none and ?15.2 for <1/3, p=0.015). Furthermore, patients with minimal nerve root impingement demonstrated worse surgical outcomes(?26.5 versus ?41.1 for “displaced” and ?38.9 for “compressed”, p=0.016). Conclusion Among patients with IDH, those with thecal sac compression >=1/3 had greater surgical treatment effect than those with small disc herniations and Modic type I changes. Additionally, patients with nerve root “compression” and “displacement” benefit more from surgery than those with minimal nerve-root impingement. PMID:23429684

  11. Assessing the Risk of Disc Heniation Related to Landing Impact Following Long-duration Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somers, J. T.; Newby, N..; Wells, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that crewmembers returning on the Space Shuttle have an increased incidence of herniated nucleus pulposus after spaceflight. This increased risk is thought to be related to disc volume expansion due to unloading and prolonged exposure to microgravity. Although there is an increased risk of disc herniation in Space Shuttle astronauts, it is unknown if dynamic landing loads further contribute to the risk of herniation. To determine if dynamic loads increase the risk of incidence, data from crewmembers (excluding cosmonauts) returning on the Soyuz spacecraft will be compared to Space Shuttle astronauts. These data will be obtained from the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Project at NASA. Severity and incidence after spaceflight will be mined from the data, and statistical analyses will be used to determine if Soyuz crewmembers have a higher incidence of disc herniation than Space Shuttle crewmembers. The results are expected to show no difference between Space Shuttle and Soyuz crewmembers, indicating that higher dynamic loads on landing and long-duration spaceflight do not significantly increase the risk of disc herniation. If no difference is shown between the two crewmember populations, then disc volume expansion due to microgravity does not significantly increase the risk of injury due to dynamic loads for deconditioned crewmembers. Any risk associated with deconditioning would be primarily due to bone structure changes and resulting bone strength changes. This study is an important first step in determining whether the spinal disc plays a role in injury due to dynamic loads.

  12. Nucleus Accumbens Facilitates Nociception

    PubMed Central

    Gear, Robert W.; Levine, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated an opioid link in nucleus accumbens (NAc) that mediates antinociception produced by a novel ascending pain modulation pathway. For example, noxious stimulation induces heterosegmental antinociception that is mediated by both mu- and delta-opioid receptors in NAc. However, spinal intrathecal administration of the mu-receptor agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) also induces heterosegmental antinociception. The aim of the present study in the rat was to identify the intra-NAc opioid receptors that mediate the antinociceptive effects of spinally administered DAMGO and also to determine the effect of NAc efferent activity on nociception. Intra-NAc administration of either the mu-opioid receptor antagonist Cys2,Tyr3, Orn5,Pen7amide (CTOP) or the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole blocked the antinociceptive effect of spinally administered DAMGO on the jaw-opening reflex (JOR). Injection of quaternary lidocaine (QX-314) attenuated the JOR, suggesting that the output of NAc is pronociceptive. In support of this, intra-NAc injection of the excitatory amino acid agonist kainate enhanced the JOR. Thus, it is possible to modulate activity in NAc to bidirectionally attenuate or enhance nociception, suggesting a potential role for NAc in setting nociceptive sensitivity. PMID:21458450

  13. The Budding Yeast Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Schober, Heiko; Gasser, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The budding yeast nucleus, like those of other eukaryotic species, is highly organized with respect to both chromosomal sequences and enzymatic activities. At the nuclear periphery interactions of nuclear pores with chromatin, mRNA, and transport factors promote efficient gene expression, whereas centromeres, telomeres, and silent chromatin are clustered and anchored away from pores. Internal nuclear organization appears to be function-dependent, reflecting localized sites for tRNA transcription, rDNA transcription, ribosome assembly, and DNA repair. Recent advances have identified new proteins involved in the positioning of chromatin and have allowed testing of the functional role of higher-order chromatin organization. The unequal distribution of silent information regulatory factors and histone modifying enzymes, which arises in part from the juxtaposition of telomeric repeats, has been shown to influence chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Other localization events suppress unwanted recombination. These findings highlight the contribution budding yeast genetics and cytology have made to dissecting the functional role of nuclear structure. PMID:20554704

  14. Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential and incompressibility of nuclear matter

    E-print Network

    V. Zanganeh; N. Wang; O. N. Ghodsi

    2012-03-01

    The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for some fusion reactions are investigated by using the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model with different sets of parameters in which the corresponding incompressibility coefficient of nuclear matter is different. Two new sets of parameters SKP* and IQ3 for the ImQMD model are proposed with the incompressibility coefficient of 195 and 225 MeV, respectively. The measured fusion excitation function for 16O+208Pb and the charge distribution of fragments for Ca+Ca and Au+Au in multi-fragmentation process can be reasonably well reproduced. Simultaneously, the influence of the nuclear matter incompressibility and the range of nucleon-nucleon interaction on the nucleus-nucleus dynamic potential is investigated.

  15. Preoperative predictors for the return to work of herniated disc patients.

    PubMed

    Kitze, K; Winkler, D; Günther, L; Angermeyer, M C

    2008-02-01

    This study assessed socio-demographic, physical, psychological, and work-related factors predicting the ability to work 6 months after operation in disc herniation patients. After nucleotomy 214 patients answered questionnaires on job satisfaction, their desire for a disability pension, preoperative sick leave, and completed the QLQ-C30, and SCL-27A questionnaires. Additionally, data on the severity of injury and duration of pain were extracted from the clinical reports. 182 patients answered the follow-up questionnaire 6 months after operation by telephone. Socio-demgraphic and psychological factors did not influence the return to work. Factors found to be related to the ability to work were job satisfaction, preoperative sick leave, pain, and the desire for a disability pension. Using multiple regression analysis, the ability to work 6 months after rehabilitation was predicted on the basis of job satisfaction, a preoperative sick leave of less than 6 weeks, and a low pain intensity preoperatively. The results are discussed with respect to their socioeconomic implications. PMID:18393159

  16. Brain herniation induced by drainage of subdural hematoma in spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    PubMed Central

    Chotai, Silky; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Joo-Han; Kwon, Taek-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH), typically presents with orthostatic headache, low pressure on lumbar tapping, and diffuse pachymeningeal enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. SIH is often accompanied by subdural fluid collections, which in most cases responds to conservative treatment or spinal epidural blood patch. Several authors advocate that large subdural hematoma with acute deterioration merits surgical drainage; however, few have reported complications following craniotomy. We describe a complicated case of SIH, which was initially diagnosed as acute subarachnoid hemorrhage with bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (SDH), due to unusual presentation. Burr hole drainage of subdural hematoma was performed due to progressive decrease of consciousness, which then resulted in a huge postoperative epidural hematoma collection. Prompt hematoma evacuation did not restore the patient's consciousness but aggravated downward brain herniation. Trendelenburg position and spinal epidural blood patch achieved a rapid improvement in patient's consciousness. This case indicates that the surgical drainage for chronic SDH in SIH can lead to serious complications and it should be cautiously considered. PMID:24049555

  17. Mechanical behaviour of synthetic surgical meshes: finite element simulation of the herniated abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gascón, B; Peña, E; Melero, H; Pascual, G; Doblaré, M; Ginebra, M P; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B

    2011-11-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia surgery contribute to the overall mechanical behaviour of the repaired abdominal wall. The mechanical response of a surgical mesh has to be defined since the haphazard orientation of an anisotropic mesh can lead to inconsistent surgical outcomes. This study was designed to characterize the mechanical behaviour of three surgical meshes (Surgipro®, Optilene® and Infinit®) and to describe a mechanical constitutive law that accurately reproduces the experimental results. Finally, through finite element simulation, the behaviour of the abdominal wall was modelled before and after surgical mesh implant. Uniaxial loading of mesh samples in two perpendicular directions revealed the isotropic response of Surgipro® and the anisotropic behaviour of Optilene® and Infinit®. A phenomenological constitutive law was used to reproduce the measured experimental curves. To analyze the mechanical effect of the meshes once implanted in the abdomen, finite element simulation of the healthy and partially herniated repaired rabbit abdominal wall served to reproduce wall behaviour before and after mesh implant. In all cases, maximal displacements were lower and maximal principal stresses higher in the implanted abdomen than the intact wall model. Despite the fact that no mesh showed a behaviour that perfectly matched that of abdominal muscle, the Infinit® mesh was able to best comply with the biomechanics of the abdominal wall. PMID:21763794

  18. Estimates of success in patients with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation depend upon outcome measure.

    PubMed

    Haugen, Anne Julsrud; Grøvle, Lars; Brox, Jens Ivar; Natvig, Bård; Keller, Anne; Soldal, Dag; Grotle, Margreth

    2011-10-01

    The objectives were to estimate the cut-off points for success on different sciatica outcome measures and to determine the success rate after an episode of sciatica by using these cut-offs. A 12-month multicenter observational study was conducted on 466 patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation. The cut-off values were estimated by ROC curve analyses using Completely recovered or Much better on a 7-point global change scale as external criterion for success. The cut-off values (references in brackets) at 12 months were leg pain VAS 17.5 (0-100), back pain VAS 22.5 (0-100), Sciatica Bothersomeness Index 6.5 (0-24), Maine-Seattle Back Questionnaire 4.5 (0-12), and the SF-36 subscales bodily pain 51.5, and physical functioning 81.7 (0-100, higher values indicate better health). In conclusion, the success rates at 12 months varied from 49 to 58% depending on the measure used. The proposed cut-offs may facilitate the comparison of success rates across studies. PMID:21516463

  19. Sensitivity of Cross Sections for Elastic Nucleus-Nucleus Scattering to Halo Nucleus Density Distributions

    E-print Network

    G. D. Alkhazov; V. V. Sarantsev

    2011-07-04

    In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus-nucleus scattering to the nuclear matter distributions of exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated differential cross sections for elastic scattering of the $^6$He and $^{11}$Li nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon with different assumed nuclear density distributions in $^6$He and $^{11}$Li.

  20. Sensitivity of cross sections for elastic nucleus-nucleus scattering to halo nucleus density distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhazov, G. D.; Sarantsev, V. V.

    2012-12-15

    In order to clear up the sensitivity of the nucleus-nucleus scattering to the nuclear matter distributions in exotic halo nuclei, we have calculated differential cross sections for elastic scattering of the {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li nuclei on several nuclear targets at the energy of 0.8 GeV/nucleon with different assumed nuclear density distributions in {sup 6}He and {sup 11}Li.

  1. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji Sook; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. Results The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Conclusion Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI. PMID:26175589

  2. Cost-effectiveness of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: a prospective randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN51857546

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Mark P; Peul, Wilco C; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Thomeer, Ralph TWM

    2006-01-01

    Background Open discectomy is the standard surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with long-lasting sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation. Minimally invasive approaches such as microendoscopic discectomy have gained attention in recent years. Reduced tissue trauma allows early ambulation, short hospital stay and quick resumption of daily activities. A comparative cost-effectiveness study has not been performed yet. We present the design of a randomised controlled trial on cost-effectiveness of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy in patients with lumbar disc herniation. Methods/Design Patients (age 18–70 years) presenting with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation lasting more than 6–8 weeks are included. Patients with disc herniation larger than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter, or disc herniation less than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter with concomitant lateral recess stenosis or sequestration, are eliglible for participation. Randomisation into microendoscopic discectomy or conventional unilateral transflaval discectomy will take place in the operating room after induction of anesthesia. The length of skin incision is equal in both groups. The primary outcome measure is the functional assessment of the patient, measured by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica, at 8 weeks and 1 year after surgery. We will also evaluate several other outcome parameters, including perceived recovery, leg and back pain, incidence of re-operations, complications, serum creatine kinase, quality of life, medical consumption, absenteeism and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multi-institutional trial, in which two surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses are kept blinded of the allocated treatment during the follow-up period of 2 years. Discussion Currently, open discectomy is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Whether microendoscopic discectomy is more cost-effective than unilateral transflaval discectomy has to be determined by this trial. PMID:16696861

  3. Effectiveness of heat-sensitive moxibustion in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lumbar disc herniation is a common and costly problem. Moxibustion is employed to relieve symptoms and might therefore act as a therapeutic alternative. Many studies have already reported encouraging results in heat-sensitive moxibustion for lumbar disc herniation. Hence, we designed a randomized controlled clinical trial to investigate the effectiveness of heat-sensitive moxibustion compared with conventional moxibustion. Methods This trial is a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. The 316 eligible patients are randomly allocated to two different groups. The experimental group is treated with heat-sensitive moxibustion (n = 158); while the control group (n = 158) is treated with conventional moxibustion. The moxibustion locations are different for the groups. The experimental group selects heat-sensitization acupoints from the region which consists of bilateral Da Changshu (BL25) and Yao Shu (Du2). Meanwhile, fixed acupoints are used in control group; patients in both groups receive 18 sessions in 2 weeks. Discussion The study design guarantees a high internal validity for the results. It is one large-scale randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of heat-sensitive moxibustion compared to conventional moxibustion and may provide evidence for this therapy as a treatment for moderate and severe lumbar disc herniation. Moreover, the result may uncover the inherent laws to improve the therapeutic effect with suspended moxibustion. Trial Registration The trial is registered at Chinese Clinical Trials Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-09000604. The application date was 27 November 2009. The first patient was randomized on the 16 June 2011. PMID:21995679

  4. Safety of carboxymethylcellulose/polyethylene oxide for the prevention of adhesions in lumbar disc herniation – consecutive case series review

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidural fibrosis is regarded as a cause of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) when excessive adhesional/fibrotic scar tissue causes compression, pain or discomfort by tethering of nerve tissue to the surrounding muscle or bone. Fibrosis inhibitors could therefore increase the success rate of spinal surgery and decrease the need for reoperations. In recent years, bio-resorbable gels or films for the prevention of peridural fibrosis and post-operative adhesions have been developed that look clinically promising. This included a 100% synthetic, sterile, absorbable gel combinations of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) used to coat the dura to reduce scarring after discectomy which became available in Europe in 2002. However, given the burden of the problem and unfavorable experience with other types of adhesion-reduction agents, our unit decided to evaluate the safety of CMC/PEO in a large population of patients undergoing spinal microdiscectomy for herniation. Methods To determine the safety and assess efficacy of carboxymethylcellulose/polyethylene oxide (CMC/PEO) gel as an anti-adhesion gel, a consecutive series of 396 patients undergoing lumbar discectomy performed by one surgeon had CMC/PEO gel administered at the end of surgery. The patients were followed up in accordance with standard clinical practice and records reviewed for side effects, such as skin reactions, general reactions or local fluid collections. Reoperations for recurrent herniation included an evaluation of fibrosis reduction. Results No product related complications were observed. Five patients needed reoperations for recurrent herniation. Significant but subjective reduction in fibrosis was observed in these patients. Conclusion The findings provide confidence that CMC/PEO gel is well tolerated as an agent to achieve reduction of fibrosis in lumbar disc surgery. Further formal prospective study is recommended in this area of unmet need. PMID:18513413

  5. BNL-65424-AB LIQUID TO LIQUID AND CRITICAL NUCLEUS TO CRITICAL NUCLEUS PHASE

    E-print Network

    BNL-65424-AB LIQUID TO LIQUID AND CRITICAL NUCLEUS TO CRITICAL NUCLEUS PHASE TRANSITIONS IN SUPER AND CRITICAL NUCLEUS TO CRITICAL NUCLEUS PHASE TRANSITIONS IN SUPER-COOLED DROPLETS Dan Imre, Robert Mc 11973 Key words: Ammonium sulfate; single particle; phase transitions; critical nucleus I. LIQUID

  6. Mini-open transthoracic approach for resection of a calcified herniated thoracic disc and repair of the dural surface with fibrin glue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Murakami, Hideki; Demura, Satoru; Kato, Satoshi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    This study reports a case of severe anterior compression of the spinal cord by a calcified herniated thoracic disc at the T9/10 level in a 46-year-old woman. She underwent resection of the calcified herniated thoracic disc and the integrated dura, using a microscopically assisted mini-open transthoracic approach. The remaining dura mater was shaped and repaired by alternate overlapping without suture. The dural surface was reinforced with a combination of fibrin glue and a polyglycolic acid sheet. This novel procedure prevented postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The patient made an excellent recovery, without any complications. PMID:26321561

  7. A comparison of angled sagittal MRI and conventional MRI in the diagnosis of herniated disc and stenosis in the cervical foramen

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyun; Choi, Jin Wook; Lee, Dong Chan; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Keon; Hwang, Jang Hoe

    2009-01-01

    The object of this study is to demonstrate that angled sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables the precise diagnosis of herniated disc and stenosis in the cervical foramen, which is not available with conventional MRI. Due to both the anatomic features of the cervical foramen and the limitations of conventional MR techniques, it has been difficult to identify disease in the lateral aspects of the spinal canal and foramen using only conventional MRI. Angled sagittal MRI oriented perpendicular to the true course of the foramina facilitates the identification of the lateral disease. A review of 43 patients, who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion, is presented with a herniated disc and/or stenosis in the cervical foramen. They all had undergone conventional MRI and angled sagittal MRI. Fifty levels were surgically explored for evidence of foraminal herniated disc and stenosis. The results of each test were correlated with what was found at each explored surgical level. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of both examinations for making the diagnosis of foraminal herniated disc and stenosis were compared. During the diagnosis of foraminal herniated disc, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of angled sagittal MRI were 96.7, 95.0, and 96.0%, respectively, compared with 56.7, 85.0, and 68.0% for conventional MRI. In making the diagnosis of foraminal stenosis, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of angled sagittal MRI were 96.3, 95.7, and 96.0%, respectively, compared with 40.7, 91.3, and 66.0% for conventional MRI. In the above groups, the difference between the tests for making the diagnosis of both foraminal herniated disc and stenosis was found to be statistically significant in sensitivity and accuracy. Angled sagittal MRI was a more accurate test compared to conventional MRI for making the diagnosis of herniated disc and stenosis in the cervical foramen. It can be utilized for the precise diagnosis of foraminal herniated disc and stenosis difficult or ambiguous in conventional MRI. PMID:19294432

  8. Spinal cord herniation after multilevel anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun-Hong; Jung, Byung-Joo; Jang, Jee-Soo; Kim, Seok-Kang; Jung, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2009-03-01

    The authors report the case of a 52-year-old man who had undergone resection of an ossified posterior longitudinal ligament via the anterior approach. The patient experienced postoperative neurological deterioration that may have been caused by a massive cord herniation associated with a dural defect at the corpectomy site. Spinal cord herniation may develop as a complication of anterior cervical decompression. Surgeons should be alert to this condition when planning to treat cervical ossification of the ossified posterior longitudinal ligament via the anterior approach. PMID:19320584

  9. Prognostic Factors for Postsurgical Recovery of Deltoid Palsy due to Cervical Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae-Yoon; Chang, Han; Song, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Hong, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Jung Sub; Lee, Sang-Hun; Song, Kwang-Sup; Yang, Jae Jun; Uh, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Young-Tae; Lee, Jae Min

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective multicenter study. Purpose We aimed to investigate prognostic factors affecting postsurgical recovery of deltoid palsy due to cervical disc herniation (CDH). Overview of Literature Little information is available about prognostic factors affecting postsurgical recovery of deltoid palsy due to CDH. Methods Sixty-one patients with CDH causing deltoid palsy (less than grade 3) were included in this study: 35 soft discs and 26 hard discs. Average duration of preoperative deltoid palsy was 11.9 weeks. Thirty-two patients underwent single-level surgery, 22 two-level, four three-level, and three four-level. Patients with accompanying myelopathy, shoulder diseases, or peripheral neuropathy were excluded from the study. Results Deltoid palsy (2.4 grades vs. 4.5 grades, p<0.001) and radiculopathy (6.4 points vs. 2.1 points, p<0.001) significantly improved after surgery. Thirty-six of 61 patients (59%) achieved full recovery (grade 5) of deltoid palsy, with an average time of 8.4 weeks. Longer duration of preoperative deltoid palsy and more severe radiculopathy negatively affected the degree of improvement in deltoid palsy. Age, gender, number of surgery level, and disc type did not affect the degree of improvement of deltoid palsy. Contrary to our expectations, severity of preoperative deltoid palsy did not affect the degree of improvement. Due to the shorter duration of preoperative deltoid palsy, in the context of rapid referral, early surgical decompression resulted in significant recovery of more severe grades (grade 0 or 1) of deltoid palsy compared to grade 2 or 3 deltoid palsy. Conclusions Early surgical decompression significantly improved deltoid palsy caused by CDH, irrespective of age, gender, number of surgery level, and disc type. However, longer duration of deltoid palsy and more severe intensity of preoperative radiating pain were associated with less improvement of deltoid palsy postoperatively. PMID:26435786

  10. Outcome of surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation in young individuals.

    PubMed

    Strömqvist, F; Strömqvist, B; Jönsson, B; Gerdhem, P; Karlsson, M K

    2015-12-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is uncommon in youth and few cases are treated surgically. Very few outcome studies exist for LDH surgery in this age group. Our aim was to explore differences in gender in pre-operative level of disability and outcome of surgery for LDH in patients aged ? 20 years using prospectively collected data. From the national Swedish SweSpine register we identified 180 patients with one-year and 108 with two-year follow-up data ? 20 years of age, who between the years 2000 and 2010 had a primary operation for LDH. Both male and female patients reported pronounced impairment before the operation in all patient reported outcome measures, with female patients experiencing significantly greater back pain, having greater analgesic requirements and reporting significantly inferior scores in EuroQol (EQ-5D-index), EQ-visual analogue scale, most aspects of Short Form-36 and Oswestry Disabilities Index, when compared with male patients. Surgery conferred a statistically significant improvement in all registered parameters, with few gender discrepancies. Quality of life at one year following surgery normalised in both males and females and only eight patients (4.5%) were dissatisfied with the outcome. Virtually all parameters were stable between the one- and two-year follow-up examination. LDH surgery leads to normal health and a favourable outcome in both male and female patients aged 20 years or younger, who failed to recover after non-operative management. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:1675-82. PMID:26637684

  11. Surgical management of recurrent lumbar disc herniation and the role of fusion.

    PubMed

    Dower, Ashraf; Chatterji, Robindro; Swart, Alexander; Winder, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review was performed to evaluate the various operative management strategies for recurrent lumbar disc herniation (RLDH), including the efficacy of instrumented spinal fusion (ISF) at repeat discectomy, and whether the operative approach for repeat discectomy, minimally invasive (MID) or conventional open discectomy (CD), affected the outcomes. RLDH is one of the most common complications of lumbar discectomies. Whilst repeat discectomy is the standard procedure performed, the routine addition of ISF has been advocated to improve outcomes and prevent reherniation. A comprehensive search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Cochrane databases was performed. The measured outcomes included the rate of satisfactory clinical outcome, improvement in leg and back pain, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) recovery score, and complication rates. In total, 37 studies met our inclusion criteria, with 1483 patients. The rate of satisfactory outcomes was found to be statistically similar between the patients undergoing a discectomy with or without fusion (77.8% with ISF versus 79.5% without ISF; p=0.665). Back pain and JOA scores showed greater improvements in the patients undergoing discectomy and fusion, compared to discectomy alone. The rate of satisfactory outcomes was marginally higher in the patients undergoing MID compared to CD (MID 81.2% versus CD 77.5%; p=0.248). However, the leg pain improvement was similar. The postoperative back pain improvement was greater in the MID group (52.5% MID versus 36.3% CD), but with lower complication rates, specifically durotomies (MID 5.2% versus CD 15.3%; p<0.001). There is no evidence to recommend the routine addition of ISF in the management of RLDH. The data suggest that MID has lower complication rates than CD in the setting of RLDH, yet unequivocal evidence is lacking. PMID:26282154

  12. Correlative analyses of isolated upper lumbar disc herniation and adjacent wedge-shaped vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jia-Xin; Yang, Si-Dong; Wang, Bao-Lin; Yang, Da-Long; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Shen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Upper lumbar disc herniation (ULDH) is easy to be misdiagnosed due to its special anatomical and atypical clinical features. Few studies have identified the relationship between ULDH and adjacent wedge-shaped vertebrae (WSV). Hypothesis: WSV may have some indicative relations withULDH. Patients and methods: Between January 2003 and October 2013, 47 patients (27 males and 20 females; mean age, 41.2 years) with single-level ULDH (as study group) and 47 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers (as control group) were studied by radiograph. The two groups were compared with respect to age, sexual proportion, body mass index (BMI), kyphotic angle, and the proportion of WSV. Also, correlative analyses were conducted in the study group to investigate the relation between the kyphotic angle of target vertebrae and other factors including age, BMI, Cobb angle, JOA score and bone mineral density (BMD). Results: The average kyphotic angle in the study group was 11° (4°-22°), while the average kyphotic angle in the control group was 2° (0°-7°). Obviously, the mean kyphotic angle in the study group was statistically larger than that in the control group (t=13.797, P<0.001). The proportion of WSV in the study group was significantly larger than that in the control group (x2=36.380, P<0.0001). The correlations between kyphotic angles and other items (i.e., age, BMI, BMD, Cobb angle and JOA score) in the study group and the control group were low or uncorrelated. Conclusions: WSV are indicatively associated with adjacent ULDH. Thus, ULDH should be alerted when WSV are first found in radiograph and accompanied by clinical symptoms. PMID:25785106

  13. Herniation Pits in Human Mummies: A CT Investigation in the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Stephanie; Piombino-Mascali, Dario; Zink, Albert R.

    2012-01-01

    Herniation pits (HPs) of the femoral neck were first described in a radiological publication in 1982 as round to oval radiolucencies in the proximal superior quadrant of the femoral neck on anteroposterior radiographs of adults. In following early clinical publications, HPs were generally recognized as an incidental finding. In contrast, in current clinical literature they are mentioned in the context of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) of the hip joint, which is known to cause osteoarthritis (OA). The significance of HPs in chronic skeletal disorders such as OA is still unclear, but they are discussed as a possible radiological indicator for FAI in a large part of clinical studies. In this paleoradiological study we examined a sample of mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, by a mobile computed tomography (CT) scanner. Evaluation of the CT examinations revealed HPs in six out of 16 (37.5%) adult male mummies. The first aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of HPs shown in our mummy collection to the findings described in clinical literature. Thereby CT evaluation revealed that their osseous imaging characteristics are in accordance, consisting of round to oval subcortical lesions at the anterior femoral neck, clearly demarcated by a sclerotic margin. The second aim was to introduce HPs to the paleoradiological and paleopathological methodology as an entity that underwent a renaissance from an incidental finding to a possible radiological indicator of FAI in the clinical situation. As FAI plays an important role in the development of OA of the hip, which is a very common finding in human skeletal remains, HPs should always be considered in paleoradiological evaluation of hip joint diseases. PMID:22567164

  14. Does Opioid Pain Medication Use Affect the Outcome of Patients with Lumbar Disk Herniation?

    PubMed Central

    Radcliff, Kris; Freedman, Mitchell; Hilibrand, Alan; Isaac, Roman; Lurie, Jon D.; Zhao, Wenyan; Vaccaro, Alex; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Subgroup analysis of prospective, randomized cohort Objective To review the results of patients who received opioid pain medications during treatment compared to patients who did not receive opioid medications. Summary of Background Data The SPORT trial is a prospective, multicenter study of surgical treatment versus nonoperative treatment for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation (IDH). Methods The study population includes patients enrolled in SPORT for treatment of IDH in combined randomized and observational cohorts. Patients who received opioid medications at baseline (Opioid) were compared to those who did not. (No-Opioid) Results There were 520 patients in the Non-Opioid group and 542 patients in the Opioid group. Among the opioid medication group there were significantly (p<0.001) worse baseline scores in primary and secondary outcome measures. There was an increased percentage of patients in the opioid medication group with the perception of worsening symptoms and neurological deficit (p<0.001). A higher percentage of the opioid patients received surgery (p<0.001) At four years follow-up, there were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcome measures or treatment effect of surgery between opioid and non-opioid medication patients. Opioid medications were associated with increased crossover to surgical treatment (p=0.005) and decreased surgical avoidance. (p=0.01)The incidence of opioid use at four years was 16% among patients who were using opioids at baseline and 5% among patients who were not using opioids at baseline. Conclusion Patients who were treated with opioids had significantly worse baseline pain and quality of life. At final follow-up, there was no long term difference in outcome associated with opioid pain medication use. Opioid medications were not associated with surgical avoidance. The majority of patients who use opioids during the study did not continue usage at four years. PMID:23591657

  15. A PHASED REHABILITATION PROTOCOL FOR ATHLETES WITH LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC HERNIATION

    PubMed Central

    VanGelder, Leonard H.; Vaughn, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Conservative non-surgical management of a herniated lumbar intervertebral disc (HLD) in athletes is a complex task due to the dramatic forces imparted on the spine during sport participation. The demands placed upon the athlete during rehabilitation and return to sport are unique not only from a sport specific perspective, but also regarding return to the sport strength and conditioning programs utilized for sport preparation. Many prescriptions fail to address postural and motor control faults specific to athletic development, which may prevent full return to sport after suffering a HLD or predispose the athlete to future exacerbations of a HLD. Strength exercises involving squatting, deadlifting, and Olympic power lifts are large components of the typical athlete's conditioning program, therefore some progressions are provided to address potential underlying problems in the athlete's technique that may have contributed to their HLD in the first place. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to propose a framework for rehabilitation that is built around the phases of healing of the disc. Phase I: Non-Rotational/Non-Flexion Phase (Acute Inflammatory Phase), Phase II: Counter rotation/Flexion Phase (Repair Phase), Phase III: Rotational Phase/Power development (Remodeling Phase), and Phase IV: Full return to sport. This clinical commentary provides a theoretical basis for these phases based on available literature as well as reviewing many popular current practice trends in the management of an HLD. The authors recognize the limits of any general exercise rehabilitation recommendation with regard to return to sport, as well as any general strength and conditioning program. It is vital that an individual assessment and prescription is made for every athlete which reviews and addresses movement in all planes of motion under all necessary extrinsic and intrinsic demands to that athlete. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175134

  16. Characteristics of Lumbar Disc Herniation With Exacerbation of Presentation Due to Spinal Manipulative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Li; Liu, Yan-Xi; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Zhang, Ji; Yan, Hong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article was to delineate the characteristics of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in patients with exacerbation of symptoms caused by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). The main emphasis should be on the prevention of this condition by identifying relevant risk factors. Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of a total number of 10 LDH patients with exacerbation of presentation after SMT were reviewed. All the patients underwent neurological and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Laminectomy and discectomy were performed, and follow-up was carried out in all patients. The duration of symptoms in the patients before SMT was 4–15 years. After the therapy, an acute exacerbation of back and radicular pain was observed within 24?h. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that L4–L5 was the most frequently affected level observed (7 patients), and each patient had a large disc fragment in the spinal canal. The disc fragments were classified into 3 types according to their localizations. The time internal between the exacerbation of presentation and surgery was 23.1 days. No perioperative complications were noted. All the patients were relieved of radicular pain a few days after surgery. During postoperative follow-up, all patients regained the ability to walk; one patient received catheterization for 1 month and another for 6 months. Eight patients reported a complete resolution of presentation and the rest 2 patients were significantly improved. SMT should be prohibited in some LDH patients to prevent neurological damages, in whom there are 5 possible risk factors. Surgical results for these patients are encouraging. PMID:25816037

  17. Particle Number Fluctuations and Correlations in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    V. P. Konchakovski; M. Hauer; M. I. Gorenstein; E. L. Bratkovskaya

    2009-06-17

    Particle number fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions at SPS and RHIC energies are studied within the statistical hadron-resonance gas model in different statistical ensembles and in the Hadron-String-Dynamics (HSD) transport approach. Event-by-event fluctuations of the proton to pion and kaon to proton number ratios are calculated in the HSD model for the samples of most central collision events and compared with the available experimental data. The role of the experimental acceptance and centrality selection is discussed.

  18. The nucleus-nucleus interaction between boosted nuclei

    E-print Network

    Wen Hui Long; Carlos A. Bertulani

    2010-10-19

    The nucleus-nucleus interaction potential has been studied within the relativistic mean field theory. The systematics of the relativistic effects have been investigated by analyzing the relation between the potential and the bombarding energy as a function of the impact parameter. It is shown that the potential barriers are noticeably sensitive to the bombarding energy for a given impact parameter. At large bombarding energies the slope at the potential edge decreases with the impact parameter. Comparisons with a non-relativistic treatment shows that relativistic effects cannot be ignored at bombarding energies around and larger than 100 MeV/nucleon.

  19. Selected Experimental Highlights from Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at RHIC

    E-print Network

    Huan Z. Huang

    2006-08-29

    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC produce high temperature and high energy density matter which exhibits partonic degrees of freedom. We will discuss measurements of nuclear modification factors for light hadrons and non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays, which reflect the flavor dependence of energy loss of high momentum partons traversing the dense QCD medium. The hadronization of bulk partonic matter exhibits collectivity in effective partonic degrees of freedom. Nuclear collisions at RHIC provide an intriguing environment, where many constituent quark ingredients are readily available for possible formation of exotic particles through quark coalescences or recombinations.

  20. Atom as a "Dressed" Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Vladimir Kalitvianski

    2008-11-23

    It is shown that the electrostatic potential of atomic nucleus "seen" by a fast charged projectile at short distances is smeared quantum mechanically due to nucleus motion around the atomic center of inertia. For example, the "positive charge cloud" size in the Hydrogen ground state is much larger than the proper proton size. It is even bigger for the target atoms in excited initial states. The elastic scattering at large angles is generally weaker than the Rutherford one since the effective potential at short distances is softer than the Colombian one due to a natural "cutoff". In addition, the large angle scattering leads to the target atom excitations due to pushing the nucleus (=> inelastic processes). The Rutherford cross section is in fact the inclusive rather than the elastic one. These results are analogous to the QED ones. The difference and the value of presented below non relativistic atomic calculations is in non perturbatively (exact) nucleus "dressing" that immediately leads to correct physical results and to significant technical simplifications. In these respects the nucleus bound in an atom is a simple but a rather realistic model of a "dressed" charge in the QFT. This idea is briefly demonstrated on the real electron model (electronium) that is made free from infinities.

  1. Double nucleus in M83

    E-print Network

    D. Mast; R. J. Díaz; M. P. Aguero

    2006-04-06

    M 83 is one of the nearest galaxies with an enhanced nuclear star formation and it presents one of the best opportunities to study the kinematics and physical properties of a circumnuclear starburst. Our three-dimensional spectroscopy data in R band confirm the presence of a secondary nucleus or mass concentration (previously suggested by Thatte and coworkers). We determine the position of this hidden nucleus, which would be more massive than the visible one, and was not detected in the optical HST images due, probably, to the strong dust extinction. The optical nucleus has a mass of 5 x 10^6 M_Sun / sin i (r nucleus, located 3''.9 +/- 0''.5 at the NW (PA 271 +/- 15 deg) of the optical nucleus, would have a mass of 1 x 10^7 M_Sun / sin i (r < 1''.5). The emission line ratio map also unveils the presence of a second circumnuclear ring structure, previously discovered by IR imaging (Elmegreen and coworkers). The data allow us to resolve the behavior of the interstellar medium inside the circumnuclear ring and around the binary mass concentration.

  2. Dust Production and Nucleus Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorov, Yu. V.; Markelov, G. N.; Keller, H. U.

    2007-01-01

    The innermost cometary water atmosphere formed by sublimation under solar heating is simulated by Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC). The nucleus is modeled as a non-spherical rotational body. The corresponding surface boundary conditions for the sublimating gas are determined from a self-consistent thermophysical model of a cometary nucleus developed by the authors. Fields of macrocharacteristics both for gas and dust are calculated by parallel computer implementation of the kinetic model. We show that the innermost coma is sensitive to the nucleus shape as well as to the variations of local gas production rates. In general, spatial structures of the innermost coma are a result of interactions of gas flows sublimated from different surface regions.

  3. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor

    DOEpatents

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth

    2003-11-25

    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  4. The Skyrmion in the nucleus

    E-print Network

    G. Kälbermann

    1997-08-28

    The energy levels of a skyrmion in nucleus are calculated in a field theory of skyrmions coupled to the dilaton field and the $\\omega$ meson . The central potential fits well with expectations. The nucleon spin-orbit interaction derived from the omega meson in a rotating frame gives the correct level splittings. The same interaction originating from the Thomas precession effect is negligible. Energy levels are calculated for closed shell nuclei. The meson fields are obtained from a Thomas-Fermi mean field approximation to the nucleus.

  5. A new technique for the treatment of lumbar far lateral disc herniation: technical note and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Greiner-Perth, R; Böhm, H; Allam, Y

    2003-06-01

    A newly designed technique for a minimally invasive approach to the laterally herniated disc is presented. Fifteen patients suffering from far lateral disc herniation (extraforaminal) were operated according to this technique. Through a small skin incision (1.5 cm), the paraspinal muscles are spread by dilators, until a working channel of 9 mm inner diameter and 11 mm outer diameter can be placed. The next steps are done through this channel using the surgical microscope. No bone resections are necessary and the facet joints are left untouched. However, partial resection of the intertransverse ligament may be necessary. The mean follow-up period for these 15 patients was 11.5 months, and they were evaluated by using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The average surgical time was 43 min. The ODI improved from 30.6 (preoperative) to 14.3 (postoperative). The VAS of leg pain improved from 7 (preoperative) to 3.6 (postoperative), which represented a statistically significant improvement at the significance level of (P<0.01). No intra-operative or early postoperative complications occurred. However, one recurrence did occur, which was treated by the same technique. This technique combines the advantages of three-dimensional visual control (operating microscope) with the minimal surgical trauma of endoscopic techniques, while avoiding some of the shortcomings of both the microsurgical and endoscopic techniques. PMID:12800006

  6. Coulomb energy of axially deformed nucleus

    E-print Network

    Ning Wang; Xuexin Yu; Min Liu

    2010-05-17

    We previously proposed a formula for calculating the Coulomb energy of spherical nucleus with Wood-Saxon charge distribution. In this work, the analytical formula is extended for description of the Coulomb energy of nucleus with beta2 deformation.

  7. Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential at short distances

    E-print Network

    Yongying Jiang; Ning Wang; Zhuxia Li; Werner Scheid

    2010-03-06

    The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for fusion reactions 40Ca+40Ca, 48Ca+208Pb and 126Sn+130Te are studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation for the kinetic energies of nuclei. The obtained fusion barrier for 40Ca+40Ca is in good agreement with the extracted fusion barrier from the measured fusion excitation function, and the depth of the fusion pockets are close to the results of time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. The energy dependence of fusion barrier is also investigated. For heavy fusion system, the fusion pocket becomes shallow and almost disappears for symmetric systems and the obtained potential at short distances is higher than the adiabatic potential.

  8. Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential at short distances

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yongying; Wang Ning; Li Zhuxia; Scheid, Werner

    2010-04-15

    The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for fusion reactions {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 208}Pb, and {sup 126}Sn+{sup 130}Te are studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics model together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation for the kinetic energies of nuclei. The obtained fusion barrier for {sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca is in good agreement with the extracted fusion barrier from the measured fusion excitation function, and the depths of the fusion pockets are close to the results of time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. The energy dependence of the fusion barrier is also investigated. The fusion pocket becomes shallow for a heavy fusion system and almost disappears for heavy nearly symmetric systems, and the obtained potential at short distances is higher than the adiabatic potential.

  9. Dynamical nucleus-nucleus potential at short distances

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Yongying; Li, Zhuxia; Scheid, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The dynamical nucleus-nucleus potentials for fusion reactions 40Ca+40Ca, 48Ca+208Pb and 126Sn+130Te are studied with the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model together with the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation for the kinetic energies of nuclei. The obtained fusion barrier for 40Ca+40Ca is in good agreement with the extracted fusion barrier from the measured fusion excitation function, and the depth of the fusion pockets are close to the results of time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculations. The energy dependence of fusion barrier is also investigated. For heavy fusion system, the fusion pocket becomes shallow and almost disappears for symmetric systems and the obtained potential at short distances is higher than the adiabatic potential.

  10. Azimuthal correlation and collective behavior in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mali, P.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Sarkar, S.; Singh, G.

    2015-03-01

    Various flow effects of nuclear and hadronic origin are investigated in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Nuclear emulsion data collected from 84Kr + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 1.52 GeV per nucleon and from 28Si + Ag/Br interaction at an incident energy of 14.5 GeV per nucleon are used in the investigation. The transverse momentum distribution and the flow angle analysis show that collective behavior, like a bounce-off effect of the projectile spectators and a sidesplash effect of the target spectators, are present in our event samples. From an azimuthal angle analysis of the data we also see a direct flow of the projectile fragments and of the produced charged particles. On the other hand, for both data samples the target fragments exhibit a reverse flow, while the projectile fragments exhibit an elliptic flow. Relevant flow parameters are measured.

  11. Analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computer-assisted method is reported for the determination of the angular distribution data for secondary particles produced in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsions. The method is applied to emulsion detectors that were placed in a constant, uniform magnetic field and exposed to beams of 60 and 200 GeV/nucleon O-16 ions at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) of the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Linear regression analysis is used to determine the azimuthal and polar emission angles from measured track coordinate data. The software, written in BASIC, is designed to be machine independent, and adaptable to an automated system for acquiring the track coordinates. The fitting algorithm is deterministic, and takes into account the experimental uncertainty in the measured points. Further, a procedure for using the track data to estimate the linear momenta of the charged particles observed in the detectors is included.

  12. Nucleus Implant Parameters Significantly Change the Compressive

    E-print Network

    Karduna, Andrew

    Nucleus Implant Parameters Significantly Change the Compressive Stiffness of the Human Lumbar-mail: marcolms@drexel.edu Nucleus replacement by a synthetic material is a recent trend for treatment of lower back pain. Hydrogel nucleus implants were prepared with variations in implant modulus, height, and diam

  13. COMMUNICATION Evolutionary Conservation of the Folding Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Mirny, Leonid

    COMMUNICATION Evolutionary Conservation of the Folding Nucleus Leonid Mirny* and Eugene Shakhnovich for nine proteins whose folding nucleus was determined by protein engineering methods. We show that in all but one protein (AcP) folding nucleus residues are signi®cantly more conserved than the rest

  14. Long-Term Outcomes of Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation Treated with Percutaneous Discectomy: Comparative Study with Microendoscopic Discectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wengui; Wu Xiaotao; Guo Jinhe; Zhuang Suyang; Teng Gaojun

    2010-08-15

    We assessed the long-term outcomes of patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with percutaneous lumbar discectomy (PLD) or microendoscopic discectomy (MED). A retrospective study was performed in consecutive patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with PLD (n = 129) or MED (n = 101) in a single hospital from January 2000 to March 2002. All patients were followed up with MacNab criteria and self-evaluation questionnaires comprising the Oswestry Disability Index and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Several statistical methods were used for analyses of the data, and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. A total of 104 patients (80.62%) with PLD and 82 patients (81.19%) with MED were eligible for analyses, with a mean follow-up period of 6.64 {+-} 0.67 years and 6.42 {+-} 0.51 years, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age, number of lesions, major symptoms and physical signs, and radiological findings. According to the MacNab criteria, 75.96% in the PLD group and 84.15% in the MED group achieved excellent or good results, respectively, this was statistically significant (p = 0.0402). With the Oswestry Disability Index questionnaires, the average scores and minimal disability, respectively, were 6.97 and 71.15% in the PLD group and 4.89 and 79.27% in the MED group. Total average scores of Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey were 75.88 vs. 81.86 in PLD group vs. MED group (p = 0.0582). The cost and length of hospitalization were higher or longer in MED group, a statistically significant difference (both p < 0.0001). Long-term complications were observed in two patients (2.44%) in the MED group, no such complications were observed in the PLD group. Both PLD and MED show an acceptable long-term efficacy for treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Compared with MED patients, long-term satisfaction is slightly lower in the PLD patients; complications, hospitalization duration, and costs in PLD group are also lower.

  15. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  16. Photoproduction of lepton pairs in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, B. D.; Goncalves, V. P.; De Santana Amaral, J. T.

    2013-03-25

    In this contribution we study coherent interactions as a probe of the nonlinear effects in the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). In particular, we study the multiphoton effects in the production of leptons pairs for proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions for heavy nuclei. In the proton-nucleus we assume the ultrarelativistic proton as a source of photons and estimate the photoproduction of lepton pairs on nuclei at RHIC and LHC energies considering the multiphoton effects associated to multiple rescattering of the projectile photon on the proton of the nucleus. In nucleus - nucleus colllisions we consider the two nuclei as a source of photons. As each scattering contributes with a factor {alpha}Z to the cross section, this contribution must be taken into account for heavy nuclei. We consider the Coulomb corrections to calculate themultiple scatterings and estimate the total cross section for muon and tau pair production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC energies.

  17. The Superior Olivary Nucleus and Its Influence on Nucleus Laminaris: A Source of Inhibitory Feedback for Coincidence

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    The Superior Olivary Nucleus and Its Influence on Nucleus Laminaris: A Source of Inhibitory of the avian brainstem, the superior olivary nucleus (SON) receives inputs from nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus laminaris (NL) and projects back to NA, NL, and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). The reciprocal con

  18. Exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Margon, B.; Anderson, S.F.; Mateo, M.; Fich, M.; Massey, P.

    1988-11-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies. 30 references.

  19. Evaluation of the Clinical Curative Effect of an O2-O3 mixture to Treat Lumbar Disc Herniation with Different Treatment Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Xu, L.; Li, Z-L.; He, X-F.; Xiang, D-C.; Ma, J.; Hong, C-J.; He, J-X.; Yang, L.; Gong, Z-H.; Qiu, J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary To compare the effective rates among one week, two week and four week treatment sessions of ozone therapy for lumbar disc herniation to provide a foundation for clinical decision-making. One hundred and eighty-seven lumbar disc herniation patients were divided into three groups, 103 cases for one week, 61 cases for two week and 23 cases for four week treatment sessions. The clinical curative effective rates in the three groups were 82.52%, 85.24% and 95.65% respectively. The effective rate among the three groups showed no significant difference at statistical analysis. Considering the cost-effectiveness of ozone therapy, increasing the treatment course does not enhance the curative effect. PMID:20465893

  20. Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation: Results of Revision Surgery and Assessment of Factors that May Affect the Outcome. A Non-Concurrent Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Arockiaraj, Justin; Amritanand, Rohit; Venkatesh, Krishnan; David, Kenny Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Non-concurrent prospective study. Purpose To determine the functional outcome after open 'fragment' discectomy for recurrent lumbar disc herniation, and to analyze the factors that may affect the outcome. Overview of Literature Literature search revealed only four studies where the factors affecting the outcome of a revision surgery for recurrent disc herniation have been evaluated. None of these studies analyzed for diabetes, disc degeneration and facet arthropathy. We have analyzed these features, in addition to the demographic and clinical factors. Methods Thirty-four patients who underwent the procedure were followed up for an average period of 27.1 months. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were used to assess the functional outcome. Age, gender, smoking, diabetic status, duration of recurrent symptoms, the side of leg pain, level and type of disc herniation, degree of disc degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging, and facet joint arthritis before first and second surgeries, were analyzed as factors affecting the outcome. Results The average Hirabayashi improvement in JOA was 56.4%. The mean preoperative ODI was 74.5% and the mean ODI at final follow-up was 32.2%, the difference being statistically significant (p<0.01). Patients with diabetes, all of whom had poor long term glycemic control, were found to have a poor outcome in terms of ODI improvement (p=0.03). Conclusions Open fragment discectomy is a safe and effective surgical technique for the treatment of recurrent disc herniation. However, patients with uncontrolled diabetes may have a less favorable outcome. PMID:26435791

  1. Clinical experience with percutaneous holmium:YAG laser discectomy in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, George A.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Dickey, D. Thomas

    1995-05-01

    Thirty-five clinical cases received laser disc ablation utilizing a uniplanar fluoroscopically guided percutaneous technique over a three year period. With the dog in right lateral recumbency, uniplanar fluoroscopy was utilized to guide the placement of 20-gauge, 2.5 inch spinal needles percutaneously through the left epaxial soft tissues into the nucleus pulposus with the dog in right lateral recumbency. The needle was advanced in increments following palpation and brief fluoroscopic observations to insure avoidance of the spinal cord and other vital structures. Entrance into the intervertebral disc was identified by a characteristic `gritty' feel of the needle passing through the annulus fibrosus. The dog was then placed in sternal recumbency, and the needles adjusted to place the tip approximately one-third of the distance into the disc. The laser fiber was then placed through the needle into the nucleus pulposus to ablate the nucleus with holmium laser energy. No detrimental side effects of this technique have been identified with the exception of one case. This single exception suggests that this procedure should not be performed on dogs with acute disc herniation. The technique appears safe given adherence to careful placement of the spinal needles and proper clinical criteria for patient selection.

  2. “Spontaneous” CSF Fistula due to Transtegmental Brain Herniation in Combination with Signs of Increased Intracranial Pressure and Petrous Bone Hyperpneumatization: An Illustrative Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Diones; Fermin-Delgado, Rafael; Stoeter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance?Transtegmental brain herniation into the petrous bone is a rare cause of rhinoliquorrhea. Our case presents a combination of several typical clinical and imaging findings illustrating the ongoing etiologic discussion of such cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas. Clinical Presentation?A 53-year-old man presented with nasal discharge after a strong effort to suppress coughing. Imaging revealed a transtegmental herniation of parts of the inferior temporal gyrus into the petrous bone and in addition a combination of signs of chronically increased intracranial pressure and a hyperpneumatization of the petrous bone. The fistula was closed by a middle cranial fossa approach. Conclusion?The case illustrates the two main predisposing factors for development of petrous bone CSF fistulas: increased intracranial pressure and thinning of the tegmental roof due to extensive development of air cells. Because the CSF leakage repair does not change the underlying cause, patients have to be informed about the possibility of developing increased intracranial pressure and recurrences of brain herniations at other sites. PMID:25485224

  3. Trends in inpatient setting laminectomy for excision of herniated intervertebral disc: Population-based estimates from the US nationwide inpatient sample

    PubMed Central

    Walcott, Brian P.; Hanak, Brian W.; Caracci, James R.; Redjal, Navid; Nahed, Brian V.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Coumans, Jean-Valery C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Herniated intervertebral discs can result in pain and neurological compromise. Treatment for this condition is categorized as surgical or non-surgical. We sought to identify trends in inpatient surgical management of herniated intervertebral discs using a national database. Methods: Patient discharges identified with a principal procedure relating to laminectomy for excision of herniated intervertebral disc were selected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD), under the auspices of a data user agreement. These surgical patients did not undergo instrumented fusion. To account for the Nationwide Inpatient Sample weighting schema, design-adjusted analyses were used. The estimates of standard errors were calculated using SUDAAN software (Research Triangle International, NC, USA). This software is based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM); a uniform and standardized coding system. Results: Using International Classification of Disease 9th Revision clinical modifier (ICD-9 CM) procedure code 80.51, we were able to identify disc excision, in part or whole, by laminotomy or hemilaminectomy. The incidence of laminectomy for the excision of herniated intervertebral disc has decreased dramatically from 1993 where 266,152 cases were reported [CI = 22,342]. In 2007, only 123,398 cases were identified [CI = 12,438]. The average length of stay in 1993 was 4 days [CI = 0.17], and in 2007 it decreased to just 2 days [CI = 0.17]. Both these comparisons were significantly different at P < 0.001. The average inflation adjusted (2007 buying power) charge of the procedure in 1993 was 14,790.87 USD [CI = 916.85]. This value rose in 2007 to 24,639 USD [CI = 1,485.51]. This difference was significant at P < 0.001. Conclusions: National estimates indicate that the incidence of inpatient laminectomy for the excision of herniated intervertebral disc has decreased significantly. This trend is multifactorial and is likely related to developments in outcomes research, the growing popularity of alternative procedures (intervertebral instrumented fusion), and transition to an ambulatory setting of surgical care. PMID:21297929

  4. Antibaryon-nucleus bound states

    E-print Network

    J. Hrtánková; J. Mareš

    2014-11-27

    We calculated antibaryon ($\\bar{B}$ = $\\bar{p}$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\bar{\\Sigma}$, $\\bar{\\Xi}$) bound states in selected nuclei within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) model. The G-parity motivated $\\bar{B}$-meson coupling constants were scaled to yield corresponding potentials consistent with available experimental data. Large polarization of the nuclear core caused by $\\bar{B}$ was confirmed. The $\\bar{p}$ annihilation in the nuclear medium was incorporated by including a phenomenological imaginary part of the optical potential. The calculations using a complex $\\bar{p}$-nucleus potential were performed fully self-consistently. The $\\bar{p}$ widths significantly decrease when the phase space reduction is considered for $\\bar{p}$ annihilation products, but they still remain sizeable for potentials consistent with $\\bar{p}$-atom data.

  5. Possibility of synthesizing doubly closed superheavy nucleus

    E-print Network

    Y. Aritomo

    2006-09-16

    The possibility of synthesizing a doubly magic superheavy nucleus, $^{298}114_{184}$, is investigated on the basis of fluctuation-dissipation dynamics. In order to synthesize this nucleus, we must generate more neutron-rich compound nuclei because of the neutron emissions from excited compound nuclei. The compound nucleus $^{304}114$ has two advantages to achieving a high survival probability. First, because of small neutron separation energy and rapid cooling, the shell correction energy recovers quickly. Secondly, owing to neutron emissions, the neutron number of the nucleus approaches that of the double closed shell and the nucleus obtains a large fission barrier. Because of these two effects, the survival probability of $^{304}114$ does not decrease until the excitation energy $E^{*}= 50$ MeV. These properties lead to a rather high evaporation reside cross section.

  6. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G. V.

    2014-01-01

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells. PMID:24445418

  7. Classical Gluon Production Amplitude for Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions: First Saturation Correction in the Projectile

    E-print Network

    Giovanni A. Chirilli; Yuri V. Kovchegov; Douglas E. Wertepny

    2015-01-13

    We calculate the classical single-gluon production amplitude in nucleus-nucleus collisions including the first saturation correction in one of the nuclei (the projectile) while keeping multiple-rescattering (saturation) corrections to all orders in the other nucleus (the target). In our approximation only two nucleons interact in the projectile nucleus: the single-gluon production amplitude we calculate is order-g^3 and is leading-order in the atomic number of the projectile, while resumming all order-one saturation corrections in the target nucleus. Our result is the first step towards obtaining an analytic expression for the first projectile saturation correction to the gluon production cross section in nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  8. Integrative TCM Conservative Therapy for Low Back Pain due to Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Wei An; Huang, Shi Rong; Guo, Kai; Sun, Wu Quan; Xi, Xiao Bing; Zhang, Ming Cai; Kong, Ling Jun; Lu, Hua; Zhan, Hong Sheng; Cheng, Ying Wu

    2013-01-01

    Low back pain due to lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is very common in clinic. This randomized controlled trial was designed to investigate the effects of integrative TCM conservative therapy for low back pain due to LDH. A total of 408 patients with low back pain due to LDH were randomly assigned to an experimental group with integrative TCM therapy and a control group with normal conservative treatment by the ratio of 3?:?1. The primary outcome was the pain by the visual analogue scale (VAS). The secondary outcome was the low back functional activities by Chinese Short Form Oswestry Disability Index (C-SFODI). Immediately after treatment, patients in the experimental group experienced significant improvements in VAS and C-SFODI compared with the control group (between-group difference in mean change from baseline, ?16.62 points, P < 0.001 in VAS; ?15.55 points, P < 0.001 in C-SFODI). The difference remained at one-month followup, but it is only significant in C-SFODI at six-month followup (?7.68 points, P < 0.001). No serious adverse events were observed. These findings suggest that integrative TCM therapy may be a beneficial complementary and alternative therapy for patients with low back pain due to LDH. PMID:23864883

  9. Gene expression profile analysis of human mesenchymal stem cells from herniated and degenerated intervertebral discs reveals different expression of osteopontin.

    PubMed

    Marfia, Giovanni; Navone, Stefania Elena; Di Vito, Clara; Tabano, Silvia; Giammattei, Lorenzo; Di Cristofori, Andrea; Gualtierotti, Roberta; Tremolada, Carlo; Zavanone, Mario; Caroli, Manuela; Torchia, Francesco; Miozzo, Monica; Rampini, Paolo; Riboni, Laura; Campanella, Rolando

    2015-02-01

    Gene expression analysis provides an effective methodology to identify clinically relevant genes implicated in intervertebral disc (IVD) pathology. The analysis of gene profile in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human herniated IVD (H-IVD) and degenerated IVD (D-IVD) has not yet been investigated. We present in this study a characterization of MSCs isolated from clinically categorized H-IVD and D-IVD disc samples. H-IVD-MSCs and D-IVD-MSCs showed multipotent mesenchymal differentiation ability, expressing positivity for adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic markers with an immunophenotypical profile representative of MSCs. FACS analyses revealed a higher expression of CD44 in D-IVD-MSCs compared to H-IVD-MSCs. Gene expression profile revealed that most genes under investigation displayed large variations and were not significantly different in the two types of analyzed IVD-MSCs. Conversely, the gene expression of osteopontin (OPN), a protein involved in bone matrix mineralization and extracellular matrix destruction, was found markedly increased (more than 400-fold) in D-IVD-MSCs compared to H-IVD-MSCs. Moreover, the OPN protein expression was detectable only in D-IVD-MSCs, and its levels were directly related with D-IVD severity. These findings suggest that an abnormal expression of OPN in D-IVD-MSCs occurs and plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiological process of human disc degeneration. We speculate that the regulation of the OPN pathway might be a therapeutic target to counteract disc degeneration. PMID:25203751

  10. Central exclusive diffractive Higgs boson production in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC

    E-print Network

    E. Levin; J. Miller

    2008-01-23

    In this paper, it is shown that in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, the main source for central exclusive diffractive Higgs production is photon-photon fusion. At the LHC energy, the total cross section for this process is about 0.6 pb (for proton-gold scattering), and 3.9 nb (for gold-gold collision) while the gluon-gluon fusion leads to the value of the cross section for CED Higgs production which is about 0.1 nb and 3.9 pb respectively.

  11. The retrotrapezoid nucleus and breathing.

    PubMed

    Guyenet, Patrice G; Stornetta, Ruth L; Abbott, Stephen B G; Depuy, Seth D; Kanbar, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is located in the rostral medulla oblongata close to the ventral surface and consists of a bilateral cluster of glutamatergic neurons that are non-aminergic and express homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b throughout life. These neurons respond vigorously to increases in local pCO(2) via cell-autonomous and paracrine (glial) mechanisms and receive additional chemosensory information from the carotid bodies. RTN neurons exclusively innervate the regions of the brainstem that contain the respiratory pattern generator (RPG). Lesion or inhibition of RTN neurons largely attenuates the respiratory chemoreflex of adult rats whereas their activation increases respiratory rate, inspiratory amplitude and active expiration. Phox2b mutations that cause congenital central hypoventilation syndrome in humans prevent the development of RTN neurons in mice. Selective deletion of the RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons by genetic means in mice eliminates the respiratory chemoreflex in neonates.In short, RTN Phox2b-VGLUT2 neurons are a major nodal point of the CNS network that regulates pCO(2) via breathing and these cells are probable central chemoreceptors. PMID:23080151

  12. Music and the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Mavridis, Ioannis N

    2015-03-01

    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA. PMID:25102783

  13. QCD motivated approach to soft interactions at high energies: nucleus-nucleus and hadron-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    E. Gotsman; A. Kormilitzin; E. Levin; U. Maor

    2009-12-23

    In this paper we consider nucleus-nucleus and hadron-nucleus reactions in the kinematic region: $g A^{1/3} G_{3\\pom} \\exp\\Lb \\Delta Y\\Rb \\approx 1 G^2_{3\\pom} \\exp\\Lb \\Delta Y\\Rb \\approx 1 $, where $G_{3\\pom}$ is the triple Pomeron coupling, $g$ is the vertex of Pomeron nucleon interaction, and 1 + $\\Delta_{\\pom}$ denotes the Pomeron intercept. We find that in this kinematic region the traditional Glauber-Gribov eikonal approach is inadequate. We show that it is necesssary to take into account inelastic Glauber corrections, which can not be expressed in terms of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes. In the wide range of energies where $\\alpha'_\\pom Y \\ll R^2_A$,the scattering amplitude for the nucleus-nucleus interaction, does not depend on the details of the nucleon-nucleon interaction at high energy. In the formalism we present, the only (correlated) parameters that are required to describe the data are $\\Delta_{\\pom}$, $G_{3\\pom}$ and $g$. These parameters were taken from our description of the nucleon-nucleon data at high energies \\cite{GLMM}.The predicted nucleus modification factor is compared with RHIC Au-Au data at $W = 200 GeV.$ Estimates for LHC energies are presented and discusssed.

  14. Riboflavin crosslinked high-density collagen gel for the repair of annular defects in intervertebral discs: An in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Peter; Borde, Brandon H; Towne, Sara B; Moriguchi, Yu; Hudson, Katherine D; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Härtl, Roger

    2015-10-15

    Open annular defects compromise the ability of the annulus fibrosus to contain nuclear tissue in the disc space, and therefore lead to disc herniation with subsequent degenerative changes to the entire intervertebral disc. This study reports the use of riboflavin crosslinked high-density collagen gel for the repair of annular defects in a needle-punctured rat-tail model. High-density collagen has increased stiffness and greater hydraulic permeability than conventional low-density gels; riboflavin crosslinking further increases these properties. This study found that treating annular defects with crosslinked high-density collagen inhibited the progression of disc degeneration over 18 weeks compared to untreated control discs. Histological sections of FITC-labeled collagen gel revealed an early tight attachment to host annular tissue. The gel was subsequently infiltrated by host fibroblasts which remodeled it into a fibrous cap that bridged the outer disrupted annular fibers and partially repaired the defect. This repair tissue enhanced retention of nucleus pulposus tissue, maintained physiological disc hydration, and preserved hydraulic permeability, according to MRI, histological, and mechanical assessments. Degenerative changes were partially reversed in treated discs, as indicated by an increase in nucleus pulposus size and hydration between weeks 5 and 18. The collagen gel appeared to work as an instant sealant and by enhancing the intrinsic healing capabilities of the host tissue. PMID:26116448

  15. A combined biomaterial and cellular approach for annulus fibrosus rupture repair.

    PubMed

    Pirvu, Tatiana; Blanquer, Sebastien B G; Benneker, Lorin M; Grijpma, Dirk W; Richards, Robert G; Alini, Mauro; Eglin, David; Grad, Sibylle; Li, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Recurrent intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation and degenerative disc disease have been identified as the most important factors contributing to persistent pain and disability after surgical discectomy. An annulus fibrosus (AF) closure device that provides immediate closure of the AF rupture, restores disc height, reduces further disc degeneration and enhances self-repair capacities is an unmet clinical need. In this study, a poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) scaffold seeded with human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and covered with a poly(ester-urethane) (PU) membrane was assessed for AF rupture repair in a bovine organ culture annulotomy model under dynamic load for 14 days. PTMC scaffolds combined with the sutured PU membrane restored disc height of annulotomized discs and prevented herniation of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. Implanted MSCs showed an up-regulated gene expression of type V collagen, a potential AF marker, indicating in situ differentiation capability. Furthermore, MSCs delivered within PTMC scaffolds induced an up-regulation of anabolic gene expression and down-regulation of catabolic gene expression in adjacent native disc tissue. In conclusion, the combined biomaterial and cellular approach has the potential to hinder herniation of NP tissue, stabilize disc height, and positively modulate cell phenotype of native disc tissue. PMID:25542789

  16. Responses from electric stimulation of cochlear nucleus

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Ryuji, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Cochlear nucleus (CN), the exclusive destination of the auditory nerve, is the gateway for all central processing of auditory information. The CN comprises three major subdivisions: anteroventral, posteroventral and dorsal ...

  17. Dynamic risk control by human nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Sosa, Fernando; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier Jesus; Galarza, Ana; Avecillas, Josue; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Angel; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Reneses, Blanca; Barcia, Juan Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Real-world decisions about reward often involve a complex counterbalance of risk and value. Although the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the underlying neural substrate, its criticality to human behaviour remains an open question, best addressed with interventional methodology that probes the behavioural consequences of focal neural modulation. Combining a psychometric index of risky decision-making with transient electrical modulation of the nucleus accumbens, here we reveal profound, highly dynamic alteration of the relation between probability of reward and choice during therapeutic deep brain stimulation in four patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disease. Short-lived phasic electrical stimulation of the region of the nucleus accumbens dynamically altered risk behaviour, transiently shifting the psychometric function towards more risky decisions only for the duration of stimulation. A critical, on-line role of human nucleus accumbens in dynamic risk control is thereby established. PMID:26428667

  18. Comet encke: radar detection of nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, P G; Campbell, D B; Ostro, S J; Pettengill, G H; Shapiro, I I

    1982-04-16

    The nucleus of the periodic comet Encke was detected in November 1980 with the Arecibo Observatory's radar system (wavelength, 12.6 centimeters). The echoes in the one sense of circular polarization received imply a radar cross section of 1.1 +/- 0.7 square kilometers. The estimated bandwidth of these echoes combined with an estimate of the rotation vector of Encke yields a radius for the nucleus of l.5(+2.3)(-1.0) kilometers. The uncertainties given are dependent primarily on the range of models considered for the comet and for the manner in which its nucleus backscatters radio waves. Should this range prove inadequate, the true value of the radius of the nucleus might lie outside the limits given. PMID:17832744

  19. Dynamic risk control by human nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Lopez-Sosa, Fernando; Gonzalez-Rosa, Javier Jesus; Galarza, Ana; Avecillas, Josue; Pineda-Pardo, Jose Angel; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Reneses, Blanca; Barcia, Juan Antonio; Strange, Bryan

    2015-12-01

    Real-world decisions about reward often involve a complex counterbalance of risk and value. Although the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in the underlying neural substrate, its criticality to human behaviour remains an open question, best addressed with interventional methodology that probes the behavioural consequences of focal neural modulation. Combining a psychometric index of risky decision-making with transient electrical modulation of the nucleus accumbens, here we reveal profound, highly dynamic alteration of the relation between probability of reward and choice during therapeutic deep brain stimulation in four patients with treatment-resistant psychiatric disease. Short-lived phasic electrical stimulation of the region of the nucleus accumbens dynamically altered risk behaviour, transiently shifting the psychometric function towards more risky decisions only for the duration of stimulation. A critical, on-line role of human nucleus accumbens in dynamic risk control is thereby established. PMID:26428667

  20. Surgical versus Non-Operative Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation: Four-Year Results for the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Blood, Emily; Abdu, William A.; Herkowitz, Harry; Hilibrand, Alan; Albert, Todd; Fischgrund, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Concurrent prospective randomized and observational cohort study. Objectives To assess the 4-year outcomes of surgery vs. non-operative care. Background Although randomized trials have demonstrated small short-term differences in favor of surgery, long-term outcomes comparing surgical to non-operative treatment remain controversial. Methods Surgical candidates with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disc herniation meeting SPORT eligibility criteria enrolled into prospective randomized (501 participants) and observational cohorts (743 participants) at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Interventions were standard open discectomy versus usual non-operative care. Main outcome measures were changes from baseline in the SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) and Physical Function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI - AAOS/Modems version) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and annually thereafter. Results Non-adherence to treatment assignment caused the intent-to-treat analyses to underestimate the treatment effects. In the 4-year combined as-treated analysis, those receiving surgery demonstrated significantly greater improvement in all the primary outcome measures (mean change Surgery vs. Non-operative; treatment effect; 95% CI): BP (45.6 vs. 30.7; 15.0; 11.8 to 18.1), PF (44.6 vs. 29.7; 14.9; 12.0 to 17.8) and ODI (?38.1 vs. ?24.9; ?13.2; ?15.6 to ?10.9). The percent working was similar between the surgery and non-operative groups, 84.4% vs. 78.4% respectively. Conclusion In a combined as-treated analysis at 4 years, patients who underwent surgery for a lumbar disc herniation achieved greater improvement than non-operatively treated patients in all primary and secondary outcomes except work status. Trial Registration Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): Intervertebral Disc Herniation; #NCT00000410; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00000410?order=2 PMID:19018250

  1. Transport calculations of antiproton-nucleus interactions

    E-print Network

    A. B. Larionov; I. N. Mishustin; I. A. Pshenichnov; L. M. Satarov; W. Greiner

    2010-01-15

    The Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model is extended and applied to the antiproton-nucleus interactions in a wide beam momentum range. The model calculations are compared with the experimental data on $\\bar p$-absorption cross sections on nuclei with an emphasis on extraction of the real part of an antiproton optical potential. The possibility of the cold compression of a nucleus by an antiproton in-flight is also considered.

  2. Factors Predicting Patient Dissatisfaction 2 Years After Discectomy for Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Chinese Older Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Di; Ma, Lei; Shen, Yong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We aim to identify factors predicting patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy for lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in a Chinese older cohort. Preoperative and 2-year follow-up data for 843 patients were analyzed. After 2 years of discectomy, the patients rated their satisfaction by Patient Satisfaction Index (PSI), with response of 1 or 2 defining satisfaction and a PSI response of 3 or 4 defining dissatisfaction. Associations between perioperative variables and satisfaction with the results of surgery were examined in univariate and multivariate analysis. Six hundred fifty-seven patients had a PSI of 1 or 2 and were enrolled as satisfied group, 186 patients had a PSI of 3 or 4 and were enrolled as dissatisfied group. At baseline, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in age, occupation, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS)-leg, and VAS-back. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group had a significantly higher BMI and a higher incidence of depression. Two years after discectomy, no significant differences were found between the 2 groups in decrease of ODI, decrease of VAS-back, decrease of VAS-leg, surgery complications. Compared to satisfied group, dissatisfied group experienced higher incidence of symptom recurrence and depression. Logistic regression analysis showed that obesity, pre- and postoperative depression, symptom recurrence were independently associated with patient dissatisfaction 2 years after discectomy. In conclusion, more than 70% patients expressed satisfaction with discectomy for LDH. Two factors could predict patient dissatisfaction and be assessed before surgery: obesity and preoperative depression. Symptom recurrence and postoperative depression are also associated with diminished patient satisfaction. PMID:26448005

  3. Cervical intervertebral disk herniation in chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid small-breed dogs: 187 cases (1993-2013).

    PubMed

    Hakozaki, Takaharu; Iwata, Munetaka; Kanno, Nobuo; Harada, Yasuji; Yogo, Takuya; Tagawa, Masahiro; Hara, Yasushi

    2015-12-15

    Objective-To identify characteristics of chondrodystrophoid and nonchondrodystrophoid small-breed dogs with cervical intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH). Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-187 small-breed (? 15 kg [33 lb]) dogs that underwent surgery because of cervical IVDH. Procedures-Medical records were reviewed for information on breed, sex, age, weight, location of affected intervertebral disks, duration and severity of neurologic signs, and recovery time. Results-55 of the 187 (29.4%) dogs were Beagles. The most frequently affected intervertebral disk was C2-3 (81/253 [32.0%]), and this was the more frequently affected intervertebral disk in dogs of several chondrodystrophoid breeds, including Beagles (29/66 [43.9%]), Dachshunds (13/37 [35.1%]), Shih Tzus (16/41 [39.0%]), and Pekingese (3/10 [30.0%]). However, caudal disks (C5-6 or C6-7) were more frequently affected in Yorkshire Terriers (13/24 [54.2%]) and Chihuahuas (9/13 [69%]). Shih Tzus and Yorkshire Terriers were significantly older at the time of surgery (mean ± SD age, 9.6 ± 2.3 years and 9.5 ± 2.5 years, respectively) than were Pomeranians (6.2 ± 2.3 years), and Yorkshire Terriers had a significantly higher number of affected disks (2.0 ± 0.9) than did Dachshunds (1.1 ± 0.3). Mean recovery time was significantly longer in Yorkshire Terriers (36.7 ± 13.0 days) than in Beagles (16.5 ± 17.1 days), Shih Tzus (17.8 ± 14.5 days), or Chihuahuas (12.2 ± 7. 2 days). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Results suggested that there may be breed-specific differences in the characteristics of cervical IVDH in small-breed dogs. PMID:26642135

  4. Outcomes of Microendoscopic Discectomy and Percutaneous Transforaminal Endoscopic Discectomy for the Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Comparative Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinkemani, Arjun; Hong, Xin; Gao, Zeng-Xin; Zhuang, Su-Yang; Jiang, Zan-Li; Zhang, Shao-Dong; Bao, Jun-Ping; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Pei; Xie, Xin-Hui; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective, case control evaluation of 86 patients who underwent microendoscopic discectomy (MED) and percutaneous transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED) for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Purpose To evaluate the safety and the outcomes of MED and PTED for the treatment of LDH. Overview of Literature MED and PTED are minimally invasive surgical techniques for lower back pain. Studies to date have shown that MED and PTED are safe and effective treatment modalities for LDH. Methods A retrospective study was performed in patients with LDH treated with MED (n=50) and transforaminal endoscopic discectomy (PTED; n=36) in our hospital. All patients were followed-up with self-evaluation questionnaires, Oswestry disability index (ODI), medical outcomes study 36-item short form health survey and MacNab criteria. All the patients in both groups were followed up to 12 months after the operation. Results ODI questionnaire responses were not statistically different between the MED and PTED groups (53.00 vs. 48.72) before treatment. Average scores and minimal disability after 5 days to 12 months of follow-up were 4.96 in the MED group and 3.61 in the PTED group. According to MacNab criteria, 92.0% of the MED group and 94.4% of the PTED group had excellent or good results with no significant difference. Conclusions There was no significant difference between MED and PTED outcomes. Further large-scale, randomized studies with long-term follow-up are needed. PMID:26713113

  5. A controlled case study of the relationship between environmental risk factors and apoptotic gene polymorphism and lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin-Gang; Zhang, Feng; Sun, Zhengmin; Guo, Wentao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Miao; Guo, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the etiologic role of apoptosis-related genes, environmental risk factors, and their interaction in the occurrence of lumbar disk herniation (LDH), a controlled case study was performed with 128 LDH patients and 132 age- and sex-matched controls. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, time-of-flight mass spectrometry assay was used to analyze the genotype of nine polymorphism sites in three genes, including Fas -1377G/A rs2234767, Fas -670G/A rs1800682, Fas rs2147420, Fas rs2296603, Fas rs7901656, Fas rs1571019, Fas ligand (FasL) -844C/T rs763110, caspase 9 (CASP9) -1263A>G rs4645978, and CASP9 -712C>T rs4645981. The patients and controls showed similar age and sex, but had significant differences in lumbar load, bed type, amateur sports, and leisure activities (P < 0.05). The correlation analysis revealed that polymorphism of FasL -844C/T (rs763110) and CASP9 -1263A>G (rs4645978) had a significant correlation with LDH, indicating that the genotypes of FasL -844C/T TT and CASP9 -1263A>G GG are probably high-risk genotypes for LDH. The results of environment-gene interaction analysis revealed that, in LDH, the interaction of the FasL -844TT genotype and level III to IV lumbar load was consistent with the ultramultiplying model, and the interaction of the CASP9 rs4645978 GG genotype and level III to IV lumbar load was consistent with the submultiplicative model. Therefore, the risk of LDH was determined by both environmental and genetic risk factors, and the mechanisms of interactions between different genotypes and environmental factors also differed. PMID:23141929

  6. The Impact of Workers' Compensation on Outcomes of Surgical and Nonoperative Therapy for Patients with a Lumbar Disc Herniation SPORT

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Steven J.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Blood, Emily A.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Pransky, Glenn S.; Weinstein, James N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Prospective randomized and observational cohorts. Objective To compare outcomes of patients with and without workers' compensation who had surgical and nonoperative treatment for a lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IDH). Summary of Background Data Few studies have examined the association between worker's compensation and outcomes of surgical and nonoperative treatment. Methods Patients with at least 6 weeks of sciatica and a lumbar IDH were enrolled in either a randomized trial or observational cohort at 13 US spine centers. Patients were categorized as workers' compensation or nonworkers' compensation based on baseline disability compensation and work status. Treatment was usual nonoperative care or surgical discectomy. Outcomes included pain, functional impairment, satisfaction and work/disability status at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Results Combining randomized and observational cohorts, 113 patients with workers' compensation and 811 patients without were followed for 2 years. There were significant improvements in pain, function, and satisfaction with both surgical and nonoperative treatment in both groups. In the nonworkers' compensation group, there was a clinically and statistically significant advantage for surgery at 3 months that remained significant at 2 years. However, in the workers' compensation group, the benefit of surgery diminished with time; at 2 years no significant advantage was seen for surgery in any outcome (treatment difference for SF-36 bodily pain [?5.9; 95% CI: ?16.7–4.9] and physical function [5.0; 95% CI: ?4.9–15]). Surgical treatment was not associated with better work or disability outcomes in either group. Conclusion Patients with a lumbar IDH improved substantially with both surgical and nonoperative treatment. However, there was no added benefit associated with surgical treatment for patients with workers' compensation at 2 years while those in the nonworkers' compensation group had significantly greater improvement with surgical treatment. PMID:20023603

  7. Nucleus-nucleus cross-sections and long-range correlations with a local supercritical pomeron

    E-print Network

    M. A. Braun

    2007-11-21

    Nucleus-nucleus scattering is studied in the local Reggeon Field Theory in the quasi-classical approximation with non-eikonal boundary conditions corresponding to the Glauber picture at low energies. Comparison with the commonly used eikonal boundary conditions shows that the new conditions make both the action and nucleus-nucleus total cross-sections lower by $3\\div 5$ %. They also substantially change the behaviour of the solutions of the equations of motion at low energies. Using expressions for the double inclusive cross-sections derived earlier in the Reggeon Field Theory \\cite{CM} long-range rapidity correlations are calculated for the RHIC and LHC energies.

  8. NUCLEUS -Genomics Core Facility University of Leicester, UK

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    NUCLEUS - Genomics Core Facility University of Leicester, UK Visit our website: www.le.ac.uk/nucleus The Genomics Core, run by the 'NUCLEUS' team (Networking, Unification, Collaboration, Expertise, User Support Reshma Vaghela ns249@le.ac.uk rjb40@le.ac.uk NUCLEUS: Genomics Core Facility Department of Genetics

  9. Afferent connections of the oculomotor nucleus in the chick.

    PubMed

    Labandeira-Garcia, J L; Guerra-Seijas, M J; Labandeira-Garcia, J A; Jorge-Barreiro, F J

    1989-04-22

    Horseradish peroxidase was injected into the oculomotor nucleus of the chick in order to locate and characterize the neurons projecting to this nucleus. In the rostral mesencephalon, 120-180 neurons were labelled in the medial area of the ipsilateral nucleus campi Foreli; 190-220 in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (most of them contralateral); and smaller numbers bilaterally in the medial mesencephalic reticular formation, the nucleus of the basal optic root complex, and the central grey matter. More caudally, numerous neurons were labelled in the contralateral abducens nucleus and the vestibular complex and a few in the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis. Labelled neurons appeared ipsilaterally in the caudal region of the nucleus vestibularis superior and in the rostral tip of the nucleus descendens just lateral to the tractus lamino-olivaris. In the contralateral vestibular complex, a group of labelled cells observed in the dorsolateral area may be homologous to the mammalian cell group Y. At the level of the contralateral abducens nucleus, the most numerous group of cells (625-700) projecting to the oculomotor nucleus formed a lateromedial fringe that affected the nucleus tangentialis, the rostral tip of the nucleus descendens, and the ventrolateral region of the nucleus medialis. Only a few labelled neurons were seen in the contralateral nucleus vestibularis superior, the ipsilateral cell group A, and the ipsilateral nucleus vestibularis medialis. PMID:2723150

  10. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leu, Ming-Taun

    2010-01-01

    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main chamber at the inlet end. The inlet assembly is designed to offer improved (relative to prior such assemblies) laminar-flow performance within the main chamber. Dry aerosols are subjected to activation and growth in the supersaturation field. f) After aerosol activation, at the outlet end of the main chamber, a polished stainless-steel probe is used to sample droplets into a laser particle counter. The probe features an improved design for efficient sampling. The counter has six channels with size bins in the range of 0.5- to 5.0-micron diameter. g) To enable efficient sampling, the probe is scanned along the width axis of the main chamber (thereby effecting scanning along the temperature gradient and thereby, further, effecting scanning along the supersaturation gradient) by means of a computer-controlled translation stage.

  11. Computer program for parameterization of nucleus-nucleus electromagnetic dissociation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Badavi, Forooz F.

    1988-01-01

    A computer subroutine parameterization of electromagnetic dissociation cross sections for nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented that is suitable for implementation in a heavy ion transport code. The only inputs required are the projectile kinetic energy and the projectile and target charge and mass numbers.

  12. Influence of finite baryon density on hadronization in nucleus-nucleus collisions via recombination

    E-print Network

    C. B. Yang; H. Zheng

    2007-08-14

    In this paper is investigated the influence of net baryon density on baryon and meson yields in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions, based on the recombination model for hadronization. Unitarity condition is used as a constraint on the model. Three cases with different assumptions on the expansion of partonic system are considered and the baryon to meson ratio is calculated for those situations.

  13. High density QCD and nucleus-nucleus scattering deeply in the saturation region

    E-print Network

    Andrey Kormilitzin; Eugene Levin; Jeremy S. Miller

    2011-07-04

    In this paper we solve the equations that describe nucleus nucleus scattering, in high density QCD,in the framework of the BFKL Pomeron calculus. We found that (i) the contribution of short distances to the opacity for nucleus-nucleus scattering dies at high energies, (ii) the opacity tends to unity at high energy, and (iii) the main contribution that survives comes from soft (long distance) processes for large values of the impact parameter. The corrections to the opacity $\\Omega\\Lb Y,b\\Rb = 1$ were calculated and it turns out that they have a completely different form, namely($1 - \\Omega \\to \\exp\\Lb - Const\\,\\sqrt{Y}\\Rb$) than the opacity that stems from the Balisky-Kovchegov equation, which is($1 - \\Omega \\to \\exp\\Lb - Const\\,Y^2\\Rb$). We reproduce the formula for the nucleus-nucleus cross section that is commonly used in the description of nucleus-nucleus scattering, and there is no reason why it should be correct in the Glauber-Gribov approach

  14. Onset of Deconfinement in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions - Past, Present and Future -

    E-print Network

    Marek Gazdzicki

    2007-12-18

    In 2007 Mark I. Gorenstein celebrated his 60th birthday. This report is dedicated to Mark and it sketches the results obtained during the past ten years of our collaboration and friendship. They concern search for and study of the onset of deconfinement in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  15. Toward describing one-nucleon exchange in nucleus-nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Fadeev, S. N. Gridnev, K. A.

    2010-12-15

    The effect of one-nucleon exchanges on the potential of nucleus-nucleus interaction is considered on the basis of the resonating-group method. Corrections to the folding-model potential are obtained in the semiclassical approximation. Neutron scattering on {sup 4}He nuclei is considered as a model example.

  16. A simple evolution equation for rapidity distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    J. Dias de Deus; J. G. Milhano

    2007-10-24

    We explore the relationship between the Glasma framework and the String Percolation Model by introducing a simple model for the rapidity distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions. The model is solved for both symmetrical and asymmetrical collisions. The phenomenon of limiting fragmentation is briefly discussed.

  17. Influences of spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy on the pain, disability, and straight leg raising of patients with intervertebral disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jioun; Lee, Sangyong; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify how spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy influence the pain, disability, and straight leg raise (SLR) ability of patients with intervertebral disc herniation. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with chronic lumbar pain who were divided into a spinal decompression therapy group (SDTG, n=15), and a general traction therapy group (GTTG, n=15). [Methods] The SDTG used a spinal decompression device, and the GTTG used a lumbar traction device. Both groups received conservative physical therapy three times a week for four weeks. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain the patients with chronic lumbar pain. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to measure the degree of functional disability. A goniometer was used to measure the patients’ SLR ability. [Results] Both SDTG and GTTG showed statistically significant decreases in VAS and ODI scores and a statistically significant increase in SLR angle. A comparison of the two groups found no statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] Spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy are effective at improving the pain, disability, and SLR of patients with intervertebral disc herniation. Thus, selective treatment may be required. PMID:25729196

  18. An unusual autopsy case of incomplete decapitation of a motorcyclist with herniation of thoracic organs through a helmet-related neck wound.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Sara; Suadoni, Fabio; Carlini, Luigi; Lancia, Massimo; Bacci, Mauro

    2013-12-01

    The authors report an unusual autopsy case of a motorcyclist who wore a full-face type helmet and had incomplete decapitation and herniation of the heart and a portion of the right lung through an extensive lacerate wound on the front of the neck after his motorcycle crashed. The authors identified 2 main offensive dynamics that occurred simultaneously: First, partial decapitation with a extensive gaping wound on the neck caused by the chin strap after a violent angular movement of the head; second, the translocation of the abdominal organs into the thorax and the herniation of the thoracic organs through the neck wound generated by a compressive trauma of the thorax and abdomen. This singular case, like few others in forensic literature, shows the possibility of helmet chin strap-related traumas and highlights the limitations of modern protective helmets. If the postulated mechanism is confirmed despite the massive benefits derived from the compulsory use of protective helmets, the properties of the helmet chin strap would need to be reassessed to improve the protection of the soft tissue and bones in the neck. PMID:24189629

  19. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus

    E-print Network

    Abhishek Kumar; Ananyo Maitra; Madhuresh Sumit; Sriram Ramaswamy; G. V. Shivashankar

    2013-09-14

    The nucleus of the eukaryotic cell functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to the stresses carried by these filaments is largely unexplored. We report here the results of studies of the translational and rotational dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblast cells, with the effects of cell migration suppressed by plating onto fibronectin-coated micro-fabricated patterns. Patterns of the same area but different shapes and/or aspect ratio were used to study the effect of cell geometry on the dynamics. On circles, squares and equilateral triangles, the nucleus undergoes persistent rotational motion, while on high-aspect-ratio rectangles of the same area it moves only back and forth. The circle and the triangle showed respectively the largest and the smallest angular speed. We show that our observations can be understood through a hydrodynamic approach in which the nucleus is treated as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and persistence time of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be a generic property that cells must balance by specific mechanisms in order to maintain nuclear homeostasis.

  20. Structure of the M33 nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.S.; Goad, J.W.; Mould, J.

    1982-12-01

    New optical and infrared observations of the M33 nucleus provide the basis for a quantitative structural analysis. The nucleus has been spatially resolved on a direct CCD image and is found to have FWHM approx.0''.8 (approx.2 pc for D = 900 kpc) and thus is similar in size to a typical globular cluster or the M31 nucleus. Sharp absorption lines are seen on a high resolution echelle spectrogram which indicates that the velocity dispersion is < or approx. =30 km s/sup -1/. This value, in combination with the size and luminosity, leads to a low mass-to-light ratio of M/L/sub ..nu../ roughly-equal2-3. The M33 nucleus is therefore a very different type of object than high M/L, high mass density nuclei found in M31 population is presented, and we suggest that growth of the M33 nucleus may be continuing as gas is fed in from the surrounding galactic disk.

  1. Target nucleus in relativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gutbrod, H.H.; Warwick, A.I.; Wieman, H.

    1982-03-01

    Both the fireball model and hydrodynamical model predict, in a central collision, a fast energy dissipation in the early diving stage of the projectile into the target nucleus. In the final state both models show total incident energy largely dispersed over the whole target nucleus. In a quantitative comparison with the data for the Intranuclear Cascade Calculations, however, the 90/sup 0/ double differential cross section seems to be flatter than the calculated one. If the slope is reflecting the temperature in the system then the data are having apparently a higher temperature than the cascade would predict. This report suggests and discusses a picture of the reaction mechanism where the light projectile (e.g. Ne) gets stopped very early in the large target nucleus (e.g. Au or U) forming a small fireball at approximately half the beam rapidity, which decays inside the target nucleus, heating it up and causing thee whole system to expand. The expansion cools the system and big clusters can condense out if the total energy and thus entropy in the system is not too high to prevent it. Such a qualitative picture of a reaction mechanism emerges when we consider the information obtained about relativistic nuclear collisions from measurements of the remnants of a large target nucleus struck by a smaller projectile (Ne + Au) and relate it to the complementary information from earlier measurements of fast light reaction products. (WHK)

  2. Microdiscectomy for the Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation: An Evaluation of Reoperations and Long-Term Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Aichmair, Alexander; Du, Jerry Y.; Shue, Jennifer; Evangelisti, Gisberto; Sama, Andrew A.; Hughes, Alexander P.; Lebl, Darren R.; Burket, Jayme C.; Cammisa, Frank P.; Girardi, Federico P.

    2014-01-01

    Design?Retrospective case series. Objective?The objective of this study was to assess the reoperation rate after microdiscectomy for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in patients with???5-year follow-up and identify demographic, perioperative, and outcome-related differences between patients with and without a reoperation. Methods?The medical records, operative reports, and office notes of patients who had undergone microdiscectomy at a single institution between March 1994 and December 2007 were reviewed and long-term follow-up was assessed via a telephone questionnaire. Results?Forty patients (M:24, F:16) with an average age at surgery of 39.9?±?12.5 years (range: 18–80) underwent microdiscectomy at the levels L5–S1 (n?=?28, 70%), L4-L5 (n?=?9, 22.5%), L3–L4 (n?=?2, 5.0%), and L1–L2 (n?=?1, 2.5%). After an average of 40.4?±?40.1 months (range: 1–128), 25% of patients (10/40) required further spine surgery related to the initial microdiscectomy. At an average postoperative follow-up of 11.1?±?4.0 years (range: 5–19), additional symptoms apart from back and leg pain were reported more frequently by patients who underwent a reoperation (p?=?0.005). Patient satisfaction was significantly higher in patients who did not undergo a reoperation (p?=?0.041). For the Oswestry disability index, pain intensity (p?=?0.036), and pain-related sleep disturbances (p?=?0.006) were reported to be more severe in the reoperation group. Conclusions?Microdiscectomy for the treatment of LDH results in a favorable long-term outcome in the majority of cases. The reoperation rate was higher in our series than reported in previous investigations with shorter follow-up. Although there were no statistically significant pre-/perioperative differences between patients with and without reoperation, our findings suggest a difference in self-reported long-term outcome measures. PMID:25278881

  3. Uncovering the Nucleus Candidate for NGC 253

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Agüero, M. P.; Camperi, J. A.; Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Bosch, G.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-11-01

    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.?0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H2 rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 ?m (Qa) and 12.8 ?m ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Br? emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this position. All this evidence points to TH7 as the best candidate for the galactic nucleus of NGC 253.

  4. Nucleus model for periodic Comet Tempel 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    Observational data obtained primarily during 1988 are analyzed and synthesized to develop a comprehensive physical model for the nucleus of Periodic Comet Tempel 2, one of the best studied members of Jupiter's family of short-period comets. It is confirmed that a previous investigation provided reliable information on the comet's spin-axis orientation, which implies and obliquity of 54 degrees of the orbit plane to the equatorial plane and which appears to have varied little - if at all - with time. This conclusion is critical for fitting a triaxial ellipsoid to approximate the figure of the nucleus.

  5. Compound Nucleus Contributions to the Optical Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, I J; Dietrich, F S; Escher, J E; Dupuis, M

    2008-01-28

    An ab-initio calculation of the optical potential for neutron-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all the particle-hole (p-h) excitation states in the target. These p-h states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and (in the end) to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. The random-phase approximation (RPA) provides the linear combinations of p-h states that include the residual interactions within the target, and we show preliminary results for elastic flux loss using both p-h and RPA descriptions of target excitations.

  6. Nucleus-nucleus interactions between 20 and 65 GeV per nucleon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Meegan, C. A.; Parnell, T. A.; Roberts, F. E.; Watts, J. W.; Oda, H.; Takahashi, Y.; Jones, W. V.

    1987-01-01

    A hybrid electronic-counter/emulsion-chamber instrument was exposed to high-energy cosmic rays on a balloon. The data on 105 nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 20-65 GeV/nucleon and for incident nuclear charges Zp in the range of 22 to 28 are presented. Inclusive characteristics of particle production on different targets (plastic, emulsion, and lead) are shown and compared with models based on the superposition of nucleon-nucleus interactions. Features of a subset of the more central collisions with a plastic target and some characteristics of individual events with the highest multiplicity of produced particles are described.

  7. Uncovering the nucleus candidate for NGC 253

    E-print Network

    Günthardt, G I; Camperi, J A; Díaz, R J; Gomez, P L; Bosch, G; Schirmer, M

    2015-01-01

    NGC253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst which becomes the best candidate to study the relationship between starburst and AGN activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus. The near infrared spectroscopy could be advantageous in order to shed light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis and through the brightest infrared source. We present evidence showing that the brightest near infrared and mid infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a stellar supercluster, in fact, presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. It is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.0" of the symmetry center of the galactic bar. Moreover, our data indicate that this object i...

  8. Chronic pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation restores functional connectivity

    E-print Network

    Miall, Chris

    ; gait and falls questionnaire score: 38] [3]. The patient proceeded to bilateral stereotactic in a longitudinal imaging study of a patient who received bilateral pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. We used-term effect of low-frequency stimulation in a long- itudinal imaging study of a patient who received bilateral

  9. FROM KUIPER BELT OBJECT TO COMETARY NUCLEUS

    E-print Network

    Jewitt, David C.

    FROM KUIPER BELT OBJECT TO COMETARY NUCLEUS David Jewitt Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn body populations are related through a common origin in the Kuiper Belt, notably the Centaurs, the Jupiter Family Comets and certain dead-comets. But does primitive material from the Kuiper Belt survive

  10. Linking nucleus accumbens dopamine and blood oxygenation

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Brian

    REVIEW Linking nucleus accumbens dopamine and blood oxygenation Brian Knutson & Sasha E. B. Gibbs-Verlag 2007 Abstract Rationale Animal research suggests that anticipation of reward can elicit dopamine in the NAcc. However, the physiolog- ical relationship between dopamine release and BOLD signal increases

  11. Local Irrigation of the Surgical Field with Antibiotics in the End of Procedure Reduces the Infection Rate in Herniated Lumbar Disc Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kërveshi, Armend; Halili, Nehat; Kastrati, Bujar; Qosja, Faik; Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reported rate of infections after lumbar discectomy is 1%–15 %. This complication may result in disability or even the death. Aim The aim of the study is to assess the rate of infection associated with lumbar discectomies when combined systemic and local antibiotic prophylaxis was employed. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed all patients operated for herniated lumbar disc from 2009 -2012 in our institute. Beside of receiving systemic prophylaxis with 2g of Cefazoline, all patients had their operative field irrigated at the end of operation with Amikacin sulfate injection. Wound was considered infected when local and systemic signs of infection were revealed and were associated with elevated ESR, leukocytosis and elevated CRP. Assessment of infection is done by neurosurgeon during the hospitalization and later at outpatient’s clinic along postoperative course of three months. Results: A total of 604 patients were operated, of those 285 patients (47.2 %) females and 319 males (52.8 %), 12 patients were operated on two levels (1.98 %). Average patient age was 32.5 years (range 20–65 years) Localization of herniated disc was: in L/2-L/3 20 patients or 3.3 %, the L/3-L/4 level 42 patients or 7 % , the L/4 -L /5 262 patients or 43.3 % at the level L/V- S/1 280 patients or 46.3 %. Three patients (0.49%) developed wound infection, two of them superficial infection only with local signs: local pain, redness and leakage. They were treated with oral antibiotics. One with deep wound infection. He presented with local and systemic signs and treated with i.v antibiotics. All the cultures from wound swab revealed staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: Prophylaxis with systemic antibiotic (Cefazoline 2.0) intravenous administration 30 minutes before the incision and irrigation of operative field with local antibiotic Amikacine sulfate at the end of procedure reduces the infection rate in patients operated for herniated lumbar disc when compared with systemic antibiotic prophylaxis only. PMID:25685087

  12. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    D. Anchishkin; V. Naboka; J. Cleymans

    2013-03-25

    The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions, which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before freeze-out, are derived.

  13. Full and Partial Thermalization of Nucleons in Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    D. Anchishkin; A. Muskeyev; S. Yezhov

    2009-02-06

    We propose a mechanism of thermalization of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Our model belongs, to a certain degree, to the transport ones; we consider the evolution of the system, but we parametrize this development by the number of collisions of every particle in the system rather than by the time variable. We based on the assumption that the nucleon momentum transfer after several nucleon-nucleon (-hadron) collisions becomes a random quantity driven by a proper distribution.

  14. Effect of the Pauli exclusion principle on the potential of nucleus-nucleus interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu. Nesterov, V. A.

    2010-07-15

    The dependence of the potentials of nucleus-nucleus interaction on taking into account the antisymmetrization of nucleons and the contribution of the nucleon kinetic energy to the potential is studied within approaches based on the energy-density functional, double-folding model, and the two-center shell model. It is shown that the contribution of the nucleon kinetic energy in colliding nuclei leads to the appearance of a significant core at short distances between the nuclei involved.

  15. Average transverse momentum and energy density in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.; Lord, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Emulsion chambers were used to measure the transverse momenta of photons or pi(0) mesons produced in high-energy cosmic-ray nucleus-nucleus collisions. A group of events having large average transverse momenta has been found which apparently exceeds the expected limiting values. Analysis of the events at early interaction times, of the order of 1 fm/c, indicates that the observed transverse momentum increases with both rapidity density and energy density.

  16. Possible detection of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and nucleus-nucleus Coulomb forces

    SciTech Connect

    da Silveira, R.; Leclercq-Willain, C.

    1997-02-01

    We report on possible effects of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and the nucleus-nucleus Coulomb interaction. We show that, although very small, these effects could be measured on using low-energy scattering between identical heavy nuclei. For the system {sup 208}Pb+{sup 208}Pb(E{sub L}=5MeV). The angular precision needed would be about 0.001{degree}. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Results on ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions from balloon-borne emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W.; Meegan, C. A.; Takahashi, Y.; Watts, J. W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.

    1985-01-01

    The results of balloon-borne emulsion-chamber measurements on high-energy cosmic-ray nuclei (Burnett et al., 1983) are summarized in tables and graphs and briefly characterized. Special consideration is given to seven nucleus-nucleus interaction events at energy in excess of 1 TeV/A with multiplicity greater than 400, and to Fe interactions (53 with CHO, 10 with emulsion, and 14 with Pb) at 20-60 GeV/A.

  18. Multiplicity Fluctuations in Proton-Proton and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    V. P. Konchakovski; M. I. Gorenstein; E. L. Bratkovskaya

    2007-05-24

    We study the scaled variances of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions at SPS and RHIC energies within the HSD transport model. The HSD results are compared with proton-proton data and with predictions of the hadron-resonance gas statistical model. We find that the HSD scaled variances $\\omega_i$ for negatively, positively, and all charged hadrons in central nucleus-nucleus collisions remain close to the $\\omega_i$ values in proton-proton collisions and increase with collision energy as the corresponding multiplicities per participating nucleon. The statistical model predicts very different behavior of $\\omega_i$. However, a comparison with preliminary NA49 data for the most central Pb+Pb collisions at SPS energies does not permit to distinguish the HSD and statistical model results. New measurements of the multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions in a wide energy region with large acceptance are needed to allow for a proper determination of the underlying dynamics.

  19. Nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections, and the nuclear interaction radius

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Ibrahim, Badawy

    2011-04-15

    We study the nucleus-nucleus total reaction cross sections for stable nuclei, in the energy region from 30A MeV to about 1A GeV, and find them to be in proportion to ({radical}({sigma}{sub pp}{sup tot}Z{sub 1}{sup 2/3}+{sigma}{sub pn}{sup tot}N{sub 1}{sup 2/3})+{radical}({sigma}{sub pp}{sup tot}Z{sub 2}{sup 2/3}+{sigma}{sub pn}{sup tot}N{sub 2}{sup 2/3})) {sup 2} in the mass range 8 to 100. Also, we find a parameter-free relation that enables us to predict a total reaction cross section for any nucleus-nucleus within 10% uncertainty at most, using the experimental value of the total reaction cross section of a given nucleus-nucleus. The power of the relation is demonstrated by several examples. The energy dependence of the nuclear interaction radius is deduced; it is found to be almost constant in the energy range from about 200A MeV to about 1A GeV; in this energy range and for nuclei with N=Z, R{sub I}(A)=(1.14{+-}0.02)A{sup 1/3} fm.

  20. The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4–5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hae-sun; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4–5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretching with lumbar traction in lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients, from 18±1.29 to 2.1±1.35. The Oswestry scale scores also decreased significantly, from 20.35±2.01 to 3.5±2.84, after stretching with lumbar traction. [Conclusion] Thus, we suggest stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4–5 HIVD patients. PMID:25140094

  1. The Effects of Stretching with Lumbar Traction on VAS and Oswestry Scales of Patients with Lumbar 4-5 Herniated Intervertebral Disc.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hae-Sun; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of stretching with lumbar traction on VAS and Oswestry scale scores of lumbar 4-5 herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) patients. [Subjects] We recruited 20 lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients. [Methods] We performed stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients during 4 weeks. The VAS and Oswestry scales were measured before and 4 weeks after the intervention. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in VAS scale scores for stretching with lumbar traction in lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients, from 18±1.29 to 2.1±1.35. The Oswestry scale scores also decreased significantly, from 20.35±2.01 to 3.5±2.84, after stretching with lumbar traction. [Conclusion] Thus, we suggest stretching with lumbar traction for lumbar 4-5 HIVD patients. PMID:25140094

  2. Herniated Cervical Disc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctor, with the help of a nurse or physical therapist, may also begin education and training on specific exercises to strengthen your neck. These exercises may be performed at home or you may visit a physical therapist for a more specific program to meet ...

  3. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Pretreatment Evaluation and Prediction of Treatment Effect in Patients Undergoing CT-Guided Injection for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiang-Ke; Bhetuwal, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a change in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could predict early response to CT-guided Oxygen-Ozone (O2-O3) injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation. Materials and Methods A total of 52 patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy received a single intradiscal (3 mL) and periganglionic (5 mL) injection of an O2-O3 mixture. An ADC index of the involved side to the intact side was calculated using the following formula: pre-treatment ADC index = ([ADC involved side - ADC intact side] / ADC intact side) × 100. We analyzed the relationship between the pre-treatment Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the ADC index. In addition, the correlation between ODI recovery ratio and ADC index was investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of the ADC index for predicting response in O2-O3 therapy was determined. Results Oswestry Disability Index and the ADC index was not significantly correlated (r = -0.125, p = 0.093). The ADC index and ODI recovery ratio was significantly correlated (r = 0.819, p < 0.001). When using 7.10 as the cut-off value, the ADC index obtained a sensitivity of 86.3% and a specificity of 82.9% for predicting successful response to therapy around the first month of follow-up. Conclusion This preliminary study demonstrates that the patients with decreased ADC index tend to show poor improvement of clinical symptoms. The ADC index may be a useful indicator to predict early response to CT-guided O2-O3 injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation. PMID:26175588

  4. Risk factors for back pain-related loss of working time after surgery for lumbar disc herniation: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Puolakka, K; Ylinen, J; Neva, M H; Kautiainen, H; Häkkinen, A

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the occurrence and the risk factors of back-related loss of working time in patients undergoing surgery for lumbar disc herniation. One hundred and fifty-two gainfully employed patients underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Two months postoperatively, those patients completed a self-report questionnaire including queries on back and leg pain (VAS), functional capacity (Oswestry disability index--ODI, version 1.0), and motivation to work. After 5 years, lost working time was evaluated by means of a postal questionnaire about sick leave and disability pensions. The cumulative number of back pain-related days-off work was calculated for each patient. All 152 patients, 86 men and 66 women, were prescribed sick leave for the first 2 months. Thereafter, 80 (53%) of them reported back pain-related sick leave or early retirement. A permanent work disability pension due to back problems was awarded to 15 (10%) patients, 5 men (6%) and 10 women (15%). Median number of all work disability days per year was 11 (interquartile range [IQR] 9-37); it was 9 days (IQR 9-22) in patients with minimal disability (ODI score 0-20) at 2 months postoperatively and 67 days (IQR 9-352) in those with moderate or severe disability (ODI > 20; P < 0.001). The respective means were 61, 29, and 140 days/year. Multivariate analysis showed ODI > 20, leg pain, and poor motivation to work to be the risk factors for extension of work disability. Results of the present study show that after the lumbar disc surgery, poor outcome in questionnaire measures the physical functioning (ODI) and leg pain at 2 months postoperatively, as well as poor motivation to work, are associated with the loss of working time. Patients with unfavourable prognosis should be directed to rehabilitation before the loss of employment. PMID:18038161

  5. Risk factors for back pain-related loss of working time after surgery for lumbar disc herniation: a 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Ylinen, J.; Neva, M. H.; Kautiainen, H.; Häkkinen, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the occurrence and the risk factors of back-related loss of working time in patients undergoing surgery for lumbar disc herniation. One hundred and fifty-two gainfully employed patients underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Two months postoperatively, those patients completed a self-report questionnaire including queries on back and leg pain (VAS), functional capacity (Oswestry disability index—ODI, version 1.0), and motivation to work. After 5 years, lost working time was evaluated by means of a postal questionnaire about sick leave and disability pensions. The cumulative number of back pain-related days-off work was calculated for each patient. All 152 patients, 86 men and 66 women, were prescribed sick leave for the first 2 months. Thereafter, 80 (53%) of them reported back pain-related sick leave or early retirement. A permanent work disability pension due to back problems was awarded to 15 (10%) patients, 5 men (6%) and 10 women (15%). Median number of all work disability days per year was 11 (interquartile range [IQR] 9–37); it was 9 days (IQR 9–22) in patients with minimal disability (ODI score 0–20) at 2 months postoperatively and 67 days (IQR 9–352) in those with moderate or severe disability (ODI > 20; P < 0.001). The respective means were 61, 29, and 140 days/year. Multivariate analysis showed ODI > 20, leg pain, and poor motivation to work to be the risk factors for extension of work disability. Results of the present study show that after the lumbar disc surgery, poor outcome in questionnaire measures the physical functioning (ODI) and leg pain at 2 months postoperatively, as well as poor motivation to work, are associated with the loss of working time. Patients with unfavourable prognosis should be directed to rehabilitation before the loss of employment. PMID:18038161

  6. Operating Systems B. RANDELL, Editor The Nucleus of a

    E-print Network

    Han, Richard Y.

    Operating Systems B. RANDELL, Editor The Nucleus of a Multiprogramming System PIER BRINCIt HANSEN of program scheduling and resource allocation. The system nucleus sim- ulates an environment in which program of the multiprogramming system are described in detail in a report [1] available from Regnecentralen. 2. System Nucleus

  7. COMMUNICATION Residues Participating in the Protein Folding Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Baker, David

    COMMUNICATION Residues Participating in the Protein Folding Nucleus do not Exhibit Preferential struc- ture (the folding nucleus) are conserved. Here we report the results of an exhaustive, systematic that the median conser- vation of residues reported to participate in the folding nucleus is greater than

  8. THIRD DERIVATIVE OF THE ONEELECTRON DENSITY AT THE NUCLEUS

    E-print Network

    THIRD DERIVATIVE OF THE ONE­ELECTRON DENSITY AT THE NUCLEUS S. FOURNAIS, M. HOFFMANN density # # at the nucleus. For eigenfunctions with corresponding eigen­ value below the essential approaching a nucleus under a fixed angle # # S 2 , as was done in [2], and to study the spherical average

  9. Special Issue 3-D Cell Biology Compartmentalization of the nucleus

    E-print Network

    Brickner, Jason

    Special Issue ­ 3-D Cell Biology Compartmentalization of the nucleus Lauren Meldi and Jason H. Brickner Department of Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA The nucleus to influence the folding and disposition of chromosomes within the nucleus. The localization of many proteins

  10. Introduction to Nuclear Physics: Size and Structure of the Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Smith, Nathanael J.

    Introduction to Nuclear Physics: Size and Structure of the Nucleus L11-I 1 / 14 #12;Atoms and Nuclei A typical depiction of an atom. It is not even close to realistic! In reality the nucleus is much the nucleus to be a uniform sphere, made up of the nucleons which are themselves smaller uniform spheres

  11. Why do we have a caudate nucleus?

    PubMed

    Villablanca, Jaime R

    2010-01-01

    In order to understand the physiological role of the caudate nucleus, we combine here our laboratory data on cats with reports of patients with selective damage to this nucleus. Cats with bilateral removal of the caudate nuclei showed a stereotyped behavior consisting of persistently approaching and then following a person, another cat, or any object, and attempting to contact the target. Simultaneously, the animals exhibited a friendly disposition and persistent docility together with purring and forelimbs treading/kneading. The magnitude and duration of this behavior was proportional to the extent of the removal reaching a maximum after ablations of 65% or more of the caudate tissue. These cats were hyperactive but they had lost the feline elegance of movements. Additional features of acaudate cats were: (1) postural and accuracy deficits (plus perseveration) in paw usage tasks including bar pressing for food reward; (2) cognitive and perceptual impairments on a T-maze battery of tasks and on the bar pressing tasks; (3) blockage or blunting of the species-specific behavioral response to a single injection of morphine; Unilateral caudate nucleus removal did not produce global behavioral effects, but only deficit in the contralateral paw contact placing reaction and paw usage/bar pressing. Moreover and surprisingly, we found hypertrophy of the ipsilateral caudate nucleus following prenatal focal neocortical removal. The findings in human were also behavioral (not neurological) and also occurred with unilateral caudate damage. The main manifestations consisted of loss of drive (apathy), obsessive-compulsive behavior, cognitive deficits, stimulus-bound perseverative behavior, and hyperactivity. Based on all of the above data we propose that the specific function of the caudate nucleus is to control approach-attachment behavior, ranging from plain approach to a target, to romantic love. This putative function would account well for the caudate involvement in the pathophysiology of a number of clinical syndromes that we mention, all of which compromise approach-attachment- affect behaviors. In addition we conclude that the caudate nucleus contributes importantly to body and limbs posture as well as to the accuracy and speed of directed movements. PMID:20407491

  12. Foraminoplastic transforaminal percutaneous endoscopic discectomy at the lumbosacral junction under local anesthesia in an elite rugby player.

    PubMed

    Abe, Mitsunobu; Takata, Yoichiro; Higashino, Kosaku; Sakai, Toshinori; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Suzue, Naoto; Hamada, Daisuke; Goto, Tomohiro; Nishisho, Toshihiko; Goda, Yuichiro; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Tonogai, Ichiro; Miyagi, Ryo; Morimoto, Masatoshi; Mineta, Kazuaki; Kimura, Tetsuya; Nitta, Akihiro; Hama, Shingo; Higuchi, Tadahiro; C Jha, Subash; Takahashi, Rui; Fukuta, Shoji; Sairyo, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy (PED) is the least invasive disc surgery available at present. The procedure can be performed under local anesthesia and requires only an 8 mm skin incision. Furthermore, damage to the back muscle is considered minimal, which is particularly important for disc surgery in athletes. However, employing the transforaminal (TF) PED approach at the lumbosacral junction can be challenging due to anatomical constraints imposed by the iliac crest. In such cases, foraminoplasty is required in addition to the standard TF procedure. A 28-year-old man who was a very active rugby player visited us complaining of lower back and left leg pain. His visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain was 8/10 and 3/10, respectively. MRI revealed a herniated nucleus pulposus at L5-S level. TF-PED was planned; however, the anatomy of the iliac crest was later found to prevent access to the herniated mass. Foraminoplasty was therefore performed to enlarge the foramen, thereby allowing a cannula to be passed through the foramen into the canal without causing exiting nerve injury. The herniated mass was then successfully removed via the TF-PED procedure. Pain resolved after surgery, and his VAS score decreased to 0/10 for both back and leg pain. The patient returned to full rugby activity 8 weeks after surgery. In conclusion, even with an intracanalicular herniated mass at the lumbosacral junction, a TF-PED procedure is possible if additional foraminoplasty is adequately performed to enlarge the foramen. J. Med. Invest. 62: 238-241, August, 2015. PMID:26399355

  13. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-01-01

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using ?-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation. PMID:26689549

  14. Cell Nucleus-Targeting Zwitterionic Carbon Dots

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Yun Kyung; Shin, Eeseul; Kim, Byeong-Su

    2015-01-01

    An innovative nucleus-targeting zwitterionic carbon dot (CD) vehicle has been developed for anticancer drug delivery and optical monitoring. The zwitterionic functional groups of the CDs introduced by a simple one-step synthesis using ?-alanine as a passivating and zwitterionic ligand allow cytoplasmic uptake and subsequent nuclear translocation of the CDs. Moreover, multicolor fluorescence improves the accuracy of the CDs as an optical code. The CD-based drug delivery system constructed by non-covalent grafting of doxorubicin, exhibits superior antitumor efficacy owing to enhanced nuclear delivery in vitro and tumor accumulation in vivo, resulting in highly effective tumor growth inhibition. Since the zwitterionic CDs are highly biocompatible and effectively translocated into the nucleus, it provides a compelling solution to a multifunctional nanoparticle for substantially enhanced nuclear uptake of drugs and optical monitoring of translocation. PMID:26689549

  15. The cellular mastermind(?) – Mechanotransduction and the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Ashley; Fedorchak, Gregory R.; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cells respond to mechanical stimulation by activation of specific signaling pathways and genes that allow the cell to adapt to its dynamic physical environment. How cells sense the various mechanical inputs and translate them into biochemical signals remains an area of active investigation. Recent reports suggest that the cell nucleus may be directly implicated in this cellular mechanotransduction process. In this chapter, we discuss how forces applied to the cell surface and cytoplasm induce changes in nuclear structure and organization, which could directly affect gene expression, while also highlighting the complex interplay between nuclear structural proteins and transcriptional regulators that may further modulate mechanotransduction signaling. Taken together, these findings paint a picture of the nucleus as a central hub in cellular mechanotransduction—both structurally and biochemically—with important implications in physiology and disease. PMID:25081618

  16. How the nucleus copes with proteotoxic stress

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Yoko; Morimoto, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The proper folding of proteins is continuously challenged by intrinsic and extrinsic stresses, and the accumulation of toxic misfolded proteins is associated with many human diseases. Eukaryotic cells have evolved a complex network of protein quality control pathways to protect the proteome, and these pathways are specialized for each subcellular compartment. While many details have been elucidated for how the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum counteract proteotoxic stress, relatively little is known about the pathways protecting the nucleus from protein misfolding. Here, we offer a conceptual framework for how proteostasis is maintained in this organelle. We define the particular requirements that must be considered for the nucleus to manage proteotoxic stress, summarize the known and implicated pathways of nuclear protein quality control, and identify the unresolved questions in the field. Proper maintenance of nuclear proteostasis has important implications in preserving genomic integrity, as well as for aging and disease. PMID:24845679

  17. Chronic pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation restores functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Schweder, Patrick M; Joint, Carole; Hansen, Peter C; Green, Alexander L; Quaghebeur, Gerardine; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2010-12-01

    The mechanisms of deep brain stimulation (DBS) are poorly understood. Earlier, high-frequency DBS has been thought to represent a depolarization block of the target area and low-frequency stimulation has been thought to 'drive' neuronal activity. We investigated the long-term effect of low-frequency DBS in a longitudinal imaging study of a patient who received bilateral pedunculopontine nucleus stimulation. We used the diffusion tensor imaging techniques including probabilistic tractography and topographic mapping to analyze long-term changes in connectivity with low-frequency DBS. Post-DBS connectivity analysis suggested a normalization of pathological pedunculopontine nucleus connectivity with DBS therapy. These findings may help elucidate the mechanisms of DBS, suggesting neuroplasticity involving a reorganization of target connectivity long term. This is the first reported case showing neuroimaging evidence of neuroplasticity after low-frequency DBS. PMID:20926975

  18. Physical Properties of Cometary Nucleus Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewitt, David; Hillman, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this proposal we aim to study the physical properties of the Centaurs and the dead comets, these being the precursors to, and the remnants from, the active cometary nuclei. The nuclei themselves are very difficult to study, because of the contaminating effects of near-nucleus coma. Systematic investigation of the nuclei both before they enter the zone of strong sublimation and after they have depleted their near-surface volatiles should neatly bracket the properties of these objects, revealing evolutionary effects.

  19. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  20. Comet nucleus impact probe feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castro, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    A top level listing of the comet nucleus impact probe (CNIP) feasibility experiments requirements are presented. A conceptual configuration which shows that the feasibility of engineering the experiment is possible and describes the candidate hardware is discussed. The design studies required in order to design the operating experiment are outlined. An overview of a program plan used to estimate a rough order of magnitude cost for the CNIP experiment is given.

  1. Low P sub T hadron-nucleus interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holynski, R.; Wozniak, K.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of describing hadron-nucleus (hA) interactions is discussed in terms of a number of independent collisions of the projectile inside the target nucleus. This multiple rescattering may occur on a particle or quark parton level. To investigate the characteristics of hA interactions as a function of antineutrinos advantage is taken of the correlation between the average number antineutrinos of collisions of the projectile inside the nucleus and the number Ng of fast protons ejected from the struck nucleus. The relation antineutrinos vs Ng obtained in antineutrinos was used. For a given target nucleus this allows the selection of interactions occurring at different impact parameters.

  2. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Abhishek; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V

    2013-01-01

    The nucleus of the eukaryotic cell functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to the stresses carried by these filaments is largely unexplored. We report here the results of studies of the translational and rotational dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblast cells, with the effects of cell migration suppressed by plating onto fibronectin-coated micro-fabricated patterns. Patterns of the same area but different shapes and/or aspect ratio were used to study the effect of cell geometry on the dynamics. On circles, squares and equilateral triangles, the nucleus undergoes persistent rotational motion, while on high-aspect-ratio rectangles of the same area it moves only back and forth. The circle and the triangle showed respectively the largest and the smallest angular speed. We show that our observations can be understood through a hydrodynamic approach in which the nucleus is treated as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active...

  3. Efficient nucleus detector in histopathology images.

    PubMed

    Vink, J P; Van Leeuwen, M B; Van Deurzen, C H M; De Haan, G

    2013-02-01

    In traditional cancer diagnosis, (histo)pathological images of biopsy samples are visually analysed by pathologists. However, this judgment is subjective and leads to variability among pathologists. Digital scanners may enable automated objective assessment, improved quality and reduced throughput time. Nucleus detection is seen as the corner stone for a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. In this paper, we propose an efficient nucleus detector designed with machine learning. We applied colour deconvolution to reconstruct each applied stain. Next, we constructed a large feature set and modified AdaBoost to create two detectors, focused on different characteristics in appearance of nuclei. The proposed modification of AdaBoost enables inclusion of the computational cost of each feature during selection, thus improving the computational efficiency of the resulting detectors. The outputs of the two detectors are merged by a globally optimal active contour algorithm to refine the border of the detected nuclei. With a detection rate of 95% (on average 58 incorrectly found objects per field-of-view) based on 51 field-of-view images of Her2 immunohistochemistry stained breast tissue and a complete analysis in 1 s per field-of-view, our nucleus detector shows good performance and could enable a range of applications in automated assessment of (histo)pathological images. PMID:23252774

  4. Antinucleon-nucleus elastic and inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.; Millener, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    A general overview of the utility of antinucleon (anti N)-nucleus inelastic scattering studies is presented, emphasizing both the sensitivity of the cross sections to various components of the N anti N transition amplitudes and the prospects for the exploration of some novel aspects of nuclear structure. We start with an examination of the relation between NN and N anti N potentials, focusing on the coherences predicted for the central, spin-orbit and tensor components, and how these may be revealed by measurements of two-body spin observables. We next discuss the role of the nucleus as a spin and isospin filter, and show how, by a judicious choice of final state quantum numbers (natural or unnatural parity states, isospin transfer ..delta..T = 0 or 1) and momentum transfer q, one can isolate different components of the N anti N transition amplitude. Various models for the N anti N interaction which give reasonable fits to the available two-body data are shown to lead to strikingly different predictions for certain spin-flip nuclear transitions. We suggest several possible directions for future anti N-nucleus inelastic scattering experiments, for instance the study of spin observables which would be accessible with polarized anti N beams, charge exchange reactions, and higher resolution studies of the (anti p, anti p') reaction. We compare the antinucleon and the nucleon as a probe of nuclear modes of excitation. 40 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  6. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 92, 024606 (2015) Low-energy excitations and quasielastic contribution to electron-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus

    E-print Network

    Gent, Universiteit

    2015-01-01

    to electron-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus scattering in the continuum random-phase approximation V. Pandey,* N to quasielastic electron- nucleus and neutrino-nucleus scattering. We compare the (e,e ) cross-section predictions contributing to the neutrino-nucleus signal in a detector and the reduction of the systematic uncertainties

  7. Nuclear Radii Calculations in Various Theoretical Approaches for Nucleus-Nucleus Interactions

    E-print Network

    C. Merino; I. S. Novikov; Yu. M. Shabelski

    2009-07-10

    The information about sizes and nuclear density distributions in unstable (radioactive) nuclei is usually extracted from the data on interaction of radioactive nuclear beams with a nuclear target. We show that in the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the values of the parameters depend rather strongly on the considered theoretical approach and on the assumption about the parametrization of the nuclear density distribution. The obtained values of root-mean-square radii (R_{rms}) for stable nuclei with atomic weights A = 12-40 vary by approximately 0.1 fm when calculated in the optical approximation, in the rigid target approximation, and using the exact expression of Glauber Theory. We present several examples of R_{rms} radii calculations using these three theoretical approaches and compare these results with the data obtained from electron-nucleus scattering.

  8. Nuclear radii calculations in various theoretical approaches for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, C.; Novikov, I. S.; Shabelski, Yu.

    2009-12-15

    The information about sizes and nuclear density distributions in unstable (radioactive) nuclei is usually extracted from the data on interaction of radioactive nuclear beams with a nuclear target. We show that in the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the values of the parameters depend somewhat strongly on the considered theoretical approach and on the assumption about the parametrization of the nuclear density distribution. The obtained values of root-mean-square radii (R{sub rms}) for stable nuclei with atomic weights A=12-40 vary by approximately 0.1 fm when calculated in the optical approximation, in the rigid target approximation, and using the exact expression of the Glauber theory. We present several examples of R{sub rms} radii calculations using these three theoretical approaches and compare these results with the data obtained from electron-nucleus scattering.

  9. Nuclear radii calculations in various theoretical approaches for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, C.; Novikov, I. S.; Shabelski, Yu.

    2009-12-01

    The information about sizes and nuclear density distributions in unstable (radioactive) nuclei is usually extracted from the data on interaction of radioactive nuclear beams with a nuclear target. We show that in the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the values of the parameters depend somewhat strongly on the considered theoretical approach and on the assumption about the parametrization of the nuclear density distribution. The obtained values of root-mean-square radii (Rrms) for stable nuclei with atomic weights A=12-40 vary by approximately 0.1 fm when calculated in the optical approximation, in the rigid target approximation, and using the exact expression of the Glauber theory. We present several examples of Rrms radii calculations using these three theoretical approaches and compare these results with the data obtained from electron-nucleus scattering.

  10. $?$-scaling and Information Entropy in Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    G. L. Ma; Y. G. Ma; K. Wang; B. H. Sa; W. Q. Shen; H. Z. Huang; X. Z. Cai; H. Y. Zhang; Z. H. Lu; C. Zhong; J. G. Chen; Y. B. Wei; X. F. Zhou

    2003-06-09

    The $\\Delta$-scaling method has been applied to ultra-relativistic p+p, C+C and Pb+Pb collision data simulated using a high energy Monte Carlo package, LUCIAE 3.0. The $\\Delta$-scaling is found to be valid for some physical variables, such as charged particle multiplicity, strange particle multiplicity and number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions from these simulated nucleus-nucleus collisions over an extended energy ranging from $E_{lab}$ = 20 to 200 A GeV. In addition we derived information entropy from the multiplicity distribution as a function of beam energy for these collisions.

  11. Pion and Kaon Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes require accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Codes require cross sections to be written in terms of lab frame variables and it is important to be able to verify models against experimental data in the lab frame. Several models are compared to lab frame data. It is found that models based on algebraic parameterizations are unable to describe intermediate energy differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parameterizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the lab frame, are able to account for the data.

  12. $?'/?$ ratio in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions : a Measure for the Chiral Symmetry Restoration Temperature ?

    E-print Network

    Heinz Sorge; Edward Shuryak; Ismail Zahed

    1997-05-15

    We argue that a decrease of the chiral scalar meson mass is responsible for re-creation of $\\Psi'$ from $J/\\Psi$ in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. This causes the charmonium yields to freeze out at temperatures close to the chiral symmetry restoration temperature $T_c$. As a result $\\Psi'/\\Psi$ may serve as a thermometer for $T_c$ itself. Results in a detailed reaction model support the conjecture. They show good agreement with recent data of NA38 and NA50 for $J/\\Psi$ and $\\Psi'$ production in S on U and Pb on Pb collisions.

  13. High energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN: Signatures, physical observables and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results on high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions have become available with the recent experiments at CERN utilizing 200 GeV/n oxygen and sulfur beams. Physics motivations for these experiments are presented: a description of predicted signatures for possible formation of a quark-gluon plasma and physical observables that are expected to provide important information for understanding the dynamics of these collisions. A presentation will be made of some of the first experimental results to emerge from this new field. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Analysis of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies and Random Matrix Theory

    E-print Network

    R. G. Nazmitdinov; E. I. Shahaliev; M. K. Suleymanov; S. Tomsovic

    2009-05-07

    We propose a novel statistical approach to the analysis of experimental data obtained in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies which borrows from methods developed within the context of Random Matrix Theory. It is applied to the detection of correlations in momentum distributions of emitted particles. We find good agreement between the results obtained in this way and a standard analysis based on the method of effective mass spectra and two-pair correlation function often used in high energy physics. The method introduced here is free from unwanted background contributions.

  15. Nucleus-nucleus potential, energy dissipation and mass dispersion in fusion and transfer reactions

    E-print Network

    Kouhei Washiyama; Denis Lacroix; Sakir Ayik

    2009-10-12

    The nucleus-nucleus potential and energy dissipation in fusion reactions are obtained from microscopic mean-field dynamics. The deduced potentials nicely reproduce the one extracted from experimental data. Energy dissipation shows a universal behaviour between different reactions. Also, the dispersion of mass distribution in transfer reaction is investigated in a stochastic mean-field dynamics. By including initial fluctuations in collective space, the description of the dispersion is much improved compared to that of mean field only. The result is consistent with the macroscopic phenomenological analysis of the experimental data.

  16. The effect of the relative nuclear size on the nucleus-nucleus interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erofeeva, I. N.; Murzin, V. S.; Sivoklokov, S. Y.; Smirnova, L. N.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on the interactions of light nuclei (d, He(4), C(12)) at the momentum 4.2 GeV/cA with the carbon nuclei were taken in the 2-m propane bubble chamber. The distributions in the number of interacting nucleons, the spectra of protons, the mean energies of secondary pions and protons, the mean fractions of energy transferred to the pion and nucleon components are presented. The results of the investigation of the mechanism of nucleus-nucleus interactions can be used to calculate the nuclear cascades in the atmosphere.

  17. Electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions relating to space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the papers within this report deal with electromagnetic processes in nucleus-nucleus collisions which are of concern in the space radiation program. In particular, the removal of one and two nucleons via both electromagnetic and strong interaction processes has been extensively investigated. The theory of relativistic Coulomb fission has also been developed. Several papers on quark models also appear. Finally, note that the theoretical methods developed in this work have been directly applied to the task of radiation protection of astronauts. This has been done by parameterizing the theoretical formalism in such a fashion that it can be used in cosmic ray transport codes.

  18. Observation of direct hadronic pairs in nucleus-nucleus collisions in JACEE emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T. H.; Dake, S.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J. C.; Hayashi, T.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.; Jurak, A.

    1985-01-01

    In a number of high energy ( or = 1 TeV/amu) nucleus-nucleus collisions observed in Japanese-American Cooperative Emulsion Experiment (JACEE) emulsion chambers, nonrandom spatial association of produced charged particles, mostly hadronic pairs, are observed. Similar narrow pairs are observed in about 100 events at much low energy (20 to 60 GeV/amu). Analysis shows that 30 to 50% of Pair abundances are understood by the Hambury-Brown-Twiss effect, and the remainder seems to require other explanations.

  19. Jet tomography of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Vitev, Ivan; Zhang, Ben - Wei

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that jet observables are highly sensitive to the characteristics of the vacuum and the in-medium QCD parton showers and propose techniques that exploit this sensitivity to constrain the mechanism of quark and gluon energy loss in strongly-interacting plasmas. As a first example, we calculate the inclusive jet cross section in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions to {Omicron}({alpha}{sub s}{sup 3}). Theoretical predictions for the medium-induced jet broadening and the suppression of the jet production rate due to cold and hot nuclear matter effects in Au+Au and Cu+Cu reactions at RHIC are presented.

  20. The Checkerboard Model of the Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2014-03-01

    The Lach Checker Board Model (CBM) of the nucleus and the associated ESM predicts that nature has 5 generations of quarks not 3. The heaviest generation in the Extended Standard Model (ESM) has a t' quark of mass 65 GeV and a b' quark of 42.4 GeV. The lepton in this generation has a mass of 27 GeV. Part of this theory evolved because it appears that the quarks and lepton of each generation have masses related by the geometric mean. The Geometric mean of 65 and 27 is 42. Charge is conserved (+2/3 and -1 is -1/3). Details of how this theory evolved is found on my web site (http://checkerboard.dnsalias.net) or in the following references [T.M. Lach, Checkerboard Structure of the Nucleus, Infinite Energy, Vol. 5, issue 30, (2000); T.M. Lach, Masses of the Sub-Nuclear Particles, nucl-th/0008026, @http://xxx.lanl.gov/] One independent check of this CB model is that the wavelength of the ``up'' quark orbiting inside the proton at 84.8123% the speed of light around the ``dn'' quark in the center turns out to be exactly one DeBroglie wavelength. This explains the mass of the proton and neutron and their magnetic moments. This along with the beautiful symmetric 2D structure of the He nucleus led to the evolution of this theory. One would expect a t'-anti t' meson of mass of about 130 GeV.

  1. Quasibound states of {eta}-nucleus systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rakityansky, S.A.; Sofianos, S.A.; Braun, M.; Belyaev, V.B.; Sandhas, W.

    1996-05-01

    The position and movement of poles of the amplitude for elastic {eta}-meson scattering off the light nuclei {sup 2}H, {sup 3}H, {sup 3}He, and {sup 4}He are studied. It is found that, within the existing uncertainties for the elementary {eta}{ital N} interaction, all these nuclei can support a quasibound state. The values of the {eta}-nucleus scattering lengths corresponding to the critical {eta}{ital N} interaction that produces a quasibound state are given. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  2. Amygdaloid nucleus syndrome and dehumanization syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miller de Paiva, L

    1979-01-01

    Through statistical tests 3 groups of impulsive-aggressive patients were studied: group 1, 100 individuals with temporal dysrhythmia; group 2, 18 individuals with temporal dysrhythmia submitted either to group analytical therapy or to psychoanalysis; group 3, 25 impulsive-aggressive individuals. Moreover the author differentiates between the amygdaloid nucleus and dehumanization syndromes, through psychoanalytical or psychiatric studies, and stresses the importance of the molding periods in relation to social factors (frustration-aggression-injustice). Amygdalotomy of the hippocampus was suggested in special cases. PMID:482533

  3. Pion Cloud Contribution to K+ Nucleus Scattering

    E-print Network

    C. Garcia-Recio; J. Nieves; E. Oset

    1994-07-29

    A careful reanalysis is done of the contribution to $K^{+}$ nucleus scattering from the interaction of the kaon with the virtual pion cloud. The usual approximations made in the evaluation of the related kaon selfenergy are shown to fail badly. We also find new interaction mechanisms which provide appreciable corrections to the kaon selfenergy. Some of these contribute to the imaginary part below pion creation threshold. The inclusion of these new mechanisms in the inelastic part of the optical potential produces a significant improvement in the differential and total $K^{+}$ nuclear cross sections. Uncertainties remain in the dispersive part of the optical potential.

  4. Mitochondrial Proteins Moonlighting in the Nucleus.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Richard M; Whitmarsh, Alan J

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondria function as cellular energy generators, producing the fuel required to drive biological processes. The response of cells to mitochondrial activity or dysfunction regulates their survival, growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Several proteins that contain mitochondrial-targeting sequences (MTS) also reside in the nucleus and there is increasing evidence that the nuclear translocation of mitochondrial proteins represents a novel pathway by which mitochondria signal their status to the cell. Here, we discuss the different mechanisms that control the dual mitochondrial and nuclear localisation of proteins and propose that these nuclear moonlighters represent a widespread regulatory circuit to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. PMID:26520802

  5. Nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energies: Status and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Plasil, F.

    1995-04-01

    This paper is based on three lectures presented at the Prague Seminar on Relativistic Heavy-Ion Physics in September 1994. The first lecture, following a general introduction, focuses on three different aspects of the CERN experiment WA80. The author first presents results on global event characteristics deduced primarily from measured distributions of transverse energy and of forward energy. The purpose is to introduce the main general features of nucleus-nucleus reactions at the highest energies currently available. He highlights the role of projectile-target geometry, discusses the degree of nuclear stopping, and estimates the energy densities attained in these reactions. This discussion is followed by a presentation of one of two topics that are unique to the WA80 experiment and which are not addressed by any of the other CERN collaborations that study nucleus-nucleus reactions: direct measurements of photons. The second topic unique to WA80, measurements of proton-proton correlations in the target-fragmentation region, is covered in the first part of the second lecture. The remainder of the second lecture is devoted to a selective overview of results obtained at the AGS accelerator of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The third lecture is devoted to a discussion of the two main experiments, STAR and PHENIX, planned for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, RHIC, under construction at BNL.

  6. The veins of the nucleus dentatus: anatomical and radiological findings.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Tschabitscher, Manfred; Galzio, Renato Juan; Grabner, Günther; Kronnerwetter, Claudia; Widhalm, Georg; Matula, Christian; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    The veins of the dentate nucleus are composed of several channels draining the external surface and one single vein draining the internal surface. We analyzed specimens of the human cerebellum and described the central vein of the nucleus dentatus as the main venous outflow of the nucleus. The central vein of the nucleus dentatus is formed by a network of smaller vessels draining the sinuosities of the gray matter; it emerges from the hilum of the nucleus and runs along the superior cerebellar peduncle, opening in the anterior vermian vein. We looked for this structure and for the surrounding veins on ultra-high-field (7 Tesla) MR, using susceptibility-weighted imaging. An anatomical and radiological description of the veins of the dentate nucleus is provided, with some remarks on the future clinical applications that these findings could provide. PMID:20659570

  7. Surgical versus Non-Operative Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation: Eight-Year Results for the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Zhao, Wenyan; Morgan, Tamara S.; Abdu, William A.; Herkowitz, Harry; Weinstein, James N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Concurrent prospective randomized and observational cohort studies. Objective To assess the 8-year outcomes of surgery vs. non-operative care. Summary of Background Data Although randomized trials have demonstrated small short-term differences in favor of surgery, long-term outcomes comparing surgical to non-operative treatment remain controversial. Methods Surgical candidates with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disc herniation meeting SPORT eligibility criteria enrolled into prospective randomized (501 participants) and observational cohorts (743 participants) at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Interventions were standard open discectomy versus usual non-operative care. Main outcome measures were changes from baseline in the SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) and Physical Function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI - AAOS/Modems version) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and annually thereafter. Results Advantages were seen for surgery in intent-to-treat analyses for the randomized cohort for all primary and secondary outcomes other than work status; however, with extensive non-adherence to treatment assignment (49% patients assigned to non-operative therapy receiving surgery versus 60% of patients assigned to surgery) these observed effects were relatively small and not statistically significant for primary outcomes (BP, PF, ODI). Importantly, the overall comparison of secondary outcomes was significantly greater with surgery in the intent-to-treat analysis (sciatica bothersomeness [p > 0.005], satisfaction with symptoms [p > 0.013], and self-rated improvement [p > 0.013]) in long-term follow-up. An as-treated analysis showed clinically meaningful surgical treatment effects for primary outcome measures (mean change Surgery vs. Non-operative; treatment effect; 95% CI): BP (45.3 vs. 34.4; 10.9; 7.7 to 14); PF (42.2 vs. 31.5; 10.6; 7.7 to 13.5) and ODI (?36.2 vs. ?24.8; ?11.2; ?13.6 to ?9.1). Conclusion Carefully selected patients who underwent surgery for a lumbar disc herniation achieved greater improvement than non-operatively treated patients; there was little to no degradation of outcomes in either group (operative and non-operative) from 4 to 8 years. PMID:24153171

  8. Trend of Pharmacopuncture Therapy for Treating Cervical Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Hee; Jung, Da-Jung; Choi, Yoo-Min; Kim, Jong-Uk; Yook, Tae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in domestic studies on pharmacopuncture therapy for treating cervical disease. Methods: This study was carried out on original copies and abstracts of theses listed in databases or published until July 2014. The search was made on the Oriental medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS) the National Digital Science Library (NDSL), and the Korean traditional knowledge portal. Search words were ‘pain on cervical spine’, ‘cervical pain’, ‘ruptured cervical disk’, ‘cervical disc disorder’, ‘stiffness of the neck’, ‘cervical disk’, ‘whiplash injury’, ‘cervicalgia’, ‘posterior cervical pain’, ‘neck disability’, ‘Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP)’, and ‘Herniated Intervertebral Disc (HIVD)’. Results: Twenty-five clinical theses related to pharmacopuncture were selected and were analyzed by year according to the type of pharmacopuncture used, the academic journal in which the publication appeared, and the effect of pharmacopuncture therapy. Conclusion: The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) Pharmacopunctures used for cervical pain were Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture, Scolopendra pharmacopuncture, Ouhyul pharmacopuncturen, Hwangryun pharmacopuncture, Corpus pharmacopuncture, Soyeom pharmacopuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Shinbaro phamacopuncture. (2) Randomized controlled trials showed that pharmacopuncture therapy combined with other methods was more effective. (3) In the past, studies oriented toward Bee venom pharmacopuncture were actively pursued, but the number of studies on various other types of pharmacopuncture gradually began to increase. (4) For treating a patient with cervical pain, the type of pharmacopuncture to be used should be selected based on the cause of the disease and the patient’s condition. PMID:25780714

  9. Fibrocartilaginous embolism of the spinal cord: a clinical and pathogenetic reconsideration.

    PubMed Central

    Tosi, L; Rigoli, G; Beltramello, A

    1996-01-01

    A 16 year old girl did a handstand for fun, returned to her feet, experienced a sudden pain in her back, and became progressively paraplegic within 30 hours. MRI showed lumbar cord swelling, multiple Schmorl's nodes, a collapsed T11-T12 disc space, and intraspongious disc prolapse into the T12 vertebral body. These findings, related to the initial manoeuvre, suggested that an acute vertical disc herniation could have occurred as the first step in a process leading to spinal cord infarction due to fibrocartilaginous emboli from the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc. The medical literature so far reports 32 cases of fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE) of the spinal cord, all at necropsy, with the exception of one histologically demonstrated in a living patient. A clinical diagnosis of FCE would be desirable for many important reasons, but was never made. This causes severe limitations in the knowledge of the disease and precludes any therapeutic possibility. On the basis of the clinical features and findings in the present case, compared with data from the reported cases, a first attempt is made to identify the clinical context within which new information obtainable through MRI examination can lead to a reliable clinical diagnosis of FCE. The vexed question of the pathogenesis has been reviewed. An increased intraosseous pressure within the vertebral body, due to acute vertical disc herniation, seems to offer a consistent pathogenetic explanation and some therapeutic prospects. Images PMID:8558152

  10. Effect of microgravity on the biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal intervertebral discs in mice.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeannie F; Hargens, Alan R; Cheng, Kevin K; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2014-09-22

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity has shown to have deleterious effects on the human spine, indicated by low back pain during spaceflight and increased incidence of post-spaceflight herniated nucleus pulposus. We examined the effect of microgravity on biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal discs from mice having been on 15-day shuttle mission STS-131. Sixteen C57BL/C mice (spaceflight group, n=8; ground-based control group, n=8) were sacrificed immediately after spaceflight. Physiological disc height (PDH) was measured in situ, and compressive creep tests were performed to parameterize biomechanical properties into endplate permeability (k), nuclear swelling pressure strain dependence (D), and annular viscoelasticity (G). For caudal discs, the spaceflight group exhibited 32% lower PDH, 70% lower D and crept more compared to the control mice (p=0.03). For lumbar discs, neither PDH nor D was significantly different between murine groups. Initial modulus, osmotic pressure, k and G for lumbar and caudal discs did not appear influenced by microgravity (p>0.05). Decreases in both PDH and D suggest prolonged microgravity effectively diminished biomechanical properties of caudal discs. By contrast, differences were not noted for lumbar discs. This potentially deleterious interaction between prolonged weightlessness and differential ranges of motion along the spine may underlie the increased cervical versus lumbar disc herniation rates observed among astronauts. PMID:25085756

  11. 3-d Modeling of Comet Borrelly's Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giese, B.; Oberst, J.; Howington-Kraus, E.; Kirk, R.; Soderblom, L.; Ds1 Science Team

    During the DS1 encounter with comet Borrelly, the onboard camera MICAS (Minia- ture Integrated Camera and Spectrometer) acquired a series of images with spectac- ular detail [1]. Two of the highest resolution frames (58m/pxl, 47m/pxl) formed an effective stereo pair (8 deg convergence angle), on the basis of which teams at DLR and the USGS derived topographic models. Though different approaches were used in the analysis, the results are in remarkable agreement. The horizontal resolution of the stereo models is approx. 500m, and their vertical precision is expected to be in the range of 100m-150m, but perhaps three times worse in places with low surface texture. The visible area of the elongated nucleus (long axis approx. 8km, short axis approx. 4km) is characterized by a dichotomy. The "upper" end (toward the top of the image, as conventionally displayed) is gently tilted relative to the reference image plane and shows slopes of up to 40 deg towards the limb. The other end is smaller and canted relative to the "upper" end by approx. 35 deg in the direction towards the camera. Slopes towards the limb appear to be as high as 70 deg. The presence of faults and fractures near the boundary between the two ends additionally supports the view of a dichotomy. Perhaps, the nucleus is a contact binary, which formed by a collisional event. [1] Soderblom et al. (2002), submitted to Science.

  12. Neutronic Cross Section Calculations on Fluorine Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, A.; Tel, E.

    2013-06-01

    Certain light nuclei such as Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be), Fluorine (F) (which are known as FL?BE) and its molten salt compounds (LiF, BeF2 and NaF) can serve as a coolant which can be used at high temperatures without reaching a high vapor pressure. These molten salt compounds are also a good neutron moderator. In this study, cross sections of neutron induced reactions have been calculated for fluorine target nucleus. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 19F( n, 2n), 19F( n, p), 19F( n, xn), 19F( n, xp) have been made. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, 2n) and ( n, p) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The multiple pre-equilibrium mean free path constant from internal transition have been investigated for 19F nucleus. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  13. National Aeronautics and Space Administration COMET NUCLEUS TOUR

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration CONTOUR COMET NUCLEUS TOUR MISHAP INVESTIGATION BOARD not constitute an official endorsement, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space

  14. Giant Resonances in the Alpha-Nucleus Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Karpeshin, F. F.

    2010-04-30

    Tunneling of alpha particles through the Coulomb barrier for the source {sup 135}Pr nucleus is consecutively considered. The effect of sharp peaks arising in the case of coincidence of the alpha energy with that of a quasistationary state within the barrier is elucidated. Peaks' energy depend on the alpha-nucleus potential. They can give rise to 'anomalous' properties of some neutron resonances. The peaks can also be observed in the incoming alpha-nucleus channel. The method can be applied for solution of the reverse problem of the alpha-nucleus scattering.

  15. Recent results on (anti)nucleus and (anti)hyperon production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN SPS energies

    E-print Network

    G. L. Melkumov; for the NA49 collaboration

    2007-09-19

    The NA49 experiment has collected comprehensive data on particle production in nucleus-nucleus collisions over the whole SPS beam energies range, the critical energy domain where the expected phase transition to a deconfined phase is expected to occur. The latest results from Pb+Pb collisions between 20$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV on baryon stopping and light nuclei production as well as those for strange hyperons are presented. The measured data on $p$, $\\bar{p}$, $\\Lambda$, $\\bar{\\Lambda}$, $\\Xi^-$ and $\\bar{\\Xi}^+$ production were used to evaluate the rapidity distributions of net-baryons at SPS energies and to compare with the results from the AGS and the RHIC for central Pb+Pb (Au+Au) collisions. The dependence of the yield ratios and the inverse slope parameter of the $m_t$ spectra on the collision energy and centrality, and the mass number of the produced nuclei $^3He$, $t$, $d$ and $\\bar{d}$ are discussed within coalescence and statistical approaches. Analysis of the total multiplicity exhibits remarkable agreement between the measured yield for $^3He$ and those predicted by the statistical hadronization model. In addition, new results on $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ as well as $\\Xi^-$ production in minimum bias Pb+Pb reactions at 40$A$ GeV and 158$A$ GeV and central C+C, Si+Si and Pb+Pb collisions are presented. The system size dependence of the yields of these hyperons was analysed to determine the evolution of strangeness enhancement relative to elementary p+p collisions.

  16. Investigation of high p$_{t}$ events in Nucleus-Nucleus collisions using the Hijing event generator

    E-print Network

    Natasha Sharma; Madan M. Aggarwal

    2009-10-29

    In recent years lot of interest has been observed in the nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC energies in phenomena related to high $p_{t}$ physics \\cite{ref1}. The suppression of high $p_{t}$ particles and disappearance of back-to-back jets compared to the scaling with number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions indicates that a nearly perfect liquid is produced in these collisions. Results on self shadowing of high $p_{t}$ events are presented using hadron multiplicity associated to high $p_{t}$ and unbiased events in nucleus-nucleus collisions \\cite{ref2} obtained from the hijing event generator.

  17. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery under O-arm navigation system guidance for the treatment of thoracic disk herniations: surgical techniques and early clinical results.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jung-Woo; Kim, Jin-Sung; Cho, Dong-Young; Shin, Jong-Mok; Lee, Jun-Ho; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2014-11-01

    This study describes the surgical technique and clinical results of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) assisted by an O-arm-based navigation system, used for the treatment of thoracic disk herniation (TDH). The trend toward the use of minimally invasive procedures with endoscopic visualization of the thoracic cavity in thoracic spine surgery has evolved. It is difficult to develop a new set of visuomotor skills unique to endoscopic procedures and understand the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy while performing a two-dimensional (2D) imaging procedure. Adding image guidance would have a positive impact on these procedures, making them safer and more precise. We report the results of 10 patients who underwent diskectomy for TDH using VATS assisted by an O-arm-based navigation system and describe the surgical technique. The average duration of the symptoms was 2.8 years; average operation time, 326.9 minutes; and average additional time required for the image guidance surgery using the O-arm-based navigation, ? 29.4 minutes. No complications occurred during the surgical procedure or the immediate postoperative period. The advantages of using navigational assistance during the surgical procedure include better visualization of the operative field, more accurate surgical planning, and optimization of the surgical approach involving the establishment of the correct drilling trajectory and safe decompression of the spinal cord, as well as the possibility of intraoperative control of bone resection. PMID:24570307

  18. Projections to the rostral reticular thalamic nucleus in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, J; Cooper, J D; Phillipson, O T

    1990-01-01

    Afferent pathways to the rostral reticular thalamic nucleus (Rt) in the rat were studied using anterograde and retrograde lectin tracing techniques, with sensitive immunocytochemical methods. The analysis was carried out to further investigate previously described subregions of the reticular thalamic nucleus, which are related to subdivisions of the dorsal thalamus, in the paraventricular and midline nuclei and three segments of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. Cortical inputs to the rostral reticular nucleus were found from lamina VI of cingulate, orbital and infralimbic cortex. These projected with a clear topography to lateral, intermediate and medial reticular nucleus respectively. Thalamic inputs were found from lateral and central segments of the mediodorsal nucleus to the lateral and intermediate rostral reticular nucleus respectively and heavy paraventricular thalamic inputs were found to the medial reticular nucleus. In the basal forebrain, afferents were found from the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal band, substantia innominata, ventral pallidum and medial globus pallidus. Brainstem projections were identified from ventrolateral periaqueductal grey and adjacent sites in the mesencephalic reticular formation, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, pedunculopontine nucleus, medial pretectum and ventral tegmental area. The results suggest a general similarity in the organisation of some brainstem Rt afferents in rat and cat, but also show previously unsuspected inputs. Furthermore, there appear to be at least two functional subdivisions of rostral Rt which is reflected by their connections with cortex and thalamus. The studies also extend recent findings that the ventral striatum, via inputs from the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, is included in the circuitry of the rostral Rt, providing further evidence that basal ganglia may function in concert with Rt. Evidence is also outlined with regard to the possibility that rostral Rt plays a significant role in visuomotor functions. PMID:2358025

  19. Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sherwood (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

  20. Laser-Nucleus Interactions: The Quasiadiabatic Regime

    E-print Network

    Pálffy, Adriana; Hoefer, Axel; Weidenmüller, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between nuclei and a strong zeptosecond laser pulse with coherent MeV photons is investigated theoretically. We provide a first semi-quantitative study of the quasiadiabatic regime where the photon absorption rate is comparable to the nuclear equilibration rate. In that regime, multiple photon absorption leads to the formation of a compound nucleus in the so-far unexplored regime of excitation energies several hundred MeV above the yrast line. The temporal dynamics of the process is investigated by means of a set of master equations that account for dipole absorption, stimulated dipole emission, neutron decay and induced fission in a chain of nuclei. That set is solved numerically by means of state-of-the-art matrix exponential methods also used in nuclear fuel burnup and radioactivity transport calculations. Our quantitative estimates predict the excitation path and range of nuclei reached by neutron decay and provide relevant information for the layout of future experiments.

  1. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  2. Nucleus of Comet P/Arend-Rigaux

    SciTech Connect

    Brooke, T.Y.; Knacke, R.F.

    1986-07-01

    Photometry data at 1-20 microns taken of Comet P/Arend-Rigaux are reported. The observations were carried out to test the possibility of observing the nuclei of low activity, nearly extinct comets at visible and IR wavelengths. The data were collected in February 1985 using the NASA 3 m IR telescope on Mauna Kea. The comet was at 1.67 AU heliocentric distance at the time. Attempts were made to detect rotation of the core on the bases of variations in the J, H and K light curves. The images obtained were those of a rotating nucleus with a radius of 4.0-6.2 km surrounded by a faint coma. The comet had a geometric albedo of 0.01-0.03 and a near-IR red slope that exhibited no evidence of the presence of ice. 32 references.

  3. Laser-Nucleus Interactions: The Quasiadiabatic Regime

    E-print Network

    Adriana Pálffy; Oliver Buss; Axel Hoefer; Hans A. Weidenmüller

    2015-11-26

    The interaction between nuclei and a strong zeptosecond laser pulse with coherent MeV photons is investigated theoretically. We provide a first semi-quantitative study of the quasiadiabatic regime where the photon absorption rate is comparable to the nuclear equilibration rate. In that regime, multiple photon absorption leads to the formation of a compound nucleus in the so-far unexplored regime of excitation energies several hundred MeV above the yrast line. The temporal dynamics of the process is investigated by means of a set of master equations that account for dipole absorption, stimulated dipole emission, neutron decay and induced fission in a chain of nuclei. That set is solved numerically by means of state-of-the-art matrix exponential methods also used in nuclear fuel burnup and radioactivity transport calculations. Our quantitative estimates predict the excitation path and range of nuclei reached by neutron decay and provide relevant information for the layout of future experiments.

  4. Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at Low Energies. The Effects from Non Vacuum Exchange

    E-print Network

    N. V. Radchenko; A. V. Dmitriev

    2010-10-25

    Experimental data on total and differential elastic cross sections for $p+p(\\bar{p})$, $n+p(\\bar{p})$, $K^\\pm+p$, $K^\\pm+n$, $\\pi^\\pm+p$ starting from energy 3.5 GeV in CMS are used to determine parameters of vacuum contribution and parameters of basic non vacuum reggeons: $f$, $\\omega$, $\\rho$ and $A_2$. It is argued that non vacuum contributions to proton-proton and proton-neutron collisions correspond to spectrum in which baryon number is moved from the fragmentation region to central region in rapidity space. In this case it is possible that chemical potential is increased in central region of spectrum of nucleus-nucleus interaction at low energies. This effect might be important for facilities FAIR and NICA.

  5. Strangeness production in light and intermediate size nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, M. I.; Greiner, W.; Rustamov, A.

    2014-04-01

    Within the statistical model, the net strangeness conservation and incomplete total strangeness equilibration lead to the suppression of strange particle multiplicities. Furthermore, suppression effects appear to be stronger in small systems. By treating the production of strangeness within the canonical ensemble formulation we developed a simple model which allows to predict the excitation function of K+/?+ ratio in nucleus-nucleus collisions. In doing so we assumed that different values of K+/?+, measured in p + p and Pb + Pb interactions at the same collision energy per nucleon, are driven by the finite size effects only. These predictions may serve as a baseline for experimental results from NA61/SHINE at the CERN SPS and the future CBM experiment at FAIR.

  6. Fluctuation analysis of relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in emulsion chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical technique was developed for identifying enhanced fluctuations in the angular distributions of secondary particles produced from relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. The method is applied under the assumption that the masses of the produced particles are small compared to their linear momenta. The importance of particles rests in the fact that enhanced fluctuations in the rapidity distributions is considered to be an experimental signal for the creation of the quark-gluon-plasma (QGP), a state of nuclear matter predicted from the quantum chromodynamics theory (QCD). In the approach, Monte Carlo simulations are employed that make use of a portable random member generator that allow the calculations to be performed on a desk-top computer. The method is illustrated with data taken from high altitude emulsion exposures and is immediately applicable to similar data from accelerator-based emulsion exposures.

  7. Dielectron production in nucleus {plus} nucleus collisions at 1.05 GeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.J.; Beedoe, S.; Bougteb, M.; Hallman, T.; Wang, Z.F.

    1996-06-28

    Measurements of dielectron production in heavy-ion collisions are valuable probes into the dynamics of the collision process. While the hadronic participants of the collision are subject to strong final state interactions, the coupling of the electron-positron pair to the collision medium is electromagnetic. Dielectrons, therefore suffer little rescattering leaving the interaction and can retain information about their production origins, probing even the early stages in the evolution of the collision. The DiLepton Spectrometer (DLS) collaboration`s original measurements of dielectron production established the existence of the signal at Bevalac energies. The 1992- 93 DLS measurements in nucleus+Nucleus collisions at a kinetic beam energy of 1.05 {ital GeV/nucleon} are the subject of this presentation.

  8. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2010-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  9. Glutamatergic projection from the nucleus incertus to the septohippocampal system.

    PubMed

    Cervera-Ferri, Ana; Rahmani, Yasamin; Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Teruel-Martí, Vicent; Martínez-Ricós, Joana

    2012-05-31

    Recent findings support a relevant role of the nucleus incertus in the control of the hippocampal activity through the modulation of theta rhythm. Previous studies from our group have shown that this nucleus is a critical relay between reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum/diagonal band, regarded as the main activator and the pacemaker of the hippocampal oscillations, respectively. Besides, the nucleus incertus is highly linked to activated states related to the arousal response. The neurotransmission of the nucleus incertus, however, remains uncertain. Only GABA and the neuromodulator relaxin 3 are usually considered to be involved in its contribution to the septohippocampal system. In this work, we have analyzed the existence of an excitatory projection from the nucleus incertus to the medial septum. We have found a group of glutamatergic neurons in the nucleus incertus projecting to the medial septum. Moreover, we were able to describe a segregated distribution of calbindin and calretinin neurons. While calretinin expression was restricted to the nucleus incertus pars compacta, calbindin positive neurons where observed both in the pars dissipata and the pars compacta of the nucleus. The present work provides innovative data supporting an excitatory component in the pontoseptal pathway. PMID:22521581

  10. Structure and Function in the Budding Yeast Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Gasser, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Budding yeast, like other eukaryotes, carries its genetic information on chromosomes that are sequestered from other cellular constituents by a double membrane, which forms the nucleus. An elaborate molecular machinery forms large pores that span the double membrane and regulate the traffic of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus. In multicellular eukaryotes, an intermediate filament meshwork formed of lamin proteins bridges from pore to pore and helps the nucleus reform after mitosis. Yeast, however, lacks lamins, and the nuclear envelope is not disrupted during yeast mitosis. The mitotic spindle nucleates from the nucleoplasmic face of the spindle pole body, which is embedded in the nuclear envelope. Surprisingly, the kinetochores remain attached to short microtubules throughout interphase, influencing the position of centromeres in the interphase nucleus, and telomeres are found clustered in foci at the nuclear periphery. In addition to this chromosomal organization, the yeast nucleus is functionally compartmentalized to allow efficient gene expression, repression, RNA processing, genomic replication, and repair. The formation of functional subcompartments is achieved in the nucleus without intranuclear membranes and depends instead on sequence elements, protein–protein interactions, specific anchorage sites at the nuclear envelope or at pores, and long-range contacts between specific chromosomal loci, such as telomeres. Here we review the spatial organization of the budding yeast nucleus, the proteins involved in forming nuclear subcompartments, and evidence suggesting that the spatial organization of the nucleus is important for nuclear function. PMID:22964839

  11. Study of multiplicity correlations in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohery, M.; Sultan, E. M.; Baz, Shadiah S.

    2015-06-01

    In the present paper, some results on the correlations of the nucleus-nucleus interactions, at high energy, between different particle multiplicities are reported. The correlations between the multiplicities of the different charged particles emitted in the interactions of 22Ne and 28Si nuclei with emulsion at (4.1-4.5)A GeV/c have been studied. The correlations of the compound multiplicity nc, defined as the sum of both numbers of the shower particles ns and grey particles ng, have been investigated. The experimental data have been compared with the corresponding theoretical ones, calculated according to the modified cascade evaporation model (MCEM). An agreement has already been fairly obtained between the experimental values and the calculated ones. The dependence of the average compound multiplicity, on the numbers of shower, grey, black and heavy particles is obvious and the values of the slope have been found to be independent of the projectile nucleus. On the other hand, the variation of the average shower, grey, black and heavy particles is found to increase linearly with the compound particles. A strong correlation has been observed between the number of produced shower particles and the number of compound particles. Moreover, the value of the average compound multiplicity is found to increase with the increase of the projectile mass. Finally, an attempt has also been made to study the scaling of the compound multiplicity distribution showing that the compound multiplicity distribution is nearly consistent with the KNO scaling behavior.

  12. Cold breakup of spectator residues in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energy

    SciTech Connect

    Aichelin, J.; Huefner, J.; Ibarra, R.

    1984-07-01

    Inclusive data from fragmentation reactions of the type A/sub P/+A/sub T/..-->..Z+X are analyzed and a reaction mechanism is proposed. A projectile A/sub P/ (p, He, ..cap alpha.., or Ne) collides with a target nucleus A/sub T/ (Au) and one fragment with charge Z and energy E is observed at a solid angle ..cap omega... Projectile energies vary between 84A MeV and several A GeV. We propose a parametrization for the triple differential cross section d/sup 3/sigma/d..cap omega.. dE dZ with six free parameters. The parametrization generalizes the two-vector model which is often used to describe spallation products in proton-nucleus collisions. By fitting data from various experiments we establish a systematics of the six parameters. The experimental values of the parameters can be quantitatively understood in a model where the target nucleus breaks into several fragments similar to the shattering of glass.

  13. Nucleon emission via electromagnetic excitation in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions: Re-analysis of the Weizsacker-Williams method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous analyses of the comparison of Weizsacker-Williams (WW) theory to experiment for nucleon emission via electromagnetic (EM) excitations in nucleus-nucleus collisions were not definitive because of different assumptions concerning the value of the minimum impact parameter. This situation is corrected by providing criteria that allows definitive statements to be made concerning agreement or disagreement between WW theory and experiment.

  14. Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity Koray Basar a,c,e,1

    E-print Network

    Nucleus accumbens and impulsivity Koray Basar a,c,e,1 , Thibaut Sesia b,c,e,1 , Henk Groenewegen d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 2. Nucleus accumbens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 2.1. The nucleus accumbens as part of the ventral striatum

  15. The pathways connecting the hippocampal formation, the thalamic reuniens nucleus and the thalamic reticular nucleus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Çavdar, Safiye; Onat, Filiz Y; Çakmak, Yusuf Özgür; Yananli, Hasan R; Gülçebi, Medine; Aker, Rezzan

    2008-01-01

    Most dorsal thalamic nuclei send axons to specific areas of the neocortex and to specific sectors of the thalamic reticular nucleus; the neocortex then sends reciprocal connections back to the same thalamic nucleus, directly as well indirectly through a relay in the thalamic reticular nucleus. This can be regarded as a ‘canonical’ circuit of the sensory thalamus. For the pathways that link the thalamus and the hippocampal formation, only a few comparable connections have been described. The reuniens nucleus of the thalamus sends some of its major cortical efferents to the hippocampal formation. The present study shows that cells of the hippocampal formation as well as cells in the reuniens nucleus are retrogradely labelled following injections of horseradish peroxidase or fluoro-gold into the rostral part of the thalamic reticular nucleus in the rat. Within the hippocampal formation, labelled neurons were localized in the subiculum, predominantly on the ipsilateral side, with fewer neurons labelled contralaterally. Labelled neurons were seen in the hippocampal formation and nucleus reuniens only after injections made in the rostral thalamic reticular nucleus (1.6–1.8 mm caudal to bregma). In addition, the present study confirmed the presence of afferent connections to the rostral thalamic reticular nucleus from cortical (cingulate, orbital and infralimbic, retrosplenial and frontal), midline thalamic (paraventricular, anteromedial, centromedial and mediodorsal thalamic nuclei) and brainstem structures (substantia nigra pars reticularis, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal grey, superior vestibular and pontine reticular nuclei). These results demonstrate a potential for the thalamo-hippocampal circuitry to influence the functional roles of the thalamic reticular nucleus, and show that thalamo-hippocampal connections resemble the circuitry that links the sensory thalamus and neocortex. PMID:18221482

  16. Inputs to the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Won; Geerling, Joel C; Loewy, Arthur D

    2008-12-10

    The ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTvl) receives direct input from two specific subpopulations of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). It is heavily innervated by aldosterone-sensitive NTS neurons, which are selectively activated by sodium depletion, and by the A2 noradrenergic neurons, which are activated by visceral and immune- and stress-related stimuli. Here, we used a retrograde neuronal tracer to identify other brain sites that innervate the BSTvl. Five general brain regions contained retrogradely labeled neurons: cerebral cortex (infralimbic and insular regions), rostral forebrain structures (subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, taenia tecta, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, endopiriform nucleus, dorsal BST, substantia innominata, and, most prominently the amygdala--primarily its basomedial and central subnuclei), thalamus (central medial, intermediodorsal, reuniens, and, most prominently the paraventricular thalamic nucleus), hypothalamus (medial preoptic area, perifornical, arcuate, dorsomedial, parasubthalamic, and posterior hypothalamic nuclei), and brainstem (periaqueductal gray matter, dorsal and central superior raphe nuclei, parabrachial nucleus, pre-locus coeruleus region, NTS, and A1 noradrenergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla). In the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, some retrogradely labeled neurons contained either agouti-related peptide or cocaine/amphetamine-regulated transcript. Of the numerous retrogradely labeled neurons in the perifornical hypothalamic area, few contained melanin-concentrating hormone or orexin. In the brainstem, many retrogradely labeled neurons were either serotoninergic or catecholaminergic. In summary, the BSTvl receives inputs from a variety of brain sites implicated in hunger, salt and water intake, stress, arousal, and reward. PMID:18853414

  17. Angiotensin receptor binding and pressor effects in cat subretrofacial nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, A.M.; Dampney, R.A.L.; Mendelsohn, F.A.O. Univ. of Sydney )

    1988-11-01

    Central administration of angiotensin II (ANG II) increases arterial blood pressure via increased sympathetic activity. The authors have examined the possibility that one site of action of ANG II is the subretrofacial (SRF) nucleus in the rostral ventrolateral medulla, since this nucleus is known to play a critical role in the tonic and phasic control of arterial pressure. In vitro autoradiography, employing {sup 125}I-labeled (Sar{sup 1}, Ile{sup 8})ANG II as radioligand, was used to localize binding sites for ANG-II in the cat ventrolateral medulla. A high density of ANG II-receptor binding sites was found confined to the SRF nucleus. In a second group of experiments in anesthetized cats, microinjections of ANG II, in doses ranging from 10 to 50 pmol, were made into histologically identified sites within and outside the SRF nucleus. Microinjections into the nucleus resulted in a dose-dependent increase in arterial pressure, which was abolished by systemic administration of the ganglion-blocking drug hexamethonium bromide. In contrast, microinjections just outside the SRF nucleus had no effect on arterial pressure. It is concluded that activation of ANG II-receptor binding sites within the SRF nucleus leads to an increase in arterial pressure via increased sympathetic efferent activity.

  18. Comparison Of Percutaneous Laser Discectomy With Other Modalities For The Treatment Of Herniated Lumbar Discs And Cadaveric Studies Of Percutaneous Laser Discectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, W. E.; Smith, Chadwick F.; Vangsness, Thomas; McEleney, Emmett T.; Yamaguchi, Ken; Bales, Peter

    1987-03-01

    Current modalities for treating a herniated lumbar disc include standard open discectomy, microsurgical discectomy, chemonucleoysis and percutaneous discectomy. The Food and Drug Administration has not yet approved percutaneous laser discectomy for clinical investigation. The investigators believe that percutaneous laser discectomy combines the efficacy of both chemonucleoysis and percutaneous discectomy with the safety of both open standard discectomy and microsurgical discectomy. The investigators removed two lumbar discs from a cadaveric spine and weighed each of them. The two lumbar discs weighed in the range of 13.654 grams and 15.713 grams, respectively. The investigators initiated several series of 10 firing cycles from a surgical carbon dioxide laser system. In each firing cycle the surgical carbon dioxide laser system delivered a beam of light energy having an output power of 18.0 watts at pulse duration of 0.045 second at the rate of 15 pulses per second for a period of 6 seconds and vaporized approximately 325 milligrams of disc material. Based on the findings of other investigators reported in the literature relating to percutaneous discectomy the investigators postulated that 10 to 20 firing cycles are required to vaporize 30 to 40% (2.4 to 6.4 grams) of the disc material. The investigators initiated two series of 10 firing cycles in order to perform laser discectomy in a third lumbar disc of the cadaveric spine in situ. The investigators harvested and then bisected the laser-treated third lumbar disc for gross review. Their gross findings indicated a high probability of success For percutaneous laser discectomy.

  19. Combination of serum phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit and hyperintensity of intramedullary T2W on magnetic resonance imaging provides better prognostic value of canine thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Mashita, Tadahisa; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Nakamoto, Yuya; Akagi, Yosuke; Nakanishi, Ataru; Harasaki, Yusuke; Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Uemura, Takashi; Kobatake, Yui; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Kitamura, Naoki; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Uzuka, Yuji; Shaw, Gerry; Yasuda, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of concurrent measurement of serum phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H) concentration and intramedullary T2W hyperintensity in paraplegic to paraplegic dogs. Our hypothesis was that concurrent measurement of these would provide a more accurate prediction of functional outcome in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). A prospective case-control clinical study was designed using 94 dogs with acute onset of thoracolumbar IVDH. The association of serum pNF-H concentration, T2W hyperintensity on sagittal MRI (T2H/L2), deep pain perception and surgical outcome were evaluated with logistic regression analysis after three months for all 94 surgically treated dogs. Sensitivity to predict non-ambulatory outcome was compared among pNF-H and T2H/L2 and combination of both. Logistic regression analysis indicated that serum pNF-H concentration and T2H/L2 were significantly correlated with surgical outcome (P<0.05); however, deep pain perception was not (P=0.41). The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratios of unsuccessful long-term outcome were 2.6 for serum pNF-H concentration, 1.9 for T2H/L2 and 2.3 for deep pain sensation. The sensitivity and specificity to predict non-ambulatory outcome for using serum parameter pNF-H>2.6 ng/ml, using T2H/L2 value of>0.84 and using both serum pNF-H and T2H/L2, were 95% and 75.7%, 65% and 86.5%, and 90.0% and 97.5%, respectively. Therefore, combined measurements of serum pNF-H and T2H/L2 might be useful for predicting long-term outcome in dogs with thoracolumbar IVDH. PMID:25650056

  20. Comparison of lumbar spine stabilization exercise versus general exercise in young male patients with lumbar disc herniation after 1 year of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chaoqun; Ren, Jixin; Zhang, Jianzheng; Wang, Chongwei; Liu, Zhi; Li, Fang; Sun, Tiansheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The safest and most effective conservative treatment for patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has not been established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lumbar spine stabilization exercise (LSSE) and general exercise (GE) on pain intensity and functional capacity in young male patients with LDH. Methods: Sixty-three young male adults aged 20 to 29 years with the diagnosis of LDH were enrolled and divided into an LSSE group (n=30) and a GE group (n=33). Patients in both groups received low-power laser (LPL) therapy during the first week of the onset of LDH. Patients in the GE group underwent a GE program. Patients in the LSSE group followed an LSSE program for 3 months. All of the patients were subjected to pain intensity and functional capacity evaluations four times: at pre-and post-LPL therapy, and at 3 months and 1 year post-exercise. Pain intensity of the lower back and legs was evaluated with the visual analogue scale (VAS), and functional capacity was evaluated with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Results: Both groups showed a significant reduction in VAS and ODI scores at 3 and 12 months post-exercise compared with before treatment (P<0.001). The LSSE group showed a significant reduction in the average score of the VAS for low back pain (P=0.012) and the ODI (P=0.003) at 12 months post-exercise compared with the GE group. Conclusions: LSSE and GE are considered as effective interventions for young male patients with LDH. Moreover, LSSE is more effective than GE, and physical therapy, such as LPL, is required during acute LDH. PMID:26309670

  1. Prolonged conservative treatment or 'early' surgery in sciatica caused by a lumbar disc herniation: rationale and design of a randomized trial [ISRCT 26872154

    PubMed Central

    Peul, Wilco C; van Houwelingen, Hans C; van der Hout, Wilbert B; Brand, Ronald; Eekhof, Just AH; Tans, Joseph ThJ; Thomeer, Ralph TWM; Koes, Bart W

    2005-01-01

    Background The design of a randomized multicenter trial is presented on the effectiveness of a prolonged conservative treatment strategy compared with surgery in patients with persisting intense sciatica (lumbosacral radicular syndrome). Methods/design Patients presenting themselves to their general practitioner with disabling sciatica lasting less than twelve weeks are referred to the neurology outpatient department of one of the participating hospitals. After confirmation of the diagnosis and surgical indication MRI scanning is performed. If a distinct disc herniation is discerned which in addition covers the clinically expected site the patient is eligible for randomization. Depending on the outcome of the randomization scheme the patient will either be submitted to prolonged conservative care or surgery. Surgery will be carried out according to the guidelines and between six and twelve weeks after onset of complaints. The experimental therapy consists of a prolonged conservative treatment under supervision of the general practitioner, which may be followed by surgical intervention in case of persisting or progressive disability. The main primary outcome measure is the disease specific disability of daily functioning. Other primary outcome measures are perceived recovery and intensity of legpain. Secondary outcome measures encompass severity of complaints, quality of life, medical consumption, absenteeism, costs and preference. The main research question will be answered at 12 months after randomization. The total follow-up period covers two years. Discussion Evidence is lacking concerning the optimal treatment of lumbar disc induced sciatica. This pragmatic randomized trial, focusses on the 'timing' of intervention, and will contribute to the decision of the general practictioner and neurologist, regarding referral of patients for surgery. PMID:15707491

  2. The COmet Nucleus TOUR (CONTOUR) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, A.

    At the time of submission of this abstract, the COmet Nucleus TOUR (CONTOUR) spacecraft is at NASA's Kennedy Space Center awaiting transfer to the launch pad for launch aboard a Delta-2425 rocket on or after 1 July 2002. This Discovery-class mission has a goal to study the diversity of cometary nuclei. The launch will be into a high-apogee Earth orbit in preparation for firing a STAR-30 Solid Rocket Motor on 15 August 2002. At that point, the spacecraft will be on a trajectory for a flyby of comet 2P/Encke on 12 November 2003. In this talk, we discuss the instrument payload, the science goals and the progress of the spacecraft to date. The nominal mission includes flybys of at least two comets with closest approach to Encke of 130 km. The spacecraft uses repeated Earth flybys to realign the trajectory for targeting additional comets. This adds flexibility to the mission which allows for changing targets and for additional targets. Thus, if a bright new comet were discovered, the CONTOUR spacecraft could be targeted for a flyby of this new comet. In addition, a unique feature of the CONTOUR spacecraft is that it will be placed into a "hibernation" mode between Earth and comet flybys. This allows for lower mission operation costs while not endangering the spacecraft functionality.

  3. Ultrasonic evoked responses in rat cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yi; Ping, Junli; Li, Nanxin; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang; Galbraith, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported auditory brainstem responses evoked by stimuli within the “normal” hearing range of rats, with maximum sensitivity peaking around 16 kHz. Yet rats also emit and respond to sounds in the ultrasonic (US) frequency range (30-100 kHz). However very few electrophysiological studies have recorded auditory brainstem responses using US stimuli, and none have exceeded 70 kHz. We report here short-latency (1-3 ms) evoked potentials recorded in rat cochlear nucleus (CN) to US stimuli ranging from 40-90 kHz. Robust responses were recorded in 33 of 36 CN recording sites to stimuli ranging from 40-60 kHz; and twenty-eight of these sites continued to yield well defined responses out to 90 kHz. Latencies systematically increased and overall amplitudes decreased with increasing US frequency. Amplitudes differed significantly in the three CN subnuclei, being largest in posterior-ventral (PVCN) and smallest in anterior-ventral (AVCN). The fact that well defined responses can be recorded to stimuli as high as 90 kHz significantly extends the recorded upper frequency range of neural activity in the brainstem auditory pathway of the rat. These evoked potential results agree with the well documented behavioral repertoire of rats in the US frequency range. PMID:17803975

  4. Inside a plant nucleus: discovering the proteins.

    PubMed

    Petrovská, Beáta; Šebela, Marek; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Nuclear proteins are a vital component of eukaryotic cell nuclei and have a profound effect on the way in which genetic information is stored, expressed, replicated, repaired, and transmitted to daughter cells and progeny. Because of the plethora of functions, nuclear proteins represent the most abundant components of cell nuclei in all eukaryotes. However, while the plant genome is well understood at the DNA level, information on plant nuclear proteins remains scarce, perhaps with the exception of histones and a few other proteins. This lack of knowledge hampers efforts to understand how the plant genome is organized in the nucleus and how it functions. This review focuses on the current state of the art of the analysis of the plant nuclear proteome. Previous proteome studies have generally been designed to search for proteins involved in plant response to various forms of stress or to identify rather a modest number of proteins. Thus, there is a need for more comprehensive and systematic studies of proteins in the nuclei obtained at individual phases of the cell cycle, or isolated from various tissue types and stages of cell and tissue differentiation. All this in combination with protein structure, predicted function, and physical localization in 3D nuclear space could provide much needed progress in our understanding of the plant nuclear proteome and its role in plant genome organization and function. PMID:25697798

  5. Spinal hernia tissue autofluorescence spectrum.

    PubMed

    Varanius, Darius; Terbetas, Gunaras; Vaitkus, Juozas V; Vaitkuviene, Aurelija

    2013-02-01

    The laser intervertebral disc decompression may provide appropriate relief in properly selected patients with contained disc herniations. The present investigation aims to characterise intervertebral disc material by autofluorescence induced by laser light. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc is associated with progressive biochemical changes in disc material. Percutaneous laser disc decompression has become rather popular for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation, but there are problems in the selection of patients. For this purpose, recognition of the disc composition is necessary. We propose a new type of spectroscopic investigation. It is advantageous to the characterization of intervertebral disc material. Intervertebral disc specimens were removed during open surgery from different disc locations. Preoperative patients' MRI was evaluated using the Pfirrmann disc degeneration and Komori scale for migrating of herniated nucleus pulposus. Adjacent slices of stained disc sections were evaluated by histology/histochemistry and autofluorescence spectra. Comparison of the MRI, spectral, histological and histochemical data was performed. The MRI Komori scale correlated with the histology Boos degeneration index. In the histochemistry, collagens other than collagens I and II of the disc were distinguished with best positive correlation coefficient (0.829) and best negative one (-0.904) of proteoglycans of sequester to Boos index. A correlation of the IV Gaussian component of the hernia spectra with the Boos index was established. The Gaussian component correlation with different collagen types and proteoglycan was determined for the disc and sequester. "Autofluorescence-based diagnosis" refers to the evaluation of disc degeneration by histological and histochemical evaluation; it can provide additional data on the degeneration of an intervertebral disc. PMID:22389123

  6. The confined hydrogen atom with a moving nucleus

    E-print Network

    Francisco M. Fernandez

    2010-01-21

    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first--order perturbation theory and by a more accurate variational approach. We show that it is greater than the one for the case in which the nucleus is clamped at the center of the box. Present approach resembles the well-known treatment of the helium atom with clamped nucleus.

  7. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Beane, S.? R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S.? D.; Detmold, W.; Lin, H. -W.; Orginos, K.; Parreño, A.; Savage, M.? J.

    2015-06-11

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  8. Quarkonium-Nucleus Bound States from Lattice QCD

    E-print Network

    S. R. Beane; E. Chang; S. D. Cohen; W. Detmold; H. -W. Lin; K. Orginos; A. Parreño; M. J. Savage

    2015-08-13

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  9. Production of Strange Clusters and Strange Matter in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the AGS

    E-print Network

    P. Braun-Munzinger; J. Stachel

    1994-12-23

    Production probabilities for strange clusters and strange matter in Au+Au collisions at AGS energy are obtained in the thermal fireball model. The only parameters of the model, the baryon chemical potential and temperature, were determined from a description of the rather complete set of hadron yields from Si+nucleus collisions at the AGS. For the production of light nuclear fragments and strange clusters the results are similar to recent coalescence model calculations. Strange matter production with baryon number larger than 10 is predicted to be much smaller than any current experimental sensitivities.

  10. Smallest Black Hole in Galactic Nucleus Detected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    A team of astronomers have reported the detection of the smallest black hole (BH) ever observed in a galactic nucleus. The BH is hosted in the center of dwarf galaxy RGG 118, and it weighs in at 50,000 solar masses, according to observations made by Vivienne Baldassare of University of Michigan and her collaborators. Small Discoveries: Why is the discovery of a small nuclear BH important? Some open questions that this could help answer are: - Do the very smallest dwarf galaxies have BHs at their centers too? Though we believe that there's a giant BH at the center of every galaxy, we aren't sure how far down the size scale this holds true. - What is the formation mechanism for BHs at the center of galaxies? - What's the behavior of the M-sigma relation at the low-mass end? The M-sigma relation is an observed correlation between the mass of a galaxy's central BH and the velocity dispersion of the stars in the galaxy. This relation is incredibly useful for determining properties of distant BHs and their galaxies empirically, but little data is available to constrain the low-mass end of the relation. M-sigma relation, plotting systems with dynamically-measured black hole masses. RGG 118 is plotted as the pink star. The solid and dashed lines represent various determinations of scaling relations. Credit: Baldassare et al. 2015. Identifying a Black Hole: RGG 118 was identified as a candidate host for an accreting, nuclear BH from the catalog of dwarf galaxies observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Baldassare and her team followed up with high-resolution spectroscopy from the Clay telescope in Chile and Chandra x-ray observations. Using these observations, the team determined that RGG 118 plays host to a massive BH at its center based on three clues: 1) narrow emission line ratios, which is a signature of accretion onto a massive BH, 2) the presence of broad emission lines, indicating that gas is rotating around a central BH, and 3) the existence of an X-ray point source at the nucleus of the galaxy. The spread in the broad emission lines was what allowed Baldassare and collaborators to estimate the mass of the BH, placing it firmly on the extrapolation of the M-sigma relation. In addition to helping us further understand this relation, this unique BH also constrains nuclear BH formation: we know that pathways must produce seeds at least this large! The group hopes that continued analysis of Sloan candidates might allow for the discovery of more such BHs at the centers of dwarf galaxies. Citation: Vivienne F. Baldassare et al. 2015, ApJ, 809, L14 doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/809/1/L14

  11. Smallest Black Hole in Galactic Nucleus Detected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    A team of astronomers have reported the detection of the smallest black hole (BH) ever observed in a galactic nucleus. The BH is hosted in the center of dwarf galaxy RGG 118, and it weighs in at 50,000 solar masses, according to observations made by Vivienne Baldassare of University of Michigan and her collaborators.Small DiscoveriesWhy is the discovery of a small nuclear BH important? Some open questions that this could help answer are:Do the very smallest dwarf galaxies have BHs at their centers too?Though we believe that theres a giant BH at the center of every galaxy, we arent sure how far down the size scale this holds true.What is the formation mechanism for BHs at the center of galaxies?Whats the behavior of the M-sigma relation at the low-mass end?The M-sigma relation is an observed correlation between the mass of a galaxys central BH and the velocity dispersion of the stars in the galaxy. This relation is incredibly useful for determining properties of distant BHs and their galaxies empirically, but little data is available to constrain the low-mass end of the relation.M-sigma relation, plotting systems with dynamically-measured black hole masses. RGG 118 is plotted as the pink star. The solid and dashed lines represent various determinations of scaling relations. Credit: Baldassare et al. 2015.Identifying a Black HoleRGG 118 was identified as a candidate host for an accreting, nuclear BH from the catalog of dwarf galaxies observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Baldassare and her team followed up with high-resolution spectroscopy from the Clay telescope in Chile and Chandra x-ray observations.Using these observations, the team determined that RGG 118 plays host to a massive BH at its center based on three clues: 1) narrow emission line ratios, which is a signature of accretion onto a massive BH, 2) the presence of broad emission lines, indicating that gas is rotating around a central BH, and 3) the existence of an X-ray point source at the nucleus of the galaxy.The spread in the broad emission lines was what allowed Baldassare and collaborators to estimate the mass of the BH, placing it firmly on the extrapolation of the M-sigma relation. In addition to helping us further understand this relation, this unique BH also constrains nuclear BH formation: we know that pathways must produce seeds at least this large! The group hopes that continued analysis of Sloan candidates might allow for the discovery of more such BHs at the centers of dwarf galaxies.CitationVivienne F. Baldassare et al. 2015 ApJ 809 L14 doi:10.1088/2041-8205/809/1/L14

  12. The suprachiasmatic nucleus of the domestic chicken, Gallus domesticus 

    E-print Network

    Cantwell, Elizabeth Layne

    2007-04-25

    The avian circadian system is composed of multiple inputs, oscillators and outputs. Among its oscillators is a hypothalamic structure presumed to be homologous to the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN...

  13. Deconvolving the Nucleus of Centaurus A Using Chandra PSF Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2000-01-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a giant early-type galaxy containing the nearest (at 3.5 Mpc) radio-bright Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Cen A was observed with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory on several occasions since the launch in July 1999. The high-angular resolution (less than 0.5 arcsecond) Chandra/HRC images reveal X ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity, including the bright nucleus believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole. We explored the spatial extent of the Cen A nucleus using deconvolution techniques on the full resolution Chandra images. Model point spread functions (PSFs) were derived from the standard Chandra raytrace PSF library as well as unresolved point sources observed with Chandra. The deconvolved images show that the Cen A nucleus is resolved and asymmetric. We discuss several possible causes of this extended emission and of the asymmetries.

  14. The Role of the Subthalamic Nucleus in the Basal Ganglia 

    E-print Network

    Gillies, Andrew J

    The basal ganglia are a collection of interconnected subcortical nuclei which have been implicated inmotor, cognitive and limbic functions. The subthalamic nucleus is the sole excitatory structure within the basal ganglia. ...

  15. Low-energy antinucleon-nucleus interaction revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    2015-08-01

    Annihilation cross sections of antiprotons and antineutrons on the proton between 50 and 400 MeV/c show Coulomb focusing below 200 MeV/c and almost no charge-dependence above 200 MeV/c. Similar comparisons for heavier targets are not possible for lack of overlap between nuclear targets studied with and beams. Interpolating between -nucleus annihilation cross sections with the help of an optical potential to compare with -nucleus annihilation cross sections reveal unexpected features of Coulomb interactions in the latter. Direct comparisons between -nucleus and -nucleus annihilations at very low energies could be possible if cross sections are measured on the same targets and at the same energies as the available cross sections for . Such measurements may be feasible in the foreseeable future.

  16. Low-Energy Antinucleon-Nucleus Interaction Revisited

    E-print Network

    E. Friedman

    2015-02-25

    Annihilation cross sections of antiprotons and antineutrons on the proton between 50 and 400 MeV/c show Coulomb focusing below 200 MeV/c and almost no charge-dependence above 200 MeV/c. Similar comparisons for heavier targets are not possible for lack of overlap between nuclear targets studied with $\\bar p$ and $\\bar n$ beams. Interpolating between $\\bar p$-nucleus annihilation cross sections with the help of an optical potential to compare with $\\bar n$-nucleus annihilation cross sections reveal unexpected features of Coulomb interactions in the latter. Direct comparisons between $\\bar n$-nucleus and $\\bar p$-nucleus annihilations at very low energies could be possible if $\\bar p$ cross sections are measured on the same targets and at the same energies as the available cross sections for $\\bar n$. Such measurements may be feasible in the foreseeable future.

  17. Neutrino-nucleus reactions in the delta resonance region

    E-print Network

    B. Szczerbinska; T. Sato; K. Kubodera; T. -S. H. Lee

    2007-05-27

    Reliable estimates of neutrino-nucleus reactions in the resonance-excitation region play an important role in many of the on-going and planned neutrino oscillation experiments. We study here neutrino-nucleus reactions in the delta-particle excitation region with the use of neutrino pion-production amplitudes calculated in a formalism in which the resonance contributions and the background amplitudes are treated on the same footing. Our approach leads to the neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections that are significantly different from those obtained in the conventional approach wherein only the pure resonance amplitudes are taken into account. To assess the reliability of our formalism, we calculate the electron-nucleus scattering cross sections in the same theoretical framework; the calculated cross sections agree reasonably well with the existing data.

  18. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    E-print Network

    Beane, S.?R.

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multigluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD ...

  19. Eta-Mesic Nucleus and COSY-GEM Data

    E-print Network

    Q. Haider; L. C. Liu

    2010-11-03

    The experimental data of the COSY-GEM Collaboration for the recoil-free transfer reaction p (27Al, 3He) \\pi - p' X, leading to the formation of bound state of eta (\\eta) meson in 25Mg nucleus, is reanalyzed in this paper. In particular, predicted values of binding energy and half-width of the \\eta -mesic nucleus 25Mg\\eta, given by different theoretical approaches, are compared with the ones obtained from the experimental missing mass spectrum. It is found that the spectrum can be explained reasonably well if interference effect of another process, where \\eta is not bound in 25Mg but is scattered by the nucleus and emerge as a pion, is taken into account. The data also indicate that the interaction between N*(1535) and a nucleus is attractive in nature.

  20. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Variations in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Associated

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    ), behavioral and endocrine responses to stress (Liu et al., 1997; Caldji et al., 1998), and maternal behaviorBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Variations in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine Associated with Individual

  1. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Star Collaboration; Agakishiev, H.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alakhverdyants, A. V.; Alekseev, I.; Alford, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Anson, C. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Beavis, D. R.; Behera, N. K.; Bellwied, R.; Betancourt, M. J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Biritz, B.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Borowski, W.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bridgeman, A.; Brovko, S. G.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Bunzarov, I.; Burton, T. P.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon, M.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M. C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, J. Y.; Chen, L.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K. E.; Christie, W.; Chung, P.; Codrington, M. J. M.; Corliss, R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Davila Leyva, A.; de Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Derradi de Souza, R.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elnimr, M.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Evdokimov, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Fersch, R. G.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Geurts, F.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y. N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O. G.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S. M.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hajkova, O.; Hamed, A.; Han, L.-X.; Harris, J. W.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Hofman, D. J.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, L.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Kikola, D. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kizka, V.; Klein, S. R.; Knospe, A. G.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Konzer, J.; Koralt, I.; Koroleva, L.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lapointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Leight, W.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, L.; Li, N.; Li, W.; Li, X.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, Z. M.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Lukashov, E. V.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O. I.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Masui, H.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McDonald, D.; McShane, T. S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitrovski, M. K.; Mohammed, Y.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, B.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Mustafa, M. K.; Naglis, M.; Nandi, B. K.; Nayak, T. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Ohlson, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldag, E. W.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B. S.; Pal, S. K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlak, T.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Pile, P.; Planinic, M.; Ploskon, M. A.; Pluta, J.; Plyku, D.; Poljak, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Powell, C. B.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N. K.; Pujahari, P. R.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sangaline, E.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T. R.; Seele, J.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Solanki, D.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Staszak, D.; Steadman, S. G.; Stevens, J. R.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Suarez, M. C.; Subba, N. L.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Tarini, L. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vanfossen, J. A., Jr.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G. M. S.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; , C. Whitten, Jr.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Witzke, W.; Wu, Y. F.; Xiao, Z.; Xie, W.; Xu, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Y.

    2011-05-01

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (), also known as the anti-? (), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the ?-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B<-1 have been observed only as rare products of interactions at particle accelerators, where the rate of antinucleus production in high-energy collisions decreases by a factor of about 1,000 with each additional antinucleon. Here we report the observation of , the heaviest observed antinucleus to date. In total, 18 counts were detected at the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC; ref. 6) in 109 recorded gold-on-gold (Au+Au) collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 200GeV and 62GeV per nucleon-nucleon pair. The yield is consistent with expectations from thermodynamic and coalescent nucleosynthesis models, providing an indication of the production rate of even heavier antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of in cosmic radiation.

  2. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus.

    PubMed

    2011-05-19

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-? (?), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the ?-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B?

  3. Modulation of medial geniculate nucleus neuronal activity by electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Barry, K M; Paolini, A G; Robertson, D; Mulders, W H A M

    2015-11-12

    Dysfunctional sensory gating has been proposed to result in the generation of phantom perceptions. In agreement, it has been recently suggested that tinnitus, a phantom perception of sound commonly associated with hearing loss, is the result of a breakdown of circuitry involving the limbic system and the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) of the thalamus. In humans with tinnitus, structural changes and abnormal activity have been found to occur in the auditory pathway as well as parts of the limbic system such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, at present, no studies have been conducted on the influence of the NAc on the MGN. We investigated the functional connectivity between the NAc and MGN single neurons. Bipolar electrical stimulation was delivered to the NAc while recording single neuron activity in MGN in anesthetized Wistar rats. Histological analysis was used to confirm placement of electrodes. NAc electrical stimulation generally decreased spontaneous firing rates in MGN neurons and, in a limited number of neurons, caused an increase in firing rate. This suggests that NAc can modulate the activity of auditory neurons in the MGN and may play a role in the development of tinnitus. PMID:26349008

  4. EOS: A time projection chamber for the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Bevalac

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, H.G.; Odyniec, G.; Rai, G.; Seidl, P.

    1986-12-01

    The conceptual design is presented for a detector to identify and measure (..delta..p/p approx. = 1%) most of the 200 or so mid-rapidity charged particles (p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, ..pi../sup + -/, K/sup + -/) produced in each central nucleus-nucleus collision (Au + Au) at Bevalac energies, as well as K/sub 3//sup 0/ and ..lambda../sup 0/. The beam particles and heavy spectator fragments are excluded from the detection volume by means of a central vacuum pipe. Particle identification is achieved by a combination of dE/dx measurements in the TPC, and of time-of-flight measurements in a scintillator array. The TPC is single-ended and its end cap is entirely covered with cathode pads (about 25,000 pads and about 1000 anode wires). A non-uniform pad distribution is proposed to accommodate the high multiplicity of particles emitted at forward angles. The performance of the detector is assessed with regard to multihit capability, tracking, momentum resolution, particle identification, ..lambda../sup 0/ reconstruction, space charge effects, field non-uniformity, dynamic range, data acquisition rate, and data analysis rate. 72 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

  6. Chemical equilibrium study in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becattini, F.; Ga?dzicki, M.; Keränen, A.; Manninen, J.; Stock, R.

    2004-02-01

    We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6A , 30A , 40A , 80A , and 158A GeV . By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the strangeness production as a function of center-of-mass energy and of the parameters of the source. We have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space undersaturation. We show that, in this energy range, the use of hadron yields at midrapidity instead of in full phase space artificially enhances strangeness production and could lead to incorrect conclusions as far as the occurrence of full chemical equilibrium is concerned. In addition to the basic model with an extra strange quark nonequilibrium parameter, we have tested three more schemes: a two-component model superimposing hadrons coming out of single nucleon-nucleon interactions to those emerging from large fireballs at equilibrium, a model with local strangeness neutrality and a model with strange and light quark nonequilibrium parameters. The behavior of the source parameters as a function of colliding system and collision energy is studied. The description of strangeness production entails a nonmonotonic energy dependence of strangeness saturation parameter ?S with a maximum around 30A GeV . We also present predictions of the production rates of still unmeasured hadrons including the newly discovered ?+ (1540) pentaquark baryon.

  7. Projection Neurons from The Central Nucleus of The Amygdala to The Nucleus Pontis Oralis

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Simon J.; Xi, MingChu; Zhang, JianHua; Torterolo, Pablo; Sampogna, Sharon; Morales, Francisco R.; Chase, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    The present retrograde labeling study was designed to determine the presence and pattern of projections from individual subdivisions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) to the nucleus pontis oralis (NPO), which is a critical brainstem site involved for the generation and maintenance of active (REM) sleep. Projections from the CNA were labeled with the retrograde tracer, cholera toxin B-subunit (CTB), which was injected, unilaterally, via microiontophoresis, into the NPO. Sections of the amygdala were immunostained in order to identify CTB-labeled CNA neurons and CNA neurons that contained CTB plus the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), which is a marker for glutamatergic neurons. Histological analyses revealed that retrogradely-labeled neurons that project to the NPO were localized, ipsilaterally, within the medial, lateral and capsular subdivisions of the CNA. In addition, a substantial proportion (24%) of all retrogradely-labeled CNA neurons also exhibited VGLUT2 immunoreactivity. The present study demonstrates that glutamatergic neurons, which are present within various subdivisions of the CNA, project directly to the NPO. These data lend credence to the hypothesis that NPO neurons that are involved in the control of active sleep are activated by glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. PMID:21259329

  8. Acts and knowledge management in the NUCLEUS hospital information system.

    PubMed Central

    Kanoui, H.; Joubert, M.; Favard, R.; Maury, G.; Pelletier, M.

    1995-01-01

    NUCLEUS is a project completed in June 1995 in the frame of the European Community programme AIM (Advanced Informatics in Medicine). The main result of NUCLEUS is a prototype of an integrated patient dossier. Together with this patient dossier, facilities have been developed for its customisation by the various categories of end-users. A semantic model has been designed to guide and control the exploitation of data, and ensures the overall integrity of the information system. PMID:8563297

  9. Glucokinase activity in the arcuate nucleus regulates glucose intake

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Syed; Richardson, Errol; Ma, Yue; Holton, Christopher; De Backer, Ivan; Buckley, Niki; Dhillo, Waljit; Bewick, Gavin; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Bloom, Steve; Gardiner, James

    2014-01-01

    The brain relies on a constant supply of glucose, its primary fuel, for optimal function. A taste-independent mechanism within the CNS that promotes glucose delivery to the brain has been postulated to maintain glucose homeostasis; however, evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Here, we determined that glucokinase activity within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is involved in regulation of dietary glucose intake. In fasted rats, glucokinase activity was specifically increased in the arcuate nucleus but not other regions of the hypothalamus. Moreover, pharmacologic and genetic activation of glucokinase in the arcuate nucleus of rodent models increased glucose ingestion, while decreased arcuate nucleus glucokinase activity reduced glucose intake. Pharmacologic targeting of potential downstream glucokinase effectors revealed that ATP-sensitive potassium channel and P/Q calcium channel activity are required for glucokinase-mediated glucose intake. Additionally, altered glucokinase activity affected release of the orexigenic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y in response to glucose. Together, our results suggest that glucokinase activity in the arcuate nucleus specifically regulates glucose intake and that appetite for glucose is an important driver of overall food intake. Arcuate nucleus glucokinase activation may represent a CNS mechanism that underlies the oft-described phenomena of the “sweet tooth” and carbohydrate craving. PMID:25485685

  10. Stopping powers and cross sections due to two-photon processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Wang K.; Norbury, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic-production processes due to two-photon exchange in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Feynman diagrams for two-photon exchange are evaluated using quantum electrodynamics. The total cross section and stopping power for projectile and target nuclei of identical charge are found to be significant for heavy nuclei above a few GeV per nucleon-incident energy.

  11. Coherent production of the long-lived pionium nP states in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    S Gevokyan; O Voskresenskaya

    2015-11-10

    The coherent production of the $nP$ states of the $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ atoms ($A_{2\\pi}$) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered as a possible source of the $A_{2\\pi}(nP)$ beam for the pionium Lamb-shift measurement. A general expression for estimation of the $A_{2\\pi}(nP)$ yields is derived in the framework of the equivalent photon approximation.

  12. Coherent production of the long-lived pionium nP states in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Gevokyan, S

    2015-01-01

    The coherent production of the $nP$ states of the $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ atoms ($A_{2\\pi}$) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is considered as a possible source of the $A_{2\\pi}(nP)$ beam for the pionium Lamb-shift measurement. A general expression for estimation of the $A_{2\\pi}(nP)$ yields is derived in the framework of the equivalent photon approximation.

  13. ORIGINAL PAPER Response properties of visual neurons in the turtle nucleus isthmi

    E-print Network

    Wessel, Ralf

    ORIGINAL PAPER Response properties of visual neurons in the turtle nucleus isthmi Debajit Saha with the nucleus isthmi. Here, we recorded from individual nucleus isthmi pars parvocellu- laris (Ipc) neurons surround. Intracellular Ipc recordings revealed a strong inhibitory connection from the nucleus isthmi pars

  14. 3200 Phaethon, Asteroid or Comet Nucleus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boice, Daniel C.; Benkhoff, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    Physico-chemical modeling is central to understand the important physical processes in small solar system bodies. We have developed a computer simulation, SUISEI, that includes the physico-chemical processes relevant to comets within a global modeling framework. Our goals are to gain valuable insights into the intrinsic properties of cometary nuclei so we can better understand observations and in situ measurements. SUISEI includes a 3-D model of gas and heat transport in porous sub-surface layers in the interior of the nucleus.We present results on the application of SUISEI to the near-Sun object, Phaethon. Discovered in 1983 and classified as an asteroid, it has recently exhibited an active dust coma. Phaethon has long been associated as the source of the Geminids meteor shower so the dust activity provides a clear link to the meteor shower. The observed dust activity would traditionally lead to Phaethon being also classified as a comet (e.g., 2060-95P/Chiron, 133P/Elst-Pizarro). This is unusual since the orbit of Phaethon has a perihelion of 0.14 AU, resulting in surface temperatures of more than 1025K, much too hot for water ice or other volatiles to exist near the surface and drive the activity. This situation and others such as the “Active Asteroids” necessitates a revision of how we understand and classify these small asteroid-comet transition objects.We conclude the following for Phaethon:1. It is likely to contain relatively pristine volatiles in its interior despite repeated near perihelion passages of 0.14 AU during its history in its present orbit,2. Steady water gas fluxes at perihelion and throughout its orbit are insufficient to entrain the currently observed dust production,3. Thermal gradients into the surface as well as those caused by diurnal rotation are consistent with the mechanism of dust release due to thermal fracture,4. The initial large gas release during the first perihelion passage may be sufficient to produce enough dust to explain the entire meteor stream.Acknowledgements: We greatly appreciate support from the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under Grant No. 0908529 and the ESA/ESTEC Visiting Scientist Program.

  15. The long-term course of patients undergoing alternative and integrative therapy for lumbar disc herniation: 3-year results of a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of an integrative complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approach in the management of lumbar herniated disc (LHD) with sciatic pain and investigate pain relapse, use of medical care and surgery rates in patients who actively chose non-surgical CAM treatment for LHD. Study design/Setting This prospective observational study was undertaken at a Korean medicine hospital outpatient setting in Korea. Participants A total of 128 consecutive patients with LHD with a numeric rating scale for leg pain of ?5 completed 6?months of CAM treatment after recruitment from November 2006, and 73/128 participants (57%) attended follow-up 3?years later. Interventions 6?months of CAM treatment (herbal medicine, acupuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manipulation). Primary outcome measures Visual analogue scale (VAS) for low back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey. Secondary outcome measures Neurological impairment (muscular weakness, sensory loss, Straight Leg Raise test), MRIs, recurrence of low back pain and/or radiating pain, and use of medical care. Results 92 patients could be assessed for surgical state, of whom 4 replied that they had received surgery. 73 patients attended the 3-year follow-up. The baseline VAS of back pain (4.37±2.70) decreased after treatment (0.90±1.01; p<0.001) and was maintained at 3?years (1.12±1.64; p=0.19). The baseline VAS of leg pain (7.57±1.40) also decreased on treatment (0.82±1.18; p<0.001) and was sustained at 3?years (0.99±1.58; p=0.34). ODI scores declined from 40.74±16.15 to 9.84±9.67 (p<0.001), then decreased further to 6.30±7.19 (p<0.01). SF-36 scores increased from 34.96±13.30 to 69.20±14.96 (p<0.001), reaching 76.19±14.45 (p<0.001) at 3?years. 37 patients reported recurrence of pain and most chose CAM treatment for management of relapse symptoms. Conclusions Although the absence of a control group prevents validation of effectiveness, many patients showed favourable long-term outcomes. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01989403.

  16. Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J.

    2011-05-15

    We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

  17. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.

    2013-03-01

    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of Nuclear Science and Technologies 6. Nuclear Reactions and Structure of Unstable Nuclei 7. Equation of State of Neutron-Rich Nuclear Matter, Clusters in Nuclei and Nuclear Reactions 8. Fusion and Fission 9. Nuclear Astrophysics 10. New Facilities and Detectors We would like to thank Texas A&M University and Texas A&M University-Commerce for their organizational support and for providing financial support for many students and postdocs and those who had special need. This support helped assure the success of NN2012. Special thanks also go to all members of the International Advisory Committee and the Local Organizing Committee (listed below) for their great work in advising upon, preparing and executing the NN2012 scientific program as well as the social events that all together made the NN2012 an enjoyable experience for both the participants and their companions. NN2012 International Advisory Committee N Auerbach (Israel) J Aysto (Finland) C Beck (France) S Cherubini (Italy) L Ferreira (Portugal) C Gagliardi (USA) S Gales (France) C Gale (Canada) W Gelletly (Great Britain) Paulo R S Gomes (Brazil) W Greiner (Germany) W Henning (USA) D Hinde (Australia) S Hofmann (Germany) M Hussein (Brazil) B Jacak (USA) S Kailas (India) W G Lynch (USA) Z Majka (Poland) L McLerran (USA) V Metag (Germany) K Morita (Japan) B Mueller (USA) D G Mueller (France) T Motobayashi (Japan) W Nazarewicz (USA) Y Oganessian (Russia) J Nolen (USA) E K Rehm (USA) N Rowley (France) B Sherrill (USA) J Schukraft (Switzerland) W Q Shen (China) A Stefanini (Italy) H Stoecker (Germany) A Szanto de Toledo (Brazil) U van Kolck (USA) W von Oertzen (Germany) M Wiescher (USA) N Xu (USA) N V Zamfir (Romania) W L Zhan (China) H Q Zhang (China) NN2012 Local Organizing Committee Marina Barbui Carlos Bertulani Robert Burch Jr Cheri Davis Cody Folden Kris Hagel John Hardy Bao-An Li (Co-Chair and Scientific Secretary) Joseph Natowitz (Co-Chair) Ralf Rapp Livius Trache Sherry Yennello Editors of NN2012 Proceedings Bao-An Li (Texas A&M University-Commerce) and Joseph Natowitz (Texas A&M Unive

  18. Eucaryotic cells have a nucleus, which is the epicenter for gene expression. Prokaryotic cells like bacteria do not have a nucleuscells like bacteria do not have a nucleus

    E-print Network

    Sniadecki, Nathan J.

    ) and differential interference contrast (bottom) micrographs of RBCs (left) and HeLa cells (right). RBCs1 #12;Eucaryotic cells have a nucleus, which is the epicenter for gene expression. Prokaryotic cells like bacteria do not have a nucleuscells like bacteria do not have a nucleus In the nucleus

  19. The nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) and the dorsal terminal nucleus (DTN) of opossums (Didelphis marsupialis aurita).

    PubMed

    Vargas, C D; Volchan, E; Nasi, J P; Bernardes, R F; Rocha-Miranda, C E

    1996-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) was injected unilaterally into the pretectocollicular region of opossums (Didelphis marsupialis aurita), primarily to investigate the existence of a commissural subcortical pathway but also to reveal afferents and efferents of the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) and dorsal terminal nucleus (DTN) in this species. Labelled cells and terminals were observed in the contralateral NOT-DTN. Furthermore, HRP was injected bilaterally in the region of the inferior olive (IO) to verify if the distribution of labelled cells in the NOT-DTN overlapped the region of commissural labelled cells. The two subpopulations of retrogradely labelled cells coincided, being distributed within the retinal terminal field attributed to the NOT-DTN, as revealed by contralateral eye injections of HRP. The commissural cells were located slightly more ventral than the olivary cells in the optic tract. The pretectocollicular WGA-HRP injections also labelled cells and terminals bilaterally in the lateral terminal nucleus (LTN), interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus, posterior fibers (INSFp), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and superior colliculus (SC) and ipsilaterally in the medial terminal nucleus (MTN). In addition, further caudally, labelled cells and terminals were observed bilaterally in the nuclei prepositus hypoglossi (PH) and in the medial (MVN) and lateral (LVN) vestibular nuclei. Labelled terminals were found in the ipsilateral nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP) and in the IO with ipsilateral predominance. This study allowed an anatomical delimitation of the NOT-DTN in this opossum species, as defined by the olivary and commissural subpopulations, as well as a hodological evaluation of this region. The existence of some common anatomical aspects with other mammalian species is discussed. PMID:8828860

  20. The Potential Roles of Actin in The Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Falahzadeh, Khadijeh; Banaei-Esfahani, Amir; Shahhoseini, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, actin’s presence in the nucleus has been demonstrated. Actin is a key protein necessary for different nuclear processes. Although actin is well known for its functional role in dynamic behavior of the cytoskeleton, emerging studies are now highlighting new roles for actin. At the present time there is no doubt about the presence of actin in the nucleus. A number of studies have uncovered the functional involvement of actin in nuclear processes. Actin as one of the nuclear components has its own structured and functional rules, such as nuclear matrix association, chromatin remodeling, transcription by RNA polymerases I, II, III and mRNA processing. In this historical review, we attempt to provide an overview of our current understanding of the functions of actin in the nucleus. PMID:25870830

  1. New integral formula and its applications to light nucleus reactions

    E-print Network

    Sun, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    A new integral formula, which has not been compiled in any integral tables or mathematical softwares, is proposed to obtain the analytical energy-angular spectra of the particles that are sequentially emitted from the discrete energy levels of the residual nuclei in the statistical theory of light nucleus reaction (STLN). In the cases of the neutron induced light nucleus reactions, the demonstration of the kinetic energy conservation in the sequential emission processes becomes straightforward thanks to this new integral formula and it is also helpful to largely reduce the volume of file-6 in nuclear reaction databases. Furthermore, taking p+$^9$Be reaction at 18 MeV as an example, this integral formula is extended to calculate the energy-angular spectra of the sequentially emitted neutrons for proton induced light nucleus reactions in the frame of STLN.

  2. New integral formula and its applications to light nucleus reactions

    E-print Network

    Xiaojun Sun; Jingshang Zhang

    2015-10-15

    A new integral formula, which has not been compiled in any integral tables or mathematical softwares, is proposed to obtain the analytical energy-angular spectra of the particles that are sequentially emitted from the discrete energy levels of the residual nuclei in the statistical theory of light nucleus reaction (STLN). In the cases of the neutron induced light nucleus reactions, the demonstration of the kinetic energy conservation in the sequential emission processes becomes straightforward thanks to this new integral formula and it is also helpful to largely reduce the volume of file-6 in nuclear reaction databases. Furthermore, taking p+$^9$Be reaction at 18 MeV as an example, this integral formula is extended to calculate the energy-angular spectra of the sequentially emitted neutrons for proton induced light nucleus reactions in the frame of STLN.

  3. Glucose-monitoring neurons in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Papp, Szilárd; Lukáts, Balázs; Takács, Gábor; Szalay, Csaba; Karádi, Zoltán

    2007-10-01

    The nucleus accumbens, a key structure of the limbic circuitry, is involved in the regulation of motivated behaviors. The accumbens performs its roles via interconnections with brain areas where glucose-monitoring neurons have been localized. To search for such integrative chemosensory cells here, extracellular single neuron activity was recorded in the nucleus accumbens of Wistar rats by means of multibarreled glass microelectrodes during microelectrophoretic administration of D-glucose and other chemicals. Every fourth neuron tested changed in activity in response to glucose. Accumbens cells also displayed distinct gamma-amino-n-butyric acid type sensitivity. It is suggested that differential distribution of the chemosensory units, demonstrated between subdivisions of the nucleus accumbens, has particular significance with respect to functional dichotomy of the shell and core subregions. PMID:17885602

  4. {rho}N-resonance dynamics in the proton nucleus reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Swapan

    2011-01-15

    The strong coupling of rho meson to the nucleon produces s- and p-wave rho-meson-nucleon ({rho}N) resonances. In a nucleus, the {rho}N-resonance-hole polarization generates the optical potential or self-energy for the {rho} meson. The scattering of {rho} meson due to this potential provides valuable information about the {rho}N-resonance dynamics in a nucleus. To investigate it, we use this potential to calculate the mass distribution spectrumfor the {rho} meson produced coherently in the proton-nucleus reaction. The cross sections arising due to s- and {rho}-wave {rho}N resonances have been presented. The coherent and incoherent contributions to the cross sections due to these resonances are compared. In addition, the calculated results due to nonrelativistic and relativistic {rho}-meson self-energy are illustrated.

  5. Figure Caption for pair of images of 'Comet Nucleus Q

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Figure Caption for pair of images of 'Comet Nucleus Q'. 21Jul94 Last Look at the Q-nuclei First image - March 30, 1994. Two Q-nuclei and a split nucleus, P. Second image - July 20, 1994. at T - 10 hours. Both nuclei still show no sign of further fragmentation, although the coma near each is being stretched out along the direction of motion. Both images were taken with the WFPC2 Planetary Camera using a red filter. Credit: H. A. Weaver and T. E. Smith

  6. Superdeformation and hyperdeformation in the $^{108}$Cd nucleus

    E-print Network

    A. V. Afanasjev; S. Frauendorf

    2006-12-20

    The superdeformation and hyperdeformation in $^{108}$Cd have been studied for the first time within the framework of the fully self-consistent cranked mean field theory, namely, cranked relativistic mean field theory. The structure of observed superdeformed bands 1 and 2 have been analyzed in detail. The bumps seen in their dynamic moments of inertia are explained as arising from unpaired band crossings. This is contrary to an explanation given earlier within the framework of projected shell model. It was also concluded that this nucleus is not doubly magic SD nucleus.

  7. Heavy quarks in proton-nucleus collisions - the hybrid formalism

    E-print Network

    Altinoluk, Tolga; Beuf, Guillaume; Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We explore the quark mass effects on inclusive hadron production in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies. We consider two processes. First, we compute the single inclusive cross-section for production of hadrons with open heavy flavour in the proton forward direction at leading order. Next, in the same kinematics, we calculate the heavy-quark contribution to single inclusive production of light or unidentified hadrons at next-to-leading-order. For both studies we exploit the hybrid formalism, that is the collinear factorisation on the proton side while high-density and high-energy effects are resummed on the side of the nucleus.

  8. Radiative orbital electron capture by the atomic nucleus

    E-print Network

    K. Pachucki; U. D. Jentschura; M. Pfutzner

    2007-01-30

    The rate for the photon emission accompanying orbital 1S electron capture by the atomic nucleus is recalculated. While a photon can be emitted by the electron or by the nucleus, the use of the length gauge significantly suppresses the nuclear contribution. Our calculations resolve the long standing discrepancy of theoretical predictions with experimental data for $\\Delta J=2$ forbidden transitions. We illustrate the results by comparison with the data established experimentally for the first forbidden unique decays of $^{41}$Ca and $^{204}$Tl.

  9. Heavy quarks in proton-nucleus collisions - the hybrid formalism

    E-print Network

    Tolga Altinoluk; Néstor Armesto; Guillaume Beuf; Alex Kovner; Michael Lublinsky

    2015-11-30

    We explore the quark mass effects on inclusive hadron production in proton-nucleus collisions at high energies. We consider two processes. First, we compute the single inclusive cross-section for production of hadrons with open heavy flavour in the proton forward direction at leading order. Next, in the same kinematics, we calculate the heavy-quark contribution to single inclusive production of light or unidentified hadrons at next-to-leading-order. For both studies we exploit the hybrid formalism, that is the collinear factorisation on the proton side while high-density and high-energy effects are resummed on the side of the nucleus.

  10. [Effect of electroshock convulsions on caudate nucleus function].

    PubMed

    Dutov, A A

    1976-08-01

    In unrestrained cats, after the electro--shock seizures, the afamphetamine--indused stereotype, behavior was increased and the caudate circular response to high--frequency stimulation was facilitated. The delayed response to low-frequency stimulation of the caudate nucleus was, on the contrary, decreased. Thresholds of the circular and delayed responses to stimulation of the thalamus and capsula interna did not change in the post--seizure period. The above shifts are supposed to be due to weakening of the caudate nucleus inhibitory function resulting from the electro--shock--evoked increase in the caudate dophamine. PMID:1033089

  11. Neutral current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gay Ducati, M. B.; Machado, M. M.; Machado, M. V. T.

    2009-04-01

    We present a QCD analysis of the neutral current (NC) neutrino-nucleus interaction at the small-x region using the color dipole formalism. This phenomenological approach is quite successful in describing experimental results in deep inelastic ep scattering and charged current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies. We present theoretical predictions for the relevant structure functions and the corresponding implications for the total NC neutrino cross section. It is shown that at small x, the NC boson-nucleon cross section should exhibit the geometric scaling property that has important consequences for ultrahigh energy neutrino phenomenology.

  12. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Tomasz; Juszczak, Cezary; Sobczyk, Jan T.

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  13. Ice crystal and ice nucleus measurements in cap clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vali, G.; Rogers, D. C.; Deshler, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Ice nucleation in cap clouds over a mountain in Wyoming was examined with airborne instrumentation. Crosswind and wind parallel passes were made through the clouds, with data being taken on the ice crystal concentrations and sizes. A total of 141 penetrations of 26 separate days in temperatures ranging from -7 to -24 C were performed. Subsequent measurements were also made 100 km away from the mountain. The ice crystal concentrations measured showed good correlation with the ice nucleus content in winter time, midcontinental air masses in Wyoming. Further studies are recommended to determine if the variations in the ice nucleus population are the cause of the variability if ice crystal content.

  14. On the functional anatomy of the nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus commissural connection in the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita).

    PubMed

    Vargas, C D; Volchan, E; Hokoç, J N; Pereira, A; Bernardes, R F; Rocha-Miranda, C E

    1997-01-01

    Immunocytochemical methods revealed the presence of GABA in cell bodies and terminals in the nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus, the medial terminal nucleus, the lateral terminal nucleus and the interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus of the opossum (Didelphis marsupialis aurita). Moreover, after unilateral injections of rhodamine beads in the nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus complex and processing for GABA, double-labelled cells were detected in the ipsilateral complex, up to 400 microns from the injected site, but not in the opposite. Analysis of the distributions of GABAergic and retrogradely-labelled cells throughout the contralateral nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus showed that the highest density of GABAergic and rhodamine-labelled cells overlapped at the middle third of the complex. Previous electrophysiological data obtained in the opossum had suggested the existence, under certain conditions, of an inhibitory action between the nucleus of the optic tract-dorsal terminal nucleus of one side over the other. The absence of GABAergic commissural neurons may imply that this inhibition is mediated by an excitatory commissural pathway that activates GABAergic interneurons. PMID:8971781

  15. Influence of nucleus potential on kaon and antikaon pairs decayed from short lived particles in a nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, C. J.

    2011-10-21

    We propose a possible way to probe the interactions of kaon- and antikaon-nucleus by measuring K{sup +}K{sup -} pairs decayed from {phi}(1020) meson in a nuclear target. The K{sup +}K{sup -} pairs emerged from nuclei can be affected by hadronic potentials and the difference of kaon- and antikaon-nucleus potential maybe modify invariant masses of K{sup +}K{sup -} decayed from {phi} mesons. The {phi} mesons can be produced with a lead target for the energy region 1.5{approx}2.4 GeV at LEPS facility in Super Photon Ring 8-GeV (Spring-8). By comparing results of Monte Carlo calculation with experimental data, we can probe kaon-, and antikaon-nucleus potential.

  16. Large contribution of virtual Delbrueck scattering to the emission of photons by relativistic nuclei in nucleus-nucleus and electron-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    I. F. Ginzburg; U. D. Jentschura; V. G. Serbo

    2007-10-09

    Delbrueck scattering is an elastic scattering of a photon in the Coulomb field of a nucleus via a virtual electron loop. The contribution of this virtual subprocess to the emission of a photon in the collision of ultra-relativistic nuclei Z_1 Z_2 -> Z_1 Z_2 gamma is considered. We identify the incoming virtual photon as being generated by one of the relativistic nuclei involved in the binary collision and the scattered photon as being emitted in the process. The energy and angular distributions of the photons are calculated. The discussed process has no infrared divergence. The total cross section obtained is 14 barn for Au-Au collisions at the RHIC collider and 50 barn for Pb-Pb collisions at the LHC collider. These cross sections are considerably larger than those for ordinary tree-level nuclear bremsstrahlung in the considered photon energy range m_e nucleus. Finally, photon emission in electron-nucleus collisions e Z -> e Z gamma is discussed in the context of the eRHIC option.

  17. Subjective health complaints in patients with lumbar radicular pain and disc herniation are associated with a sex - OPRM1 A118G polymorphism interaction: a prospective 1-year observational study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Earlier observations show that development of persistent pain may be associated with the genetic variability in the gene encoding for the ?-opioid receptor 1, the OPRM1 A118G (rs1799971). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between OPRM1 genotype and subjective health complaints in patients with radicular pain and disc herniation. Methods A prospective, 1-year observational study was conducted at a hospital back clinic, including 118 Caucasian patients with lumbar radicular pain and MRI confirmed disc herniation. Single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping regarding the OPRM1 A118G was performed. The data of individuals with AA versus AG or GG were analysed separately by linear mixed models. The Subjective Health Complaints Inventory (0-81) including 27 common complaints experienced the previous month on a scale from not at all (0) to severe (3) was used as outcome. Pain, prior duration of leg pain, age, smoking status, and lumbar disc surgery were considered as covariates. Results In total 23 of 118 patients were carriers of the OPRM1 G-allele. All patients except female carriers of the G-allele reported a decrease in pain from baseline to 1 year. Female carriers of the G-allele reported significantly higher subjective health complaints score during the study time span than male carriers of the G-allele when controlling for pain and pain duration. Conclusion The present data indicate that, when controlling for pain intensity and duration, subjective health complaints are associated with a sex - OPRM1 A118G polymorphism interaction in patients with radicular pain. PMID:24884878

  18. The Declined Activity in the Nucleus of NGC 1316

    E-print Network

    Iyomoto, N; Tashiro, M; Inoue, S; Kaneda, H; Matsumoto, Y; Mizuno, T; Iyomoto, Naoko; Makishima, Kazuo; Tashiro, Makoto; Inoue, Susumu; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Matsumoto, Yukari; Mizuno, Tsunefumi

    1998-01-01

    NGC 1316 (Fornax A) is a radio galaxy with prototypical double lobes, where the magnetic field intensity is accurately measured via the inverse-Compton technique. The radio-emitting electrons in the lobes are inferred to have a synchrotron life time of 0.1 Gyr. Considering the lobe energetics, we estimate the past nuclear X-ray luminosity of NGC 1316 to be at least 4 times 10^{34} W (4 times 10^{41} erg s^{-1}). Thus, the nucleus was rather active at least 0.1 Gyr ago. In contrast, we confirmed with ASCA and ROSAT that the nucleus of NGC 1316 is very faint in X-rays at present, with the 2--10 keV luminosity of any AGN-like hard component being < 2 times 10^{33} W (2 times 10^{40} erg s^{-1}) even assuming a nuclear obscuration up to 10^{28} m^{-2} (10^{24} cm^{-2}). This is at least an order of magnitude lower than the estimated past activity, indicating that the nucleus is presently very inactive. From these two results, we conclude that the nucleus of NGC 1316 has become dormant during the last 0.1 Gyr. ...

  19. Augmentation of nucleon-nucleus scattering by information entropy

    E-print Network

    S. E. Massen; V. P. Psonis; H. V. von Geramb

    2011-03-02

    Quantum information entropy is calculated from the nucleon nucleus forward scattering amplitudes. Using a representative set of nuclei, from $^4$He to $^{208}$Pb, and energies, $T_{lab} information entropy as functions of logarithm nuclear mass $A$ and logarithm projectile energy $T_{lab}$.

  20. Augmentation of nucleon-nucleus scattering by information entropy

    E-print Network

    Massen, S E; von Geramb, H V

    2011-01-01

    Quantum information entropy is calculated from the nucleon nucleus forward scattering amplitudes. Using a representative set of nuclei, from $^4$He to $^{208}$Pb, and energies, $T_{lab} information entropy as functions of logarithm nuclear mass $A$ and logarithm projectile energy $T_{lab}$.

  1. Constraints on $?$ Nucleus Dynamics from Dirac Phenomenology of $?^-$ Atoms

    E-print Network

    J. Mares; E. Friedman; A. Gal; B. K. Jennings

    1995-05-06

    Strong interaction level shifts and widths in $\\Sigma^-$ atoms are analyzed by using a $\\Sigma$ nucleus optical potential constructed within the relativistic mean field approach. The analysis leads to potentials with a repulsive real part in the nuclear interior. The data are sufficient to establish the size of the isovector meson--hyperon coupling. Implications to $\\Sigma$ hypernuclei are discussed.

  2. Neuronal oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus and the motor

    E-print Network

    Neuronal oscillations in the subthalamic nucleus and the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease neurons and their projections to the basal ganglia (BG) degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD; Bernheimer-oscillations (13-30Hz) and the symptoms of PD still remains unclear (Weinberger et al., 2009; Kuhn et al., 2009

  3. Organization of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Projections in Syrian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Silver, Rae

    Organization of Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Projections in Syrian Hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 ABSTRACT Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior are associated with functional specialization in Syrian hamsters. The core region, marked by calbindin-D28K (Cal

  4. The Hydrogen Atom with a Finite Sized Nucleus Frank Rioux

    E-print Network

    Rioux, Frank

    The Hydrogen Atom with a Finite Sized Nucleus Frank Rioux This exercise explores the impact of nuclear size on the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom's electron. The traditional approach assumes that the proton is a dimensionless point charge, which is a very good approximation for the hydrogen atom. However

  5. Timing and Topography of Nucleus Magnocellularis Innervation by the

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Timing and Topography of Nucleus Magnocellularis Innervation by the Cochlear Ganglion DAVID MOLEA). In the somatosensory system, for example, the topography of thalamocortical projections develops before the synaptic and Crowley, 2002). Thus, the common pattern of development seems to be that the topography of connections

  6. High-energy pion-nucleus scattering at LAMPF

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent data obtained for pion-nucleus interactions above the [triangle](1232) is presented. The expected long mean-free path at pion energies above the [3,3] resonance is demonstrated in elastic scattering. Evidence for unexpected nuclear transparency for outgoing pions at resonance energies is presented. A new technique measuring virtual [triangle] components of the nuclear wave function is suggested.

  7. Structure of levels of the {sup 160}Gd nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, E. P.

    2012-12-15

    The scheme of excited levels of the {sup 160}Gd nucleus was refined and extended owing to the addition of the K{sub {pi}} = 2{sup -} band and the inclusion of new rotational states in other bands. Data for the respective (n, n Prime {gamma}) reaction from the literature were used. The signature splitting of K = 1 bands was found.

  8. Pomeron with a running coupling in the nucleus

    E-print Network

    M. A. Braun

    2007-03-09

    The running coupling is introduced into the equation for propagation of the pomeron in the nucleus via the bootstrap relation. The resulting equation coincides with the one obtained in the colour dipole formalism by summing contributions from quark-antiquark loops, with a general choice of the regularization scheme.

  9. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Gou, Ke-Mian; Chang, Chia-Chun; Shen, Qing-Ji; Sung, Li-Ying; Liu, Ji-Long

    2014-04-15

    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  10. Brief Communications Neural Encoding of Psychomotor Activation in the Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Cheer, Joseph F.

    in methamphetamine-induced psychomotor activa- tion. Rats were treated with bilateral, intracranial microinjections by intravenous methamphetamine (3 mg/kg). Antagonist pretreatment in the nucleus accumbenscore by methamphetamine (0.01, 0.1, 1, 3 mg/kg; cumulative dosing). We observed robust, phasic changes in neuronal firing

  11. Quantum properties of deformation modes of fissile-nucleus motion

    SciTech Connect

    Kadmensky, S. G.

    2008-07-15

    The intrinsic mechanisms that are responsible for the pumping of high values of the spins and relative orbital angular momenta of deformed and spherical primary fission fragments and which are induced by the connection between the quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle and the shape of a fissile nucleus are investigated.

  12. Letter to Neuroscience TONIC INHIBITION OF SINGLE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS

    E-print Network

    West, Mark O.

    : A PREDOMINANT BUT NOT EXCLUSIVE FIRING PATTERN INDUCED BY COCAINE SELF-ADMINISTRATION SESSIONS L. L. PEOPLES,* A of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903, U.S.A. Key words: nucleus accumbens, cocaine self to be a mechanism that contributes to the reinforcing (addictive) effects of cocaine and other drugs. To test

  13. Turn Up the Volume: Uncovering Nucleus Size Control Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Good, Matthew C

    2015-06-01

    Reporting in Developmental Cell, Hara and Merten (2015) apply the use of microfabrication and in vitro analysis in cell-free extracts to the old problem of nuclear size control. The authors make insights into the regulation of nuclear growth that potentially explain the widely reported correlation between nucleus size and cell size. PMID:26058052

  14. Random Phase Approximation and neutrino-nucleus cross sections

    E-print Network

    Giampaolo Co'

    2006-05-22

    The Random Phase Approximation theory is used to calculate the total cross sections of electron neutrinos on $^{12}$C nucleus. The role of the excitation of the discrete spectrum is discussed. A comparison with electron scattering and muon capture data is presented. The cross section of electron neutrinos coming from muon decay at rest is calculated.

  15. GAS ACCRETION IN THE M32 NUCLEUS: PAST AND PRESENT

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, Anil C.

    2010-12-10

    Using adaptive optics assisted Gemini/NIFS data, I study the present and past gas accretion in the central 3'' of the M32 nucleus. From changes in the spectral slope and CO line depths near the center, I find evidence for unresolved dust emission resulting from black hole (BH) accretion. With a luminosity of {approx}2 x 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1}, this dust emission appears to be the most luminous tracer of current BH accretion, 2 orders of magnitude more luminous than previously detected X-ray emission. These observations suggest that using high-resolution infrared data to search for dust emission may be an effective way to detect other nearby, low-luminosity BHs, such as those in globular clusters. I also examine the fossil evidence of gas accretion contained in the kinematics of the stars in the nucleus. The higher order moments (h3 and h4) of the line-of-sight velocity distribution show patterns that are remarkably similar to those seen on larger scales in elliptical galaxies and in gas-rich merger simulations. The kinematics suggests the presence of two components in the M32 nucleus, a dominant disk overlying a pressure supported component. I discuss possible formation scenarios for the M32 nucleus in the context of the kinematic data as well as previous stellar population studies. The kinematic measurements presented here are the highest quality available for the nucleus of M32, and may be useful for any future dynamical models of this benchmark system.

  16. Comet 162P/Siding Spring: A Surprisingly Large Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Y. R. Fernandez; H. Campins; M. Kassis; C. W. Hergenrother; R. P. Binzel; J. Licandro; J. L. Hora; J. D. Adams

    2006-08-17

    We present an analysis of thermal emission from comet 162P/Siding Spring (P/2004 TU12) measured during its discovery apparition in 2004 December. The comet showed no dust coma at this time, so we have sampled emission from the comet's nucleus. Observations using the Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) were performed at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility, where the peak of the comet's spectral energy distribution was observed between 8 and 25 microns. In combination with the three near-IR spectra presented by Campins et al. (2006, Astron. J. 132, 1346) that show the Wien-law tail of the thermal emission, the data provide powerful constraints on surface properties of the nucleus. We find that the nucleus's effective radius is 6.0+/-0.8 km. This is one of the largest radii known among Jupiter-family comets, which is unusual considering that the comet was discovered only recently. Its geometric albedo is 0.059+/-0.023 in the H band, 0.037+/-0.014 in the R band, and 0.034+/-0.013 in the V band. We also find that the nucleus of 162P has little IR beaming, and this implies that the nucleus has low thermal inertia. Including all near-IR spectra yields a beaming parameter of 1.01+/-0.20. This result is in agreement with others showing that cometary nuclei have low thermal inertia and little IR beaming. If confirmed for many nuclei, the interpretation of radiometry may not be as problematic as feared.

  17. [Nucleus fastigius-rostral ventrolateral medulla system is involved in vestibular depressor and bradycardia responses].

    PubMed

    Luo, P; Gu, Y H

    1992-02-01

    In urethane-anesthetized, tubocurarine-immobilized and artificially ventilated rats, microinjection of L-glutamate (Glu) into the nucleus fastigius or nucleus vestibular superior caused a depressor and bradycardia response. Both the depressor and bradycardia responses of the nucleus fastigius and nucleus vestibularis superior were blocked by preinjection of bicuculline (a GABAergic receptor blocker) into the rostral ventrolateral medulla. And the cardiovascular response-induced by excitation of the nucleus vestibularis superior could also be blocked by procaine-injection into the nucleus fastigius. These results indicate that the vestibular depressor and bradycardia response was induced via the nucleus fastigius rostral ventrolateral medulla system. Intravenous injection of methyl atropine also markedly attenuated the cardiovascular response of the nucleus fastigius, indicating that the vagus nerve is also involved in the depressor and bradycardia response of vestibulo-fastigial excitation. PMID:1598592

  18. The Nucleus of Translating as One Critical Concern in Translation Pedagogy and Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Helen Chau

    1999-01-01

    Studies the translation of nonliterary texts. The objective is to associate the nucleus of translating with the value of a source-language text, advancing the claim that appropriately translating the nucleus is among the most important concerns, and to propose an approach to assessment for translation quality based on how the nucleus is rendered.…

  19. ON THE HUGHES-KLEINFELD AND KNUTH'S SEMIFIELDS TWO DIMENSIONAL OVER A WEAK NUCLEUS

    E-print Network

    Ball, Simeon

    NUCLEUS SIMEON BALL AND MICHEL LAVRAUW Abstract.In 1960 Hughes and Kleinfeld [4] constructed a finite semifield* * which is two dimensional over a weak nucleus given* *wo dimensional over a weak nucleus, given the same parameter set (K, oe, ~, j). Moreove* *r

  20. ON THE HUGHESKLEINFELD AND KNUTH'S SEMIFIELDS TWO DIMENSIONAL OVER A WEAK NUCLEUS

    E-print Network

    Ball, Simeon

    ON THE HUGHES­KLEINFELD AND KNUTH'S SEMIFIELDS TWO DIMENSIONAL OVER A WEAK NUCLEUS SIMEON BALL dimensional over a weak nucleus given an automorphism # of a finite field K and elements µ, # # K semifields which are also two dimensional over a weak nucleus, given the same parameter set (K, #, µ

  1. Arabidopsis Cryptochrome 2 Completes Its Posttranslational Life Cycle in the Nucleus W

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chentao

    Arabidopsis Cryptochrome 2 Completes Its Posttranslational Life Cycle in the Nucleus W Xuhong Yu and photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. The CRY2 protein is found primarily in the nucleus- riodic promotion of floral initiation in the nucleus. Consistent with this result and a hypothesis

  2. Isolated nuclei adapt to force and reveal a mechanotransduction pathway in the nucleus

    E-print Network

    Welch, Greg

    LETTERS Isolated nuclei adapt to force and reveal a mechanotransduction pathway in the nucleus at the cell surface, in3 adhesion complexes or in cytoskeletal structures1 . The nucleus4 is physically (LINC) complex, allowing rapid mechanical stress transmission7 from adhesions to the nucleus2 . Whereas

  3. Four-dimensional imaging of chromatin dynamics during the assembly of the interphase nucleus

    E-print Network

    Liere, Robert van

    Four-dimensional imaging of chromatin dynamics during the assembly of the interphase nucleus E. M, chromatin, confocal microscopy, four-dimensional imaging, interphase nucleus, nuclear organization Abstract distributed throughout the interphase nucleus. First of all, each individual chromosome occupies a discrete

  4. accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal (Letters) H I absorption toward the nucleus of the

    E-print Network

    Blanco, Philip R.

    accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal (Letters) H I absorption toward the nucleus s 01 ) H I 21 cm absorption toward the compact (!15h 01 pc) radio nucleus of the nearby powerful radio which is thought to block our direct view of a quasar nucleus in this object. We have attempted

  5. A Nucleus-Encoded Chloroplast Protein Regulated by Iron Availability Governs Expression of the Photosystem I

    E-print Network

    A Nucleus-Encoded Chloroplast Protein Regulated by Iron Availability Governs Expression in the chloroplast and the nucleus. Chloroplast gene expression is subjected to anterograde control by a battery of nucleus- encoded proteins that are imported in the chloroplast, where they mostly intervene

  6. Shape of Caudate Nucleus and Its Cognitive Correlates in Neuroleptic-Naive Schizotypal

    E-print Network

    Shape of Caudate Nucleus and Its Cognitive Correlates in Neuroleptic-Naive Schizotypal Personality. Shenton Background: We measured the shape of the head of the caudate nucleus with a new approach based reported decreased caudate nucleus volume. We believe MRI shape analysis complements traditional MRI volume

  7. DEEP IMPACT MISSION: LOOKING BENEATH THE SURFACE OF A COMETARY NUCLEUS

    E-print Network

    Strangeway, Robert J.

    DEEP IMPACT MISSION: LOOKING BENEATH THE SURFACE OF A COMETARY NUCLEUS Edited by CHRISTOPHER T Nucleus 1­21 WILLIAM H. BLUME / Deep Impact Mission Design 23­42 DONALD L. HAMPTON, JAMES W. BAER, MARTIN: Working Properties for the Target Nucleus ­ Comet 9P/Tempel 1 137­160 C. M. LISSE, M. F. A'HEARN, T. L

  8. Peculiar Near-Nucleus Outgassing of Comet 17P/Holmes During Its 2007 Outburst

    E-print Network

    Jewitt, David C.

    Peculiar Near-Nucleus Outgassing of Comet 17P/Holmes During Its 2007 Outburst Chunhua Qi Harvard-1 FWHM) exhibiting a symmetric outgassing pattern with respect to the #12;­ 2 ­ nucleus position.1­0.2 km s-1 (cometocentric frame), and shows a velocity shift across the nucleus position with the postion

  9. ON THE HUGHES-KLEINFELD AND KNUTH'S SEMIFIELDS TWO DIMENSIONAL OVER A WEAK NUCLEUS

    E-print Network

    Ball, Simeon

    ON THE HUGHES-KLEINFELD AND KNUTH'S SEMIFIELDS TWO DIMENSIONAL OVER A WEAK NUCLEUS SIMEON BALL dimensional over a weak nucleus given an automorphism of a finite field K and elements µ, K semifields which are also two dimensional over a weak nucleus, given the same parameter set (K, , µ

  10. Segregation of Tactile Input Features in Neurons of the Cuneate Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Hayward, Vincent

    Neuron Article Segregation of Tactile Input Features in Neurons of the Cuneate Nucleus Henrik Jo neurons of the cuneate nucleus (the brain's first level of tactile pro- cessing) in the cat. Surprisingly with this view, our current understanding of the neurons of the cuneate nucleus suggests that the information

  11. A Gene-Networked Gel Matrix-Supported Lipid Bilayer as a Synthetic Nucleus System

    E-print Network

    Jung, Sunghwan "Sunny"

    A Gene-Networked Gel Matrix-Supported Lipid Bilayer as a Synthetic Nucleus System Sun Ju Bae, Woo was designed as a synthetic nucleus system. It was spheroidically manufactured using both advanced lithography nucleus system, demonstrating the 2-fold increased levels of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) relative to solution

  12. Morphological Correlates of Triadic Circuitry in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Cats and Rats

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    Morphological Correlates of Triadic Circuitry in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Cats and Rats Y in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats and rats. J Neurophysiol 93: 748­757, 2005; doi: 10.1152/jn.00256.2004. We used an in vitro slice preparation of the lateral geniculate nucleus in cats and rats to study

  13. Regional Difference in Sex Steroid Action on Formation of Morphological Sex Differences in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus and Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Moeko; Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Sagoshi, Shoko; Nagata, Kazuyo; Morimoto, Chihiro; Tha Thu, Chaw Kyi; Toda, Katsumi; Kato, Shigeaki; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroid action is critical to form sexually dimorphic nuclei, although it is not fully understood. We previously reported that masculinization of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), which is larger and has more neurons in males than in females, involves aromatized testosterone that acts via estrogen receptor-? (ER?), but not estrogen receptor-? (ER?). Here, we examined sex steroid action on the formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) that is larger and has more neurons in females. Morphometrical analysis of transgenic mice lacking aromatase, ER?, or ER? genes revealed that the volume and neuron number of the male AVPV were significantly increased by deletion of aromatase and ER? genes, but not the ER? gene. We further examined the AVPV and BNSTp of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. The volume and neuron number of the male BNSTp were smaller in ARKO mice than those in wild-type mice, while no significant effect of ARKO was found on the AVPV and female BNSTp. We also examined aromatase, ER?, and AR mRNA levels in the AVPV and BNSTp of wild-type and ARKO mice on embryonic day (ED) 18 and postnatal day (PD) 4. AR mRNA in the BNSTp and AVPV of wild-type mice was not expressed on ED18 and emerged on PD4. In the AVPV, the aromatase mRNA level was higher on ED18, although the ER? mRNA level was higher on PD4 without any effect of AR gene deletion. Aromatase and ER? mRNA levels in the male BNSTp were significantly increased on PD4 by AR gene deletion. These results suggest that estradiol signaling via ER? during the perinatal period and testosterone signaling via AR during the postnatal period are required for masculinization of the BNSTp, whereas the former is sufficient to defeminize the AVPV. PMID:25398007

  14. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components also produced variations in the temporal pattern of responses as a function of rotation direction. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a vestibulorecipient region of the PBN and KF integrates signals from the vestibular nuclei and relay information about changes in whole-body orientation to pathways that produce homeostatic and affective responses.

  15. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, H. U.; Kuehrt, E.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Altwegg, K.; Bertrand, R.; Busemann, H.; Capria, M. T.; Colangeli, L.; Davidsson, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Knollenberg, J.; Mottola, S.; Weiss, P.; Zolensky, M.; Akim, E.; Basilevsky, A.; Galimov, E.; Gerasimov, M.; Korablev, O.; Charnley, S.; Nittler, L. R.; Sandford, S.; Weissman, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three sample cores of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-andgo sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  16. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, Horst Uwe; Kuhrt, Ekkehard; A'Hearn, Michael; Altwegg, Kathrin; Betrand, Regis; Busemann, Henner; Capria, Maria Teresa; Colangeli, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA s Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three samples of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-and-go sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  17. Electromagnetic properties of the Be-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    E-print Network

    D. R. Phillips; H. -W. Hammer

    2010-01-19

    We compute electromagnetic properties of the Be-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the Be-10 plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1) strength of the 1/2^+ to 1/2^- transition in the Be-11 nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of Be-11. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also indicate how higher-order corrections that affect both s-wave and p-wave Be-10-neutron interactions will affect our results.

  18. Volume regulation and shape bifurcation in the cell nucleus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hwee; Li, Bo; Si, Fangwei; Phillip, Jude M; Wirtz, Denis; Sun, Sean X

    2015-09-15

    Alterations in nuclear morphology are closely associated with essential cell functions, such as cell motility and polarization, and correlate with a wide range of human diseases, including cancer, muscular dystrophy, dilated cardiomyopathy and progeria. However, the mechanics and forces that shape the nucleus are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that when an adherent cell is detached from its substratum, the nucleus undergoes a large volumetric reduction accompanied by a morphological transition from an almost smooth to a heavily folded surface. We develop a mathematical model that systematically analyzes the evolution of nuclear shape and volume. The analysis suggests that the pressure difference across the nuclear envelope, which is influenced by changes in cell volume and regulated by microtubules and actin filaments, is a major factor determining nuclear morphology. Our results show that physical and chemical properties of the extracellular microenvironment directly influence nuclear morphology and suggest that there is a direct link between the environment and gene regulation. PMID:26243474

  19. Progressive activation of paratrigeminal nucleus during entrance to hibernation

    SciTech Connect

    Kilduff, T.S.; Sharp, F.R.; Heller, H.C. Univ. of California, San Francisco Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Francisco, CA )

    1988-07-01

    The paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) undergoes a progressive increase in its uptake of 2-({sup 14}C)deoxyglucose (2DG) relative to other brain structures during entrance to hibernation in the ground squirrel. This highly significant increase results in the Pa5 becoming the most highly labeled brain region during hibernation, even though it exhibits one of the lowest levels of 2DG uptake in the brain during the nonhibernating state. The progressive activation of the Pa5 observed during entrance is reversed during arousal from hibernation. These observations and the neuroanatomical projections of the Pa5 implicate this nucleus as playing a role in the entrance and maintenance of the hibernating state.

  20. Reparametrizing the Skyrme model using the lithium-6 nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Manton, Nicholas S.; Wood, Stephen W.

    2006-12-15

    The minimal-energy B=6 solution of the Skyrme model is a static soliton with D{sub 4d} symmetry. The symmetries of the solution imply that the quantum numbers of the ground state are the same as those of the lithium-6 nucleus. This identification is considered further by obtaining expressions for the mean charge radius and quadrupole moment, dependent only on the Skyrme model parameters e (a dimensionless constant) and F{sub {pi}} (the pion decay constant). The optimal values of these parameters have often been deliberated upon, and we propose, for B>2, changing them from those which are most commonly accepted. We obtain specific values for these parameters for B=6, by matching with properties of the lithium-6 nucleus. We find further support for the new values by reconsidering the {alpha}-particle and deuteron as quantized B=4 and B=2 Skyrmions.

  1. Reparametrising the Skyrme Model using the Lithium-6 Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Nicholas S. Manton; Stephen W. Wood

    2006-09-26

    The minimal energy B=6 solution of the Skyrme model is a static soliton with $D_{4d}$ symmetry. The symmetries of the solution imply that the quantum numbers of the ground state are the same as those of the Lithium-6 nucleus. This identification is considered further by obtaining expressions for the mean charge radius and quadrupole moment, dependent only on the Skyrme model parameters $e$ (a dimensionless constant) and $F_\\pi$ (the pion decay constant). The optimal values of these parameters have often been deliberated upon, and we propose, for $B>2$, changing them from those which are most commonly accepted. We obtain specific values for these parameters for B=6, by matching with properties of the Lithium-6 nucleus. We find further support for the new values by reconsidering the $\\alpha$-particle and deuteron as quantized B=4 and B=2 Skyrmions.

  2. Neutral-current Neutrino-nucleus Scattering in Quasielastic Region

    E-print Network

    K. S. Kim; B. G. Yu; M. K. Cheoun; T. K. Choi; M. T. Chung

    2007-07-20

    The neutral-current neutrino-nucleus scattering is calculated through the neutrino-induced knocked-out nucleon process in the quasielastic region by using a relativistic single particle model for the bound and continuum states. The incident energy range between 500 MeV and 1.0 GeV is used for the neutrino (antineutrino) scattering on ^{12}C target nucleus. The effects of the final state interaction of the knocked-out nucleon are studied not only on the cross section but also on the asymmetry due to the difference between neutrinos and antineutrinos, within a relativistic optical potential. We also investigate the sensitivity of the strange quark contents in the nucleon on the asymmetry.

  3. NN inversion potentials intermediate energy proton-nucleus elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Arellano, H.F.; Brieva, F.A.; Love, W.G.; Geramb, H.V. von

    1995-10-01

    Recently developed nucleon-nucleon interactions using the quantum inverse scattering method shed new fight on the off-shell properties of the internucleon effective force for nucleon-nucleus scattering. Calculations of proton elastic scattering from {sup 40}Ca and {sup 208}Pb in the 500 MeV region show that variations in off-shell contributions are determined to a great extent by the accuracy with which the nucleon-nucleon phase shifts are reproduced. The study is based on the full-folding approach to the nucleon-nucleus optical potential which allows a deep understanding of the interplay between on- and off-shell effects in nucleon scattering. Results and the promising extension offered by the inversion potentials beyond the range of validity of the low-energy internucleon forces will be discussed.

  4. Organotypic slice culture of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rat

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun Seong; Lee, So Yeong; Park, Jae-Yong; Hong, Seong-Geun

    2007-01-01

    Organotypic slice cultures have been developed as an alternative to acute brain slices because the neuronal viability and synaptic connectivity in these cultures can be preserved well for a prolonged period of time. This study evaluated a stationary organotypic slice culture developed for the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of rat. The results showed that the slice cultures maintain the typical shape of the nucleus, the immunocytochemical signals for oxytocin, vasopressin, and corticotropin-releasing hormone, and the electrophysiological properties of PVN neurons for up to 3 weeks in vitro. The PVN neurons in the culture expressed the green fluorescent protein gene that had been delivered by the adenoviral vectors. The results indicate that the cultured slices preserve the properties of the PVN neurons, and can be used in longterm studies on these neurons in vitro. PMID:17322769

  5. Pairing reentrance in warm rotating $^{104}$Pd nucleus

    E-print Network

    N. Quang Hung; N. Dinh Dang; B. K. Agrawal; V. M. Datar; A. Mitra; D. R. Chakrabarty

    2015-10-15

    Pairing reentrance phenomenon in the warm rotating $^{104}$Pd nucleus is studied within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-based approach (the FTBCS1). The theory takes into account the effect of quasiparticle number fluctuations on the pairing field at finite temperature and angular momentum within the pairing model plus noncollective rotation along the symmetry axis. The numerical calculations for the pairing gaps and nuclear level densities (NLD), of which an anomalous enhancement has been experimentally observed at low excitation energy $E^*$ and high angular momentum $J$, show that the pairing reentrance is seen in the behavior of pairing gap obtained within the FTBCS1 at low $E$ and high $J$. This leads to the enhancement of the FTBCS1 level densities, in good agreement with the experimental observation. This agreement indicates that the observed enhancement of the NLD might be the first experimental detection of the pairing reentrance in a finite nucleus.

  6. Pairing reentrance in warm rotating $^{104}$Pd nucleus

    E-print Network

    Hung, N Quang; Agrawal, B K; Datar, V M; Mitra, A; Chakrabarty, D R

    2015-01-01

    Pairing reentrance phenomenon in the warm rotating $^{104}$Pd nucleus is studied within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-based approach (the FTBCS1). The theory takes into account the effect of quasiparticle number fluctuations on the pairing field at finite temperature and angular momentum within the pairing model plus noncollective rotation along the symmetry axis. The numerical calculations for the pairing gaps and nuclear level densities (NLD), of which an anomalous enhancement has been experimentally observed at low excitation energy $E^*$ and high angular momentum $J$, show that the pairing reentrance is seen in the behavior of pairing gap obtained within the FTBCS1 at low $E$ and high $J$. This leads to the enhancement of the FTBCS1 level densities, in good agreement with the experimental observation. This agreement indicates that the observed enhancement of the NLD might be the first experimental detection of the pairing reentrance in a finite nucleus.

  7. Neutrino-nucleus interactions at the LBNF near detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosel, Ulrich

    2015-10-01

    The reaction mechanisms for neutrino interactions with an 40Ar nucleus with the LBNF flux are calculated with the Giessen-Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) transport-theoretical implementation of these interactions. Quasielastic scattering, many-body effects, pion production and absorption and Deep Inelastic Scattering are discussed; they all play a role at the LBNF energies and are experimentally entangled with each other. Quasielastic scattering makes up for only about 1/3 of the total cross section whereas pion production channels make up about 2/3 of the total. This underlines the need for a consistent description of the neutrino-nucleus reaction that treats all channels on an equal, consistent footing. The results discussed here can also serve as useful guideposts for the Intermediate Neutrino Program.

  8. Towards a Deeper Understanding of the Nucleus with Exotic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormand, Erich

    2006-10-01

    Despite more than fifty years of study, many questions about now nuclei are put together remain. While nuclei near the valley of stability have provided a wealth of information, they are not sufficient to provide us with a comprehensive and unified description of the nucleus. Especially lacking is an accurate picture of those exotic species that are the basis of cosmic alchemy. The missing pieces in the puzzle can be filled in with a determined experimental and theoretical effort focusing on nuclei lying far from the valley of stability. Here, I will outline the intellectual challenges that can be addressed by proposed exotic-beam facilities, and how new experimental data will quide and refine theoretical descriptions of the nucleus.

  9. Light new physics in coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deNiverville, Patrick; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Experiments aiming to detect coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering present opportunities to probe new light weakly coupled states, such as sub-GeV mass dark matter, in several extensions of the Standard Model. These states can be produced along with neutrinos in the collisions of protons with the target, and their production rate can be enhanced if there exists a light mediator produced on shell. We analyze the sensitivity reach of several proposed experiments to light dark matter interacting with the Standard Model via a light vector mediator coupled to the electromagnetic current. We also determine the corresponding sensitivity to massless singlet neutrino-type states with interactions mediated by the baryon number current. In both cases we observe that proposed coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments, such as COHERENT at the spallation neutrino source (SNS) and CENNS at Fermilab, will have sensitivity well beyond the existing limits.

  10. Charge, neutron, and weak size of the atomic nucleus

    E-print Network

    G. Hagen; A. Ekström; C. Forssén; G. R. Jansen; W. Nazarewicz; T. Papenbrock; K. A. Wendt; S. Bacca; N. Barnea; B. Carlsson; C. Drischler; K. Hebeler; M. Hjorth-Jensen; M. Miorelli; G. Orlandini; A. Schwenk; J. Simonis

    2015-09-23

    What is the size of the atomic nucleus? This deceivably simple question is difficult to answer. While the electric charge distributions in atomic nuclei were measured accurately already half a century ago, our knowledge of the distribution of neutrons is still deficient. In addition to constraining the size of atomic nuclei, the neutron distribution also impacts the number of nuclei that can exist and the size of neutron stars. We present an ab initio calculation of the neutron distribution of the neutron-rich nucleus $^{48}$Ca. We show that the neutron skin (difference between radii of neutron and proton distributions) is significantly smaller than previously thought. We also make predictions for the electric dipole polarizability and the weak form factor; both quantities are currently targeted by precision measurements. Based on ab initio results for $^{48}$Ca, we provide a constraint on the size of a neutron star.

  11. Quark-Hadron Duality in Inclusive Electron-Nucleus Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    J. Arrington; J. Crowder; R. Ent; C. Keppel; I. Niculescu

    2002-03-01

    Recent inclusive electron-nucleus scattering data have been utilized for precision tests of quark-hadron duality. The data are in the resonance and quasielastic regions and cover a range in Q{sup 2} from 0.5 to 7 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The Q{sup 2} dependence of the moments of the F{sub 2} structure function were investigated and indicate that duality holds for nuclei, even at low Q{sup 2}.

  12. NucleusLipid droplet 0 100 200 300 400 500

    E-print Network

    Gross, Steven

    ) Lipid droplet NucleusPolar lipids l Control pre-loaded - Gluc (8h) P-AMPK AMPK P-ACC m AMPK activation after 8h glucose depletion 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 Initial - Gluc P-AMPK/AMPKvs Non-blotting of phosphorylated AMPK (upper panels), total AMPK (middle panels) or phospho-ACC (lower panels) in control and pre

  13. Study of Comet Nucleus Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Penetration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. L.; Amundsen, R. J.; Beardsley, R. W.; Cash, R. H.; Clark, B. C.; Knight, T. C. D.; Martin, J. P.; Monti, P.; Outteridge, D. A.; Plaster, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    A penetrator system has been suggested as an approach for making in situ measurements of the composition and physical properties of the nucleus of a comet. This study has examined in detail the feasibility of implementing the penetrator concept. The penetrator system and mission designs have been developed and iterated in sufficient detail to provide a high level of confidence that the concept can be implemented within the constraints of the Mariner Mark 2 spacecraft.

  14. mRNA-Producing Pseudo-nucleus System.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Woo Jung; Um, Soong Ho

    2015-11-01

    A pseudo-eukaryotic nucleus (PEN) system consisting of a gene-containing DNA hydrogel encapsulated in a liposome is fabricated. Owing to the structural characteristics of gene-containing DNA hydrogel, mRNA transcription efficiency is promoted 2.57-fold. Through the use of PEN as a platform for mRNA delivery to the cytosol, prolonged protein translation is achieved. PMID:26310990

  15. Shape isomers and clusterization in the 28Si nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darai, J.; Cseh, J.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2012-12-01

    The shape isomers of the 28Si nucleus are derived from Nilsson model calculations combined with quasidynamical SU(3) symmetry considerations, and their possible binary clusterizations are determined. The results are compared with those of other calculations. Concerning the superdeformed state our finding gives support to the new candidate suggested by Jenkins [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.86.064308 86, 064308 (2012)].

  16. Room for an S = +1 pentaquark in K^+ - nucleus phenomenology

    E-print Network

    A. Gal; E. Friedman

    2006-02-02

    Evidence for excitation of exotic S=+1 pentaquark degrees of freedom is presented by studying optical-potential fits to K^+ - nucleus total, reaction and elastic-differential cross section data at p(lab) = 500 - 700 MeV/c. Estimates of the underlying two-nucleon absorption K^+ n N --> Theta^+ N reaction cross section are made and are used for discussing the anticipated cross section of the strangeness exchange reaction K^+ N --> pi Theta^+.

  17. The Ionization Source in the Nucleus of M84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, G. A.; Green, R. F.; Quillen, A. C.; Danks, A.; Malumuth, E. M.; Gull, T.; Woodgate, B.; Hutchings, J.; Joseph, C.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of M84, a nearby massive elliptical galaxy whose nucleus contains a approximately 1.5 X 10(exp 9) solar mass dark compact object, which presumably is a supermassive black hole. Our Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectrum provides the first clear detection of emission lines in the blue (e.g., [0 II] lambda 3727, HBeta and [0 III] lambda lambda4959,5007), which arise from a compact region approximately 0".28 across centered on the nucleus. Our Near Infrared Camera and MultiObject Spectrometer (NICMOS) images exhibit the best view through the prominent dust lanes evident at optical wavelengths and provide a more accurate correction for the internal extinction. The relative fluxes of the emission lines we have detected in the blue together with those detected in the wavelength range 6295 - 6867 A by Bower et al. indicate that the gas at the nucleus is photoionized by a nonstellar process, instead of hot stars. Stellar absorption features from cool stars at the nucleus are very weak. We update the spectral energy distribution of the nuclear point source and find that although it is roughly flat in most bands, the optical to UV continuum is very red, similar to the spectral energy distribution of BL Lac. Thus, the nuclear point source seen in high-resolution optical images is not a star cluster but is instead a nonstellar source. Assuming isotropic emission from this source, we estimate that the ratio of bolometric luminosity to Eddington luminosity is about 5 x 10(exp -7). However, this could be underestimated if this source is a misaligned BL Lac object, which is a possibility suggested by the spectral energy distribution and the evidence of optical variability we describe.

  18. Ab initio nuclear structure simulations: the speculative $^{14}$F nucleus

    E-print Network

    P. Maris; A. M. Shirokov; J. P. Vary

    2010-01-26

    We present results from ab initio No-Core Full Configuration simulations of the exotic proton-rich nucleus $^{14}$F whose first experimental observation is expected soon. The calculations with JISP16 NN interaction are performed up to the $N_{\\max}=8$ basis space. The binding energy is evaluated using an extrapolation technique. This technique is generalized to excitation energies, verified in calculations of $^6$Li and applied to $^{14}$B, the $^{14}$F mirror, for which some data are available.

  19. Synaptic arrangements in the ventral posterolateral nucleus of the squirrel.

    PubMed

    Wells, J; Albright, B C

    1983-01-01

    Because murine rodents have no complex synaptic arrangements in the ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL), we sought to determine if the lack of complexity was a characteristic common to all rodents. We studied the synaptology of VPL in the fox squirrel, Sciurus niger, using electron microscopy. We found vesicle-containing dendrites and complex synaptic arrangements in the squirrel VPL. Therefore, the relative simplicity of the rat and mouse VPL is not a general feature of the rodent somatosensory thalamus. PMID:6616170

  20. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus at RHIC

    E-print Network

    Liang Xue

    2011-07-01

    We present the observation of the \\Heebar nucleus, the heaviest antinucleus observed to date. In total, 18 \\Heebar counts were detected at the STAR experiment at RHIC in 10$^{9}$ recorded Au+Au collisions at beam energies of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV and 62 GeV. The background has been estimated, and the misidentification probability is found to be lower than 10$^{-11}$.

  1. Backward hadron production in neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    O. Benhar; S. Fantoni; G.I. Lykasov

    2000-03-01

    The production of backward pions in lepton-nucleus collisions is analyzed. We show that a large yield of high momentum backward pions can be explained by the Regge asymptotic of the distribution of nucleons carrying a large momentum fraction in the nuclear target. The calculated spectra of pions emitted in the neutrino + Ne --> muon + pion + X reaction are in satisfactory agreement with the available experimental data.

  2. A new pathway from primary afferents to the red nucleus.

    PubMed

    Padel, Y; Bourbonnais, D; Sybirska, E

    1986-02-14

    Evidence is provided that rubrospinal neurons receive feedback information from the periphery via pathways which bypass both the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex. It appears that the primary afferent fibers which ascend in the dorsal columns of the spinal cord give off collaterals via which they activate ascending tracts with axons in the ventral quandrants of the spinal cord. The existence of such pathways indicates that the red nucleus is part of a long feedback loop assisting the ongoing movement. PMID:3960391

  3. Functional organization and dynamics of the cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tongtong; Fang, Yuda

    2014-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus enclosed within the nuclear envelope harbors organized chromatin territories and various nuclear bodies as sub-nuclear compartments. This higher-order nuclear organization provides a unique environment to regulate the genome during replication, transcription, maintenance, and other processes. In this review, we focus on the plant four-dimensional nuclear organization, its dynamics and function in response to signals during development or stress. PMID:25161658

  4. Methods and compositions for targeting macromolecules into the nucleus

    DOEpatents

    Chook, Yuh Min

    2013-06-25

    The present invention includes compositions, methods and kits for directing an agent across the nuclear membrane of a cell. The present invention includes a Karyopherin beta2 translocation motif in a polypeptide having a slightly positively charged region or a slightly hydrophobic region and one or more R/K/H-X.sub.(2-5)-P-Y motifs. The polypeptide targets the agent into the cell nucleus.

  5. Emission of charged particles from excited compound nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2010-11-24

    The formation and decay of excited compound nucleus are studied within the dinuclear system model[1]. The cross sections of complex fragment emission are calculated and compared with experimental data for the reactions {sup 3}He+{sup 108}Ag, {sup 78,82}Kr+{sup 12}C. Angular momentum dependence of cluster emission in {sup 78}Kr+{sup 12}C and {sup 40}Ca+{sup 78}Kr reactions is demonstrated.

  6. Coulomb dissociation of the deformed halo nucleus 31Ne

    E-print Network

    Y. Urata; K. Hagino; H. Sagawa

    2011-03-22

    The recently observed large cross sections for the Coulomb dissociation of $^{31}$Ne nucleus indicate that this nucleus takes a halo structure in the ground state. We analyse these experimental data using the particle-rotor model, that takes into account the rotational excitation of the core nucleus $^{30}$Ne. We show that the experimental data can be well reproduced when the quadrupole deformation parameter of $^{30}$Ne is around $\\beta_2=0.2\\sim0.3$, at which the ground state takes the spin and parity of $I^\\pi$=3/2$^-$. This state corresponds to the Nilsson level [330 1/2] in the adiabatic limit of the particle-rotor model. On the other hand, the state corresponding to the Nilsson level [321 3/2] with $\\beta_2\\sim 0.55$ can be excluded when the finite excitation energy of the core is taken into account, even though this configuration is a candidate for the ground state of $^{31}$Ne in the Nilsson model analysis. We discuss briefly also a possibility of the $I^\\pi$=1/2$^+$ configuration with $\\beta_2\\sim 1$ and $\\beta_2\\sim -0.4$.

  7. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed

    Pickard, Gary E; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-10-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  8. Cryptochrome-dependent circadian periods in the arcuate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Takahiro J; Takasu, Nana N; Todo, Takeshi; Sakai, Takayoshi; Nakamura, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is responsible for controlling behavioral activity rhythms, such as a free running rhythm in constant darkness. Rodents have several circadian oscillators in other brain regions including the arcuate nucleus (ARC). In specific conditions such as food anticipatory activity rhythms in the context of timed restricted feeding, an alternative circadian pace-making system has been assumed by means of circadian oscillators like the SCN. Despite extensive lesion studies, the anatomic locations of extra-SCN circadian pacemakers responsible for regulating behavioral rhythms have not been found. In the present study, we investigated circadian rhythms in the SCN and extra-SCN region of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) by analyzing PER2::LUCIFERASE expression in specific regions from wild-type C57BL/6, Cry1(-/-), and Cry2(-/-) mice. Compared to wild-type animals, we observed period shortening in both the SCN and ARC of Cry1(-/-) mice and period lengthening in Cry2(-/-) mice. Interestingly, the periods in the ARC of both genotypes were identical to those in the SCN. Moreover, the amplitudes of PER2::LUC rhythms in the ARC of all animals were decreased compared to those in the SCN. These data suggest that the ARC is a candidate circadian pacemaker outside the SCN. PMID:26542738

  9. The MicroRNA Biology of the Mammalian Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of genome-encoded small RNAs that are primarily considered to be post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression acting in the cytoplasm. Over a decade of research has focused on this canonical paradigm of miRNA function, with many success stories. Indeed, miRNAs have been identified that act as master regulators of a myriad of cellular processes, and many miRNAs are promising therapeutic targets or disease biomarkers. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the canonical view of miRNA function is incomplete. Several lines of evidence now point to additional functions for miRNAs in the nucleus of the mammalian cell. The majority of cellular miRNAs are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and certain miRNAs show specific nuclear enrichment. Additionally, some miRNAs colocalize with sub-nuclear structures such as the nucleolus and chromatin. Multiple components of the miRNA processing machinery are present in the nuclear compartment and are shuttled back and forth across the nuclear envelope. In the nucleus, miRNAs act to regulate the stability of nuclear transcripts, induce epigenetic alterations that either silence or activate transcription at specific gene promoters, and modulate cotranscriptional alternative splicing events. Nuclear miRNA-directed gene regulation constitutes a departure from the prevailing view of miRNA function and as such, warrants detailed further investigation. PMID:25137140

  10. A common somaesthetic pathway to red nucleus and motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Padel, Y; Relova, J L

    1988-01-01

    Comparable short latency somaesthetic responses have been observed in the red nucleus and the motor cortex. Since previous experiments showed that a ventral spinal ascending pathway could account for red nucleus responses, the present experiments were designed to establish whether the same pathway could also transmit the short latency peripheral inputs to motor cortex. Two experimental data argue in favour of a such organization: (1) Using the collision technique, it was demonstrated that somaesthetic responses recorded in red nucleus cells are transmitted by collaterals of ascending fibres ending in the ventrobasal thalamus. (2) Intracellular recordings from identified corticospinal cells were performed on cats acutely prepared on section of the brachium conjunctivum and the dorsal columns of the spinal cord. Cortico-cortical connections to motor cortex were also eliminated by lesions of the ipsilateral sensory cortex and contralateral motor cortex. With this preparation it is still possible to record postsynaptic potentials after stimulation of primary afferent fibres in the dorsal columns, caudally to their section. The existence of these somaesthetic parallel inputs to rubro- and corticospinal cells suggest that the ongoing movement might be corrected on-line by these two pathways. PMID:3382509

  11. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting {pi}{sup 0} mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized {sup 3}He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure.

  12. AN OFF-CENTERED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS IN NGC 3115

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V.

    2014-11-20

    NGC 3115 is an S0 galaxy that has always been considered to have a pure absorption-line spectrum. Some recent studies have detected a compact radio-emitting nucleus in this object, coinciding with the photometric center and with a candidate for the X-ray nucleus. This is evidence of the existence of a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the galaxy, although no emission line has ever been observed. We report the detection of an emission-line spectrum of a type 1 AGN in NGC 3115, with an H? luminosity of L {sub H?} = (4.2 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}. Our analysis revealed that this AGN is located at a projected distance of ?0.''29 ± 0.''05 (corresponding to ?14.3 ± 2.5 pc) from the stellar bulge center, which is coincident with the kinematic center of this object's stellar velocity map. The black hole corresponding to the observed off-centered AGN may form a binary system with a black hole located at the stellar bulge center. However, it is also possible that the displaced black hole is the merged remnant of the binary system coalescence, after the ''kick'' caused by the asymmetric emission of gravitational waves. We propose that certain features in the stellar velocity dispersion map are the result of perturbations caused by the off-centered AGN.

  13. WIMP-nucleus scattering in chiral effective theory

    E-print Network

    Vincenzo Cirigliano; Michael L. Graesser; Grigory Ovanesyan

    2012-05-11

    We discuss long-distance QCD corrections to the WIMP-nucleon(s) interactions in the framework of chiral effective theory. For scalar-mediated WIMP-quark interactions, we calculate all the next-to-leading-order corrections to the WIMP-nucleus elastic cross-section, including two-nucleon amplitudes and recoil-energy dependent shifts to the single-nucleon scalar form factors. As a consequence, the scalar-mediated WIMP-nucleus cross-section cannot be parameterized in terms of just two quantities, namely the neutron and proton scalar form factors at zero momentum transfer, but additional parameters appear, depending on the short-distance WIMP-quark interaction. Moreover, multiplicative factorization of the cross-section into particle, nuclear and astro-particle parts is violated. In practice, while the new effects are of the natural size expected by chiral power counting, they become very important in those regions of parameter space where the leading order WIMP-nucleus amplitude is suppressed, including the so-called "isospin-violating dark matter" regime. In these regions of parameter space we find order-of-magnitude corrections to the total scattering rates and qualitative changes to the shape of recoil spectra.

  14. Dorsal raphe nucleus projecting retinal ganglion cells: Why Y cells?

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Gary E.; So, Kwok-Fai; Pu, Mingliang

    2015-01-01

    Retinal ganglion Y (alpha) cells are found in retinas ranging from frogs to mice to primates. The highly conserved nature of the large, fast conducting retinal Y cell is a testament to its fundamental task, although precisely what this task is remained ill-defined. The recent discovery that Y-alpha retinal ganglion cells send axon collaterals to the serotonergic dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) in addition to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), medial interlaminar nucleus (MIN), pretectum and the superior colliculus (SC) has offered new insights into the important survival tasks performed by these cells with highly branched axons. We propose that in addition to its role in visual perception, the Y-alpha retinal ganglion cell provides concurrent signals via axon collaterals to the DRN, the major source of serotonergic afferents to the forebrain, to dramatically inhibit 5-HT activity during orientation or alerting/escape responses, which dis-facilitates ongoing tonic motor activity while dis-inhibiting sensory information processing throughout the visual system. The new data provide a fresh view of these evolutionarily old retinal ganglion cells. PMID:26363667

  15. Integration of Sensory Quanta in Cuneate Nucleus Neurons In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Fredrik; Brasselet, Romain; Johansson, Roland S.; Arleo, Angelo; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Discriminative touch relies on afferent information carried to the central nervous system by action potentials (spikes) in ensembles of primary afferents bundled in peripheral nerves. These sensory quanta are first processed by the cuneate nucleus before the afferent information is transmitted to brain networks serving specific perceptual and sensorimotor functions. Here we report data on the integration of primary afferent synaptic inputs obtained with in vivo whole cell patch clamp recordings from the neurons of this nucleus. We find that the synaptic integration in individual cuneate neurons is dominated by 4–8 primary afferent inputs with large synaptic weights. In a simulation we show that the arrangement with a low number of primary afferent inputs can maximize transfer over the cuneate nucleus of information encoded in the spatiotemporal patterns of spikes generated when a human fingertip contact objects. Hence, the observed distributions of synaptic weights support high fidelity transfer of signals from ensembles of tactile afferents. Various anatomical estimates suggest that a cuneate neuron may receive hundreds of primary afferents rather than 4–8. Therefore, we discuss the possibility that adaptation of synaptic weight distribution, possibly involving silent synapses, may function to maximize information transfer in somatosensory pathways. PMID:23409195

  16. AFFERENT REGULATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN THE CHICK COCHLEAR NUCLEUS

    PubMed Central

    NICHOLAS, A. H.; HYSON, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    The chick auditory brain stem has been a useful model system for examining the afferent-dependent signals that regulate postsynaptic neurons. Like other sensory systems, compromised afferent input results in rapid death and atrophy of postsynaptic neurons. The present paper explores the possible contributions of an oxidative stress pathway in determining neuronal fate following deafferentation. Levels of reactive oxygen species, lipid damage measured by 4-hydroxynonenal formation, and a compensatory reactive oxygen species-induced response regulated by glutathione s transferase M1 and the reactive oxygen species-sensitive transcriptional factor, nuclear respiratory factor 1 were examined. Unilateral cochlea removal surgery was performed on young posthatch chicks. Labeling in the cochlear nucleus, nucleus magnocellularis, on opposite sides of the same tissue sections were compared by densitometry. The results showed a dramatic increase in reactive oxygen species in the deafferented nucleus magnocellularis by 6 h following cochlea removal. This increase in reactive oxygen species was accompanied by lipid damage and a compensatory upregulation of both glutathione s transferase M1 and nuclear respiratory factor 1. Double-labeling revealed that glutathione s transferase M1 expression was highest in neurons that were likely to survive deafferentation, as assessed immunocytochemically with Y10b, a marker for ribosomal integrity. Together, these data suggest reactive oxygen species are generated and a compensatory detoxifying pathway is upregulated in the first few hours following deafferentation. This is consistent with the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a role in determining whether a given neuron survives following deafferentation. PMID:16650604

  17. Axonal failure during high frequency stimulation of rat subthalamic nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Lammert, Katja; Nixdorf-Bergweiler, Barbara E; Steigerwald, Frank; Volkmann, Jens; Alzheimer, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been established as an effective surgical therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) and gains increasing acceptance for otherwise intractable neuropsychiatric diseases such as major depression or obsessive–compulsive disorders. In PD, DBS targets predominantly the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and relieves motor deficits only at high frequency (>100 Hz). In contrast to the well-documented clinical efficacy of DBS, its underlying principle remains enigmatic spawning a broad and, in part, contradictory spectrum of suggested synaptic and non-synaptic mechanisms within and outside STN. Here we focused on a crucial, but largely neglected issue in this controversy, namely the axonal propagation of DBS within and away from STN. In rat brain slices preserving STN projections to substantia nigra (SN) and entopeduncular nucleus (EP, the rodent equivalent of internal globus pallidus), STN-DBS disrupted synaptic excitation onto target neurons through an unexpected failure of axonal signalling. The rapid onset and, upon termination of DBS, recovery of this effect was highly reminiscent of the time course of DBS in the clinical setting. We propose that DBS-induced suppression of axonal projections from and to STN serves to shield basal ganglia circuitry from pathological activity arising in or amplified by this nucleus. PMID:21486784

  18. A hypothalamic projection to the turtle red nucleus: an anterograde and retrograde tracing study.

    PubMed

    Herrick, J L; Keifer, J

    1997-10-01

    It is well known that the reptilian red nucleus lacks a descending motor cortical input to the red nucleus, but has a well-developed cerebellar input. The present study was undertaken to determine whether there is a descending rubral input that originates from the hypothalamus. Using an in vitro preparation from the turtle, injections of neurobiotin into the red nucleus resulted in retrograde labeling of neurons in the suprapeduncular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Injections of either neurobiotin or fluorescein dextran into the suprapeduncular nucleus resulted in anterograde labeling of axons and terminal boutons in the red nucleus. The majority of these terminations appeared to lie in the medial part of the red nucleus. These data have implications for the potential control of the somatic motor system of reptiles by limbic system inputs. PMID:9372305

  19. Longitudinal boost-invariance of charge balance function in hadron-hadron and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Na LI Zhiming LI Yuanfang WU

    2009-10-10

    Using Monte Carlo generators of the PYTHIA model for hadron-hadron collisions and a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model for nucleus-nucleus collisions, the longitudinal boost-invariance of charge balance function and its transverse momentum dependence are carefully studied. It shows that the charge balance function is boost-invariant in both {\\it p}+{\\it p} and Au+Au collisions in these two models, consistent with experimental data. The balance function properly scaled by the width of the pseudorapidity window is independent of the position or the size of the window and is corresponding to the balance function of the whole pseudorapidity range. This longitudinal property of balance function also holds for particles in small transverse momentum ranges in the PYTHIA and the AMPT default models, but is violated in the AMPT with string melting. The physical origin of the results are discussed.

  20. The distinct roles of the nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in three-dimensional cell migration.

    PubMed

    Khatau, Shyam B; Bloom, Ryan J; Bajpai, Saumendra; Razafsky, David; Zang, Shu; Giri, Anjil; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Marchand, Jorge; Celedon, Alfredo; Hale, Christopher M; Sun, Sean X; Hodzic, Didier; Wirtz, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Cells often migrate in vivo in an extracellular matrix that is intrinsically three-dimensional (3D) and the role of actin filament architecture in 3D cell migration is less well understood. Here we show that, while recently identified linkers of nucleoskeleton to cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes play a minimal role in conventional 2D migration, they play a critical role in regulating the organization of a subset of actin filament bundles - the perinuclear actin cap - connected to the nucleus through Nesprin2giant and Nesprin3 in cells in 3D collagen I matrix. Actin cap fibers prolong the nucleus and mediate the formation of pseudopodial protrusions, which drive matrix traction and 3D cell migration. Disruption of LINC complexes disorganizes the actin cap, which impairs 3D cell migration. A simple mechanical model explains why LINC complexes and the perinuclear actin cap are essential in 3D migration by providing mechanical support to the formation of pseudopodial protrusions. PMID:22761994