Sample records for herniated nucleus pulposus

  1. Calcified thoracic disc with herniation of the nucleus pulposus in a child.

    PubMed Central

    Schapira, D.; Goldsher, D.; Nahir, M.; Scharf, Y.

    1988-01-01

    A twelve year old boy presented with acute cervical and interscapular pain, torticollis and low grade fever. The neurological examination was normal. Roentgenograms showed calcification of the T3-T4 disc and posterior herniation of the nucleus pulposus was demonstrated by computed tomography. A rapid and dramatic amelioration of the symptoms was produced by treatment with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Intervertebral disc calcification in childhood is an uncommon and usually benign condition. Its clinical and radiological features are discussed in the light of the relevant literature. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3174531

  2. Use of lumbar extension, slump test, physical and neurological examination in the evaluation of patients with suspected herniated nucleus pulposus. A prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Stankovic, R; Johnell, O; Maly, P; Willner, S

    1999-02-01

    This prospective and consecutive study was designed to evaluate the validity of different clinical tests, e.g. lumbar extension in lying and slump test for patients with suspected herniated nucleus pulposus, in comparison with findings on computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. There were 105 patients who were seen and examined by the senior author (for the sake of the study) at the Orthopaedic Physiotherapy Department, on an average of 5.5 days (range 0-21 days) before CT and/or MRI examination were carried out. There were 36 women and 69 men with an average age of 42.7 +/- 9.8 (range 19-64) years. According to the radiological findings on CT and/or MRI, the patients were divided into three groups: 52 patients with disc hernia, 41 patients with bulging discs and 12 patients without positive findings. The mean values with standard deviations of 25 variables of three diagnostic groups were studied. Multiple comparison adjustment according to Bonferroni showed significant differences for three variables that were of diagnostic value (lumbar range of motion for forward flexion, left side-bending in standing, and pain distribution during extension in standing). The agreement between clinical and radiological findings for type and level of diagnosis of disc herniation was accurate in 72 patients (69%). The diagnostic sensitivity for disc herniation was 82.6% and the specificity 54.7%. PMID:10463018

  3. Nucleus pulposus tissue engineering: a brief review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinlin Yang; Xudong Li

    2009-01-01

    Symptomatic intervertebral disc degeneration is associated with several spinal diseases, which cause losses of life quality\\u000a and money. Tissue engineering provides a promising approach to recover the functionality of the degenerative intervertebral\\u000a disc. Most studies are directed toward nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering because disc degeneration is believed to originate\\u000a in NP region, and considerable progress has been made in

  4. [Diagnostic recognition of nucleus pulposus prolapse in light of clinical and radiologic correlations].

    PubMed

    Bryc, S; Zelazny, S; Losicki, M; Orzeda?a, E; Wo?nica, J

    1990-01-01

    The authors compared the agreement between clinical, radiological and surgical diagnoses in 33 cases of nucleus pulposus prolapse. A complete agreement of diagnoses was obtained in 88% of cases. The mechanism and incidence of different signs and their importance for the diagnosis of nucleus pulposus prolapse are discussed. It should be stressed that the compression of nerve roots recognized on radiculography is not pathognomonic sign of prolapse and may be due to such processes as development of marginal osteophytes in the degenerative disc disease, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of radicular processes or necks of vertebral arches. In the light of own experiences and data from the literature the authors consider radiculography with Amipaque and computer tomography as the method of choice in cases with suspected disc herniation in the lumbar region. PMID:1670028

  5. Adipose-derived stem cells improve the viability of nucleus pulposus cells in degenerated intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Song, Keran; Gu, Tao; Shuang, Feng; Tang, Jiaguang; Ren, Dongfeng; Qin, Jiang; Hou, Shuxun

    2015-09-01

    Patients with degenerative disc disease (DDD) experience serious clinical symptoms, including chronic low back pain. A series of therapies have been developed to treat DDD, including physical therapy and surgical treatment. However, the therapeutic effect of such treatments has remained insufficient. Recently, stem cell?based therapy, in which stem cells are injected into the nucleus pulposus in degenerated intervertebral disc tissue, has appeared to be effective in the treatment of DDD. In the present study, the effect of adipose?derived stem cells on degenerated nucleus pulposus cells was investigated using a co?culture system to evaluate the biological activity of degenerated nucleus pulposus cells. Human degenerated nucleus pulposus tissue was obtained from surgical specimens and the adipose?derived stem cells were derived from adipose tissue. The degenerated nucleus pulposus cells were cultured in a mono?culture or in a co?culture with adipose?derived stem cells using 0.4?µm Transwell inserts. The results indicated that adipose?derived stem cells were able to stimulate matrix synthesis and the cell proliferation of degenerated nucleus pulposus cells, promoting the restoration of nucleus pulposus cells in the degenerated intervertebral disc. PMID:26059030

  6. Physical analysis of collagen-GAG composite scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration

    E-print Network

    Simson, Jacob A

    2008-01-01

    In this study biomaterial scaffolds for regeneration of nucleus pulposus were developed by freeze drying slurries with different proportions of collagen II (CII), chondroitin-6-sulfate (CS), and hyaluronic acid (HA). The ...

  7. The Effect of Nucleus Pulposus Crosslinking and Glycosaminoglycan Degradation on Disc Mechanical Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Yerramalli; A. I. Chou; G. J. Miller; S. B. Nicoll; K. R. Chin; D. M. Elliott

    2007-01-01

    Altered mechanical loading, secondary to biochemical changes in the nucleus pulposus, is a potential mechanism in disc degeneration.\\u000a An understanding of the role of this altered mechanical loading is only possible by separating the mechanical and biological\\u000a effects of early nucleus pulposus changes. The objective of this study was to quantify the mechanical effect of decreased\\u000a glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and increased

  8. Rheological characterization of the nucleus pulposus and dense collagen scaffolds intended for functional replacement.

    PubMed

    Bron, J L; Koenderink, G H; Everts, V; Smit, T H

    2009-05-01

    Lumbar discectomy is an effective therapy for neurological decompression in patients suffering from sciatica due to a herniated nucleus pulposus (NP). However, high numbers of patients suffering from persisting postoperative low back pain have resulted in many strategies targeting the regeneration of the NP. For successful regeneration, the stiffness of scaffolds is increasingly recognized as a potent mechanical cue for the differentiation and biosynthetic response of (stem) cells. The aim of the current study is to characterize the viscoelastic properties of the NP and to develop dense collagen scaffolds with similar properties. The scaffolds consisted of highly dense (0.5%-12%) type I collagen matrices, prepared by plastic compression. The complex modulus of the NP was 22 kPa (at 10 rad s(-1)), which should agree with a scaffold with a collagen concentration of 23%. The loss tangent, indicative of energy dissipation, is higher for the NP (0.28) than for the scaffolds (0.12) and was not dependent of the collagen density. Gamma sterilization of the scaffolds increased the shear moduli but also resulted in more brittle behavior and a reduced swelling capacity. In conclusion, by tuning the collagen density, we can approach the stiffness of the NP. Therefore, dense collagen is a promising candidate for tissue engineering of the NP that deserves further study, such as the addition of other proteins. PMID:18991343

  9. Biomechanical evaluation of a novel nucleus pulposus prosthesis in canine cadaveric spines.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Lucas Adam; Bergknut, Niklas; Kingma, Idsart; van der Veen, Albert Jan; Smit, Theodoor Henri; Koole, Levinus Hendrik; Hazewinkel, Herman Anthonie Willem; Meij, Björn Petrus

    2012-05-01

    Partial disc replacement is a new surgical technique aimed at restoring functionality to degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs). The aim of the present study was to assess biomechanically the behaviour of a novel nucleus pulposus prosthesis (NPP) in situ and its ability to restore functionality to the canine IVD after nuclectomy alone or after combined dorsal laminectomy and nuclectomy. Nine canine T13-L5 specimens (L2L3 group) and 10 L5-Cd1 specimens (LS group) were tested biomechanically in the native state, after nuclectomy (L2L3 group) or after combined dorsal laminectomy and nuclectomy (LS group), and after insertion of the NPP. Range of motion (ROM), neutral zone (NZ), and neutral zone stiffness (NZS) were determined in flexion/extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Nuclectomy alone and combined dorsal laminectomy and nuclectomy caused significant instability in all motion directions. Implantation of the NPP resulted in significant restoration of the parameters (ROM, NZ, and NZS) towards the native state; however, fragmentation/herniation of the NPP occurred in 47% of the cases. In conclusion, the NPP has the ability to improve functionality of the nuclectomized canine IVD. The high rate of NPP failure requires modifications directed at the integrity of the NPP and its confinement to the nuclear cavity. PMID:21727014

  10. Effects of Hypoxia and Scaffold Architecture on Rabbit Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation towards a Nucleus Pulposus-like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ganjun; Jin, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiang; Ma, Haiyun; Gupte, Melanie J.; Liu, Hao; Ma, Peter X.

    2011-01-01

    Nucleus pulposus grafts are needed for patients requiring replacement of their degenerated intervertebral discs. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are potential autologous stem cell source for the nucleus pulposus regeneration. One of the key issues of constructing functional nucleus pulposus using MSCs, however, is to differentiate MSCs into nucleus pulposus phenotype in vitro and to maintain their phenotypic stability in vivo. In this study, three-dimensional (3D) nanofibrous poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) scaffolds were seeded with multi-potent rabbit MSCs and the constructs were induced along nucleus pulposus development routes in a hypoxia chamber (2% O2) in the presence of TGF-?1. It was found that nanofibrous scaffold could support the differentiation of rabbit MSCs towards a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype in vitro, as evidenced by upregulated expression of a few important nucleus pulposus-associated genes (aggrecan, type II collagen and Sox-9), abundant deposition of extracellular matrix (glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and type II collagen), and the continuous expression of the nucleus pulposus-specific marker, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?. The subcutaneous implantation results confirmed that hypoxic induction before implantation could help the constructs to retain their phenotype and resist calcification in vivo. Therefore, the above data showed the promise of using 3D nanofibrous scaffolds in combination with TGF-?1 and hypoxic induction to regenerate functional nucleus pulposus grafts for intervertebral disc replacement. PMID:21839506

  11. Knockdown Epithelial Membrane Protein 1 Suppresses Human Degenerative Intervertebral Disc–Derived Nucleus Pulposus Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Yong; Xiong, Shao-Hu; Hu, Ming; Zhang, Chuan-Sen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Our previous work showed that epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) is highly expressed in nucleus pulposus of the human degenerative intervertebral disc. The present study was designed to investigate the role of EMP1 in nucleus pulposus cells in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Design: Human nucleus pulposus cells derived from degenerative intervertebral discs were cultured. EMP1 expression was knocked down by lentivirus-mediated specific interfering RNA. Cell morphology was observed, and cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cycle were evaluated. Results: Knockdown of EMP1 inhibited cell proliferation, caused cells to shrink, and accelerated the apoptosis induced by serum deprivation or addition of cycloheximide but did not evoke apoptosis in normal culture conditions. Conclusions: These findings suggest that EMP1 promoted chondrocyte proliferation, survival, and morphological change of cells during IDD, implying that EMP1 may be a target for biological therapy for IDD.

  12. In vitro measurement of nucleus pulposus swelling pressure: A new technique for studies of spinal adaptation to gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Glover, M. G.; Mahmood, M. M.; Gott, S.; Garfin, S. R.; Ballard, R.; Murthy, G.; Brown, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    Swelling of the intervertebral disc nucleus pulposus is altered by posture and gravity. We have designed and tested a new osmometer for in vitro determination of nucleus pulposus swelling pressure. The functional principle of the osmometer involves compressing a sample of nucleus pulposus with nitrogen gas until saline pressure gradients across a 0.45 microns Millipore filter are eliminated. Swelling pressure of both pooled dog and pooled pig lumbar disc nucleus pulposus were measured on the new osmometer and compared to swelling pressures determined using the equilibrium dialysis technique. The osmometer measured swelling pressures comparable to those obtained by the dialysis technique. This osmometer provides a rapid, direct, and accurate measurement of swelling pressure of the nucleus pulposus.

  13. The potential of chitosan-based gels containing intervertebral disc cells for nucleus pulposus supplementation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Roughleya; Caroline Hoemannb; Eric DesRosiersc; Fackson Mwaled; John Antonioud; Mauro Alinie

    The suitability of chitosan-based hydrogels as scaffolds for the encapsulation of intervertebral disc (IVD) cells and the accumulation of a functional extracellular matrix mimicking that of the nucleus pulposus (NP) was investigated. The specific hypothesis under study was that the cationic chitosan would form an ideal environment in which large quantities of newly synthesized anionic proteoglycan could be entrapped. Indeed,

  14. Current Developments in Tissue Engineering of Nucleus Pulposus for the Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Immanuel M. Sebastine; David J. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The main cause for back pain is considered to be the degenerative changes in the intervertebral disc (IVD). Some evidence indicates that IVD degeneration originates from the nucleus pulposus (NP). The IVD does not possess self repair capacity. Current treatment options range from pain management to invasive procedures. The science of disc cell transplantation is still in its infancy. Advancement

  15. Nucleus pulposus deformation in response to lumbar spine lateral flexion: an in vivo MRI investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Fazey; Hiroshi Takasaki; Kevin P. Singer

    2010-01-01

    Whilst there are numerous studies examining aspects of sagittal plane motion in the lumbar spine, few consider coronal plane\\u000a range of motion and there are no in vivo reports of nucleus pulposus (NP) displacement in lateral flexion. This study quantified\\u000a in vivo NP deformation in response to side flexion in healthy volunteers. Concomitant lateral flexion and axial rotation range\\u000a were

  16. Cultivation of porcine cells from the nucleus pulposus in a fibrin/hyaluronic acid matrix.

    PubMed

    Stern, S; Lindenhayn, K; Schultz, O; Perka, C

    2000-10-01

    Use of multiplied viable cells from the nucleus pulposus in altered discs, following in vitro cultivation, may be a promising therapy for degenerative disc disease. Up till now, alginate has been used as a three-dimensional cell carrier to cultivate nucleus pulposus cells. However, the biocompatibility of the alginate, which depends on the composition and purity of alginate materials used, has not been considered for in vivo application so far. In this study, we cultured porcine cells from the nucleus pulposus in a mixture of fibrin and hyaluronic acid (HA). The DNA content and proteoglycan synthesis were compared to those measured in an alginate matrix. Although the increase in DNA content was 2.5-fold higher in the alginate culture after 3 weeks, the proteoglycan synthesis in relation to the DNA content was significantly higher in the fibrin/HA matrix. We found that the fibrin/hyaluronic acid matrix can be used as a substrate for in vitro cultivation. PMID:11186408

  17. Exhaustion of nucleus pulposus progenitor cells with ageing and degeneration of the intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Daisuke; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Nakai, Tomoko; Mishima, Taishi; Kato, Shunichi; Grad, Sibylle; Alini, Mauro; Risbud, Makarand V.; Chan, Danny; Cheah, Kathryn S.E.; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Masuda, Koichi; Okano, Hideyuki; Ando, Kiyoshi; Mochida, Joji

    2012-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of intervertebral disc disease, little is known about changes in intervertebral disc cells and their regenerative potential with ageing and intervertebral disc degeneration. Here we identify populations of progenitor cells that are Tie2 positive (Tie2+) and disialoganglioside 2 positive (GD2+), in the nucleus pulposus from mice and humans. These cells form spheroid colonies that express type II collagen and aggrecan. They are clonally multipotent and differentiated into mesenchymal lineages and induced reorganization of nucleus pulposus tissue when transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. The frequency of Tie2+ cells in tissues from patients decreases markedly with age and degeneration of the intervertebral disc, suggesting exhaustion of their capacity for regeneration. However, progenitor cells (Tie2+GD2+) can be induced from their precursor cells (Tie2+GD2?) under simple culture conditions. Moreover, angiopoietin-1, a ligand of Tie2, is crucial for the survival of nucleus pulposus cells. Our results offer insights for regenerative therapy and a new diagnostic standard. PMID:23232394

  18. Formation of a nucleus pulposus-cartilage endplate construct in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Darla J; Séguin, Cheryle A; Wang, Jian; Pilliar, Robert M; Kandel, Rita A

    2006-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common problem and treatment options for persistent symptomatic disease are limited. Tissue engineering is being explored for its ability to reconstitute the functional components of the IVD. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it was possible to form in vitro a triphasic construct consisting of nucleus pulposus (NP), cartilage endplate (CEP), and a porous calcium polyphosphate (CPP) bone substitute. Bovine articular chondrocytes were placed on the top surface of a porous CPP construct and allowed to form cartilage in vitro. Nucleus pulposus cells were then placed onto the in vitro-formed hyaline cartilage. At 24 h scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the NP cells maintained their rounded morphology, similar to NP cells placed directly on porous CPP. At 8 weeks histological examination of the triphasic constructs by light microscopy showed that a continuous layer of NP tissue had formed and was fused to the underlying cartilage tissue, which itself was integrated with the porous CPP. The incorporation of the cartilage layer was beneficial to the construct by improving tissue attachment to the CPP, as demonstrated by increased peak load and increased energy required for failure during shear loading when compared to a biphasic construct composed of nucleus pulposus-bone substitute only. This study demonstrates that it is possible to generate a multi-component construct with the incorporation of a CEP-like layer resulting in improved bone substitute-to-IVD tissue interface characteristics. PMID:16139883

  19. Percutaneous Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xavier Buy; Afshin Gangi; Stéphane Guth; Ali Guermazi

    \\u000a Disc herniation is defined as rupture of the fibrocartilagenous annulus fibrosus that surrounds the intervertebral disc, associated\\u000a with the release of the central gelatinous nucleus pulposus. Most herniations take place in the lumbar area of the spine.\\u000a They occur more frequently in middle aged and older men, especially those involved in strenuous physical activity. They cause\\u000a physical disability with significant

  20. Percutaneous Disc Decompression with Nucleoplasty–Volumetry of the Nucleus Pulposus Using Ultrahigh-Field MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kasch, Richard; Mensel, Birger; Schmidt, Florian; Drescher, Wolf; Pfuhl, Ralf; Ruetten, Sebastian; Merk, Harry R.; Kayser, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate changes in nucleus pulposus volume as a potential parameter for the effects of disc decompression. Methods Fifty-two discs (T8 to L1) were extracted from 26 pigs and separated into thoracic (T8 to T11) and thoracolumbar discs (T12 to L1). The discs were imaged using 7.1 Tesla ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with acquisition of axial T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequences for determination of baseline and postinterventional nucleus pulposus volumes. Volumes were calculated using OsiriX® (http://www.osirix-viewer.com). After randomization, one group was treated with nucleoplasty, while the placebo group was treated with an identical procedure but without coblation current. The readers analyzing the MR images were blinded to the kind of procedure performed. Baseline and postinterventional volumes were compared between the nucleoplasty and placebo group. Results Average preinterventional nucleus volume was 0.799 (SD: 0.212) ml. Postinterventional volume reduction in the nucleoplasty group was significant at 0.052 (SD: 0.035) ml or 6.30% (p<0.0001) (thoracic discs) and 0.082 (SD: 0.042) ml or 7.25% (p?=?0.0078) (thoracolumbar discs). Nucleoplasty achieved volume reductions of 0.114 (SD: 0.054) ml or 14.72% (thoracic) and 0.093 (SD: 0.081) ml or 11.61% (thoracolumbar) compared with the placebo group. Conclusions Nucleoplasty significantly reduces thoracic and thoracolumbar nucleus pulposus volumes in porcine discs. PMID:22848512

  1. Functionalized self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel as a scaffold for rabbit nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baichuan; Wu, Yongchao; Shao, Zengwu; Yang, Shuhua; Che, Biao; Sun, Caixia; Ma, Zhilin; Zhang, Yannan

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a new functionalized peptide RLN was designed containing the bioactive motif link N, the amino terminal peptide of link protein. A link N nanofiber scaffold (LN-NS) was self-assembled by mixing peptide solution of RLN and RADA16. The characterization of LN-NS was tested using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The biocompatibility and bioactivity of this nanofiber scaffold for rabbit nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) were also evaluated. This designer functionalized nanofiber scaffold exhibited little cytotoxicity and promoted NPCs adhesion obviously. In three-dimensional cell culture experiments, confocal reconstructed images testified that the functionalized LN-NS-guided NPCs migration from the surface into the hydrogel considerably, in which the RADA16 scaffold did not. Moreover, the functionalized LN-NS significantly stimulated the biosynthesis of extracelluar matrices (ECM) by NPCs. Our findings demonstrate that the functionalized nanofiber scaffold containing link N had excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity with rabbit NPCs and could be useful in the nucleus pulposus regeneration. PMID:22213420

  2. Differential response of nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells to high salt, sorbitol, and urea.

    PubMed

    Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2012-03-01

    Nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells are routinely confronted with high osmolality in their microenvironment and respond to this stress in vitro by regulating cell cycle progression and by activating a DNA repair machinery in order to counteract its genotoxic effect. In the present study, we attempted to identify the origin of this osmo-regulatory response, by using an ionic NaCl/KCl solution, the compatible osmolyte sorbitol, and the readily permeant urea. High salt and sorbitol were found to activate similar molecular pathways, including the p38 MAPK and the p53-p21(WAF1)-pRb axis, that were not stimulated by high urea. On the other hand, only high urea led to the phosphorylation of ERKs and JNKs. Furthermore, salt- and sorbitol-treated cells were able to phosphorylate histone H2A.X on Ser139, in contrast to cells exposed to urea, indicating a common mechanism for DNA repair, which was achieved by a p53-dependent activation of the G1 checkpoint by both solutes. DNA repair, as directly measured by a host cell reactivation assay, occurred under conditions of hyperosmolar salt and sorbitol, although to a lesser extent in sorbitol-treated cells than in cells exposed to high salinity. Taken as a whole, our findings suggest that the hyperosmolality-provoked DNA damage and the responses of nucleus pulposus cells induced by this genotoxic stress most probably originate from cell volume alterations mediated by hypertonicity and not from increased intracellular ionic concentration. PMID:21604265

  3. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into nucleus pulposus cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tao, Fenghua; Li, Feng; Li, Guanghui; Pan, Feng

    2008-04-01

    To find a new source of seed cells for constructing tissue-engineered intervertebral disc, nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits. The nucleus pulposus cells population was fluorescence-laelled and co-cultured with MSCs with or without direct contact. Morphological changes were observed every 12 h. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess the expression levels of Sox-9, aggreacan and type II collagen every 24 h after the co-culture. MSCs treated with direct contact rounded up and presented a ring-like appearance. The expression of marker genes was significantly increased when cells were co-cultured with direct contact for 24 h. No significant change was found after coculture without direct contact. Co-culture of NP cells and MSCs with direct contact is a reliable method for generating large amount of NP cells used for cell-based tissue engineering therapy. PMID:18480986

  4. Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype utilizing simulated microgravity In vitro.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Xiong, Wei; Qiu, Min; Lv, Yongwei; Li, Yong; Li, Feng

    2011-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were induced into a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype utilizing simulated microgravity in vitro in order to establish a new cell-based tissue engineering treatment for intervertebral disc degeneration. For induction of a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype, MSCs were cultured in simulated microgravity in a chemically defined medium supplemented with 0 (experimental group) and 10 ng/mL (positive control group) of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1). MSCs cultured under conventional condition without TGF-?1 served as blank control group. On the day 3 of culture, cellular proliferation was determined by WST-8 assay. Differentiation markers were evaluated by histology and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). TGF-?1 slightly promoted the proliferation of MSCs. The collagen and proteoglycans were detected in both groups after culture for 7 days. The accumulation of proteoglycans was markedly increased. The RT-PCR revealed that the gene expression of Sox-9, aggrecan and type II collagen, which were chondrocyte specific, was increased in MSCs cultured under simulated microgravity for 3 days. The ratio of proteoglycans/collagen in blank control group was 3.4-fold higher than positive control group, which denoted a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype differentiation. Independent, spontaneous differentiation of MSCs towards a nucleus pulposus-like phenotype in simulated microgravity occurred without addition of any external bioactive stimulators, namely factors from TGF-? family, which were previously considered necessary. PMID:21505985

  5. HIF-1? AND HIF-2? DEGRADATION IS DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATED IN NUCLEUS PULPOSUS CELLS OF THE INTERVERTEBRAL DISC

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of many cell types show that level of HIF-1? and HIF-2? is primarily controlled by oxygen-dependent proteasomal degradation, catalyzed by HIF prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs). However, in hypoxic niche of the intervertebral disc, the mechanism of HIF-? turnover in nucleus pulposus cells is not yet known. We show that in nucleus pulposus cells HIF-1? and HIF-2? degradation was mediated through 26S proteasome irrespective of oxygen tension. Noteworthy, HIF-2? degradation through 26S proteasome was more pronounced in hypoxia. Surprisingly, treatment with DMOG, a PHD inhibitor, shows accumulation of only HIF-1? and induction in activity of its target genes but not of HIF-2?. Loss and gain of function analyses using lentiviral knockdown of PHDs and overexpression of individual PHDs show that in nucleus pulposus cells only PHD2 played a limited role in HIF-1? degradation, again HIF-2? degradation was unaffected. We also demonstrate that the treatment with inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis results in a strong accumulation of HIF-1? and to a much smaller extent of HIF-2? levels. It is thus evident that in addition to PHD2 catalyzed degradation, HIF-1? turnover in nucleus pulposus cells is primarily regulated by oxygen-independent pathways. Importantly, our data clearly suggests that proteasomal degradation of HIF-2? is not mediated by classical oxygen dependent PHD pathway. These results for the first time provide a rationale for the normoxic stabilization as well as the maintenance of steady state levels of HIF-1? and HIF-2? in nucleus pulposus cells. PMID:21987385

  6. HIF-1-PHD2 axis controls expression of syndecan 4 in nucleus pulposus cells

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Nobuyuki; Hirose, Yuichiro; Tran, Cassie M.; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Shapiro, Irving M.; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration is the leading cause of chronic back pain. Recent studies show that raised level of SDC4, a cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, plays a role in pathogenesis of disc degeneration. However, in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells of the healthy intervertebral disc, the mechanisms that control expression of SDC4 and its physiological function are unknown. Hypoxia induced SDC4 mRNA and protein expression by ?2.4- and 4.4-fold (P<0.05), respectively, in NP cells. While the activity of the SDC4 promoter containing hypoxia response element (HRE) was induced 2-fold (P<0.05), the HRE mutation decreased the activity by 40% in hypoxia. Transfections with plasmids coding prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain protein 2 (PHD2) and ShPHD2 show that hypoxic expression of SDC4 mRNA and protein is regulated by PHD2 through controlling hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) levels. Although overexpression of HIF-1? significantly increased SDC4 protein levels, stable suppression of HIF-1? and HIF-1? decreased SDC4 expression by 50% in human NP cells. Finally, suppression of SDC4 expression, as well as HS function, resulted in an ?2-fold increase in sex-determining region Y (SRY)-box 9 (Sox9) mRNA, and protein (P<0.05) and simultaneous increase in Sox9 transcriptional activity and target gene expression. Taken together, our findings suggest that in healthy discs, SDC4, through its HS side chains, contributes to maintenance of the hypoxic tissue niche by controlling baseline expression of Sox9.—Fujita, N., Hirose, Y., Tran, C. M., Chiba, K., Miyamoto, T., Toyama, Y., Shapiro, I. M., Risbud, M. V. HIF-1-PHD2 axis controls expression of syndecan 4 in nucleus pulposus cells. PMID:24558194

  7. The performance of a hydrogel nucleus pulposus prosthesis in an ex vivo canine model.

    PubMed

    Bergknut, Niklas; Smolders, Lucas A; Koole, Leo H; Voorhout, George; Hagman, Ragnvi E; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Saralidze, Ketie; Hazewinkel, Herman A W; van der Veen, Albert J; Meij, Björn P

    2010-09-01

    A nucleus pulposus prosthesis (NPP) made of the hydrogel N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone copolymerized with 2-(4'-iodobenzoyl)-oxo-ethyl methacrylate has recently been developed. The special features of this NPP, i.e. intrinsic radiopacity and its ability to swell in situ to fill the nucleus cavity and restore disc height, were investigated ex vivo in canine spinal specimens. L7-S1 intervertebral discs were isolated from three canine spinal specimens, and the dimensions of the nuclei pulposi were measured. Based on these averaged measurements, the NPP prototype was made and inserted in its dry form (xerogel) into a canine cadaveric spinal segment and allowed to swell overnight at 38 degrees C. The integrity of the NPP and the filling of the nucleus cavity were assessed before and after swelling, using radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The ability of the NPP to restore disc height was assessed on radiographs of 10 spinal specimens. Thereafter the NPP was macroscopically assessed in situ by dissection of the spinal specimen. Both on imaging and macroscopically, 9/10 NPPs appeared to have a near perfect fit and disc height was restored in 8/10 spinal segments. The NPP may thus be an acceptable treatment option for low back patients meeting the requirements for NPP treatment. PMID:20542330

  8. BiDirectional Exchange of Membrane Components Occurs during Co-Culture of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Strassburg; Nigel W. Hodson; Patrick I. Hill; Stephen M. Richardson; Judith A. Hoyland

    2012-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have been proposed as novel treatments for intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. We have previously demonstrated that when MSCs are co-cultured with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells with direct cell-cell contact, they differentiate along the NP lineage and simultaneously stimulate the degenerate NP cell population to regain a normal (non-degenerate) phenotype, an effect which requires cell-cell communication.

  9. Characterization and mechanical performance study of silk/PVA cryogels: towards nucleus pulposus tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Neo, Puay Yong; Shi, Pujiang; Goh, James Cho-Hong; Toh, Siew Lok

    2014-12-01

    Poly (vinyl) alcohol (PVA) cryogels are reported in the literature for application in nucleus pulposus (NP) replacement strategies. However, these studies are mainly limited to acellular approaches-in part due to the high hydrophilicity of PVA gels that renders cellular adhesion difficult. Silk is a versatile biomaterial with excellent biocompatibility. We hypothesize that the incorporation of silk with PVA will (i) improve the cell-hosting abilities of PVA cryogels and (ii) allow better tailoring of physical properties of the composite cryogels for an NP tissue engineering purpose. 5% (wt/vol) PVA is blended with 5% silk fibroin (wt/vol) to investigate the effect of silk?:?PVA ratios on the cryogels' physical properties. Results show that the addition of silk results in composite cryogels that are able to swell to more than 10 times its original dry weight and rehydrate to at least 70% of its original wet weight. Adding at least 20% silk significantly improves surface hydrophobicity and is correlated with an improvement in cell-hosting abilities. Cell-seeded cryogels also display an increment in compressive modulus and hoop stress values. In all, adding silk to PVA creates cryogels that can be potentially used as NP replacements. PMID:25329452

  10. Leptin Downregulates Aggrecan through the p38-ADAMST Pathway in Human Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jinqian; Wu, William Ka Kei; Yu, Jun; Shen, Jianxiong

    2014-01-01

    The mechanistic basis of obesity-associated intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD) is unclear. Aberrant expression of aggrecan and its degrading enzymes ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 is implicated in the development of IDD. Here, we investigated the effect of leptin, a hormone with increased circulating levels in obesity, on the expression of aggrecan and ADAMTSs in primary human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Real-time PCR and Western blots showed that leptin increased the mRNA and protein expression of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 and reduced the level of aggrecan in NP cells, accompanied by a prominent induction of p38 phosphorylation. Treatment of NP cells with SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) abolished the regulation of aggrecan and ADAMTSs by leptin. Knockdown of ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5 by siRNAs also attenuated the degradation of aggrecan in leptin-stimulated NP cells. To conclude, we demonstrated that leptin induces p38 to upregulate ADAMTSs and thereby promoting aggrecan degradation in human NP cells. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the molecular pathogenesis of obesity-associated IDD. PMID:25299465

  11. 3D-Printed ABS and PLA Scaffolds for Cartilage and Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, Derek H; Carelli, Eric; Steffen, Thomas; Jarzem, Peter; Haglund, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    Painful degeneration of soft tissues accounts for high socioeconomic costs. Tissue engineering aims to provide biomimetics recapitulating native tissues. Biocompatible thermoplastics for 3D printing can generate high-resolution structures resembling tissue extracellular matrix. Large-pore 3D-printed acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds were compared for cell ingrowth, viability, and tissue generation. Primary articular chondrocytes and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells were cultured on ABS and PLA scaffolds for three weeks. Both cell types proliferated well, showed high viability, and produced ample amounts of proteoglycan and collagen type II on both scaffolds. NP generated more matrix than chondrocytes; however, no difference was observed between scaffold types. Mechanical testing revealed sustained scaffold stability. This study demonstrates that chondrocytes and NP cells can proliferate on both ABS and PLA scaffolds printed with a simplistic, inexpensive desktop 3D printer. Moreover, NP cells produced more proteoglycan than chondrocytes, irrespective of thermoplastic type, indicating that cells maintain individual phenotype over the three-week culture period. Future scaffold designs covering larger pore sizes and better mimicking native tissue structure combined with more flexible or resorbable materials may provide implantable constructs with the proper structure, function, and cellularity necessary for potential cartilage and disc tissue repair in vivo. PMID:26151846

  12. Augmentation and repair tissue formation of the nucleus pulposus after partial nucleotomy in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Endres, M; Zenclussen, M L; Casalis, P A; Freymann, U; Gil Garcia, S; Krueger, J P; Thomale, U-W; Woiciechowsky, C; Kaps, C

    2014-12-01

    Disc degeneration alters disc height and mechanics of the spinal column and is associated with lower back pain. In preclinical studies gel-like materials or resorbable polymer-based implants are frequently used to rebuild the nucleus pulposus, aiming at tissue regeneration and restoration of tissue function. To compare the outcome of tissue repair, freeze-dried resorbable polyglycolic acid-hyaluronan (PGA/HA) implants without any bioactive components or bioactivated fibrin (fibrin-serum) was used in a degenerated disc disease model in New Zealand white rabbits. Animals with partial nucleotomy only served as controls. The T2-weighted/fat suppression sequence signal intensity in the nuclear region of operated discs as assessed by magnet resonance imaging was reduced in operated compared to healthy discs, indicating loss of water and did not change from week 1 to month 6 after surgery. Quantification of histological and immunohistochemical staining indicated that the implantation of PGA/HA leads to significantly more repair tissue compared to nucleotomy only. Type II collagen content of the repair tissue formed after PGA/HA or fibrin-serum treatment is significantly increased compared to controls with nucleotomy only. The data indicate that intervertebral disc augmentation after nucleotomy has a positive effect on repair tissue formation and type II collagen deposition as shown in the rabbit model. PMID:25287887

  13. Injectable silk fibroin/polyurethane composite hydrogel for nucleus pulposus replacement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jingen; Chen, Bin; Guo, Fang; Du, Jingyu; Gu, Pengcheng; Lin, Xiangjin; Yang, Weiping; Zhang, Hailong; Lu, Min; Huang, Yiping; Xu, Gewen

    2012-03-01

    In degenerative disc disease, an injectable hydrogel can fill a degenerate area completely, reduce the risk of implant migration and subsequent loss of height of the intervertebral disc, and minimise surgical defects. Here, we propose a method of preparing an injectable silk fibroin/polyurethane (SF/PU) composite hydrogel by chemical cross-linking under physiological conditions. Mechanical testing was used to determine the mechanical strength of the hydrogel. The impact of hydrogel height on the biomechanical properties was discussed to estimate the working capacity of the hydrogel for further clinical application. Rheological properties were also examined to assess the practical ability of the hydrogel for clinical application. Hydrogel injection and cell assessment is also of interest for clinical application. An SF/PU composite hydrogel can be injected through a small incision. A cell proliferation assay using bone marrow stromal cells showed positive cell viability and increased proliferation over a seven-day period in culture. Importantly, the hydrogel can be monitored in real-time using X-ray fluoroscopy during and after surgery according to the results of X-ray fluoroscopy examination, and shows good visibility based on X-ray assays. In particular, the hydrogel offers the clinically important advantage of visibility in CT and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Based on the results of the current study, the SF/AU composite hydrogel may offer several advantages for future application in nucleus pulposus replacement. PMID:22231270

  14. Differentiation of immortalized human precartilaginous stem cells into nucleus pulposus-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiong; Gu, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Li; Wang, Junfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to explore the differentiation of immortalized human precartilaginous stem cells (IPSCs) into nucleus pulposus (NP)-like cells induced by transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and examine its biological characteristics. Methods: The IPSCs were seeded onto chitosan/glycerophosphate (C/GP) scaffolds and induced into NP-like cells by adding TGF-?1 under hypoxic conditions. The growth and differentiation of IPSCs were observed, and the formation of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) in the extracellular matrix of differentiating cells was detected by Alcian Blue staining. The expressions of type II collagen and aggrecan genes in NP-like cells were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expressions of Sox9 and ?-catenin were analyzed by Western blotting. Results: The IPSCs were observed to grow well on the C/GP scaffolds. After 7 days, Alcian Blue staining demonstrated the formation of GAG. The RT-PCR results showed that expression of type II collagen and aggrecan were upregulated compared with control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Likewise, western blotting results showed that the expression of Sox9 and ?-catenin was upregulated compared with control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that IPSCs could be differentiated into NP-like cells following induction by TGF-?1.

  15. The Effect of a Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitor on Early Degenerated Human Nucleus Pulposus Explants

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Bart; Potier, Esther; Licht, Ruud; Creemers, Laura; Ito, Keita

    2013-01-01

    Study Design?Preclinical in vitro culture of human degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue. Objective?Cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors (e.g., celecoxib) inhibit prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and they have been shown to upregulate regeneration of articular cartilage. In this study, we developed an explant culture system for use with human tissue and tested the potential of celecoxib. Methods?NP explants were cultured with or without 1 ?M of celecoxib and were analyzed at days 0 and 7 for biochemical content (water, sulfated glycosaminoglycans, hydroxyproline, and DNA), gene expression (for disk matrix anabolic and catabolic markers), and PGE2 content. Results?Water and biochemical contents as well as gene expression remained close to native values after 1?week of culture. PGE2 levels were not increased in freshly harvested human NP tissue and thus were not reduced in treated tissues. Although no anabolic effects were observed at the dosage and culture duration used, no detrimental effects were observed and some specimens did respond by lowering PGE2. Conclusions?Human degenerated NP explants were successfully cultured in a close to in vivo environment for 1 week. Further research, especially dosage-response studies, is needed to understand the role of PGE2 in low back pain and the potential of celecoxib to treat painful disks. PMID:24494179

  16. A Study on Dispersion and Rate of Fat Infiltration in the Lumbar Spine of Patients with Herniated Nucleus Polpusus

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Bong-jun; Lim, Jong-soo; Kim, Kyung

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) and fat infiltration of muscles around the spine by measuring body mass index (BMI) and fat infiltration of the muscles around the spine. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 82 people, both men and women they were divided into two groups, a normal group and a patient group who were suffering from serious HNP between L4 and L5. Of the anthropometric measurement, and fat infiltration muscles by measuring the cross-sectional area from the center of the disc to the muscle around the spine and the cross-sectional area of fat infiltration. [Results] Fat infiltration rate of each lumbar layer in the normal group was different L34–L45 and L45–L5S1, but not between L23–L34. Fat infiltration in the muscle between the normal group and patients with HNP was different in the layers and the difference was greatest in the L5–S1 layer. [Conclusion] We performed correlation analysis of BMI and the total fat infiltration rate in each group to find the relationship between obesity and fat infiltration in the lumbar spine. Fat infiltration increased, and normal people or patients with chronic back pain are considered to be exposed to other diseases as fat infiltration in the lumbar spine increases. PMID:24567672

  17. Glucosamine protects nucleus pulposus cells and induces autophagy via the mTOR-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, LiBo; Jin, YongLong; Wang, HuiRen; Jiang, YunQi; Dong, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Although glucosamine has been suggested to be effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis, its effect on disc degeneration remains unclear. We sought to explore whether glucosamine can activate autophagy in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and protect cells treated with IL-1? or hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). Autophagy in cells was examined by detecting for LC3, Beclin-1, m-TOR, and p70S6K, as well as by analyzing autophagosomes. To inhibit autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was used. In the cells treated with IL-1?, the levels of Adamts-4, Mmp-13, aggrecan, and Col2a1 were analyzed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Apoptosis was analyzed by TUNEL. Cell senescence under H2 O2 was revealed by SA-?-Gal staining. Glucosamine could activate autophagy in a dose-dependent manner within 24?h and inhibit the phosphorylation of m-TOR and p70S6K. Autophagy in IL-1? or H2 O2 -treated cells was increased by glucosamine. Glucosamine attenuated the decrease of aggrecan and prevented the apoptosis of the NP cells induced by IL-1?, whereas 3-MA partly reversed these effects. The percentage of SA-?-Gal-positive cells induced by H2 O2 treatment was decreased by glucosamine, accompanied by the decline of p70S6K phosphorylation. Glucosamine protects NP cells and up-regulates autophagy by inhibiting the m-TOR pathway, which might point a potential therapeutic agent for disc degeneration. PMID:25087910

  18. Effects of TGF-?1 and IGF-1 on proliferation of human nucleus pulposus cells in medium with different serum concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rongfeng Zhang; Dike Ruan; Chao Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The low proliferative viability of human nucleus pulposus(NP) cells is considered as a cause of intervertebral discs degeneration. Growth factors, such as TGF-?1 and IGF-1, have been implicated in cell proliferation and matrix synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dose-response and time-course effect of transforming growth factor?1(TGF-?1) and insulin-like growth factor-1(IGF-1) on proliferation of NP cells. STUDY DESIGN: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide

  19. The chemical morphology of age-related changes in human intervertebral disc glycosaminoglycans from cervical, thoracic and lumbar nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J E; Bosworth, T R; Cribb, A M; Taylor, J R

    1994-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA), chondroitin and keratan sulphates (CS, KS), collagen and dry weights were measured in the annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulposus of human cervical, thoracic and lumbar intervertebral discs aged 36-79 y. Alcian blue-critical electrolyte concentration (CEC) staining of sections extended the results. The collagen, total polyanion, HA, CS and KS contents of the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus were plotted for all 3 regions against age. Regional differences and age-related trends were found. For regional differences, the collagen content of the nucleus pulposus was highest in cervical discs and lowest in lumbar discs. In contrast, the total polyanion content of the nucleus pulposus was highest in lumbar discs and lowest in cervical discs. These differences were seen in fetal and adult discs. With respect to age-related trends, the collagen content of the annulus fibrosus was higher in adults and children than in neonates and infants. The collagen content of the nucleus pulposus increased with age in thoracic and lumbar discs, but it was consistently high in cervical discs. There was generally a downward trend of total polyanion and CS with increase in age. This was quite consistent for the annulus fibrosus in all regions and there were dramatic decreases in the lumbar nucleus pulposus in all adults compared with infants and children. These trends were least evident in the cervical nucleus pulposus where infant values were low. CS changes correlated with water content. HA and KS increased in all discs with increasing maturity. Oversulphated KS, absent from fetal discs, reached mature levels by 10 y. Many of the changes occurred before maturity. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) levels correlated with increasing compressive loads. Higher collagen levels in the cervical nucleus pulposus correlated with greater ranges of torsional and shearing strains in cervical discs. High GAG levels in cervical annulus fibrosus probably facilitate lamellar movements during torsional and flexional movements by lubrication and increase of tissue compressibility. Increased KS/CS ratios before maturity correlated with decreased disc blood supply. Ambient O2 tensions may determine KS/CS balance, the former consuming little O2 during biosynthesis. Images Fig. 7 PMID:8157495

  20. Regeneration of nucleus pulposus tissue in an ovine intervertebral disc degeneration model by cell-free resorbable polymer scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Woiciechowsky, Christian; Abbushi, Alexander; Zenclussen, Maria L; Casalis, Pablo; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Kaps, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Degeneration of intervertebral discs (IVDs) occurs frequently and is often associated with lower back pain. Recent treatment options are limited and treat the symptoms rather than regenerate the degenerated disc. Cell-free, freeze-dried resorbable polyglycolic acid (PGA)-hyaluronan implants were used in an ovine IVD degeneration model. The nucleus pulposus of the IVD was partially removed, endoscopically. PGA-hyaluronan implants were immersed in autologous sheep serum and implanted into the disc defect. Animals with nucleotomy only served as controls. The T2-weighted/fat suppression sequence signal intensity index of the operated discs, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showed that implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan implant improved (p = 0.0066) the MRI signal compared to controls at 6 months after surgery. Histological analysis by haematoxylin and eosin and safranin O staining showed the ingrowth of cells with typical chondrocytic morphology, even cell distribution, and extracellular matrix rich in proteoglycan. Histomorphometric analyses confirmed that the implantation of the PGA-hyaluronan scaffolds improved (p = 0.027) the formation of regenerated tissue after nucleotomy. Disc heights remained stable in discs with nucleotomy only as well as after implantation of the implant. In conclusion, implantation of cell-free polymer-based implants after nucleotomy induces nucleus pulposus tissue regeneration and improves disc water content in the ovine model. PMID:22865642

  1. Design, synthesis, imaging, and biomechanics of a softness-gradient hydrogel nucleus pulposus prosthesis in a canine lumbar spine model.

    PubMed

    Kranenburg, Hendrik-Jan C; Meij, Björn P; Onis, David; van der Veen, Albert J; Saralidze, Ketie; Smolders, Luc A; Huizinga, Julie G; Knetsch, Menno L W; Luijten, Peter R; Visser, Fredy; Voorhout, George; Dhert, Wouter J A; Hazewinkel, Herman A W; Koole, Leo H

    2012-11-01

    A hydrogel nucleus pulposus prosthesis (NPP) was designed to swell in situ, have intrinsic radiopacity, and restore intervertebral disc height and biomechanical functionality. These features were examined using an ex vivo canine lumbar model. Nine NPPs were implanted in five spines and their visibility was assessed on radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The NPPs were visible on all imaging modalities and 8/9 NPPs stayed intact and in situ. Six other NPPs were tested biomechanically in six canine lumbar spines. Removal of the nucleus pulposus (nuclectomy) caused significant changes in biomechanical parameters. After implantation and swelling of the NPP, values were not significantly different from the native state for range of motion (ROM) of flexion-extension (FE) and lateral bending (LB), the neutral zone (NZ) of all motion directions, and the NZ stiffness (NZS) of FE. Biomechanical restoration by the NPP compared with the nuclectomized state was significant for the ROM of FE and axial rotation, the NZ of FE and LB, and the NZS of FE and LB. Disc height was significantly restored and 6/6 NPPs stayed intact and in situ. In conclusion, the NPPs swell in situ, have intrinsic radiopacity and restored disc height and aforementioned biomechanical properties. PMID:22888039

  2. Normal and degenerated rabbit nucleus pulposus cells in in vitro cultures: A biological comparison.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yang, Jian; Peng, Fang-Liang; Li, Feng

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the biological characteristics of normal and degenerated rabbit nucleus pulposus (NP) cells in vitro in order to provide seed cells for intervertebral disc (IVD) tissue engineering. A total of 8 adult New Zealand white rabbits underwent annulus puncture to establish models of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Four weeks later, normal and degenerated NP cells were obtained. Cell morphology was observed by light and electron microscopy. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Cell cycle and expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes (aggrecan and type II collagen) were determined by using flow cytometry and RT-PCR respectively. The growth curve of normal NP cells showed that the cells at passage 4 tended to slowly grow on the fifth day of culture. The density of normal NP cells at passages 5 to 7 was significantly less than that of the first-passage cells 2 or 3 days after seeding (P<0.05). The degenerated NP cells at passage 3 showed slow growth at 4th day. After 5 passages, the degenerated NP cells assumed stagnant growth and the growth seemed to stop at passage 7. The MTT assay revealed that for both normal and degenerated NP cells, the absorbance (A) value at passages 4-7 was obviously decreased as compared with that at passage 1 (P<0.05). Cell cycle analysis showed that the proportion of normal NP cells at Gl phase was 65.4%±3.5%, significantly lower than that of degenerated NP cells at the same cell cycle phase with the value being 77.6%±4.8%. The degenerated NP cells were predominantly arrested at G1 phase and failed to enter S phase. The expression of type II collagen and aggrecan was significantly decreased with passaging. It was concluded that normal NP cells possessed good viability and proliferative capacity by the third passage, and they could secrete large amounts of ECM within this period. The normal NP cells may serve as seed cells for IVD tissue engineering. PMID:23592135

  3. Up-Regulation of Pain Behavior and Glial Activity in the Spinal Cord after Compression and Application of Nucleus Pulposus onto the Sciatic Nerve in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Norimoto, Masaki; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Miyako; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Inoue, Gen; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Kubota, Gou; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Nakamura, Junichi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Experimental animal study. Purpose To evaluate pain-related behavior and changes in glial activity in the spinal dorsal horn after combined sciatic nerve compression and nucleus pulposus (NP) application in rats. Overview of Literature Mechanical compression and inflammation caused by prostaglandins and cytokines at disc herniation sites induce pain. Structural changes and pain-associated cytokines in the dorsal root ganglia and spinal dorsal horn contribute to prolonged pain. Glial cells in the spinal dorsal horn may also function in pain transmission. Methods The sciatic nerve was compressed with NP for 2 seconds using forceps in the NP+nerve compression group; the sham-operated group received neither compression nor NP; and the control group received no operation. Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured for 3 weeks using von Frey filaments. Glial activity in the spinal dorsal horn was examined 7 days and 14 days postsurgery using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein and anti-Ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 antibodies to detect astrocytes and microglia, respectively. Results Mechanical hyperalgesia was detected throughout the 14-day observation in the NP+nerve compression group, but not in control or sham-operated groups (p<0.05). Both astrocytes and microglia were significantly increased in the spinal dorsal horn of the NP+nerve compression group compared to control and sham groups on days 7 and 14 (p<0.05). Conclusions Nerve compression with NP application produces pain-related behavior, and up-regulates astrocytes and microglia in the spinal dorsal horn, suggesting that these glia may be related to pain transmission. PMID:25346806

  4. The avian intervertebral disc arises from rostral sclerotome and lacks a nucleus pulposus: Implications for evolution of the vertebrate disc

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Bradley J.; Maier, Jennifer A.; Mohiuddin, Yasmin S.; Powers, Rae; Lo, YinTing; Guimarães-Camboa, Nuno; Evans, Sylvia M.; Harfe, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Deterioration of the intervertebral discs is an unfortunate consequence of aging. The intervertebral disc in mammals is composed of three parts: a jelly-like center called the nucleus pulposus, the cartilaginous annulus fibrosus and anterior and posterior endplates that attach the discs to vertebrae. In order to understand the origin of the disc, we have investigated the intervertebral region of chickens. Surprisingly, our comparison of mouse and chicken discs revealed that chicken discs lack nuclei pulposi. In addition, the notochord, which in mice forms nuclei pulposi, was found to persist as a rod-like structure and express Shh throughout chicken embryogenesis. Our fate mapping data indicates that cells originating from the rostral half of each somite are responsible for forming the avian disc while cells in the caudal region of each somite form vertebrae. A histological analysis of mammalian and non-mammalian organisms suggests that nuclei pulposi are only present in mammals. PMID:22354863

  5. Biological evaluation of human degenerated nucleus pulposus cells in functionalized self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold.

    PubMed

    Tao, Hui; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, De-Li; Bai, Xue-Dong; Wen, Tian-Yong; Xin, Hong-Kui; Wu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yue; He, Qin; Ruan, Dike

    2014-06-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue engineering has been proposed as a novel biological treatment for early-stage intervertebral disc degeneration. In this study, a novel functional self-assembling peptide PKP was first designed by linking the short functional motif of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) to the C-terminal of RADA16-I, and another new functional self-assembling peptide was obtained by mixing RKP with RADA16-I. Then, the biocompatibilities and bioactivities of RKP and RAD-RKP for human degenerated nucleus pulposus cells (hNPCs) were studied in vitro. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed that both RKP and RAD-RKP could self-assemble into three-dimensional (3D) nanofiber hydrogel scaffolds in a culture medium at 37°C. After the hNPCs were cultured in 3D scaffolds, both RKP and RAD-RKP exhibited reliable attachment and extremely low cytotoxicities (<14%), which were verified by SEM and cytotoxity assays, respectively. Our results also showed that the functional-based scaffolds could increase the proliferation and migration of hNPCs after 7 days compared with culture plates and pure RADA16-I. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that the expressions of collagen II ?1, Sox-9, and aggrecan were upregulated, while collagen I ?1 was downregulated by functional-based scaffolds after 28 days. Furthermore, we also confirmed that RAD-RKP exhibited a higher hNPC proliferation, migration, and expression of Sox-9 and aggrecan compared with pure RKP. Therefore, the results of this study indicated that the BMP7 short motif-designed functional self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogels could be used as excellent scaffolds in NP tissue engineering, and RAD-RKP might have further potential application in human mild degenerated NP tissue regeneration. PMID:24450796

  6. Herniated lumbar disc

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Herniated lumbar disc is a displacement of disc material (nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosis) beyond the intervertebral disc space. The highest prevalence is among people aged 30-50 years, with a male to female ratio of 2:1. There is little evidence to suggest that drug treatments are effective in treating herniated disc. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, non-drug treatments, and surgery for herniated lumbar disc? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 49 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, advice to stay active, analgesics, antidepressants, bed rest, corticosteroids (epidural injections), cytokine inhibitors (infliximab), discectomy (automated percutaneous, laser, microdisectomy, standard), exercise therapy, heat, ice, massage, muscle relaxants, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), percutaneous disc decompression, spinal manipulation, and traction. PMID:19445754

  7. Target radiofrequency combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis in the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daying; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Zhijian; Zhang, Xuexue; Sheng, Mulan

    2015-01-01

    Both target radiofrequency thermocoagulation and collagenase chemonucleolysis are effective micro-invasive therapy means for lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. In order to analyze the clinical effects of target radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis on lumbar intervertebral disc herniation, the contents of hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan were measured and the histological changes of nucleus pulposus was detected in the vitro experiments. Radiofrequency thermocoagulation reduced the hydrolyzation of herniated nucleus pulposus caused by collagenase, as well as the content of hydroxyproline and glycosaminoglycan. Furthermore, 236 patients with lumbar intervertebral disc herniation were treated by target radiofrequency thermocoagulation combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis. The efficiency was evaluated according to Macnab criteria, and the index of lumbar disc herniation (IDH) was compared pre-operation with 3 months post-operation. The post-operative good rate was 66.5% (157/236) at 2 weeks post-operation, and 88.1% (208/236) at 3 months post-operation. In the post-operative follow-up exam, 86.8% of the re-examined cases demonstrated smaller or ablated protrusion, with reduced IDH values from pre-operation, which was statistically significant. No serious complications were detected intra-operatively and post-operatively. In conclusion, target radiofrequency combined with collagenase chemonucleolysis was an effective and safe method for treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:25785026

  8. Distinction between the extracellular matrix of the nucleus pulposus and hyaline cartilage: a requisite for tissue engineering of intervertebral disc.

    PubMed

    Mwale, F; Roughley, P; Antoniou, J

    2004-01-01

    Tissue engineering of intervertebral discs (IVD) using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) induced to differentiate into a disc-cell phenotype has been considered as an alternative treatment for disc degeneration. However, since there is no unique marker characteristic of discs and since hyaline cartilage and immature nucleus pulposus (NP) possess similar macromolecules in their extracellular matrix, it is currently difficult to recognize MSC conversion to a disc cell. This study was performed to compare the proteoglycan to collagen ratio (measured as GAG to hydroxyproline ratio) in the NP of normal disc to that of the hyaline cartilage of the endplate within the same group of individuals and test the hypothesis that this ratio can be used for in vivo studies to distinguish between a normal NP and hyaline cartilage phenotype. Whole human lumbar spine specimens from fresh cadavers, ranging in age from 12 weeks to 79 years, were used to harvest the IVDs and adjacent endplates. The GAG to hydroxyproline ratio within the NP of young adults is approximately 27:1, whereas the ratio within the hyaline cartilage endplate of the same aged individuals is about 2:1. The production of an extracellular matrix with a high proteoglycan to collagen ratio can be used in vivo to distinguish NP cells from chondrocytes, and could help in identifying a NP-like phenotype in vivo as opposed to a chondrocyte when MSCs are induced to differentiate for tissue engineering of a disc. PMID:15602703

  9. Variations in Gene and Protein Expression in Canine Chondrodystrophic Nucleus Pulposus Cells following Long-Term Three-Dimensional Culture

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Munetaka; Ochi, Hiroki; Asou, Yoshinori; Haro, Hirotaka; Aikawa, Takeshi; Harada, Yasuji; Nezu, Yoshinori; Yogo, Takuya; Tagawa, Masahiro; Hara, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration greatly affects quality of life. The nucleus pulposus (NP) of chondrodystrophic dog breeds (CDBs) is similar to the human NP, because the cells disappear with age and are replaced by fibrochondrocyte-like cells. However, because IVD develops as early as within the first year of life, we used canines as a model to investigate in vitro the mechanisms underlying IVD degeneration. Specifically, we evaluated the potential of a three-dimensional (3D) culture of healthy NP as an in vitro model system to investigate the mechanisms of IVD degeneration. Agarose hydrogels were populated with healthy NP cells from beagles after performing magnetic resonance imaging, and mRNA expression profiles and pericellular extracellular matrix (ECM) protein distribution were determined. After 25 days of 3D culture, there was a tendency for redifferentiation into the native NP phenotype, and mRNA levels of Col2A1, COMP, and CK18 were not significantly different from those of freshly isolated cells. Our findings suggest that long-term 3D culture promoted chondrodystrophic NP redifferentiation through reconstruction of the pericellular microenvironment. Further, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced expression of TNF-?, MMP3, MMP13, VEGF, and PGES mRNA in the 3D cultures, creating a molecular milieu that mimics that of degenerated NP. These results suggest that this in vitro model represents a reliable and cost-effective tool for evaluating new therapies for disc degeneration. PMID:23658803

  10. Minimally invasive techniques for the treatment of intervertebral disk herniation.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Hallett H; Long, Brenda H

    2002-01-01

    Hemilaminectomy with diskectomy, the original surgical option to address intervertebral disk herniation, was superseded by open microdiskectomy, a less invasive technique recognized as the surgical benchmark with which minimally invasive spine surgery techniques have been compared as they have been developed. These minimally invasive surgical techniques for patients with herniated nucleus pulposus and radiculopathy include laser disk decompression, arthroscopic microdiskectomy, laparoscopic techniques, foraminal endoscopy, and microendoscopic diskectomy. Each has its own complications and requires a long learning curve to develop familiarity with the technique. Patient selection, and especially disk morphology, are the most important factors in choice of technique. The optimal candidate has a previously untreated single-level herniation with limited migration or sequestration of free fragments. PMID:11929202

  11. Angiogenic potential of gellan-gum-based hydrogels for application in nucleus pulposus regeneration: in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Silva-Correia, Joana; Miranda-Gonçalves, Vera; Salgado, António J; Sousa, Nuno; Oliveira, Joaquim M; Reis, Rui M; Reis, Rui L

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogels for nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration should be able to comprise a nonangiogenic or even antiangiogenic feature. Gellan gum (GG)-based hydrogels have been reported to possess adequate properties for being used as NP substitutes in acellular and cellular strategies, due to its ability to support cell encapsulation, adequate mechanical properties, and noncytotoxicity. In this study, the angiogenic response of GG-based hydrogels was investigated by performing the chorioallantoic membrane assay. The convergence of macroscopic blood vessels toward the GG, ionic-crosslinked methacrylated GG (iGG-MA), and photo-crosslinked methacrylated GG (phGG-MA) hydrogel discs was quantified. Gelatin sponge (GSp) and filter paper (FP) alone and with vascular endothelial growth factor were used as controls of angiogenesis. The images obtained were digitally processed and analyzed by three independent observers. The macroscopic blood vessel quantification demonstrated that the GG-based hydrogels are not angiogenic as compared with FP controls. No statistical differences between the GG-based hydrogels tested in respect to its angiogenic ability were observed. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and SNA-lectin immunohistochemistry assay indicated that the iGG-MA and phGG-MA hydrogels do not allow the ingrowth of chick endothelial cells, following 4 days of implantation. On the contrary, GG, GSp, and FP controls allowed cell infiltration. The histological data also indicated that the GG-based hydrogels do not elicit any acute inflammatory response. The results showed that the GG, iGG-MA, and phGG-MA hydrogels present different permeability to cells but functioned as a physical barrier for vascular invasion. These hydrogels present promising and tunable properties for being used as NP substitutes in the treatment of degenerative intervertebral disc. PMID:22439824

  12. Phenotypic stability, matrix elaboration and functional maturation of nucleus pulposus cells encapsulated in photocrosslinkable hyaluronic acid hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hwa; Martin, John T; Elliott, Dawn M; Smith, Lachlan J; Mauck, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Degradation of the nucleus pulposus (NP) is an early hallmark of intervertebral disc degeneration. The capacity for endogenous regeneration in the NP is limited due to the low cellularity and poor nutrient and vascular supply. Towards restoring the NP, a number of biomaterials have been explored for cell delivery. These materials must support the NP cell phenotype while promoting the elaboration of an NP-like extracellular matrix in the shortest possible time. Our previous work with chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated that hydrogels based on hyaluronic acid (HA) are effective at promoting matrix production and the development of functional material properties. However, this material has not been evaluated in the context of NP cells. Therefore, to test this material for NP regeneration, bovine NP cells were encapsulated in 1%w/vol HA hydrogels at either a low seeding density (20×10(6)cellsml(-1)) or a high seeding density (60×10(6)cellsml(-1)), and constructs were cultured over an 8week period. These NP cell-laden HA hydrogels showed functional matrix accumulation, with increasing matrix content and mechanical properties with time in culture at both seeding densities. Furthermore, encapsulated cells showed NP-specific gene expression profiles that were significantly higher than expanded NP cells prior to encapsulation, suggesting a restoration of phenotype. Interestingly, these levels were higher at the lower seeding density compared to the higher seeding density. These findings support the use of HA-based hydrogels for NP tissue engineering and cellular therapies directed at restoration or replacement of the endogenous NP. PMID:25448344

  13. The cytokine and chemokine expression profile of nucleus pulposus cells: implications for degeneration and regeneration of the intervertebral disc

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aims of these studies were to identify the cytokine and chemokine expression profile of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells and to determine the relationships between NP cell cytokine and chemokine production and the characteristic tissue changes seen during intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Methods Real-time q-PCR cDNA Low Density Array (LDA) was used to investigate the expression of 91 cytokine and chemokine associated genes in NP cells from degenerate human IVDs. Further real-time q-PCR was used to investigate 30 selected cytokine and chemokine associated genes in NP cells from non-degenerate and degenerate IVDs and those from IVDs with immune cell infiltrates (‘infiltrated’). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for four selected cytokines and chemokines to confirm and localize protein expression in human NP tissue samples. Results LDA identified the expression of numerous cytokine and chemokine associated genes including 15 novel cytokines and chemokines. Further q-PCR gene expression studies identified differential expression patterns in NP cells derived from non-degenerate, degenerate and infiltrated IVDs. IHC confirmed NP cells as a source of IL-16, CCL2, CCL7 and CXCL8 and that protein expression of CCL2, CCL7 and CXCL8 increases concordant with histological degenerative tissue changes. Conclusions Our data indicates that NP cells are a source of cytokines and chemokines within the IVD and that these expression patterns are altered in IVD pathology. These findings may be important for the correct assessment of the ‘degenerate niche’ prior to autologous or allogeneic cell transplantation for biological therapy of the degenerate IVD. PMID:24325988

  14. Loss of HIF-1? in the Notochord Results in Cell Death and Complete Disappearance of the Nucleus Pulposus

    PubMed Central

    Robling, Alexander; Wilson, Tremika LeShan; Giaccia, Amato J.; Shapiro, Irving M.; Schipani, Ernestina; Risbud, Makarand V.

    2014-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is one of the largest avascular organs in vertebrates. The nucleus pulposus (NP), a highly hydrated and proteoglycan-enriched tissue, forms the inner portion of the IVD. The NP is surrounded by a multi-lamellar fibrocartilaginous structure, the annulus fibrosus (AF). This structure is covered superior and inferior side by cartilaginous endplates (CEP). The NP is a unique tissue within the IVD as it results from the differentiation of notochordal cells, whereas, AF and CEP derive from the sclerotome. The hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is expressed in NP cells but its function in NP development and homeostasis is largely unknown. We thus conditionally deleted HIF-1? in notochordal cells and investigated how loss of this transcription factor impacts NP formation and homeostasis at E15.5, birth, 1 and 4 months of age, respectively. Histological analysis, cell lineage studies, and TUNEL assay were performed. Morphologic changes of the mutant NP cells were identified as early as E15.5, followed, postnatally, by the progressive disappearance and replacement of the NP with a novel tissue that resembles fibrocartilage. Notably, lineage studies and TUNEL assay unequivocally proved that NP cells did not transdifferentiate into chondrocyte-like cells but they rather underwent massive cell death, and were completely replaced by a cell population belonging to a lineage distinct from the notochordal one. Finally, to evaluate the functional consequences of HIF-1? deletion in the NP, biomechanical testing of mutant IVD was performed. Loss of the NP in mutant mice significantly reduced the IVD biomechanical properties by decreasing its ability to absorb mechanical stress. These findings are similar to the changes usually observed during human IVD degeneration. Our study thus demonstrates that HIF-1? is essential for NP development and homeostasis, and it raises the intriguing possibility that this transcription factor could be involved in IVD degeneration in humans. PMID:25338007

  15. Thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-glycerol phosphate hydrogel as a controlled release system of ferulic acid for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Shu-Hua; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2011-10-01

    In the degenerative disc, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) involves in apoptosis and senescence of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells that could accelerate the degenerative process. Ferulic acid (FA) has been reported to have an excellent antioxidant property. In the study, injectable thermosensitive chitosan/gelatin/glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) hydrogel was applied as a controlled release system for FA delivery. The study was aimed to evaluate possible therapeutic effects of FA-incorporated C/G/GP hydrogel on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced oxidative stress NP cells. The results showed that the release of FA from C/G/GP hydrogel could decrease the H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress. Post-treatment of FA-incorporated C/G/GP hydrogel on H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress NP cells showed up-regulation of Aggrecan and type II collagen and down-regulation of MMP-3 in mRNA level. The results of sulfated-glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to DNA ratio and alcian blue staining revealed that the GAGs production of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress NP cells could reach to normal level. The results of caspase-3 activity and TUNEL staining indicated that FA-incorporated C/G/GP hydrogel decreased the apoptosis of H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress NP cells. The results suggested that the C/G/GP hydrogel was very suitable for sustained delivery of FA. The FA-incorporated C/G/GP hydrogel would be used to treat the degenerative disc in the early stage before it developed into the latter irreversible stages. PMID:21774981

  16. Injectable hydrogels with high fixed charge density and swelling pressure for nucleus pulposus repair: biomimetic glycosaminoglycan analogues.

    PubMed

    Sivan, S S; Roberts, S; Urban, J P G; Menage, J; Bramhill, J; Campbell, D; Franklin, V J; Lydon, F; Merkher, Y; Maroudas, A; Tighe, B J

    2014-03-01

    The load-bearing biomechanical role of the intervertebral disc is governed by the composition and organization of its major macromolecular components, collagen and aggrecan. The major function of aggrecan is to maintain tissue hydration, and hence disc height, under the high loads imposed by muscle activity and body weight. Key to this role is the high negative fixed charge of its glycosaminoglycan side chains, which impart a high osmotic pressure to the tissue, thus regulating and maintaining tissue hydration and hence disc height under load. In degenerate discs, aggrecan degrades and is lost from the disc, particularly centrally from the nucleus pulposus. This loss of fixed charge results in reduced hydration and loss of disc height; such changes are closely associated with low back pain. The present authors developed biomimetic glycosaminoglycan analogues based on sulphonate-containing polymers. These biomimetics are deliverable via injection into the disc where they polymerize in situ, forming a non-degradable, nuclear "implant" aimed at restoring disc height to degenerate discs, thereby relieving back pain. In vitro, these glycosaminoglycan analogues possess appropriate fixed charge density, hydration and osmotic responsiveness, thereby displaying the capacity to restore disc height and function. Preliminary biomechanical tests using a degenerate explant model showed that the implant adapts to the space into which it is injected and restores stiffness. These hydrogels mimic the role taken by glycosaminoglycans in vivo and, unlike other hydrogels, provide an intrinsic swelling pressure, which can maintain disc hydration and height under the high and variable compressive loads encountered in vivo. PMID:24270091

  17. A memory coiling spiral as nucleus pulposus prosthesis: concept, specifications, bench testing, and first clinical results.

    PubMed

    Husson, J L; Korge, A; Polard, J L; Nydegger, Th; Kneubühler, S; Mayer, H M

    2003-08-01

    The intradiscal cavity left after a discectomy can be filled by a new nucleus prosthesis made of polycarbonate urethane in the form of a "memory coiling spiral." Biomechanical tests have demonstrated that this device compensates for the loss of disc height, decreases the compression of the facet joints, and restores the kinematics of the spinal segment, without deformation of the vertebral endplates or migration. The device is currently under clinical investigation. Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the pilot study are presented, and preliminary results of the first five patients supplied with the spiral are reported after an average follow-up time of 24 months. No migration of the device has been observed so far. With its easy application due to the standardized approach and the memory coiling mechanism, this device represents an advance within the nonfusion techniques. PMID:12902957

  18. Thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin-glycerol phosphate hydrogels as a cell carrier for nucleus pulposus regeneration: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Shu-Hua; Su, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chun; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kuei; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Lin, Feng-Huei

    2010-02-01

    Injectable hydrogel is one of the great interests for tissue engineering and cell encapsulation. In the study, the gelatin molecules were added to the thermosensitive chitosan/beta-glycerol phosphate (C/GP) disodium salt hydrogels to form chitosan/gelatin/beta-glycerol phosphate (C/G/GP) disodium salt hydrogels which were applied as a cell carrier for nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration. The gelation temperature, gelation time, and gel strength of the C/G/GP hydrogels were analyzed by the rheometer. NP cells were then harvested from the intervertebral discs of the adult New Zealand white rabbits and cultured in monolayer or in C/G/GP hydrogel, respectively. The cell viability, material-mediated cytotoxicity, cell proliferation, production of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, anabolic/catabolic gene expressions, and extracellular matrix-related gene expressions of the NP cells were demonstrated. The results show that the sol/gel transition temperature of the C/G/GP hydrogel was in the range of 31.1-33.8 degrees C at neutral pH value, the gelation time was shortened, and the gel strength also improved at body temperature when compared with the C/GP hydrogel. Among those, C/GP with 1% gelatin addition showed the most promising gelation time and gel strength and were utilized in the later experiments. From the results of cell activity, cytotoxicity, and cell proliferation assays, NP cells cultured in C/G/GP hydrogel had normal cell viability and cell proliferation that indicated the hydrogel was noncytotoxicity. The amounts of sulfated glycosaminoglycans of NP cells cultured in C/G/GP hydrogels were significantly higher than monolayer cultured. Considering the extracellular matrix-related gene expression, type II collagen and aggrecan of NP cells cultured in the hydrogels greatly increased than those in monolayer culture. On the contrary, the unfavorable gene expression, such as that of type I collagen, was decreased significantly. The results reveal that gelatin added into C/GP hydrogel significantly shortened the gelation time and improved the gel strength without influencing the biocompatibility. NP cells cultured in the C/G/GP hydrogel also displayed better gene expressions when compared with the monolayer culture. This study indicates that using chitosan/gelatin hydrogel for NP cell culture is feasible and may apply in minimal invasive intervertebral disc surgery in the future. PMID:19769528

  19. Hyaluronic Acid Based Hydrogels Attenuate Inflammatory Receptors and Neurotrophins in Interleukin-1? Induced Inflammation Model of Nucleus Pulposus Cells.

    PubMed

    Isa, Isma Liza Mohd; Srivastava, Akshay; Tiernan, David; Owens, Peter; Rooney, Peadar; Dockery, Peter; Pandit, Abhay

    2015-06-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in symptomatic intervertebral disc degeneration and is associated with the production of neurotrophins in sensitizing innervation into the disc. The use of high molecular weight (HMw) hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels offers a potential therapeutic biomaterial for nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration as it exerts an anti-inflammatory effect and provides a microenvironment that is more suitable for NP. Therefore, it was hypothesized that cross-linked HMw HA hydrogels modulate the inflammatory receptor of IL-1R1, MyD88 and neurotrophin expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in an in vitro inflammation model of NP. HA cross-linking was optimized using various concentrations of 4-arm PEG-amine by determination of free carboxyl groups of HA and unreacted free amine groups of PEG-amine. The optimally cross-linked HA hydrogels were characterized for hydrolytic stability, enzymatic degradation and cytotoxicity on NP cells. The therapeutic effect of HA hydrogels was further investigated in IL-1? induced inflammation on NP cell cultures and the mechanism of HA by examining the expression of cell surface receptor of CD44. Hydrogel was optimally cross-linked at 75 mM PEG, stable in phosphate buffered saline, and showed greater than 40% resistance to enzymatic degradation. No cytotoxic effect of NP cells was observed in the presence of hydrogels for 1, 3, and 7 days. IL-1R1 and MyD88 were significantly suppressed. Additionally, NGF and BDNF mRNA were down-regulated after treatment with cross-linked HA hydrogel. Possible protective mechanism of HA is shown by high expression of CD44 receptor of NP cells after HA treatment in which suggest the binding of HA to CD44 receptor and prevent NP cells from further undergoing inflammation. These results indicate that optimally stabilized cross-linked HMw HA hydrogel has a therapeutic effect in response to inflammation-associated pain and becomes an ideal matrices hydrogel for NP regeneration. PMID:25871410

  20. Differentiation of Human Ligamentum Flavum Stem Cells Toward Nucleus Pulposus-Like Cells Induced by Coculture System and Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Li, Hai-Yin; Chen, Bin; Chang, Xian; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Kuang; Li, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Study Design. Human ligamentum flavum (LF)-derived stem cells (LFSCs) and nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) were cocultured under normoxia or hypoxia. Objective. To isolate and identify human LFSCs and determine whether they can differentiate into NPCs when cocultured with NPCs under hypoxia. Summary of Background Data. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have been proposed as a biological treatment for intervertebral disc degeneration. MSCs derived from various tissues are leading candidates for cell-based therapies, but such cells have not been reported in LF. Methods. LF cells were isolated from patient samples and cultured using culture flasks coated with fibronectin, and their identity was confirmed using flow cytometry. The cells were induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, and their morphology, immunophenotype, cell proliferation capacity, cell cycle, and expression of stem cell–specific genes were compared with those of bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) derived from the same patients. NPCs and LFSCs were cocultured in 1-?m-pore-size insert transwell-culture systems under hypoxia (2% O2) or normoxia. CD24 expression was measured by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy assay. On day 14, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used for comparing the expression of chondrogenic genes (Sox-9, collagen-II, aggrecan) and novel marker genes (KRT19, CA12, FOXF1, HIF-1?) between the 2 groups. Results. LFSCs were obtained using the fibronectin differential-adhesion assay. The morphology of LFSCs was altered, and their immunophenotype, multilineage induction, cell proliferation capacity, cell cycle, and stem cell–specific gene expression were closely related—but not identical—to BM-MSCs, CD24 expression was highly significant in the differentiated LFSCs. RT/Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that compared with LFSCs grown under normoxia, hypoxia-treated LFSCs expressed higher levels of Sox-9, collagen-II, aggrecan, KRT19, CA12, and HIF-1? genes except FOXF1. Conclusion. Stem cells were identified in human LF, and LFSCs cocultured with NPCs were successfully differentiated into NP-like cells under hypoxia. This potentially provides new cell candidates for cell-based regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Level of Evidence: N/A PMID:25785962

  1. Evaluation of Behavior and Expression of Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Ligand in Dorsal Root Ganglia after Sciatic Nerve Compression and Application of Nucleus Pulposus in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Yoshiyuki; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Miyako; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Inoue, Gen; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Kubota, Gou; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Nakamura, Junichi; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Experimental animal study. Purpose To evaluate pain-related behavior and changes in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB), receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK), and ligand (RANKL) in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after combined sciatic nerve compression and nucleus pulposus (NP) application in rats. Overview of Literature The pathological mechanisms underlying pain from lumbar-disc herniation have not been fully elucidated. RANKL are transcriptional regulators of inflammatory cytokines. Our aim was to evaluate pain-related behavior and RANKL expression in DRG after sciatic-nerve compression and application of NP in rats. Methods Mechanical hyperalgesia and RANKL expression were assessed in three groups of rats: NP+sciatic nerve compression (2 seconds), sham-operated, and controls (n=20 each). Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured every other day for 3 weeks using von Frey filaments. RANKL expression in L5 DRGs was examined at five and ten days after surgery using immunohistochemistry. Results Mechanical hyperalgesia was observed over the 12-day observation period in the NP+nerve compression group, but not in the control and sham-operated animal groups (p<0.05). RANKL immunoreactivity was seen in the nuclei of L5 DRG neurons, and its expression was significantly upregulated in NP+nerve compression rats compared with control and sham-operated rats (p<0.01). Conclusions The exposure of sciatic nerves to mechanical compression and NP produces pain-related behavior and up-regulation of RANKL in DRG neurons. RANKL may play an important role in mediating pain after sciatic nerve injury with exposure to NP. PMID:25346807

  2. The catabolic effect of TNF? on bovine nucleus pulposus intervertebral disc cells and the restraining role of glucosamine sulfate in the TNF?-mediated up-regulation of MMP-3.

    PubMed

    Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Kletsas, Dimitris

    2014-12-01

    Glucosamine is an endogenous amino monosaccharide naturally occurring in the cartilage. We have recently shown that glucosamine sulfate promotes the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans in intervertebral disc cells. Here we assessed the role of glucosamine sulfate in the response of bovine nucleus pulposus cell monolayers to TNF? that constitutes an early signal of disc degeneration. TNF? was not found to affect nucleus pulposus cells' viability, while it resulted in a ?2.5-fold increase of the intracellular ROS levels, a rapid transient phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and a ROS-dependent activation of JNKs. In addition, TNF? had a prominent inflammatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells by up-regulating MMP-3 expression that was reversed when inhibiting the kinase activity of p38 MAPK. Glucosamine sulfate also diminished the increased by TNF? MMP-3 mRNA levels, but this was unrelated to the p38 MAPK or ROS-mediated JNK activation. Even though the mode of action of glucosamine towards TNF? remains to be elucidated, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report providing evidence for the protective role of glucosamine against this early mediator of disc degeneration that could support the potential usage of this molecule as a treatment for preventing disc degenerative disorders. PMID:25220975

  3. Development and initial characterization of a chemically stabilized elastin-glycosaminoglycan-collagen composite shape-memory hydrogel for nucleus pulposus regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mercuri, Jeremy; Addington, Caroline; Pascal, Richard; Gill, Sanjitpal; Simionescu, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Nucleus pulposus (NP) is a resilient and hydrophilic tissue which plays a significant role in the biomechanical function of the intervertebral disc (IVD). Destruction of the NP extracellular matrix (ECM) is observed during the early stages of IVD degeneration. Herein, we describe the development and initial characterization of a novel biomaterial which attempts to recreate the resilient and hydrophilic nature of the NP via the construction of a chemically stabilized elastin-glycosaminoglycan-collagen (EGC) composite hydrogel. Results demonstrated that a resilient, hydrophilic hydrogel which displays a unique "shape-memory" sponge characteristic could be formed from a blend of soluble elastin aggregates, chondroitin-6-sulfate, hyaluronic acid and collagen following freeze-drying, stabilization with a carbodiimide and penta-galloyl glucose-based fixative, and subsequent partial degradation with glycosaminoglycan degrading enzymes. The resultant material exhibited the ability to restore its original dimensions and water content following multi-cycle mechanical compression and illustrated resistance to accelerated enzymatic degradation. Preliminary in vitro studies utilizing human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) demonstrated that the material was cytocompatible and supported differentiation towards an NP cell-like phenotype. In vivo biocompatibility studies illustrated host cell infiltration and evidence of active remodeling following 4 weeks of implantation. Feasibility studies demonstrated that the EGC hydrogel could be delivered via minimally invasive methods. PMID:24497431

  4. TNF-? and TGF-?1 regulate Syndecan-4 expression in nucleus pulposus cells: role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-?B pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Liu, Hui; Li, Xiang; Pan, Hehai; Li, Zemin; Wang, Jianru; Zheng, Zhaomin

    2015-08-01

    Syndecan-4 is emerging as an important player in cell interaction with the extracellular environment and has been shown to be involved in the progression of intervertebral disc degeneration. However, the mechanism of syndecan-4 regulation by TNF-? and the role of TGF-?1 in regulating syndecan-4 expression remain poorly understood in nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. The aim of this study was to investigate these mechanisms. We exposed NP cells to TNF-? and the gene, protein expression, and promoter activity levels of syndecan-4 were measured by qPCR, western blotting, and the luciferase reporter assay, respectively. The activation of the MAPK and NF-?B pathways was detected using western blot analysis. Syndecan-4 expression in rat NP cells was increased by TNF-?, but this was neither time nor dose dependent in response to TNF-?. ERK1/2, JNK, and NF-?B pathways were activated following TNF-? treatment. Treatment with ERK1/2 and NF-?B inhibitors decreased the up-regulation of syndecan-4 by TNF-?. However, JNK inhibition showed no effect on syndecan-4 expression induced by TNF-?. TNF-? mediated up-regulation of syndecan-4 was antagonized by TGF-?1. This study provided evidence for the differential regulation by MAPK and NF-?B pathways in the over-expression of syndecan-4 promoted by TNF-? in NP cells. Our results demonstrate that TGF-?1 exerts anabolic effects on intervertebral discs by inhibiting the expression of syndecan-4. PMID:25491150

  5. LIM mineralization protein-1 suppresses TNF-? induced intervertebral disc degeneration by maintaining nucleus pulposus extracellular matrix production and inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Pan, Hehai; Yang, Hao; Wang, Jianru; Zhang, Kuibo; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hua; Ding, Wenbin; Li, Bingxue; Zheng, Zhaomin

    2015-03-01

    Imbalanced metabolism of Nucleus pulposus (NP) extracellular matrix (ECM) is closely correlated to Intervertebral Disc Degenerative Disease. LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) has been proven to induce sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) production in NP and have an anti-inflammatory effect in pre-osteoclast. However, whether it has any effect on the NP ECM production and degradation under inflammatory stimulation has not been studied. In the current study, a TNF-? induced cell model was established in vitro. Lentivirus encoding LMP-1 (LV-LMP-1) and short heparin LMP-1 (LV-shLMP-1) were constructed to overexpress and knockdown LMP-1 expression in NP cells. LMP-1 mRNA level was regulated in a dose-dependent manner after transfection. LV-LMP-1 increased whereas LV-shLMP-1 decreased collagen II, aggrecan, versican expression, and sGAG production. LV-LMP-1 abolished while LV-shLMP-1 aggravated TNF-? mediated down-regulation of the above matrix genes via ERK1/2 activation. Moreover, LV-LMP-1 abrogated TNF-? induced MMP-3 and MMP-13 expression via inhibiting p65 translocation and MMP-3 and MMP-13 promoter activity. These results indicated that LMP-1 had an ECM production maintenance effect under inflammatory stimulation. This effect was via up-regulation of matrix genes expression at least partially through ERK1/2 activation, and down-regulation of MMPs expression through NF-?B inhibition. PMID:25336289

  6. Native nucleus pulposus tissue matrix promotes notochordal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells with potential for treating intervertebral disc degeneration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongxing; Fu, Susan; Rahaman, Mohamed N; Mao, Jeremy J; Bal, B Sonny

    2015-03-01

    Native porcine nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue harbors a number of notochordal cells (NCs). Whether the native NP matrix supports the homeostasis of notochordal cells is poorly understood. We hypothesized the NP matrix alone may contain sufficient regulatory factors and can serve as stimuli to generate notochordal cells (NCs) from human pluripotent stem cells. NCs are a promising cell sources for cell-based therapy to treat some types of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. One major limitation of this emerging technique is the lack of available NCs as a potential therapeutic cell source. Human pluripotent stem cells derived from reprogramming or somatic cell nuclear transfer technique may yield stable and unlimited source for therapeutic use. We devised a new method to use porcine NP matrix to direct notochordal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The results showed that hiPSCs successfully differentiated into NC-like cells under the influence of devitalized porcine NP matrix. The NC-like cells expressed typical notochordal marker genes including brachyury (T), cytokeratin-8 (CK-8) and cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), and they displayed the ability to generate NP-like tissue in vitro, which was rich in aggrecan and collagen type II. These findings demonstrated the proof of concept for using native NP matrix to direct notochordal differentiation of hiPSCs. It provides a foundation for further understanding the biology of NCs, and eventually towards regenerative therapies for disc degeneration. PMID:24889905

  7. Defining the Phenotype of Young Healthy Nucleus Pulposus Cells: Recommendations of the Spine Research Interest Group at the 2014 Annual ORS Meeting

    PubMed Central

    Risbud, Makarand V.; Schoepflin, Zachary R.; Mwale, Fackson; Kandel, Rita A.; Grad, Sibylle; Iatridis, James C.; Sakai, Daisuke; Hoyland, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a major physical and socioeconomic problem. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc and especially that of nucleus pulposus (NP) has been linked to low back pain. In spite of much research focusing on the NP, consensus among the research community is lacking in defining the NP cell phenotype. A consensus agreement will allow easier distinguishing of NP cells from annulus fibrosus (AF) cells and endplate chondrocytes, a better gauge of therapeutic success, and a better guidance of tissue-engineering-based regenerative strategies that attempt to replace lost NP tissue. Most importantly, a clear definition will further the understanding of physiology and function of NP cells, ultimately driving development of novel cell-based therapeutic modalities. The Spine Research Interest Group at the 2014 Annual ORS Meeting in New Orleans convened with the task of compiling a working definition of the NP cell phenotype with hope that a consensus statement will propel disc research forward into the future. Based on evaluation of recent studies describing characteristic NP markers and their physiologic relevance, we make the recommendation of the following healthy NP phenotypic markers: stabilized expression of HIF-1?, GLUT-1, aggrecan/collagen II ratio >20, Shh, Brachyury, KRT18/19, CA12, and CD24. PMID:25411088

  8. Functional nucleus pulposus-like matrix assembly by human mesenchymal stromal cells is directed by macromer concentration in photocrosslinked carboxymethylcellulose hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Michelle S; Nicoll, Steven B

    2014-11-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is associated with several pathophysiologic changes of the IVD, including dehydration of the nucleus pulposus (NP). Tissue engineering strategies may be used to restore both biological and mechanical function of the IVD following removal of NP tissue during surgical intervention. Recently, photocrosslinked carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) hydrogels were shown to support chondrogenic, NP-like extracellular matrix (ECM) elaboration by human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) when supplemented with TGF-?3; however, mechanical properties of these constructs did not reach native values. Fabrication parameters (i.e., composition, crosslinking density) can influence the bulk mechanical properties of hydrogel scaffolds, as well as cellular behavior and differentiation patterns. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CMC macromer concentration (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 % weight/volume) on bulk hydrogel properties and NP-like matrix elaboration by hMSCs. The lowest macromer concentration of 1.5 % exhibited the highest gene expression levels of aggrecan and collagen II at day 7, corresponding with the largest accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen II by day 42. The ECM elaboration in the 1.5 % constructs was more homogeneously distributed compared to primarily pericellular localization in 3.5 % gels. The 1.5 % gels also displayed significant improvements in mechanical functionality by day 42 compared to earlier time points, which was not seen in the other groups. The effects of macromer concentration on matrix accumulation and organization are likely attributed to quantifiable differences in polymer crosslinking density and diffusive properties between the various hydrogel formulations. Taken together, these results demonstrate that macromer concentration of CMC hydrogels can direct hMSC matrix elaboration, such that a lower polymer concentration allows for greater NP-like ECM assembly and improvement of mechanical properties over time. PMID:25092545

  9. Effect of lentivirus-mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of nucleus pulposus cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xuexiao; Lin, Yazhou; Yang, Kun; Yue, Bin; Xiang, Hongfei; Chen, Bohua

    2015-07-01

    Lower back pain is a common concern, and 40% of all cases involve the degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD). However, the excessive apoptosis of disc cells plays an important role in IVD degeneration, particularly in the nucleus pulposus (NP). Thus, anti-apoptotic gene therapy to attenuate or reverse the degenerative process within the NP is being developed. Survivin is a unique inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) and has been extensively investigated in cancer cells. However, little is known of the effects of survivin transfection on NP cells derived from degenerative human disc. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of lentivirus (LV)?mediated survivin transfection on the morphology and apoptosis of NP cells derived from degenerative human disc in vitro. NP cells were transfected with LV?mediated survivin. Subsequently, cell morphology was observed and the survivin mRNA expression levels were measured by RT?qPCR. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry and by measuring caspase?3 activity. The results revealed that the morphology of the NP cells derived from degenerative human disc transfected with LV?mediated survivin was significantly altered as evidenced by cytomorphosis, the reduction of the cytoplasm and cell shrinkage. Following transfection, survivin gene expression significantly increased in the transfected cells and subsequent generation cells; however, no significant differences in the cell apoptotic rate and caspase?3 activity were observed. We found that transfection of the survivin gene into NP cells led to the stable expression of survivin and induced marked changes in cell morphology. Furthermore, no significant anti-apoptotic effects were observed following LV?mediated survivin transfection. Overall, our findings demonstrate that LV carrying surviving may be used to successfully enforce the expression of survivin in NP cells. However, cell morphology was evidently altered, whereas the apoptotic rate did not decrease. Comprehensive studies on the feasibility of using survivin in gene therapy in an aim to attenuate disc degeneration are warranted. Further research on the mechanisms responsible for the changes in cell morphology and cell function are also required. PMID:26017192

  10. Role of interleukin-17 in chondrocytes of herniated intervertebral lumbar discs

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, PENG; LI, ZHI-JUN; FU, XIN; MA, XIN-LONG

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common cause of lumbosacral radiculopathy. An autoimmune response to a herniated nucleus pulposus (NP) has been suggested to play an important role in the initiation of radiculopathy. Interleukin-17 (IL-17) is a cytokine associated with inflammation and autoimmunity. The presence of IL-17 has been studied in patients with LDH; however, extensive investigation into the expression of IL-17 in different disc pathologies of LDH has not yet been conducted. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of neovascularization and hypertrophic chondrocytes in herniated intervertebral lumbar discs. Fifty-two intervertebral lumbar disc specimens were extracted from 46 patients with LDH and were subsequently classified as either contained or non-contained disc herniation (CDH and NCDH, respectively). The specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin or toluidine blue, or were immunostained with polyclonal antibodies to IL-17 using the streptavidin-peroxidase method. The neovascular tissue and staining results were graded to establish the histological differences between the two herniation types. The intervertebral discs (IVDs) obtained from patients with NCDH showed significantly more neovascularization and granulation tissue than the discs obtained from patients with CDH (P<0.05). Furthermore, hypertrophic chondrocytes were more abundant in the NCDH specimens than in the CDH specimens (P<0.05). Similarly, the number of IL-17-immunoreactive cells was significantly higher in the NCDH specimens than that in the CDH specimens (P<0.01). In conclusion, local inflammation and autoreactive immune activation may play an important role in the pathogenesis of LDH. These results also suggest a role of chondrocytes in the repair of herniated IVDs. PMID:26170916

  11. Therapeutic effects of Chinese osteopathy in patients with lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Wei, Jie; Li, Xi-De; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted in 72 lumbar disc herniation (LDH) patients and 40 asymptomatic subjects to evaluate the efficacy of Feng's spinal manipulation (FSM). FSM was performed twice a week for less than 20 days. Changes in the symmetrical index of spinal column (SISC) and quantified symptom index (QSI) before and after FSM in both groups were collected. The QSI consisted of the visual analogue scale (VAS), score of the Japanese Orthopedic Association, and straight leg raising test, for measurement of pain perception, dysfunction of lower limb extension or flexion, and symptomatic relief. A correlation analysis was conducted to compare the difference in protruded nucleus pulposus size using computerized projection grating profilometry, SISC, and QSI before and after the therapy. The results showed that the SISC and QSI significantly decreased after treatment in the LDH group (p < 0.01). The SISC before and after treatment was closely correlated with the improvement of QSI, although there was no change in protruded nucleus pulposus following the therapy. Among the five components in SISC, the LR was found to be an ideal indicator for evaluation of the real circumstances in LDH patients. Our data suggested that FSM achieved satisfactory therapeutic effects in relieving the symptom of LDH while no effects were observed in asymptomatic subjects. PMID:24117063

  12. Cytotoxic Effects of the Radiocontrast Agent Iotrolan and Anesthetic Agents Bupivacaine and Lidocaine in Three-Dimensional Cultures of Human Intervertebral Disc Nucleus Pulposus Cells: Identification of the Apoptotic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Koji; Sudo, Hideki; Yamada, Katsuhisa; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2014-01-01

    Background Discography and discoblock are imaging procedures used to diagnose discogenic low back pain. Although needle puncture of the intervertebral disc (IVD) itself induces disc degeneration, the agents used in these procedures may also have harmful effects on IVD cells. The purpose of this study was to analyze whether radiocontrast agents and local anesthetic agents have detrimental effects on human nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Methods Healthy human NP cells were cultured for 7 days in three-dimensional (3D) cell–alginate bead composites, and were then exposed to clinically relevant doses of a radiocontrast agent (iotrolan) or local anesthetic (lidocaine or bupivacaine). Cell viability and apoptosis were measured by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. On the basis of caspase expression profiles, the apoptotic pathways activated by the agents were identified by Western blot analysis. Results The radiocontrast agent iotrolan did not affect NP cell viability or induce apoptosis. In contrast, both the anesthetic agents significantly decreased cell viability and increased the apoptotic cell number in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After 120 min, 2% lidocaine and 0.5% bupivacaine decreased percent live cells to 13% and 10%, respectively (p<0.05). The number of apoptotic cells was doubled by increasing lidocaine dosage from 1% to 2% (23% and 42%) and bupivacaine from 0.25% to 0.50% (25% and 48%) (p<0.05). Western blot analysis revealed that both anesthetic agents upregulated cleaved caspase-3 and caspase-8, whereas only bupivacaine upregulated cleaved caspase-9. Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrates that iotrolan does not affect the viability of healthy human NP cells. In contrast, the two anesthetic agents commonly used in discography or discoblock may cause extensive damage to IVDs by inducing apoptotic cell death. PMID:24642945

  13. A history of lumbar disc herniation from hippocrates to the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Truumees, Eeric

    2015-06-01

    In ancient times, a supernatural understanding of the syndrome of lumbar radiculopathy often involved demonic forces vexing the individual with often crippling pain. The ancient Greeks and Egyptians began to take a more naturalistic view and, critically, suspected a relationship between lumbar spinal pathology and leg symptoms. Relatively little then changed for those with sciatica until the classic works by Cotugno and Kocher arrived in the late 18th century. Early lumbar canal explorations were performed in the late 1800s and early 1900s by MacEwen, Horsley, Krause, Taylor, Dandy, and Cushing, among others. In these cases, when compressive pathologies were found and removed, the lesions typically were (mis-)identified as enchondromas or osteochondritis dissecans. To better understand the history, learn more about the first treatments of lumbar disc herniation, and evaluate the impact of the early influences on modern spine practice, searches of PubMed and Embase were performed using the search terms discectomy, medical history, lumbar spine surgery, herniated disc, herniated nucleus pulposus, sciatica, and lumbar radiculopathy. Additional sources were identified from the reference lists of the reviewed papers. Many older and ancient sources including De Ischiade Nervosa are available in English translations and were used. When full texts were not available, English abstracts were used. The first true, intentional discectomy surgery was performed by Mixter and Barr in 1932. Early on, a transdural approach was favored. In 1938, Love described the intralaminar, extradural approach. His technique, although modified with improved lighting, magnification, and retractors, remains a staple approach to disc herniations today. Other modalities such as chymopapain have been investigated. Some remain a part of the therapeutic armamentarium, whereas others have disappeared. By the 1970s, CT scanning after myelography markedly improved the clinical evaluation of patients with lumbar disc herniation. In this era, use of discectomy surgery increased rapidly. Even patients with very early symptoms were offered surgery. Later work, especially by Weber and Hakelius, showed that many patients with lumbar disc herniation would improve without surgical intervention. In the ensuing decades, the debate over operative indications and timing continued, reaching another pivotal moment with the 2006 publication of the initial results of Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial. PMID:24752913

  14. Leptin modulates the expression of catabolic genes in rat nucleus pulposus cells through the mitogen?activated protein kinase and Janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathways.

    PubMed

    Miao, Daoyi; Zhang, Lingzhou

    2015-08-01

    Obesity has been demonstrated to be involved in the progress of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, the associated mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The purpose the present study was to examine the effect of leptin on the expression of degeneration?associated genes in rat nucleus pulposus (NP) cells, and determine the possible mechanism. Normal NP cells, obtained from Sprague Dawley rats, were identified using immunocytochemistry for the expression of collagen II and CA125, and treated with leptin and/or interleukin (IL)??. Subsequently, the mRNA expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?1, MMP?3, MMP?9, MMP?13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)?4, ADAMTS?5, aggrecan and COL2A1 were detected by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-q?PCR). Alcian staining and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the expression levels of proteoglycan and collagen II. The pathway activation was investigated using western blotting, and inhibitors of the pathways were used to reveal the effect of these pathways on the NP cells. The results of the RT-qPCR demonstrated that leptin alone upregulated the mRNA expression levels of MMP?1, MMP?13, ADAMTS?4, ADAMTS?5 and COL2A1. Synergy of leptin and IL?? was found in the increased expression levels of MMP?1, MMP?3 and ADAMTS?5. The leptin-treated NP cells exhibited decreased expression of collagen II. The mitrogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway and Janus kinase (JAK)2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway were all activated by leptin, however, inhibitors of all the pathways, with the exception of the PI3K/Akt pathway, reversed the expression levels of MMP?1 and MMP?13. These results suggested that leptin promoted catabolic metabolism in the rat NP cells via the MAPK and JAK2/STAT3 pathways, which may be the mechanism mediating the association between obesity and IDD. PMID:25892402

  15. Herniated Lumbar Disc

    MedlinePLUS

    ... effective as a cushion. This may cause a displacement of the disc’s center (called a herniated or ruptured disc) through a crack in the outer layer. Most disc herniations occur in the bottom two discs of the lumbar spine, at and just below the waist. A herniated ...

  16. Assessing the Effect of Spaceflight on the Propensity for Astronauts to Develop Disc Herniation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A.; Mendez, C.; Somers, J.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study reported that the instantaneous risk of developing a Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP) was higher in astronauts who had flown at least one mission, as compared with those in the corps who had not yet flown. However, the study only analyzed time to HNP after the first mission (if any) and did not account for the possible effects of multiple missions. While many HNPs occurred well into astronauts' careers or in somecases years after retirement, the higher incidence of HNPs relatively soon after completion of space missions appears to indicate that spaceflight may lead to an increased risk of HNP. In addition, when an HNP occurs after spaceflight, is it related to previous spaceflight exposure? The purpose of this study was to investigate whether multiple missions, sex, age, vehicle landing dynamics, and flight duration affect the risk of developing an HNP usinga competing risks model. The outcome of the study will inform the Human System Risk Board assessment of back pain, inform the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, and update the previous dataset, which contained events up to December 31, 2006.

  17. Management of herniated intervertebral disks during saturation dives: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stevens, D M; Caras, B G; Flynn, E T; Dutka, A J; Thorp, J W; Thalmann, E D

    1992-05-01

    During research saturation dives at 5.0 and 5.5 atm abs, 2 divers developed an acute herniation of the nucleus pulposus of the L5-S1 intervertebral disk. In both cases the pain was severe enough to require intravenous morphine or intramuscular meperidine. Although the symptoms presented by these divers are frequently considered to be an indication for immediate surgical consultation, we decided that emergency decompression posed an unacceptable risk that decompression sickness (DCS) would develop in the region of acute inflammation. In both cases strict bedrest and medical therapy were performed at depth. In the first case, 12 h was spent at depth before initiating a standard U.S. Navy saturation decompression schedule with the chamber partial pressure of oxygen elevated to 0.50 atm abs. In the second case, a conservative He-N2-O2 trimix decompression schedule was followed to the surface. In both cases, no initial upward excursion was performed. The required decompression time was 57 h 24 min from 5.5 atm abs and 55 h 38 min from 5.0 atm abs. During the course of decompression, the first diver's neurologic exam improved and he required decreasing amounts of intravenous narcotic; we considered both to be evidence against DCS. The second diver continued to have pain and muscle spasm throughout decompression, however he did not develop motor, reflex, or sphincter abnormalities. Both divers have responded well to nonsurgical therapy. PMID:1534427

  18. Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serdar Ozgen; Deniz Konya; O. Zafer Toktas; Adnan Dagcinar; M. Memet Ozek

    2007-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation very rarely occurs in adolescence. The aim of this study was to assess the radiological, clinical and surgical features and case outcomes for adolescents with lumbar disc herniation, and to compare with adult cases. The cases of 17 adolescents (7 girls and 10 boys, age range 13–17 years) who were surgically treated for lumbar disc herniation in

  19. Cytokine expression in the epidural space: a model of non-compressive disc herniation-induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cuellar, Jason M.; Borges, Paula M.; Cuéllar, Vanessa Gabrovsky; Yoo, Andrew; Scuderi, Gaetano J.; Yeomans, David C.

    2012-01-01

    Study Design Animal study Objective Development of an animal model for the study of biochemical changes that occur in the epidural space after intervertebral disc herniation. Summary of Background Data Although strong evidence for an inflammatory component exists, the biochemical processes underlying pain following disc herniation remain unknown. Methods Epidural lavage was performed in 48 rats after L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG) exposure at baseline and 3, 6, or 24 hours after placement of autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) (N = 15), saline (N = 15), or NP + an interferon-gamma antibody (anti-IFN?; N = 18) directly onto the DRG. Multiplex assays quantifying interleukin (IL-)-1-?, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF?, IFN? and GM-CSF were performed. NP (N = 7) was also analyzed for these cytokines by placing NP into saline and measuring the relative concentration. Results Cytokines measured low at baseline (0–100pg/ml) in all groups. Compared to saline, NP application caused IL-6 elevation, peaking at T=3hr, that was prevented by anti-IFN?. NP induced elevation of TNF?, peaking at T=24hr and was prevented by anti-IFN?. IFN? was elevated after NP at T=3hr and T=24hr. IL-1? was similar after saline versus NP. The concentrations of IL-1? and IL-10 were elevated at T=3hr, 6hr and 24hr in all groups without between-groups difference. The level of IL-4 peaked at T=3hr in the NP group and was different than saline and NP +anti-IFN? groups but the time effect was insignificant. There was no change for GM-CSF. The concentration of cytokines measured in normal NP was < 2pg/ml for all cytokines except TNF?. Conclusion In this model of acute non-compressive disc herniation, NP caused the elevation of epidural IL-6, TNF? and IFN?; all attenuated by IFN? blockade. IL-1? and IL-10 were both significantly elevated by saline alone and their response was not prevented by IFN? blockade. This model may prove useful for the study of the biochemical processes by which NP induces inflammation-induced nerve root irritation and radiculopathic pain. PMID:22648034

  20. Radicular interdural lumbar disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Akhaddar; Omar Boulahroud; Abad Elasri; Brahim Elmostarchid; Mohammed Boucetta

    2010-01-01

    Intraradicular lumbar disc herniation is a rare complication of disc disease that is generally diagnosed only during surgery.\\u000a The mechanism for herniated disc penetration into the intradural space is not known with certainty, but adhesion between the\\u000a radicular dura and the posterior longitudinal ligament was suggested as the most important condition. The authors report the\\u000a first case of an intraradicular

  1. Paraduodenal herniation: An internal herniation in a virgin abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Kabbani, Dana; Salem, Ayman; Holloway, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A paraduodenal hernia is an uncommon hernia that results from an abnormal rotation of the midgut. Commonly, these hernias are congenital in nature, and are reported to cause 1.5–5.8% of intestinal obstructions. These hernias occur when a part of the jejunum herniates through the posterior portion of the ligament of Treitz. Diagnosing these hernias preoperatively has been shown to be difficult, despite the studies that are available. Early diagnosis is imperative to the patient in order to avoid strangulation of the bowel, which is associated with a high mortality. PRESENTATION OF CASE In this case, we present a case of a left-sided paraduodenal hernia in a virgin abdomen in a 38-year-old African American male with a herniation of a loop of jejunum through a defect of the posterior portion of the ligament of Treitz. The patient also had a volvulized segment of the proximal jejunum, and part of this bowel was found to be ischemic. DISCUSSION Acute intestinal obstruction caused by a left paraduodenal hernia is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction. A literary search of PubMed between 1980 and 2012 indicated only 44 cases of intestinal obstruction secondary to a left paraduodenal hernia. CONCLUSION The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy, and the herniated bowel was found to be ischemic. The hernia was reduced, and the ischemic bowel resected. The defect was closed, and the patient had a non-complicated recovery. PMID:25437660

  2. Herniated Lumbar Disc and Lumbar Radiculopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Parviz Kambin

    The satisfactory outcome of arthroscopically and endoscopically assisted management of herniated lumbar discs hinges on accurate\\u000a diagnosis of the symptom-producing site. Although the mean age of onset of symptoms of disc herniation is around 35 yr, disc\\u000a herniations are occasionally observed in populations older than 60 or younger than 20 yr of age. In younger children, combined\\u000a slippage of the

  3. [Traumatic recurrence of idiopathic spinal cord herniation].

    PubMed

    Lorente-Muñoz, Asís; Cortés-Franco, Severiano; Moles-Herbera, Jesús; Casado-Pellejero, Juan; Rivero-Celada, David; Alberdi-Viñas, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare cause of thoracic myelopathy and its recurrence is even more infrequent. Cord herniation is through an anterior dural defect in thoracic spine with unknown causes. Symptomatic cases must be surgically treated to reduce the hernia and seal the defect to prevent recurrences. We report a patient presenting a Brown-Séquard syndrome secondary to a D5 spinal cord herniation treated successfully and its posterior traumatic recurrence. PMID:23453309

  4. Endoscopic Discectomy for Extraforaminal Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuichi Takano; Nobuhiro Yuasa

    The microendoscopic discectomy (MED) technique has been one of the promising surgeries for lumbar disc herniation in the last few years. The purpose of this study is to report the feasibility of a minimally invasive technique for extraforaminal lumbar disc herniation. Ten patients with extraforaminal lumbar disc herniation (one at L3-4, four at L4-5, and five at L5-S1) underwent MED

  5. Herniation of the mylohyoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Gunther; Weiglein, Andreas H; Kiesler, Karl

    2004-07-01

    During ultrasound examinations in patients with dysphagia, deficiencies in the mylohyoid muscle with herniation of the sublingual gland were found, which may be mistaken as soft tissue tumors. Between the years 2001 and 2003, 205 half-heads used in dissection courses were examined to determine the location and contents of these gaps. In 25 of these cadaveric specimens, the hiatus (of variable size) appeared as small fissures between the divided fibers of the mylohyoid. In 18 cases (72%), the sublingual gland slipped through these deficiencies and occurred in the front part of the submandibular triangle. From the inferior surface of the muscle, the submental artery also coursed through the separated muscle fibers. The herniations of 7 specimens (28%) were found without any contents, neither with gland perforation nor with a submental artery. The following study points out the spatial relation of the salivary glands to the floor of the mouth and the clinical significance, and some factors referred to the development of herniations are discussed. PMID:15213531

  6. Lipoxin A4 attenuates radicular pain possibly by inhibiting spinal ERK, JNK and NF-?B/p65 and cytokine signals, but not p38, in a rat model of non-compressive lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Miao, G-S; Liu, Z-H; Wei, S-X; Luo, J-G; Fu, Z-J; Sun, T

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory response induced by protrused nucleus pulposus (NP) has been shown to play a crucial role in the process of radicular pain. Lipoxins represent a unique class of lipid mediators that have anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving action. The present study was undertaken to investigate if intrathecal lipoxin A4 (LXA4) could alleviate mechanical allodynia in the rat models of application of NP to the L5 dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Non-compressive models of application of NP to L5 DRG were established and intrathecal catheterization for drug administration was performed in rats. Daily intrathecal injection of vehicle or LXA4 (10ng or 100ng) was performed for three successive days post-operation. Mechanical thresholds were tested and the ipsilateral lumbar (L4-L6) segment of spinal dorsal horns were removed for the determination of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), IL-1?, transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and IL-10 expression and NF-?B/p65, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38 expression. Application of NP to DRG in rats induced mechanical allodynia, increased the expression of pro-inflammatory factors (TNF-? and IL-1?), NF-?B/p65, the phosphorylated-ERK (p-ERK), -JNK (p-JNK) and -P38 (p-p38) and decreased the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-?1 and IL-10) in the ipsilateral lumbar (L4-L6) segment of spinal dorsal horns. Intrathecal injection of LXA4 alleviated the development of neuropathic pain, inhibited the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?), upregulated the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (TGF-?1 and IL-10) and attenuated the activation of NF-?B/p65, p-ERK, p-JNK, but not p-p38, in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, we have demonstrated that LXA4 potently alleviate radicular pain in a rat model of non-compressive lumbar disc herniation. The anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution properties of LXA4 have shown a great promise for the management of radicular pain caused by intervertebral disc herniation. PMID:25943485

  7. Assessing the Effect of Spaceflight on the Propensity for Astronauts to Develop Disk Herniation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, A. H.; Mendez, C. M.; Somers, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A previous study [1] reported that the instantaneous risk of developing a Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP) was higher in astronauts who had flown at least one mission, as compared with those in the corps who had not yet flown. However, the study only analyzed time to HNP after the first mission (if any) and did not account for the possible effects of multiple missions. While many HNP's occurred well into astronauts' careers or in some cases years after retirement, the higher incidence of HNPs relatively soon after completion of space missions appears to indicate that spaceflight may lead to an increased risk of HNP. The purpose of this study was to support the Human System Risk Board assessment of back pain, evaluate the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, and update the previous dataset which contained events up to December 31, 2006. METHODS: Data was queried from the electronic medical record and provided by the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health. The data included all 330 United States astronauts from 1959 through February 2014. Cases were confirmed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Computerized Tomography, Myelography, operative findings, or through clinical confirmation with a neurologist or neurosurgeon. In this analysis, astronauts who had an HNP at selection into the corps or had an HNP diagnosis prior to their first flight were excluded. The statistical challenges in using the available data to separate effects of spaceflight from those associated with general astronaut training and lifestyle on propensity to develop HNPs are many. The primary outcome is reported date of first HNP (if any), which at best is only an approximation to the actual time of occurrence. To properly analyze this data with a survival analysis model, one must also know the "exposure" time - i.e. how long each astronaut has been at risk for developing an HNP. If an HNP is reported soon after a mission, is it mission caused or general? If the former, exposure time should be counted from the time of landing (assuming the risk of HNP occurring during a mission is zero). If the latter, exposure time should be counted from the time of selection; however we can't directly know which one to use. In our analysis we take both of these possibilities into account with a competing risks model, wherein two distinct stochastic processes are going on: TG = time to HNP (general) and TS = time to HNP (spaceflight). Under this type of model, whichever of these occurs first is what we observe; in other words we don't observe TG or TS, only min(TG, TS). Here, we parameterized the model in terms of separate Weibull hazard functions for each process and estimated all parameters using maximum likelihood. In addition, we allowed for a "cured fraction" - i.e. the possibility that some astronauts may never develop an HNP. RESULTS: Results will include a depiction of the competing hazard functions as well as a probability curve for the relative likelihood that an HNP reported at a given time after a mission is actually mission caused. Other factors, such as dwell time in microgravity and vehicle landing environment will be explored. An overall assessment as to whether spaceflight truly exacerbates HNP risk will be made.

  8. Contemporary management of symptomatic lumbar disc herniations.

    PubMed

    Jegede, Kolawole A; Ndu, Anthony; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2010-04-01

    Lumbar disc herniations are common clinical entities that may cause lumbar-related symptoms. The spectrum of treatment options is geared toward a patient's clinical presentation and ranges from nothing to surgical intervention. Many lumbar disc herniations cause no significant symptoms. In studies of asymptomatic individuals who have never experienced lumbar-related symptoms, 30% have been reported to have major abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging. The mainstay of treatment of patients with symptomatic disc herniations is accepted to be nonoperative (as long as there are no acute or progressive neurologic deficits); this includes medications, physical therapy, and potentially lumbar injection. For patients with symptomatic disc herniations who fail to respond appropriately to conservative measures, surgical intervention may be considered. For this population, lumbar discectomy is considered to be a good option. PMID:20399360

  9. Herniation of the upper lumbar discs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pásztor; I. Szarvas

    1981-01-01

    Summary On the basis of investigations involving 134 patients operated on at the National Institute of Neurosurgery, Budapest, the authors point out that herniations of the intervertebral discs at L 1\\/2, L 2\\/3, L 3\\/4 levels are characterized by more severe neurological changes. Paresis and autonomic disorders occur much more frequently than in lower lumbar disc herniations: paresis was found

  10. Migrated herniated disc mimicking a neoplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Hoch; George Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Disc sequestration is defined as migration of a herniated disc fragment into the epidural space such that it is completely\\u000a separated from the parent disc. We report a case of a migrated herniated disc that was initially pathologically diagnosed\\u000a as a cartilage neoplasm. In addition to confounding morphological features, this interpretation may have been influenced by\\u000a an initial radiological interpretation

  11. Recurrent disc herniation in a man with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Stenback, B A; Reigo, T

    1994-01-01

    Disc herniation in patients with Bechterew disease is rare; even rarer are recurrent disc herniations, a condition which we have not found described before. The patient was operated on with an excellent result. PMID:7866832

  12. Thoracoabdominal herniation--but not as you know it.

    PubMed

    Wigley, J; Noble, F; King, A

    2014-07-01

    Thoracoabdominal hernias are uncommon following blunt trauma. If diaphragmatic rupture does occur, the abdominal viscera can herniate into the thorax through the diaphragm. We report a rare case of thoracoabdominal herniation in which the bowel herniated through the lateral abdominal wall, migrating cranially and entering the thorax through an intercostal defect. This case highlights the need for early and definitive surgical repair. PMID:24992399

  13. Lumbar disc herniation in patients with developmental spinal stenosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Y. Dai; B. Ni; L. S. Jia; H. K. Liu

    1996-01-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis and lumbar disc herniation are usually regarded as two pathogenetically different conditions, but in the literature lumbar disc herniation in patients with developmental spinal stenosis has been rarely documented. In a clinical retrospective study, 42 lumbar disc herniations with developmental spinal stenosis were reported and analyzed. Discectomy was performed after laminotomy. The patients were followed-up for an

  14. Cranial Neuropathy due to Intradural Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Benjamin I.; Hartl, Roger; Schwartz, Theodore H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Importance Herniated intervertebral disc fragments rarely penetrate the thecal sac, and intracranial hypotension attributable to such penetrating fragments is even more unusual. We describe the first reported case of a cranial neuropathy due to intradural herniation of a disc fragment, in which intracranial hypotension from a resulting cerebrospinal fluid leak caused bilateral abducens palsies. Clinical Presentation A 45-year-old man presented with a positional headache after having experienced a “popping” sensation in his back while lifting a heavy object. He also complained of blurred vision and was noted to have lateral gaze palsies bilaterally. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed bilateral subdural collections, abnormal pachymeningeal enhancement, and cerebellar tonsillar herniation, suggesting intracranial hypotension. T2-weighted MRI of the spine revealed extrusion of the T12-L1 disc and suggested the presence of a disc fragment in the intradural space, displacing the caudal nerve roots. A myelogram demonstrated a filling defect extending into the subarachnoid space adjacent to the disc herniation, consistent with a free disc fragment in the intradural space. A diagnosis of intracranial hypotension due to a cerebrospinal fluid leak resulting from an intradural herniated disc was made. The diagnosis was confirmed intraoperatively. Conclusion Surgical removal of the herniated disc fragment and repair of the dural defect resulted in complete resolution of the cranial neuropathy. This rare etiology of a cranial neuropathy, arising from pathology in the thoracolumbar spine, illustrates the clinical teaching that the sixth cranial nerves are highly sensitive to deformation induced by intracranial hypotension. PMID:24535263

  15. Surgical approaches to thoracic disc herniations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. El-Kalliny; J. M. Tew; H. van Loveren; S. Dunsker

    1991-01-01

    Summary Early diagnosis of thoracic disc herniations has become more common with the advent of spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This early diagnosis combined with choosing the optimal surgical approach, to ensure adequate decompression without excessive cord and root manipulation, will achieve the optimum results. It is now clear that more lateral and anterior approaches to the thoracic spine are

  16. The Effect of Nucleus Implant Parameters on the Compressive Mechanics of the Lumbar Intervertebral Disc: A Finite

    E-print Network

    Karduna, Andrew

    Disc: A Finite Element Study Abhijeet Joshi,1 Christopher J. Massey,2 Andrew Karduna,3 Edward intervertebral disc was utilized for understanding nucleus pulposus implant mechanics. The model was used) and geometrical (height and diameter) parameters on the mechanical behavior of the disc were investigated

  17. Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR in thoracic disc herniations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Parizel; G. Rodesch; D. Balériaux; D. Zegers de Beyl; J. D'Haens; J. Noterman; C. Segebarth

    1989-01-01

    The Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance findings in two patients with herniated thoracic intervertebral discs are reported. The first patient was a 56-year-old woman with a small subligamentous T6-7 disc herniation, slightly lateralized to the right. The second patient was a 51-year-old man with a central and right posterolateral disc herniation, including a large calcified fragment, at the T8-9 level. The nonenhanced

  18. Curing kinetics and mechanical properties of a composite hydrogel for the replacement of the nucleus pulposus

    E-print Network

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    of same composition reinforced by nano-fibrillated cellulose were synthesized with different T3, with Ferstrom replacing the NP by stainless steel ball bearings. Hamby and Glaser tried PMMA and Nachemson tried

  19. SIRT1 protects against apoptosis by promoting autophagy in degenerative human disc nucleus pulposus cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Xuemei; Hao, Jie; Shen, Jieliang; Fang, Ji; Dong, Wen; Wang, Dawu; Zhang, Xiaojun; Shui, Wei; Luo, Yi; Lin, Liangbo; Qiu, Quanhe; Liu, Bin; Hu, Zhenming

    2014-01-01

    SIRT1 could protect degenerative human NP cells against apoptosis, and there were extensive and intimate connection between apoptosis and autophagy. Up to now, the role of autophagy in the process of human IVD degeneration is unclear. We sought to explore the relationship between autophagy and human IVD degeneration and to understand whether autophagy is involved in the protective effect of SIRT1 against apoptosis in NP cells. Our results showed that the autophagosomes number, the mRNA level of LC3 and Beclin-1, the protein expression of LC3-II/I and Beclin-1, decreased in NP from DDD. Resveratrol could increase the protein expression of LC3-II/I and Beclin-1, and reduce apoptosis in degenerative NP cells. In contrast, the protein levels of LC3-II/I and Beclin-1 were down-regulated and apoptosis level was significantly up-regulated in treatment with nicotinamide or SIRT1-siRNA transfection. Further analysis identified that the expression of cleaved Caspase3 and apoptosis incidence significantly increased with the pretreatment of bafilomycin A, whether resveratrol was added or not. These suggested that autophagy may play an important role in IVD degeneration, and SIRT1 protected degenerative human NP cells against apoptosis via promoting autophagy. These findings would aid in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for degenerative disc disease treatment. PMID:25503852

  20. Lactate down-regulates matrix systhesis and promotes apoptosis and autophagy in rat nucleus pulposus cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaolei; Hu, Xuqi; Wang, Xiangyang; Sun, Liaojun; Zheng, Xuhao; Jiang, Libo; Ni, Xiao; Xu, Cong; Tian, Naifeng; Zhu, Siping; Xu, Huazi

    2014-02-01

    The intervertebral disk (IVD) is avascular and anaerobic glycolysis has been recognized as the main source of energy. Due to anaerobic glycolysis, there are high levels of lactate production in disk. Previous study shows lactate concentration is elevated in the degenerated IVD. However, it is not clear how lactate causes degeneration of disks. In this study, we found that 2?mM lactate promote proliferation of NP cells, while 6?mM lactate slightly inhibit their proliferation. By detection under transmission electron microscopy, and western bolt for autophagy related protein beclin-1, LC3 and p62, we demonstrated that 6?mM lactate leads to autophagy induction of NP cells. TUNEL results showed that the apoptosis incidence was increased. High lactate concentration induced the degradation in protein expression and mRNA level of GAG content, type II collagen and slight increase of type I collagen. Based on these observations, we conclude that high lactate concentration is a pathogenic factor for IVD degeneration, and lactate metabolism may be a new therapeutic target for IVD degeneration. PMID:24307209

  1. Lumbar Disk Herniation Surgery: Outcome and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Mahsa; Haghnegahdar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?A retrospective cohort study. Objectives?To determine the outcome and any differences in the clinical results of three different surgical methods for lumbar disk herniation and to assess the effect of factors that could predict the outcome of surgery. Methods?We evaluated 148 patients who had operations for lumbar disk herniation from March 2006 to March 2011 using three different surgical techniques (laminectomy, microscopically assisted percutaneous nucleotomy, and spinous process osteotomy) by using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire, Resumption of Activities of Daily Living scale and changes of visual analog scale (VAS) for low back pain and radicular pain. Our study questionnaire addressed patient subjective satisfaction with the operation, residual complaints, and job resumption. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, United States). Statistical significance was set at 0.05. For statistical analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and repeated measure analysis were performed. For determining the confounding factors, univariate analysis by chi-square test was used and followed by logistic regression analysis. Results?Ninety-four percent of our patients were satisfied with the results of their surgeries. VAS documented an overall 93.3% success rate for reduction of radicular pain. Laminectomy resulted in better outcome in terms of JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire. The outcome of surgery did not significantly differ by age, sex, level of education, preoperative VAS for back, preoperative VAS for radicular pain, return to previous job, or level of herniation. Conclusion?Surgery for lumbar disk herniation is effective in reducing radicular pain (93.4%). All three surgical approaches resulted in significant decrease in preoperative radicular pain and low back pain, but intergroup variation in the outcome was not achieved. As indicated by JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire–Low Back Pain (JOABPQ-LBP) and lumbar function functional scores, laminectomy achieved significantly better outcome compared with other methods. It is worth mentioning that relief of radicular pain was associated with subjective satisfaction with the surgery among our study population. Predictive factors for ineffective surgical treatment for lumbar disk herniation were female sex and negative preoperative straight leg raising. Age, level of education, and preoperative VAS for low back pain were other factors that showed prediction power. PMID:25396104

  2. A Symptomatic Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst with Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Kadono, Yoshinori; Yuguchi, Takamichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Iwatsuki, Koichi; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Spinal epidural arachnoid cyst (EAC) is a rare, usually asymptomatic condition of unknown origin, which typically involves the lower thoracic spine. We report a case of posttraumatic symptomatic EAC with lumbar disc herniation. A 22-year-old man experienced back pain and sciatica after a traffic accident. Neurological examination revealed a right L5 radiculopathy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a cystic lesion at the L3 to L5 level and an L4-5 disc herniation; computed tomography myelography showed that the right L5 root was sandwiched between the cyst and the herniation. A dural defect was identified during surgery. The cyst was excised completely and the defect was repaired. A herniation was excised beside the dural sac. Histology showed that the cyst wall consisted of collagen and meningothelial cells. Postoperatively the symptoms resolved. Lumbar spinal EACs are rare; such cysts may arise from a congenital dural crack and grow gradually. The 6 cases of symptomatic lumbar EAC reported in the literature were not associated with disc herniation or trauma. In this case, the comorbid disc herniation was involved in symptom progression. Although many EACs are asymptomatic, comorbid spinal disorders such as disc herniation or trauma can result in symptom progression. PMID:25861499

  3. Sacral Perineural Cyst Accompanying Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Chang Il; Shin, Ho; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2009-01-01

    Although most of sacral perineural cysts are asymptomatic, some may produce symptoms. Specific radicular pain may be due to distortion, compression, or stretching of nerve root by a space occupying cyst. We report a rare case of S1 radiculopathy caused by sacral perineural cyst accompanying disc herniation. The patient underwent a microscopic discectomy at L5-S1 level. However, the patient's symptoms did not improved. The hypesthesia persisted, as did the right leg pain. Cyst-subarachnoid shunt was set to decompress nerve root and to equalize the cerebrospinal fluid pressure between the cephalad thecal sac and cyst. Immediately after surgery, the patient had no leg pain. After 6 months, the patient still remained free of leg pain. PMID:19352483

  4. [Lumbar disc herniation--diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Corniola, M-V; Tessitore, E; Schaller, K; Gautschi, O P

    2014-12-10

    A lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a condition frequently encountered in primary care medicine. It may give rise to a compression of one or more nerve roots, which can lead to a nerve root irritation, a so-called radiculopathy, with or without a sensorimotor deficit. The majority of LDHs can be supported by means of a conservative treatment consisting of physical therapy, ergotherapy, analgetics, anti-inflammatory therapy or corticosteroids, which may be eventually administered by infiltrations. If a clinico-radiological correlation is present and moderate neurological deficit appears suddenly, if it is progressive under conservative treatment or if pain is poorly controlled by well-conducted conservative treatment performed during four to six months, surgery is then recommended. PMID:25632633

  5. Surgical treatment of thoracic disc herniations via tailored posterior approaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Börm; U. Bäzner; R. W. König; T. Kretschmer; G. Antoniadis; J. Kandenwein

    We present clinical findings, radiological characteristics and surgical modalities of various posterior approaches to thoracic\\u000a disc herniations and report the clinical results in 27 consecutive patients. Within an 8-year period 27 consecutive patients\\u000a (17 female, 10 male) aged 30–83 years (mean 53 years.) were surgically treated for 28 symptomatic herniated thoracic discs\\u000a in our department. Six of these lesions (21%) were calcified.

  6. Extraforaminal lumbar disc herniations: CT demonstration of Sharpey's fibers avulsion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-F. Bonneville; M. Runge; F. Cattin; P. Potelon; Y.-S. Tang

    1989-01-01

    Forty-seven extraforaminal lumbar disc herniations (EFLDH) accounting for 7% of all lumbar disc herniations encountered during the same period of time were reviewed. L3–L4 or L4–L5 disc was involved in 89% of the cases giving rise to a L3 or L4 nerve root compression. An abnormal motion of lateral bending with rotation of the trunk was found retrospectively in 60%

  7. Sagittal spinal alignment in patients with lumbar disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Endo; Hidekazu Suzuki; Hidetoshi Tanaka; Yupeng Kang; Kengo Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed to evaluate total sagittal spinal alignment in patients with lumbar disc\\u000a herniation (LDH) and healthy subjects. Abnormal sagittal spinal alignment could cause persistent low back pain in lumbar disease.\\u000a Previous studies analyzed sciatic scoliotic list in patients with lumbar disc herniation; but there is little or no information\\u000a on the relationship between sagittal alignment

  8. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Li; Deng-lu Yan; Zai-Heng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous\\u000a discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results\\u000a of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN\\u000a in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of

  9. Assessing the Effect of Spaceflight on the Propensity for Astronauts to Develop Disk Herniation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Mendez, C. M.; Somers, J. T.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study [1] reported the instantaneous risk of developing a Herniated Nucleus Pulosus (HNP) was higher in astronauts who had flown at least one mission, as compared with those in the corps who had not yet flown. However, the study only analyzed time to HNP after the first mission (if any) and did not account for the possible effects of multiple missions. While many HNP's occurred well into astronauts' careers or in some cases years after retirement, the higher incidence of HNPs relatively soon after completion of space missions appears to indicate that spaceflight may lead to an increased risk of HNP. The purpose of this study was to support the Human System Risk Boards assessment of back pain, assess the risk of injury due to dynamic loads, and update the dataset analyzed which contained data through December 31, 2006.

  10. Outcome of symptomatic upper lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Awwal, M A; Ahsan, M K; Sakeb, N

    2014-10-01

    "Upper" lumbar disc herniations (LDH) are different from the "lower" and possess increased chance of neural compromise and cauda equina syndrome that necessitates operative management despite of contradictory surgical outcome. We underwent the study to assess the clinical and functional outcome of symptomatic upper LDH surgery from July 2003 to June 2012 in BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The records of 123 patients (age range, 30-69 years), 56 men and 67 women (mean 52 years) having upper lumbar discectomy were reviewed. The surgical time, intra-operative blood loss, self evaluated back pain and thigh and/or groin pain status [using Visual Analogue Score (VAS)] and the disability status [using Oswestry disability (ODI) questionnaire] was analyzed. Radiological stability (using Posner's criteria), functional outcome [using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Score] and overall outcome (using MacNab`s criteria), was calculated. Chi-squared test and z-test using SPSS revealed mean operative time and mean blood loss had no significant (p>0.05) difference. Pain, sensory, motor and reflex status as well as VAS, ODI and all the components of JOA questionnaire had significant (p<0.05) improvement. In spite of intra-operative complications in 20.32% cases, overall satisfactory outcome was achieved in 83.74% cases. The postoperative complications (08.13%) could be managed conservatively. However, carefully decided surgical alternatives resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcome in upper LDH surgery. PMID:25481595

  11. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Secondary to Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is often idiopathic. We report on a patient presenting with symptomatic intracranial hypotension and pain radiating to the right leg caused by a transdural lumbar disc herniation. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain revealed classic signs of intracranial hypotension, and an additional spinal MR confirmed a lumbar transdural herniated disc as the cause. The patient was treated with a partial hemilaminectomy and discectomy. We were able to find the source of cerebrospinal fluid leak, and packed it with epidural glue and gelfoam. Postoperatively, the patient's headache and log radiating pain resolved and there was no neurological deficit. Thus, in this case, lumbar disc herniation may have been a cause of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. PMID:20157378

  12. Extraforaminal lumbar disc herniations: CT demonstration of Sharpey's fibers avulsion.

    PubMed

    Bonneville, J F; Runge, M; Cattin, F; Potelon, P; Tang, Y S

    1989-01-01

    Forty-seven extraforaminal lumbar disc herniations (EFLDH) accounting for 7% of all lumbar disc herniations encountered during the same period of time were reviewed. L3-L4 or L4-L5 disc was involved in 89% of the cases giving rise to a L3 or L4 nerve root compression. An abnormal motion of lateral bending with rotation of the trunk was found retrospectively in 60% of the patients. In 53% of all EFLDH a bony avulsion of the vertebral end-plate facing the herniation was demonstrated at the site of attachment of Sharpey's fibers. This study suggests that this previously undescribed bony change witnesses a special injury of the spine responsible for most EFLDH. PMID:2717008

  13. Extreme lateral lumbar disc herniation. Diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Perno, J R; Rossitch, E

    1993-05-01

    Extreme lateral disc herniation accounts for about 10% of lumbar disc ruptures and is more common in the elderly. Patients will frequently complain of pain in the groin and anterior thigh but little if any back pain. Because the L4 root is often involved, the physical exam often shows quadriceps weakness and a diminished patellar reflex. Other important signs include a negative Lasèque's sign and reproduction of pain with lateral bending of the back toward the involved extremity. Currently, CT or MRI are the diagnostic procedures of choice. The initial treatment for extreme lateral disc herniation is bed rest and NSAIDs with surgery if conservative therapy fails. Primary care physicians should consider extreme lateral disc herniation when they evaluate patients with low back and leg pain. PMID:8510777

  14. Spontaneous disappearance of lumbar disk herniation within 3 months.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Satoshi; Nozawa, Asae; Kojima, Hisashi; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2009-11-01

    Although spontaneous regression of disk herniation is a well-known phenomenon, the time taken for the condition to resolve has not been detailed in previous studies. This article describes a case of vanishing lumbar disk herniation in a 33-year-old man. The patient experienced sudden severe lumbar pain while lifting a 240-kg weight while attempting a Donkey Calf Raise during muscle training. The pain persisted despite the use of a lumbar corset and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Twelve days after onset, sensory disturbance appeared in the right L5 dermatome, and a manual muscle test of the right anterior tibial muscle revealed level 3. The pain gradually spread over the right lower extremity and the indistinct lumbago changed to localized back pain at the L4/5 vertebral level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine 12 days after onset revealed a large disk herniation at L4/5. T2-weighted images demonstrated the herniated disk with a sequestrated disk fragment, which compressed the right L5 nerve root. Over the following month, his pain gradually diminished and he was able to resume his muscle-building program. Follow-up MRI 3 months after the lumbar injury showed complete disappearance of the extruded disk material. This is the first reported case of disk herniation that disappeared within only 3 months, as previous reports have reported that a minimum 30-week period was needed. Clinical awareness of the possibility that disk herniation may resolve within a relatively short time may aid both correct informed consent and treatment. PMID:19902881

  15. Intradural tumor and concomitant disc herniation of cervical spine

    PubMed Central

    Bapat, Mihir R; Rathi, Prasanna; Pawar, Uday; Chaudhary, Kshitij

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare patient of a simultaneous extradural and intradural compression of the cervical spinal cord due to co-existent intervertebral disc herniation and an intradural schwannoma at the same level. The intradural lesion was missed resulting in recurrence of myelopathy after a surprisingly complete functional recovery following anterior cervical discectomy. Retrospectively, it was noted that the initial cord swelling noticed was tumor being masked by the compression produced by the herniated disc. A contrast magnetic resonance imaging scan is important in differentiating intradural tumors of the spinal cord. A high index of suspicion is often successful in unmasking both the pathologies. PMID:21221228

  16. Intradural tumor and concomitant disc herniation of cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Bapat, Mihir R; Rathi, Prasanna; Pawar, Uday; Chaudhary, Kshitij

    2011-01-01

    We report a rare patient of a simultaneous extradural and intradural compression of the cervical spinal cord due to co-existent intervertebral disc herniation and an intradural schwannoma at the same level. The intradural lesion was missed resulting in recurrence of myelopathy after a surprisingly complete functional recovery following anterior cervical discectomy. Retrospectively, it was noted that the initial cord swelling noticed was tumor being masked by the compression produced by the herniated disc. A contrast magnetic resonance imaging scan is important in differentiating intradural tumors of the spinal cord. A high index of suspicion is often successful in unmasking both the pathologies. PMID:21221228

  17. Childhood intervertebral disc calcification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Theo Mellion; John P. Laurent; William C. Watters

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of intervertebral disc calcification in children are reported. A 13-year-old boy presented with right subscapular pain radiating into the axilla with radiographic demonstration of multiple calcified intervertebral discs and a herniated fragment of calcified nucleus pulposus at T2–3. His condition improved with conservative therapy, and follow-up radiographic evaluation revealed resolution of the herniated calcified disc material. A second

  18. Evaluation of Patients with Suspected Herniated Lumbar Discs with Radiculopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis R. Caplan; M. J. Aminoff; H. Fankhauser; W. Brown

    1994-01-01

    Introduction Backache is a nearly ubiquitous complaint. Unfortunately, our supporting skeletal system was probably made for creatures that walk on all fours and does not suit human bipedal existence. Long periods of sitting and strenuous lifting, bending, and stretching are probably not good for the back. Degenerative disease of the back and disc herniations are extremely common. The report of

  19. Walking analysis of rats subjected to experimental disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Olmarker; M. Iwabuchi; K. Larsson; B. Rydevik

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to evaluate whether experimental disc herniation can result in changes in walking pattern, presumably indicating\\u000a pain, four groups of rats – sham (n = 5), disc puncture (NP, n = 5), displacement of nerve root and ganglion (DIS, n = 5), and the combination of disc puncture and displacement (NP + DIS, n = 6) – were

  20. Brain herniations into the dural venous sinuses or calvarium: MRI of a recently recognized entity.

    PubMed

    Battal, Bilal; Castillo, Mauricio

    2014-02-01

    Brain herniations into dural venous sinuses (DVS) are rare findings recently described and their etiology and clinical significance are controversial. We describe five patients with brain herniations into the DVS or calvarium identified on MRI, and discuss their imaging findings, possible causes, and relationship to the patient's symptoms. All patients were examined with MRI including high resolution pre- and post-contrast T1- and T2-weighted sequences. With respect to brain herniations we documented their locations, signal intensities in different sequences, and size. We then reviewed clinical records in an attempt to establish if any symptoms were related to the presence of these herniations. Three males and two females were examined (age range, 11-68 years). Three patients had unilateral temporal lobe herniations into transverse sinuses, one had a cerebellar herniation into the skull, and one had bilateral temporal lobe herniations into the transverse sinuses as well as a cerebellar herniation into the sigmoid sinus. In all, the herniated brain and surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) had normal signal intensity on all MRI sequences. When correlated with clinical symptoms, brain herniations were thought to be incidental and asymptomatic in three patients and two patients had histories of headaches. Brain herniations with surrounding CSF into the DVS/skull should be considered potential sources of filling defects in the DVS. We believe that they are probably incidental findings that may be more common than previously recognized and should be not confused with the more common arachnoid granulations, clots, or tumors. Two patients had headaches, but their relation to the presence of herniated brain was uncertain. PMID:24571834

  1. Asymptomatic tonsillar herniation in a neonate with cleidocranial dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Myers, Kenneth A; Thomas, Mary Ann; Wei, Xing-Chang; Scantlebury, Morris H

    2014-02-01

    A male neonate was antenatally diagnosed with cleidocranial dysplasia on the basis of prenatal ultrasound findings and molecular testing of the RUNX2 gene. The patient presented with urosepsis at 24 days of life and subsequently developed apneas after endoscopic examination of the vocal cords. Computed tomography and MRI studies of the head revealed crowding of the posterior fossa with tonsillar and uncal herniation. Apneas were initially thought to be related to brainstem compression; however, the patient responded immediately to caffeine and subsequently stabilized with antibiotic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first published MRI study of the brain of a neonate with cleidocranial dysplasia to demonstrate the striking posterior fossa findings seen secondary to the reduced bony skull structures. However, despite the dramatic herniation, brainstem function was not compromised. PMID:24446448

  2. Seat Belt-Related Chondrosternal Disruption With Lung Herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Rice; Naveen Bikkasani; Raphael Espada; Kenneth Mattox; Matthew Wall

    eat belt-related injuries have been well characterized and predominately involve the intraabdominal or- gans. Significant injury to the chest wall, cervical vascu- lature, and intrathoracic structures is infrequent, how- ever. We report a case of severe chest wall injury with resulting lung herniation after a motor vehicle accident in which the driver was restrained. A 54-year-old 270-lb male was a

  3. Herniation through the foramen of Morgagni: early diagnosis and treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed H. Al-Salem; Akhter Nawaz; Hilal Matta; Alic Jacobsz

    2002-01-01

    The majority of congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) occur through the foramen of Bochdalek; herniation through the foramen\\u000a of Morgagni (MH) is rare. Fifteen children (12 males and 3 females) with congenital MH (7 right, 3 left, 5 bilateral) were\\u000a treated over a period of 15 years, comprising 11% of a total of 135 children with different types of CDH. The

  4. Anterior discectomy without interbody fusion for cervical disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Pointillart; A. Cernier; J. M. Vital; J. Senegas

    1995-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1990, 68 patients with cervical radiculopathy due to soft disc herniation were treated by anterior cervical discectomy without interbody fusion. Eleven patients were unavailable for follow-up examination. The mean follow-up was 23 months (range 12–54 months). Both clinical and radiographic follow-ups were done, and 92% of the patients was found to have excellent or good clinical results.

  5. The Far Lateral Approach to Lumbar Disc Herniations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Porchet; H. Fankhauser; N. DE TRIBOLET

    \\u000a The diagnosis of extreme lateral lumbar disc herniation (ELLDH) as a cause of lumbar radiculopathy was first described by\\u000a Abdullah in 1974 [1]. This discal pathology has been recognized for many years as an occasional cause of negative disc exploration and immediate\\u000a failure of classical disc surgery in sciatica [1,18, 24, 25, 29, 31, 30, 31, 33, 35, 41]. Only

  6. Endoscopic transsphenoidal treatment of a prolactinoma patient with brain and optic chiasmal herniations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Guo, Liemei; Ge, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming

    2014-05-01

    Bromocriptine has been the most widely used and effective agent to treat macroprolactinoma, and chiasmal herniation in a macroprolactinoma patient following the treatment with bromocriptine is a well-recognized complication. However, herniation of the inferior mesial frontal lobe into the sella has been rarely reported. The present clinical report is the second radiographic demonstration of herniation of the inferior mesial frontal lobe into the sella. After the treatment with transsphenoidal endoscopic chiasmopexy, the patient's visual disturbance improved dramatically. We suggest that transsphenoidal endoscopic chiasmopexy is an effective treatment option for the prolactinoma patient with brain and chiasmal herniations following the treatment with bromocriptine. PMID:24820730

  7. Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Identify Outcome Predictors of Caudal Epidural Steroid Injections for Lower Lumbar Radicular Pain Caused by a Herniated Disc

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Sung Oh; Jang, Chul Hoon; Hong, Jin Oh; Park, Joon Sang

    2014-01-01

    Objective We used lumbar magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings to determine possible outcome predictors of a caudal epidural steroid injection (CESI) for radicular pain caused by a herniated lumbar disc (HLD). Methods Ninety-one patients with radicular pain whose MRI indicated a HLD were enrolled between September 2010 and July 2013. The CESIs were performed using ultrasound (US). A responder was defined as having complete relief or at least a 50% reduction of pain as assessed by the visual analog scale (VAS) and functional status on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ); responder (VAS n=61, RMDQ n=51), and non-responder (VAS n=30, RMDQ n=40). MRI findings were analyzed and compared between the two groups with regard to HLD level, HLD type (protrusion or exclusion), HLD zone (central, subarticular, foraminal, and extraforaminal), HLD volume (mild, moderate, or severe), relationship between HLD and nerve root (no contact, contact, displaced, or compressed), disc height loss (none, less than half, or more than half ), and disc degeneration grade (homogeneous disc structure or inhomogeneous disc structure-clear nucleus and height of intervertebral disc). Results A centrally located herniated disc was more common in the responder group than that in the non-responder group. Treatment of centrally located herniated discs showed satisfactory results. (VAS p=0.025, RMDQ p=0.040). Other factors, such as HLD level, HLD type, HLD volume, relationship to nerve root, disc height loss, and disc degeneration grade, were not critical. Conclusion The HLD zone was significant for pain reduction after CESI. A centrally located herniated disc was a predictor of a good clinical outcome. PMID:25566478

  8. Uncal herniation in a fully conscious patient-The sliding uncus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Katzir, Miki; Attia, Moshe; Sviri, Gill E; Zaaroor, Menashe

    2015-04-01

    Uncal herniation is accompanied by a decreased level of consciousness. We describe a patient who remained fully alert despite the uncal herniation. The computed tomography (CT) scans allowed us to visualize the uncus and its spatial relation to the cerebral peduncle. We describe the sliding uncus syndrome. PMID:25375327

  9. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Windt van der D. A. W. M; E. Simons; I. I. Riphagen; C. Ammendolia; A. P. Verhagen; M. Laslett; W. Devillé; R. A. Deyo; L. M. Bouter; Vet de H. C. W; B. Aertgeerts

    2010-01-01

    Background Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care clinicians use patient history and physical examination to evaluate the likelihood of disc herniation and select patients

  10. Physical examination for lumbar radiculopathy due to disc herniation in patients with low-back pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. W. M. van der Windt; E. Simons; I. I. Riphagen; C. Ammendolia; A. P. Verhangen; M. Laslett; W. Devillé; R. A. Deyo; L. M. Bouter; H. C. W. de Vet; B. Aertgeerts

    2010-01-01

    Background: Low-back pain with leg pain (sciatica) may be caused by a herniated intervertebral disc exerting pressure on the nerve root. Most patients will respond to conservative treatment, but in carefully selected patients, surgical discectomy may provide faster relief of symptoms. Primary care clinicians use patient history and physical examination to evaluate the likelihood of disc herniation and select patients

  11. Cauda equina compression syndrome in a child due to lumbar disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kadir Kotil; Mustafa Akçetin; Turgay Bilge

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionCauda equina syndrome with sphincter dysfunction is an uncommon and feared complication of lumbar disc herniation.Case reportLumbar disc disease in the pediatric age has been reported infrequently, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first pediatric case of acute lumber disc herniation presenting with caudal compression.

  12. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Yan, Deng-lu; Zhang, Zai-Heng

    2008-12-01

    Percutaneous disc decompression procedures have been performed in the past. Various percutaneous techniques such as percutaneous discectomy, laser discectomy, and nucleoplasty have been successful. Our prospective study was directly to evaluate the results of percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty (PCN) surgery for cervical disc herniation, and illustrate the effectiveness of PCN in symptomatic patients who had cervical herniated discs. From July of 2002 to June of 2005, 126 consecutive patients with contained cervical disc herniations have presented at the authors' clinic and treated by PCN. The patients' gender distribution for PCN was 65 male, 61 female. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 66 years (mean 51.9 +/- 10.2 years). The levels of involvement were 21 cases at C3-4, 30 cases at C4-5, 40 cases at C5-6, and 35 cases at C6-7. The clinical outcomes, pain reduction and the segment stability were all recorded during this study. A clinical outcome was quantified by the Macnab standard and using VAS. The angular displacement (AD) > or =11 degrees or horizontal displacement (HD) > or =3 mm was considered to be radiographically unstable. In the results of this study, puncture of the needle into the disc space was accurately performed under X-ray guidance in all cases. There was one case where the Perc-D Spine Wand had broken in the disc space during the procedure. The partial Perc-D Spine Wand, which had broken in the disc space could not be removed by the percutaneous cervical discectomy and thus remained there. There were no recurrent cases or complications in our series. Macnab standard results were excellent in 62 cases, good in 41 cases and fair in 23 cases. The rate of excellent and good was 83.73%. The VAS scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in PCN at the 2-week, 1, 3, 6, and 12-month follow-up visits when compared to preoperational values (P < 0.01). There were no cases of instability following the PCN procedure. There was no significant difference in stability either preoperatively or postoperatively (P > 0.05). Our findings confirm that PCN for the treatment of cervical disc herniation results in a good outcome without any tampering of the stability of the cervical spine. Hence, PCN as a procedure is safe, minimally invasive, less traumatic, requiring less time with an excellent clinical outcome. PCN should be performed for those patients who fail conservative medical management including medication, physical therapy, behavioral management, psychotherapy, and who are unwilling to undergo a more invasive technique such as spinal surgery. PMID:18830638

  13. Left Diaphragmatic Herniation following Orthotopic Liver Transplantation in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Rosat, Adriá; Alonso, Ayaya; Padilla, Javier; Sanz, Pablo; Varona, M. Aránzazu; Méndiz, Javier; Moneva, Enrique; Barrera, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Diaphragmatic herniation is an uncommon complication in the postquirurgic follow of the liver transplant. The associated symptoms are unspecific and may not suggest the correct diagnosis. It may explain why in many patients the diagnosis remains unmade or it is made only after a long interval of time. We present the case of a fifty-seven-year-old male who required an orthotopic liver transplant in 2010 due to a trifocal hepatocarcinoma. In postoperatory follow-up the patient showed alimentary regurgitation, vomiting, and dyspepsia. The diagnosis was made by an oesophagogastroduodenal transit with barium and an abdominal CT scan that showed a left diaphragmatic herniation with the gastric fundus into the thorax. With these findings we decided to perform a programmed surgery. After takedown of adhesions and replacement of the stomach into the upper abdomen, the palm-sized diaphragmatic opening was closed with a synthetic material. The patient's condition remained stable throughout the entire operation. The postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged at the fifth day after surgery with a normal digestive intake. In a 12-month follow-up the patient shows no symptoms.

  14. Combined Anterior Approach with Transcorporeal Herniotomy for a Huge Migrated Cervical Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yong; Lee, Choon Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2011-01-01

    The report describes the herniation of a huge migrated cervical disc, which was treated by a combined anterior approach. A 50-year-old man presented with radiculopathy and myelopathy. Radiological images revealed the herniation of a huge disc which had migrated superiorly from the C6-7 disc to the C5-6 disc. We tried to combine an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and transcorporeal herniotomy to avoid corpectomy. Postoperatively, successful clinical and radiological results were obtained. It is therefore possible to remove a huge migrated herniated cervical disc completely by a combined ACDF and trancorporeal approach without corpectomy.

  15. Minimally invasive pars approach for foraminal disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Hitchon, Patrick W; Awe, Olatilewa O; Close, Liesl; Sukkarieh, Hamdi G

    2015-07-01

    We present a retrospective cohort study on the outcome of patients with foraminal disc herniations (FDH) treated with partial pars resections using minimally invasive surgery (MIS) through a tube. FDH present a challenge due to the more lateral trajectory needed for their excision and thereby more muscle dissection and possibly facet resection. Forty patients, 19 women and 21 men with a mean age±standard deviation of 58±12years, underwent MIS for FDH. Data on length of hospital stay, body mass index and outcomes were collected prospectively and reviewed retrospectively. Average length of stay following surgery was 1±1days. There was one wound infection and four unsatisfactory results. Using the Macnab score, good to excellent results were achieved in 89% of the patients. Based on these results, MIS surgery with partial pars resection is an attractive option in the treatment of FDH with low morbidity and short hospital stays. PMID:25882259

  16. Lumbar disc herniation in three patients with cystic fibrosis: a case series

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction To date, lumbar disc herniation has not been reported in the context of cystic fibrosis even though back pain and musculoskeletal problems are very common in patients with cystic fibrosis. Case presentation We report on three patients with cystic fibrosis who experienced lumbar disc herniation in the course of their disease at ages 19 to 21 years (a 22-year-old Caucasian man, a 23-year-old Caucasian man, and a 21-year-old Caucasian woman). Our third patient eventually died because of her deteriorated pulmonary situation, which was influenced by the lumbar disc herniation as it was not possible for her to perform pulmonary drainage techniques properly because of the pain. Conclusions Lumbar disc herniation can lead to a vicious cycle for patients with cystic fibrosis as it may promote pulmonary infections. This report highlights the need to investigate patients correctly. PMID:21896180

  17. Diaphragmatic Herniation through Prosthetic Material after Extrapleural Pneumonectomy: Be Aware of Tumor Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Daniel; Cohen, Charlotte; Schneck, Anne-Sophie; Nadeemy, Ahmad S.; Venissac, Nicolas; Mouroux, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    Extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) is indicated in selected group of patients with pleural mesothelioma. Diaphragmatic reconstruction represents a part of this complex operation. We present the case of a late diaphragmatic gastric herniation through prosthetic material after EPP. PMID:25360411

  18. Surgical vs Nonoperative Treatment for Lumbar Disk Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Hanscom, Brett; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Abdu, William A.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Boden, Scott D.; Deyo, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Context Lumbar diskectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed for back and leg symptoms in US patients, but the efficacy of the procedure relative to nonoperative care remains controversial. Objective To assess the efficacy of surgery for lumbar intervertebral disk herniation. Design, Setting, and Patients The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial, a randomized clinical trial enrolling patients between March 2000 and November 2004 from 13 multidisciplinary spine clinics in 11 US states. Patients were 501 surgical candidates (mean age, 42 years; 42% women) with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disk herniation and persistent signs and symptoms of radiculopathy for at least 6 weeks. Interventions Standard open diskectomy vs nonoperative treatment individualized to the patient. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were changes from baseline for the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey bodily pain and physical function scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons MODEMS version) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 and 2 years from enrollment. Secondary outcomes included sciatica severity as measured by the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index, satisfaction with symptoms, self-reported improvement, and employment status. Results Adherence to assigned treatment was limited: 50% of patients assigned to surgery received surgery within 3 months of enrollment, while 30% of those assigned to nonoperative treatment received surgery in the same period. Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated substantial improvements for all primary and secondary outcomes in both treatment groups. Between-group differences in improvements were consistently in favor of surgery for all periods but were small and not statistically significant for the primary outcomes. Conclusions Patients in both the surgery and the nonoperative treatment groups improved substantially over a 2-year period. Because of the large numbers of patients who crossed over in both directions, conclusions about the superiority or equivalence of the treatments are not warranted based on the intent-to-treat analysis. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000410 PMID:17119140

  19. Spinal manipulation results in immediate H-reflex changes in patients with unilateral disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Floman; N. Liram; A. N. Gilai

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this clinical investigation was to determine whether the abnormal H-reflex complex present in patients with S 1 nerve root compression due to lumbosacral disc herniation is improved by single-session lumbar manipulation. Twenty-four patients with unilateral disc herniation at the L5-S1 level underwent spinal H-reflex electro-physiological evaluation. This was carried out before and after single-session lumbar manipulation in

  20. Posterior epidural migration of an extruded free fragment from a lumbar disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pietro Lisai; Carlo Doria; Leonardo Crissantu; Tomas Dore; Gabriele Spano; Carlo Fabbriciani

    2000-01-01

    The majority of symptomatic lumbar disc herniations are located in a posterolateral position with resultant nerve root compression.\\u000a Although caudal, rostral and lateral migrations of disc fragments are common, posterior epidural migration of an extruded\\u000a free fragment from a lumbar disc herniation is a rare occurrence and sometimes may cause a dural sac compression with cauda\\u000a equina syndrome. This retrospective

  1. Foraminal and far lateral lumbar disc herniations: surgical alternatives and outcome measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NE Epstein

    2002-01-01

    Far lateral disc herniations constitute 7–12% of all disc herniations. They may be purely far lateral or extraforaminal in location, located beyond the pedicles, or may include intraforaminal and even intracanalicular components. Occurring predominantly at the L4–L5 and L3–L4 levels in almost equal numbers, they are occasionally noted at L5–S1. Clinical syndromes reflect compression of the superiorly exiting nerve root

  2. Foraminal and far lateral lumbar disc herniations: surgical alternatives and outcome measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NE Epstein

    Far lateral disc herniations constitute 7-12% of all disc herniations. They may be purely far lateral or extraforaminal in location, located beyond the pedicles, or may include intraforaminal and even intracanalicular components. Occurring predominantly at the L4- L5 and L3-L4 levels in almost equal numbers, they are occasionally noted at L5-S1. Clinical syndromes reflect compression of the superiorly exiting nerve

  3. Tegmen Tympani Defect and Brain Herniation Secondary to Mastoid Surgery: Case Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Oguz Kadir; Hanege, Fatih Mehmet; Kalcioglu, M. Tayyar; Kaner, Tuncay; Kokten, Numan

    2014-01-01

    Brain herniation into the middle ear is very rarely seen. In addition to reasons like congenital factors, trauma, and infection, tegmen defect may develop as a result of iatrogenic events secondary to chronic otitis media surgery with or without cholesteatoma. Since it may cause life-threatening complications, patients must be evaluated and monitored for tegmen defect. In this paper, diagnosis and treatment of a brain herniation case due to iatrogenic tegmen defect were described along with relevant literature. PMID:25140266

  4. Propriospinal Myoclonus Induced by a Herniated Lumbar Intervertebral Disc at a Young Age: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kwan Su; Kim, Chang Hyun; Lee, Ho Kook

    2011-01-01

    The cause of propriospinal myoclonus (PSM) is idiopathic. Cervical trauma, ischemic myelopathy secondary to a spinal dural arteriovenous fistula, syringomyelia, Lyme neuroborreliosis, human immunodeficiency virus central nervous system infection, and cervical disc herniation can be the cause of PSM, but lumbar herniated intervertebral disc (HIVD) induced PSM has not been reported. We describe a patient who presented with PSM induced by HIVD and was treated with an epidural steroid injection using a transforaminal approach.

  5. Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad in 1 year old child: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Gadipelly, Srinivas; Sudheer, M V S; Neshangi, Srisha; Harsha, G; Reddy, Vijaybaskar

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic herniation of buccal fat pad (BFP) is very rare, usually seen in infants and young children ranging from 5 months to 12 years of age. Etiology will be blunt injury to buccal mucosa from foreign objects or trauma due to teeth and fall. The suckling activity in infants may also encourage the herniation following trauma. A minor injury or perforation to the buccal mucosa can cause herniation of BFP. The size of herniated mass is very large when compared to the size of the perforation. The history of trauma, absence of prolapse before the injury, its occurrence in infants and young children, specific anatomic sites and location of perforation in mucosa, histopathological appearance of adipose tissue are the characteristic features important for diagnosing the condition. The treatment options for the herniated BFP are usually excision. Alternative to excision is repositioning of the herniated fat in its anatomical location if noticed early. PMID:25848153

  6. Hemilaminoplasty for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Xinyu, Liu; Jianmin, Li; Liangtai, Gong

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of the hemilaminoplasty technique for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Forty-three cases of single-level LDH underwent a discectomy and hemilaminoplasty procedure. The preoperative JOA score and VAS of lower back and leg pain were 10.4±1.3, 7.8±2.1, and 8.6±1.7, respectively. The Cobb angle of lumbar sagittal alignment was 10.1±2.0. Twenty-five patients who agreed to lumbar discectomy through fenestration were enrolled as the control group. The postoperative JOA score and VAS of low back and leg pain of the hemilaminoplasty group were 19.4±1.3, 1.4±0.4, and 2.1±0.5, respectively. The Cobb angle was 29.2±1.9 degrees. There was no epidural scar observed in any of the patients. The Cobb angle of the hemilaminoplasty group was higher than that of the control group (p?

  7. Hemilaminoplasty for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Xinyu, Liu; Yanping, Zheng; Jianmin, Li; Liangtai, Gong

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of the hemilaminoplasty technique for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Forty-three cases of single-level LDH underwent a discectomy and hemilaminoplasty procedure. The preoperative JOA score and VAS of lower back and leg pain were 10.4+/-1.3, 7.8+/-2.1, and 8.6+/-1.7, respectively. The Cobb angle of lumbar sagittal alignment was 10.1+/-2.0. Twenty-five patients who agreed to lumbar discectomy through fenestration were enrolled as the control group. The postoperative JOA score and VAS of low back and leg pain of the hemilaminoplasty group were 19.4+/-1.3, 1.4+/-0.4, and 2.1+/-0.5, respectively. The Cobb angle was 29.2+/-1.9 degrees. There was no epidural scar observed in any of the patients. The Cobb angle of the hemilaminoplasty group was higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05), while the VAS was significantly lower (p < 0.05). Hemilaminoplasty is a useful method to improve clinical outcome, prevent epidural scar, and preserve the normal alignment of lumbar spine. PMID:18636258

  8. Unusual case of camptocormia triggered by lumbar-disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Duman, Iltekin; Baklaci, Korhan; Tan, Arif Kenan; Kalyon, Tunc Alp

    2008-04-01

    A 21-year-old male patient with low back pain and marked forward bending was presented. The exaggerated lumbar flexion was preventing him to stand in erect posture but disappeared while lying. The symptoms had begun after he had lifted a heavy object. Straight-leg-raising test could not be performed properly because of the exaggerated pain. The light-touch sense was decreased on L5 and S1 dermatomes. There was no loss of muscle strength. The deep-tendon reflexes were normal. Plain graph showed mild narrowing in the L4-5 and L5-S1 intervertebral spaces. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging revealed disc protrusions in L4-5 and L5-S1 levels. During his stay in the department, the patient was given tizanidine and tramadol, and physical therapy was performed. A paravertebral intramuscular injection with lidocaine was applied. Moreover, the patient was referred to psychiatrist for evaluation regarding his medical history of conversive seizures and possible efforts for secondary gain. No response was obtained from all the treatments. The final diagnosis was camptocormia triggered by lumbar-disc herniation. He was applied supportive psychotherapy, psychoeducation regarding secondary gain, strong suggestions to improve posture, positive reinforcement, and behavioral therapy. His postural abnormality resolved and disappeared completely with mild pain. PMID:18087763

  9. The transdural approach for thoracic disc herniations: a technical note

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sung-Jun; Jang, Jae-Won; Hur, Hyuk; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Han

    2010-01-01

    Surgery for thoracic disc herniations is still challenging, and the disc excision via a posterior laminectomy is considered risky. A variety of dorsolateral and ventral approaches have been developed. However, the lateral extracavitary and transthoracic approach require extensive surgical exposure. Therefore, we adopted a posterior transdural approach for direct visualization without entry into the thoracic cavity. Three cases that illustrate this procedure are reported here with the preoperative findings, radiological findings and surgical techniques used. After the laminectomy, at the involved level, the dorsal dura was opened with a longitudinal paramedian incision. The cerebrospinal fluid was drained to gain more operating space. After sectioning of the dentate ligaments, gentle retraction was applied to the spinal cord. Between the rootlets above and below, the ventral dural bulging was clearly observed. A small paramedian dural incision was made over the disc space and the protruded disc fragment was removed. Neurological symptoms were improved, and no surgery-related complication was encountered. The posterior transdural approach may offer an alternative surgical option for selected patients with thoracic paracentral soft discs, while limiting the morbidity associated with the exposure. PMID:20143105

  10. Lumbar intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst

    PubMed Central

    Brish, Adam; Payan, Hushong M.

    1972-01-01

    A case is presented of an intraspinal extradural ganglion cyst at the L4–5 level. The clinical picture suggested a herniated nucleus pulposus at this level. A myelogram revealed a round lesion almost completely obstructing the flow of Pantopaque at the L4–5 level. A ganglion cyst with a haemorrhage into it and the surrounding tissue was removed, and surgery was followed by complete recovery. Images PMID:4647850

  11. Effect of ligamenta flava hypertrophy on lumbar disc herniation with contralateral symptoms and signs: a clinical and morphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Yildizhan, Ahmet; Atar, Elmas K.; Yaycioglu, Soner; Gocmen-Mas, Nuket; Yazici, Canan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to determine whether ligamentum flavum hypertrophy among disc herniated patients causes contralateral pain symptoms. For this reason we measured the thickness of the ligament in disc herniated patients with ipsilateral or contralateral symptoms. Material and methods Two hundred disc herniated patients with ipsilateral symptoms as group I were compared with five disc herniated patients with only contralateral symptoms as group II. Ligamenta flava thicknesses and spinal canal diameters of both groups were measured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a micro-caliper. Results Both groups underwent surgery only on the disc herniated side. The total thicknesses of the ligamenta flava in group II was thicker than in group I. There was no spinal stenosis in either group and no significance difference between the groups. Statistically significant differences were found for both ipsilateral and contralateral thickness of the ligament flava in both groups. We also compared thickness of the ligamenta flava for each level of disc herniation in group I; ligamenta flava hypertrophy was more common at L3-L4 and L4-L5 levels of vertebrae in females. Conclusions Aetiology of contralateral sciatica among disc herniated patients may be related to hypertrophy of the ligamenta flava, especially on the opposite side. Surgical approaches of the disc herniated side alone may be sufficient for a good outcome. PMID:22371809

  12. Prognostic factors for return to work after low-back disc herniation surgery.

    PubMed

    Seyedmehdi, Mohammad; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Mohammadi, Saber; Darnahal, Maryam; Sadeghi, Zargham

    2015-03-01

    Return to work (RTW) is an important outcome following disc herniation surgery. The present study aimed at determining factors that may affect early RTW after disc herniation surgery. Data were collected from 603 patients who underwent disc herniation surgery in an educational hospital via phone interviews during a 4-year period (2005-2009). Delayed RTW and failed RTW were associated with female gender, lower educational levels, longer hospitalization periods, greater BMI, biological age exceeding 40 years, employment in manual labor, lack of encouragement by the physician to RTW, being in pain at the time of the phone interview, having negative expectations about the outcome of surgery preoperatively, and low job satisfaction (P < .05). Psychological and occupational factors have direct effects on RTW. Important factors include positive expectations about the outcome of surgery, encouragement by the physician to RTW, job characteristics, and job satisfaction. RTW can be accelerated by appropriate strategies and team work. PMID:23293315

  13. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly.

    PubMed

    Y?lmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gül?en, Ismail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-04-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

  14. Co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and lumbar disc herniation with lumbosacral nerve root anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Y?lmaz, Tevfik; Turan, Yahya; Gül?en, ?smail; Dalbayrak, Sedat

    2014-01-01

    Lumbosacral nerve root anomalies are the leading cause of lumbar surgery failures. Although co-occurrence of lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation is common, it is very rare to observe that a nerve root anomaly accompanies these lesions. A 49-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset right leg pain. Examinations revealed L5/S1 lumbar spondylolysis and disc herniation. At preoperative period, he was also diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly. Following discectomy and root decompression, stabilization was performed. The complaints of the patient diagnosed with lumbosacral root anomaly at intraoperative period were improved at postoperative period. It should be remembered that in patients with lumbar disc herniation and spondylolysis, lumbar root anomalies may coexist when clinical and neurological picture is severe. Preoperative and perioperative assessments should be made meticulously to prevent neurological injury. PMID:25210343

  15. Spontaneous Remission of a Big Subligamentous Extruded Disc Herniation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    ?brahimo?lu, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous Regression of a Big Subligamentous Extruded Disc Herniation: Case Report And Review of The Literature The most efficient method for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation is still controversial. The most important aspect is the application of the suitable conservative or surgical treatment to the right patient at the right time. In lumbar disc herniation patients, one must not precipitate except for cases that require surgical indications as in cauda equina syndrome, evolutive motor deficit and persistence of pain in spite of the narcotics. However, the spontaneous regression mechanism has not been completely determined yet. The proposed hypotheses are; dehydration, retraction of the disc to the hernia in the annulus fibrosis, enzymatic catabolism and phagocytosis. In this study, the case of a patient with huge lumbar disc hernia regressing by itself has been presented and the potential mechanisms of disc regression have been discussed. PMID:25883664

  16. Massive lumbar disc herniation with complete dural sac stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Chung, Nam-Su; Son, Kwang-Hyun; Lee, Hyo-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Background: Large lumbar disc herniation (LDH) has been reported to have a greater tendency to resolve in clinical and pathomorphological evolutions. However, various definitions of large LDH have been used without validation, and the clinical symptoms of large LDH have not been fully elucidated. We conducted a retrospective analysis to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of massive LDH with complete dural sac stenosis Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 33 cases of LDH with complete dural sac stenosis on magnetic resonance imaging. Complete dural sac stenosis was defined as no recognizable rootlet and cerebrospinal fluid signal on T2-weighed axial MR images. The clinical outcome parameters included back pain, leg pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), and neurological dysfunction. The paired t-test and Wilcoxon's signed rank test were used to compare serial changes in back pain, leg pain and neurological dysfunction. Results: Mean duration of followup was 66 months (range 24 - 108 months). There were 24 male and 9 female. The mean age was 37 years (range 20 - 53 years). At presentation, mean visual analogue scales for back pain and leg pain were 75.3 ± 19.1 (range 12 - 100) and 80.2 ± 14.6 (range 0 -100), respectively. Mean ODI was 67.1 ± 18.8 (range 26 - 88). Neurological dysfunction was found in 9 patients (27.3%), and the bowel/bladder dysfunction was found in 2 patients (3.1%). Conservative treatment was performed in 21 patients (63.6%) with satisfactory results. Seven patients underwent decompressive surgery, and 5 underwent posterolateral fusion. Conclusions: A massive LDH with complete dural sac stenosis was found to be associated with severe back and leg pain at presentation, however surgical treatment can be deferred unless significant neurological symptoms occur. PMID:23798754

  17. Percutaneous cervical nucleoplasty and percutaneous cervical discectomy treatments of the contained cervical disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denglu YanJian; Jian Li; Haodong Zhu; Zhi Zhang; Lijun Duan

    2010-01-01

    Background  There were no studies in literature to compare the clinical outcomes of percutaneous nucleoplasty (PCN) and percutaneous cervical\\u000a discectomy (PCD) in contained cervical disc herniation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A retrospective of patients with symptomatic contained cervical disc herniated were operated on with PCN and PCD from June\\u000a 2003 to July 2005. Two-hundred and four patients initially fulfilled the study criteria, and 28 patients

  18. Blunt Force Thoracic Trauma: A Case Study of Pericardial Rupture and Associated Cardiac Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Glotzer, O. S.; Bhakta, A.; Fabian, T.

    2014-01-01

    Pericardial rupture, with associated cardiac herniation, is generally fatal. Diagnosis is difficult and frequently missed due to the subtlety of identifying characteristics. We report a case of a left sided pericardial rupture and cardiac herniation resulting from a high speed motorcycle collision. This report describes the course of treatment from the emergent admission to the diagnosis of the pericardial tear to retrospective CT analysis and rupture identification. In addition the difficulties of initial diagnosis, key symptoms, and identification of CT images are presented and discussed. PMID:25184070

  19. Endoscopic transforaminal thoracic foraminotomy and discectomy for the treatment of thoracic disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Nie, Hong-Fei; Liu, Kai-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic disc herniation is a relatively rare yet challenging-to-diagnose condition. Currently there is no universally accepted optimal surgical treatment for symptomatic thoracic disc herniation. Previously reported surgical approaches are often associated with high complication rates. Here we describe our minimally invasive technique of removing thoracic disc herniation, and report the primary results of a series of cases. Between January 2009 and March 2012, 13 patients with symptomatic thoracic disc herniation were treated with endoscopic thoracic foraminotomy and discectomy under local anesthesia. A bone shaver was used to undercut the facet and rib head for foraminotomy. Discectomy was achieved by using grasper, radiofrequency, and the Holmium-YAG laser. We analyzed the clinical outcomes of the patients using the visual analogue scale (VAS), MacNab classification, and Oswestry disability index (ODI). At the final follow up (mean: 17 months; range: 6-41 months), patient self-reported satisfactory rate was 76.9%. The mean VAS for mid back pain was improved from 9.1 to 4.2, and the mean ODI was improved from 61.0 to 43.8. One complication of postoperative spinal headache occurred during the surgery and the patient was successfully treated with epidural blood patch. No other complications were observed or reported during and after the surgery. PMID:24455232

  20. Automatic Diagnosis of Lumbar Disc Herniation with Shape and Appearance Features from MRI

    E-print Network

    Corso, Jason J.

    ) CAD using MRI for detection of breast9 and prostate10 cancer. More recently, major attention has beenAutomatic Diagnosis of Lumbar Disc Herniation with Shape and Appearance Features from MRI Raja' S diagnosis reduces the large burden on radiologists who have to diagnose hundreds of cases each day using

  1. Inguinal Herniation of the Urinary Bladder Presenting as Recurrent Urinary Retention

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Amit; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Shelef, Ilan; Shaked, Gadi; Koyfman, Leonid; Borer, Abraham; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal is an uncommon finding, observed in 0.5–4% of inguinal hernias (Curry (2000)). It is usually associated with other conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Consequently, in men, it is usually associated with some degree of urinary retention. We present a 42-year-old man in whom herniation of the urinary bladder was the cause of urinary retention, and not vice versa. The patient was on tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNFA) (Etanercept) for severe Ankylosing spondylitis. Initially, the urinary retention was thought to be a side effect of the medication, but after the drug was discontinued, urinary retention persisted. CT and MRI demonstrated huge herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal. Immediately after the hernia was repaired, bladder function was restored. TNF treatment was restarted, and no further urinary symptoms were observed in the next two years of follow-up. In this case, the primary illness and its treatment were distracting barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. In younger patients with a large hernia who develop unexpected urinary retention, herniation of the urinary bladder should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26075132

  2. Inguinal Herniation of the Urinary Bladder Presenting as Recurrent Urinary Retention.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Amit; Roy-Shapira, Aviel; Shelef, Ilan; Shaked, Gadi; Brotfain, Evgeni; Koyfman, Leonid; Borer, Abraham; Klein, Moti

    2015-01-01

    Herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal is an uncommon finding, observed in 0.5-4% of inguinal hernias (Curry (2000)). It is usually associated with other conditions that increase intra-abdominal pressure such as bladder neck obstruction due to prostatic hypertrophy. Consequently, in men, it is usually associated with some degree of urinary retention. We present a 42-year-old man in whom herniation of the urinary bladder was the cause of urinary retention, and not vice versa. The patient was on tumor necrosis factor alpha antagonist (TNFA) (Etanercept) for severe Ankylosing spondylitis. Initially, the urinary retention was thought to be a side effect of the medication, but after the drug was discontinued, urinary retention persisted. CT and MRI demonstrated huge herniation of the urinary bladder into the inguinal canal. Immediately after the hernia was repaired, bladder function was restored. TNF treatment was restarted, and no further urinary symptoms were observed in the next two years of follow-up. In this case, the primary illness and its treatment were distracting barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. In younger patients with a large hernia who develop unexpected urinary retention, herniation of the urinary bladder should be highly considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26075132

  3. Intermittent midline suprasternal neck mass caused by superior herniation of the thymus.

    PubMed

    Su, Siew Choo; Hess, Thomas; Whybourne, Annie; Chang, Anne B

    2015-03-01

    Neck masses in infants and children have a wide differential diagnosis. However, neck masses apparent only during raised intrathoracic pressure are rare with a limited number of causes, including superior herniation of the normal thymus, apical lung herniation, jugular phlebectasia and laryngocoele. These conditions can easily be differentiated from one another by imaging. We present an infant with intermittent suprasternal neck mass visible only during increased intrathoracic pressure, produced either by crying or straining. Diagnosis of superior herniation of the thymus into the neck was confirmed by ultrasonography with the characteristic sonographic appearances of the normal thymus as well as its shape, size and location. Ultrasonography should be the first imaging modality of choice. Management of superior herniation of the thymus into the neck should be conservative as the thymus naturally involutes with increasing age. Awareness of the differential diagnosis of neck swelling present only on Vasalva manoeuvre or increased intrathoracic pressure is important to prevent unnecessary tests, avoid radiation, biopsy and surgery. PMID:25266888

  4. Massive epidural varix mimicking lumbar disc herniation: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Kenneth M

    2014-10-01

    Sciatica is generally caused by such well-recognized entities as lumbar disc herniation and degenerative stenosis. A rarely reported alternative cause of lumbar nerve root compression is by distended epidural veins. A case is presented of sciatica produced by such a mechanism, successfully treated by decompressive laminotomy. PMID:25675591

  5. Lumbar Disc Herniation in a Patient With Congenital Vertebral Body Anomaly: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Atabey, Cem; Topuz, Ali Kivanc; Velio?lu, Murat; Demircan, Mehmet Nusret

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation is characterized with low back and leg pain resulting from the degenerated lumbar disc compressing the spinal nerve root. The etiology of degenerative spine is related to age, smoking, microtrauma, obesity, disorders of familial collagen structure, occupational and sports-related physical activity. However, disc herniations induced by congenital lumbar vertebral anomalies are rarely seen. Vertebral fusion defect is one of the causes of congenital anomalies. The pathogenesis of embryological corpus vertebral fusion anomaly is not fully known. In this paper, a 30-year-old patient who had the complaints of low back and right leg pain after falling from a height is presented. She had right L5-S1 disc herniation that had developed on the basis of S1 vertebra corpus fusion anomaly in Lumbar computed tomography. This case has been discussed in the light of literature based on evaluations of Lumbar Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This case is unique in that it is the first case with development of lumbar disc herniation associated with S1 vertebral corpus fusion anomaly. Congenital malformations with unusual clinical presentation after trauma should be evaluated through advanced radiological imaging techniques. PMID:25620987

  6. Abnormal anatomy of inferior orbital fissure and herniation of buccal fat pad.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, T; Thomson, A; Ilankovan, V

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the inferior orbital fissure has been well studied, and its reported dimensions vary little. It is encountered during exploration of the orbital floor and when possible is not disturbed. We describe a case of herniation of buccal fat through the inferior orbital fissure that was found during exploration and repair of the orbital floor. PMID:25451070

  7. [Acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-zhen; Chen, Hai-yong; Zheng, Xiao; Liu, Nong-yu

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation, providing the basis for future research strategies. Randomized control trials. (RCT) of acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumber disc herniation at home and abroad from 2000 to 2013 were searched, analysis and evaluation of literature and strength of evidence were based on the principles and methods of Evidence-based Medicine. The total effective rate and curative rate were considered as primary outcome measures; pain improvement, quality of life, relapse rate and adverse effects were considered as secondary outcome measures. Seventeen RCTs were identified, Meta-analysis showed that (1) total effective rate and curative rate: acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than single therapy (acupuncture or traction); (2) pain improvement: acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than traction therapy; (3) relapse rate: current evidence could not support the conclusion that acupuncture combined with traction therapy was better than traction therapy. Acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation was effective. However, the included studies were with high risk of bias, important outcome measures such as quality of life, relapse rate and adverse effects were not found in most of the studies. Current evidence has not yet been able to fully reflect acupuncture combined with traction therapy for lumbar disc herniation is better than single therapy, so more RCTs of higher quality are needed to further confirm its efficacy and safety. PMID:25509761

  8. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes isolates from surgically excised lumbar disc herniations.

    PubMed

    Rollason, Jess; McDowell, Andrew; Albert, Hanne B; Barnard, Emma; Worthington, Tony; Hilton, Anthony C; Vernallis, Ann; Patrick, Sheila; Elliott, Tom; Lambert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods, 52% of the isolates were type II (50% of culture-positive patients), while type IA strains accounted for 28% of isolates (42% patients). Type III (11% isolates; 21% patients) and type IB strains (9% isolates; 17% patients) were detected less frequently. The MIC values for all isolates were lowest for amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin (?1 mg/L). The MIC for fusidic acid was 1-2 mg/L. The MIC for trimethoprim and gentamicin was 2 to ?4 ?mg/L. The demonstration that type II and III strains, which are not frequently recovered from skin, predominated within our isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed. PMID:24066290

  9. Genotypic and Antimicrobial Characterisation of Propionibacterium acnes Isolates from Surgically Excised Lumbar Disc Herniations

    PubMed Central

    Rollason, Jess; Albert, Hanne B.; Barnard, Emma; Worthington, Tony; Hilton, Anthony C.; Vernallis, Ann; Patrick, Sheila; Elliott, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic skin commensal Propionibacterium acnes is an underestimated cause of human infections and clinical conditions. Previous studies have suggested a role for the bacterium in lumbar disc herniation and infection. To further investigate this, five biopsy samples were surgically excised from each of 64 patients with lumbar disc herniation. P. acnes and other bacteria were detected by anaerobic culture, followed by biochemical and PCR-based identification. In total, 24/64 (38%) patients had evidence of P. acnes in their excised herniated disc tissue. Using recA and mAb typing methods, 52% of the isolates were type II (50% of culture-positive patients), while type IA strains accounted for 28% of isolates (42% patients). Type III (11% isolates; 21% patients) and type IB strains (9% isolates; 17% patients) were detected less frequently. The MIC values for all isolates were lowest for amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, rifampicin, tetracycline, and vancomycin (?1mg/L). The MIC for fusidic acid was 1-2 mg/L. The MIC for trimethoprim and gentamicin was 2 to ?4?mg/L. The demonstration that type II and III strains, which are not frequently recovered from skin, predominated within our isolate collection (63%) suggests that the role of P. acnes in lumbar disc herniation should not be readily dismissed. PMID:24066290

  10. Multipoint determination of pressure-volume curves in human intervertebral discs.

    PubMed Central

    Ranu, H S

    1993-01-01

    To gain further insight into the biomechanics of the human intervertebral disc and to determine a potential mechanism for causation and relief of symptoms related to a herniated disc, the pressure-volume relation was determined within the nucleus pulposus. Pressure was measured continuously within the nucleus pulposus in 17 intact lumbar discs from human cadavers by means of a miniature strain gauge at the tip of a size 4 French (1.3 mm) catheter inserted into the nucleus pulposus. The volume of the nucleus pulposus was increased at the slow, continuous rate of 0.034 ml/min by the pump regulated infusion of saline coloured with methylene blue. In 12 unloaded discs, nucleus pulposus pressure rose in a linear fashion (linear r = 0.96) from an initial mean pressure of 174 (SD 81) kPa. The mean rate of pressure rise was 327 (SD 109) kPa/ml volume increase. The peak pressure measured was 550 kPa; this was slightly higher than the capability of the transducer. Similar linear relations were obtained during infusion of saline into five vertically loaded discs fixed at the deformation produced by a 9.1 kg weight. The data define the pressure-volume relation within the disc and show that the nucleus pulposus, surrounded by the relatively inelastic annulus and the solid vertebral end plates, has the properties of a tight hydraulic space in which a large pressure rise will regularly result from a small increase in volume. Presumably the opposite is also true. The data may provide a biomechanical basis for the physiological variation in symptoms related to the disc, and for any benefits obtained from interventions designed to remove disc tissue. PMID:8447694

  11. Sensitivity analysis of permeability parameters of bovine nucleus pulposus obtained through inverse fitting of the nonlinear biphasic equation: effect of sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Riches, Philip E

    2012-01-01

    Permeability controls the fluid flow into and out of soft tissue, and plays an important role in maintaining the health status of such tissue. Accurate determination of the parameters that define permeability is important for the interpretation of models that incorporate such processes. This paper describes the determination of strain-dependent permeability parameters from the nonlinear biphasic equation from experimental data of different sampling frequencies using the Nelder-Mead simplex method. The ability of this method to determine the global optimum was assessed by constructing the whole manifold arising from possible parameter combinations. Many parameter combinations yielded similar fits with the Nelder-Mead algorithm able to identify the global maximum within the resolution of the manifold. Furthermore, the sampling strategy affected the optimum values of the permeability parameters. Therefore, permeability parameter estimations arising from inverse methods should be utilised with the knowledge that they come with large confidence intervals. PMID:21749275

  12. BFKL Pomeron calculus: nucleus-nucleus scattering

    E-print Network

    Carlos Contreras; Eugene Levin; Jeremy S. Miller

    2011-12-19

    In this paper the action of the BFKL Pomeron calculus is re-written in momentum representation, and the equations of motion for nucleus-nucleus collisions are derived, in this representation. We found the semi-classical solutions to these equations, outside of the saturation domain. Inside this domain these equations reduce to the set of delay differential equations, and their asymptotic solutions are derived.

  13. Extreme lateral lumbar disc herniation in a 12-year child: case report and review of the literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheng-Dan Jiang; Lei-Sheng Jiang; Li-Yang Dai

    2010-01-01

    Extreme lateral lumbar disc herniations (ELLDHs) occur more frequently among elderly patients, with a peak incidence in the\\u000a sixth decade, and are rarely found in children. The patient presented is a 12-year-old boy with a 3-month history of right-sided\\u000a leg pain. Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an extreme lateral disc herniation on the right\\u000a at L4–L5 with compression

  14. Peridural scar and its relation to clinical outcome: a randomised study on surgically treated lumbar disc herniation patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katarina Rönnberg; B. Lind; B. Zoega; G. Gadeholt-Göthlin; K. Halldin; M. Gellerstedt; H. Brisby

    2008-01-01

    A prospective randomised 2-year follow-up study on patients undergoing lumbar disc herniation surgery. The objective was to\\u000a investigate the relationship between peridural scarring and clinical outcome, the scar development 6 and 24 months postoperatively\\u000a by using MRI, and if ADCON-L (a bioresorbable carbohydrate polymer gel) has an effect on scar size and\\/or improve patients’\\u000a outcome after lumbar disc herniation surgery. The

  15. Herniated intervertebral disc associated with a lumbar spine dislocation as a cause of Cauda Equina syndrome: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gaby E. Kreichati; Farid N. Kassab; Khalil E. Kharrat

    2006-01-01

    To report a case of Cauda Equina syndrome with the completion of the paralysis after the reduction of a L4L5 dislocation due to a herniated disc. Although several articles have described a post-traumatic disc herniation in the cervical spinal canal, this is not well known in the lumbar region. A 30-year-old man was admitted to the emergency room with blunt

  16. Perforation of the Pregnant Uterus during Laparoscopy for Suspected Internal Herniation after Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Harsem, N. K.; Røstad, S.; Mathisen, L. C.; Jacobsen, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    We report perforations of a pregnant uterus during laparoscopy for suspected internal herniation after gastric bypass at 24 weeks of gestation. Abdominal access and gas insufflation were achieved by the use of a 12 mm optic trocar. An additional 5 mm trocar was positioned. The perforations were handled by suturing following laparotomy and mobilisation of the high located uterus. The uterine fundus was located in the subcostal area. Internal herniation was not verified. A cesarean section was made 6 weeks later due to acute low abdominal pain. During delivery the uterus was found normal. At 5 months of age the child has developed normal and seems healthy. Optical trocars should be used with caution for abdominal access during laparoscopy in pregnancy. Open access should probably be preferred in most cases. Accidental perforations of the uterine cavity may be handled in selected cases with simple closure even following the use of large trocars under close postoperative surveillance throughout the pregnancy. PMID:25548693

  17. Lumbar disc herniation in a child with cystic fibrosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, George A; Stefanaki, Kalliopi; Sfakianos, George; Prodromou, Neofytos

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of child with cystic fibrosis and lumbar disc herniation. An 8-year-old boy presented with low back pain that exacerbated on coughing, sitting, walking, or bending and diminished when lying down. The straight leg raising test was positive when the right leg was lifted at 60 degrees. Crossed leg raising test was negative. Lumbar MRI revealed a L5-S1central disc protrusion. Conservative treatment was not effective and the patient underwent surgery. Postoperatively the patient experienced regression of the pain. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of lumbar disc herniation in a child with cystic fibrosis. Although this case might be coincidental, thorough investigation of back pain, which is frequent in patients with cystic fibrosis, should be performed. PMID:24584798

  18. Third ventricle herniation into the sphenoid sinus following endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal fenestration of Rathkes cleft cyst.

    PubMed

    Jalessi, Maryam; Sharifi, Guive; Jahanbakhshi, Amin; Parsa, Khosro; Yazdanifard, Parin

    2014-01-01

    Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) is an uncommon albeit benign sellar lesion with an incidence rate of between 2 to 33%. RCCs are usually asymptomatic except in the large cases whit suprasellar extension. We herein describe a unique case of RCC, which presented with severe visual loss owing to massive herniation of the optic chiasm and third ventricle down into the sphenoid sinus through a small 8 x 8 mm foramen after transnasal endoscopic surgical fenestration and marsupialization of the cyst. We describe a reconstruction method via endonasal transsphenoidal approach in this case and suggest prophylactic reconstruction of the sellar floor in sellar lesions with equal or more voluminous suprasellar extensions that are susceptible to such massive herniation and secondary empty sella syndrome. PMID:24535793

  19. Unilateral inferior temporal lobectomy with hippocampectomy for relief of incisural herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B. Scoville; D. B. Bettis

    1979-01-01

    Summary 1.The syndrome of incisural hippocampal herniation, accompanied by unilateral and then bilateral fixed pupils, deepening coma, respiratory irregularity (Cheyne-Stokes), contralateral hemiplegia, ipsilateral decerebrate posturing, rising blood pressure, and finally renal shutdown, indicates a terminal state that requires immediate relief.2.Accepted methods of relief by brain shrinkage, dexamethasone, subtemporal decompression, anterior temporal lobectomy, cutting of the tentorium, and even massive uncapping

  20. The Impact of Epidural Steroid Injections on the Outcomes of Patients Treated for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Radcliff, Kristen; Hilibrand, Alan; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Delasotta, Lawrence; Rihn, Jeffrey; Zhao, Wenyan; Vaccaro, Alexander; Albert, Todd J.; Weinstein, James N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) is a prospective, multicenter study of operative versus nonoperative treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. It has been suggested that epidural steroid injections may help improve patient outcomes and lower the rate of crossover to surgical treatment. Methods: One hundred and fifty-four patients included in the intervertebral disc herniation arm of the SPORT who had received an epidural steroid injection during the first three months of the study and no injection prior to the study (the ESI group) were compared with 453 patients who had not received an injection during the first three months of the study or prior to the study (the No-ESI group). Results: There was a significant difference in the preference for surgery between groups (19% in the ESI group compared with 56% in the No-ESI group, p < 0.001). There was no difference in primary or secondary outcome measures at four years between the groups. A higher percentage of patients changed from surgical to nonsurgical treatment in the ESI group (41% versus 12% in the No-ESI, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with lumbar disc herniation treated with epidural steroid injection had no improvement in short or long-term outcomes compared with patients who were not treated with epidural steroid injection. There was a higher prevalence of crossover to nonsurgical treatment among surgically assigned ESI-group patients, although this was confounded by the increased baseline desire to avoid surgery among patients in the ESI group. Given these data, we concluded that more studies are necessary to establish the value of epidural steroid injection for symptomatic lumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:22739998

  1. The clinical significance of gadolinium enhancement of lumbar disc herniations and nerve roots on preoperative MRI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. A. J. Vroomen; S. J. M. Van Hapert; R. E. H. Van Acker; E. A. M. Beuls; A. G. H. Kessels; J. T. Wilmink

    1998-01-01

    The clinical significance of preoperative gadolinium DPTA enhancement around disc herniations and in the epidural space on\\u000a MRI is not clear. The relation of nerve root enhancement to dysfunction also remains controversial. To investigate the clinical\\u000a significance of contrast enhancement we looked at the symptoms and signs and gadolinium DPTA-enhanced images of 71 consecutive\\u000a surgical candidates in a standardised fashion.

  2. Sacroiliac joint dysfunction in patients with imaging-proven lumbar disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Galm; M. Fröhling; M. Rittmeister; E. Schmitt

    1998-01-01

    A dysfunction of a joint is defined as a reversible functional restriction of motion presenting with hypomobility according\\u000a to manual medicine terminology. The aim of our study was to evaluate the frequency and significance of sacroiliac joint (SIJ)\\u000a dysfunction in patients with low back pain and sciatica and imaging-proven disc herniation. We examined the SIJs of 150 patients\\u000a with low

  3. Microsurgical cordotomy in 20 patients with epi-\\/intradural fibrosis following operation for lumbar disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Probst

    1990-01-01

    Summary Using an improved microsurgical technique, cordotomy was carried out by the cervicothoracic route in 20 patients with persistent radicular pain due to epi-\\/intradural fibrosis following operation for lumbar disc herniation. 65% of them had good long-term results with respect to radicular pain (follow-up period 6–132 months; mean 66 months). Permanent severe motor impairment was not observed. In patients with

  4. Estimates of success in patients with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation depend upon outcome measure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Julsrud Haugen; Lars Grøvle; Jens Ivar Brox; Bård Natvig; Anne Keller; Dag Soldal; Margreth Grotle

    The objectives were to estimate the cut-off points for success on different sciatica outcome measures and to determine the\\u000a success rate after an episode of sciatica by using these cut-offs. A 12-month multicenter observational study was conducted\\u000a on 466 patients with sciatica and lumbar disc herniation. The cut-off values were estimated by ROC curve analyses using Completely recovered or Much

  5. When should conservative treatment for lumbar disc herniation be ceased and surgery considered?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf D. Rothoerl; Chris Woertgen; Alexander Brawanski

    2002-01-01

    .   Different authors recommend different time spans for conservative treatment before considering surgery in patients suffering\\u000a from lumbar disc herniation. We analyzed the time of onset of symptoms such as pain, sensory deficit, and motor deficit in\\u000a a surgically treated group in comparison to outcome after surgery in order to define a time threshold when surgical results\\u000a deteriorate and operation

  6. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials using posterior discectomy to treat lumbar disc herniations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alberto Gotfryd; Osmar Avanzi

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of three different discectomy techniques using a posterior\\u000a approach for the treatment of herniated lumbar discs. There are only a small number of prospective randomised studies comparing\\u000a posterior lumbar discectomy techniques, and no recent systematic review has been published on this matter. Using the Cochrane\\u000a Collaboration guidelines, all

  7. [Far lateral lumbar disc herniation: clinical and radiographical features of three cases].

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, H; Igarashi, S; Koyama, T

    1996-04-01

    The authors report three operated cases of far lateral lumbar disc herniation (FLLDH) during the past two years and discuss their diagnostic pitfalls. Until recently FLLDH was hardly ever diagnosed because the myelography was negative in almost all cases. Since the advent of CT and/or MRI, FLLDH has been found to be not such a rare entity. FLLDH has also been found to reveal characteristic clinical features and radiographical findings. Usual lumbar disc herniations occur at L4/5 or L5/S1 levels, producing low back pain with the pain or sensory disturbance from the posterolateral thigh down to the foot. In contrast, FLLDH affects upper lumbar levels and produces severe anterolateral thigh pain, dysesthesia resulting from nerve root or dorsal root ganglion (DRG) compression in the foraminal or extraforaminal region. The level predilection of these two groups can be attributed to the difference of the facet joint planes between the upper and lower lumbar levels. The facets with a coronal plane are resistant to lateral bending and rotational forces, but those with a sagittal plane are unstable resulting in more shearing stress to the intervertebral discs. A patient with definite neurological signs but a negative myelography should be examined for FLLDH by using a high-resolution CT or MRI. MRI clearly shows the detailed anatomical relationships between herniated disc and nerve root or DRG in the foraminal and extraforaminal regions. As well as thin-sliced axial images, sagittal MR images that include the foraminal zone are useful for detecting a direct nerve root compression from FLLDH. The authors conclude that gait disturbance due to severe leg pain, antero-lateral thigh pain or dysesthesia are characteristic of FLLDH, and that either a foraminal or extraforaminal herniated disc or both on a CT and/or MRI are diagnostic radiographical findings of FLLDH. PMID:8934890

  8. Dural herniations, encephaloceles: An index of neglected chronic otitis media and further complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Spiros Manolidis

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective review of 110 consecutive cases of chronic otitis media surgery was carried out in a large metropolitan public teaching hospital in the United States that serves the inner-city population. The purpose was to identify dural herniations and encephaloceles (DHE) as well as complications associated with these entities. Twenty-nine such patients (26.4%) were identified, 7 of which (6.4%) were

  9. Posterior approach for cervical fracture–dislocations with traumatic disc herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Nakashima; Yasutsugu Yukawa; Keigo Ito; Masaaki Machino; Hany El Zahlawy; Fumihiko Kato

    2011-01-01

    In the treatment algorithm for cervical spine fracture–dislocations, the recommended approach for treatment if there is a\\u000a disc fragment in the canal is the anterior approach. The posterior approach is not common because of the disadvantage of potential\\u000a neurological deterioration during reduction in traumatic cervical herniation patients. However, reports about the frequency\\u000a of this deterioration and the behavior of disc

  10. Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Teli; Alessio Lovi; Marco Brayda-Bruno; Antonino Zagra; Andrea Corriero; Fabrizio Giudici; Leone Minoia

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting\\u000a results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and\\u000a complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18–65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation\\u000a and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised

  11. Revisional Percutaneous Full Endoscopic Disc Surgery for Recurrent Herniation of Previous Open Lumbar Discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ho-Guen; Rhee, Nam Kyou; Lim, Kwahn Sue

    2011-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To determine the feasibility and effectiveness of revisional percutaneous full endoscopic discectomy for recurrent herniation after conventional open disc surgery. Overview of the Literature Repeated open discectomy with or without fusion has been the most common procedure for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy for recurrent herniation has been thought of as an impossible procedure. Despite good results with open revisional surgery, major problems may be caused by injuries to the posterior stabilized structures. Our team did revisional full endoscopic lumbar disc surgery on the basis of our experience doing primary full endoscopic disc surgery. Methods Between February 2004 and August 2009 a total of 41 patients in our hospital underwent revisional percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy using a YESS endoscopic system and a micro-osteotome (designed by the authors). Indications for surgery were recurrent disc herniation following conventional open discectomy; with compression of the nerve root revealed by Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging; corresponding radiating pain which was not alleviated after conservative management over 6 weeks. Patients with severe neurologic deficits and isolated back pain were excluded. Results The mean follow-up period was 16 months (range, 13 to 42 months). The visual analog scale for pain in the leg and back showed significant post-treatment improvement (p < 0.001). Based on a modified version of MacNab's criteria, 90.2% showed excellent or good outcomes. There was no measurable blood loss. There were two cases of recurrence of and four cases with complications. Conclusions Percutaneous full-endoscopic revisional disc surgery without additional structural damage is feasible and effective in terms of there being less chance of fusion and bleeding. This technique can be an alternative to conventional repeated discectomy. PMID:21386940

  12. Ten to 15-year outcome of surgery for lumbar disc herniation: radiographic instability and clinical findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Padua; S. Padua; E. Romanini; L. Padua; E. De Santis

    1999-01-01

    The most appropriate treatment for radiculopathy associated with disc pathology is still controversial. Since 1934, surgical\\u000a treatment has consisted of hemilaminectomy and removal of the herniated material. Many authors believe that these procedures\\u000a may cause degenerative spondylosis and vertebral instability. Several surgical methods have been proposed, but the long-term\\u000a effects are still being debated. In addition there appear to be

  13. Comparison of Discectomy versus Sequestrectomy in Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Meta-Analysis of Comparative Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Jisheng; Hu, Yejun; Zheng, Zefeng; Zhu, Ting; Zheng, Huawei; Jing, Yibiao; Xu, Kan

    2015-01-01

    Background Lumbar disc removal is currently the standard treatment for lumbar disc herniation. No consensus has been achieved whether aggressive disc resection with curettage (discectomy) versus conservative removal of the offending disc fragment alone (sequestrectomy) provides better outcomes. This study aims to compare the reherniation rate and clinical outcomes between discectomy and sequestrectomy by literature review and a meta-analysis. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library was performed up to June 1, 2014. Outcomes of interest assessing the two techniques included demographic and clinical baseline characteristics, perioperative variables, complications, recurrent herniation rate and post-operative functional outcomes. Results Twelve eligible trials evaluating discectomy vs sequestrectomy were identified including one randomized controlled study, five prospective and six retrospective comparative studies. By contrast to discectomy, sequestrectomy was associated with significantly less operative time (p<0.001), lower visual analogue scale (VAS) for low back pain (p<0.05), less post-operative analgesic usage (p<0.05) and better patients’ satisfaction (p<0.05). Recurrent herniation rate, reoperation rate, intraoperative blood loss, hospitalization duration and VAS for sciatica were without significant difference. Conclusions According to our pooled data, sequestrectomy entails equivalent reherniation rate and complications compared with discectomy but maintains a lower incidence of recurrent low back pain and higher satisfactory rate. High-quality prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to firmly assess these two procedures. PMID:25815514

  14. Incidence and clinical relevance of herniation of the mylohyoid muscle with penetration of the sublingual gland.

    PubMed

    Kiesler, K; Gugatschka, M; Friedrich, G

    2007-09-01

    Swelling of the submandibular region may cause problems in daily clinical diagnosis and requires further exploration. Ultrasonic examination provides a simple, non-invasive and radiation-free method. The goal of our study was to show the high incidence of herniation of the mylohyoid muscle with penetration of the sublingual glands, in some cases clinically imposing as permanent swelling. Penetration was classified into four grades (Grade 0-III). In course of routine examinations of the neck by ultrasound, the anterior part of the mylohyoid muscle was observed in 124 consecutive patients from our outpatient's clinic, presenting with unclear swelling of the neck, mostly due to lymph nodes. In resting position and during swallowing the degree of penetration of the sublingual gland through the mylohyoid muscle was staged. Almost 60% of patients showed an affection of the mylohyoid muscle at either site of varying degrees. In 40% only a thinning of the muscle could be noticed (grade I), whereas in 21 patients (17%) a significant herniation of the gland during swallowing could be observed (grade II). In two patients (2%) a constant breach of the mylohyoid muscle with permanent herniation of the gland imposing as swelling could be seen (grade III). Occasional or permanent penetration of the sublingual gland through the mylohyoid muscle is not a rare finding and can be found in almost every fifth individual using ultrasound. This may impose clinically as permanent swelling and may be of value in the differential diagnosis of swelling in the submandibular region. PMID:17479273

  15. Intraoperative atelectasis due to endotracheal tube cuff herniation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moazeni Bitgani, Mohammad; Madineh, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff herniation is a rare, and often difficult to diagnose, cause of bronchial obstruction. We present a case of outside cuff herniation of an endotracheal tube that caused pulmonary right lung atelectasis. A 29-year-old man ,a case of car accident with multiple fractures, was admitted to the emergency ward and transferred to the operating room(OR) for open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of all fractures .The procedures were done under general anesthesia (G/A). The past medical history of the patient did not indicate any problem. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental, atracurium and then maintained by propofol and remifentanyl infusions and 100% O2 via orally inserted ETT. The patient was positioned in left lateral decubitus position for operation. Two hours after induction of anesthesia, the oxygen saturation level dropped to 85 % and the breath sounds in the right side of the chest were weakened. The chest x-ray images showed right lung atelectasis especially in the upper lobe. The problem was disappeared after removal of the ETT. In this case, we observed that an ETT cuff herniation can be a cause of airway obstruction. If there is a decreased unilateral breath sounds, we recommend replacement or repositioning of ETT. PMID:23165818

  16. Comparison of Two Methods of Epidural Steroid Injection in the Treatment of Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi-Nejad, Ali; Shahsavarani, Shahram; Keikhosravi, Ehsan; Shahba, Mohsen; Ebrahimi, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose We compared the effects of two methods of epidural steroid injection in patients with recurrent disc herniation. Overview of Literature To our knowledge, there is no previous report of such a comparison in these patients. Methods The study was performed with 30 patients with relapsed lumbar disc herniation whose pain was not relieved by conservative remedies. The patients were divided into two groups, each of 15 patients, and entered the study for caudal or transforaminal injections. The degree of pain, ability to stand and walk, and the Prolo function score were evaluated in both groups before the injection and 2 months and 6 months after the injection. Results The degrees of pain reduction in the caudal injection group in the second and sixth months were 0.6 and 1.63, respectively, and in the transforaminal injection group were 1.33 and 1.56, respectively. The difference between the two methods was not statistically significant. Similarly, no other evaluated criterion showed a significant difference between the methods. Conclusions In the current study, the caudal and transforaminal steroid injection methods showed similar outcomes in the treatment of relapsed lumbar disc herniation. However, more detailed patient categorizing may help in finding possible subgroups with differences. PMID:25346818

  17. A systematic review of randomised clinical trials using posterior discectomy to treat lumbar disc herniations

    PubMed Central

    Avanzi, Osmar

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study was to examine the safety and effectiveness of three different discectomy techniques using a posterior approach for the treatment of herniated lumbar discs. There are only a small number of prospective randomised studies comparing posterior lumbar discectomy techniques, and no recent systematic review has been published on this matter. Using the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines, all randomised or “quasi-randomised” clinical trials, comparing classic, microsurgical, and endoscopic lumbar discectomies using a posterior approach were systematically reviewed. No statistically significant differences were found between these techniques regarding improvement in pain, sensory deficits, motor strength, reflexes, and patient satisfaction. Current data suggest that the microsurgical and endoscopic techniques are superior to the classic technique for the treatment of single level lumbar disc herniations with respect to volume of blood loss, systemic repercussions, and duration of hospital stay. All three surgical techniques were found to be effective for the treatment of single level lumbar disc herniations in patients without degenerative vertebral deformities. No conclusions could be drawn from the clinical randomised studies reviewed regarding the safety of the three techniques studied due to insufficient data on postoperative complications. PMID:18500517

  18. Projections from the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus to the Cochlear Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Ryugo, David K.

    Projections from the Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus to the Cochlear Nucleus in the Rat CHARLES to the granule cell domain (GCD) of the cochlear nucleus have been shown to arise from somatosensory brain stem structures, but the nature of the projection from the spinal trigeminal nucleus is unknown. In the present

  19. Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Membrane

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2003-09-26

    Explore the form and function of three of the most important cell parts -- the nucleus, cytoplasm, and membrane -- in this video segment adapted from Carolina Biological Supply's An Introduction to the Living Cell.

  20. The Nucleus Introduced

    PubMed Central

    Pederson, Thoru

    2011-01-01

    Now is an opportune moment to address the confluence of cell biological form and function that is the nucleus. Its arrival is especially timely because the recognition that the nucleus is extremely dynamic has now been solidly established as a paradigm shift over the past two decades, and also because we now see on the horizon numerous ways in which organization itself, including gene location and possibly self-organizing bodies, underlies nuclear functions. PMID:20660024

  1. Higher risk of dural tears and recurrent herniation with lumbar micro-endoscopic discectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lovi, Alessio; Brayda-Bruno, Marco; Zagra, Antonino; Corriero, Andrea; Giudici, Fabrizio; Minoia, Leone

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies on micro-endoscopic lumbar discectomy report similar outcomes to those of open and microdiscectomy and conflicting results on complications. We designed a randomised controlled trial to investigate the hypothesis of different outcomes and complications obtainable with the three techniques. 240 patients aged 18–65 years affected by posterior lumbar disc herniation and symptoms lasting over 6 weeks of conservative management were randomised to micro-endoscopic (group 1), micro (group 2) or open (group 3) discectomy. Exclusion criteria were less than 6 weeks of pain duration, cauda equina compromise, foraminal or extra-foraminal herniations, spinal stenosis, malignancy, previous spinal surgery, spinal deformity, concurrent infection and rheumatic disease. Surgery and follow-up were made at a single Institution. A biomedical researcher independently collected and reviewed the data. ODI, back and leg VAS and SF-36 were the outcome measures used preoperatively, postoperatively and at 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-up. 212/240 (91%) patients completed the 24-month follow-up period. VAS back and leg, ODI and SF36 scores showed clinically and statistically significant improvements within groups without significant difference among groups throughout follow-up. Dural tears, root injuries and recurrent herniations were significantly more common in group 1. Wound infections were similar in group 2 and 3, but did not affect patients in group 1. Overall costs were significantly higher in group 1 and lower in group 3. In conclusion, outcome measures are equivalent 2 years following lumbar discectomy with micro-endoscopy, microscopy or open technique, but severe complications are more likely and costs higher with micro-endoscopy. PMID:20127495

  2. Transforaminal endoscopic surgery for symptomatic lumbar disc herniations: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nellensteijn, Jorm; Bartels, Ronald; Peul, Wilco; van Royen, Barend; van Tulder, Maurits

    2009-01-01

    The study design includes a systematic literature review. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of transforaminal endoscopic surgery and to compare this with open microdiscectomy in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniations. Transforaminal endoscopic techniques for patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniations have become increasingly popular. The literature has not yet been systematically reviewed. A comprehensive systematic literature search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed up to May 2008. Two reviewers independently checked all retrieved titles and abstracts and relevant full text articles for inclusion criteria. Included articles were assessed for quality and outcomes were extracted by the two reviewers independently. One randomized controlled trial, 7 non-randomized controlled trials and 31 observational studies were identified. Studies were heterogeneous regarding patient selection, indications, operation techniques, follow-up period and outcome measures and the methodological quality of these studies was poor. The eight trials did not find any statistically significant differences in leg pain reduction between the transforaminal endoscopic surgery group (89%) and the open microdiscectomy group (87%); overall improvement (84 vs. 78%), re-operation rate (6.8 vs. 4.7%) and complication rate (1.5 vs. 1%), respectively. In conclusion, current evidence on the effectiveness of transforaminal endoscopic surgery is poor and does not provide valid information to either support or refute using this type of surgery in patients with symptomatic lumbar disc herniations. High-quality randomized controlled trials with sufficiently large sample sizes are direly needed to evaluate if transforaminal endoscopic surgery is more effective than open microdiscectomy. PMID:19756781

  3. Comparison of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Open Lumbar Microdiscectomy for Recurrent Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Yeob; Shim, Chan Shik; Ahn, Yong; Choi, Young-Geun; Kim, Ho Jin

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and radiological outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and open lumbar microdiscectomy (OLM) for recurrent disc herniation. Methods Fifty-four patients, who underwent surgery, either PELD (25 patients) or repeated OLM (29 patients), due to recurrent disc herniation at L4-5 level, were divided into two groups according to the surgical methods. Excluded were patients with sequestrated disc, calcified disc, severe neurological deficit, or instability. Clinical outcomes were assessed using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiological variables were assessed using plain radiography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Results Mean operating time and hospital stay were significantly shorter in PELD group (45.8 minutes and 0.9 day, respectively) than OLM group (73.8 minutes and 3.8 days, respectively) (p < 0.001). Complications occurred in 4% in PELD group and 10.3% in OLM group in the perioperative period. At a mean follow-up duration of 34.2 months, the mean improvements of back pain, leg pain, and functional improvement were 4.0, 5.5, and 40.9% for PELD group and 2.3, 5.1, and 45.0% for OLM group, respectively. Second recurrence occurred in 4% after PELD and 10.3% after OLM. Disc height did not change after PELD, but significantly decreased after OLM (p = 0.0001). Neither sagittal rotation angle nor volume of multifidus muscle changed significantly in both groups. Conclusion Both PELD and repeated OLM showed favorable outcomes for recurrent disc herniation, but PELD had advantages in terms of shorter operating time, hospital stay, and disc height preservation. PMID:20062565

  4. Herniation of the gallbladder within a hernia of the abdominal wall associated with Mirizzi Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Paolino, LA; Millan, M; Bossi, M; Champault, G; Barrat, C

    2011-01-01

    A gallbladder incarcerated hernia associated with Mirizzi syndrome is a very rare entity and to our knowledge this is the first case ever described in literature. An 85-year-old man presented at the emergency department with a tender right upper quadrant mass. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a gallbladder lithiasis with signs of acute cholecystitis, herniated through the abdominal wall with an associated Mirizzi syndrome. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed. The patient recovered very well and the postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:24950574

  5. Herniation of the gallbladder within a hernia of the abdominal wall associated with Mirizzi Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paolino, LA; Millan, M; Bossi, M; Champault, G; Barrat, C

    2011-01-01

    A gallbladder incarcerated hernia associated with Mirizzi syndrome is a very rare entity and to our knowledge this is the first case ever described in literature. An 85-year-old man presented at the emergency department with a tender right upper quadrant mass. Computed Tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a gallbladder lithiasis with signs of acute cholecystitis, herniated through the abdominal wall with an associated Mirizzi syndrome. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and repair of the abdominal wall defect were performed. The patient recovered very well and the postoperative period was uneventful. PMID:24950574

  6. Recurrent pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle with subcutaneous herniation into the chest wall. A case report.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M S; Vaijyanath, P; Taneja, K; Dubey, B; Manchanda, S C; Venugopal, P

    1998-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle is rare, and recurrence is extremely rare. We report the case of a 62-year-old man who presented at our hospital with a painless pulsatile swelling in the left breast. He had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting and left-ventricular aneurysmectomy 14 years earlier. On investigation, the swelling was diagnosed to be a pseudoaneurysm of the left ventricle with subcutaneous herniation. The extreme rarity of this condition prompted us to report the case. The investigative techniques and the surgical strategy are discussed. Images PMID:9885110

  7. [Use of glucocorticoids in low back pain due to disc herniation with radicular involvement].

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Ilias; Genevay, Stéphane; Nendaz, Mathieu

    2011-10-19

    Although systemic glucocorticoids are frequently used for the treatment of radicular pain due to disc herniation, there are only few studies available. No trial has successfully demonstrated the superiority of systemic glucocorticoids compared to placebo. Therefore their use is not recommended. Spinal injection using radiographic guidance appears to provide some beneficial short-term effect on pain. It might be offered when pain treatments according to the WHO steps have failed. Because rare but serious adverse events have been reported, transforaminal periradicular injections should only be used after thorough analysis of risks and benefits with the patient. PMID:22073701

  8. Higher preoperative Oswestry Disability Index is associated with better surgical outcome in upper lumbar disc herniations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hooshang Saberi; Arash Vatankhahan Isfahani

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical outcome in terms of functional and subjective recovery, patients who needed discectomies at L1–L2,\\u000a L2–L3 and L3–L4 levels were compared with an age and sex-matched group of patients who required L4–L5 and L5–S1 discectomies.\\u000a We prospectively enrolled 50 consecutive patients, referred to our center, who had L1–L2, L2–L3 and L3–L4 herniations and\\u000a required surgical intervention. Likewise,

  9. Management of Cerebellar Tonsillar Herniation following Lumbar Puncture in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kenneth R.; Chan, Sean W.; Hughes, Andrew R.; Halcrow, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar puncture is performed routinely for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in idiopathic intracranial hypertension, despite lumbar puncture being classically contraindicated in the setting of raised intracranial pressure. We report the case of a 30-year-old female with known idiopathic intracranial hypertension who had cerebellar tonsillar herniation following therapeutic lumbar puncture. Management followed guidelines regarding treatment of traumatic intracranial hypertension, including rescue decompressive craniectomy. We hypothesize that the changes in brain compliance that are thought to occur in the setting of idiopathic intracranial hypertension are protective against further neuronal injury due to axonal stretch following decompressive craniectomy. PMID:25685562

  10. Gastric outlet obstruction secondary to paraesophageal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Selcuk; Soylu, Lutfi; Sahin, Mahir; Demiray, Taylan

    2015-04-01

    The most common causes of acute gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) are duodenal and type 3 gastric ulcers. However, mechanical or functional causes may also lead to this pathology. Acute GOO is characterized by delayed gastric emptying, anorexia, or nausea accompanied by vomiting. Herein we report a 56-year-old man diagnosed with GOO secondary to paraesophageal hiatal herniation of gastric antrum after laparoscopic fundoplication. Because of the rarity of this disease, common gastrointestinal complaints may mislead the emergency physician to diagnose a nonsurgical gastrointestinal disease if a detailed history and physical examinations are not obtained. PMID:25813602

  11. Recurrent lumbar disc herniation: A prospective comparative study of three surgical management procedures

    PubMed Central

    El Shazly, Ayman A.; El Wardany, Mohammed A.; Morsi, Ahmad M.

    2013-01-01

    Context: The optimal surgical treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation is controversial. Aim: To compare prospectively the clinical outcomes of surgical treatment of recurrent lumbar disc herniation by three different methods; discectomy alone, discectomy with transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), and diecectomy with posterolateral fusion (PLF), regardless of the postoperative radiological findings. Study Design: This is a prospective, randomized, comparative study. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective, randomized, comparative study on 45 patients with first time recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Patients were evaluated clinically by using the criteria of the Japanese Orthopedic Association's evaluation system for low back pain syndrome (JOA score). The patients were classified into three groups: Group A; patients who had revision discectomy alone, group B; patients who had revision discectomy with TLIF, and group C; patients who had revision discectomy with PLF. The mean follow-up period was 37 (±7.85 STD) months. Results: The mean overall recovery rate was 87.2% (±19.26 STD) and the satisfactory rate was 88.9%. Comparison between the three groups showed no significant difference with regard to the mean total postoperative JOA score, recovery rate, and satisfactory rate. However, the postoperative low back pain was significantly higher in group A than that of group B and C. Two patients in group A required further revision surgery. The incidences of dural tear and postoperative neurological deficit were higher in group A. The intraoperative blood loss and length of operation were significantly less in group A. The total cost of the procedure was significantly different between the three groups, being least in group A and highest in group B. There was no significant difference between the three groups with regard to the length of postoperative hospital stay. Conclusion: Revision discectomy is effective in patients with recurrent lumbar disc herniation. Fusion with revision discectomy improves the postoperative low back pain, decreases the intraoperative risk of dural tear or neural damage and decreases the postoperative incidence of mechanical instability or re-recurrence. TLIF and PLF have comparable results when used with revision discectomy, but PLF has significantly less total cost than TLIF. PMID:24403956

  12. Paraplegia after Gastrectomy in a Patient with Cervical Disc Herniation: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingfu; Jiang, Wei; Zhou, Quanhong; Wang, Guangyan; Zhao, Linlin

    2014-01-01

    Paraplegia is a rare postoperative complication. We present a case of acute paraplegia after elective gastrectomy surgery because of cervical disc herniation. The 73-year-old man has the medical history of cervical spondylitis with only symptom of temporary pain in neck and shoulder. Although the patient's neck was cautiously preserved by using the Discopo, an acute paraplegia emerged at about 10 hours after the operation. Severe compression of the spinal cord by herniation of the C4-C5 cervical disc was diagnosed and emergency surgical decompression was performed immediately. Unfortunately the patient showed limited improvement in neurologic deficits even after 11 months. PMID:24757571

  13. Ventral Transdural Herniation of the Thoracic Spinal Cord: Surgical Treatment in Four Cases and Review of Literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Vallée; Ph. Mercier; Ph. Menei; F. Bouhour; C. Fischer; D. Fournier; R. Bougeard; S. Diabira; K. Mahla

    1999-01-01

    Summary  ?Background. A specific cause of progressive Brown-Sequard syndrome has been identified: a ventral herniation of the thoracic spinal\\u000a cord through the dural sleeve on one side.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method. Four female patients who were affected by a progressive Brown Sequard syndrome related to a transdural spinal cord herniation\\u000a have been investigated and were submitted to surgery and postoperative evaluation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings. The MRI

  14. Idiopathic Spinal Cord Herniation: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sasani, Mehdi; Ozer, Ali F; Vural, Metin; Sarioglu, Ali C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is a rare cause of progressive myelopathy frequently present in Brown-Séquard syndrome. Preoperative diagnosis can be made with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many surgical techniques have been applied by various authors and are usually reversible by surgical treatment. Methods: Case report and review of the literature. Findings: A 45-year-old woman with Brown-Séquard syndrome underwent thoracic MRI, which revealed transdural spinal cord herniation at T8 vertebral body level. During surgery the spinal cord was reduced and the ventral dural defect was restorated primarily and reinforced with a thin layer of subdermal fat. The dural defect was then closed with interrupted stitches. Results: Although neurologic status improved postoperatively, postsurgical MRI demonstrated swelling and abnormal T2-signal intensity in the reduced spinal cord. Review of the English language literature revealed 100 ISCH cases. Conclusions: ISCH is a rare clinical entity that should be considered in differential diagnosis of Brown-Séquard syndrome, especially among women in their fifth decade of life. Outcome for patients who initially had Brown-Séquard syndrome was significantly better than for patients who presented with spastic paralysis. Although progression of neurologic deficits can be very slow, reduction of the spinal cord and repair of the defect are crucial in stopping or reversing the deterioration. PMID:19264054

  15. The Etiologies of Low Back Pain in Patients With Lumbar Disk Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Samini, Fariborz; Gharedaghi, Mohammad; Khajavi, Mahdi; Samini, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint in population that lowers the quality of life. The main etiology of LBP is recognized in about 20% of patients while it is attributed to lumbar disk herniation (LDH) in 80% of cases and causes some unnecessary lumbar surgeries without realizing the definite cause. Objectives: This study was planned to evaluate the etiologies of LBP in patients who had LDH to clarify whether the disc herniation is the main cause of patients` pain or other diseases were responsible for this kind of pain. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the medical profiles of the patients with proven LDH in a private clinic in Mashhad City, Iran, between 2005 and 2012, for demographic and the etiologies of LBP with clinical and paraclinical studies. We also calculated the incidence of each etiology by SPSS 13. Results: In our study, among 1250 patients with proven LDH by MRI, 500 patients (40%) had chronic LBP and the most common causes of LBP were heavy constant working (40.2%), osteoporosis (35.6%), and sacroiliac joint pain (34.6%), consecutively. Interestingly, LDH had the ninth rank among the common cause of LBP. Conclusions: In this study, we found that in spite of previous beliefs, discopathies were not common etiologies of LBP. Thus, even in patients with proven LDH by imaging studies, the physician should perform a thorough evaluation for other causes of LBP to avoid unnecessary lumbar surgeries. PMID:25763198

  16. Differentiation of idiopathic spinal cord herniation from CSF-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions displacing the cord.

    PubMed

    Haber, Marc D; Nguyen, Dustin D; Li, Shan

    2014-01-01

    Focal spinal cord displacement can be caused by idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH), in which the cord protrudes through a dural defect into the epidural space, causing cord displacement and tethering. ISCH is uncommon and often is misdiagnosed initially, which results in delayed management. ISCH can be mimicked by space-occupying cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions, such as epidermoid cysts or teratomas, intradural arachnoid cysts, epidural hematomas or abscesses, cystic nerve sheath tumors, synovial or Tarlov cysts, meningoceles, and pseudomeningoceles. Initial computed tomography (CT) and unenhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies may depict focal cord displacement and a widened CSF space but often are not sufficient to identify the underlying cause. High-resolution thin-section MR imaging can delineate the exact location of the dural defect and the protrusion of the herniated cord through this defect into the epidural space. At imaging, unimpeded CSF pulsation artifacts seen within a widened CSF space exclude a space-occupying lesion. A filling defect seen at conventional or CT myelography can help confirm a CSF-isointense space-occupying lesion; intravenous contrast agent administration can help exclude a rim-enhancing cystic extramedullary lesion. The clinical presentation usually is nonspecific, but symptom acuity, fever, and trauma can guide the imaging evaluation and help narrow the differential diagnosis. A multimodality imaging approach is essential to differentiate ISCH from space-occupying CSF-isointense intraspinal extramedullary lesions. PMID:24617681

  17. Surgery for Recurrent Lumbar Disc Herniation During Pregnancy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Meen; Moon, Soo Hyeon; Choi, Byung Kwan

    2011-01-01

    A few cases of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) that have been treated by surgery during pregnancy have been reported in the literature. However, symptomatic recurrent LDH during pregnancy has been rarely reported. A 32-year-old parous woman presented with lumbago and severe right leg pain at 20 weeks' gestation. Eleven years prior to admission, she had undergone an open discectomy for right-sided LDH at the L4-5 level. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a recurrent disc herniation that affected the nerve root at the right L4-5 level. The radiating pain did not respond to conservative treat-ment. Revision surgery was performed under general anesthesia and in the left lateral position to avoid fetal stress and aortocaval compression, and the ruptured disc particle was completely removed. Postoperatively, the radiating pain was completely relieved. She delivered a full-term healthy girl (birth weight, 3.39 kg) at 40 weeks' gestation by normal vaginal delivery. We report the rare case of a 32-year-old parous woman with recurrent LDH that was successfully treated by revision surgery. In recurrent LDH patients with incapacitating pain who do not respond to opioid injections, surgical treat-ment could lead to a satisfactory outcome maintaining pregnancy.

  18. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Buck, Warren W.; Maung, Khin M.

    1989-01-01

    Two kinds of number density distributions of the nucleus, harmonic well and Woods-Saxon models, are used with the t-matrix that is taken from the scattering experiments to find a simple optical potential. The parameterized two body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are shown. The eikonal approximation was chosen as the solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  19. Vertebral axial decompression therapy for pain associated with herniated or degenerated discs or facet syndrome: An outcome study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl E. Gose; William K. Naguszewski; Robert K. Naguszewski

    The outcomes of vertebral axial decompression (DECOMPRESSION) therapy for patients with low back pain from various causes are reported. Data was collected from twenty-two medical centers for patients who received DECOMPRESSION therapy for low back pain, which was sometimes accompanied by referred leg pain. Only patients who received at least ten sessions and had a diagnosis of herniated disc, degenerative

  20. Intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with transhiatal herniation of the pancreas and duodenum: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Tarkan; Neureiter, Daniel; Nawara, Clemens; Dinnewitzer, Adam; Öfner, Dietmar; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Transhiatal herniation of the pancreas is an extremely rare condition. In the published literature we found only eleven cases reported in the period of 1958 to 2011. A coincidental hiatal herniation of the duodenum is described in two cases only. To our knowledge, we report the first case with a hiatal herniation of the complete duodenum and proximal pancreas presenting an intrathoracic major duodenal papilla with consecutive intrahepatic and extrahepatic cholestasis. A 72-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our department with a hiatal hernia grade IV for further evaluation. According to our recommendation of surgical hernia repair soon after the diagnosis of a transhiatal herniation of the proximal pancreas and entire duodenum, we had to respect the declared intention of the patient for a conservative procedure. So we were forced to wait for surgical repair within an emergency situation complicated by a myocardial infarction and reduced general condition. We discuss the therapeutic decision making process and a complete literature review of this rare entity. PMID:23805366

  1. Minimally invasive far lateral microendoscopic discectomy for extraforaminal disc herniation at the lumbosacral junction: cadaveric dissection and technical case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. O'Toole; Kurt M. Eichholz; Richard G. Fessler

    2007-01-01

    Background contextExtraforaminal lumbar disc herniations (ELDHs) at the lumbosacral junction are an uncommon cause of L5 radiculopathy. The surgical anatomy of the extraforaminal space at L5–S1 is uniquely challenging for the various open surgical approaches that have been described for ELDHs in general. Reports specifically describing minimally invasive surgical approaches to lumbosacral ELDHs are lacking.

  2. Suprachiasmatic nucleus organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Y. Moore; Joan C. Speh; Rehana K. Leak

    2002-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is a dominant circadian pacemaker in the mammalian brain controlling the rest-activity cycle and a series of physiological and endocrine functions to provide a foundation for the successful elaboration of adaptive sleep and waking behavior. The SCN is anatomically and functionally organized into two subdivisions: (1) a core that lies adjacent to the

  3. Prevalence of Lumbar Disc Herniation in Adolescent Males in Seoul, Korea: Prevalence of Adolescent LDH in Seoul, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Keun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Lee, Myoung Seok; Park, Hyung-chun; Park, Chong Oon

    2011-01-01

    Objective The authors surveyed the prevalence and the clinical character of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in Korean male adolescents, and the usefulness of current conscription criteria. Methods The data of 39,673 nineteen-year-old males that underwent a conscription examination at the Seoul Regional Korean Military Manpower Administration (MMA) from October 2010 to May 2011 were investigated. For those diagnosed as having lumbar disc herniation, prevalences, subject characteristics, herniation severities, levels of herniation, and modified Korean Oswestry low back pain disability scores by MMA physical grade were evaluated. The analysis was performed using medical certificates, medical records, medical images, and electromyographic and radiologic findings. Results The prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60%(237 of the 39,673 study subjects), and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH with thecal sac compression or significant discogenic spinal stenosis was 0.28%(110 of the 39,673 study subjects). Of the 237 adolescent LDH cases, 105 (44.3%) were of single level LDH and 132 (55.7%) were of multiple level LDH, and the L4-5 level was the most severely and frequently affected. Oswestry back pain disability scores increased with herniation severity (p<0.01), and were well correlated with MMA grade. Conclusions In this large cohort of 19-year-old Korean males, the prevalence of adolescent LDH was 0.60% and the prevalence of serious adolescent LDH, which requires management, was relatively high at 0.28%. MMA physical grade was confirmed to be a useful measure of the disability caused by LDH.

  4. Treatment of contained lumbar disc herniations using radiofrequency assisted micro-tubular decompression and nucleotomy: four year prospective study results

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with radiculopathy caused by contained disc herniations are less likely to have good outcomes following discectomy surgery than patients with disc herniations that are not contained. The author presents his 4-year results from a prospective trial regarding the efficacy and safety of a tubular transforaminal radiofrequency-assisted manual decompression and annulus modulation of contained disc herniations in 58 patients. Methods Fifty-eight patients with lumbar radiculopathy due to a contained disc herniation were enrolled in a prospective clinical study. Visual analog scores (VAS) for back pain and leg pain, quality of life assessment, Macnab criteria, and SF-12 were collected from patients before treatment, at 2-years and 4-years post-treatment. Results At 4 years, results were obtained from 47 (81%) of patients. Compared to mean pre- treatment assessments, mean 4-year VAS for back pain improved from 8.6 to 2.3 points, and mean VAS for leg pain improved from 7.8 to 2.3. Eighty-three percent of respondents reported that they were “satisfied” or “very satisifed” with their quality of life at 4-years as per SF-12. At 4 years, recurrence was noted in 3 (6.4%) of respondents and no complications were reported. Conclusions The 2-year and 4-year study results are nearly identical, suggesting durable benefit out to 4 years. These results also suggest that in carefully selected patients with sustained contained disc herniations who have failed conservative treatments, manual decompression combined with radiofrequency-assisted decompression and annulus modulation are very likely to have good outcomes 4 years post-treatment. PMID:25694932

  5. Matrix metalloproteinase expression levels suggest distinct enzyme roles during lumbar disc herniation and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bachmeier, Beatrice E.; Nerlich, Andreas; Mittermaier, Norbert; Weiler, Christoph; Lumenta, Christianto; Wuertz, Karin

    2009-01-01

    The disruption of the extracellular disc matrix is a major hallmark of disc degeneration. This has previously been shown to be associated with an up-regulation of major matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity. However, until now hardly any data are available for MMP/TIMP regulation and thereby no concept exists as to which MMP/TIMP plays a major role in disc degeneration. The objective of this study was, therefore, to identify and quantify the putative up-regulation of MMPs/TIMPs on the mRNA and protein level and their activity in disc material in relation to clinical data and histological evidence for disc degeneration. A quantitative molecular analysis of the mRNA expression levels for the MMPs (MMPs-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -13) and the MMP inhibitors (TIMPs-1 and -2) was performed on 37 disc specimens obtained from symptomatic disc herniation or degeneration. In addition, disc specimens from patients without disc degeneration/herniation (=controls) were analyzed. Expression of MMPs-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -9, -13 and TIMPs-1, -2 was analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR, normalized to the expression level of a house keeping gene (GAPDH). Gene expression patterns were correlated with MMP activity (in situ zymography), protein expression patterns (immunohistochemistry), degeneration score (routine histology) and clinical data. MMP-3 mRNA levels were consistently and substantially up-regulated in samples with histological evidence for disc degeneration. A similar but less pronounced up-regulation was observed for MMP-8. This up-regulation was paralleled by the expression of TIMP-1 and to a lesser extent TIMP-2. In general, these findings could be confirmed with regard to protein expression and enzyme activity. This study provides data on the gene and protein level, which highlights the key role of MMP-3 in the degenerative cascade leading to symptomatic disc degeneration and herniation. Control of the proteolytic activity of MMP-3 may, therefore, come into the focus when aiming to develop new treatment options for early disc degeneration. PMID:19466462

  6. Herniated disk

    MedlinePLUS

    ... often starts slowly. It may get worse: After standing or sitting At night When sneezing, coughing, or ... a hard time lifting your leg or arm, standing on your toes on one side, squeezing tightly ...

  7. Thoracic Disc Herniation of the Adjacent Segment With Acutely Progressing Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Oh, In-Soo; Seo, Jun-Yeong; Kim, Yoon-Chung

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old woman with progressing myelopathy. Her history revealed instrumented fusion from T10 to S1 for degenerative lumbar kyphosis and spinal stenosis. The plain radiographs showed narrowing of the intervertebral disc space with a gas shadow and sclerotic end-plate changes at T9-T10. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a posterolateral mass compressing the spinal cord at the T9-T10 level. The patient was treated with a discectomy through the posterior approach combined with posterior instrumentation. The patient's symptoms and myelopathy resolved completely after the discectomy and instrumented fusion. The thoracic disc herniation might have been caused by the increased motion and stress concentration at the adjacent segment. PMID:20622956

  8. Co-existence of L5-S1 disc herniation and conus medullaris ependymoma

    PubMed Central

    Mino?lu, Mustafa; Akkol, ?smail; Özdemir, Nail; Y?ld?r?m, Levent

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The lumbar disc herniations are seen very common than spinal ependymomas in the neurosurgery polyclinic routine. PRESENTATION OF CASE In our case, both pathologies were seen at the most frequently located levels compatible with the literature. Aim of this case report is, to remind once more that, different pathologies can be found at the same time in a single patient; differential diagnosis must be done very carefully. DISCUSSION The routine Computed Tomography (CT) imaging for low back pain can not show the conus medullaris pathology. Spinal tumors or other similar pathologies should be kept in mind for differential diagnosis. A good medical history and a good physical examination must be completed before the final diagnosis. CONCLUSION Viewing of spinal canal with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) will be useful for the patients who we intend to do disc surgery. PMID:25460457

  9. The Influence of Obesity on the Outcome of Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Rihn, Jeffrey A.; Kurd, Mark; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Lurie, Jon; Zhao, Wenyan; Albert, Todd; Weinstein, James

    2013-01-01

    Background: Questions remain as to the effect that obesity has on patients managed for symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. The purpose of this study was to determine if obesity affects outcomes following the treatment of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. Methods: An as-treated analysis was performed on patients enrolled in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation. A comparison was made between patients with a body mass index of <30 kg/m2 (nonobese) (n = 854) and those with a body mass index of ?30 kg/m2 (obese) (n = 336). Baseline patient demographic and clinical characteristics were documented. Primary and secondary outcomes were measured at baseline and at regular follow-up time intervals up to four years. The difference in improvement from baseline between operative and nonoperative treatment was determined at each follow-up period for both groups. Results: At the time of the four-year follow-up evaluation, improvements over baseline in primary outcome measures were significantly less for obese patients as compared with nonobese patients in both the operative treatment group (Short Form-36 physical function, 37.3 compared with 47.7 points [p < 0.001], Short Form-36 bodily pain, 44.2 compared with 50.0 points [p = 0.005], and Oswestry Disability Index, ?33.7 compared with ?40.1 points [p < 0.001]) and the nonoperative treatment group (Short Form-36 physical function, 23.1 compared with 32.0 points [p < 0.001] and Oswestry Disability Index, ?21.4 compared with ?26.1 points [p < 0.001]). The one exception was that the change from baseline in terms of the Short Form-36 bodily pain score was statistically similar for obese and nonobese patients in the nonoperative treatment group (30.9 compared with 33.4 points [p = 0.39]). At the time of the four-year follow-up evaluation, when compared with nonobese patients who had been managed operatively, obese patients who had been managed operatively had significantly less improvement in the Sciatica Bothersomeness Index and the Low Back Pain Bothersomeness Index, but had no significant difference in patient satisfaction or self-rated improvement. In the present study, 77.5% of obese patients and 86.9% of nonobese patients who had been managed operatively were working a full or part-time job. No significant differences were observed in the secondary outcome measures between obese and nonobese patients who had been managed nonoperatively. The benefit of surgery over nonoperative treatment was not affected by body mass index. Conclusions: Obese patients realized less clinical benefit from both operative and nonoperative treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Surgery provided similar benefit over nonoperative treatment in obese and nonobese patients. Level of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23192403

  10. Herniation of unruptured tuberculous lung abscess into chest wall without pleural or bronchial spillage

    PubMed Central

    Magazine, Rahul; Mohapatra, Aswini K.; Manu, Mohan K.; Srivastava, Rajendra K.

    2011-01-01

    A 22-year-old unmarried man presented to the chest outpatient department with a history of productive cough of two-month duration. He also complained of pain and swelling on the anterior aspect of right side of chest of one-month duration. Imaging studies of the thorax, including chest roentgenography and computerized tomography, revealed an unruptured lung abscess which had herniated into the chest wall. Culture of pus aspirated from the chest wall swelling grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He was diagnosed to have a tuberculous lung abscess which had extended into the chest wall, without spillage into the pleural cavity or the bronchial tree. Antituberculosis drugs were prescribed, and he responded to the treatment with complete resolution of the lesion. PMID:22084547

  11. Subdural haemorrhage and severe coagulopathy resulting in transtentorial uncal herniation in a neonate undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dianna; McMillan, Hugh; Bariciak, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic hypothermia has been shown to be efficacious for improving long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes following perinatal asphyxia. Thus, cooling protocols have been adopted at most tertiary neonatal centres. We present a case of a term neonate who underwent therapeutic whole-body cooling for hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy following a difficult forceps delivery. She abruptly deteriorated, exhibiting signs of transtentorial uncal herniation and severe disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. CT of the head confirmed a life-threatening subdural haematoma and a concealed skull fracture. Hypothermia has been shown to impair haemostasis in vivo and thus may potentially exacerbate occult haemorrhages in a clinical setting. Newborns that require instrument-assisted delivery are a particularly high-risk group for occult head injuries and should undergo careful clinical assessment for fractures and intracranial haemorrhage prior to initiation of therapeutic hypothermia. PMID:25100805

  12. Endoscopic Transforaminal Suprapedicular Approach in High Grade Inferior Migrated Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Jong Gue

    2009-01-01

    Objective Although endoscopic procedures for lumbar disc diseases have improved greatly, the postoperative outcomes for high grade inferior migrated discs are not satisfactory. Because of anatomic limitations, a rigid endoscope cannot reach all lesions effectively. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of endoscopic transforaminal suprapedicular approach to high grade inferior-migrated lumbar disc herniations. Methods Between May 2006 and March 2008, a suprapedicular approach was performed in 53 patients with high grade inferior-migrated lumbar disc herniations using a rigid endoscope and a semi-rigid flexible curved probe. One-to-four hours after surgery, the presence of remnant discs was checked with MRI. The outcomes were evaluated with the visual analogue scale (VAS) score and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) one week after surgery. Results The L2-3 level was involved in 2 patients and the L3-4 level was involved in 14 patients, while the L4-5 level was involved in 39 patients. There were single piece-type in 34 cases and a multiple piece-type in 19 cases. Satisfactory results were obtained in all cases. The mean preoperative VAS for leg pain was 9.32±0.43 points (range, 7-10 points), whereas the mean ODI was 79.82±4.53 points (range, 68-92 points). At the last follow-up examination, the mean postoperative VAS for leg pain was 1.78±0.71 points and the mean postoperative ODI improved to 15.27±3.82 points. Conclusion A high grade inferior migrated lumbar disc is difficult to remove sufficiently by posterolateral endoscopic lumbar dscectomy using a rigid endoscope. However, a satisfactory result can be obtained by applying a transforaminal suprapedicular approach with a flexible semi-rigid curved probe. PMID:19274114

  13. Evolution of the nucleus?

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Damien P; Gräf, Ralph; Field, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    The nucleus represents a major evolutionary transition. As a consequence of separating translation from transcription many new functions arose, which likely contributed to the remarkable success of eukaryotic cells. Here we will consider what has recently emerged on the evolutionary histories of several key aspects of nuclear biology; the nuclear pore complex, the lamina, centrosomes and evidence for prokaryotic origins of relevant players. PMID:24508984

  14. Risk factors for back pain-related loss of working time after surgery for lumbar disc herniation: a 5-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Puolakka; J. Ylinen; M. H. Neva; H. Kautiainen; A. Häkkinen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the occurrence and the risk factors of back-related loss of working time in patients undergoing\\u000a surgery for lumbar disc herniation. One hundred and fifty-two gainfully employed patients underwent surgery for lumbar disc\\u000a herniation. Two months postoperatively, those patients completed a self-report questionnaire including queries on back and\\u000a leg pain (VAS), functional capacity

  15. Is there any relationship between proinflammatory mediator levels in disc material and myelopathy with cervical disc herniation and spondylosis? A non-randomized, prospective clinical study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Nusret Demircan; Alparslan Asir; Ahmet Cetinkal; Nursal Gedik; Ahmet Murat Kutlay; Ahmet Çolak; Sedat Kurtar; Hakan Simsek

    2007-01-01

    The proinflammatory mediator (PIM) levels were assessed in surgically removed samples of herniated cervical intervertebral\\u000a discs. The objective of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between the levels of PIMs in disc material\\u000a and myelopathy associated with cervical intervertebral disc herniation and spondylosis. The role of proinflammatory mediators\\u000a in the degeneration of intervertebral disc and the

  16. Repair, regenerative and supportive therapies of the annulus fibrosus: achievements and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Bron, Johannes Leendert; Helder, Marco N.; Meisel, Hans-Jorg; Van Royen, Barend J.

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar discectomy is a very effective therapy for neurological decompression in patients suffering from sciatica due to hernia nuclei pulposus. However, high recurrence rates and persisting post-operative low back pain in these patients require serious attention. In the past decade, tissue engineering strategies have been developed mainly targeted to the regeneration of the nucleus pulposus (NP) of the intervertebral disc. Accompanying techniques that deal with the damaged annulus fibrous are now increasingly recognised as mandatory in order to prevent re-herniation to increase the potential of NP repair and to confine NP replacement therapies. In the current review, the requirements, achievements and challenges in this quickly emerging field of research are discussed. PMID:19104850

  17. Strangeness production in nucleus-nucleus collisions: Experimental summary

    SciTech Connect

    Odyniec, G.

    1989-02-01

    Rather than attempt to give a complete review of strangeness production in all kinds of experiments, I will dwell on the most interesting and promising aspects of the experimental results from nucleus-nucleus (A + A) experiments, using p + p//bar p/ + p and p + A//bar p/ + A data only as reference when needed. In this paper I will try: to identify the important features of the reaction mechanism; to understand the mechanisms; to learn about quark-gluon plasma formation by comparing nucleus-nucleus collisions with p-nucleus, /bar p/-nucleus, p + p and /bar p/ + p collisions; to see if there is any definite evidence yet supporting quark-gluon plasma formation; and to suggest further needs for experimental and theoretical study. 32 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Nuclear rainbow scattering and nucleus-nucleus potential

    E-print Network

    Dao T. Khoa; W. von Oertzen; H. G. Bohlen; S. Ohkubo

    2006-12-21

    Elastic scattering of alpha-particle and some tightly-bound light nuclei has shown the pattern of rainbow scattering at medium energies, which is due to the refraction of the incident wave by a strongly attractive nucleus-nucleus potential. This review gives an introduction to the physics of the nuclear rainbow based essentially on the optical model description of the elastic scattering. Since the realistic nucleus-nucleus optical potential (OP) is the key to explore this interesting process, an overview of the main methods used to determine the nucleus-nucleus OP is presented. The refractive rainbow-like structures observed in other quasi-elastic scattering reactions have also been discussed. Some evidences for the refractive effect in the elastic scattering of unstable nuclei are presented and perspectives for the future studies are discussed.

  19. Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution

    E-print Network

    Denisov, V Yu

    2015-01-01

    The full relaxed-density potential between spherical nuclei is considered as a sum of the macroscopic and shell-correction contributions. The macroscopic part of the potential is related to a nucleus-nucleus potential obtained in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach with the Skyrme and Coulomb forces and the relaxed-density ansatz for evaluation of proton and neutron densities of interacting nuclei. A simple prescription for the shell-correction part of the total potential is discussed. The parameters of the shell-correction and macroscopic parts of the relaxed-density potential are found by fitting the empirical barrier heights of the 89 nucleus-nucleus systems as well as macroscopic potentials evaluated for 1485 nucleus-nucleus systems at 12 distances around touching points.

  20. Nucleus-nucleus potential with shell-correction contribution

    E-print Network

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2015-02-04

    The full relaxed-density potential between spherical nuclei is considered as a sum of the macroscopic and shell-correction contributions. The macroscopic part of the potential is related to a nucleus-nucleus potential obtained in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approach with the Skyrme and Coulomb forces and the relaxed-density ansatz for evaluation of proton and neutron densities of interacting nuclei. A simple prescription for the shell-correction part of the total potential is discussed. The parameters of the shell-correction and macroscopic parts of the relaxed-density potential are found by fitting the empirical barrier heights of the 89 nucleus-nucleus systems as well as macroscopic potentials evaluated for 1485 nucleus-nucleus systems at 12 distances around touching points.

  1. Nucleus from String Theory

    E-print Network

    Koji Hashimoto; Takeshi Morita

    2011-05-24

    In generic holographic QCD, we find that baryons are bound to form a nucleus, and that its radius obeys the empirically-known mass number (A) dependence r A^{1/3} for large A. Our result is robust, since we use only a generic property of D-brane actions in string theory. We also show that nucleons are bound completely in a finite volume. Furthermore, employing a concrete holographic model (derived by Hashimoto, Iizuka, and Yi, describing a multi-baryon system in the Sakai-Sugimoto model), the nuclear radius is evaluated as O(1) x A^{1/3} [fm], which is consistent with experiments.

  2. Long-Term Outcome of Patients Suffering from Clinical Instability after Microsurgical Treatment of Lumbar Disc Herniation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kotilainen

    1998-01-01

    Summary   A total of 39 patients suffering from clinical instability of the lumbar spine after microdiscectomy were evaluated for\\u000a their long-term outcome. Included there were 21 (54%) male and 18(46%) female patients with a mean age of 55 years. All had\\u000a been operated on for a virgin single-level lumbar disc herniation between the years 1985–1989 and they were evaluated for

  3. Case report: The operation for the lumbar disk herniation just after cesarean delivery in the third trimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ochi, Hironori; Ohno, Ryuichi; Kubota, Mitsuaki; Hanyu, Ryo; Sakai, Kensuke; Sugawara, Yu; Mukasa, Fumihiro; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Low back pain is common during pregnancy. However, the incidence of symptomatic lumbar disc herniation during pregnancy is very rare. We report a case of lumbar disc herniation underwent discectomy just after cesarean delivery in the third trimester of pregnancy. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 33-year-old woman presented at 32 weeks gestation. She had a low back pain and the left-sided leg pain below the knee. At 34 weeks gestation, she had severe weakness of the left extension halluces longus, left ankle dorsiflexion. MRI showed a large disc herniation at L4/5 expanded to the spinal canal more. The cesarean delivery was performed in the supine position. The patient was then turned to a prone position, and a left L4/5 discectomy was performed. But the day after surgery, she had a severe low back pain and the right leg pain below the knee. MRI showed a disc herniation at L4/5 on the right side of the spinal canal. At 6 days after the first surgery, a right L4/5 discectomy was performed. In the immediate postoperative period, the patient experienced complete relief of the right leg pain. DISCUSSION It is necessary to cooperate with a pediatrician, an obstetrician, and an anethesiologists. For obtaining the best outcome on mother and child, it is important to discuss in advance to be able to respond quickly for changeable situation. CONCLUSION It is necessary to conduct the operation under pregnancy in consideration of the great influence on mother and child. PMID:25437670

  4. The level-diagnosis of a lower lumbar disc herniation: The value of sensibility and motor testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. H. Jensen

    1987-01-01

    Summary  Sensibility and motor power were prospectively tested in 52 consecutive hospitalized patients with a lower lumbar disc herniation,\\u000a verified by operation. The test results were noted in a decision matrix, and the positive and negative predictive values were\\u000a calculated. The positive predictive value of disturbed sensation in the L5 dermatome, paresis of dorsiflexion of the foot\\u000a and extension of the

  5. The role of matrix metalloproteinases and vascular endothelial growth factor in the resorption process of herniated disc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirotaka Haro

    2002-01-01

    Purpose of study: Spontaneous resorption of herniated disc (HD) is frequently detected by magnetic resonance imaging. The tendency of HD to spontaneously resorb is directly proportional to the degree of Gd-DTPA enhancement suggesting a vascularization-mediated process that also correlates with prominent macrophage infiltration. Both infiltrating macrophages and factor VIII–positive cells were abundant in epidurally displaced HD, suggesting neovascularization process in

  6. Cervical myelopathy due to single level disc herniation presenting as intramedullary mass lesion: What to do first?

    PubMed

    Ek?i, Murat ?akir; Özcan Ek?i, Emel Ece; Y?lmaz, Baran; Tokta?, Zafer Orkun; Konya, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy (CM) is mostly a degenerative process ending in myelopathic and/or radiculopathic syndromes. On T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), CM appears as a hyperintense area near the spondylotic spine. This high intensity signal depends on the impact of outer forces and their duration. It also determines the prognosis of the surgical candidate. A 40-year-old male patient admitted to our clinic with right upper extremity weakness and hypoesthesia that had started 2 months earlier. On neurological examination there was 2/5 motor weakness of right biceps brachii, and hypoesthesia over right C6 dermatome. Right upper extremity deep tendon reflexes were hypoactive, but lower ones were hyperactive. After clinical and radiological work-up, preliminary diagnosis was directed to a spinal intramedullary tumor. Total resection of the herniated cervical disc fragment and the mass lesion was managed. Pathology of the mass lesion was compatible with subacute infarct tissue and inflammatory response. Final diagnosis was CM under effect of cervical disc herniation. Contrast-enhanced spinal cord myelopathic lesions are very rare and resemble much more tumors and inflammatory processes. However, the principal treatment approach totally differs depending on pathology. When there are both a disc herniation and a high clinical suspicion; biopsy should be delayed. The most probable solution will be surgery for the disc disease with thorough preoperative scanning of vascular malformations; clinical and radiological close follow-up after surgery. Biopsy or surgical resection can be performed if patient deteriorates despite the primary surgery. PMID:25972718

  7. Feasibility and Efficacy of Percutaneous Lateral Lumbar Discectomy in the Treatment of Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation: A Preliminary Experience

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenjin; Sun, Bolin; Sheng, Qirui; Song, Xuepeng; Zheng, Yanbo; Wang, Ligang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study was aimed at evaluating the effectiveness and safety of percutaneous lateral lumbar discectomy (PLLD) in treating patients with lumber disc herniation. Methods. A total of 183 patients with lumbar disc herniation were recruited to receive PLLD surgery from April 2006 to October 2011. All the adverse effects were recorded during the follow-up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after PLLD. The clinical outcomes were determined by visual analog scale and Japanese Orthopaedic Association score. Results. The surgery was performed successfully in all patients (102 males and 81 females aged from 21 to 66 years) with a mean 16.6-month follow-up (range from 26 to 65 months). No postoperative complications, including intestinal and vascular complications, nerve injuries, and postoperative infections, were associated with PLLD. At one month after surgery, visual analog scale (3.12±1.44 versus 6.76±2.31, P<0.05) was significantly lower than the baseline and was sustained until 24 months after surgery (3.25 ± 1.78 versus 6.76±2.31, P<0.05). Besides that, Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (25.25±3.21 versus 11.78±2.38, P<0.05) was increased when compared to the baseline. Conclusions. PLLD was a promising, mini-invasive, and effective treatment for lumber disc herniation. PMID:25695066

  8. Intradural schwannoma complicated by lumbar disc herniation at the same level: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    BAEK, SEUNG-WOOK; KIM, CHEOL; CHANG, HAN

    2014-01-01

    Intradural tumours of the spine are usually benign and have a good prognosis, if they are diagnosed and removed early. Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of chronic, acute, or recurrent lumbar radiculopathy. However, to date, there have been no reports of progressive neurological deficiencies due to the co-existence of two significant pathologies contributing to intradural and extradural compression. The current study reports the rare case of a patient with simultaneous extradural and intradural compression of the nerve root due to co-existent intervertebral disc herniation and an intradural schwannoma at the same level. A 71-year-old female suffering from lower back pain and radiating pain of the right lower extremities was admitted to Busan Korea Hospital (Busan, Korea). Magnetic resonance imaging revealed lumbar disc herniation at L4–5 and a mass occupying the intradural space at the same level of the compressed dural sac. Using the posterior approach, surgical excision of the two pathologies was performed. Pathological diagnosis confirmed schwannoma and the symptoms markedly improved. PMID:25013519

  9. Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Disc Herniation at the Segment of Existing Osteochondroma in a Patient with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses

    PubMed Central

    Tarukado, Kiyoshi; Senba, Hideyuki; Kitamura, Takahiro; Komiya, Norihiro; Shidahara, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is a benign hereditary disorder characterized by multiple osteochondromas. Osteochondroma appears occasionally in the spinal column as a part of HME. A 37-year-old man presented with a history of HME and cervical compressive myelopathy caused by intraspinal osteochondroma arising from the lamina of the C5 and disc herniation at the C5-6. He was treated by open-door laminoplasty at the C5 and C6 with excision of the tumor. The neurological symptoms were immediately relieved after surgery. Magnetic resonance images demonstrated a sufficient decompression of the spinal cord with a spontaneous regression of the herniated disc at one year after surgery. There was no recurrence of the tumor and no appearance of kyphosis and segmental instability of the cervical spine on postoperative imaging studies for three years after surgery. The patient could be successfully treated by laminoplasty with excision of the tumor and without removal of the herniated disc. PMID:25558330

  10. Comparison of Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy and Open Lumbar Surgery for Adjacent Segment Degeneration and Recurrent Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huan-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Hsun; Wei, Li; Lui, Tai-Ngar; Lin, Tien-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The goal of the present study was to examine the clinical results of percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and open lumbar surgery for patients with adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) and recurrence of disc herniation. Methods. From December 2011 to November 2013, we collected forty-three patients who underwent repeated lumbar surgery. These patients, either received PELD (18 patients) or repeated open lumbar surgery (25 patients), due to ASD or recurrence of disc herniation at L3-4, L4-5, or L5-S1 level, were assigned to different groups according to the surgical approaches. Clinical data were assessed and compared. Results. Mean blood loss was significantly less in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Hospital stay and mean operating time were shorter significantly in the PELD group as compared to the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Immediate postoperative pain improvement in VAS was 3.5 in the PELD group and ?0.56 in the open lumbar surgery group (P < 0.0001). Conclusion. For ASD and recurrent lumbar disc herniation, PELD had more advantages over open lumbar surgery in terms of reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stay, operating time, fewer complications, and less postoperative discomfort. PMID:25861474

  11. A look into the nucleus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Particle Data Group

    2002-01-01

    Opposing forces in the nucleus are many, but why doesn?t the nucleus blow apart? In this portion of a tutorial on particle physics, students read that although the positive protons repel each other, the much greater, residual strong force holds the nucleus intact. An analogy about the nucleus is presented both as text and in pictures. Here, protons are represented as a coiled spring and the residual strong force is represented as a thick rope. The strong rope surrounds the spring, holding it coiled tightly together. The stored energy in the spring is contained by the strong rope. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-7–dependent release of tumor necrosis factor-? in a model of herniated disc resorption

    PubMed Central

    Haro, Hirotaka; Crawford, Howard C.; Fingleton, Barbara; Shinomiya, Kenichi; Spengler, Dan M.; Matrisian, Lynn M.

    2000-01-01

    Herniated disc (HD), one of the major causes of low back pain, is often resolved spontaneously without surgical intervention. Resorption is associated with a marked increase in infiltrating macrophages, and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-3 and MMP-7 have been implicated in this phenomenon. We developed a murine organ culture model in which intact intervertebral discs were cocultured with peritoneal macrophages to investigate the role of MMPs in HD resorption. Using macrophages isolated from MMP-null mice, we report that macrophage-produced MMP-7 was required for proteoglycan degradation, loss of wet weight, and macrophage infiltration of cocultured discs. The inability of MMP-7–deficient macrophages to infiltrate discs could not be attributed to a defect in macrophage migration. MMP-7 was required for the release of the cytokine TNF-? from peritoneal macrophages. The generation of soluble TNF-? was essential for the induction of MMP-3 in disc cocultures, which in turn is required for the generation of a macrophage chemoattractant and subsequent macrophage infiltration. TNF-? release from macrophages was necessary but insufficient for disc resorption, which required macrophage infiltration. We conclude that there is extensive communication between macrophages and chondrocytes in HD resorption and that an essential component of this communication is the requirement for MMPs to release soluble bioactive factors. PMID:10642592

  13. A review of current treatment for lumbar disc herniation in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongjun

    2009-01-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common disorder among adults with degenerated lumbar intervertebral discs. However, its occurrence in childhood and adolescence is much less frequent mostly because children and adolescents tend to have a healthier lumbar spine as compared with adults. This difference indicates that children and adolescents are far from being just little adults. Over the years, there have constantly been published studies concerning this entity where the findings suggested that pediatric LDH is, in many ways, different from that in adults. To date, the prevalence, the etiological and the diagnostic features of pediatric LDH have been fully described in the literature whereas the characteristics regarding to the treatment is yet to be reviewed in details. The aim of the present review is to provide a collective opinion on the treatment of pediatric LDH as well as its outcome. It reviewed the relevant information available in the literature and compared the results among and within various treatments. It was found that pediatric patients responded less favorably to conservative treatment as compared with adults. In addition, the outcome of surgery remained to be satisfactory for at least 10 years after the initial operation, even though it appeared to deteriorate slightly. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first literature review focusing on the treatment of pediatric LDH. PMID:19890666

  14. Nonlocal Description of the Nucleus-Nucleus Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chamon, L.C.; Pereira, D.; Hussein, M.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P.66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P.66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Candido Ribeiro, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Galetti, D. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)] [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, 01405-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    A parameter-free nonlocal double-folding-inspired interaction is proposed for the nucleus-nucleus systems. Excellent reproductions of elastic scattering differential cross section data were obtained for several systems over a wide range of bombarding energies. Our results should be of value in the description of the scattering of other many-body systems. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Return to play after conservative treatment in athletes with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation: a practice-based observational study.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to confirm the short-term outcome of conservative treatment in terms of the ability to return to play and factors influencing return to play in athletes with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation. A total of 100 consecutive athletes (72 male and 28 female) who consulted our sports medicine clinic during the 16-year period between September 1993 and October 2009 because of severe low back pain and/or leg pain/numbness due to lumbar disc herniation were studied. The mean age of the subjects was 23 years. All of them were conservatively treated by being advised to discontinue their sporting activities with/without short-term medication. After the subjective symptoms had reduced by more than 80%, individual training was started in order to allow the athletes to return to play. Seventy-nine athletes (79.0%) returned to play at an average of 4.8 months (range 1-12 months) after the start of treatment and were able to sustain the activities for at least 6 months, the minimum duration of follow-up in the study. The outcome of the conservative treatment was not influenced by the intensity of the sporting activity. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the severity of the symptoms prior to the start of treatment was the factor influencing the ability of the athletes to return to play. The present study confirmed the satisfactory short-term outcome of conservative treatment in athletes with symptomatic lumbar disc herniation regarding return to play and revealed that subjective symptoms prior to the start of treatment appeared to be a key factor in return to play after conservative treatment. PMID:24198567

  16. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Ji Sook; Han, Jong Kyu; Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. Results The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Conclusion Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI. PMID:26175589

  17. Cost-effectiveness of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy in the treatment of lumbar disc herniation: a prospective randomised controlled trial [ISRCTN51857546

    PubMed Central

    Arts, Mark P; Peul, Wilco C; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Thomeer, Ralph TWM

    2006-01-01

    Background Open discectomy is the standard surgical procedure in the treatment of patients with long-lasting sciatica caused by lumbar disc herniation. Minimally invasive approaches such as microendoscopic discectomy have gained attention in recent years. Reduced tissue trauma allows early ambulation, short hospital stay and quick resumption of daily activities. A comparative cost-effectiveness study has not been performed yet. We present the design of a randomised controlled trial on cost-effectiveness of microendoscopic discectomy versus conventional open discectomy in patients with lumbar disc herniation. Methods/Design Patients (age 18–70 years) presenting with sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation lasting more than 6–8 weeks are included. Patients with disc herniation larger than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter, or disc herniation less than 1/3 of the spinal canal diameter with concomitant lateral recess stenosis or sequestration, are eliglible for participation. Randomisation into microendoscopic discectomy or conventional unilateral transflaval discectomy will take place in the operating room after induction of anesthesia. The length of skin incision is equal in both groups. The primary outcome measure is the functional assessment of the patient, measured by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica, at 8 weeks and 1 year after surgery. We will also evaluate several other outcome parameters, including perceived recovery, leg and back pain, incidence of re-operations, complications, serum creatine kinase, quality of life, medical consumption, absenteeism and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multi-institutional trial, in which two surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses are kept blinded of the allocated treatment during the follow-up period of 2 years. Discussion Currently, open discectomy is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of lumbar disc herniation. Whether microendoscopic discectomy is more cost-effective than unilateral transflaval discectomy has to be determined by this trial. PMID:16696861

  18. Minimally invasive surgical procedures for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Lühmann, Dagmar; Burkhardt-Hammer, Tatjana; Borowski, Cathleen; Raspe, Heiner

    2005-01-01

    Introduction In up to 30% of patients undergoing lumbar disc surgery for herniated or protruded discs outcomes are judged unfavourable. Over the last decades this problem has stimulated the development of a number of minimally-invasive operative procedures. The aim is to relieve pressure from compromised nerve roots by mechanically removing, dissolving or evaporating disc material while leaving bony structures and surrounding tissues as intact as possible. In Germany, there is hardly any utilisation data for these new procedures – data files from the statutory health insurances demonstrate that about 5% of all lumbar disc surgeries are performed using minimally-invasive techniques. Their real proportion is thought to be much higher because many procedures are offered by private hospitals and surgeries and are paid by private health insurers or patients themselves. So far no comprehensive assessment comparing efficacy, safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery to standard procedures (microdiscectomy, open discectomy) which could serve as a basis for coverage decisions, has been published in Germany. Objective Against this background the aim of the following assessment is: Based on published scientific literature assess safety, efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery compared to standard procedures. To identify and critically appraise studies comparing costs and cost-effectiveness of minimally-invasive procedures to that of standard procedures. If necessary identify research and evaluation needs and point out regulative needs within the German health care system. The assessment focusses on procedures that are used in elective lumbar disc surgery as alternative treatment options to microdiscectomy or open discectomy. Chemonucleolysis, percutaneous manual discectomy, automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy, laserdiscectomy and endoscopic procedures accessing the disc by a posterolateral or posterior approach are included. Methods In order to assess safety, efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive procedures as well as their economic implications systematic reviews of the literature are performed. A comprehensive search strategy is composed to search 23 electronic databases, among them MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. Methodological quality of systematic reviews, HTA reports and primary research is assessed using checklists of the German Scientific Working Group for Health Technology Assessment. Quality and transparency of cost analyses are documented using the quality and transparency catalogues of the working group. Study results are summarised in a qualitative manner. Due to the limited number and the low methodological quality of the studies it is not possible to conduct metaanalyses. In addition to the results of controlled trials results of recent case series are introduced and discussed. Results The evidence-base to assess safety, efficacy and effectiveness of minimally-invasive lumbar disc surgery procedures is rather limited: Percutaneous manual discectomy: Six case series (four after 1998) Automated percutaneous lumbar discectomy: Two RCT (one discontinued), twelve case series (one after 1998) Chemonucleolysis: Five RCT, five non-randomised controlled trials, eleven case series Percutaneous laserdiscectomy: One non-randomised controlled trial, 13 case series (eight after 1998) Endoscopic procedures: Three RCT, 21 case series (17 after 1998) There are two economic analyses each retrieved for chemonucleolysis and automated percutaneous discectomy as well as one cost-minimisation analysis comparing costs of an endoscopic procedure to costs for open discectomy. Among all minimally-invasive procedures chemonucleolysis is the only of which efficacy may be judged on the basis of results from high quality randomised controlled trials (RCT). Study results suggest that the procedure maybe (cost)effectively used as an intermediate therapeutical option between conservative and operative management of small lumbar disc herniations

  19. Idiopathic spinal cord herniation: Clinical review and report of three cases

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Johanne C.; Balasubramani, Yagnesh V.; Chan, Patrick C. H.; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is a rare condition, of unknown pathogenesis, that primarily affects the thoracic spinal cord. It is characterized by ventral displacement of the spinal cord through a dural defect. The aim of this study was to review the literature and to present a retrospective single center experience with three cases of ISCH. The literature review analyzed a total of 78 relevant publications on ISCH, which included a total of 171 patients, supplemented with 3 patients treated at our institution. Numerous case reports have demonstrated improvement in clinical outcomes after surgery; however, follow-up is predominantly short, data are incomplete, the condition is frequently misdiagnosed, and it is difficult to predict which patients will benefit from surgery. We identified 159 cases treated with surgical management. The mean symptom duration was 54 months, and the mean follow-up 33 months. The result at follow-up was improved neurological outcome in 74%, unchanged result in 18%, and worse outcome in 8%. There were 15 cases of conservative management, with mean symptom duration 52 months and mean follow-up 33 months. The neurological outcome was unchanged in 100%. ISCH is a rare condition causing progressive thoracic myelopathy, and the natural history is unknown. There is a lack of evidence-based treatment strategies, and the majority of cases are treated with surgical management at diagnosis. Management of ISCH needs to be individualized for each patient, and clinicians should be encouraged to report new cases, standardize case reports, and ensure long-term follow-up. PMID:24049553

  20. Postural control in patients with lumbar disc herniation in the early postoperative period

    PubMed Central

    Chantsoulis, Marzena; Kuczy?ski, Micha?

    2009-01-01

    Chronic spinal disc disease leads to disorders in postural movement coordination. An incorrect asymmetrical movement pattern for the lower limbs loading impairs proprioception and deteriorates postural stability, particularly when the vision is occluded. The standard surgical treatment improves biomechanical conditions in the lumbar spine, reduces pain, yet does it reduce the stability deficit in the upright position? An answer to the latter question would help work out targeted therapy to improve postural stability. We hypothesized that the standard surgical treatment would improve postural stability reflected by decreased sway variability accounting for better use of proprioceptive inputs postoperatively. Thirty-nine patients with lumbar disc herniation participated in the study. Their postural sway was recorded in anterior/posterior and medial/lateral planes with their eyes open or closed (EC) before and after surgery. The variability, range, mean velocity of the recorded time series and the area of the ellipse enclosed by the statokinesiogram were used as measures of postural stability. Preoperatively, EC condition resulted in an increased variability and mean velocity of postural sway, while postoperatively it caused an increase in sway mean velocity and sway area only with no effect on sway variability and range. The comparison of the balance before and after the surgery in the EC condition showed significant decrease in all parameters. In the early postoperative period, the patients recover the ability to control their postural sway in EC within normal limits, however, at the expense of significantly increased frequency of corrective torques. It is probably a transient short-term strategy needed to compensate for the recovery phase when the normal weighting factors for all afferents are being reestablished. We propose that this transient postoperative period may be the best timing of therapeutic intervention targeted at facilitating and reinforcing the acquisition of correct motor patterns. PMID:19562385

  1. Characteristics of lumbar disc herniation with exacerbation of presentation due to spinal manipulative therapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng-Li; Liu, Yan-Xi; Yuan, Guo-Lian; Zhang, Ji; Yan, Hong-Wei

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this article was to delineate the characteristics of lumbar disc herniation (LDH) in patients with exacerbation of symptoms caused by spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). The main emphasis should be on the prevention of this condition by identifying relevant risk factors. Detailed clinico-radiological profiles of a total number of 10 LDH patients with exacerbation of presentation after SMT were reviewed. All the patients underwent neurological and magnetic resonance imaging examinations. Laminectomy and discectomy were performed, and follow-up was carried out in all patients. The duration of symptoms in the patients before SMT was 4-15 years. After the therapy, an acute exacerbation of back and radicular pain was observed within 24?h. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that L4-L5 was the most frequently affected level observed (7 patients), and each patient had a large disc fragment in the spinal canal. The disc fragments were classified into 3 types according to their localizations. The time internal between the exacerbation of presentation and surgery was 23.1 days. No perioperative complications were noted. All the patients were relieved of radicular pain a few days after surgery. During postoperative follow-up, all patients regained the ability to walk; one patient received catheterization for 1 month and another for 6 months. Eight patients reported a complete resolution of presentation and the rest 2 patients were significantly improved. SMT should be prohibited in some LDH patients to prevent neurological damages, in whom there are 5 possible risk factors. Surgical results for these patients are encouraging. PMID:25816037

  2. Mechanisms of cerebellar tonsil herniation in patients with Chiari malformations as guide to clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Misao; Kula, Roger W.; Dlugacz, Yosef D.

    2010-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of Chiari malformations is incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that different etiologies have different mechanisms of cerebellar tonsil herniation (CTH), as revealed by posterior cranial fossa (PCF) morphology. Methods In 741 patients with Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) and 11 patients with Chiari malformation type II (CM-II), the size of the occipital enchondrium and volume of the PCF (PCFV) were measured on reconstructed 2D-CT and MR images of the skull. Measurements were compared with those in 80 age- and sex-matched healthy control individuals, and the results were correlated with clinical findings. Results Significant reductions of PCF size and volume were present in 388 patients with classical CM-I, 11 patients with CM-II, and five patients with CM-I and craniosynostosis. Occipital bone size and PCFV were normal in 225 patients with CM-I and occipitoatlantoaxial joint instability, 55 patients with CM-I and tethered cord syndrome (TCS), 30 patients with CM-I and intracranial mass lesions, and 28 patients with CM-I and lumboperitoneal shunts. Ten patients had miscellaneous etiologies. The size and area of the foramen magnum were significantly smaller in patients with classical CM-I and CM-I occurring with craniosynostosis and significantly larger in patients with CM-II and CM-I occurring with TCS. Conclusions Important clues concerning the pathogenesis of CTH were provided by morphometric measurements of the PCF. When these assessments were correlated with etiological factors, the following causal mechanisms were suggested: (1) cranial constriction; (2) cranial settling; (3) spinal cord tethering; (4) intracranial hypertension; and (5) intraspinal hypotension. PMID:20440631

  3. Detailed clinical characteristics of L1–2 disc herniation—a new classification and its features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichiro Okuyama; Hiroshi Sasaki; Noriyuki Ishikawa; Tadato Kido; Hitoshi Suzuki; Mitsuho Chiba

    2011-01-01

    Background  It is no doubt that very rare incidence and anatomical complexity of L1\\/2 disc herniation are the main reasons for diagnostic\\u000a difficulty of disc hernia at the L1\\/2 level. The purpose of the current study is to propose a new classification of L1\\/2 disc\\u000a heniation and to reveal its specific neurosymptomatology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between 1988 and 2010, we surgically treated 20 patients,

  4. Misunderstanding of foot drop in a patient with charcot-marie-tooth disease and lumbar disk herniation.

    PubMed

    Han, Youngmin; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Cho, Dae-Chul; Sung, Joo-Kyung

    2015-04-01

    We report the case of 57-year-old woman diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and lumbar disk herniation (LDH). She had left leg weakness and foot numbness, foot deformity (muscle atrophy, high arch, and clawed toes). The lumbar spine MRI showed LDH at L4-5. Additionally, electrophysiology results were consistent with chronic peripheral motor-sensory polyneuropathy (axonopathy). In genetic testing, 17p11.2-p12 duplication/deletions characteristic of CMT disease were observed. We confirmed the patient's diagnosis as CMT disease and used conservative treatment. PMID:25932299

  5. Full-endoscopic interlaminar removal of chronic lumbar epidural hematoma after spinal manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yen-Po; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Lin, Ping-Yi; Huang, Abel Po-Hao; Cheng, Chun-Yuan; Ma, Hsin-I; Chen, Chien-Min; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spinal manipulation is widely used for low back pain treatments. Complications associated with spinal manipulation are seen. Lumbar epidural hematoma (EDH) is one of the complications reported in the literature. If lumbar chronic EDH symptoms are present, which are similar to those of a herniated nucleus pulposus, surgery may be considered if medical treatment fails. Percutaneous endoscopic discectomy utilizing an interlaminar approach can be successfully applied to those with herniated nucleus pulposus. We use the same technique to remove the lumbar chronic EDH, which is the first documented report in the related literature. Methods: We present a case with chronic lumbar EDH associated with spinal manipulation. Neurologic deficits were noted on physical examination. We arranged for a full-endoscopic interlaminar approach to remove the hematoma for the patient with the rigid endoscopy (Vertebris system; Richard Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany). Results: After surgery, the patient's radiculopathy immediately began to disappear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) follow-up 10 days after the surgery revealed no residual hematoma. No complications were noted during the outpatient department follow up. Conclusions: Lumbar EDH is a possible complication of spinal manipulation. Patient experiencing rapidly progressive neurologic deficit require early surgical evacuation, while conservative treatment may only be applied to those with mild symptoms. A percutaneous full-endoscopic interlaminar approach may be a viable alternative for the treatment of those with chronic EDH with progressive neurologic deficits. PMID:24872917

  6. Translaminar Microendoscopic Herniotomy for Cranially Migrated Lumbar Disc Herniations Encroaching on the Exiting Nerve Root in the Preforaminal and Foraminal Zones

    PubMed Central

    Tono, Osamu; Senba, Hideyuki; Kitamura, Takahiro; Komiya, Norihiro; Oga, Masayoshi; Shidahara, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Case series. Purpose The aim of this study was to describe translaminar microendoscopic herniotomy (TL-MEH) for cranially migrated lumbar disc herniations encroaching on the exiting nerve root in the preforaminal and foraminal zones and to report preliminary results of the procedure. Overview of Literature Conventional interlaminar approaches for preforaminal and foraminal lumbar disc herniations result in extensive removal of the lamina and facet joint to remove disc fragments safely. More destructive approaches increase the risk of postoperative segmental instability. Methods TL-MEH is a minimally invasive procedure for herniotomy via the translaminar approach using a microendoscopic technique. TL-MEH was performed in seven patients with a cranially migrated lumbar disc herniation encroaching on the exiting nerve root. The disc fragments were located in the preforaminal zone in four patients, and in the preforaminal and foraminal zones in three. Results All patients experienced immediate relief from symptoms after surgery and satisfactory results at the final follow-up. Surgical complications, such as a dural tear, nerve injury, and surgical site infection, were not investigated. Conclusions TL-MEH seemed to be an effective and safe alternative minimally invasive surgical option for patients with a cranially migrated lumbar disc herniation encroaching the exiting nerve root in the preforaminal and foraminal zones. PMID:24066214

  7. Lumbar instrumented fusion compared with cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation: A prospective randomized controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Ivar Brox; Olav Reikerås; Øystein Nygaard; Roger Sørensen; Aage Indahl; Inger Holm; Anne Keller; Tor Ingebrigtsen; Oliver Grundnes; Johan Emil Lange; Astrid Friis

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of lumbar fusion for chronic low back pain after surgery for disc herniation has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of lumbar fusion with posterior transpedicular screws and cognitive intervention and exercises. Sixty patients aged 25–60 years with low back pain lasting longer than 1

  8. Reliability of the Path of the Sciatic Nerve, Congruence between Patients' History and Medical Imaging Evidence of Disc Herniation and Its Role in Surgical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Khouzani, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Study Design The prevalence of disc herniation is estimated to be about 100,000 new cases per year in France and disc herniation accounts for 25% to 30% of surgical activity in Departments of Neurosurgery. Classically, sciatica is expected to follow its specific dermatome-L5 or S1-. In clinical practice, we regularly encounter patients showing discrepancy between clinical sciatica and imaging findings. Purpose The aim of this paper is to review the medical concept and management of sciatica pain in patients showing this discrepancy. Overview of Literature To the best of our knowledge, this subject has not yet been discussed in the medical literature. Methods The medical records of 241 patients who were operated on for L5 or S1 sciatica caused by disc herniation were reviewed. Results We found an apparent clinicoradiological discrepancy between sciatica described by patients on one side and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding on the other side in 27 (11.20%) patients. We did not find any other abnormalities in the preoperative and postoperative period. All of these patients underwent lumbar discectomy via posterior interlaminar approach. Three months after surgery, 25 patients (92.59%) had been totally relieved of sciatica pain. Two patients (7.41%) continued to experience sciatica in spite of the surgery. Conclusions The discrepancy between clinical sciatica and disc herniation level on MRI is not rare. Management of this discrepancy requires further investigation in order to avoid missing the diagnosis and treatment failure. PMID:25901230

  9. Sequential dynamics of matrix metalloproteinases, tumor necrosis factor–?, vascular endothelial growth factor and plasmin expressions in the resorption process of herniated disc

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsuyoshi Kato; Hirotaka Haro; Hiromichi Komori; Kennichi Shinomiya

    2002-01-01

    Purpose of study: Granulation tissues of herniated disc (HD) are composed of marked infiltration macrophages and neovascularization that is not observed in the healthy intervertebral disc. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study has shown that epidurally displaced HD tissues more commonly exhibited a gradual decrease in the size of HD. We previously showed that infiltrating macrophages, neovascularization induced by vascular endothelial

  10. A scaling relation between proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Gokce Basar; Derek Teaney

    2014-08-14

    It is recently discovered that at high multiplicy, the proton-nucleus ($pA$) collisions give rise to two particle correlations that are strikingly similar to those of nucleus-nucleus ($AA$) collisions at the same multiplicity, although the system size is smaller in $pA$. Using an independent cluster model and a simple conformal scaling argument, where the ratio of the mean free path to the system size stays constant at fixed multiplicity, we argue that flow in $pA$ emerges as a collective response to the fluctuations in the position of clusters, just like in $AA$ collisions. With several physically motivated and parameter free rescalings of the recent LHC data, we show that this simple model captures the essential physics of elliptic and triangular flow in $pA$ collisions.

  11. A scaling relation between proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ba?ar, Gökçe; Teaney, Derek

    2014-11-01

    It is recently discovered that at high multiplicity, the proton-nucleus (pA) collisions give rise to two particle correlations that are strikingly similar to those of nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions at the same multiplicity, although the system size is smaller in pA. Using an independent cluster model and a simple conformal scaling argument, where the ratio of the mean free path to the system size stays constant at fixed multiplicity, we argue that flow in pA emerges as a collective response to the fluctuations in the position of clusters, just like in AA collisions. With several physically motivated and parameter free rescalings of the recent LHC data, we show that this simple model captures the essential physics of elliptic and triangular flow in pA collisions.

  12. Minimally invasive surgery for synchronous, same-level lumbar intradural-extramedullary neoplasm and acute disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Kasliwal, Manish K; Wewel, Joshua; Fontes, Ricardo B V; O'Toole, John E

    2014-09-01

    Schwannomas are the most common intradural-extramedullary spinal tumors, with an estimated incidence of 3 to 10 cases per 100,000 people. With continued advances in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) over recent years, MIS techniques have been utilized by spine surgeons in the resection of intradural spinal neoplasms with favorable surgical results and clinical outcomes. This video demonstrates a rare case of symptomatic, synchronous, same-level lumbar intradural-extramedullary neoplasm and acute disc herniation, both of which were successfully treated using a single MIS approach. Surgical pearls and nuances are discussed to better delineate technique and minimize potential complications. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/78ibbicBRUk. PMID:25175577

  13. Percutaneous kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures with neurological deficit: radicular pain can mimic disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jun-Jie; Shen, Min-Jie; Meng, Bin; Yang, Yan; Yang, Hui-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) are the common disease found in elderly population. Neurological deficit in OVFs is rare despite the involved posterior cortex of the fractured vertebral body, severe kyphotic deformity, or the instability at the fracture site. OVF with resulting neurological deficit was considered as a contraindication for vertebral augmentation techniques. We reported a rare case of a 75-year-old woman with L1, L2 osteoporotic vertebral fractures and L5/S1 disc herniation who presented with back pain and radicular pain extending along the posterior aspect of the left leg. Physical examination showed slight weakness of her flexor hallucis longus and absence of ankle jerk on her left leg. The result of a straight leg-raising test was limited to an angle of 50 degrees. The radiographs showed that the nerve root was compressed by the retropulsed bone fragment of the L2 vertebral body and a herniated disc at the level of L5/S1 on the left side. After L1 and L2 kyphoplasty the radicular pain as well as the back pain was completely disappeared. At her two-year follow-up examination, the patient was completely symptom free and reported no radicular pain. This case suggested that minimally invasive techniques such as kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty are effective in certain OVF patients with neurological deficit. Radicular pain could be caused by osteoporotic fracture that involves the posterior cortex of the vertebral body. Understanding the anatomy of nerve roots and pathogenetic mechanism of radicular pain is particularly important for treatment option. PMID:25232437

  14. Percutaneous kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar fractures with neurological deficit: radicular pain can mimic disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jun-Jie; Shen, Min-Jie; Meng, Bin; Yang, Yan; Yang, Hui-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) are the common disease found in elderly population. Neurological deficit in OVFs is rare despite the involved posterior cortex of the fractured vertebral body, severe kyphotic deformity, or the instability at the fracture site. OVF with resulting neurological deficit was considered as a contraindication for vertebral augmentation techniques. We reported a rare case of a 75-year-old woman with L1, L2 osteoporotic vertebral fractures and L5/S1 disc herniation who presented with back pain and radicular pain extending along the posterior aspect of the left leg. Physical examination showed slight weakness of her flexor hallucis longus and absence of ankle jerk on her left leg. The result of a straight leg-raising test was limited to an angle of 50 degrees. The radiographs showed that the nerve root was compressed by the retropulsed bone fragment of the L2 vertebral body and a herniated disc at the level of L5/S1 on the left side. After L1 and L2 kyphoplasty the radicular pain as well as the back pain was completely disappeared. At her two-year follow-up examination, the patient was completely symptom free and reported no radicular pain. This case suggested that minimally invasive techniques such as kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty are effective in certain OVF patients with neurological deficit. Radicular pain could be caused by osteoporotic fracture that involves the posterior cortex of the vertebral body. Understanding the anatomy of nerve roots and pathogenetic mechanism of radicular pain is particularly important for treatment option. PMID:25232437

  15. Transverse Energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Tincknell, M.

    1988-11-15

    The status of Transverse Energy (E/sub T/) in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS is reviewed. The definition of E/sub T/ and its physical significance are discussed. The basic techniques and limitations of the experimental measurements are presented. The acceptances of the major experiments to be discussed are shown, along with remarks about their idiosyncrasies. The data demonstrate that the nuclear geometry of colliding spheres primarily determines the shapes of the observed spectra. Careful account of the acceptances is crucial to comparing and interpreting results. It is concluded that nuclear stopping power is high, and that the amount of energy deposited into the interaction volume is increasing with beam energy even at SPS energies. The energy densities believed to be obtained at the SPS are close to the critical values predicted for the onset of a quark-gluon plasma. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Nonlocal effects in the nucleus-nucleus fusion cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Galetti, D.; Candido Ribeiro, M.A. (Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Pamplona 145, CEP 01405, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1994-10-01

    Effects of the nonlocality of factorizable potentials are taken into account in the calculation of nucleus-nucleus fusion cross section through an effective mass approach. This cross section makes use of the tunneling factor calculated for the nonlocal barrier, without the explicit introduction of any result coming from coupled channel calculation, besides the approximations of Hill-Wheeler and Wong. Its new expression embodies the nonlocal effects in a factor which redefines the local potential barrier curvature. Applications to different systems, namely, [sup 16]O+[sup 59]Co, [sup 16,18]O+[sup 58,60,64]Ni, and [sup 16,18]O+[sup 63,65]Cu are presented, where the nonlocal range is treated as a free parameter.

  17. Cerebrovascular bypass and aneurysm trapping for the treatment of an A2-segment anterior cerebral artery pseudoaneurysm and herniation through a skull base defect following trauma.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Brian P; Nahed, Brian V; Kahle, Kristopher T; Sekhar, Laligam N; Ferreira, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    Fractures of the anterior skull base can lead to pseudoaneurysm formation as a result of direct injury to a vessel wall. Pseudoaneurysms in this location are challenging to treat, as both perforator and distal blood supply must be maintained. Additionally, traumatic skull base fractures can lead to a rare condition of cerebral blood vessel herniation through the bony defect, further complicating treatment planning. Treatment of these lesions is essential to (1) prevent the occurrence of potentially fatal subarachnoid hemorrhage and (2) prevent dissection from propagating and compromising blood flow to distal vessels, perforators, and even parent vessels. We present a unique case of a traumatic proximal anterior cerebral artery pseudoaneurysm, herniating through a skull base defect. Treatment consisted of aneurysm trapping and bypass with skull base reconstruction. PMID:22051032

  18. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  19. Fragmentectomy versus Conventional Microdiscectomy in Single-Level Lumbar Disc Herniations : Comparison of Clinical Results and Recurrence Rates

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Seong; Lee, Min-Cheol; Song, Jae-Wook; Kim, Sang-Kyu; Kim, In-Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Objective This retrospective study aimed to compare clinical outcomes in terms of pain relief and recurrence rate between fragmentectomies and conventional microdiscectomies in patients with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). Methods Between January 2008 and May 2011, a total of 175 patients met the inclusion criteria of this study. The visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of back and radicular pains were recorded before surgery, 2 and 6 weeks after surgery. Recurrence was defined when a patient had the same pattern of preoperative symptoms and was confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging. Results Seventy-four patients (42.3%) were suitable for fragmentectomy, and 101 patients underwent conventional microdiscectomy. There were no significant differences in VAS scores between the fragmentectomy and conventional microdiscectomy groups 2 and 6 weeks after surgery. During the follow-up period, 3 patients (4.05%) in the fragmentectomy group and 7 patients (6.93%) in the conventional microdiscectomy group relapsed. Conclusion If patients are selected according to well-defined criteria, fragmentectomy can be a good surgical option for LDH, in the physiological aspect of preserving healthy intervertebral disc materials. PMID:23115663

  20. The prognostic value of cerebrospinal fluid characteristics in dogs without deep pain perception due to thoracolumbar disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Chamisha, Y; Aroch, I; Kuzi, S; Srugo, I; Bdolah-Abram, T; Chai, O; Christopher, M M; Merbl, Y; Rothwell, K; Shamir, M H

    2015-06-01

    Providing a pre-operative prognosis for dogs presented with absent deep pain perception (DPP) is extremely challenging, as the overall recovery rates widely vary. This study assesses the possible correlation between the severity of spinal cord injury and CSF cytology in 31 paraplegic dogs presented with absent DPP due to acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation (TL-IVDH). All dogs underwent surgical decompression immediately following diagnosis. CSF TNCC, macrophage percentage and macrophage to monocyte (M?:M) ratio were significantly higher in dogs that failed to regain DPP within 10 days post-operatively and in dogs that failed to regain ambulation at the end of the study period (P

  1. Correlation of matrix metalloproteinases-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 with patient age and grade of lumbar disk herniation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Haidong; Mei, Qiang; He, Jin; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Jianning; Xu, Bin

    2014-07-01

    The authors studied the nuclear magnetic resonance films and the expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 in disk specimens' of patients who had undergone operations for lumbar disk herniation. Forty-one lumbar disk patients were evaluated imaging for degenerative changes and their disk specimens immunohistochemical expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1. The degree of degenerative changes was based on magnetic resonance imaging films. Sections of disk immunostained for MMP-1 and TIMP-1 were evaluated semiquantitatively. Patients were categorized in three age groups: <30 years, from 30 to 60 years, and >60 years of age. The expressions of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 were related to patients' age and degree of degenerative changes. There were statistical differences in the expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 between the age and degree of degenerative changes groups. With the degree of degenerative changes, the expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 increased obviously. But in old age group, the expression of MMP-1/TIMP-1 was higher than the young groups. The expressions of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 were strongly correlated to the age and the degree of the degenerative changes. An important finding in this study is the unbalance of the expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1 along with the growth of the age. PMID:24442990

  2. Lateral transmuscular or combined interlaminar/paraisthmic approach to lateral lumbar disc herniation? A comparative clinical series of 48 patients

    PubMed Central

    Ryang, Y; Rohde, I; Ince, A; Oertel, M; Gilsbach, J; Rohde, V

    2005-01-01

    Background: The optimum operative technique for lateral lumbar disc herniations (LLDH) remains unclear, and both interlaminar and extraspinal approaches are used. Objective: To compare outcome after LLDH removal either by a lateral transmuscular approach (LTM) or by a combined interlaminar and paraisthmic approach (CIP). Methods: 28 patients underwent surgery using CIP and 20 using LTM. All patients were operated on by the same neurosurgeon. The clinical presentation of the two groups was comparable. Overall outcome was assessed after a mean follow up period of between 19 and 37 months using the Ebeling classification. In addition, the effect of surgery on radicular pain, low back pain, and sensory and motor deficits was defined. Results: Excellent to good results were achieved in 95% of the LTM group and 57% of the CIP group. The outcome was satisfactory to poor in 5% of the LTM and 43% of the CIP group (p<0.004). The percentage of sensorimotor deficit and of radicular pain improvement was higher in the LTM group. New low back pain was found exclusively in the CIP group (21%). The complication rate was 5% in the LTM group and 11% in the CIP group. Conclusions: The LTM approach achieves a better overall outcome and improvement in radiculopathy. The complication rate is lower with the transmuscular route and the risk of new low back pain is minimised. These results are likely to be attributable at least in part to the lesser invasiveness of the LTM approach. PMID:15965204

  3. Conversion of adult Nucleus(®) 5 cochlear implant users to the Nucleus(®) 6 system.

    PubMed

    De Ceulaer, Geert; Swinnen, Freya; Pascoal, David; Philips, Birgit; Killian, Matthijs; James, Chris; Govaerts, Paul J; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-10-01

    Objectives Cochlear's new sound processor system (Nucleus(®) 6) features a new noise reduction algorithm called SNR-NR (signal-to-noise ratio), and an environmental classifier called SCAN, which activates the appropriate sound coding algorithms for a given listening environment. In addition, the sound processors (CP910 and CP920) have a data logging feature with data visually summarized using clinical programing software and come with two remote controls, CR210 and CR230. The objective of this clinical study was to conduct a field acceptance study comparing the user experience with the Nucleus(®) 6 to the Nucleus(®) 5 system and to evaluate the benefits of Nucleus(®) 6 in an adult population currently equipped with the previous generation Nucleus(®) 5 sound processor. Our primary objective was to compare speech recognition in speech-weighted noise using Nucleus(®) 6 with SCAN (activating SNR-NR) with the default Nucleus(®) 5 'Noise' Program. Secondary objectives included comparisons of speech recognition in quiet, subjective performance feedback via questionnaires and diaries, and recipient preference for device and program type. Methods A prospective controlled trial was conducted with 30 adult Nucleus CI recipients using the Nucleus(®) 5 sound processor (condition A). The Nucleus(®) 6 sound processor (condition B) was evaluated in a within-subject ABBA design, with repeated speech in noise (S0N0, LIST sentence test), and speech in quiet testing (S0, NVA words). The remote controls were randomly given during the two B intervals. In addition, recipients had to complete questionnaires and diaries on the use of their current as well as new sound processors and remotes. Results The group mean speech reception threshold in noise (SRT50) with Nucleus(®) 6 SCAN was significantly better (1.2 dB SNR) than with the Nucleus(®) 5 'Noise' Program. Mean speech recognition scores in quiet were not significantly different between the processors. Subjective performance feedback (APHAB) did not show a significant difference between Nucleus(®) 6 and Nucleus(®) 5 with high satisfaction scores being reported for both sound processors. Recipients preferred the SCAN program in noise and reported a clear overall preference for the Nucleus(®) 6 system. Clinicians were satisfied with the conversion process from Nucleus(®) 5 to Nucleus(®) 6. Discussion and conclusion SNR-NR provides a significant benefit in noise. Recipients were easily converted from Nucleus(®) 5 to Nucleus(®) 6 requiring little or no sound quality adjustment period. The Nucleus(®) 6 SCAN program was well accepted by the majority of recipients for use during their daily life. PMID:25284643

  4. Surgical versus Non-Operative Treatment for Lumbar Disc Herniation: Four-Year Results for the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, James N.; Lurie, Jon D.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Blood, Emily; Abdu, William A.; Herkowitz, Harry; Hilibrand, Alan; Albert, Todd; Fischgrund, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Study Design Concurrent prospective randomized and observational cohort study. Objectives To assess the 4-year outcomes of surgery vs. non-operative care. Background Although randomized trials have demonstrated small short-term differences in favor of surgery, long-term outcomes comparing surgical to non-operative treatment remain controversial. Methods Surgical candidates with imaging-confirmed lumbar intervertebral disc herniation meeting SPORT eligibility criteria enrolled into prospective randomized (501 participants) and observational cohorts (743 participants) at 13 spine clinics in 11 US states. Interventions were standard open discectomy versus usual non-operative care. Main outcome measures were changes from baseline in the SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) and Physical Function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI - AAOS/Modems version) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and annually thereafter. Results Non-adherence to treatment assignment caused the intent-to-treat analyses to underestimate the treatment effects. In the 4-year combined as-treated analysis, those receiving surgery demonstrated significantly greater improvement in all the primary outcome measures (mean change Surgery vs. Non-operative; treatment effect; 95% CI): BP (45.6 vs. 30.7; 15.0; 11.8 to 18.1), PF (44.6 vs. 29.7; 14.9; 12.0 to 17.8) and ODI (?38.1 vs. ?24.9; ?13.2; ?15.6 to ?10.9). The percent working was similar between the surgery and non-operative groups, 84.4% vs. 78.4% respectively. Conclusion In a combined as-treated analysis at 4 years, patients who underwent surgery for a lumbar disc herniation achieved greater improvement than non-operatively treated patients in all primary and secondary outcomes except work status. Trial Registration Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): Intervertebral Disc Herniation; #NCT00000410; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/show/NCT00000410?order=2 PMID:19018250

  5. The Impact of Workers' Compensation on Outcomes of Surgical and Nonoperative Therapy for Patients with a Lumbar Disc Herniation SPORT

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Steven J.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Blood, Emily A.; Skinner, Jonathan S.; Pransky, Glenn S.; Weinstein, James N.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Prospective randomized and observational cohorts. Objective To compare outcomes of patients with and without workers' compensation who had surgical and nonoperative treatment for a lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IDH). Summary of Background Data Few studies have examined the association between worker's compensation and outcomes of surgical and nonoperative treatment. Methods Patients with at least 6 weeks of sciatica and a lumbar IDH were enrolled in either a randomized trial or observational cohort at 13 US spine centers. Patients were categorized as workers' compensation or nonworkers' compensation based on baseline disability compensation and work status. Treatment was usual nonoperative care or surgical discectomy. Outcomes included pain, functional impairment, satisfaction and work/disability status at 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Results Combining randomized and observational cohorts, 113 patients with workers' compensation and 811 patients without were followed for 2 years. There were significant improvements in pain, function, and satisfaction with both surgical and nonoperative treatment in both groups. In the nonworkers' compensation group, there was a clinically and statistically significant advantage for surgery at 3 months that remained significant at 2 years. However, in the workers' compensation group, the benefit of surgery diminished with time; at 2 years no significant advantage was seen for surgery in any outcome (treatment difference for SF-36 bodily pain [?5.9; 95% CI: ?16.7–4.9] and physical function [5.0; 95% CI: ?4.9–15]). Surgical treatment was not associated with better work or disability outcomes in either group. Conclusion Patients with a lumbar IDH improved substantially with both surgical and nonoperative treatment. However, there was no added benefit associated with surgical treatment for patients with workers' compensation at 2 years while those in the nonworkers' compensation group had significantly greater improvement with surgical treatment. PMID:20023603

  6. Physical therapy outcomes for patients receiving worker's compensation following treatment for herniated lumbar disc and mechanical low back pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, R P; Mackey, G; Holte, J B

    1996-03-01

    Outcome of physical therapy for patients receiving workers' compensation may be related to a variety of factors, including the presence or absence of herniated lumbar intervertebral disc. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of disability, physical impairment, and rate of return-to-work for patients with disc disease and for those with mechanical low back pain syndrome without evidence of disc lesion. Twenty patients with disc disease and 22 patients with mechanical low back pain syndrome participated in this study. Physical therapy consisted of multiple interventions, including manual therapy based on the pattern of motion-provoked symptoms. The Oswestry disability questionnaire, fingertip-to-floor distance, and maximum pain-free isometric static lift were measured at the initial evaluation, 1 month following the initial assessment, and at discharge from the clinic. Patients with disc disease did not show significant improvement in the mean Oswestry score or in forward bending, but did show increased static lift capacity. In contrast, patients with mechanical low back pain syndrome had a significant reduction in disability and significant improvements in fingertip-to-floor distance and maximum pain-free isometric static lift. At the time of discharge, 90% of the patients followed with mechanical low back pain syndrome returned to work in some capacity compared with 45% of the patients followed with disc disease. A physical therapy program with multiple interventions that includes treatment based on the pattern of motion-provoked symptoms appears to have the greatest benefit for patients with mechanical low back pain syndrome. PMID:8919396

  7. Inpatient or Outpatient Rehabilitation after Herniated Disc Surgery? – Setting-Specific Preferences, Participation and Outcome of Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Löbner, Margrit; Luppa, Melanie; Konnopka, Alexander; Meisel, Hans J.; Günther, Lutz; Meixensberger, Jürgen; Stengler, Katarina; Angermeyer, Matthias C.; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine rehabilitation preferences, participation and determinants for the choice of a certain rehabilitation setting (inpatient vs. outpatient) and setting-specific rehabilitation outcomes. Methods The longitudinal observational study referred to 534 consecutive disc surgery patients (18–55 years). Face-to-face baseline interviews took place about 3.6 days after disc surgery during acute hospital stay. 486 patients also participated in a follow-up interview via telephone three months later (dropout-rate: 9%). The following instruments were used: depression and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), pain intensity (numeric analog scale), health-related quality of life (Short Form 36 Health Survey), subjective prognosis of gainful employment (SPE-scale) as well as questions on rehabilitation attendance, return to work, and amount of sick leave days. Results The vast majority of patients undergoing surgery for a herniated disc attended a post-hospital rehabilitation treatment program (93%). Thereby two-thirds of these patients took part in an inpatient rehabilitation program (67.9%). Physical, psychological, vocational and health-related quality of life characteristics differed widely before as well as after rehabilitation depending on the setting. Inpatient rehabilitees were significantly older, reported more pain, worse physical quality of life, more anxiety and depression and a worse subjective prognosis of gainful employment before rehabilitation. Pre-rehabilitation differences remained significant after rehabilitation. More than half of the outpatient rehabilitees (56%) compared to only one third of the inpatient rehabilitees (33%) returned to work three months after disc surgery (p<.001). Conclusion The results suggest a “pre-selection” of patients with better health status in outpatient rehabilitation. Gaining better knowledge about setting-specific selection processes may help optimizing rehabilitation allocation procedures and improve rehabilitation effects such as return to work. PMID:24598904

  8. The tertiary gustatory center in sunfishes is not nucleus glomerulosus.

    PubMed

    Wullimann, M F

    1988-03-21

    Injection of horseradish peroxidase into the secondary gustatory nucleus of the green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus, resulted in retrogradely filled neurons bilaterally in the viscerosensory column of the brainstem and in anterograde transport revealing ipsilateral terminal fields in the preglomerular tertiary gustatory nucleus, the nucleus of the torus lateralis and the central and periventricular nucleus of the inferior lobe. Thus, the glomerular nucleus of percomorph teleosts is not a tertiary gustatory center. It is proposed that the term 'nucleus glomerulosus' be reserved for the nucleus involved with vision and that the preglomerular subdivision involved in gustation be termed 'nucleus gustatorius tertius'. PMID:3362429

  9. The Spring Nucleus: A Microkemel for Objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Hamilton; Panos Kougiouris

    1993-01-01

    The Spring system is a distributed operating system that supports a distributed, object-oriented application framework. Each individual Spring system is based around a microkernel known as the nucleus, which is structured to support fast cross-address-space object invocations. This paper discusses the deign rationale for the nucleus' IPC facilities and how they fit into the overall Spring programming model. We then

  10. Transport calculations of antiproton-nucleus interactions

    E-print Network

    A. B. Larionov; I. N. Mishustin; I. A. Pshenichnov; L. M. Satarov; W. Greiner

    2010-01-15

    The Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport model is extended and applied to the antiproton-nucleus interactions in a wide beam momentum range. The model calculations are compared with the experimental data on $\\bar p$-absorption cross sections on nuclei with an emphasis on extraction of the real part of an antiproton optical potential. The possibility of the cold compression of a nucleus by an antiproton in-flight is also considered.

  11. Beware the ‘raised right hemidiaphragm’ in a female patient with previous pneumothorax surgery: liver herniation through a massive endometrosis-related diaphragmatic fenestration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Peter S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    A 44-year-old non-smoking woman presented with recurrent right spontaneous pneumothorax 9 years after a right-side surgical pleurodesis via a video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) approach for suspected primary pneumothorax in another center. Histological examination of tissue excised during the earlier operation confirmed catamenial pneumothorax, but no further treatment was given. During the 9 years since, she had had persistent right lower chest pain and chest X-ray (CXR) had shown a “persistently elevated right diaphragm”, but these had been treated as iatrogenic neuropathic pain and phrenic nerve palsy respectively. A redo right surgical exploration was performed for the current recurrence. Intra-operatively, the right half of the liver was found to have herniated into the chest via a massive fenestration (10 cm × 9 cm) in the right hemidiaphragm. The defect was repaired via a combined thoracotomy and laparotomy approach. This case serves as an advisory that in patients with persistent ipsilateral chest pain and a raised hemidiaphragm following surgery for catamenial pneumothorax, diaphragmatic fenestration and abdominal visceral herniation should be suspected amongst the differential diagnoses. PMID:26101655

  12. Influences of spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy on the pain, disability, and straight leg raising of patients with intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jioun; Lee, Sangyong; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify how spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy influence the pain, disability, and straight leg raise (SLR) ability of patients with intervertebral disc herniation. [Subjects] The subjects were 30 patients with chronic lumbar pain who were divided into a spinal decompression therapy group (SDTG, n=15), and a general traction therapy group (GTTG, n=15). [Methods] The SDTG used a spinal decompression device, and the GTTG used a lumbar traction device. Both groups received conservative physical therapy three times a week for four weeks. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to measure the degree of pain the patients with chronic lumbar pain. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to measure the degree of functional disability. A goniometer was used to measure the patients' SLR ability. [Results] Both SDTG and GTTG showed statistically significant decreases in VAS and ODI scores and a statistically significant increase in SLR angle. A comparison of the two groups found no statistically significant differences. [Conclusion] Spinal decompression therapy and general traction therapy are effective at improving the pain, disability, and SLR of patients with intervertebral disc herniation. Thus, selective treatment may be required. PMID:25729196

  13. Fluoroscopic cervical epidural injections in chronic axial or disc-related neck pain without disc herniation, facet joint pain, or radiculitis

    PubMed Central

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Cash, Kimberly A; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Malla, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    Background While chronic neck pain is a common problem in the adult population, with a typical 12-month prevalence of 30%–50%, there is a lack of consensus regarding its causes and treatment. Despite limited evidence, cervical epidural injections are one of the commonly performed nonsurgical interventions in the management of chronic neck pain. Methods A randomized, double-blind, active, controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids for the management of chronic neck pain with or without upper extremity pain in patients without disc herniation, radiculitis, or facet joint pain. Results One hundred and twenty patients without disc herniation or radiculitis and negative for facet joint pain by means of controlled diagnostic medial branch blocks were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, ie, injection of local anesthetic only (group 1) or local anesthetic mixed with nonparticulate betamethasone (group 2). The primary outcome of significant pain relief and improvement in functional status (?50%) was demonstrated in 72% of group 1 and 68% of group 2. The overall average number of procedures per year was 3.6 in both groups with an average total relief per year of 37–39 weeks in the successful group over a period of 52 weeks. Conclusion Cervical interlaminar epidural injections of local anesthetic with or without steroids may be effective in patients with chronic function-limiting discogenic or axial pain. PMID:22826642

  14. Idiopathic spinal cord herniation with duplicated dura mater and dorsal subarachnoid septum. Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Norio; Higashino, Kousaku; Sairyo, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Background Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is a rare condition and its pathogenesis remains unclear. The purpose of this case report is to present an ISCH case with dorsal subarachnoid septum suggesting the pathogenesis of ISCH being adhesions from preexisting inflammation. Methods Single case report. Results A 60-year-old woman presented with Brown-Séquard syndrome below the level of T6. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the thoracic spinal cord was displaced ventrally, and the dorsal subarachnoid space was enlarged and had a septum between the spinal cord and dura mater. Intraoperatively, the dorsal dura mater was seen to be adherent and the subarachnoid septum was identified after durotomy. The inner layer defect of the duplicated dura mater was found in the ventral dura mater, through which the spinal cord had herniated. After releasing the septum, the adhesions around the dura mater, and the hiatus, the spinal cord was reduced. Conclusions The present case indicates that adhesions around the dura mater can be the pathogenesis of ISCH. PMID:25694934

  15. BFKL Pomeron calculus: solution to equations for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the saturation domain

    E-print Network

    Carlos Contreras; Eugene Levin; Rodrigo Meneses

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we solve the equation for nucleus-nucleus scattering in the BFKL Pomeron calculus, suggested by Braun. We find these solutions analytically at high energies as well as numerically in the entire region of energies inside the saturation region. The semi-classical approximation is used to select out the infinite set of the parasite solutions. The nucleus-nucleus cross sections at high energy are estimated and compared with the Glauber-Gribov approach. It turns out that the exact formula gives the estimates that are very close to the ones based on Glauber-Gribov formula which is important for the practical applications

  16. Nucleus-nucleus cross-sections and long-range correlations with a local supercritical pomeron

    E-print Network

    M. A. Braun

    2007-11-21

    Nucleus-nucleus scattering is studied in the local Reggeon Field Theory in the quasi-classical approximation with non-eikonal boundary conditions corresponding to the Glauber picture at low energies. Comparison with the commonly used eikonal boundary conditions shows that the new conditions make both the action and nucleus-nucleus total cross-sections lower by $3\\div 5$ %. They also substantially change the behaviour of the solutions of the equations of motion at low energies. Using expressions for the double inclusive cross-sections derived earlier in the Reggeon Field Theory \\cite{CM} long-range rapidity correlations are calculated for the RHIC and LHC energies.

  17. Persistent tight hamstrings following conservative treatment for apophyseal ring fracture in adolescent athletes: critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryo; Sairyo, Koichi; Sakai, Toshinori; Tezuka, Fumitake; Kitagawa, Yasuhiro; Dezawa, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Apophyseal ring fracture is a unique disease in children and adolescents. Its clinical features include low back pain, sciatica, paravertebral muscle spasm and tenderness, restricted back motion, neurological symptoms, and tight hamstrings. For all athletes, body flexibility is one of the most important factors for better performance. Therefore, persistent tight hamstrings has a negative influence on athletic performance. In this report, we present two adolescent athletes with apophyseal ring fracture treated successfully by conservative treatment for severe low back pain (LBP) and leg pain, despite having persistent tight hamstrings for more than one year. Unlike herniated nucleus pulposus, bony fragments in the spinal canal never disappear. Although conservative treatment can alleviate LBP and leg pain, surgical removal of fragments is considered when symptoms such as tight hamstrings and restricted lumbar motion due to canal stenosis are found, particularly in athletes. PMID:25264071

  18. A Case of Central Cord Syndrome Related Status Epilepticus - A Case Report -

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soyoung; Yang, Shimo; Chang, Hyukwon

    2011-01-01

    Central cord syndrome (CCS) is extremely rare as a direct consequence of generalized epileptic seizure. CCS is associated with hyperextension of the spinal cord and has characteristic radiologic findings including posterior ligamentous injury and prevertebral hyperintensity following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We experienced the case of a 25-year-old man who suffered CCS after status epilepticus. Cervical spinal MRI revealed high signal intensity at the C1 level but with no signal or structural changes in other sites. After rehabilitation management, the patient significantly improved on the ASIA (American Spinal Injury Association) motor scale and bladder function. We proposed that epilepsy related CCS may be caused by muscle contractions during generalized seizure, which can induce traction injury of the spinal cord or relative narrowing of spinal canal via transient herniated nucleus pulposus or transient subluxation of vertebra. We also suggest CCS without radiologic findings of trauma has good prognosis compared with other CCS. PMID:22506176

  19. The tertiary gustatory center in sunfishes is not nucleus glomerulosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario F. Wullimann

    1988-01-01

    Injection of horseradish peroxidase into the secondary gustatory nucleus of the green sunfish, Lepomis ~Tanellus, resulted in retrogradely filled neurons bilaterally in the viscerosensory column of the brainstem and in anterograde transport revealing ipsilateral terminal fields in the preglomerular tertiary gustatory nucleus, the nucleus of the torus lateralis and the central and periventricular nucleus of the inferior lobe. Thus, the

  20. Dissipation and fluctuation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Feldmeier; H. Spangenberger

    1985-01-01

    The dissipation of the relative momentum in nucleus-nucleus collisions is treated in terms of a Langevin equation with a fluctuating force. Equations of motion for first and second moments of the macroscopic variables are derived directly from the Langevin equation. The properties of the fluctuating force which results from random particle exchange are investigated in detail. Drift and diffusion coefficients

  1. Local Irrigation of the Surgical Field with Antibiotics in the End of Procedure Reduces the Infection Rate in Herniated Lumbar Disc Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kërveshi, Armend; Halili, Nehat; Kastrati, Bujar; Qosja, Faik; Kabashi, Serbeze; Muçaj, Sefedin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Reported rate of infections after lumbar discectomy is 1%–15 %. This complication may result in disability or even the death. Aim The aim of the study is to assess the rate of infection associated with lumbar discectomies when combined systemic and local antibiotic prophylaxis was employed. Patients and methods: In this retrospective study we analyzed all patients operated for herniated lumbar disc from 2009 -2012 in our institute. Beside of receiving systemic prophylaxis with 2g of Cefazoline, all patients had their operative field irrigated at the end of operation with Amikacin sulfate injection. Wound was considered infected when local and systemic signs of infection were revealed and were associated with elevated ESR, leukocytosis and elevated CRP. Assessment of infection is done by neurosurgeon during the hospitalization and later at outpatient’s clinic along postoperative course of three months. Results: A total of 604 patients were operated, of those 285 patients (47.2 %) females and 319 males (52.8 %), 12 patients were operated on two levels (1.98 %). Average patient age was 32.5 years (range 20–65 years) Localization of herniated disc was: in L/2-L/3 20 patients or 3.3 %, the L/3-L/4 level 42 patients or 7 % , the L/4 -L /5 262 patients or 43.3 % at the level L/V- S/1 280 patients or 46.3 %. Three patients (0.49%) developed wound infection, two of them superficial infection only with local signs: local pain, redness and leakage. They were treated with oral antibiotics. One with deep wound infection. He presented with local and systemic signs and treated with i.v antibiotics. All the cultures from wound swab revealed staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: Prophylaxis with systemic antibiotic (Cefazoline 2.0) intravenous administration 30 minutes before the incision and irrigation of operative field with local antibiotic Amikacine sulfate at the end of procedure reduces the infection rate in patients operated for herniated lumbar disc when compared with systemic antibiotic prophylaxis only. PMID:25685087

  2. mRNA stability in the nucleus*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han; Luo, Min; Wen, Ji-kai

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is controlled by different levels of biological events, such as transcription factors regulating the timing and strength of transcripts production, alteration of transcription rate by RNA processing, and mRNA stability during RNA processing and translation. RNAs, especially mRNAs, are relatively vulnerable molecules in living cells for ribonucleases (RNases). The maintenance of quality and quantity of transcripts is a key issue for many biological processes. Extensive studies draw the conclusion that the stability of RNAs is dedicated-regulated, occurring co- and post-transcriptionally, and translation-coupled as well, either in the nucleus or cytoplasm. Recently, RNA stability in the nucleus has aroused much research interest, especially the stability of newly-made transcripts. In this article, we summarize recent progresses on mRNA stability in the nucleus, especially focusing on quality control of newly-made RNA by RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes. PMID:24793762

  3. Commissural Axons of the Mouse Cochlear Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Brown, M. Christian; Drottar, Marie; Benson, Thane E.; Darrow, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The axons of commissural neurons that project from one cochlear nucleus to the other were studied after labeling with anterograde tracer. Injections were made into the dorsal subdivision of the cochlear nucleus in order to restrict labeling only to the group of commissural neurons that gave off collaterals to, or were located in, this subdivision. The number of labeled commissural axons in each injection was correlated with the number of labeled radiate multipolar neurons, suggesting radiate neurons as the predominant origin of the axons. The radiate commissural axons are thick and myelinated, and they exit the dorsal acoustic stria of the injected cochlear nucleus to cross the brainstem in the dorsal half, near the crossing position of the olivocochlear bundle. They enter the opposite cochlear nucleus via the dorsal and ventral acoustic stria and at its medial border. Reconstructions of single axons demonstrate that terminations are mostly in the core and typically within a single subdivision of the cochlear nucleus. Extents of termination range from narrow to broad along both the dorso-ventral (i.e. tonotopic) and rostro-caudal dimensions. In the electron microscope, labeled swellings form synapses that are symmetric (in that there is little postsynaptic density), a characteristic of inhibitory synapses. Our labeled axons do not appear to include excitatory commissural axons that end in edge regions of the nucleus. Radiate commissural axons could mediate the broad-band inhibition observed in responses to contralateral sound, and they may balance input from the two ears on a quick time course. PMID:23124982

  4. An Analytical Overview of the Nucleus Jobsite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Kibrom

    2005-03-01

    An analysis was done on the Nucleus, a student based jobsite for Physics students on its shortcomings as an effective summer job search engine. Surveys were used for this analysis targeting students, listed employers and new employers. The feedback gathered was then used to add new features to the jobsite and to increase its publicity. SPS members were also asked to submit information on their summer job experiences and provide contact information for their programs. These contacts were invited to add their programs on the Nucleus jobsite.

  5. An unusual cause for epigastric pain in pregnancy. Spontaneous uterine rupture with herniation of the amniotic sac in a 33-week primigravida.

    PubMed

    Al-Kufaishi, Asmaa; Erasmus, Kim; Carr, David; Owen, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    A 29-year-old in vitro fertilisation patient presented at 33 weeks of gestation with abdominal pain. An abdominal ultrasound revealed a cystic lesion adjacent to the fundus. During caesarean section, a defect at the fundus was identified with herniation of the amniotic sac through this defect. There were no complications postoperatively and the patient made an unremarkable recovery. With at least one maternal death reported in the most recent confidential enquiry into maternal death, uterine rupture is an obstetric emergency and can have catastrophic outcomes. The incidence of uterine rupture as a result of previous perforation is unclear with little published data and few case reports. Cases of uterine rupture after perforation following hysteroscopic resection of fibroids, uterine septum are well published but the authors found no known previous cases related to laparoscopy. Counselling patients post perforation should include discussion regarding the management of future pregnancies and the risk of uterine rupture. PMID:24599426

  6. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging for Pretreatment Evaluation and Prediction of Treatment Effect in Patients Undergoing CT-Guided Injection for Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiang-Ke; Bhetuwal, Anup

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a change in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value could predict early response to CT-guided Oxygen-Ozone (O2-O3) injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation. Materials and Methods A total of 52 patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy received a single intradiscal (3 mL) and periganglionic (5 mL) injection of an O2-O3 mixture. An ADC index of the involved side to the intact side was calculated using the following formula: pre-treatment ADC index = ([ADC involved side - ADC intact side] / ADC intact side) × 100. We analyzed the relationship between the pre-treatment Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the ADC index. In addition, the correlation between ODI recovery ratio and ADC index was investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of the ADC index for predicting response in O2-O3 therapy was determined. Results Oswestry Disability Index and the ADC index was not significantly correlated (r = -0.125, p = 0.093). The ADC index and ODI recovery ratio was significantly correlated (r = 0.819, p < 0.001). When using 7.10 as the cut-off value, the ADC index obtained a sensitivity of 86.3% and a specificity of 82.9% for predicting successful response to therapy around the first month of follow-up. Conclusion This preliminary study demonstrates that the patients with decreased ADC index tend to show poor improvement of clinical symptoms. The ADC index may be a useful indicator to predict early response to CT-guided O2-O3 injection therapy in patients with unilateral mono-radiculopathy due to lumbar disc herniation.

  7. Superheavy element production, nucleus-nucleus potential and mu-catalysis

    E-print Network

    V. Yu. Denisov

    2003-10-06

    The semi-microscopic potential between heavy nuclei is evaluated for various colliding ions in the approach of frozen densities in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation with hbar^2 correction terms in the kinetic energy density functional. The proton and neutron densities of each nucleus are obtained in the Hartree-Fock-BCS approximation with SkM* parameter set of the Skyrme force. A simple expression for the nuclear interaction potential between spherical nuclei is presented. It is shown that muon bound with light projectile induces the superheavy elements production in nucleus-nucleus collisions.

  8. Pion-nucleon scattering and pion production in nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    Lecture notes are presented on the following: (1) basic aspects of ..pi..N interactions (properties of pions and nucleons, SU(3) and SU(6) classification phenomenology of ..pi..N scattering ((3.3) resonance; phase shift analysis, and bag model approach to ..pi..N); (2) pion production and absorption in the two nucleon system (NN ..-->.. NN..pi.. (isobar model) and ..pi..d reversible NN (existence of dibaryon resonances)); (3) pion absorption in complex nuclei (multiparticle aspects and cascade calculations); and (4) pion production with nuclear targets including (a) nucleon-nucleus, (b) nucleus-nucleus (Fermi-averaged 2-body vs thermodynamic models), and (c) ..pi pi.. interoferometry.

  9. Intrinsic Firing Dynamics of Vestibular Nucleus Neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Sekirnjak

    2002-01-01

    Individual brainstem neurons involved in vestibular reflexes respond to identical head movements with a wide range of firing responses. This diversity of firing dynamics has been commonly assumed to arise from differences in the types of vestibular nerve inputs to vestibular nucleus neurons. In this study we show that, independent of the nature of inputs, the intrinsic membrane properties of

  10. Paraventricular nucleus, stress response, and cardiovascular disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduardo E. Benarroch

    2005-01-01

    The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is a complex effector structure that initiates endocrine and autonomic responses to stress. It receives inputs from visceral receptors, circulating hormones such as angiotensin II, and limbic circuits and contains neurons that release vasopressin, activate the adrenocortical axis, and activate preganglionic sympathetic or parasympathetic outflows. The neurochemical control of the different subgroups of

  11. Structure and Function in the Nucleus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Angus Lamond (University of Dundee; Department of Biochemistry)

    1998-04-24

    Current evidence suggests that the nucleus has a distinct substructure, albeit one that is dynamic rather than a rigid framework. Viral infection, oncogene expression, and inherited human disorders can each cause profound and specific changes in nuclear organization. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding nuclear organization, highlighting in particular the dynamic aspects of nuclear structure.

  12. LSP-Nucleus Elastic Scattering Cross Sections

    E-print Network

    J. D. Vergados; T. S. Kosmas

    1997-01-02

    We calculate LSP-nucleus elastic scattering cross sections using some representative input in the restricted SUSY parameter space. The coherent matrix elements are computed throughout the periodic table while the spin matrix elements for the proposed $^{207}Pb$ target which has a rather simple nuclear structure. The results are compared to those given from other cold dark matter detection targets.

  13. Linking nucleus accumbens dopamine and blood oxygenation

    E-print Network

    Knutson, Brian

    REVIEW Linking nucleus accumbens dopamine and blood oxygenation Brian Knutson & Sasha E. B. Gibbs further suggests that reward anticipation can increase local blood oxygen level depen- dent (BOLD) signal in which NAcc dopamine release activates postsynap- tic D1 receptors, which changes postsynaptic membrane

  14. Coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholberg, Kate

    2015-05-01

    I describe physics potential and experimental prospects for coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS), a process which has not yet been observed. Germanium- based detectors represent a promising technology for CEvNS experiments. I focus primarily on stopped-pion neutrino sources.

  15. Afferents to the Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Chou; Alvhild A. Bjorkum; Stephanie E. Gaus; Jun Lu; Thomas E. Scammell; Clifford B. Saper

    2002-01-01

    Sleep is influenced by diverse factors such as circadian time, affective states, ambient temperature, pain, etc., but pathways mediating these influences are unknown. To identify pathways that may influence sleep, we examined afferents to the ventro- lateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO), an area critically implicated in promoting sleep. Injections of the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) into the VLPO

  16. New strategies for disc repair: novel preclinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mochida, Joji

    2005-01-01

    Degeneration of lumbar intervertebral discs is a major cause of low back complaints, an irreversible occurrence with no currently available treatment. Furthermore, various surgical procedures can accelerate disc degeneration. On the other hand, recent experimental studies on disc cells have demonstrated an important role for the nucleus pulposus in preserving overall disc structure. The author's group has already found that nucleus pulposus cells activated annulus fibrous cells, and reinsertion of nucleus pulposus cells slowed further disc degeneration. We have designed three subsequent studies that were designed to examine further possibilities for clinical transplantation: (1) activation of nucleus pulposus cells by mesenchymal stem cells; (2) focus on the multilineage differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells as an alternative cell source for cell transplantation therapy of disc degeneration; (3) the possibility of a human nucleus pulposus cell line as a cell source for cell transplantation therapy. Activation of nucleus pulposus could be achieved by co-culture with autogenous mesenchymal stem cells allowed to have direct cellular interaction. This would be a useful clinical cell source. Induction of nucleus pulposus cells by autogenous mesenchymal stem cells also would be an important subject for a clinical trial. Clinical application of the cells derived from a human nucleus pulposus cell line is an important project to be undertaken in the near future. PMID:15666134

  17. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Anchishkin, D; Cleymans, J; 10.5488/CMP.16.13201

    2013-01-01

    The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions, which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before freeze-out, are derived.

  18. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    D. Anchishkin; V. Naboka; J. Cleymans

    2013-03-25

    The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions, which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before freeze-out, are derived.

  19. Systematic investigation of scaled factorial cumulant moments for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Anson, Z.V.; Arora, R.; Avetyan, F.A.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.; Bazarov, I.K.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bogdanov, V.G.; Bubnov, V.I.; Burnett, T.H.; Cai, X.; Carshiev, D.A.; Chasnicov, I.Y.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavski, M.M.; Eligbaeva, G.Z.; Eremenko, L.E.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Grote, J.G.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Heckman, H.H.; Huang, H.; Jacobsson, B.; Judek, B.; Kachroo, S.; Kalyachkina, G.S.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kitroo, S.; Koss, T.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Lal, P.; Larionova, V.G.; Lepetan, V.N.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Marutyan, N.A.; Maslennikova, N.V.; Mittra, I.S.; Mookerjee, S.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Orlova, G.I.; Otterlund, I.; Palsania, H.; Peresadko, N.G.; Petrov, N.V.; Plyuschev, V.A.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; (The EMU01 Collaboration)

    1993-05-01

    We use scaled factorial cumulant moments to analyze pseudorapidity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This approach is similar to the method of scaled factorial moments except that it removes the effects of lower-order correlations upon a given moment. Significant second-order cumulants and cumulant indices (slopes with respect to bin size) are found for all of the interactions studied. These indices are found to have an inverse dependence upon average pseudorapidity particle density.

  20. Systematic investigation of scaled factorial cumulant moments for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Adamovich; M. M. Aggarwal; Y. A. Alexandrov; N. P. Andreeva; Z. V. Anson; R. Arora; F. A. Avetyan; S. K. Badyal; E. Basova; I. K. Bazarov; K. B. Bhalla; A. Bhasin; V. S. Bhatia; V. G. Bogdanov; V. I. Bubnov; T. H. Burnett; X. Cai; D. A. Carshiev; I. Y. Chasnicov; L. P. Chernova; M. M. Chernyavski; G. Z. Eligbaeva; L. E. Eremenko; A. S. Gaitinov; E. R. Ganssauge; S. Garpman; S. G. Gerassimov; J. G. Grote; K. G. Gulamov; S. K. Gupta; V. K. Gupta; H. H. Heckman; H. Huang; B. Jacobsson; B. Judek; S. Kachroo; G. S. Kalyachkina; E. K. Kanygina; M. Karabova; S. P. Kharlamov; S. Kitroo; T. Koss; S. A. Krasnov; V. Kumar; P. Lal; V. G. Larionova; V. N. Lepetan; L. S. Liu; S. Lokanathan; J. J. Lord; N. S. Lukicheva; S. B. Luo; L. K. Mangotra; N. A. Marutyan; N. V. Maslennikova; I. S. Mittra; S. Mookerjee; S. Z. Nasyrov; V. S. Navotny; J. Nystrand; G. I. Orlova; I. Otterlund; H. Palsania; N. G. Peresadko; N. V. Petrov; V. A. Plyuschev; W. Y. Qian; Y. M. Qin; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; N. K. Rao; V. M. Rappoport; J. T. Rhee; N. Saidkhanov; N. A. Salmanova; L. G. Sarkisova; V. R. Sarkisyan; G. S. Shabratova; T. I. Shakhova; S. N. Shpilev; D. Skelding; K. Soderstrom; Z. I. Solovieva; E. Stenlund; E. L. Surin; L. N. Svechnikova; K. D. Tolstov; M. I. Tretyakova; T. P. Trofimova; U. Tuleeva; B. P. Tursunov; S. Vokal; H. Q. Wang; Z. O. Weng; J. Wilkes; G. F. Xu; D. H. Zhang; P. Y. Zheng; S. I. Zhochova; J. C. Zhou; D. C. Zhou

    1993-01-01

    We use scaled factorial cumulant moments to analyze pseudorapidity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions. This approach is similar to the method of scaled factorial moments except that it removes the effects of lower-order correlations upon a given moment. Significant second-order cumulants and cumulant indices (slopes with respect to bin size) are found for all of the interactions studied. These indices are

  1. Effects of neonatal hypoxia on brainstem cholinergic neurons-pedunculopontine nucleus and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hajime Tanaka; Satoru Takahashi; Akie Miyamoto; Junichi Oki; Kazuhiko Cho; Akimasa Okuno

    1995-01-01

    Hypoxic changes in the cholinergic neurons of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the laterodorsal tegmental nucleus (LDT) were studied morphologically using immunohistochemistry for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). Fifty-three postnatal day (PND) 7 Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a hypoxic load of 8% oxygen for 5 h. The rats which survived were later sacrificed at PND 14 or 28 for histological analysis.

  2. Neurotrophin receptor immunostaining in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Burette; I Jalenques; R Romand

    1997-01-01

    By virtue of its known segregated distribution of cell types, their known neurotransmitters and neurophysiologic properties, the cochlear nucleus is an excellent model and provides the opportunity to study the relation between neurotrophins and their receptors along with the functional properties of the adult cochlear nucleus. To investigate the potential role of neurotrophins in the mature cochlear nucleus, we determined

  3. The NEtherlands Cervical Kinematics (NECK) Trial. Cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in the treatment of cervical disc herniation; a double-blind randomised multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with cervical radicular syndrome due to disc herniation refractory to conservative treatment are offered surgical treatment. Anterior cervical discectomy is the standard procedure, often in combination with interbody fusion. Accelerated adjacent disc degeneration is a known entity on the long term. Recently, cervical disc prostheses are developed to maintain motion and possibly reduce the incidence of adjacent disc degeneration. A comparative cost-effectiveness study focused on adjacent segment degeneration and functional outcome has not been performed yet. We present the design of the NECK trial, a randomised study on cost-effectiveness of anterior cervical discectomy with or without interbody fusion and arthroplasty in patients with cervical disc herniation. Methods/Design Patients (age 18-65 years) presenting with radicular signs due to single level cervical disc herniation lasting more than 8 weeks are included. Patients will be randomised into 3 groups: anterior discectomy only, anterior discectomy with interbody fusion, and anterior discectomy with disc prosthesis. The primary outcome measure is symptomatic adjacent disc degeneration at 2 and 5 years after surgery. Other outcome parameters will be the Neck Disability Index, perceived recovery, arm and neck pain, complications, re-operations, quality of life, job satisfaction, anxiety and depression assessment, medical consumption, absenteeism, and costs. The study is a randomised prospective multicenter trial, in which 3 surgical techniques are compared in a parallel group design. Patients and research nurses will be kept blinded of the allocated treatment for 2 years. The follow-up period is 5 years. Discussion Currently, anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is the golden standard in the surgical treatment of cervical disc herniation. Whether additional interbody fusion or disc prothesis is necessary and cost-effective will be determined by this trial. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register NTR1289 PMID:20553591

  4. Determination of the ??-nucleus optical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanova, M.; Metag, V.; Paryev, E. Ya.; Bayadilov, D.; Bantes, B.; Beck, R.; Beloglazov, Y. A.; Böse, S.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Challand, Th.; Crede, V.; Dahlke, T.; Dietz, F.; Drexler, P.; Eberhardt, H.; Elsner, D.; Ewald, R.; Fornet-Ponse, K.; Friedrich, S.; Frommberger, F.; Funke, Ch.; Gottschall, M.; Gridnev, A.; Grüner, M.; Gutz, E.; Hammann, Ch.; Hammann, D.; Hannappel, J.; Hartmann, J.; Hillert, W.; Hoffmeister, P.; Honisch, Ch.; Jaegle, I.; Kaiser, D.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kammer, S.; Keshelashvili, I.; Kleber, V.; Klein, F.; Klempt, E.; Krusche, B.; Lang, M.; Lopatin, I. V.; Maghrbi, Y.; Makonyi, K.; Müller, J.; Odenthal, T.; Piontek, D.; Schaepe, S.; Schmidt, Ch.; Schmieden, H.; Schmitz, R.; Seifen, T.; Thiel, A.; Thoma, U.; van Pee, H.; Walther, D.; Wendel, Ch.; Wiedner, U.; Wilson, A.; Winnebeck, A.; Zenke, F.

    2013-12-01

    The excitation function and momentum distribution of ?? mesons have been measured in photon induced reactions on 12C in the energy range of 1250-2600 MeV. The experiment was performed with tagged photon beams from the ELSA electron accelerator using the Crystal Barrel and TAPS detectors. The data are compared to model calculations to extract information on the sign and magnitude of the real part of the ??-nucleus potential. Within the model, the comparison indicates an attractive potential of -(37±10(stat)±10(syst)) MeV depth at normal nuclear matter density. Since the modulus of this depth is larger than the modulus of the imaginary part of the ??-nucleus potential of -(10±2.5) MeV, determined by transparency ratio measurements, a search for resolved ??-bound states appears promising.

  5. The fast Ice Nucleus chamber FINCH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, U.; Nillius, B.; Jaenicke, R.; Wetter, T.; Klein, H.; Bingemer, H.

    2008-11-01

    We present first results of our new developed Ice Nucleus (IN) counter FINCH from the sixth Cloud and Aerosol Characterization Experiment (CLACE 6) campaign at Jungfraujoch station, 3571 m asl. Measurements were made at the total and the ICE CVI inlet. Laboratory measurements of ice onset temperatures by FINCH are compared to those of the static diffusion chamber FRIDGE (FRankfurt Ice Deposition Freezing Experiment). Within the errors of both new instruments the results compare well to published data.

  6. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION: Inositol Phosphates in the Nucleus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tian H. Chi (Stanford University Medical School; Department of Developmental Biology and Department of Pathology)

    2000-03-17

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The inositol signaling pathways in the cytoplasm are well characterized. In a Perspective, Chi and Crabtree now explain how similar inositol pathways operate in the nucleus to switch gene expression on and off. One of the key players is the kinase Ipk2p, which might stabilize components of a transcription complex (Odom et al.).

  7. Spectrophotometry of comets. [cometary nucleus model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Photoelectric spectrophotometric- and image tube equipped spectrographic-studies on comets are used to formulate a new model for the cometary nucleus that is physically similar to the icy-conglomerate. Absolute flux distributions of the principal spectral features for five comets of different compositions and heliocentric distances were evaluated. Comparison of visible and infrared brightnesses was used to calculate the optical albedos of observed particles.

  8. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Kok, Gregory; Kulkarni, Gourihar

    2014-07-10

    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70 deg C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45 deg C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  9. Dielectron Production in Proton-Nucleus Reactions 

    E-print Network

    Xiong, L.; Wu, J. Q.; Wu, Z. G.; Ko, Che Ming; Shi, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    for the detector acceptance filter which requires that we also determine the momen- tum distribution of the dielectron pairs. This reduces sub- stantially the dielectron yield at small invariant masses. The theoretical results are seen to have the right magni...M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (Received 15 August 1989) Dielectron production in proton-nucleus reactions is studied in the cascade model. In addition to production from the proton-neutron bremsstrahlung and the decay of delta, we have also...

  10. Protein Quality Control in the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben G.; Rebula, Caio A.; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    In their natural environment, cells are regularly exposed to various stress conditions that may lead to protein misfolding, but also in the absence of stress, misfolded proteins occur as the result of mutations or failures during protein synthesis. Since such partially denatured proteins are prone to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. The degradation of misfolded proteins is clearly compartmentalized, so unique degradation pathways exist for misfolded proteins depending on whether their subcellular localization is ER/secretory, mitochondrial, cytosolic or nuclear. Recent studies, mainly in yeast, have shown that the nucleus appears to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation. PMID:25010148

  11. Gross and Fine Structure of Pion Production Excitation Functions in {bold {ital p}}-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsson, B.; Berg, M.; Carlen, L.; Elmer, R.; Fokin, A.; Ghetti, R.; Martensson, J.; Noren, B.; Oskarsson, A.; Whitlow, H.J. [Department of Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, University of Lund, Lund (Sweden); Ekstroem, C.; Ericsson, G.; Romanski, J.; van Veldhuizen, E.J.; Westerberg, L. [The Svedberg Laboratory and Department of Neutron Physics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)] [The Svedberg Laboratory and Department of Neutron Physics, University of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Julien, J. [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France)] [Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires, Saclay (France); Skeppstedt, O. [Department of Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, Chalmers Institute of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyboe, K.; Thorsteinsen, T.F.; Amirelmi, S. [Department of Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway)] [Department of Physics, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Guttormsen, M.; Lo/vho/iden, G. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Bellini, V.; Palazzolo, F.; Sperduto, M.L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare/Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, University of Catania, Catania (Italy)] [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare/Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Bondorf, J.P.; Mishustin, I. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Avdeichikov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia)] [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia); Lozhkin, O.V.; Murin, Y. [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St.Petersburg (Russia)] [V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute, St.Petersburg (Russia)

    1997-05-01

    Slow ramping of the CELSIUS storage ring has been utilized to measure the yield of charged pions in proton and heavy ion induced collisions with continuously varying beam energy. Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck predictions, including Fermi momenta of nucleons in nuclei, follow the general shape of the p-nucleus excitation functions quite well except for a general overestimation of the backward emission. For heavy ion reactions the calculated yield also falls off faster with decreasing beam energy than the data. No statistically significant narrow resonances are observed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Analysis of nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies and random matrix theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nazmitdinov, R. G. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Shahaliev, E. I. [High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Radiation Problems, 370143 Baku (Azerbaijan); Suleymanov, M. K. [High Energy Physics Laboratory, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Tomsovic, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We propose a novel statistical approach to the analysis of experimental data obtained in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies which borrows from methods developed within the context of random matrix theory. It is applied to the detection of correlations in a system of secondary particles. We find good agreement between the results obtained in this way and a standard analysis based on the method of effective mass spectra and two-pair correlation function often used in high energy physics. The method introduced here is free from unwanted background contributions.

  13. Study on chemical equilibrium in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energies

    E-print Network

    Jaakko Manninen; Francesco Becattini; Antti Keranen; Marek Gazdzicki; Reinhard Stock

    2004-05-06

    We present a detailed study of chemical freeze-out in nucleus-nucleus collisions at beam energies of 11.6, 30, 40, 80 and 158A GeV. By analyzing hadronic multiplicities within the statistical hadronization approach, we have studied the chemical equilibration of the system as a function of center of mass energy and of the parameters of the source. Additionally, we have tested and compared different versions of the statistical model, with special emphasis on possible explanations of the observed strangeness hadronic phase space under-saturation.

  14. Jet Tomography of High-Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at Next-to-Leading Order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitev, Ivan; Zhang, Ben-Wei

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate that jet observables are highly sensitive to the characteristics of the vacuum and the in-medium QCD parton showers and propose techniques that exploit this sensitivity to constrain the mechanism of quark and gluon energy loss in strongly interacting plasmas. As a first example, we calculate the inclusive jet cross section in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions to O(?s3). Theoretical predictions for the medium-induced jet broadening and the suppression of the jet production rate due to cold and hot nuclear matter effects in Au+Au and Cu+Cu reactions at RHIC are presented.

  15. Pion and Kaon Lab Frame Differential Cross Sections for Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Space radiation transport codes require accurate models for hadron production in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Codes require cross sections to be written in terms of lab frame variables and it is important to be able to verify models against experimental data in the lab frame. Several models are compared to lab frame data. It is found that models based on algebraic parameterizations are unable to describe intermediate energy differential cross section data. However, simple thermal model parameterizations, when appropriately transformed from the center of momentum to the lab frame, are able to account for the data.

  16. Subthreshold pion production from nucleus-nucleus collisions around 100 MeV/nucleon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badalá, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A. C.

    1993-12-01

    Several global variables were tested with the aim to determine the impact parameter in nucleus-nucleus collisions producing pions at incident energies around 100 MeV/nucleon. The experimental set-up includes the MEDEA multidetector, part of which is used as a ? 0 spectrometer, and an additional hodoscope of plastic scintillators to cover very forward angles. A statistical model was used to generate both inclusive and pion-triggered events. Selection of well measured events was made through the measured total parallel momentum. Among the different global variables which were tested, the average parallel velocity was seen to give the best correlation with the impact parameter.

  17. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardi, Marzia; Alberico, W. M.; Molinari, A.; Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Monteno, M.; Prino, F.; Sitta, M.

    2014-04-01

    A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions — addressing within a comprehensive framework the initial Qoverline Q production, the propagation in the hot medium until decoupling and the final hadronization and decays — is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation and the corresponding numerical results are compared to experimental data from RHIC and the LHC. In particular, outcomes for the nuclear modification factor RAA and for the elliptic flow ?2 of D/B mesons, heavy-flavor electrons and non-prompt J/?'s are displayed.

  18. Aspects of Coulomb Dissociation and Interference in Peripheral Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions

    E-print Network

    Joakim Nystrand; Anthony J. Baltz; Spencer R. Klein

    2002-03-22

    Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions.

  19. Jet tomography of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions at next-to-leading order

    E-print Network

    Vitev, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that jet observables are highly sensitive to the characteristics of the vacuum and the in-medium QCD parton showers and propose techniques that exploit this sensitivity to constrain the mechanism of quark and gluon energy loss in strongly-interacting plasmas. As a first example, we calculate the inclusive jet cross section in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions to ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^3)$. Theoretical predictions for the medium-induced jet broadening and the suppression of the jet production rate due to cold and hot nuclear matter effects in Au+Au and Cu+Cu reactions at RHIC are presented.

  20. Paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus: axonal projections to the brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Geerling, Joel C.; Shin, Jung-Won; Chimenti, Peter C.; Loewy, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    The paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH) contains many neurons that innervate the brainstem, but information regarding their target sites remains incomplete. Here, we labeled neurons in the rat PVH with an anterograde axonal tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHAL) and studied their descending projections in reference to specific neuronal subpopulations throughout the brainstem. While many of their target sites were identified previously, numerous new observations were made. Major findings include: (1) In the midbrain, the PVH projects lightly to the ventral tegmental area, Edinger-Westphal nucleus, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter, reticular formation, pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, and dorsal raphe nucleus. (2) In the dorsal pons, the PVH projects heavily to the pre-locus coeruleus, yet very little to the catecholamine neurons in the locus coeruleus, and selectively targets the viscerosensory subregions of the parabrachial nucleus; (3) In the ventral medulla, the superior salivatory nucleus, retrotrapezoid nucleus, compact and external formations of the nucleus ambiguus, A1 and caudal C1 catecholamine neurons, and caudal pressor area receive dense axonal projections, generally exceeding the PVH projection to the rostral C1 region; (4) The medial nucleus of the solitary tract (including A2 noradrenergic and aldosterone-sensitive neurons) receives the most extensive projections of the PVH, substantially more than the dorsal vagal nucleus or area postrema. Our findings suggest that the PVH may modulate a range of homeostatic functions, including cerebral and ocular blood flow, corneal and nasal hydration, ingestive behavior, sodium intake, and glucose metabolism, as well as cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory activities. PMID:20187136

  1. Neuronal loss in human medial vestibular nucleus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J C; Díaz, C; Suárez, C; Fernández, J A; González del Rey, C; Navarro, A; Tolivia, J

    1998-08-01

    The data concerning the effects of age on the brainstem are inconsistent, and few works are devoted to the human vestibular nuclear complex. The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) is the largest nucleus of the vestibular nuclear complex, and it seems to be related mainly to vestibular compensation and vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Eight human brainstems have been used in this work. The specimens were embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and stained by the formaldehyde-thionin technique. Neuron profiles were drawn with a camera lucida at x330. Abercrombie's method was used to estimate the total number of neurons. We used the test of Kolmogorov-Smirnov with the correction of Lilliefors to evaluate the fit of our data to a normal distribution, and a regression analysis was performed to determine if the variation of our data with age was statistically significant. The present study clearly shows that neuronal loss occurs with aging. The total number of neurons decreases with age, from 122,241 +/- 651 cells in a 35-year-old individual to 75,915 +/- 453 cells in an 89-year-old individual. Neuron loss was significant in the caudal and intermediate thirds of the nucleus, whereas the changes in the rostral third were not significant. The nuclear diameter of surviving neurons decreased significantly with age. There is a neuron loss in the MVN that seems to be age-related. It could help explain why elderly people find it hard to compensate for unilateral vestibular deficits. The preservation of neurons in the rostral third could be related to the fact that this area primarily innervates the oculolmotor nuclei; these latter neurons do not decrease in number in other species studied. PMID:9713981

  2. The Checkerboard Model of the Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, Theodore

    2014-03-01

    The Lach Checker Board Model (CBM) of the nucleus and the associated ESM predicts that nature has 5 generations of quarks not 3. The heaviest generation in the Extended Standard Model (ESM) has a t' quark of mass 65 GeV and a b' quark of 42.4 GeV. The lepton in this generation has a mass of 27 GeV. Part of this theory evolved because it appears that the quarks and lepton of each generation have masses related by the geometric mean. The Geometric mean of 65 and 27 is 42. Charge is conserved (+2/3 and -1 is -1/3). Details of how this theory evolved is found on my web site (http://checkerboard.dnsalias.net) or in the following references [T.M. Lach, Checkerboard Structure of the Nucleus, Infinite Energy, Vol. 5, issue 30, (2000); T.M. Lach, Masses of the Sub-Nuclear Particles, nucl-th/0008026, @http://xxx.lanl.gov/] One independent check of this CB model is that the wavelength of the ``up'' quark orbiting inside the proton at 84.8123% the speed of light around the ``dn'' quark in the center turns out to be exactly one DeBroglie wavelength. This explains the mass of the proton and neutron and their magnetic moments. This along with the beautiful symmetric 2D structure of the He nucleus led to the evolution of this theory. One would expect a t'-anti t' meson of mass of about 130 GeV.

  3. Neutrino-nucleus scattering off 136Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ydrefors, E.; Suhonen, J.; Zhao, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Theoretical estimates of the cross sections for the neutrino-nucleus scattering off relevant nuclei for supernova neutrinos are essential for many applications in neutrino physics and astrophysics. The double-? -decaying nucleus 136Xe nucleus is used by the EXO Collaboration in the search for neutrinoless double-? decay. A ton-scale experiment based on 136Xe could also be used for studies of supernova neutrinos and/or solar neutrinos. Purpose: The purpose of the present work is, thus, to perform a study of the charged-current and neutral-current nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos for 136Xe . Method: The cross sections are computed by using the well-established framework for studies of semileptonic processes in nuclei introduced by O'Connell, Donnelly, and Walecka [Phys. Rev. C 6, 719 (1972), 10.1103/PhysRevC.6.719]. The nuclear wave functions of the initial and the final nuclear states for the neutral-current neutrino-nucleus scattering in 136Xe are computed by using the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA). Similarly, the pnQRPA is adopted to construct the initial and final nuclear states which are relevant for the charged-current reactions. The nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are subsequently computed by folding the cross sections with appropriate energy spectra for the incoming neutrinos. Results: We present results for the cross sections of the charged-current and neutral-current neutrino and antineutrino scatterings off 136Xe . Nuclear responses to supernova neutrinos are also given. For the considered scenario for the neutrino mixing we have found that neutrino interactions with matter and so-called collective neutrino oscillations enhance significantly the neutrino and antineutrino flux-averaged cross sections. Conclusions: We have found that for the charged-current and neutral-current neutrino scatterings off 136Xe transitions mediated by the 1+ multipole are the most important ones. However, for the charged-current antineutrino channel 0+ and 1+ transitions are largely suppressed due to the large neutron excess. Transitions to 1- and 2- final nuclear states are thus relatively more important for the charged-current antineutrino scattering.

  4. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  5. Linking nucleus accumbens dopamine and blood oxygenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Knutson; Sasha E. B. Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  Animal research suggests that anticipation of reward can elicit dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Human functional\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) research further suggests that reward anticipation can increase local blood oxygen level\\u000a dependent (BOLD) signal in the NAcc. However, the physiological relationship between dopamine release and BOLD signal increases\\u000a in the NAcc has not yet been established.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This

  6. [Effects of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivates on the dynamics of vertebral/neurologic symptoms after the surgical treatment of disk herniations].

    PubMed

    Volchegorski?, I A; Mester, K M

    2010-01-01

    A study of 3-hydroxypiridine and succinic acid derivates (emoxipin, reamberin and mexidol) effects on the 14 week dynamics of vertebral/neurologic symptoms was performed in 136 patients after the surgical treatment of disk herniations. Data obtained demonstrated the reduction of severity of neurodystrophic and radicular syndromes without significant changes in dorsalgia, psychological maladaptation (PM) and disability scores (DS) during 3.5 months in patients treated with emoxipin (150 mg i.v., daily) for two weeks after the microdiscectomy. The two-week administration of reamberin (400 mg i.v., daily) led to the early attenuation of neuropathic pain. The reduction of sings of radicular compression and DS measured with the Roland-Morris questionnaire were delayed for 3 months. Mexidol (300 mg i.v., once a day during two weeks) demonstrated the highest efficacy. This drug attenuated radicular and neurodystrophic syndromes, nociceptive and neuropathic pain, reduced PM and DS measured with both the Roland-Morris and the Oswestry questionnaires during 14 weeks after the surgery. PMID:20517221

  7. Plasma metabonomic profiling of lumbar disc herniation and its traditional Chinese medicine subtypes in patients by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shan, Letian; Liao, Fei; Jin, Hongting; Ye, Fusheng; Tong, Peijian; Xiao, Luwei; Zhou, Jia; Wu, Chengliang

    2014-11-01

    Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a commonly occurring disease, threatening human health and life quality. Lack of a gold standard of diagnosis has hindered the efficiency and efficacy of clinical therapy against LDH. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has provided an experience-based but subjective diagnosis system for LDH, demanding objective evidence and explanation. In this study, we adopted a metabonomics approach using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to profile metabolic characteristics of LDH and its TCM subtypes. Plasma samples of 41 LDH patients and 25 healthy controls were collected. LDH patients were classified into two main subtypes, the reality syndrome and deficiency syndrome, according to TCM theory. By using multivariate statistical analysis and metabolism network analysis, we found diverse perturbations of metabolites in amino acid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism, in which the amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, glycine, etc.) were up-regulated and a key carbohydrate metabolite (glucose 1-phosphate) was down-regulated. Few differences were found between the two TCM subtypes. Our findings reveal the metabolic disorders of LDH for the first time and demonstrate the feasibility of the metabonomics approach for LDH research but not for its TCM subtypes. PMID:25144444

  8. Variation in eligibility criteria from studies of radiculopathy due to a herniated disc and of neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis: A structured literature review

    PubMed Central

    Genevay, S.; Atlas, S.J.; Katz, J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Study Design A structured literature review. Summary of the Background Data Widely recognized classification criteria for rheumatologic disorders have resulted in well-defined patient populations for clinical investigation. Objectives We sought to determine whether similar criteria were needed for back pain disorders by examining variability in eligibility criteria in published studies Methods Studies involving radiculopathy due to lumbar herniated disc (HD) and for neurogenic claudication due to lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) were identified. Randomized controlled trials published between January 1, 2006 and October 1, 2008 in select peer reviewed journals were retrieved, their eligibility criteria were identified and categorized. Results Twelve eligible HD studies were identified. Thirteen unique categories of eligibility criteria were identified with a mean of 3.9 (+/?2.0) and a range from 0 to 8 categories per study. More categories were present for studies that included nonsurgical (5.6 +/? 2.5) treatment for studies with only surgical treatment (2.6 +/? 1.7) p= 0.04). Seven LSS studies met eligibility criteria, and 9 unique categories were identified. A mean of 5.0 (+/?2.2) categories with a range from 2 to 7 was used per study. Conclusion Wide variation in the number and type of eligibility criteria from randomized clinical trials of well defined back pain syndromes was identified. These results support the need for developing and disseminating international classification criteria for these clinical conditions. PMID:20228710

  9. Does the correlation between schmorl's nodes and vertebral morphology extend into the lumbar spine?

    PubMed

    Plomp, Kimberly; Roberts, Charlotte; Strand Vidarsdottir, Una

    2015-07-01

    Schmorl's nodes are depressions on vertebrae due to herniation of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc into the vertebral body. This study provides an extension of our previous study which analyzed the shape of the lower thoracic spine and found that vertebral morphology was associated with the presence of Schmorl's nodes. Ninety adult individuals from the late Medieval site of Fishergate House, York, and the Post-Medieval site of Coach Lane, North Shields, Tyne and Wear, England, were analysed using 2D geometric morphometrics to identify possible relationships between vertebral morphology and Schmorl's nodes at the thoraco-lumbar junction and in the lumbar spine. A significant correlation was found between vertebral shape and the presence of Schmorl's nodes in the twelfth thoracic vertebrae and the first to third lumbar vertebrae. The findings corroborate previous studies and suggest that vertebral shape may be an important factor in spinal health. It is hypothesized that the pedicle shape of affected vertebrae may not provide adequate structural support for the vertebral bodies, resulting in vertical disc herniation. Am J Phys Anthropol 157:526-534, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25752504

  10. Reactivation of dormant lumbar methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus osteomyelitis after 12 years.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Qualls E J; Seibly, Jason M; Chen, Ying H; Dickerman, Rob D; Noel, Jerry; Kattner, Keith A

    2007-06-01

    The adequate treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) osteomyelitis has intrigued clinicians for some time. As the resistance of these pathogens, coupled with the increase in community-acquired cases, continues steadily to rise, clinicians are finding it useful to employ multi-modal approaches for efficacious treatment. The authors present a single case report of a patient with recurrent MRSA osteomyelitis, lumbar paraspinal and epidural abscess. He was found to have decreased muscle strength and was hyporeflexic in the involved extremity. Serum testing demonstrated MRSA bacteremia. Neuroimaging studies revealed evidence of paraspinal abscess and a presumed herniated nucleus pulposus at the L5/S1 interspace with significant nerve root compromise. Despite antimicrobials, his symptoms persisted, necessitating surgical exploration. At surgery, paraspinal and epidural abscesses were encountered and debrided; however, no herniated disc was visualized. This case demonstrates the diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas with which these lesions present. We postulate that the MRSA osteomyelitis/discitis pathogens were walled off in the disc space and subsequently inoculated the soft tissues with ensuing bacteremia. We concur that antimicrobial treatment should be the first line of therapy for these patients; however, surgical debridements and cautious spinal instrumentation should be employed where appropriate. PMID:17188493

  11. Trend of Pharmacopuncture Therapy for Treating Cervical Disease in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Hee; Jung, Da-Jung; Choi, Yoo-Min; Kim, Jong-Uk; Yook, Tae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in domestic studies on pharmacopuncture therapy for treating cervical disease. Methods: This study was carried out on original copies and abstracts of theses listed in databases or published until July 2014. The search was made on the Oriental medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS) the National Digital Science Library (NDSL), and the Korean traditional knowledge portal. Search words were ‘pain on cervical spine’, ‘cervical pain’, ‘ruptured cervical disk’, ‘cervical disc disorder’, ‘stiffness of the neck’, ‘cervical disk’, ‘whiplash injury’, ‘cervicalgia’, ‘posterior cervical pain’, ‘neck disability’, ‘Herniated Nucleus Pulposus (HNP)’, and ‘Herniated Intervertebral Disc (HIVD)’. Results: Twenty-five clinical theses related to pharmacopuncture were selected and were analyzed by year according to the type of pharmacopuncture used, the academic journal in which the publication appeared, and the effect of pharmacopuncture therapy. Conclusion: The significant conclusions are as follows: (1) Pharmacopunctures used for cervical pain were Bee venom pharmacopuncture, Carthami-flos pharmacopuncture, Scolopendra pharmacopuncture, Ouhyul pharmacopuncturen, Hwangryun pharmacopuncture, Corpus pharmacopuncture, Soyeom pharmacopuncture, Hwangryunhaedoktang pharmacopuncture, Shinbaro phamacopuncture. (2) Randomized controlled trials showed that pharmacopuncture therapy combined with other methods was more effective. (3) In the past, studies oriented toward Bee venom pharmacopuncture were actively pursued, but the number of studies on various other types of pharmacopuncture gradually began to increase. (4) For treating a patient with cervical pain, the type of pharmacopuncture to be used should be selected based on the cause of the disease and the patient’s condition. PMID:25780714

  12. Centrifugal inhibitory processes affecting neurones in the cat cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Comis, S. D.

    1970-01-01

    1. Stimulation of the lateral part of the olivary S-segment in the cat inhibited neurones in the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus. A smaller number of neurones located in the ventral division of the cochlear nucleus were excited. 2. It is suggested that inhibition in the ipsilateral cochlear nucleus may be mediated directly by fibres making synaptic connexions on the cochlear nucleus neurones, or indirectly by inhibitory fibres acting at the cochlea. 3. The direct inhibitory process at the cochlear nucleus is unaffected by strychnine, whereas the inhibitory process at the cochlea is abolished by strychnine. 4. A cochlear nucleus neurone can be influenced simultaneously by excitatory and inhibitory processes. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:5499823

  13. Observations on the fine structure of the lateral vestibular nucleus (Deiters' nucleus) in the cat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mugnaini; F. Walberg; E. Hauglie-Hanssen

    1967-01-01

    A study has been made of the ultrastructure of the lateral vestibular nucleus of the normal cat. The study includes light microscopical observations made in Golgi material. The internal structure of the various types of cells is described. The soma of the larger nerve cells is surrounded by a protoplasmic layer, constituted by astroglial sheets, dendrites and boutons; glial cell

  14. Nonrelativistic Description of Nucleon-Nucleus Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mirabutalybov, M.M. [Azerbaijan State Petroleum Academy, pr. Azadlyg 20, Baku, 370010 (Azerbaijan)

    2004-12-01

    Within the three-dimensional semiclassical approximation, an analytic expression is obtained for the amplitude of proton-nucleus scattering at intermediate energies of incident protons. The method for deriving this amplitude is based on the use of the high-energy approximation with distorted waves. In view of the short-range character of proton-nucleon interaction, the process of proton-nucleus scattering is represented as a series of single scattering events occurring on each individual nucleon. With the aid of the proposed mathematical formalism, a recursion relation is derived that makes it possible to express the nuclear form factor obtained within the distorted-wave method in terms of the sum of an infinite Born series. Parameters that characterize the distributions of protons and neutrons in the spherical nuclei {sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 90}Zr, and {sup 208}Pb and which include the width of the surface layer of nucleons and the root-mean-square radii of the proton-, neutron-, and nucleon-density distributions are determined from an analysis of the measured cross sections for the elastic scattering of 1-GeV protons, a modified Fermi function being employed for the nucleon-density distribution.

  15. Prestress mediates force propagation into the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Shaohua [Physiology Program, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Chen Jianxin [Physiology Program, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Butler, James P. [Physiology Program, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Wang Ning [Physiology Program, Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: nwang@hsph.harvard.edu

    2005-04-08

    Several reports show that the nucleus is 10 times stiffer than the cytoplasm. Hence, it is not clear if intra-nuclear structures can be directly deformed by a load of physiologic magnitudes. If a physiologic load could not directly deform intra-nuclear structures, then signaling inside the nucleus would occur only via the mechanisms of diffusion or translocation. Using a synchronous detection approach, we quantified displacements of nucleolar structures in cultured airway smooth muscle cells in response to a localized physiologic load ({approx}0.4 {mu}m surface deformation) via integrin receptors. The nucleolus exhibited significant displacements. Nucleolar structures also exhibited significant deformation, with the dominant strain being the bulk strain. Increasing the pre-existing tensile stress (prestress) in the cytoskeleton significantly increased the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus (defined as nucleolus displacement per surface deformation) whereas decreasing the prestress significantly lowered the stress propagation efficiency to the nucleolus. Abolishing the stress fibers/actin bundles by plating the cells on poly-L-lysine-coated dishes dramatically inhibited stress propagation to the nucleolus. These results demonstrate that the prestress in the cytoskeleton is crucial in mediating stress propagation to the nucleolus, with implications for direct mechanical regulation of nuclear activities and functions.

  16. Neutronic Cross Section Calculations on Fluorine Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, A.; Tel, E.

    2013-06-01

    Certain light nuclei such as Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be), Fluorine (F) (which are known as FL?BE) and its molten salt compounds (LiF, BeF2 and NaF) can serve as a coolant which can be used at high temperatures without reaching a high vapor pressure. These molten salt compounds are also a good neutron moderator. In this study, cross sections of neutron induced reactions have been calculated for fluorine target nucleus. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 19F( n, 2n), 19F( n, p), 19F( n, xn), 19F( n, xp) have been made. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, 2n) and ( n, p) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The multiple pre-equilibrium mean free path constant from internal transition have been investigated for 19F nucleus. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  17. Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Sherwood (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains abstracts that have been accepted by the Program Committee for presentation at the Workshop on Analysis of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples, held in Milpitas, California, January 16-18, 1989. Conveners are Sherwood Chang (NASA Ames Research Center) and Larry Nyquist (NASA Johnson Space Center). Program Committee members are Thomas Ahrens (ex-officio; California Institute of Technology), Lou Allamandola (NASA Ames Research Center), David Blake (NASA Ames Research Center), Donald Brownlee (University of Washington, Seattle), Theodore E. Bunch (NASA Ames Research Center), Humberto Campins (Planetary Science Institute), Jeff Cuzzi (NASA Ames Research Center), Eberhard Griin (Max-Plank-Institut fiir Kemphysik), Martha Hanner (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), Alan Harris (Jet Propulsion Laboratory), John Kerrid-e (University of Califomia, Los Angeles), Yves Langevin (University of Paris), Gerhard Schwehm (ESTEC), and Paul Weissman (Jet Propulsion Laboratory). Logistics and administrative support for the workshop were provided by the Lunar and Planetary Institute Projects Office.

  18. Laser-Nucleus Interactions: The Quasiadiabatic Regime

    E-print Network

    Pálffy, Adriana; Hoefer, Axel; Weidenmüller, Hans A

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between nuclei and a strong zeptosecond laser pulse with coherent MeV photons is investigated theoretically. We provide a first semi-quantitative study of the quasiadiabatic regime where the photon absorption rate is comparable to the nuclear equilibration rate. In that regime, multiple photon absorption leads to the formation of a compound nucleus in the so-far unexplored regime of excitation energies several hundred MeV above the yrast line. The temporal dynamics of the process is investigated by means of a set of master equations that account for dipole absorption, stimulated dipole emission, neutron decay and induced fission in a chain of nuclei. That set is solved numerically by means of state-of-the-art matrix exponential methods also used in nuclear fuel burnup and radioactivity transport calculations. Our quantitative estimates predict the excitation path and range of nuclei reached by neutron decay and provide relevant information for the layout of future experiments.

  19. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)

    1983-10-01

    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta ..delta..(1232), has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe ..delta..-nucleus dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  20. Laser-Nucleus Interactions: The Quasiadiabatic Regime

    E-print Network

    Adriana Pálffy; Oliver Buss; Axel Hoefer; Hans A. Weidenmüller

    2015-06-12

    The interaction between nuclei and a strong zeptosecond laser pulse with coherent MeV photons is investigated theoretically. We provide a first semi-quantitative study of the quasiadiabatic regime where the photon absorption rate is comparable to the nuclear equilibration rate. In that regime, multiple photon absorption leads to the formation of a compound nucleus in the so-far unexplored regime of excitation energies several hundred MeV above the yrast line. The temporal dynamics of the process is investigated by means of a set of master equations that account for dipole absorption, stimulated dipole emission, neutron decay and induced fission in a chain of nuclei. That set is solved numerically by means of state-of-the-art matrix exponential methods also used in nuclear fuel burnup and radioactivity transport calculations. Our quantitative estimates predict the excitation path and range of nuclei reached by neutron decay and provide relevant information for the layout of future experiments.

  1. COMMUNICATION Are Residues in a Protein Folding Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Dai, Yang

    COMMUNICATION Are Residues in a Protein Folding Nucleus Evolutionarily Conserved? Yan Yuan Tseng is the hallmark of life. It is important to understand how protein folding and evolution influence each other in protein folding nucleus as measured by experi- mental f-value and selection pressure as measured by v

  2. Structure and Function in the Budding Yeast Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Taddei, Angela; Gasser, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Budding yeast, like other eukaryotes, carries its genetic information on chromosomes that are sequestered from other cellular constituents by a double membrane, which forms the nucleus. An elaborate molecular machinery forms large pores that span the double membrane and regulate the traffic of macromolecules into and out of the nucleus. In multicellular eukaryotes, an intermediate filament meshwork formed of lamin proteins bridges from pore to pore and helps the nucleus reform after mitosis. Yeast, however, lacks lamins, and the nuclear envelope is not disrupted during yeast mitosis. The mitotic spindle nucleates from the nucleoplasmic face of the spindle pole body, which is embedded in the nuclear envelope. Surprisingly, the kinetochores remain attached to short microtubules throughout interphase, influencing the position of centromeres in the interphase nucleus, and telomeres are found clustered in foci at the nuclear periphery. In addition to this chromosomal organization, the yeast nucleus is functionally compartmentalized to allow efficient gene expression, repression, RNA processing, genomic replication, and repair. The formation of functional subcompartments is achieved in the nucleus without intranuclear membranes and depends instead on sequence elements, protein–protein interactions, specific anchorage sites at the nuclear envelope or at pores, and long-range contacts between specific chromosomal loci, such as telomeres. Here we review the spatial organization of the budding yeast nucleus, the proteins involved in forming nuclear subcompartments, and evidence suggesting that the spatial organization of the nucleus is important for nuclear function. PMID:22964839

  3. The Nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in Neotropical Passerines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Rylander

    1979-01-01

    The volume of the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis and the optic lobe were determined in 8 species of neotropical birds in the order Passeriformes: Pyrocephalus rubinus, Pitangus sulphuratus, Atticora fasciata, Molothrus bonariensis, Tangara nigrocincta, Ramphocelus dimidiatus, Euphonia xanthogaster and Spinus magellanicus. The ratio of the volume of the nucleus to the volume of the optic lobe was calculated for

  4. Dielectron production in nucleus {plus} nucleus collisions at 1.05 GeV/nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Beedoe, S. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bougteb, M. [Universite Blaise Pascal, Aubriere, (France); Hallman, T. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-28

    Measurements of dielectron production in heavy-ion collisions are valuable probes into the dynamics of the collision process. While the hadronic participants of the collision are subject to strong final state interactions, the coupling of the electron-positron pair to the collision medium is electromagnetic. Dielectrons, therefore suffer little rescattering leaving the interaction and can retain information about their production origins, probing even the early stages in the evolution of the collision. The DiLepton Spectrometer (DLS) collaboration`s original measurements of dielectron production established the existence of the signal at Bevalac energies. The 1992- 93 DLS measurements in nucleus+Nucleus collisions at a kinetic beam energy of 1.05 {ital GeV/nucleon} are the subject of this presentation.

  5. CASTOR: Centauro and Strange Object Research in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC

    E-print Network

    A. L. S. Angelis; X. Aslanoglou; J. Bartke; K. Chileev; E. Gladysz-Dziadus; M. Golubeva; F. Guber; T. Karavitcheva; Y. V. Kharlov; A. B. Kurepin; G. Mavromanolakis; A. D. Panagiotou; S. A. Sadovsky; V. V. Tiflov; Z. Wlodarczyk

    2002-09-06

    We describe the CASTOR detector designed to probe the very forward, baryon-rich rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC. We present a phenomenological model describing the formation of a QGP fireball in a high baryochemical potential environment, and its subsequent decay into baryons and strangelets. The model explains Centauros and the long-penetrating component and makes predictions for the LHC. Simulations of Centauro-type events were done. To study the response of the apparatus to new effects different exotic species (DCC, Centauros, strangelets etc.) were passed through the deep calorimeter. The energy deposition pattern in the calorimeter appears to be a new clear signature of the QGP.

  6. Combination of serum phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit and hyperintensity of intramedullary T2W on magnetic resonance imaging provides better prognostic value of canine thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation.

    PubMed

    Mashita, Tadahisa; Kamishina, Hiroaki; Nakamoto, Yuya; Akagi, Yosuke; Nakanishi, Ataru; Harasaki, Yusuke; Ozawa, Tsuyoshi; Uemura, Takashi; Kobatake, Yui; Shimamura, Shunsuke; Kitamura, Naoki; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Uzuka, Yuji; Shaw, Gerry; Yasuda, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of concurrent measurement of serum phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H) concentration and intramedullary T2W hyperintensity in paraplegic to paraplegic dogs. Our hypothesis was that concurrent measurement of these would provide a more accurate prediction of functional outcome in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). A prospective case-control clinical study was designed using 94 dogs with acute onset of thoracolumbar IVDH. The association of serum pNF-H concentration, T2W hyperintensity on sagittal MRI (T2H/L2), deep pain perception and surgical outcome were evaluated with logistic regression analysis after three months for all 94 surgically treated dogs. Sensitivity to predict non-ambulatory outcome was compared among pNF-H and T2H/L2 and combination of both. Logistic regression analysis indicated that serum pNF-H concentration and T2H/L2 were significantly correlated with surgical outcome (P<0.05); however, deep pain perception was not (P=0.41). The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratios of unsuccessful long-term outcome were 2.6 for serum pNF-H concentration, 1.9 for T2H/L2 and 2.3 for deep pain sensation. The sensitivity and specificity to predict non-ambulatory outcome for using serum parameter pNF-H>2.6 ng/ml, using T2H/L2 value of>0.84 and using both serum pNF-H and T2H/L2, were 95% and 75.7%, 65% and 86.5%, and 90.0% and 97.5%, respectively. Therefore, combined measurements of serum pNF-H and T2H/L2 might be useful for predicting long-term outcome in dogs with thoracolumbar IVDH. PMID:25650056

  7. Combination of serum phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit and hyperintensity of intramedullary T2W on magnetic resonance imaging provides better prognostic value of canine thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation

    PubMed Central

    MASHITA, Tadahisa; KAMISHINA, Hiroaki; NAKAMOTO, Yuya; AKAGI, Yosuke; NAKANISHI, Ataru; HARASAKI, Yusuke; OZAWA, Tsuyoshi; UEMURA, Takashi; KOBATAKE, Yui; SHIMAMURA, Shunsuke; KITAMURA, Naoki; MAEDA, Sadatoshi; UZUKA, Yuji; SHAW, Gerry; YASUDA, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of concurrent measurement of serum phosphorylated neurofilament heavy subunit (pNF-H) concentration and intramedullary T2W hyperintensity in paraplegic to paraplegic dogs. Our hypothesis was that concurrent measurement of these would provide a more accurate prediction of functional outcome in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). A prospective case-control clinical study was designed using 94 dogs with acute onset of thoracolumbar IVDH. The association of serum pNF-H concentration, T2W hyperintensity on sagittal MRI (T2H/L2), deep pain perception and surgical outcome were evaluated with logistic regression analysis after three months for all 94 surgically treated dogs. Sensitivity to predict non-ambulatory outcome was compared among pNF-H and T2H/L2 and combination of both. Logistic regression analysis indicated that serum pNF-H concentration and T2H/L2 were significantly correlated with surgical outcome (P<0.05); however, deep pain perception was not (P=0.41). The results of logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds ratios of unsuccessful long-term outcome were 2.6 for serum pNF-H concentration, 1.9 for T2H/L2 and 2.3 for deep pain sensation. The sensitivity and specificity to predict non-ambulatory outcome for using serum parameter pNF-H>2.6 ng/ml, using T2H/L2 value of>0.84 and using both serum pNF-H and T2H/L2, were 95% and 75.7%, 65% and 86.5%, and 90.0% and 97.5%, respectively. Therefore, combined measurements of serum pNF-H and T2H/L2 might be useful for predicting long-term outcome in dogs with thoracolumbar IVDH. PMID:25650056

  8. Correlation between the prevalence of herniation pits and the alpha angle of the hip: computed tomography evaluation in healthy Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herniation pits (HPs) commonly develop over time at the femoral head–neck junction in adults, but their cause is still under debate. The purpose of study reported here was to investigate the correlation between the prevalence of HPs of the femoral neck and the alpha angle of the hips of healthy Chinese adults, by using computed tomography (CT). Methods Six hundred and seventy Chinese adults (representing 1145 hips) who had no known diseases affecting the proximal femur and had no symptoms of femoroacetabular impingement underwent a 64-slice CT scan for medical purposes that included the hip in the scan range. Their CT data were analyzed for the prevalence of HPs in the femoral necks and for hip alpha angles. Results The overall prevalence of femoral-neck HPs was 12.5% (143 of 1145 hips). The prevalence in the left versus right femoral necks was 12.1% (69 of 569 hips) versus 12.8% (74 of 576 hips). There was no statistically significant difference between the two sides (?2 = 0.136; p = 0.712). The prevalence of HPs was greater in men than in women (15.9% vs 7.7%; p < 0.01) and greater in adults older than 30 years than in adults younger than 30 years (?2= 14.547; p < 0.01). The alpha angles were greater in the 143 proximal femora with HPs than in the 1002 without pits (39.95° ± 6.01° vs 37.97° ± 5.14°; p < 0.01). Conclusions The prevalence of HPs of the femoral neck in healthy adults was 12.5%, and the prevalence was greater in men than in women. There is a correlation between the prevalence of HPs and the contour of the femoral head–neck junction. The formation of pits may be attributed to the combination of degeneration and morphologic variances in the femoral head–neck junction. PMID:24106774

  9. HIJET: a Monte Carlo event generator for P-nucleus-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.; Pfoh, A.; Shor, A.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons are shown for the HIJET generated data and measured data for average multiplicities, rapidity distributions, and leading proton spectra in proton-nucleus and heavy ion reactions. The algorithm for the generator is one of an incident particle on a target of uniformly distributed nucleons. The dynamics of the interaction limit secondary interactions in that only the leading baryon may re-interact with the nuclear volume. Energy and four momentum are globally conserved in each event. 6 refs., 6 figs. (WRF)

  10. Study of multiplicity correlations in nucleus-nucleus interactions at high energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohery, M.; Sultan, E. M.; Baz, Shadiah S.

    2015-06-01

    In the present paper, some results on the correlations of the nucleus-nucleus interactions, at high energy, between different particle multiplicities are reported. The correlations between the multiplicities of the different charged particles emitted in the interactions of 22Ne and 28Si nuclei with emulsion at (4.1-4.5)A GeV/c have been studied. The correlations of the compound multiplicity nc, defined as the sum of both numbers of the shower particles ns and grey particles ng, have been investigated. The experimental data have been compared with the corresponding theoretical ones, calculated according to the modified cascade evaporation model (MCEM). An agreement has already been fairly obtained between the experimental values and the calculated ones. The dependence of the average compound multiplicity, on the numbers of shower, grey, black and heavy particles is obvious and the values of the slope have been found to be independent of the projectile nucleus. On the other hand, the variation of the average shower, grey, black and heavy particles is found to increase linearly with the compound particles. A strong correlation has been observed between the number of produced shower particles and the number of compound particles. Moreover, the value of the average compound multiplicity is found to increase with the increase of the projectile mass. Finally, an attempt has also been made to study the scaling of the compound multiplicity distribution showing that the compound multiplicity distribution is nearly consistent with the KNO scaling behavior.

  11. Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Veazey, R.B.; Severin, C.M.

    1982-01-10

    Afferent projections to the deep mesencephalic nucleus (DMN) of the rat were demonstrated with axonal transport techniques. Potential sources for projections to the DMN were first identified by injecting the nucleus with HRP and examining the cervical spinal cord, brain stem, and cortex for retrogradely labeled neurons. Areas consistently labeled were then injected with a tritiated radioisotope, the tissue processed for autoradiography, and the DMN examined for anterograde labeling. Afferent projections to the medial and/or lateral parts of the DMN were found to originate from a number of spinal, bulbar, and cortical centers. Rostral brain centers projecting to both medial and lateral parts of the DMN include the ipsilateral motor and somatosensory cortex, the entopeduncular nucleus, and zona incerta. at the level of the midbrain, the ipsilateral substantia nigra and contralateral DMN likewise project to the DMN. Furthermore, the ipsilateral superior colliculus projects to the DMN, involving mainly the lateral part of the nucleus. Afferents from caudal centers include bilateral projections from the sensory nucleus of the trigeminal complex and the nucleus medulla oblongata centralis, as well as from the contralateral dentate nucleus. The projections from the trigeminal complex and nucleus medullae oblongatae centralis terminate in the intermediate and medial parts of the DMN, whereas projections from the contralateral dentate nucleus terminate mainly in its lateral part. In general, the afferent connections of the DMN arise from diverse areas of the brain. Although most of these projections distribute throughout the entire extent of the DMN, some of them project mainly to either medial or lateral parts of the nucleus, thus suggesting that the organization of the DMN is comparable, at least in part, to that of the reticular formation of the pons and medulla, a region in which hodological differences between medial and lateral subdivisions are known to exist.

  12. Vestibular nucleus projections to the parabrachial nucleus in rabbits: implications for vestibular influences on the autonomic nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carey D. Balaban

    1996-01-01

    Acute vestibular dysfunction and motion sickness are characterized by autonomic effects such as pallor, nausea, and vomiting. Previous anatomic and physiologic studies suggest that one potential mediator of these effects may be light, direct vestibular nuclear projections to the nucleus tractus solitarius and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. This study presents evidence for relatively dense, direct projections

  13. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis: Do both have a role in sustained attention?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire L Rostron; Morag J Farquhar; Mary P Latimer; Philip Winn

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well established that nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NbM) lesions impair performance on tests of sustained attention. Previous work from this laboratory has also demonstrated that pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) lesioned rats make more omissions on a test of sustained attention, suggesting that it might also play a role in mediating this function. However, the results of the PPTg

  14. Electrophysiological properties of morphologically-identified medial vestibular nucleus neurons projecting to the abducens nucleus in the chick embryo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gottesman-Davis; M. Shao; J. C. Hirsch; K. D. Peusner

    2011-01-01

    Neurons in the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) show a wide range of axonal projection pathways, intrinsic firing properties, and responses to head movements. To determine whether MVN neurons participating in the vestibulocular reflexes (VOR) have distinctive electrophysiological properties related to their output pathways, a new preparation was devised using transverse brain slices containing the chicken MVN and abducens nucleus. Biocytin

  15. Inputs to the ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Won; Geerling, Joel C; Loewy, Arthur D

    2008-12-10

    The ventrolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTvl) receives direct input from two specific subpopulations of neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). It is heavily innervated by aldosterone-sensitive NTS neurons, which are selectively activated by sodium depletion, and by the A2 noradrenergic neurons, which are activated by visceral and immune- and stress-related stimuli. Here, we used a retrograde neuronal tracer to identify other brain sites that innervate the BSTvl. Five general brain regions contained retrogradely labeled neurons: cerebral cortex (infralimbic and insular regions), rostral forebrain structures (subfornical organ, organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, taenia tecta, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, endopiriform nucleus, dorsal BST, substantia innominata, and, most prominently the amygdala--primarily its basomedial and central subnuclei), thalamus (central medial, intermediodorsal, reuniens, and, most prominently the paraventricular thalamic nucleus), hypothalamus (medial preoptic area, perifornical, arcuate, dorsomedial, parasubthalamic, and posterior hypothalamic nuclei), and brainstem (periaqueductal gray matter, dorsal and central superior raphe nuclei, parabrachial nucleus, pre-locus coeruleus region, NTS, and A1 noradrenergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla). In the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus, some retrogradely labeled neurons contained either agouti-related peptide or cocaine/amphetamine-regulated transcript. Of the numerous retrogradely labeled neurons in the perifornical hypothalamic area, few contained melanin-concentrating hormone or orexin. In the brainstem, many retrogradely labeled neurons were either serotoninergic or catecholaminergic. In summary, the BSTvl receives inputs from a variety of brain sites implicated in hunger, salt and water intake, stress, arousal, and reward. PMID:18853414

  16. Transport of incoming influenza virus nucleocapsids into the nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, K; Helenius, A

    1991-01-01

    Upon penetration of the influenza virus nucleocapsid into the host cell cytoplasm, the viral RNA and associated proteins are transported to the nucleus, where viral transcription and replication occur. By using quantitative confocal microscopy, we have found that over half of cell-associated nucleoprotein (NP) entered the nucleus with a half time of 10 min after penetration into CHO cells. Microinjection and immunoelectron microscopy experiments indicated that the NP entered the nucleus through the nuclear pore as part of an intact ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structure and that its transport was an active process. Transport of the incoming RNPs into the nucleus was not dependent on an intact microfilament, microtubule, or intermediate filament network. Subsequent to penetration, the matrix (M1) protein appeared to dissociate from the RNP structure and to enter the nucleus independently of the RNP. We found that 50% of penetrated M1 entered the nucleus with a half time of 25 min after penetration into CHO cells. Nuclear transport of M1 appeared to occur by passive diffusion. Entry of incoming M1 into the nucleus was not a prerequisite for infection. Images PMID:1985199

  17. Neuropeptidomics of the Supraoptic Rat Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian supraoptic nucleus (SON) is a neuroendocrine center in the brain regulating a variety of physiological functions. Within the SON, peptidergic magnocellular neurons that project to the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) are involved in controlling osmotic balance, lactation, and parturition, partly through secretion of signaling peptides such as oxytocin and vasopressin into the blood. An improved understanding of SON activity and function requires identification and characterization of the peptides used by the SON. Here, small-volume sample preparation approaches are optimized for neuropeptidomic studies of isolated SON samples ranging from entire nuclei down to single magnocellular neurons. Unlike most previous mammalian peptidome studies, tissues are not immediately heated or microwaved. SON samples are obtained from ex vivo brain slice preparations via tissue punch and the samples processed through sequential steps of peptide extraction. Analyses of the samples via liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry result in the identification of 85 peptides, including 20 unique peptides from known prohormones. As the sample size is further reduced, the depth of peptide coverage decreases; however, even from individually isolated magnocellular neuroendocrine cells, vasopressin and several other peptides are detected. PMID:18816085

  18. Coupling of the nucleus and cytoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Melissa; Liu, Qian; Roux, Kyle; Rattner, J.B.; Shanahan, Catherine; Burke, Brian; Stahl, Phillip D.; Hodzic, Didier

    2006-01-01

    The nuclear envelope defines the barrier between the nucleus and cytoplasm and features inner and outer membranes separated by a perinuclear space (PNS). The inner nuclear membrane contains specific integral proteins that include Sun1 and Sun2. Although the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum, it is nevertheless enriched in several integral membrane proteins, including nesprin 2 Giant (nesp2G), an 800-kD protein featuring an NH2-terminal actin-binding domain. A recent study (Padmakumar, V.C., T. Libotte, W. Lu, H. Zaim, S. Abraham, A.A. Noegel, J. Gotzmann, R. Foisner, and I. Karakesisoglou. 2005. J. Cell Sci. 118:3419–3430) has shown that localization of nesp2G to the ONM is dependent upon an interaction with Sun1. In this study, we confirm and extend these results by demonstrating that both Sun1 and Sun2 contribute to nesp2G localization. Codepletion of both of these proteins in HeLa cells leads to the loss of ONM-associated nesp2G, as does overexpression of the Sun1 lumenal domain. Both treatments result in the expansion of the PNS. These data, together with those of Padmakumar et al. (2005), support a model in which Sun proteins tether nesprins in the ONM via interactions spanning the PNS. In this way, Sun proteins and nesprins form a complex that links the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (the LINC complex). PMID:16380439

  19. Identification of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in birds.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, T; Yasuo, S; Suzuki, Y; Makino, E; Yokota, Y; Ebihara, S

    2001-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are generated by an internal biological clock. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus is known to be the dominant biological clock regulating circadian rhythms in mammals. In birds, two nuclei, the so-called medial SCN (mSCN) and the visual SCN (vSCN), have both been proposed to be the avian SCN. However, it remains an unsettled question which nuclei are homologous to the mammalian SCN. We have identified circadian clock genes in Japanese quail and demonstrated that these genes are expressed in known circadian oscillators, the pineal and the retina. Here, we report that these clock genes are expressed in the mSCN but not in the vSCN in Japanese quail, Java sparrow, chicken, and pigeon. In addition, mSCN lesions eliminated or disorganized circadian rhythms of locomotor activity under constant dim light, but did not eliminate entrainment under light-dark (LD) cycles in pigeon. However, the lesioned birds became completely arrhythmic even under LD after the pineal and the eye were removed. These results indicate that the mSCN is a circadian oscillator in birds. PMID:11247843

  20. Neutrino-Nucleus Reactions and Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshio [Department of Physics, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550, Japan, Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Chiba, Satoshi [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Yoshida, Takashi [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Honma, Michio [Center for Mathematical Sciences, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Higashiyama, Koji [Department of Physics, Chiba Institute of Technology, Narashino, Chiba 275-0023 (Japan); Umeda, Hideyuki [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Kajino, Toshitaka [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Otsuka, Takaharu [Department of Physics and Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2008-05-21

    Neutrino-induced reactions on {sup 12}C, {sup 4}He as well as Fe and Ni isotopes are studied based on new shell model Hamiltonians for p-shell and fp-shell. Gamow-Teller and spin-dipole transitions are investigated, and applied to neutrino-nucleus reactions induced by both DAR and supernova neutrinos. The reaction cross sections are found to be enhanced compared with conventional Hamiltonians as well as previous calculations. The production yields of {sup 7}Li and {sup 11}B during supernova explosions are found to be enhanced, and the effects of neutrino oscillations and implications of the enhancement on the constraint on temperature for {nu}{sub {mu}}{sub ,{tau}} and {nu}-bar{sub {mu}}{sub ,{tau}} are discussed. Production of other light elements such as {sup 10}Be and {sup 10}B by neutrino processes is also discussed. Neutral current reactions on Ni and Fe isotopes induced by supernova neutrinos are investigated. Effects of neutrino-induced reactions on the production yields of heavy elements such as Mn are discussed.

  1. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian

    2014-08-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function. PMID:24705203

  2. The double nucleus of Arp 220 unveiled

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.R.; Carico, D.P.; Matthews, K.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B.T. (Palomar Observatory, Pasadena, CA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    IR imaging at the f/415 focus of the Palomar 200 inch telescope with 0.39 x 0.49 arcsec resolution is used to determine that the ultraluminous IRAS galaxy Arp 220 has a double nucleus with separation 0.95 arcsec. The presence of two closely separated nuclei (330 pc) confirms the circumstantial evidence that Arp 220 is an evolved merger remnant; and the degree of correlation between the IR and cm wavelength radio emission shows that it is an ongoing merger containing two active nuclei accompanied by circumnuclear starbursts of moderate intensity. The extent of the 2.2 micron radiation is evidence that the flux is most probably dominated by starlight. It is pointed out that if the nuclear activity is powered by accretion onto black holes, then a black hole binary will be formed. Such a binary may be an essential ingredient of many quasars, and therefore Arp 220 may suggest another connection between mergers, ultraluminous IRAS galaxies, and quasars. 22 refs.

  3. Nucleus of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983 VII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1988-06-01

    Optical, radar, infrared, UV, and microwave-continuum observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcok were obtained in May 1983, the week of the comet's close approach to earth. The comet has a nucleus dimension and a rotation period which are similar to those of Comet Halley, but a different morphological signature (a persisting sunward fan-shaped coma). Time variations are noted in the projected nucleus cross section. Results suggest significant limb-darkening effects in the relevant domains of radio waves, and that the comet's interior must be extremely cold. It is found that the thermal-infrared fluxes from the inner coma of the comet are dominated by the nucleus.

  4. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beane, S. R.; Chang, E.; Cohen, S. D.; Detmold, W.; Lin, H.-W.; Orginos, K.; Parreño, A.; Savage, M. J.; Nplqcd Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multigluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is BphysNM?40 MeV .

  5. The nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis in neotropical passerines.

    PubMed

    Rylander, M K

    1979-01-01

    The volume of the nucleus mesencephalicus lateralis, pars dorsalis and the optic lobe were determined in 8 species of neotropical birds in the order Passeriformes: Pyrocephalus rubinus, Pitangus sulphuratus, Atticora fasciata, Molothrus bonariensis, Tangara nigrocincta, Ramphocelus dimidiatus, Euphonia xanthogaster and Spinus magellanicus. The ratio of the volume of the nucleus to the volume of the optic lobe was calculated for each species, and was found to be larger in all 8 species than in a series of nonpasserine species examined previously by Cobb. A possible relationship between the relative size of this nucleus and the auditory capabilities of birds is discussed. PMID:526853

  6. The long-term course of patients undergoing alternative and integrative therapy for lumbar disc herniation: 3-year results of a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Kim, Me-riong; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of an integrative complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approach in the management of lumbar herniated disc (LHD) with sciatic pain and investigate pain relapse, use of medical care and surgery rates in patients who actively chose non-surgical CAM treatment for LHD. Study design/Setting This prospective observational study was undertaken at a Korean medicine hospital outpatient setting in Korea. Participants A total of 128 consecutive patients with LHD with a numeric rating scale for leg pain of ?5 completed 6?months of CAM treatment after recruitment from November 2006, and 73/128 participants (57%) attended follow-up 3?years later. Interventions 6?months of CAM treatment (herbal medicine, acupuncture, bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manipulation). Primary outcome measures Visual analogue scale (VAS) for low back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey. Secondary outcome measures Neurological impairment (muscular weakness, sensory loss, Straight Leg Raise test), MRIs, recurrence of low back pain and/or radiating pain, and use of medical care. Results 92 patients could be assessed for surgical state, of whom 4 replied that they had received surgery. 73 patients attended the 3-year follow-up. The baseline VAS of back pain (4.37±2.70) decreased after treatment (0.90±1.01; p<0.001) and was maintained at 3?years (1.12±1.64; p=0.19). The baseline VAS of leg pain (7.57±1.40) also decreased on treatment (0.82±1.18; p<0.001) and was sustained at 3?years (0.99±1.58; p=0.34). ODI scores declined from 40.74±16.15 to 9.84±9.67 (p<0.001), then decreased further to 6.30±7.19 (p<0.01). SF-36 scores increased from 34.96±13.30 to 69.20±14.96 (p<0.001), reaching 76.19±14.45 (p<0.001) at 3?years. 37 patients reported recurrence of pain and most chose CAM treatment for management of relapse symptoms. Conclusions Although the absence of a control group prevents validation of effectiveness, many patients showed favourable long-term outcomes. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01989403.

  7. Cytotoxicity of nucleus-targeting fluorescent gold nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing-Ya; Cui, Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Mingxi; Xie, Zhi-Xiong; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2014-10-01

    Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with ultra small sizes and unique fluorescence properties have shown promising potential for imaging the nuclei of living cells. However, little is known regarding the potential cytotoxicity of AuNCs after they enter the cell nucleus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether and how nucleus-targeting AuNCs affect the normal functioning of cells. Highly stable, water-soluble and bright fluorescent Au25NCs (the core of each nanocluster is composed of 25 gold atoms) were synthesized. Specific targeting of Au25NCs to the cell nucleus was achieved by conjugating the TAT peptide to the Au25NCs. Cell viability, cell morphology, cell apoptosis/necrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential examinations were performed on different cell lines exposed to the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs. We found that the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs caused cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. A possible mechanism for the cytotoxicity of the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs was proposed as follows: the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs induce the production of ROS, resulting in the oxidative degradation of mitochondrial components, in turn leading to apoptosis via a mitochondrial damage pathway. This work facilitates a better understanding of the toxicity of AuNCs, especially nucleus-targeting AuNCs.Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) with ultra small sizes and unique fluorescence properties have shown promising potential for imaging the nuclei of living cells. However, little is known regarding the potential cytotoxicity of AuNCs after they enter the cell nucleus. The aim of this study is to investigate whether and how nucleus-targeting AuNCs affect the normal functioning of cells. Highly stable, water-soluble and bright fluorescent Au25NCs (the core of each nanocluster is composed of 25 gold atoms) were synthesized. Specific targeting of Au25NCs to the cell nucleus was achieved by conjugating the TAT peptide to the Au25NCs. Cell viability, cell morphology, cell apoptosis/necrosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and mitochondrial membrane potential examinations were performed on different cell lines exposed to the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs. We found that the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs caused cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. A possible mechanism for the cytotoxicity of the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs was proposed as follows: the nucleus-targeting Au25NCs induce the production of ROS, resulting in the oxidative degradation of mitochondrial components, in turn leading to apoptosis via a mitochondrial damage pathway. This work facilitates a better understanding of the toxicity of AuNCs, especially nucleus-targeting AuNCs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04227a

  8. Deconvolving the Nucleus of Centaurus A Using Chandra PSF Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karovska, Margarita

    2000-01-01

    Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is a giant early-type galaxy containing the nearest (at 3.5 Mpc) radio-bright Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Cen A was observed with the High Resolution Camera (HRC) on the Chandra X-ray Observatory on several occasions since the launch in July 1999. The high-angular resolution (less than 0.5 arcsecond) Chandra/HRC images reveal X ray multi-scale structures in this object with unprecedented detail and clarity, including the bright nucleus believed to be associated with a supermassive black hole. We explored the spatial extent of the Cen A nucleus using deconvolution techniques on the full resolution Chandra images. Model point spread functions (PSFs) were derived from the standard Chandra raytrace PSF library as well as unresolved point sources observed with Chandra. The deconvolved images show that the Cen A nucleus is resolved and asymmetric. We discuss several possible causes of this extended emission and of the asymmetries.

  9. Neurobiology of Disease Involvement of the Thalamic Parafascicular Nucleus in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Neurobiology of Disease Involvement of the Thalamic Parafascicular Nucleus in Mesial Temporal Lobe^nes et al., 1996; Van der Werf et al., 2002; Smith et al., 2004). The PF participates in cognitive (sleep

  10. Melatonin modulates intercellular communication among immortalized rat suprachiasmatic nucleus cells 

    E-print Network

    Cox, Kimberly Yvonne

    2009-05-15

    anlage of the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus, as an in vitro model system to study intercellular communication among SCN cells. I tested whether the pineal neurohormone melatonin could modulate cell-to-cell signaling, via both dye coupling (gap junctional...

  11. PLANT SCIENCE: Nibbling at the Plant Cell Nucleus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeffery L. Dangl (University of North Carolina; Department of Biology, the Curriculum in Genetics, and the Carolina Center for Genome Sciences)

    2007-02-23

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. When plants recognize certain pathogens, an activated immune receptor moves to the nucleus where it affects transcription to initiate a successful response.

  12. Low-energy antinucleon-nucleus interaction revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    2015-02-01

    Annihilation cross sections of antiprotons and antineutrons on the proton between 50 and 400 MeV/c show Coulomb focusing below 200 MeV/c and almost no charge-dependence above 200 MeV/c. Similar comparisons for heavier targets are not possible for lack of overlap between nuclear targets studied with bar {p} and bar {n} beams. Interpolating between bar {p}-nucleus annihilation cross sections with the help of an optical potential to compare with bar {n}-nucleus annihilation cross sections reveal unexpected features of Coulomb interactions in the latter. Direct comparisons between bar {n}-nucleus and bar {p}-nucleus annihilations at very low energies could be possible if bar {p} cross sections are measured on the same targets and at the same energies as the available cross sections for bar {n}. Such measurements may be feasible in the foreseeable future.

  13. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus.

    PubMed

    2011-05-19

    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-? (?), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the ?-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B?

  14. Collateral projections of nucleus raphe dorsalis neurones to the caudate-putamen and region around the nucleus raphe magnus and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha in the rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Y Q; Kaneko, T; Mizuno, N

    2001-02-16

    It was examined whether or not the nucleus raphe dorsalis (RD) neurons projecting to the caudate-putamen (CPu) might also project to the motor-controlling region around the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis pars alpha (Gia) in the rat. Single RD neurons projecting to the CPu and NRM/Gia by way of axon collaterals were identified by the retrograde double-labeling method with fluorescent dyes, Fast Blue and Diamidino Yellow, which were injected respectively into the CPu and NRM/Gia. Then, serotonin (5-HT)-like immunoreactivity of the double-labeled RD neurons was examined immunohistochemically; approximately 60% of the double-labeled RD neurons showed 5-HT-like immunoreactivity. The results indicated that some of serotonergic and non-serotonergic RD neurons might control motor functions simultaneously at the levels of the CPu and NRM/Gia by way of axon collaterals. PMID:11166931

  15. The Galactic nucleus: A unique region in the Galactic ecosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genzel, Reinhard; Poglitsch, Albrecht

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus is a unique region in the Galactic ecosystem. It is also superb laboratory of modern astrophysics where astronomers can study, at unprecedented spatial resolution and across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, physical processes that may also happen at the cores of other galaxies. Infrared observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory have made important contributions to unraveling the mysteries of the Galactic nucleus and this review highlights some of these measurements, as well as recent results regarding the central parsec.

  16. Heavy lepton pair production in nucleus-nucleus collisions at LHC energy - a case study

    E-print Network

    Jan-e Alam; Bedangadas Mohanty; Sanjay K Ghosh; Sarbani Majumder; Rajarshi Ray

    2011-02-09

    We present a study of $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ lepton pair production in Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.5 TeV. The larger $\\tau^{\\pm}$ mass ($\\sim$ 1.77 GeV) compared to $e^{\\pm}$ and $\\mu^{\\pm}$ leads to considerably small hadronic contribution to the $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ pair invariant mass ($M$) distribution relative to the production from thermal partonic sources. The quark-anti-quark annihilation processes via intermediary virtual photon, Z and Higgs bosons have been considered for the production of $ \\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$. We observe that the contribution from Drell-Yan process dominates over thermal yield for $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ pair mass from 4 to 20 GeV at the LHC energy. We also present the ratio of $\\tau$ lepton pair yields for nucleus-nucleus collisions relative to yields from p+p collisions scaled by number of binary collisions at LHC energies as a function $\\tau$ pair mass. The ratio is found to be significantly above unity for the mass range 4 to 6 GeV. This indicates the possibility of detecting $\\tau^{+}\\tau^{-}$ pair from quark gluon plasma (QGP) in the mass window $4\\leq M$(GeV)$\\leq 6$.

  17. Collision dynamics and particle production in relativistic nucleus- nucleus collisions at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1990-03-01

    The possibility of forming a quark-gluon plasma is the primary motivation for studying nucleus-nucleus collisions at very high energies. Various signatures'' for the existence of a quark-gluon plasma in these collisions have been proposed. These include an enhancement in the production of strange particles, suppression of J/{Psi} production, observation of direct photons from the plasma, event-by-event fluctuations in the rapidity distributions of produced particles, and various other observables. However, the system will evolve dynamically from a pure plasma or mixed phase through expansion, cooling, hadronization and freezeout into the final state particles. Therefore, to be able to determine that a new, transient state of matter has been formed it will be necessary to understand the space-time evolution of the collision process and the microscopic structure of hadronic interactions, at the level of quarks and gluons, at high temperatures and densities. In this talk I will review briefly the present state of our understanding of the dynamics of these collisions and, in addition, present a few recent results on particle production from the NA35 experiment at CERN. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Energy dependence of nucleus-nucleus potential close to the Coulomb barrier

    E-print Network

    Kouhei Washiyama; Denis Lacroix

    2008-08-12

    The nucleus-nucleus interaction potentials in heavy-ion fusion reactions are extracted from the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory for mass symmetric reactions $^{16}$O${}+^{16}$O, $^{40}$Ca${}+^{40}$Ca, $^{48}$Ca${}+^{48}$Ca and mass asymmetric reactions $^{16}$O$ +^{40,48}$Ca, $^{40}$Ca${}+^{48}$Ca, $^{16}$O+$^{208}$Pb, $^{40}$Ca+$^{90}$Zr. When the center-of-mass energy is much higher than the Coulomb barrier energy, potentials deduced with the microscopic theory identify with the frozen density approximation. As the center-of-mass energy decreases and approaches the Coulomb barrier, potentials become energy dependent. This dependence signs dynamical reorganization of internal degrees of freedom and leads to a reduction of the "apparent" barrier felt by the two nuclei during fusion of the order of $2-3 %$ compared to the frozen density case. Several examples illustrate that the potential landscape changes rapidly when the center-of-mass energy is in the vicinity of the Coulomb barrier energy. The energy dependence is expected to have a significant role on fusion around the Coulomb barrier.

  19. Energy dependence of the nucleus-nucleus potential and the friction parameter in fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Kai; Sakata, Fumihiko; Li, Zhu-Xia; Wu, Xi-Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2014-11-01

    Applying a macroscopic reduction procedure to the improved quantum molecular dynamics (ImQMD) model, the energy dependences of the nucleus-nucleus potential, the friction parameter, and the random force characterizing a one-dimensional Langevin-type description of the heavy-ion fusion process are investigated. Systematic calculations with the ImQMD model show that the fluctuation-dissipation relation found in symmetric head-on fusion reactions at energies just above the Coulomb barrier fades out when the incident energy increases. It turns out that this dynamical change with increasing incident energy is caused by a specific behavior of the friction parameter which directly depends on the microscopic dynamical process, i.e., on how the collective energy of the relative motion is transferred into the intrinsic excitation energy. It is shown microscopically that the energy dissipation in the fusion process is governed by two mechanisms: One is caused by the nucleon exchanges between two fusing nuclei, and the other is due to a rearrangement of nucleons in the intrinsic system. The former mechanism monotonically increases the dissipative energy and shows a weak dependence on the incident energy, while the latter depends on both the relative distance between two fusing nuclei and the incident energy. It is shown that the latter mechanism is responsible for the energy dependence of the fusion potential and explains the fading out of the fluctuation-dissipation relation.

  20. Statistical analysis of secondary particle distributions in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, Stephen C.

    1987-01-01

    The use is described of several statistical techniques to characterize structure in the angular distributions of secondary particles from nucleus-nucleus collisions in the energy range 24 to 61 GeV/nucleon. The objective of this work was to determine whether there are correlations between emitted particle intensity and angle that may be used to support the existence of the quark gluon plasma. The techniques include chi-square null hypothesis tests, the method of discrete Fourier transform analysis, and fluctuation analysis. We have also used the method of composite unit vectors to test for azimuthal asymmetry in a data set of 63 JACEE-3 events. Each method is presented in a manner that provides the reader with some practical detail regarding its application. Of those events with relatively high statistics, Fe approaches 0 at 55 GeV/nucleon was found to possess an azimuthal distribution with a highly non-random structure. No evidence of non-statistical fluctuations was found in the pseudo-rapidity distributions of the events studied. It is seen that the most effective application of these methods relies upon the availability of many events or single events that possess very high multiplicities.

  1. Glucokinase activity in the arcuate nucleus regulates glucose intake.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Syed; Richardson, Errol; Ma, Yue; Holton, Christopher; De Backer, Ivan; Buckley, Niki; Dhillo, Waljit; Bewick, Gavin; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Bloom, Steve; Gardiner, James

    2015-01-01

    The brain relies on a constant supply of glucose, its primary fuel, for optimal function. A taste-independent mechanism within the CNS that promotes glucose delivery to the brain has been postulated to maintain glucose homeostasis; however, evidence for such a mechanism is lacking. Here, we determined that glucokinase activity within the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is involved in regulation of dietary glucose intake. In fasted rats, glucokinase activity was specifically increased in the arcuate nucleus but not other regions of the hypothalamus. Moreover, pharmacologic and genetic activation of glucokinase in the arcuate nucleus of rodent models increased glucose ingestion, while decreased arcuate nucleus glucokinase activity reduced glucose intake. Pharmacologic targeting of potential downstream glucokinase effectors revealed that ATP-sensitive potassium channel and P/Q calcium channel activity are required for glucokinase-mediated glucose intake. Additionally, altered glucokinase activity affected release of the orexigenic neurotransmitter neuropeptide Y in response to glucose. Together, our results suggest that glucokinase activity in the arcuate nucleus specifically regulates glucose intake and that appetite for glucose is an important driver of overall food intake. Arcuate nucleus glucokinase activation may represent a CNS mechanism that underlies the oft-described phenomena of the "sweet tooth" and carbohydrate craving. PMID:25485685

  2. Stopping powers and cross sections due to two-photon processes in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Wang K.; Norbury, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of electromagnetic-production processes due to two-photon exchange in nucleus-nucleus collisions are discussed. Feynman diagrams for two-photon exchange are evaluated using quantum electrodynamics. The total cross section and stopping power for projectile and target nuclei of identical charge are found to be significant for heavy nuclei above a few GeV per nucleon-incident energy.

  3. Subfornical organ and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus connections with median preoptic nucleus neurons: an electrophysiological study in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Tanaka; H. Saito; H. Kaba

    1987-01-01

    The role of pathways from the subfornical organ (SFO) to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) through the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) in regulating the activity of putative vasopressin (VP)-secreting neurons in the PVN was examined in urethane-anesthetized male rats. The activity of the majority (79%) of SFO neurons antidromically identified as projecting to the MnPO was excited by microiontophoretically (MIPh)

  4. Arcuate Nucleus Ablation Prevents Fasting-Induced Suppression of ProTRH mRNA in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabor Legradi; Charles H. Emerson; Rexford S. Ahima; William M. Rand; Jeffrey S. Flier; Ronald M. Lechan

    1998-01-01

    Fasting results in reduced thyroid hormone levels and inappropriately low or normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), partly attributed to central hypothyroidism due to suppression of pro TRH gene expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Recently, we demonstrated that the systemic administration of leptin to fasting animals restores plasma thyroxine (T4) and proTRH mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus to normal, suggesting that

  5. Toward construction of a unified neutrino-nucleus interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamano, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A precise knowledge of the neutrino-nucleus interactions is becoming one of the crucial issues for a successful determination of the neutrino parameters from the future neutrino-oscillation experiments. It is therefore urgent to have a reliable neutrino-nucleus interactoin model that enables a quantitative description of neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections in an accuracy of 10 percent or less. However, the kinematic regions relevant to the neutrino parameter searches extend over the quasi-elastic, resonance, and deep-inelastic-scattering regions, where different theoretical treatments based on hadronic or partonic degrees of freedom are usually employed, and this makes the construction of a unified neutrino-nucleus interaction model covering those kinematic regions challenging. To tackle on such a challenging issue, we have recently developed a collaboration of experimentalists and theorists in different fields at J-PARC Branch of KEK Theory Center (http://www.nuint.kek.jp/index_e.html). In this talk, I review our efforts toward construction of the unified neutrino-nucleus interaction model at J-PARC Branch of KEK Theory Center. A precise knowledge of the neutrino-nucleus interactions is becoming one of the crucial issues for a successful determination of the neutrino parameters from the future neutrino-oscillation experiments. It is therefore urgent to have a reliable neutrino-nucleus interactoin model that enables a quantitative description of neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections in an accuracy of 10 percent or less. However, the kinematic regions relevant to the neutrino parameter searches extend over the quasi-elastic, resonance, and deep-inelastic-scattering regions, where different theoretical treatments based on hadronic or partonic degrees of freedom are usually employed, and this makes the construction of a unified neutrino-nucleus interaction model covering those kinematic regions challenging. To tackle on such a challenging issue, we have recently developed a collaboration of experimentalists and theorists in different fields at J-PARC Branch of KEK Theory Center (http://www.nuint.kek.jp/index_e.html). In this talk, I review our efforts toward construction of the unified neutrino-nucleus interaction model at J-PARC Branch of KEK Theory Center. The author thanks J-PARC Branch of KEK Theory Center for supporting the collaboration's activity.

  6. Vestibular nucleus projections to nucleus tractus solitarius and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve: potential substrates for vestibulo-autonomic interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carey D. Balaban; Gennady Beryozkin

    1994-01-01

    Autonomic effects of vestibular stimulation are important components of phenomena as diverse as acute vestibular dysfunction and motion sickness. How ever, the organization of neural circuits mediating these responses is poorly understood. This study presents evidence for direct vestibular nucleus projections to brain stem regions that mediate autonomic function. One group of albino rabbits received injections of Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin

  7. Proton and antiproton distributions at midrapidity in proton-nucleus and sulphur-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearden, I. G.; Bøggild, H.; Boissevain, J.; Dodd, J.; Esumi, S.; Fabjan, C. W.; Fields, D. E.; Franz, A.; Hansen, A. G.; Holzer, E. B.; Humanic, T. J.; Jacak, B. V.; Jayanti, R.; Kalechofsky, H.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leltchouk, M.; Lörstad, B.; Maeda, N.; Medvedev, A.; Miyabayashi, A.; Murray, M.; Nishimura, S.; Pandey, S. U.; Piuz, F.; Polychronakos, V.; Potekhin, M.; Poulard, G.; Sakaguchi, A.; Sarabura, M.; Spegel, M.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Sondheim, W.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J. P.; Sumi, Y.; van Hecke, H.; Willis, W. J.; Wolf, K.; Xu, N.

    1998-02-01

    Experiment NA44 has measured proton and antiproton distributions at midrapidity in sulphur and proton collisions with nuclear targets at 200 and 450 GeV/c per nucleon respectively. The inverse slopes of transverse mass distributions increase with system size for both protons and antiprotons but are slightly lower for antiprotons. This could happen if antiprotons are annihilated in the nuclear medium. The antiproton yield increases with system size and centrality and is largest at midrapidity. The proton yield also increases with system size and centrality, but decreases from backward rapidity to midrapidity. The stopping of protons at these energies lies between the full stopping and nuclear transparency scenarios. The data are in reasonable agreement with RQMD predictions except for the antiproton yields from sulphur-nucleus collisions.

  8. Nucleus-nucleus cold fusion reactions analyzed with the l-dependent 'fusion by diffusion' model

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, T.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Wilczynski, J. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, PL-05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    We present a modified version of the Fusion by Diffusion (FBD) model aimed at describing the synthesis of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, in which a low excited compound nucleus emits only one neutron. The modified FBD model accounts for the angular momentum dependence of three basic factors determining the evaporation residue cross section: the capture cross section {sigma}{sub cap}(l), the fusion probability P{sub fus}(l), and the survival probability P{sub surv}(l). The fusion hindrance factor, the inverse of P{sub fus}(l), is treated in terms of thermal fluctuations in the shape degrees of freedom and is expressed as a solution of the Smoluchowski diffusion equation. The l dependence of P{sub fus}(l) results from the l-dependent potential energy surface of the colliding system. A new parametrization of the distance of starting point of the diffusion process is introduced. An analysis of a complete set of 27 excitation functions for production of superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reactions, studied in experiments at GSI Darmstadt, RIKEN Tokyo, and LBNL Berkeley, is presented. The FBD model satisfactorily reproduces shapes and absolute cross sections of all the cold fusion excitation functions. It is shown that the peak position of the excitation function for a given 1n reaction is determined by the Q value of the reaction and the height of the fission barrier of the final nucleus. This fact could possibly be used in future experiments (with well-defined beam energy) for experimental determination of the fission barrier heights.

  9. Cochlear nucleus whole mount explants promote the differentiation of neuronal stem cells from the cochlear nucleus in co-culture experiments.

    PubMed

    Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Jürgens, Lukas; Völker, Christine; Frenz, Silke; Scherzad, Agmal; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Jablonka, Sibylle; Mlynski, Robert; Radeloff, Andreas; Hagen, Rudolf

    2015-08-01

    The cochlear nucleus is the first brainstem nucleus to receive sensory input from the cochlea. Depriving this nucleus of auditory input leads to cellular and molecular disorganization which may potentially be counteracted by the activation or application of stem cells. Neuronal stem cells (NSCs) have recently been identified in the neonatal cochlear nucleus and a persistent neurogenic niche was demonstrated in this brainstem nucleus until adulthood. The present work investigates whether the neurogenic environment of the cochlear nucleus can promote the survival of engrafted NSCs and whether cochlear nucleus-derived NSCs can differentiate into neurons and glia in brain tissue. Therefore, cochlear nucleus whole-mount explants were co-cultured with NSCs extracted from either the cochlear nucleus or the hippocampus and compared to a second environment using whole-mount explants from the hippocampus. Factors that are known to induce neuronal differentiation were also investigated in these NSC-explant experiments. NSCs derived from the cochlear nucleus engrafted in the brain tissue and differentiated into all cells of the neuronal lineage. Hippocampal NSCs also immigrated in cochlear nucleus explants and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Laminin expression was up-regulated in the cochlear nucleus whole-mounts and regulated the in vitro differentiation of NSCs from the cochlear nucleus. These experiments confirm a neurogenic environment in the cochlear nucleus and the capacity of cochlear nucleus-derived NSCs to differentiate into neurons and glia. Consequently, the presented results provide a first step for the possible application of stem cells to repair the disorganization of the cochlear nucleus, which occurs after hearing loss. PMID:25960344

  10. Physiological and anatomical identification of the nucleus of the optic tract and dorsal terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract in monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-P. Hoffmann; C. Distler; R. G. Erickson; W. Mader

    1988-01-01

    Physiological and anatomical criteria were used to clearly establish the existence of a pretectal relay of visual information to the ipsilateral inferior olive in the macaque monkey. After injection of horseradish peroxidase into the inferior olivary nucleus, retrogradely labelled neurons were found in the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) and the dorsal terminal nucleus of the accessory optic tract

  11. Possibility of cold nuclear compression in antiproton-nucleus collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, A. B. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Mishustin, I. N.; Satarov, L. M. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Greiner, W. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, J.W. Goethe-Universitaet, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    We study the dynamical response of the {sup 16}O nucleus to an incident antiproton using the Giessen Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck microscopic transport model with relativistic mean fields. A special emphasis is put on the possibility of a dynamical compression of the nucleus induced by the moving antiproton. Realistic antibaryon coupling constants to the mean meson fields are chosen in accordance with empirical data. Our calculations show that an antiproton embedded in the nuclear interior with momentum less than the nucleon Fermi momentum may create a locally compressed zone in the nucleus with a maximum density of about twice the nuclear saturation density. To evaluate the probability of the nuclear compression in high-energy p-bar-nucleus collisions, we adopt a two-stage scheme. This scheme takes into account the antiproton deceleration due to the cascade of p-barN rescatterings inside the nucleus (first stage), as well as the nuclear compression by the slow antiproton before its annihilation (second stage). With our standard model parameters, the fraction of p-bar annihilation events in the compressed zone is about 10{sup -5} for p-bar{sup 16}O collisions at p{sub lab}=3-10 GeV/c. Finally, possible experimental triggers aimed at selecting such events are discussed.

  12. Lumbar disc herniation in teenagers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Ferrante; Luciano Mastronardi; Pierpaolo Lunardi; Fabrizio Puzzilli; Aldo Fortuna

    1992-01-01

    48 patients ont été opérés de hernie lombaire discale dans les deux premières décades de vie (âge 13–20), dans notre Division de Neurochirurgie. On a comparé les différences cliniques et chirurgicales entre les adultes et les enfants, nous avons étudié plus de 900 cas juvéniles en comparaison avec plus de 11000 cas adultes décrits dans la littérature. La douleur lombaire

  13. Relevance of pseudospin symmetry in proton-nucleus scattering

    E-print Network

    H. Leeb; S. A. Sofianos

    2003-10-06

    The manifestation of pseudospin-symmetry in proton-nucleus scattering is discussed. Constraints on the pseudospin-symmetry violating scattering amplitude are given which require as input cross section and polarization data, but no measurements of the spin rotation function. Application of these constraints to p-58Ni and p-208Pb scattering data in the laboratory energy range of 200 MeV to 800 MeV, reveals a significant violation of the symmetry at lower energies and a weak one at higher energies. Using a schematic model within the Dirac phenomenology, the role of the Coulomb potential in proton-nucleus scattering with regard to pseudospin symmetry is studied. Our results indicate that the existence of pseudospin-symmetry in proton-nucleus scattering is questionable in the whole energy region considered and that the violation of this symmetry stems from the long range nature of the Coulomb interaction.

  14. Neuroanatomy and electrophysiology of the lacertilian nucleus isthmi.

    PubMed

    Wang, S R; Yan, K; Wang, Y T; Jiang, S Y; Wang, X S

    1983-09-26

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracings showed a bidirectional connection between the optic tectum (OT) and the ipsilateral nucleus isthmi (NI) pars magnocellularis (Imc) in nocturnal Gekko gekko and diurnal Shinisaurus crocodilurus. We found that, in addition to a direct neuronal pathway, there is an indirect pathway from OT to Imc via the nucleus profundus mesencephali (NPM). The morphology of cells in OT, NPM and NI was studied. Visual units extracellularly recorded from NI were located within Imc based on cobalt sulphide markings. They responded to moving contrast targets, without reacting to tactile and auditory stimulation. HRP and Golgi-Cox studies showed that Imc is a nucleus independent of its parvocellular partner, Ipc. PMID:6194859

  15. Relevance of pseudospin symmetry in proton-nucleus scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeb, H.; Sofianos, S. A.

    2004-05-01

    The manifestation of pseudospin symmetry in proton-nucleus scattering is discussed. Constraints on the pseudospin-symmetry violating scattering amplitude are given, which require as input cross section and polarization data, but no measurements of the spin-rotation function. Application of these constraints to p- 58 Ni and p- 208 Pb scattering data in the laboratory energy range of 200 MeV 800 MeV reveals a significant violation of the symmetry at lower energies and a weak one at higher energies. Using a schematic model within the Dirac phenomenology, the role of the Coulomb potential in proton-nucleus scattering with regard to pseudospin symmetry is studied. Our results indicate that the existence of pseudospin symmetry in proton-nucleus scattering is questionable in the whole energy region considered and that the violation of this symmetry stems from the long range nature of the Coulomb interaction.

  16. Extreme alpha-clustering in the 18O nucleus

    E-print Network

    E. D. Johnson; G. V. Rogachev; V. Z. Goldberg; S. Brown; D. Robson; A. M. Crisp; P. D. Cottle; C. Fu; J. Giles; B. W. Green; K. W. Kemper; K. Lee; B. T. Roeder; R. E. Tribble

    2009-09-30

    The structure of the 18O nucleus at excitation energies above the alpha decay threshold was studied using 14C+alpha resonance elastic scattering. A number of states with large alpha reduced widths have been observed, indicating that the alpha-cluster degree of freedom plays an important role in this N not equal Z nucleus. However, the alpha-cluster structure of this nucleus is very different from the relatively simple pattern of strong alpha-cluster quasi-rotational bands in the neighboring 16O and 20Ne nuclei. A 0+ state with an alpha reduced width exceeding the single particle limit was identified at an excitation energy of 9.9+/-0.3 MeV. We discuss evidence that states of this kind are common in light nuclei and give possible explanations of this feature.

  17. Interrelation between KOSI experiments and comet nucleus sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, E.

    1991-04-01

    In situ observations of Comet Halley yielded information on the nucleus and its environment. The measurements are related to properties of and processes at the nucleus by theoretical modeling and by simulation experiments in the laboratory. The objective of the KOSI experiments at DLR is to study in detail processes which occur near the surface of ice-dust mixtures under irradiation by light, like heat transport into the sample, chemical fractionation of sample material, emission of gasses, and others. The KOSI experiments are carried out at the large space simulation chamber in Koeln. By providing an in-depth understanding of potential cometary process, the results from the KOSI experiments are relevant to any comet nucleus sample return mission.

  18. Separable Representation of Proton-Nucleus Optical Potentials

    E-print Network

    L. Hlophe; V. Eremenko; Ch. Elster; F. M. Nunes; G. Arbanas; J. E. Escher; I. J. Thompson

    2014-09-14

    Recently, a new approach for solving the three-body problem for (d,p) reactions in the Coulomb-distorted basis in momentum space was proposed. Important input quantities for such calculations are the scattering matrix elements for proton- and neutron-nucleus scattering. We present a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler scheme in which a momentum space separable representation of proton-nucleus scattering matrix elements can be calculated in the Coulomb basis. The viability of this method is demonstrated by comparing S-matrix elements obtained for p$+^{48}$Ca and p$+^{208}$Pb for a phenomenological optical potential with corresponding coordinate space calculations.

  19. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    E-print Network

    Golan, Tomasz; Sobczyk, Jan T

    2012-01-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  20. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  1. Meson production in high-energy electron-nucleus scattering

    E-print Network

    Göran Fäldt

    2010-06-09

    Experimental studies of meson production through two-photon fusion in inelastic electron-nucleus scattering is now under way. A high-energy photon radiated by the incident electron is fused with a soft photon radiated by the nucleus. The process takes place in the small-angle-Coulomb region of nuclear scattering. We expound the theory for this production process as well as its interference with coherent-radiative-meson production. In particular, we investigate the distortion of the electron wave function due to multiple-Coulomb scattering.

  2. Non-localities in nucleon-nucleus potentials

    E-print Network

    P. Fraser; K. Amos; S. Karataglidis; L. Canton; G. Pisent; J. P. Svenne

    2007-08-09

    Two causes of non-locality inherent in nucleon-nucleus scattering are considered. They are the results of two-nucleon antisymmetry of the projectile with each nucleon in the nucleus and the dynamic polarization potential representation of channel coupling. For energies $\\sim 40 - 300$ MeV, a g-folding model of the optical potential is used to show the influence of the knock-out process that is a result of the two-nucleon antisymmetry. To explore the dynamic polarization potential caused by channel coupling, a multichannel algebraic scattering model has been used for low-energy scattering.

  3. Interpretation of electron- and neutrino-nucleus scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhar, Omar

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of the sample of charged current quasi elastic events collected by the Mini-BooNE collaboration shows that the extension of the approaches successfully employed to describe electron-nucleus scattering to the case of neutrino interactions involves non trivial difficulties. In this paper it is argued that, due to flux average, the double differential neutrino-nucleus cross section does not allow for a clearcut determination of the dominant reaction mechanism. A systematic study of the large body of electron scattering data may help to identify the processes, other than single nucleon knockout, contributing to the observed neutrino cross section.

  4. Spin dependence in intermediate energy p-nucleus scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amado, R. D.; McNeil, J. A.; Sparrow, D. A.

    1981-05-01

    We obtain closed form approximations for the spin dependent eikonal p-nucleus scattering amplitudes. The polarization P and spin rotation function Q can be written in terms of the unpolarized elastic scattering cross section and two complex parameters related to the nucleon-nucleon spin orbit strength and range. These forms agree well with the available data and illuminate the dynamical content of P and Q. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Closed form eikonal amplitude for spin dependent p-nucleus scattering. Data-to-data forms relating spin observables to elastic scattering.

  5. Trafficking of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Graham; Liao, Hong-Jun

    2009-01-01

    It has been known for at least 20 years that growth factors induce the internalization of cognate receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The internalized receptors are then sorted to lysosomes or recycled to the cell surface. More recently, data have been published to indicate other intracellular destinations for the internalized RTKs. These include the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoplasm. Also, it is recognized that trafficking to these novel destinations involves new biochemical mechanisms, such as proteolytic processing or interaction with translocons, and that these trafficking events have a function in signal transduction, implicating the receptor itself as a signaling element between the cell surface and the nucleus. PMID:18951890

  6. Neutral current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Gay Ducati, M. B.; Machado, M. M. [High Energy Physics Phenomenology Group, GFPAE, IF-UFRGS, Caixa Postal 15051, CEP 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Machado, M. V. T. [Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, Universidade Federal do Pampa, Campus de Bage, Rua Carlos Barbosa, CEP 96400-970, Bage, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2009-04-01

    We present a QCD analysis of the neutral current (NC) neutrino-nucleus interaction at the small-x region using the color dipole formalism. This phenomenological approach is quite successful in describing experimental results in deep inelastic ep scattering and charged current neutrino-nucleus interactions at high energies. We present theoretical predictions for the relevant structure functions and the corresponding implications for the total NC neutrino cross section. It is shown that at small x, the NC boson-nucleon cross section should exhibit the geometric scaling property that has important consequences for ultrahigh energy neutrino phenomenology.

  7. Counting the number of correlated pairs in a nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhalst, Maarten; Cosyn, Wim; Ryckebusch, Jan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Ghent University, Proeftuinstraat 86, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2011-09-15

    We suggest that the number of correlated nucleon pairs in an arbitrary nucleus can be estimated by counting the number of proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron pairs residing in a relative S state. We present numerical calculations of those amounts for the nuclei {sup 4}He, {sup 9}Be, {sup 12}C, {sup 27}Al, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 108}Ag, and {sup 197}Au. The results are used to predict the values of the ratios of the per-nucleon electron-nucleus inelastic scattering cross section to the deuteron in the kinematic regime where correlations dominate.

  8. CASTOR: The ALICE forward detector for identification of Centauros and Strangelets in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the LHC

    E-print Network

    A. L. S. Angelis; J. Bartke; M. Yu. Bogolyubsky; S. N. Filippov; E. Gladysz-Dziadus; Yu. V. Kharlov; A. B. Kurepin; A. I. Maevskaya; G. Mavromanolakis; A. D. Panagiotou; S. A. Sadovsky; P. Stefanski; Z. Wlodarczyk

    1999-01-28

    The physics motivation for a very forward detector for the ALICE heavy ion experiment at the CERN LHC is discussed. A phenomenological model describing the formation and decay of a Centauro fireball in nucleus-nucleus collisions is presented. The CASTOR detector which is aimed to measure the hadronic and photonic content of an interaction and to identify deeply penetrating objects in the very forward, baryon-rich phase space 5.6 < eta < 7.2 in an event-by-event mode is described. Results of simulations of the expected response of the calorimeter, and in particular to the passage of strangelets, are presented.

  9. Intrinsic excitability changes in vestibular nucleus neurons after unilateral deafferentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Him; M. B Dutia

    2001-01-01

    Two synergistic plastic mechanisms have recently been identified in rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons during ‘vestibular compensation’, the behavioral recovery that follows damage to the vestibular receptors or nerve of one inner ear. Ipsi-lesional MVN neurons develop a significant increase in their intrinsic excitability, and a marked decrease in the functional efficacy of GABAA and GABAB receptors, within 4

  10. Comparison of Models of Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, S. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom); Dytman, S. [Department of Physics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (United States); Hernandez, E. [Department of Fundamental Physics and IUFFyM, University of Salamanca (Spain); Sobczyk, J. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw University, Wroclaw (Poland); Tacik, R. [Department of Physics, University of Regina, Regina, SK (Canada)

    2009-11-25

    One session at the NUINT09 conference was devoted to talks at the interface of theory and experiment. A highlight of that session was a presentation comparing results of many theorists and modelers. This note briefly describes the models and compares calculations of important neutrino-nucleus cross sections.

  11. Distribution of Recoil Nucleus in Pair Production by Photons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Jost; J. M. Luttinger; M. Slotnick

    1950-01-01

    The angular and momentum distribution of the recoil nucleus in pair production by a photon is calculated covariantly by a method which utilizes the unitarity of the S matrix. The results are in disagreement with a recent experiment, particularly for small angles and high momentum transfers. The exact total cross section for pair creation is also given.

  12. Polarization characteristics of the {triangle} isobar produced in a nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Balashov, V.V.; Bibikov, A.V.; Vostroknutova, O.N. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    The properties of the spin density matrix of the {triangle}isobar produced in a nucleus by pions and photons are studied from the viewpoint of prospects for exclusive (coincidence) experiments on the excitation and decay of the {triangle}isobar in nuclear reactions.

  13. Patterns of Cell Death in Mouse Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus Neurons

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Patterns of Cell Death in Mouse Anteroventral Cochlear Nucleus Neurons After Unilateral Cochlea-induced cell death in the mouse AVCN. AVCN neurons in mature bcl-2 knockout mice demonstrate susceptibility to removal of afferent input comparable to neonatal sensitivity of wild-type controls. These data suggest

  14. Microscopic analysis of pion-nucleus inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.S.H.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical methods of analyzing pion-nucleus inelastic scattering with energy near the (3,3) resonance are reviewed. It is illustrated that the DWIA in momentum space has provided a reasonable tool to reveal microscopically the structure of nuclear states from the existing data.

  15. Transient state of matter in hadron and nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    S. M. Troshin; N. E. Tyurin

    2007-01-16

    We discuss properties of the specific strongly interacting transient collective state of matter in hadron and nuclei reactions and emphasize similarity in their dynamics. We consider elliptic flow introduced for description of nucleus collisions and discuss its possible behavior in hadronic reactions.

  16. Analytic distorted wave approximation for kaon-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Amos, K.; Di Marzio, F.

    1984-05-01

    At 800 MeV/c momentum, with optical potentials defined from K-nucleon phase shifts, distortion effects in the K-nucleus wave function can be approximated by a simple form that may be useful in analyses of more complicated kaon induced nuclear reactions.

  17. Turn Up the Volume: Uncovering Nucleus Size Control Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Good, Matthew C

    2015-06-01

    Reporting in Developmental Cell, Hara and Merten (2015) apply the use of microfabrication and in vitro analysis in cell-free extracts to the old problem of nuclear size control. The authors make insights into the regulation of nuclear growth that potentially explain the widely reported correlation between nucleus size and cell size. PMID:26058052

  18. Transverse energy distributions in16O-nucleus collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corriveau, F.; Åkesson, T.; Almehed, S.; Angelis, A. L. S.; Armenise, N.; Atherton, H.; Aubry, P.; Bartels, H. W.; Bartley, J. H.; Beaudoin, G.; Beaulieu, J. M.; Beker, H.; Benary, O.; Bettoni, D.; Bisi, V.; Blevis, I.; Bøggild, H.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Cleland, W.; Clemen, M.; Collick, B.; Dagan, S.; Dederichs, K.; Dell'Uomo, S.; Depommier, P.; Devenish, R. C. E.; Diliberto, S.; Digiacomo, N.; Dodd, J. R.; Dolgoshein, B.; Dress, A.; En'yo, H.; Erlandsson, B.; Esten, M. J.; Fabjan, C. W.; Faessler, M.; Fischer, P.; Fraenkel, Z.; Gaidot, A.; Gavrilenko, I.; Gibrat-Debu, F.; Giubellino, P.; Glässel, P.; Goerlach, U.; Haglund, R.; Hamel, L. A.; van Hecke, H.; Hedberg, V.; Heifetz, R.; Heymann, F. F.; Hölscher, A.; Huber, S.; Jacak, B.; Jarlskog, G.; Johansson, S.; Kalinovski, A.; Kantserov, A.; Kramer, H.; Kroh, V.; Lamarche, F.; Leroy, C.; Lissauer, D.; London, G.; Lörstad, B.; Lounis, A.; Ludlam, T.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Mayburov, S.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McCubbin, M. L.; McCubbin, N. A.; McGaughey, P.; Meddi, F.; Mjörnmark, U.; Muciaccia, M. T.; Murray, M.; Neubert, M.; Nevski, P.; Nilsson, S.; Olsen, L.; Oren, Y.; Pansart, J. P.; Park, Y. M.; Pfeiffer, A.; Piuz, F.; Polychronakos, V.; Poulard, G.; Price, M.; Rahm, D.; Ramello, L.; Riccati, L.; Ries, H.; Romano, G.; Roosen, R.; Rosa, G.; Russ, J.; Schukraft, J.; Sekimoto, M.; Sellden, B.; Seman, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shotton, P.; Sidorov, V.; Simone, S.; Sirois, Y.; Sletten, H.; Smirnov, S.; Soltani, J.; Sondheim, W.; Specht, H. J.; Stumer, I.; Sumarokov, A.; Sunier, J.; Tcherniatin, V.; Thodberg, H. H.; Thompson, J.; Tikhomirov, V.; Trent, P. T.; Tserruya, I.; Wigmans, R.; Willis, W.

    1988-03-01

    Transverse-energy distributions have been measured in the pseudo-rapidity region -0.1 > ? lab <2.9 for oxygen-nucleus collisions of incident energies of 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon for Al, Ag, and W target nuclei. We present a summary of the results and a comparison to theoretical model descriptions.

  19. Brief Communications Individual Differences in Nucleus Accumbens Activity to

    E-print Network

    Kelley, William M.

    .Anopenquestionistheextenttowhichindividualdifferencesinneuralcuereactivityrelatetoactualbehavioraloutcomes. Here we show that individual differences in human reward-related brain activity in the nucleus). Women with bulimia nervosa also show increased brain reward activity when observing food cues-drug behaviors? An open question is whether individual differences in brain activity, specifically in regions

  20. Subthalamic Nucleus Electrical Stimulation Modulates Calcium Activity of Nigral Astrocytes

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Subthalamic Nucleus Electrical Stimulation Modulates Calcium Activity of Nigral Astrocytes Elodie, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. Principal Findings: In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous

  1. Well-defined genome architecture in the human sperm nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. O. Zalensky; M. J. Allen; A. Kobayashi; I. A. Zalenskaya; R. Balhorn; E. M. Bradbury

    1995-01-01

    Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, conventional epifluorescence microscopy, and laser scanning confocal microscopy followed by three-dimensional reconstruction we describe a well-defined higher order packaging of the human genome in the sperm cell nucleus. This was determined by the spatial localization of centromere and telomere regions of all chromosomes and supported by localization of subtelomere sequences of chromosome 3 and the

  2. BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE Dopamine or opioid stimulation of nucleus accumbens

    E-print Network

    Berridge, Kent

    BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE Dopamine or opioid stimulation of nucleus accumbens similarly amplify cue') that is dynamically generated by mesocortico- limbic brain systems, influenced especially by dopamine and opioid amphetamine microinjection) vs. mu opioid stimulation [by d-Ala, nMe- Phe, Glyol-enkephalin (DAMGO

  3. Astrophysical Proton Capture by an 11B Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2015-05-01

    Within the framework of the modified potential cluster model with forbidden states, the possibility of describing the available experimental data for the total cross sections and astrophysical S-factor of the reaction of p11B capture to the ground state of the 12R nucleus at astrophysical energies is considered.

  4. Evaluation of NCAR Ice Nucleus Counter. Part I: Basic Operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Langer

    1973-01-01

    A detailed examination was made of the variables affecting the operation of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) ice nucleus counter. The design criteria for proper flow control to achieve consistent cloud formation were established. The loss of ice crystals by settling to the bottom of the cloud chamber instead of exiting to the ice crystal counter was found

  5. Breeding for Sustainable Milk From Nucleus Herds to Genomic Data

    E-print Network

    Breeding for Sustainable Milk Production From Nucleus Herds to Genomic Data Helen Hansen Axelsson: SLU Service/Repro, Uppsala 2013 Cover: Helen Hansen Axelsson #12;Breeding for Sustainable Milk the environmental impact of milk production. The more specific objectives were to obtain new information about

  6. Active processes in cometary nucleus and new meteoroid swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadinov, Kh. I.; Buriev, A. M.; Safarov, A. G.; Rahmonov, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Based on the catalogs of comets capable of nucleus splitting and comets with abnormal tail 30 short-Jupiter-family comets were identified, which are capable of producing meteoroid swarms that do not intersect the Earth's orbit, but are of interest for drafting of space missions and studying the distribution of meteoroid streams.

  7. Cell formation in the motor nucleus and mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve of rats made hypothyroid by propylthiouracil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Narayanan; Y. Narayanan

    1985-01-01

    Neurogenesis in the motor and mesencephalic nuclei of the trigeminal nerve was examined using autoradiographic techniques. Two groups of pregnant rats (control and experimental) were injected with two successive daily doses of 3H thymidine in an overlapping series starting from day nine of gestation in order to label in their progeny, the dividing precursor of neurons of the motor nucleus

  8. Tonotopic and Somatotopic Representation in the Nucleus basalis of the Barn Owl, Tyto alba

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Wild; M. F. Kubke; C. E. Carr

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the somatosensory and auditory representations in the nucleus basalis of the barn owl. In pigeons and finches, the nucleus basalis contains a representation of the beak and an auditory area. In the barn owl, the nucleus basalis also contains a complete somatotopic map of the head and body (as in the budgerigar), with a tonotopically organized auditory

  9. RESEARCH ARTICLE Muscimol inactivation caudal to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Doug

    Nucleus of Cajal (INC) and suggested that an imbalance in projections from the vestibular nucleiRESEARCH ARTICLE Muscimol inactivation caudal to the interstitial nucleus of Cajal induces hemi oculomotor nucleus and caudal to the right INC. A total of seven injections in two juvenile rhesus monkeys

  10. Low mass dimuon production in proton-nucleus and Indium-Indium collisions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Low mass dimuon production in proton-nucleus and Indium-Indium collisions Hermine K. Wöhri in proton-nucleus and indium-indium collisions at the CERN SPS. While the p-A data can be well described mass dimuon production in proton-nucleus and Indium-Indium collisions Hermine K. Wöhri QCD matter

  11. Rodent anxiety and kindling of the central amygdala and nucleus basalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Adamec; Tanya Shallow

    2000-01-01

    We studied lasting behavioral effects of kindling of three parts of the central nucleus of the amygdala and the anterior nucleus basalis in the right hemisphere of male Wistar rats. Kindling lastingly changed two measures of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze. The nature of the change depended on the location of the kindled focus. Kindling of the posterior central nucleus

  12. GABAB Receptor Activation Modulates GABAA ReceptorMediated Inhibition in Chicken Nucleus Magnocellularis Neurons

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    the ipsilateral superior olivary nucleus. GABA activates both ligand-gated Cl channels [GABAA receptors (GABAARsGABAB Receptor Activation Modulates GABAA Receptor­Mediated Inhibition in Chicken Nucleus Rubel. GABAB receptor activation modulates GABAA receptor­mediated inhibition in chicken nucleus

  13. Morphological Correlates of Triadic Circuitry in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Cats and Rats

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    Morphological Correlates of Triadic Circuitry in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Cats and Rats Y in the lateral geniculate nucleus of cats and rats. J Neurophysiol 93: 748­757, 2005; doi: 10.1152/jn.00256.2004. We used an in vitro slice preparation of the lateral geniculate nucleus in cats and rats to study

  14. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Role of the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala in

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive The Role of the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala in Mediating Fear and psychopathology. To examine the role of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in mediating the behavioral brain CRF activity. Key words: amygdala; anxiety; corticotropin; fear; primates; central nucleus

  15. Regional Difference in Sex Steroid Action on Formation of Morphological Sex Differences in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus and Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis

    PubMed Central

    Kanaya, Moeko; Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Sagoshi, Shoko; Nagata, Kazuyo; Morimoto, Chihiro; Tha Thu, Chaw Kyi; Toda, Katsumi; Kato, Shigeaki; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroid action is critical to form sexually dimorphic nuclei, although it is not fully understood. We previously reported that masculinization of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), which is larger and has more neurons in males than in females, involves aromatized testosterone that acts via estrogen receptor-? (ER?), but not estrogen receptor-? (ER?). Here, we examined sex steroid action on the formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) that is larger and has more neurons in females. Morphometrical analysis of transgenic mice lacking aromatase, ER?, or ER? genes revealed that the volume and neuron number of the male AVPV were significantly increased by deletion of aromatase and ER? genes, but not the ER? gene. We further examined the AVPV and BNSTp of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. The volume and neuron number of the male BNSTp were smaller in ARKO mice than those in wild-type mice, while no significant effect of ARKO was found on the AVPV and female BNSTp. We also examined aromatase, ER?, and AR mRNA levels in the AVPV and BNSTp of wild-type and ARKO mice on embryonic day (ED) 18 and postnatal day (PD) 4. AR mRNA in the BNSTp and AVPV of wild-type mice was not expressed on ED18 and emerged on PD4. In the AVPV, the aromatase mRNA level was higher on ED18, although the ER? mRNA level was higher on PD4 without any effect of AR gene deletion. Aromatase and ER? mRNA levels in the male BNSTp were significantly increased on PD4 by AR gene deletion. These results suggest that estradiol signaling via ER? during the perinatal period and testosterone signaling via AR during the postnatal period are required for masculinization of the BNSTp, whereas the former is sufficient to defeminize the AVPV. PMID:25398007

  16. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components also produced variations in the temporal pattern of responses as a function of rotation direction. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a vestibulorecipient region of the PBN and KF integrates signals from the vestibular nuclei and relay information about changes in whole-body orientation to pathways that produce homeostatic and affective responses.

  17. Light new physics in coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments

    E-print Network

    Patrick deNiverville; Maxim Pospelov; Adam Ritz

    2015-05-28

    Experiments aiming to detect coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering present opportunities to probe new light weakly-coupled states, such as sub-GeV mass dark matter, in several extensions of the Standard Model. These states can be produced along with neutrinos in the collisions of protons with the target, and their production rate can be enhanced if there exists a light mediator produced on-shell. We analyze the sensitivity reach of several proposed experiments to light dark matter interacting with the Standard Model via a light vector mediator coupled to the electromagnetic current. We also determine the corresponding sensitivity to massless singlet neutrino-type states with interactions mediated by the baryon number current. In both cases we observe that proposed coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments, such as COHERENT at the SNS and CENNS at Fermilab, will have sensitivity well beyond the existing limits.

  18. The search for a DNA target in the nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, G.; Holcman, D.

    2010-01-01

    The mean time T for a transcription factor (TF) or a DNA-ligation enzyme, to find their target located on the molecule DNA is crucial for cell activation or survival. Using mean first passage time equations, we obtain here refined estimates for T, based on the classical scenario in which the search process switches between a one-dimensional motion along the DNA molecule and a free Brownian motion in the nucleus. By considering the interaction potential between the TF and the DNA base pairs (bp), we find that the TF stays attached to the DNA molecule during an average time ??4.6 ms. Between two consecutive attached periods, the TF diffuses freely inside the nucleus during ??1.4 ms. In agreement with experimental data for the Lac-I TF, we find that ??3.2?.

  19. Doubly magic nucleus (108)(270)Hs162.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, J; Brüchle, W; Chelnokov, M; Dressler, R; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Gorshkov, V; Jäger, E; Krücken, R; Kuznetsov, A; Nagame, Y; Nebel, F; Novackova, Z; Qin, Z; Schädel, M; Schausten, B; Schimpf, E; Semchenkov, A; Thörle, P; Türler, A; Wegrzecki, M; Wierczinski, B; Yakushev, A; Yeremin, A

    2006-12-15

    Theoretical calculations predict 270Hs (Z=108, N=162) to be a doubly magic deformed nucleus, decaying mainly by alpha-particle emission. In this work, based on a rapid chemical isolation of Hs isotopes produced in the 26Mg+248Cm reaction, we observed 15 genetically linked nuclear decay chains. Four chains were attributed to the new nuclide 270Hs, which decays by alpha-particle emission with Qalpha=9.02+/-0.03 MeV to 266Sg which undergoes spontaneous fission with a half-life of 444(-148)(+444) ms. A production cross section of about 3 pb was measured for 270Hs. Thus, 270Hs is the first nucleus for which experimental nuclear decay properties have become available for comparison with theoretical predictions of the N=162 shell stability. PMID:17280272

  20. Quantitative analysis of chromosome localization in the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Mehta, Ishita; Kulashreshtha, Mugdha; Rao, B J

    2015-01-01

    The spatial organization of the genome within the interphase nucleus is important for mediating genome functions. The radial organization of chromosome territories has been studied traditionally using two-dimensional fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using labeled whole chromosome probes. Information from 2D-FISH images is analyzed quantitatively and is depicted in the form of the spatial distribution of chromosomes territories. However, to the best of our knowledge no open-access tools are available to delineate the position of chromosome territories from 2D-FISH images. In this chapter we present a methodology termed Image Analysis of Chromosomes for computing their localization (IMACULAT). IMACULAT is an open-access, automated tool that partitions the cell nucleus into shells of equal area or volume and computes the spatial distribution of chromosome territories. PMID:25311133

  1. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Studies of Returned Comet Nucleus Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Fun-Dow; Kim, Soon Sam; Liang, Ranty H.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies have been carried out on organic and inorganic free radicals generated by gamma-ray and/or UV-irradiation and trapped in ice matrices. It is suggested that the concentration of these free radicals together with their thermal stability can be used as an accurate built-in geothermometer and radiation probe for returned comet nucleus sample studies. ESR studies have also been carried out on paramagnetic (Mn(2+), Ti(3+), and Fe(3+)) and ferromagnetic (ferric oxide and metallic iron) centers known to be present in terrestrial and extraterrestrial samples. The presence or absence of these magnetic centers coupled with their characteristic ESR lineshape can be used to investigate the shock effects, quenching/cooling rate and oxidation-reduction conditions in the formation and subsequent evolution of returned comet nucleus samples.

  2. Geometry of the nucleus: a perspective on gene expression regulation.

    PubMed

    Woringer, Maxime; Darzacq, Xavier; Izeddin, Ignacio

    2014-06-01

    Gene expression control results from the combined interactions of the nearly hundred proteins forming the pre-initiation complex, thousands of transcription regulators, and genomic DNA. In the recent years, new technologies have revealed several key aspects of nuclear spatial organization that showed a fine interplay between the function of nuclear proteins, their 3D organization, and their dynamics. Here we review several concepts that link biochemical reactivity in the nucleus to its 3D spatial organization. We present the analogies between the emerging understanding of nuclear organization in the field of cell biology, and the more established disciplines of heterogeneous catalysis and the physics of random walks. We provide several recent examples showing how nuclear geometry affects protein reactivity in the nucleus. PMID:24981829

  3. Control of cell nucleus shapes via micropillar patterns.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhen; Yan, Ce; Peng, Rong; Zhao, Yingchun; He, Yao; Ding, Jiandong

    2012-02-01

    We herein report a material technique to control the shapes of cell nuclei by the design of the microtopography of substrates to which the cells adhere. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) micropillars or micropits of a series of height or depth were fabricated, and some surprising self deformation of the nuclei of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was found in the case of micropillars with a sufficient height. Despite severe nucleus deformation, BMSCs kept the ability of proliferation and differentiation. We further demonstrated that the shapes of cell nuclei could be regulated by the appropriate micropillar patterns. Besides circular and elliptoid shapes, some unusual nucleus shapes of BMSCs have been achieved, such as square, cross, dumbbell, and asymmetric sphere-protrusion. PMID:22133552

  4. Reparametrizing the Skyrme model using the lithium-6 nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Manton, Nicholas S.; Wood, Stephen W. [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2006-12-15

    The minimal-energy B=6 solution of the Skyrme model is a static soliton with D{sub 4d} symmetry. The symmetries of the solution imply that the quantum numbers of the ground state are the same as those of the lithium-6 nucleus. This identification is considered further by obtaining expressions for the mean charge radius and quadrupole moment, dependent only on the Skyrme model parameters e (a dimensionless constant) and F{sub {pi}} (the pion decay constant). The optimal values of these parameters have often been deliberated upon, and we propose, for B>2, changing them from those which are most commonly accepted. We obtain specific values for these parameters for B=6, by matching with properties of the lithium-6 nucleus. We find further support for the new values by reconsidering the {alpha}-particle and deuteron as quantized B=4 and B=2 Skyrmions.

  5. Reparametrising the Skyrme Model using the Lithium-6 Nucleus

    E-print Network

    Nicholas S. Manton; Stephen W. Wood

    2006-09-26

    The minimal energy B=6 solution of the Skyrme model is a static soliton with $D_{4d}$ symmetry. The symmetries of the solution imply that the quantum numbers of the ground state are the same as those of the Lithium-6 nucleus. This identification is considered further by obtaining expressions for the mean charge radius and quadrupole moment, dependent only on the Skyrme model parameters $e$ (a dimensionless constant) and $F_\\pi$ (the pion decay constant). The optimal values of these parameters have often been deliberated upon, and we propose, for $B>2$, changing them from those which are most commonly accepted. We obtain specific values for these parameters for B=6, by matching with properties of the Lithium-6 nucleus. We find further support for the new values by reconsidering the $\\alpha$-particle and deuteron as quantized B=4 and B=2 Skyrmions.

  6. Reparametrizing the Skyrme model using the lithium-6 nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manton, Nicholas S.; Wood, Stephen W.

    2006-12-01

    The minimal-energy B=6 solution of the Skyrme model is a static soliton with D4d symmetry. The symmetries of the solution imply that the quantum numbers of the ground state are the same as those of the lithium-6 nucleus. This identification is considered further by obtaining expressions for the mean charge radius and quadrupole moment, dependent only on the Skyrme model parameters e (a dimensionless constant) and F? (the pion decay constant). The optimal values of these parameters have often been deliberated upon, and we propose, for B>2, changing them from those which are most commonly accepted. We obtain specific values for these parameters for B=6, by matching with properties of the lithium-6 nucleus. We find further support for the new values by reconsidering the ?-particle and deuteron as quantized B=4 and B=2 Skyrmions.

  7. Deformations and magnetic rotations in the 60Ni nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, D. A. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Christancho, F. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia; Andersson, L. L. [Lund University, Sweden; Johansson, E. K. [Lund University, Sweden; Rudolph, D. [Lund University, Sweden; Fahlander, C. [Lund University, Sweden; Ekman, J. [Lund University, Sweden; du Rietz, R. [Lund University, Sweden; Andreoiu, C. [Lund University, Sweden; Carpenter, M. P. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Seweryniak, D. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Zhu, S. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Charity, R. J. [Washington University, St. Louis; Chiara, C. J. [Washington University, St. Louis; Hoel, C. [Washington University, St. Louis; Pechenaya, O. L. [Washington University, St. Louis; Reviol, W. [Washington University, St. Louis; Sarantites, D. G. [Washington University, St. Louis; Sobotka, L. G. [Washington University, St. Louis; Baktash, Cyrus [ORNL; Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL; Carlsson, B. G. [Lund University, Sweden; Ragnarsson, I. [Lund University, Sweden

    2008-01-01

    Data from three experiments using the heavy-ion fusion evaporation-reaction 36Ar+28Si have been combined to study high-spin states in the residual nucleus 60Ni, which is populated via the evaporation of four protons from the compound nucleus 64Ge. The GAMMASPHERE array was used for all the experiments in conjunction with a 4 charged-particle detector arrays (MICROBALL, LUWUSIA) and neutron detectors (NEUTRON SHELL) to allow for the detection of rays in coincidence with the evaporated particles. An extended 60Ni level scheme is presented, comprising more than 270-ray transitions and 110 excited states. Their spins and parities have been assigned via directional correlations of rays emitted from oriented states. Spherical shell-model calculations in the fp-shell characterize some of the low-spin states, while the experimental results of the rotational bands are analyzed with configuration-dependent cranked Nilsson-Strutinsky calculations.

  8. Projections to lateral vestibular nucleus from cerebellar climbing fiber zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Andersson; O. Oscarsson

    1978-01-01

    1.The olivary projections to the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), direct and excitatory through climbing fiber collaterals and indirect and inhibitory through climbing fiber activated Purkinje cells, were investigated in cats with the spinal cord transected at C3 sparing only the contralateral ventral funiculus. In this preparation all spinocerebellar paths are interrupted except the ventral spino-olivocerebellar paths (VF-SOCPs). Three VF-SOCPs responding

  9. Optokinetic responses of vestibular nucleus neurons in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Cazin; W. Precht; J. Lannou

    1980-01-01

    1.Vestibular nucleus neurons of the brown rat (DA-HAN) responding to horizontal angular acceleration in the dark (type I and II neurons) have been studied during horizontal optokinetic stimulation in the time and frequency domain. For recording animals were nonanesthetized and paralyzed.2.All type I and type II neurons studied responded in a direction-selective fashion to rotation of large-field visual pattern. With

  10. Electrotonic coupling between neurons in the rat lateral vestibular nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henri Korn; Constantino Sotelo; Francis Crepel

    1973-01-01

    Correlation of morphological and electrophysiological data strongly suggest that in rat, the giant cells of the lateral vestibular nucleus (L.V.N.) are electrotonically coupled. 1. in addition to “active zones” large terminals synapsing on the perikaryon and\\/or the main dendritic trunk of the cells bear “gap” junctions which are interpreted as low electrical resistance pathways between neurons. 2. electrical activity of

  11. Neural networks and the classification of active galactic nucleus spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawson, D. M.; Bailey, J.; Francis, P. J.

    1996-11-01

    The use of artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a classifier of digital spectra is investigated. Using both simulated and real data, it is shown that neural networks can be trained to discriminate between the spectra of different classes of active galactic nucleus (AGN) with realistic sample sizes and signal-to-noise ratios. By working in the Fourier domain, neural nets can classify objects without knowledge of their redshifts.

  12. Spectroscopy of ?'-nucleus bound states at GSI-SIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Itahashi, Kenta; Geissel, Hans; Hayano, Ryugo S.; Hirenzaki, Satoru; Itoh, Satoshi; Jido, Daisuke; Metag, Volker; Nagahiro, Hideko; Nanova, Mariana; Nishi, Takahiro; Okochi, Kota; Outa, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Ken; Suzuki, Takatoshi; Tanaka, Yoshiki K.; Weick, Helmut

    2012-12-01

    The ?' meson mass may be reduced due to partial restoration of chiral symmetry. If this is the case, an ?'-nucleus system may form a nuclear bound state.We plan to carry out a missing-mass spectroscopy experiment with the 12C(p,d) reaction at GSI-SIS. Peak structures corresponding to such a bound state may be observed even in an inclusive measurement, if the decay width is narrow enough.

  13. Expression of nuclear hormone receptors in the rat supraoptic nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SOFIA LOPES DA SILVA; A. MARTIN VAN HORSSEN; CHAWNSHANG WANG; J. PETER H. BURBACH

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the role of nuclear hormone receptors on neuropep- tide gene expression in the hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS) of the rat, a survey was made of members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that are expressed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON). A polymerase chain reaction cloning strategy based on homologies in the DNA-binding domain of AGGTCA-binding factors was devised for

  14. Laser spectroscopy of the transitional nucleus 151Sm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dyer; A. M. Sabbas; S. A. Wender

    1985-01-01

    The isotope shift, magnetic moment, and quadrupole moment of the radioactive transitional nucleus 151Sm has been measured using the atomic-beam resonance-fluorescence technique. The hyperfine structure of the 591.6 nm transition was observed with an energy resolution of 20 MHz. The isotope shift of this line is found to be deltanu151i,152=-1472.2+\\/- 2.9 MHz. We have constructed a King plot of muonic

  15. Exotic atoms, K-nucleus scattering and hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P. D.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in exotic atom physics, kaon-nucleus scattering, and hypernuclear physics is reviewed. Specific problems discussed include searches for muon-nucleon interactions beyond QED, a comparison of data and recent calculation of K/sup + -/ + /sup 12/C elastic and inelastic scattering, as well as recent studies of ..sigma.. and ..lambda.. hypernuclei including new data on the level structure of /sup 13/C/..lambda...

  16. Spin dependence in intermediate energy p-nucleus scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Amado, R.D.; McNeil, J.A.; Sparrow, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    We obtain closed form approximations for the spin dependent eikonal p-nucleus scattering amplitudes. The polarization P and spin rotation function Q can be written in terms of the unpolarized elastic scattering cross section and two complex parameters related to the nucleon-nucleon spin orbit strength and range. These forms agree well with the available data and illuminate the dynamical content of P and Q.

  17. Improved intranuclear cascade model for nucleon-nucleus interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Cugnon; C. Volant; S. Vuillier

    1997-01-01

    The intranuclear cascade (INC) plus evaporation model for nucleon-nucleus interactions in the 200 MeV–1.2 GeV range is revisited. The standard Liège INC model supplemented by the Dresner evaporation-fission model is used and shown to give a good overall agreement with experimental data, basically neutron double differential cross-sections and residue mass spectra. Small systematic discrepancies are identified and shown to correspond

  18. The Ionization Source in the Nucleus of M84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, G. A.; Green, R. F.; Quillen, A. C.; Danks, A.; Malumuth, E. M.; Gull, T.; Woodgate, B.; Hutchings, J.; Joseph, C.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of M84, a nearby massive elliptical galaxy whose nucleus contains a approximately 1.5 X 10(exp 9) solar mass dark compact object, which presumably is a supermassive black hole. Our Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectrum provides the first clear detection of emission lines in the blue (e.g., [0 II] lambda 3727, HBeta and [0 III] lambda lambda4959,5007), which arise from a compact region approximately 0".28 across centered on the nucleus. Our Near Infrared Camera and MultiObject Spectrometer (NICMOS) images exhibit the best view through the prominent dust lanes evident at optical wavelengths and provide a more accurate correction for the internal extinction. The relative fluxes of the emission lines we have detected in the blue together with those detected in the wavelength range 6295 - 6867 A by Bower et al. indicate that the gas at the nucleus is photoionized by a nonstellar process, instead of hot stars. Stellar absorption features from cool stars at the nucleus are very weak. We update the spectral energy distribution of the nuclear point source and find that although it is roughly flat in most bands, the optical to UV continuum is very red, similar to the spectral energy distribution of BL Lac. Thus, the nuclear point source seen in high-resolution optical images is not a star cluster but is instead a nonstellar source. Assuming isotropic emission from this source, we estimate that the ratio of bolometric luminosity to Eddington luminosity is about 5 x 10(exp -7). However, this could be underestimated if this source is a misaligned BL Lac object, which is a possibility suggested by the spectral energy distribution and the evidence of optical variability we describe.

  19. Calculation of light nucleus reaction cross sections in Geant4

    E-print Network

    V. Uzhinsky

    2012-09-20

    Total reaction cross sections of light projectile nucleus (H-2, H-3, He-3 and He-4) interactions with nuclei are calculated using Geant4 models, and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the models give various predictions at low energies, in the region of the Coulomb barrier. "Shen model" (W.-Q. Shen et al., Nucl. Phys. {\\bf A491} (1989) 130) is identified as an improvement over other models.

  20. The Galactic center spur - A jet from the nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Sofue, Y.; Reich, W.; Reich, P. (Tokyo Univ., Mitaka (Japan); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-06-01

    The possible detection of a 4 kpc long jetlike feature emanating from the Galactic center region is reported. The feature is some 200 pc in diameter and extends almost perpendicular to the Galactic plane and may be related to some activity in the Galactic center. The structure may possibly be a radio jet from the nucleus, or it might be a magnetic tornado produced by a twisted poloidal magnetic field between the disk and halo. 14 refs.

  1. Isospin dependent nucleon-nucleus optical potential with Skyrme interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Biao Shen; Yin-Lu Han; Hai-Rui Guo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the isospin dependent nucleon-nucleus optical potential theory is introduced on the basis of the effective Skyrme interactions. From the view of the many-body theory, the nucleon optical potential can be identified with the mass operator of the one-particle Green function. The first and second order mass operators of the one particle Green function in nuclear matter are

  2. Reparametrizing the Skyrme model using the lithium-6 nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas S. Mantonand; Stephen W. Wood

    2006-01-01

    The minimal energy B=6 solution of the Skyrme model is a static soliton with\\u000a$D_{4d}$ symmetry. The symmetries of the solution imply that the quantum\\u000anumbers of the ground state are the same as those of the Lithium-6 nucleus.\\u000aThis identification is considered further by obtaining expressions for the mean\\u000acharge radius and quadrupole moment, dependent only on the Skyrme

  3. Reparametrizing the Skyrme model using the lithium-6 nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas S. Manton; Stephen W. Wood

    2006-01-01

    The minimal-energy B=6 solution of the Skyrme model is a static soliton with D{sub 4d} symmetry. The symmetries of the solution imply that the quantum numbers of the ground state are the same as those of the lithium-6 nucleus. This identification is considered further by obtaining expressions for the mean charge radius and quadrupole moment, dependent only on the Skyrme

  4. Reparametrizing the Skyrme model using the lithium-6 nucleus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas S. Manton; Stephen W. Wood

    2006-01-01

    The minimal-energy B=6 solution of the Skyrme model is a static soliton with D4d symmetry. The symmetries of the solution imply that the quantum numbers of the ground state are the same as those of the lithium-6 nucleus. This identification is considered further by obtaining expressions for the mean charge radius and quadrupole moment, dependent only on the Skyrme model

  5. Mechanics and deformation of the nucleus in micropipette aspiration experiment.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Ashkan; Mofrad, Mohammad R Kaazempur

    2007-01-01

    Robust biomechanical models are essential for the study of nuclear mechanics and deformation and can help shed light on the underlying mechanisms of stress transition in nuclear elements. Here, we develop a computational model for an isolated nucleus undergoing micropipette aspiration. Our model includes distinct components representing the nucleoplasm and nuclear envelope. The nuclear envelope itself comprises three layers: inner and outer nuclear membranes and one thicker layer representing the nuclear lamina. The nucleoplasm is modeled as a viscoelastic Maxwell material with a single time constant, while a modified Maxwell model, equivalent to a spring and a dashpot in series and both in parallel with a spring, is adopted for the inner and outer nuclear membranes. The nuclear envelope layer is taken as a linear elastic material. The proposed computational model, validated using experimental observations of Guilak et al. [2000. Viscoelastic properties of the cell nucleus. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 269, 781-786] and Deguchi et al. [2005, Flow-induced hardening of endothelial nucleus as an intracellular stress-bearing organelle. Journal of Biomechanics 38, 1751-1759], is employed to study nuclear mechanics and deformation in micropipette aspiration and to shed light on the contribution of individual nuclear components on the response. The results indicate that the overall response of an isolated nucleus in micropipette aspiration is highly sensitive to the apparent stiffness of the nuclear lamina. This observation suggests that micropipette aspiration is an effective technique for examining the influence of various kinds of alteration in the nuclear lamina, such as mutations in the gene encoding lamin A, and also structural remodeling due to mechanical perturbation. PMID:17112531

  6. Study of Comet Nucleus Gamma-Ray Spectrometer Penetration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, G. L.; Amundsen, R. J.; Beardsley, R. W.; Cash, R. H.; Clark, B. C.; Knight, T. C. D.; Martin, J. P.; Monti, P.; Outteridge, D. A.; Plaster, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    A penetrator system has been suggested as an approach for making in situ measurements of the composition and physical properties of the nucleus of a comet. This study has examined in detail the feasibility of implementing the penetrator concept. The penetrator system and mission designs have been developed and iterated in sufficient detail to provide a high level of confidence that the concept can be implemented within the constraints of the Mariner Mark 2 spacecraft.

  7. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting {pi}{sup 0} mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized {sup 3}He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure.

  8. Somatostatin actions on rat supraoptic nucleus oxytocin and vasopressin neurones.

    PubMed

    Meddle, S L; Bull, P M; Leng, G; Russell, J A; Ludwig, M

    2010-05-01

    Magnocellular neurones in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) receive major afferent inputs from the brainstem that have been implicated in the regulation of oxytocin and vasopressin secretion from the posterior pituitary. Notably, at parturition, some neurones that project from the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) in the brainstem directly to the SON are activated. Many of these are noradrenergic and regulate oxytocin secretion during parturition, whereas others contain somatostatin and their role is unclear. In the present study, we report that, at parturition, somatostatin mRNA expression in the NTS is significantly increased compared to pregnancy, suggesting an active role for these neurones at that time. Intracerebroventricular somatostatin infusion significantly increased plasma oxytocin secretion in both virgin female and pregnant rats. Intracerebroventricular somatostatin increased SON oxytocin and vasopressin neurone firing-rates, and increased Fos expression in the SON and paraventricular nucleus and in the subfornical organ. Retrodialysis of somatostatin onto the ventrally exposed SON also increased vasopressin neurone firing rate but, unexpectedly, decreased oxytocin neurone firing rate. The experiments indicate that somatostatin neurones in the NTS are activated during parturition but, because the direct effects of somatostatin on oxytocin neurones are inhibitory, this direct pathway does not appear to contribute to enhanced oxytocin release at this time, although indirect somatostatin effects may do so. PMID:20041981

  9. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of returned comet nucleus samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Fun-Dow; Kim, Soon Sam; Liang, Ranty H.

    1989-01-01

    The most important objective of the Comet Nucleus Sample Returm Mission is to return samples which could reflect formation conditions and evolutionary processes in the early solar nebula. It is expected that the returned samples will consist of fine-grained silicate materials mixed with ices composed of simple molecules such as H2O, NH3, CH4 as well as organics and/or more complex compounds. Because of the exposure to ionizing radiation from cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and solar wind protons at low temperature, free radicals are expected to be formed and trapped in the solid ice matrices. The kind of trapped radical species together with their concentration and thermal stability can be used as a dosimeter as well as a geothermometer to determine thermal and radiation histories as well as outgassing and other possible alternation effects since the nucleus material was formed. Since free radicals that are known to contain unpaired electrons are all paramagnetic in nature, they can be readily detected and characterized in their native form by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. In fact, ESR has been shown to be a non-destructive, highly sensitive tool for the detection and characterization of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and radiation damage centers in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geological samples. The potential use of ESR as an effective method in the study of returned comet nucleus samples, in particular, in the analysis of fine-grained solid state icy samples is discussed.

  10. Neuronal activity of the red nucleus in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Oroz, María C; Rodriguez, Manolo; Leiva, Carlos; Rodriguez-Palmero, Miguel; Nieto, Juan; Garcia-Garcia, David; Luis Zubieta, Jose; Cardiel, Carlos; Obeso, Jose A

    2008-04-30

    Precise placement of the electrodes for stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is crucial for the therapeutic benefit. As a result of the mistargeting and misplacement of the electrodes during surgery in 2 patients with PD, we have characterized the neuronal firing in the red nucleus (RN) and observed the effects of stimulation of this nucleus. Although the neuronal firing (mean +/- SD) of the RN (34 +/- 4.4 Hz) resembles that described for the STN (33.1 +/- 16.6 Hz), a higher proportion of cells responded to the movement of the contralateral limbs (70-80%). Stimulation in the area of the RN-induced intolerable side effects without motor improvement. We conclude that the STN and RN have some similar neurophysiological features but can be distinguished intraoperatively. This initial description of the physiological characteristics of the RN in humans will draw attention to the possibility of confusing the RN and STN during intraoperative recording. PMID:18383534

  11. Navigation to a target hidden in dust - Comet Halley's nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertig, J.; Hechler, F.; Schwehm, G.

    1984-05-01

    The ESA Giotto spacecraft will be one of five spacecrafts to encounter comet Halley in March 1986. Although two probes from the USSR will reach the comet first, Giotto is scheduled to make the closest fly-by of the nucleus within the cometary coma. Targeting and navigation of the spacecraft is difficult because of Halley's retrograde orbit and Giotto's heliocentric orbit, so in order to ensure ground station communication, the spacecraft must encounter the comet on the sunward side of the nucleus. Consequently, a nucleus model and a dust model have to be constructed to avoid a failure of the mission. Traveling at a velocity of 68 km/s, the spacecraft will enter the cometary dust cloud at a distance of 50,000 to 100,000 km from it's closest approach point and it is hoped that the two shields provided will protect it from harmful impact. Important preliminary data are expected from international cooperation concerning target position and environment.

  12. Integration of Sensory Quanta in Cuneate Nucleus Neurons In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Fredrik; Brasselet, Romain; Johansson, Roland S.; Arleo, Angelo; Jörntell, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Discriminative touch relies on afferent information carried to the central nervous system by action potentials (spikes) in ensembles of primary afferents bundled in peripheral nerves. These sensory quanta are first processed by the cuneate nucleus before the afferent information is transmitted to brain networks serving specific perceptual and sensorimotor functions. Here we report data on the integration of primary afferent synaptic inputs obtained with in vivo whole cell patch clamp recordings from the neurons of this nucleus. We find that the synaptic integration in individual cuneate neurons is dominated by 4–8 primary afferent inputs with large synaptic weights. In a simulation we show that the arrangement with a low number of primary afferent inputs can maximize transfer over the cuneate nucleus of information encoded in the spatiotemporal patterns of spikes generated when a human fingertip contact objects. Hence, the observed distributions of synaptic weights support high fidelity transfer of signals from ensembles of tactile afferents. Various anatomical estimates suggest that a cuneate neuron may receive hundreds of primary afferents rather than 4–8. Therefore, we discuss the possibility that adaptation of synaptic weight distribution, possibly involving silent synapses, may function to maximize information transfer in somatosensory pathways. PMID:23409195

  13. The MicroRNA Biology of the Mammalian Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Thomas C

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of genome-encoded small RNAs that are primarily considered to be post-transcriptional negative regulators of gene expression acting in the cytoplasm. Over a decade of research has focused on this canonical paradigm of miRNA function, with many success stories. Indeed, miRNAs have been identified that act as master regulators of a myriad of cellular processes, and many miRNAs are promising therapeutic targets or disease biomarkers. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the canonical view of miRNA function is incomplete. Several lines of evidence now point to additional functions for miRNAs in the nucleus of the mammalian cell. The majority of cellular miRNAs are present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and certain miRNAs show specific nuclear enrichment. Additionally, some miRNAs colocalize with sub-nuclear structures such as the nucleolus and chromatin. Multiple components of the miRNA processing machinery are present in the nuclear compartment and are shuttled back and forth across the nuclear envelope. In the nucleus, miRNAs act to regulate the stability of nuclear transcripts, induce epigenetic alterations that either silence or activate transcription at specific gene promoters, and modulate cotranscriptional alternative splicing events. Nuclear miRNA-directed gene regulation constitutes a departure from the prevailing view of miRNA function and as such, warrants detailed further investigation. PMID:25137140

  14. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Paves, Heiti; Truve, Erkki

    2004-01-01

    Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area. PMID:15102327

  15. Cortical spreading depression modulates the caudate nucleus activity.

    PubMed

    Seghatoleslam, M; Ghadiri, M Khaleghi; Ghaffarian, N; Speckmann, E-J; Gorji, A

    2014-05-16

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) plays an important role in migraine with aura. The caudate nucleus has crucial functional interactions with brain regions likely to be important in migraine. The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the effect of CSD on the neuronal activity of the caudate. Intracellular recording was performed in the head of the caudate nucleus alongside of extracellular recording in Wistar rat somatosensory cortex. CSD was induced by local KCl injection. Changes in the membrane potentials of the caudate neurons began 1.2±0.2min after CSD. The neurons of the caudate nucleus depolarized first gradually and slightly then it depolarized abruptly at nearly the same point of time of the recovery of the cortical DC potential. Action potentials (APs) reappeared after the cortical DC shift returned to the baseline. Forty-five minutes after CSD, the caudate neurons showed lower frequency of APs and larger amplitude of depolarization prior to APs. The firing pattern of the caudate neurons evoked by injection of intracellular current pulses changed from slow adapting to fast adapting after CSD. Reduced neuronal activity in the caudate after CSD may be assumed to contribute to pain as well as changes in cognition and behavior in patients with migraine. PMID:24613721

  16. Production of Kaon and $?$ in nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultra-relativistic energy from a blast wave model

    E-print Network

    Song Zhang; Yu-Gang Ma; Jin-Hui Chen; Chen Zhong

    2014-11-06

    The particle production of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ are studied in nucleus-nucleus collisions at relativistic energy based on a chemical equilibrium blast-wave model. The transverse momentum spectra of Kaon and $\\Lambda$ at the kinetic freeze-out stage from our model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The kinetic freeze-out parameters of temperature ($T_{kin}$) and radial flow parameter $\\rho_{0}$ are presented for the FOPI, RHIC and LHC energies. And the resonance decay effect is also discussed. The systematic study for beam energy dependence of the strangeness particle production will help us to better understand the properties of the matter created in heavy-ion collisions at the kinetic freeze-out stage.

  17. Dielectron Cross Section Measurements in Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions at 1.0{ital A} GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.J.; Bossingham, R.; Gong, W.G.; Heilbronn, L.; Huang, H.Z.; Krebs, G.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, J.; Naudet, C.; Roche, G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Seidl, P.; Wilson, W.K.; Yegneswaran, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Beedoe, S.; Carroll, J.; Huang, H.Z.; Igo, G. [University of California at Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)] [University of California at Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bougteb, M.; Manso, F.; Prunet, M.; Roche, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France)] [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Christie, W.B.; Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Welsh, R.C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)] [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kirk, P.; Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)] [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Wilson, W.K. [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)] [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    We present measured dielectron production cross sections for Ca+Ca, C+C, He+Ca, and d+Ca reactions at 1.0 A GeV . Statistical uncertainties and systematic effects are smaller than in previous dilepton spectrometer (DLS) nucleus-nucleus data. For pair mass M{le}0.35 GeV/c{sup 2} we obtain (1) the Ca+Ca cross section is larger than the previous DLS measurement and current model results, (2) the mass spectra suggest large contributions from {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} Dalitz decays, and (3) d{sigma}/dM{proportional_to}A{sub P}A{sub T}. For M{gt}0.5 GeV/c{sup 2} the Ca+Ca to C+C cross section ratio is significantly larger than the ratio of A{sub P}A{sub T} values. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Wavelet analysis of angular distributions of secondary particles in high energy nucleus-nucleus interactions. Irregularity of particle pseudorapidity distributions

    E-print Network

    V. V. Uzhinskii; V. Sh. Navotny; G. A. Ososkov; A. Polanski; M. M. Chernyavski

    2002-06-01

    Experimental data on sulphur and oxygen nuclei interactions with photoemulsion nuclei at the energies of 200 and 60 GeV/nucleon are analyzed with the help of a continuous wavelet transform. Irregularities in pseudorapidity distributions of narrow groups of the secondary shower particles in the mentioned interactions are observed at application of the second order derivative of Gaussian as a wavelet. The irregularities can be interpreted as an existence of the preference emission angles of groups of particles. Such an effect is expected at emission of Cherenkov gluons in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Some of the positions of the observed peculiarities on the pseudorapidity axis coincide with those found by I.M.Dremin et al. (I.M.Dremin et al. Phys. Lett., 2001, v. B499, p. 97).)

  19. Longitudinal boost-invariance of charge balance function in hadron-hadron and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    E-print Network

    Na LI Zhiming LI Yuanfang WU

    2009-10-10

    Using Monte Carlo generators of the PYTHIA model for hadron-hadron collisions and a multi-phase transport (AMPT) model for nucleus-nucleus collisions, the longitudinal boost-invariance of charge balance function and its transverse momentum dependence are carefully studied. It shows that the charge balance function is boost-invariant in both {\\it p}+{\\it p} and Au+Au collisions in these two models, consistent with experimental data. The balance function properly scaled by the width of the pseudorapidity window is independent of the position or the size of the window and is corresponding to the balance function of the whole pseudorapidity range. This longitudinal property of balance function also holds for particles in small transverse momentum ranges in the PYTHIA and the AMPT default models, but is violated in the AMPT with string melting. The physical origin of the results are discussed.

  20. Projections of the lateral terminal accessory optic nucleus of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Blanks, R H; Clarke, R J; Lui, F; Giolli, R A; Van Pham, S; Torigoe, Y

    1995-04-17

    The connections of the lateral terminal nucleus (LTN) of the accessory optic system (AOS) of the marmoset monkey were studied with anterograde 3H-amino acid light autoradiography and horseradish peroxidase retrograde labeling techniques. Results show a first and largest LTN projection to the pretectal and AOS nuclei including the ipsilateral nucleus of the optic tract, dorsal terminal nucleus, and interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus (posterior fibers); smaller contralateral projections are to the olivary pretectal nucleus, dorsal terminal nucleus, and LTN. A second, major bundle produces moderate-to-heavy labeling in all ipsilateral, accessory oculomotor nuclei (nucleus of posterior commissure, interstitial nucleus of Cajal, nucleus of Darkschewitsch) and nucleus of Bechterew; some of the fibers are distributed above the caudal oculomotor complex within the supraoculomotor periaqueductal gray. A third projection is ipsilateral to the pontine and mesencephalic reticular formations, nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis and basilar pontine complex (dorsolateral nucleus only), dorsal parts of the medial terminal accessory optic nucleus, ventral tegmental area of Tsai, and rostral interstitial nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Lastly, there are two long descending bundles: (1) one travels within the medial longitudinal fasciculus to terminate in the dorsal cap (ipsilateral > contralateral) and medial accessory olive (ipsilateral only) of the inferior olivary complex. (2) The second soon splits, sending axons within the ipsilateral and contralateral brachium conjunctivum and is distributed to the superior and medial vestibular nuclei. The present findings are in general agreement with the documented connections of LTN with brainstem oculomotor centers in other species. In addition, there are unique connections in marmoset monkey that may have developed to serve the more complex oculomotor behavior of nonhuman primates. PMID:7608336