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Sample records for heroin vapor inhalation

  1. Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... as treatment options available for those struggling with heroin addiction. Download PDF 862.43 KB DrugFacts: Heroin Offers ... Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy or ... and Addiction Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes HIV/AIDS and Drug ...

  2. Vapor Inhalation of Alcohol in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Richardson, Heather N.; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each. PMID:18634001

  3. Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Share Print Home » Drugs of Abuse » Heroin Heroin Email Facebook Twitter Brief Description Heroin is an opioid drug that is synthesized from ... seed pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. Heroin usually appears as a white or brown powder ...

  4. [Heroin].

    PubMed

    Demaret, I; Lemaître, A; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Heroin (or diacetylmorphine), a depressant nervous central system, is a semi-synthetic opiate. Its main adverse effect, respiratory depression, can lead to death, especially after an intravenous injection. By loss of tolerance, an overdose can be lethal following heroin use after a period of abstinence (voluntary or not). Mortality rate among heroin users is between 1 and 3%. Addiction, following a regular and continuous use, occurs in less than a quarter of persons who ever tried heroine. Heroin addicts often present with different problems (for instance, a criminal behaviour), without any obvious link with addiction. For a fraction of the addicts, addiction becomes a chronic relapsing disease, requiring a long term maintenance substitution therapy. However, relapses and sometimes continuous heroin use are frequent, For treatment resistant and severe heroin addicts, heroin-assisted treatment can be a solution. Despite the numerous available therapies, heroin is considered to be the drug with the most negative effects on the user. PMID:23888578

  5. Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a white or brown powder or a black, sticky goo. It's made from morphine, a natural substance in the seedpod of the Asian poppy plant. It can be mixed with water and injected with a needle. Heroin can also be smoked or snorted up the nose. All of these ways of taking heroin send ...

  6. Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a white or brown powder or a black, sticky goo. It's made from morphine, a natural substance in the seedpod of the Asian poppy plant. It can be mixed with water and injected with a needle. Heroin can also ...

  7. Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... of serious health conditions, including fatal overdose, spontaneous abortion, and infectious diseases like hepatitis and HIV (see ... and/or relapse. Besides the risk of spontaneous abortion, heroin abuse during pregnancy (together with related factors ...

  8. Toxicity of inhaled methyl isocyanate vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The toxicity of inhaled isocyanate (MIC) vapor was evaluated using several bioassays designed to investigate the toxicity of airborne chemicals. Two methods which measure changes in respiratory rate and identify characteristic breathing patterns in mice were used to evaluate the potency of MIC as a sensory and pulmonary irritant. Using the CO{sub 2} challenge method in conjunction with the measurement of airflow (V) and tidal volume (VT), the pulmonary effects and subsequent recovery process following a single exposure to MIC were studied in guinea pigs for a period of one year. Flow-volume loops were also obtained by plotting V vs. VT. Measurement of O{sub 2} uptake and CO{sub 2} output were also performed to determine the acute and chronic effects of MIC exposure on gas exchange. Lastly, guinea pigs and mice were exposed to {sup 14}C-MIC in an effort to determine uptake and fate of inhaled MIC.

  9. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  10. Generation and characterization of aerosols and vapors for inhalation experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Tillery, M I; Wood, G O; Ettinger, H J

    1976-01-01

    Control of aerosol and vapor characteristics that affect the toxicity of inhaled contaminants often determines the methods of generating exposure atmospheres. Generation methods for aerosols and vapors are presented. The characteristics of the resulting exposure atmosphere and the limitations of the various generation methods are discussed. Methods and instruments for measuring the airborne contaminant with respect to various charcteristics are also described. PMID:797565

  11. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Kavet, R.; Nauss, K.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor.117 references.

  12. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors.

    PubMed

    Kavet, R; Nauss, K M

    1990-01-01

    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor. PMID:2264926

  13. Chasing the dragon - characterizing cases of leukoencephalopathy associated with heroin inhalation in British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An association between leukoencephalopathy, a disease of the white matter of the brain, and smoking heroin is well recognized. This paper describes 27 cases of leukoencephalopathy identified in two cities in British Columbia, Canada 2001-2006; the largest number of geographically and temporally defined reported cases in North America. Twenty cases of leukoencephalopathy were identified in and around Vancouver with onset dates December 2001 to July 2003; seven further cases were identified in Victoria September 2005-August 2006. Twenty (74%) of all cases were male, two couples were reported and eleven cases (55%) had Asian ethnicity. One case reported smoking heroin on a single occasion and developed mild symptoms; all other cases were hospitalized. Thirteen (48%) cases died; all had smoked heroin for a minimum of 3 years. Testing of one available heroin sample identified no substance other than common cutting agents. Although a specific etiology was not identified our study supports the theory of an intermittent exposure to a toxic agent added to the heroin or a combustion by-product. It also suggests a dose response effect rather than genetic predisposition. Collaboration with public health, health professionals, law enforcement and persons who use illegal drugs, will facilitate the early identification of cases to enable timely and complete follow-up including obtaining samples. Testing of implicated heroin samples may allow identification of the contaminant and therefore prevent further cases. It is therefore important to ensure key stakeholders are aware of our findings. PMID:21255414

  14. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Table of Excluded Nonnarcotic Products: Nasal Decongestant Inhaler/Vapor Inhaler. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    This final rule adopts, without change, the interim final rule that was published in the Federal Register on October 27, 2015. The Drug Enforcement Administration is amending the table of Excluded Nonnarcotic Products to update the company name for the drug product Nasal Decongestant Inhaler/Vapor Inhaler (containing 50 milligrams levmetamfetamine) to Aphena Pharma Solutions--New York, LLC. This over-the-counter, nonnarcotic drug product is excluded from the provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. PMID:26859907

  15. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  16. Neurodevelopmental effects of inhaled vapors of gasoline and ethanol in rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gasoline-ethanol blends comprise the major fraction of the fuel used in the US automotive fleet. To address uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to gasoline with more than 10% ethanol, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapor...

  17. Inhaled delivery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to rats by e-cigarette vapor technology.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jacques D; Aarde, Shawn M; Vandewater, Sophia A; Grant, Yanabel; Stouffer, David G; Parsons, Loren H; Cole, Maury; Taffe, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Most human Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use is via inhalation, and yet few animal studies of inhalation exposure are available. Popularization of non-combusted methods for the inhalation of psychoactive drugs (Volcano(®), e-cigarettes) further stimulates a need for rodent models of this route of administration. This study was designed to develop and validate a rodent chamber suitable for controlled exposure to vaporized THC in a propylene glycol vehicle, using an e-cigarette delivery system adapted to standard size, sealed rat housing chambers. The in vivo efficacy of inhaled THC was validated using radiotelemetry to assess body temperature and locomotor responses, a tail-flick assay for nociception and plasma analysis to verify exposure levels. Hypothermic responses to inhaled THC in male rats depended on the duration of exposure and the concentration of THC in the vehicle. The temperature nadir was reached after ∼40 min of exposure, was of comparable magnitude (∼3 °Celsius) to that produced by 20 mg/kg THC, i.p. and resolved within 3 h (compared with a 6 h time course following i.p. THC). Female rats were more sensitive to hypothermic effects of 30 min of lower-dose THC inhalation. Male rat tail-flick latency was increased by THC vapor inhalation; this effect was blocked by SR141716 pretreatment. The plasma THC concentration after 30 min of inhalation was similar to that produced by 10 mg/kg THC i.p. This approach is flexible, robust and effective for use in laboratory rats and will be of increasing utility as users continue to adopt "vaping" for the administration of cannabis. PMID:27256501

  18. DOES INHALATION OF METHANOL VAPOR AFFECT HUMAN NEUROBEHAVIOR?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this pilot study, Dr. Mary Cook and colleagues exposed 12 young male volunteers to either filtered air or methanol vapor (192 parts per million) for 75 minutes. (This concentration of methanol is estimated to approach the highest concentration that individuals might expe...

  19. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis. PMID:26784441

  20. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis

    PubMed Central

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis. PMID:26784441

  1. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  2. Vapor inhalation exposure to soman in conscious untreated rats: preliminary assessment of neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael W; Wong, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Ashley; Devorak, Jennifer L; Dao, Thuy T; Leuschner, Jessica A; Kan, Robert K; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2016-01-01

    Neurological toxicity and brain injury following vapor inhalation exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) soman (GD) were examined in untreated non-anesthetized rats. In this study, male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were exposed to 600 mg × min/m(3) of soman or vehicle in a customized head-out inhalation system for 7 min. Convulsant animals were observed for clinical signs and various regions of the brain (dorsolateral thalamus, basolateral amygdala, piriform cortex, and lateral cortex) were collected for pathological observations 24 h post-exposure. Signs of CWNA-induced cholinergic crises including salivation, lacrimation, increased urination and defecation, and tremors were observed in all soman-exposed animals. Soman-exposed animals at 24 h post-exposure lost 11% of their body weight in comparison to 2% in vehicle-exposed animals. Whole blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly inhibited in all soman-exposed groups in comparison to controls. Brain injury was confirmed by the neurological assessment of hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining and microscopy in the piriform cortex, dorsolateral thalamus, basolateral amygdala, and lateral cortex. Severe damage including prominent lesions, edematous, congested, and/or hemorrhagic tissues was observed in the piriform cortex, dorsolateral thalamus, and lateral cortex in soman-exposed animals 24 h post-exposure, while only minimal damage was observed in the basolateral amygdala. These results indicate that inhalation exposure to soman vapor causes neurological toxicity and brain injury in untreated unanesthetized rats. This study demonstrates the ability of the described soman vapor inhalation exposure model to cause neurological damage 24 h post-exposure in rats. PMID:26711353

  3. Inhalation uptake of low level elemental mercury vapor and its tissue distribution in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Oberski, S.P.; Fang, S.C.

    1980-07-01

    Elemental mercury vapor is the major component of mercury found in the atmosphere. Furthermore, if usage of coal is increased to meet the energy demand, then atmospheric levels of mercury are expected to rise. Current atmospheric concentrations of mercury vapor over select urban areas of the United States range from 0.5 to 50 ng m/sup -3/ with a mean of 7 ng m/sup -3/. Mercury concentration in brain tissue following inhalation of elemental mercury is significantly higher than those from intravenous injection or oral administration of either organic or ionic mercurials. Although elemental mercury is rapidly oxidized in the blood to the less diffusable mercuric ion, the transient occurrence of elemental mercury in the blood stream and the increased levels detected in the central nervous system are likely a result of its rapid diffusion into target tissues. This study reports the inhalation uptake and consequent tissue distribution of radioactive elemental mercury vapor in rats over a concentration range of 15 to 916 ng m/sup -3/, with particular emphasis on measurement below 50 ng m/sup -3/, in an effort to determine if the tissue distribution of mercury after a low level exposure is similar to those reported using higher concentrations.

  4. Inhalational exposure to dimethyl sulfate vapor followed by reactive airway dysfunction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aghabiklooei, Abbas; Zamani, Nasim; Shiva, Hamidreza; Rezaei, Nader

    2010-09-01

    Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) is an oily liquid used as a solvent, stabilizer, sulfonation agent, and catalyst. Exposure to DMS primarily happens in the workplace via inhalational contact and damages the upper and lower airways. Our manuscript reports a case of DMS-related reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS). The patient was a healthy 29-year-old man who was referred to our ER after accidental exposure to the vapor of DMS with the complaint of dyspnea, dry cough, photophobia, and hoarseness. His vital signs were normal except for a low-grade fever. Redness of the pharynx, conjunctivitis, and cholinergic signs and symptoms were present. Conservative management with O(2) and fluid therapy was initiated. Twenty hours later, the patient became drowsy and his respiratory symptoms exacerbated; chest X-ray revealed haziness in the base of the right lung and prominence of the vessels of the lung hillum. After 1 week, the liver transaminases rose and C-reactive protein elevated (2+). The patient got better with conservative treatment and was discharged after 9 days; however, exertional dyspnea, wheezing, and thick white sputum persisted and therefore, reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS) related to DMS vapor was confirmed which was treated by prednisolone. Exertional dyspnea continued up to 10 months. Hoarseness lasted for 6 months. This case shows that DMS vapor inhalation can cause RADS especially in the chemical workers who continue working in the contaminated place despite the relatively good air conditioning. PMID:21461165

  5. Heroin use.

    PubMed

    Salani, Deborah A; Zdanowicz, Martin; Joseph, Laly

    2016-06-01

    Heroin use has increased significantly in the United States over the past decade. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, heroin use has increased 63% between 2002 and 2013. Heroin-related overdose deaths have increased four-fold over the same time period. The National Center for Health Statistics reported heroin-related deaths were higher for men (N = 6,525) than women (N = 1,732). Traditionally, heroin users are men ages 18 to 25 with low incomes, but the demographics of heroin users have changed to include individuals with higher incomes and private insurance, as well as non-Hispanic White women. Individuals who use heroin also tend to use alcohol and other drugs, such as marijuana, cocaine, and prescription opioid painkillers. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(6), 30-37.]. PMID:27245250

  6. Sedative effects of vapor inhalation of the essential oil of Microtoena patchoulii and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ken; Ito, Michiho

    2011-04-01

    Microtoena patchoulii (Labiatae) is a perennial herb that grows in southern China. In the present study, the sedative activity of the essential oil of the leaves was evaluated using mice when the volatile oil was administered by inhalation. The inhalation of the oil by mice significantly reduced the spontaneous motor activity. Fractionation of the oil revealed that the main constituents in the oil were 1-octen-3-ol, terpinolene, patchouli alcohol, and methyl salicylate. Each 1-octen-3-ol, terpinolene, or patchouli alcohol significantly reduce the locomotor activity when it was administered singly. However, the essential oil fraction containing both patchouli alcohol and methyl salicylate did not exhibit any effects. It is suggested that methyl salicylate might negate the sedative effect of patchouli alcohol, and that the concentration ratios of the compounds in vapor would play important roles as sedatives. In order to clarify the mechanism of action, the effects of these compounds on caffeine-induced excitation and pentobarbital-induced elongation of sleeping time in mice were tested. Each 1-octen-3-ol or terpinolene reduced the locomotor activity excited by caffeine to those of normal levels. Elongation of sleeping time induced by pentobarbital was further elongated by the inhalation of terpinolene, but not by that of 1-octen-3-ol. It is indicated that terpinolene is a potent suppressor of the central nervous system. PMID:21287406

  7. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Vaporized Methamphetamine Causes Lung Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Sandra M.; Buford, Mary C.; Braseth, Sarah N.; Hutchison, James D.; Holian, Andrij

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) is currently the most widespread illegally used stimulant in the United States. Use of MA by smoking is the fastest growing mode of administration, which increases concerns about potential pulmonary and other medical complications. A murine exposure system was developed to study the pulmonary affects of inhaled MA. Mice were exposed to 25–100 mg vaporized MA and assessments were made 3 h following initiation of exposure to model acute lung injury. Inhalation of MA vapor resulted in dose-dependent increases in MA plasma levels that were in the range of those experienced by MA users. At the highest MA dose, histological changes were observed in the lung and small but significant increases in lung wet weight to body weight ratios (5.656 ± 0.176 mg/g for the controls vs. 6.706± 0.135 mg/g for the 100 mg MA-exposed mice) were found. In addition, there was 53% increase in total protein in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, greater than 20% increase in albumin levels in the BAL fluid, greater than 2.5-fold increase in lactate dehydrogenase levels in the BAL fluid, and reduced total BAL cell numbers (approximately 77% of controls). Levels of the early response cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 were dose-dependently increased in BAL fluid of MA-exposed mice. Exposure to 100 mg MA significantly increased free radical generation in the BAL cells to 107–146% of controls and to approximately 135% of the controls in lung tissue in situ. Together, these data show that acute inhalation exposure to relevant doses of volatilized MA is associated with elevated free radical formation and significant lung injury. PMID:18645723

  8. Measurement of various respiratory dynamics parameters following acute inhalational exposure to soman vapor in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Michael W; Wong, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Ashley; Devorak, Jennifer; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory dynamics were investigated in head-out plethysmography chambers following inhalational exposure to soman in untreated, non-anesthetized rats. A multipass saturator cell was used to generate 520, 560 and 600 mg × min/m(3) of soman vapor in a customized inhalational exposure system. Various respiratory dynamic parameters were collected from male Sprague-Dawley rats (300--350 g) during (20 min) and 24 h (10 min) after inhalational exposure. Signs of CWNA-induced cholinergic crisis were observed in all soman-exposed animals. Percentage body weight loss and lung edema were observed in all soman-exposed animals, with significant increases in both at 24 h following exposure to 600 mg × min/m(3). Exposure to soman resulted in increases in respiratory frequency (RF) in animals exposed to 560 and 600 mg × min/m(3) with significant increases following exposure to 560 mg × min/m(3) at 24 h. No significant alterations in inspiratory time (IT) or expiratory time (ET) were observed in soman-exposed animals 24 h post-exposure. Prominent increases in tidal volume (TV) and minute volume (MV) were observed at 24 h post-exposure in animals exposed to 600 mg × min/m(3). Peak inspiratory (PIF) and expiratory flow (PEF) followed similar patterns and increased 24 h post-exposure to 600 mg × min/m(3) of soman. Results demonstrate that inhalational exposure to 600 mg × min/m(3) soman produces notable alterations in various respiratory dynamic parameters at 24 h. The following multitude of physiological changes in respiratory dynamics highlights the need to develop countermeasures that protect against respiratory toxicity and lung injury. PMID:26207672

  9. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  10. Toxicological assessments of rats exposed prenatally to inhaled vapors of gasoline and gasoline-ethanol blends.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, Philip J; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul A; Martin, Sheppard A; McDaniel, Katherine L; Moser, Virginia C; Luebke, Robert W; Norwood, Joel; Copeland, Carey B; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lonneman, William A; Rogers, John M

    2015-01-01

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which may be blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ethanol vapors from these fuels. The well-known sensitivity of the developing nervous and immune systems to ingested ethanol and the lack of information about the neurodevelopmental toxicity of ethanol-blended fuels prompted the present work. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed for 6.5h/day on days 9-20 of gestation to clean air or vapors of gasoline containing no ethanol (E0) or gasoline blended with 15% ethanol (E15) or 85% ethanol (E85) at nominal concentrations of 3000, 6000, or 9000 ppm. Estimated maternal peak blood ethanol concentrations were less than 5mg/dL for all exposures. No overt toxicity in the dams was observed, although pregnant dams exposed to 9000 ppm of E0 or E85 gained more weight per gram of food consumed during the 12 days of exposure than did controls. Fuel vapors did not affect litter size or weight, or postnatal weight gain in the offspring. Tests of motor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB) administered to the offspring between post-natal day (PND) 27-29 and PND 56-63 revealed an increase in vertical activity counts in the 3000- and 9000-ppm groups in the E85 experiment on PND 63 and a few small changes in sensorimotor responses in the FOB that were not monotonically related to exposure concentration in any experiment. Neither cell-mediated nor humoral immunity were affected in a concentration-related manner by exposure to any of the vapors in 6-week-old male or female offspring. Systematic concentration-related differences in systolic blood pressure were not observed in rats tested at 3 and 6 months of age in any experiment. No systematic differences were observed in serum glucose or glycated hemoglobin A1c (a marker of long-term glucose

  11. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) metabolism, disposition, and short-term vapor inhalation toxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.R.; Hermann, E.A.; Young, J.T.; Calhoun, L.L.; Kastl, P.E.

    1984-09-30

    Male Fischer 344 rats were given a single po dose of approximately 8.7 mmol/kg of (1-14C)propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) or exposed to 3000 ppm (1-14C)PGMEA for 6 hr. After dosing, expired air, excreta, and tissues were analyzed for 14C activity, and metabolites in urine were isolated and identified. Approximately 64% of the administered 14C activity was eliminated as 14CO2 and about 24% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after a single po dose of radiolabeled PGMEA. Similarly, 53% was eliminated as 14CO2 and 26% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after the inhalation exposure. Propylene glycol, propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), and the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of PGME were identified as urinary metabolites after po dosing, as well as after inhalation exposure to PGMEA. The urinary metabolite profile and disposition of (14C)PGMEA were nearly identical to results previously obtained with propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), indicating that PGMEA is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed to PGME in vivo. A short-term vapor inhalation toxicity study in which male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm PGMEA confirmed that there were no substantial differences in the systemic effects of PGMEA as compared to PGME. However, histopathologic examination did reveal changes in the olfactory portions of the nasal mucosa of rats and mice exposed to PGMEA, which may be related to acetic acid resulting from hydrolysis of PGMEA in the nasal epithelium.

  12. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) metabolism, disposition, and short-term vapor inhalation toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Miller, R R; Hermann, E A; Young, J T; Calhoun, L L; Kastl, P E

    1984-09-30

    Male Fischer 344 rats were given a single po dose of approximately 8.7 mmol/kg of [1-14C]propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA) or exposed to 3000 ppm [1-14C]PGMEA for 6 hr. After dosing, expired air, excreta, and tissues were analyzed for 14C activity, and metabolites in urine were isolated and identified. Approximately 64% of the administered 14C activity was eliminated as 14CO2 and about 24% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after a single po dose of radiolabeled PGMEA. Similarly, 53% was eliminated as 14CO2 and 26% was excreted in urine within 48 hr after the inhalation exposure. Propylene glycol, propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), and the sulfate and glucuronide conjugates of PGME were identified as urinary metabolites after po dosing, as well as after inhalation exposure to PGMEA. The urinary metabolite profile and disposition of [14C]PGMEA were nearly identical to results previously obtained with propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME), indicating that PGMEA is rapidly and extensively hydrolyzed to PGME in vivo. A short-term vapor inhalation toxicity study in which male and female Fischer 344 rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm PGMEA confirmed that there were no substantial differences in the systemic effects of PGMEA as compared to PGME. However, histopathologic examination did reveal changes in the olfactory portions of the nasal mucosa of rats and mice exposed to PGMEA, which may be related to acetic acid resulting from hydrolysis of PGMEA in the nasal epithelium. PMID:6474479

  13. Effect of mosquito mats (pyrethroid-based) vapor inhalation on rat brain cytochrome P450s.

    PubMed

    Vences-Mejía, Araceli; Gómez-Garduño, Josefina; Caballero-Ortega, Heriberto; Dorado-González, Víctor; Nosti-Palacios, Rosario; Labra-Ruíz, Norma; Espinosa-Aguirre, J Javier

    2012-01-01

    The effect of transfluthrin (TF) or D-allethrin (DA) pyrethroid (PYR) vapors, often contained as main ingredients in two commercially available mosquito repellent mats, on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes of rat brain and liver was assessed. Immunodetection of CYP2E1 and CYP3A2 proteins revealed their induction in cerebrum and cerebellum, but not in liver microsomes of rats exposed by inhalation to TF or DA. This overexpression of proteins correlated with an increase of their catalytic activities. The specifically increased expression of CYP isoenzymes, due to PYR exposure in the rat brain, could perturb the normal metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds and leads to increased risks of neurotoxicity by bioactivation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. PMID:22080754

  14. Methyl isocyanate eight-day vapor inhalation study with Fischer 344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, D.E.; Fowler, E.H.; Snellings, W.M.; Pritts, I.M.

    1987-06-01

    Groups of ten male and ten female Fischer 344 rats were exposed by inhalation 3.1, 0.6, 0.15, or 0.0 (control) ppm of methyl isocyanate (MIC) vapor 6 hr per day for 8 days (two 4-day sessions separated by a 2-day rest). Evaluation of toxic effects included body weight, food consumption, organ weights, and selected hematologic, ophthalmic, neurologic, gross anatomic, and histologic examinations. There were no deaths during the study. Rats of the 3.1 ppm exposure group had decreased body weights, food consumption, and blood oxygen saturation (males only). An increase in hemoglobin concentration (males only) and in lung weights (absolute and as a percentage of body weight) were also observed in the 3.1 ppm rats. Ophthalmic or neurofunctional behavior evaluations were negative for all MIC exposure groups. Only 3.1 ppm of MIC vapor resulted in lesions in the respiratory tract, 0.6 or 0.15 ppm did not. The types of lesions observed were inflammation and squamous metaplasia in the nasal cavity, trachea, and bronchi; inflammation of the bronchioles and alveoli; and submucosal fibroplasia of the bronchioles. No significant lesions were observed in tissues other than those of the respiratory tract in all MIC exposure groups. The results of this study indicate the current 0.2 ppm threshold limit value for MIC is not too high regarding toxicity.

  15. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: subchronic inhalation toxicity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charles R; Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Parker, Craig M; Gray, Thomas M; Hoffman, Gary M

    2014-11-01

    Sprague Dawley rats were exposed via inhalation to vapor condensates of either gasoline or gasoline combined with various fuel oxygenates to assess whether their use in gasoline influences the hazard of evaporative emissions. Test substances included vapor condensates prepared from an EPA described "baseline gasoline" (BGVC), or gasoline combined with methyl tertiary butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), ethanol (G/EtOH), or t-butyl alcohol (G/TBA). Target concentrations were 0, 2000, 10,000 or 20,000mg/m(3) and exposures were for 6h/day, 5days/week for 13weeks. A portion of the animals were maintained for a four week recovery period to determine the reversibility of potential adverse effects. Increased kidney weight and light hydrocarbon nephropathy (LHN) were observed in treated male rats in all studies which were reversible or nearly reversible after 4weeks recovery. LHN is unique to male rats and is not relevant to human toxicity. The no observed effect level (NOAEL) in all studies was 10,000mg/m(3), except for G/MTBE (<2000) and G/TBA (2000). The results provide evidence that use of the studied oxygenates are unlikely to increase the hazard of evaporative emissions during refueling, compared to those from gasoline alone. PMID:25020274

  16. Systemic molecular and cellular changes induced in rats upon inhalation of JP-8 petroleum fuel vapor.

    PubMed

    Hanas, Jay S; Bruce Briggs, G; Lerner, Megan R; Lightfoot, Stan A; Larabee, Jason L; Karsies, Todd J; Epstein, Robert B; Hanas, Rushie J; Brackett, Daniel J; Hocker, James R

    2010-05-01

    Limited information is available regarding systemic changes in mammals associated with exposures to petroleum/hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, systemic toxicity of JP-8 jet fuel was observed in a rat inhalation model at different JP-8 fuel vapor concentrations (250, 500, or 1000 mg/m(3), for 91 days). Gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry sequencing identified the alpha-2 microglobulin protein to be elevated in rat kidney in a JP-8 dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis of kidney and lung tissue extracts revealed JP-8 dependent elevation of inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Tissue changes were observed histologically (hematoxylin and eosin staining) in liver, kidney, lung, bone marrow, and heart, and more prevalently at medium or high JP-8 vapor phase exposures (500-1000 mg/m(3)) than at low vapor phase exposure (250 mg/m(3)) or non-JP-8 controls. JP-8 fuel-induced liver alterations included dilated sinusoids, cytoplasmic clumping, and fat cell deposition. Changes to the kidneys included reduced numbers of nuclei, and cytoplasmic dumping in the lumen of proximal convoluted tubules. JP-8 dependent lung alterations were edema and dilated alveolar capillaries, which allowed clumping of red blood cells (RBCs). Changes in the bone marrow in response to JP-8 included reduction of fat cells and fat globules, and cellular proliferation (RBCs, white blood cells-WBCs, and megakaryocytes). Heart tissue from JP-8 exposed animals contained increased numbers of inflammatory and fibroblast cells, as well as myofibril scarring. cDNA array analysis of heart tissue revealed a JP-8 dependent increase in atrial natriuretic peptide precursor mRNA and a decrease in voltage-gated potassium (K+) ion channel mRNA. PMID:20233090

  17. Heroin and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... fentanyl to make it stronger. Can using heroin harm your health? Yes. Heroin affects your central nervous ... fentanyl to make it stronger. Can using heroin harm your health? Yes. Heroin affects your central nervous ...

  18. Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... That People Abuse » Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Listen Heroin is a white ... Español English Español PDF Version Download "I needed heroin just to get by." Deon was addicted to ...

  19. Inhalation dosimetry of hexamethylene diisocyanate vapor in the rat and human respiratory tracts.

    PubMed

    Schroeter, Jeffry D; Kimbell, Julia S; Asgharian, Bahman; Tewksbury, Earl W; Sochaski, Mark; Foster, Melanie L; Dorman, David C; Wong, Brian A; Andersen, Melvin E

    2013-02-01

    Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is a reactive chemical used in the commercial production of polyurethanes. Toxic effects in rodents exposed to HDI vapor primarily occur in the nasal passages, yet some individuals exposed occupationally to concentrations exceeding current regulatory limits may experience temporary reduction in lung function and asthma-like symptoms. Knowledge of interspecies differences in respiratory tract dosimetry of inhaled HDI would improve our understanding of human health risks to this compound. HDI uptake was measured in the upper respiratory tract of anesthetized Fischer-344 rats. Nasal uptake of HDI was >90% in rats at unidirectional flow rates of 150 and 300 ml/min and a target air concentration of 200 ppb. Uptake data was used to calibrate nasal and lung dosimetry models of HDI absorption in rats and humans. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models of the nasal passages were used to simulate inspiratory airflow and HDI absorption. Transport of HDI through lung airways was simulated using convection-diffusion based mass transport models. HDI nasal uptake of 90% and 78% was predicted using the rat and human nasal CFD models, respectively. Total respiratory tract uptake was estimated to be 99% in rats and 97% in humans under nasal breathing. Predicted human respiratory uptake decreased to 87% under oral breathing conditions. Absorption rates of inhaled HDI in human lung airways were estimated to be higher than the rat due to lower uptake in head airways. Model predictions demonstrated significant penetration of HDI to human bronchial airways, although absorption rates were sensitive to breathing style. PMID:23421488

  20. Heroin overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Heroin Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  1. Miss Heroin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Bernice

    This script, with music, lyrics and dialog, was written especially for youngsters to inform them of the potential dangers of various drugs. The author, who teaches in an elementary school in Harlem, New York, offers Miss Heroin as her answer to the expressed opinion that most drug and alcohol information available is either too simplified and…

  2. Acute, 2-week, and 13-week inhalation toxicity studies on dimethylethoxysilane vapor in Fischer 344 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, D. E.; Stuart, B. O.; Rothenberg, S. J.; Kershaw, M.; Mann, P. C.; James, J. T.; Lam, C. W.

    1994-01-01

    Dimethylethoxysilane (DMES), a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the heat-protective silica tiles and blankets on the Space Shuttle. Acute, 2-wk, and 13-wk inhalation exposures to DMES vapor were conducted in male and female Fischer 344 rats. In the acute study, rats were exposed to 4000, 2000, 1000, 500, or 0 (control) ppm DMES for 4 h and observed for 14 days. There were no deaths. Narcosis and ataxia were observed in rats of the two highest concentrations only. These signs disappeared within 1 h following exposure. There were no DMES-related gross or microscopic tissue lesions in rats of all exposure groups. In the 2-wk study, rats were exposed for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 3000, 1000, 300, 100, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, narcosis was observed in rats of the 3000 and 1000 ppm groups. There was a mild decrease in body weight gain in rats of the 3000 ppm group. A decrease in platelet count, an increase in bile acids, and reduced weights of the thymus, testis, and liver were observed in rats of the 3000 ppm group. Microscopically, hypospermatogenesis and spermatid giant cells were observed in the seminiferous tubules of the testes of rats exposed to 3000 ppm DMES. In the 13-wk study, rats were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days/wk to 2000, 600, 160, 40, or 0 ppm DMES. During exposure, rats of the 2000 ppm group exhibited mild narcosis and loss of startle reflex. Recovery from these central nervous system signs was rapid. Body weights were mildly decreased for rats of the 2000 ppm group. There were no exposure-related effects in hematology, serum chemistry, or urinalysis. Female rats of the 2000 ppm group had delayed estrous cycles (6 days compared to 5 days in control rats). Noteworthy organ weight changes in rats of the 2000 ppm group included decreases in thymus, liver, and testicular weights; however, pathologic lesions were observed in the testes only. Sperm motility, epididymal sperm count, and testicular spermatid count were dramatically reduced

  3. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Clewell, H.J. Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-10-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  4. Heroin. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about heroin. Article 1 provides general information on heroin identification, drug dependence, effects of abuse, cost, source of supply, and penalties for illegal heroin use. Article 2 gives statistical information on heroin-related deaths in the District of Columbia between 1971 and 1982. Article 3…

  5. Toxicological Assessments of Rats Exposed Prenatally to Inhaled Vapors of Gasoline and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary alternative to petroleum-based fuels is ethanol, which is blended with gasoline in the United States at concentrations up to 15% for most automobiles. Efforts to increase the amount of ethanol in gasoline have prompted concerns about the potential toxicity of inhaled ...

  6. Research Reports: Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be treated. Medications are available to treat heroin addiction while reducing drug cravings and withdrawal symptoms, improving ... as treatment options available for those struggling with heroin addiction. We hope this compilation of scientific information on ...

  7. Foetal distribution of inhaled mercury vapor in normal and acatalasaemic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ogata, M.; Meguro, T.

    1986-01-01

    Levels of mercury distribution in placenta, amniotic sac and foetus and those in brain and liver of maternal acatasaemic mice were higher than those of normal, respectively. The levels of mercury distribution in the blood and lungs of maternal acatalasaemic mice exposed to metallic mercury vapor were also lower than those of normal. Mercury concentrations in placenta and foetus of acatalasaemic mice following exposure to metallic mercury vapor were higher than those of normal. Maternal acatalasaemic mice had decreased levels of mercury in the blood than those of normal mice. Thus, the placenta/blood or foetus/blood ratio of mercury concentration in acatalasaemic mice was significantly higher than that in normal mice. Similarly the brain/blood or liver/blood ratio of maternal acatalasaemic mice was higher than that of normal mice. These results suggest that metallic mercury in the blood readily passed through the blood-brain, blood-foetus barriers. In contrast to the results on exposures of mice to metallic mercury, the foetus/maternal blood ratio of mercuric concentration in the acatalasaemic mice following injection of mercuric chloride was similar to that in the normal mice. Moreover, the foetus/maternal blood ratio of mercury concentration in acatalasaemic or normal mice injected with mercuric chloride was lower than those in acatalasaemic or normal mice exposed to metallic mercury.

  8. Inhalation of mercury vapor can cause the toxic effects on rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Akgül, Nilgün; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Altunkaynak, Muhammed Eyüp; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Ünal, Deniz; Akgül, Hayati Murat

    2016-01-01

    Dental amalgam has been used in dentistry as a filling material. The filler comprises mercury (Hg). It is considered one of the most important and widespread environmental pollutants, which poses a serious potential threat for the humans and animals. However, mercury deposition affects the nervous, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and especially renal systems. In most animals' species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites of deposition of mercury and target organ for its toxicity. In this study, the effects of mercury intake on kidney in rats were searched. For the this purpose; we used 24 adult female Wistar albino rats (200 g in weight) obtained from Experimental Research and Application Center of Atatürk University with ethical approval. Besides, they were placed into a specially designed glass cage. Along this experiment for 45 days, subjects were exposed to (1 mg/m(3)/day) mercury vapor. However, no application was used for the control subjects. At the end of the experiment, kidney samples were obtained from all subjects and processed for routine light microscopic level and stereological aspect were assessed. Finally, according to our results, mercury affects the histological features of the kidney. That means, the severe effects of mercury has been shown using stereological approach, which is one of the ideal quantitative methods in the current literature. In this study, it was detected that chronic exposure to mercury vapor may lead to renal damage and diseases in an experimental rat model. PMID:26888214

  9. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Developmental toxicity of chloroprene vapors in New Zealand white rabbits. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3-butadiene, is a colorless liquid with a pungent ethereal odor that is primarily used as an intermediate in the manufacture of neoprene rubber, and has been used as such since about 1930. This study addressed the potential for chloroprene to cause developmental toxicity in New Zealand white rabbits following gestational exposure to 0, 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene vapors, 6h/dy, 7dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 15 artificially inseminated females exposed on 6 through 28 days of gestation (dg). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 29 dg. Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. There were no overt signs of maternal toxicity and the change in maternal body weight over the course of the study was not affected. Exposure of pregnant rabbits to chloroprene vapors on 6-28 dg had no effect on the number of implantation, the mean percent of live pups per litter, or on the incidence of resorptions per litter. The incidence of fetal malformations was not increased by exposure to chloroprene. Results of this study indicate that gestational exposure of New Zealand white rabbits to 10, 40, or 175 ppm chloroprene did not result in observable toxicity to either the dam or the offspring.

  10. Isopropanol vapor inhalation oncogenicity study in Fischer 344 rats and CD-1 mice.

    PubMed

    Burleigh-Flayer, H; Garman, R; Neptun, D; Bevan, C; Gardiner, T; Kapp, R; Tyler, T; Wright, G

    1997-04-01

    The potential oncogenic effects of isopropanol, a widely used solvent, were investigated. Four groups of animals, each consisting of 75 CD-1 mice/sex and 75 Fischer 344 rats/sex, were exposed to isopropanol vapor (CAS No. 67-63-0) at target concentrations of 0 (filtered air control), 500, 2500, or 5000 ppm. Animals assigned to the core group (55 mice/sex/group and 65 rats/sex/group) were exposed for 6 hr/day, 5 consecutive days/week for at least 78 weeks for the mice or 104 weeks for the rats. Ten mice/sex/group and 10 rats/sex/group were assigned to an interim euthanasia group and were terminated during Weeks 54 and 73, respectively. In addition, 10 mice/sex/group were assigned to a recovery group and did not receive any further exposure following Week 53 but were retained until the core group of animals was euthanized. Transient signs of narcosis were observed for both mice and rats during exposure to 2500 and 5000 ppm and following exposure for mice from the 5000-ppm group. Increased mortality (100% versus 82% for controls) and a decreased mean survival time (577 days versus 631 days for controls) were noted for male rats from the 5000-ppm group. Increases in body weight and/or body weight gain were typically observed for both sexes of mice and rats from the 2500- and 5000-ppm groups throughout the study. Urinalysis and urine chemistry changes indicative of impaired kidney function (i.e., decreased osmolality and increased total protein, volume, and glucose) were noted for male rats from the 2500-ppm group as well as for male and female rats from the 5000-ppm group. At the interim euthanasia, a concentration-related increase in testes weight (absolute and relative as a percentage of body and brain weight) was observed for male rats. Concentration-related increases in absolute and relative liver weight (as a percentage of body weight) were observed for male and female mice. In addition, increased absolute and/or relative (as a percentage of body and brain weight

  11. Determining what heroin means to heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Tokar, J T; Brunse, A J; Stefflre, V J; Sodergren, J A; Napior, D A

    1975-02-01

    For purposes of treatment, description, typological and psychological instrumentation, agreement judgements were obtained from 20 heroin addicts and 51 normal controls on data matrices constructed from sentences obtained from the heroin addicts. Correlations demonstrate controls are similar to one another and qualitatively different from addicts. Multidimensional scaling techniques and perspective summary maps demonstrate these differences and provide the technology for developing a typology of addicts for future studies. Heroin addicts have an inability to tolerate frustration, a depressive core, a negative sense of identity and a sense of futility and isolation. Heroin addicts deviate from normals at well beyond the p less than .001 level of significance in using heroin to handle problems that normals handle in other ways. For treatment of the addict, the drug must be withdrawn and new ways of coping with old needs must be taught. This matrix qualitatively demonstrates and pinpoints the deficiencies and excesses of the addict which need treatment. The epidemiology of drug use relating narcotics, delinquency, and social policy has been well documented (Chein, 1964). One major problem posed by narcotic addition is the problem of getting people to stay off drugs (withdrawal). Another major problem is the alleviation of the human misery that motivates drug use (rehabilitation). (Jaffee, 1970, Chein, 1964). In addition to the above, a problem of recent importance has been the key question of whether or not the Vietnam addicts differ basically from addicts socialized in the drug culture in the united States. (Walsh, 1971). Numerous investigators have discussed personality and addiction (Chein, 1964; Eddy, 1965, Jaffee, 1970) usually from the vantage point of the investigators. This study attempted to describe the personalities of heroin addicts from the vantage point of the addicts using instruments borrowed from descriptive semantics. (Goodenough, 1967; Stefflre

  12. Heroin Addicts Reporting Previous Heroin Overdoses Also Report Suicide Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradvik, Louise; Frank, Arne; Hulenvik, Per; Medvedeo, Alvaro; Berglund, Mats

    2007-01-01

    Nonfatal heroin overdoses and suicide attempts are both common among heroin addicts, but there is limited knowledge about the association between them. The sample in the present study consisted of 149 regular heroin users in Malmo, Sweden. Out of these 98 had taken an unintentional heroin overdose at some time and 51 had made at least one attempt…

  13. Heroin crystal nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bautista, Josef Edrik Keith; Merhi, Basma; Gregory, Oliver; Hu, Susie; Henriksen, Kammi; Gohh, Reginald

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an interesting case of acute kidney injury and severe metabolic alkalosis in a patient with a history of heavy heroin abuse. Urine microscopy showed numerous broomstick-like crystals. These crystals are also identified in light and electron microscopy. We hypothesize that heroin crystalizes in an alkaline pH, resulting in tubular obstruction and acute kidney injury. Management is mainly supportive as there is no known specific therapy for this condition. This paper highlights the utility of urine microscopy in diagnosing the etiology of acute kidney injury and proposes a novel disease called heroin crystal nephropathy. PMID:26034599

  14. [Opium (heroin * morphine)].

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Masayuki

    2010-08-01

    The number of people dependent on opiate drugs, including heroin, is still high, and these abused drugs are major social issues, both in the social science and medically. The mechanisms of physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms in laboratory animals are becoming clear; however, no useful method to detoxify abusers with opioid dependence in clinical situation has been established, and alternative therapy with methadone, used in Europe and America, cannot be used in Japan. Here, I will outline the global trend of opium abuse, including heroin and morphine, and summarize the problems of heroin abuse. PMID:20715484

  15. The Problem of Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, James Q.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Argues that most of the underlying assumptions of presently recommended solutions to the problem of heroin addiction are unreasonable, unwarranted, or at least open to more than one interpretation. (DM)

  16. Deterioration in brain and heart functions following a single sub-lethal (0.8 LCt{sub 50}) inhalation exposure of rats to sarin vapor:

    SciTech Connect

    Allon, N. Chapman, S.; Egoz, I.; Rabinovitz, I.; Kapon, J.; Weissman, B.A.; Yacov, G.; Bloch-Shilderman, E.; Grauer, E.

    2011-05-15

    The main injuries among victims of the terrorist act in the Tokyo subway resulted from sub-lethal inhalation and whole body exposure to sarin vapor. In order to study the long term effects of such exposure and to simulate these conditions, freely moving rats were exposed to sarin vapor (27.2 {+-} 1.7 {mu}g/l) for 10 min. About 50% of the rats showed no overt symptoms and the rest had mild to moderate clinical symptoms that subsided within 4 h following exposure. A reduction of weight was noted during the first 3 days with full recovery on the 4th day. Rat's heart was challenged with epinephrine 1 and 6 months post exposure. A significant reduction in the threshold for epinephrine-induced arrhythmia (EPIA) was noted in rats exposed to sarin. A time dependent increase in the kD and Bmax values of muscarinic auto receptors (M2) was recorded in the rat's cortex and striatum. No changes were recorded in the rats' brain trans locator protein (TSPO) levels, concomitant with no observed changes in the animals' performance in A Morris water maze test. A significant increase in open field activity was noted 6 months following exposure to sarin vapor as well as a significant decrease in prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}) production in the brain. It is speculated that down regulation of the M2 auto receptor function, caused hyper reactivity of the cholinergic system which leads to the changes described above. The continuous reduction in M2 auto-receptor system through an unknown mechanism may be the cause for long lasting decline in sarin-exposed casualties' health.

  17. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Listen People who are trying ... Español English Español PDF Version Download "I needed heroin just to get by." Deon was addicted to ...

  18. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  19. Laryngeal obstruction by heroin packets.

    PubMed

    Colombage, Senarath M

    2003-06-01

    A 28-year-old healthy man collapsed while being arrested by the police for alleged possession of heroin and was found dead on admission to the hospital. Autopsy revealed complete occlusion of the laryngeal opening by a cellophane bag containing 24 packets of heroin powder. PMID:12773851

  20. Adolescent heroin use: a review.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, R H

    1998-12-01

    Use of heroin by American teenagers is beginning to show disturbing increases in national and statewide surveys. According to data from the 1997 National Institute on Drug Abuse monograph Monitoring The Future, heroin use by American high school 12th graders was 100% higher than it was from 1990 to 1996 (0.90-1.8%). In 1997, there was a further increase to 2.1%. Additional support for an increase in heroin use in the United States comes from analysis of recent survey data from California, Texas, and Maryland. Heroin imported from Colombia and from Mexico is now cheaper and of high potency, permitting novices to start with nasal administration of the drug. Most American adolescents now initiate heroin use by snorting it; however, frequent use of heroin by any route rapidly leads to tolerance and intense drug craving. Psychological dependence to heroin, and to the often exciting yet chaotic lifestyle of a heroin addict, is very difficult to overcome. Acute heroin withdrawal syndrome is usually not severe and most addicts in withdrawal can be managed in an outpatient setting. Naloxone must be used with great restraint and in smaller than usual doses in known heroin addicts. Successful long-term management often includes acute detoxification followed by long-term residential drug treatment. Managed care payment issues have impeded placement in appropriate treatment programs. Additional long-term management issues include regular attendance at 12-step meetings (Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous), biweekly urine tests for drugs of abuse, attention to issues of dual diagnosis (group or family therapy), and reapproachment with family, school, and straight friends. PMID:9832585

  1. Genetic signatures of heroin addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chen, Kuang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction. We first measured the transcript level of 13 genes (RASA1, PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CD74, CEBPB, AUTS2, ENO2, IMPDH2, HAT1, MBD1, and RGS3) in lymphoblastoid cell lines in a sample of 124 male heroin addicts and 124 male control subjects using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven genes (PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CEBPB, ENO2, and HAT1) showed significant differential expression between the 2 groups. Further analysis using 3 statistical methods including logistic regression analysis, support vector machine learning analysis, and a computer software BIASLESS revealed that a set of 4 genes (JUN, CEBPB, PRKCB, ENO2, or CEBPG) could predict the diagnosis of heroin addiction with the accuracy rate around 85% in our dataset. Our findings support the idea that it is possible to identify genetic signatures of heroin addiction using a small set of expressed genes. However, the study can only be considered as a proof-of-concept study. As the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell line is a laborious and lengthy process, it would be more practical in clinical settings to identify genetic signatures for heroin addiction directly from peripheral blood cells in the future study. PMID:27495086

  2. Genetic signatures of heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chen, Kuang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction. We first measured the transcript level of 13 genes (RASA1, PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CD74, CEBPB, AUTS2, ENO2, IMPDH2, HAT1, MBD1, and RGS3) in lymphoblastoid cell lines in a sample of 124 male heroin addicts and 124 male control subjects using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven genes (PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CEBPB, ENO2, and HAT1) showed significant differential expression between the 2 groups. Further analysis using 3 statistical methods including logistic regression analysis, support vector machine learning analysis, and a computer software BIASLESS revealed that a set of 4 genes (JUN, CEBPB, PRKCB, ENO2, or CEBPG) could predict the diagnosis of heroin addiction with the accuracy rate around 85% in our dataset. Our findings support the idea that it is possible to identify genetic signatures of heroin addiction using a small set of expressed genes. However, the study can only be considered as a proof-of-concept study. As the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell line is a laborious and lengthy process, it would be more practical in clinical settings to identify genetic signatures for heroin addiction directly from peripheral blood cells in the future study. PMID:27495086

  3. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  4. The Dreams of Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Maryanne

    1972-01-01

    Few heroin addicts get high'' in their dreams. An exploration of the reasons for this failure provides some clues to the conflicts and other problems that retard an addict's progress in therapy. (Author)

  5. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  6. Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Resources Law Enforcement Resources Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic Opioids are natural or synthetic chemicals ... in your brain or body. Common opioids include heroin and prescription drugs such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, and ...

  7. The Dynamics of a Heroin Addiction Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.; Greene, Mark H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent trends in heroin addiction in Washington, D.C. In 1969 a comprehensive, multimodal treatment program for addicts was introduced and a major law enforcement commitment was made to reduce the heroin supply. These factors, together with changing community attitudes, may be responsible for a remarkable decline in heroin addiction. (JR)

  8. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  9. A Screening Study to Determine the Prevalence of Airway Disease in Heroin Smokers.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Burke, Nadia; Vlies, Ben; Wooding, Olivia; Davies, Lisa; Walker, Paul P

    2016-06-01

    Over the last 20 years smoking has become the most common method of heroin use and increasing numbers of heroin smokers are presenting to local medical services, before the age of 40 years, with severe airway disease. To determine COPD prevalence we recruited 129 subjects from two local community drug services, of whom 107 were heroin smokers. We collected demographic, medical and treatment data, smoking history (including cannabis and opiates) and details of symptoms including MRC dyspnoea. Subjects completed the COPD Assessment Tool and spirometry. Thirty heroin smokers were identified as having COPD resulting in a COPD prevalence of 28%. Mean age was 43 (4) years and FEV1 was 2.71 (0.98) L; 70 (23) %predicted. Breathlessness and wheeze were more common in subjects with COPD (p < 0.04 and p < 0.05) but symptoms were common in all heroin smokers. MRC score was higher (3 vs. 2.4; p < 0.04) in those with COPD and health status appeared poorer (CAT 20.4 vs. 15.8; p < 0.07). Only 4 (11%) had previously been diagnosed with COPD and only 16 (53%) received any inhaled medication. Asthma prevalence was also high at 33% and asthmatic subjects had similar symptoms and health status compared with the COPD subjects, and were also significantly undertreated. COPD and asthma are common in current and former heroin smokers. They are often present at a young age and are underdiagnosed and undertreated. Awareness of this issue should be highlighted within drug services and in particular to heroin smokers. Screening this high-risk population with spirometry should be considered. PMID:26701201

  10. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of being hurt in a fall, a fire or a car crash (for example, if your child tries to drive while he or she is high on an inhalant). Inhalants block oxygen flow to the brain and every other organ ...

  11. Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heroin Use Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use Email Facebook Twitter NIDA recently challenged the ... References for Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use The authors conducted an independent analysis of ...

  12. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone ... inhaler is not working properly.To use the aerosol inhaler, follow these steps: Remove the cap from ...

  13. Tiotropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the inhaler to breathe in the dry powder contained in the capsules. Tiotropium is usually inhaled ... the inhaler it comes with to inhale the powder in the capsules. Never try to inhale them ...

  14. Impact of South American heroin on the US heroin market 1993–2004

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarone, Daniel; Unick, George J; Kraus, Allison

    2008-01-01

    Background The past two decades have seen an increase in heroin-related morbidity and mortality in the United States. We report on trends in US heroin retail price and purity, including the effect of entry of Colombian-sourced heroin on the US heroin market. Methods The average standardized price ($/mg-pure) and purity (% by weight) of heroin from 1993 to 2004 was from obtained from US Drug Enforcement Agency retail purchase data for 20 metropolitan statistical areas. Univariate statistics, robust Ordinary Least Squares regression and mixed fixed and random effect growth curve models were used to predict the price and purity data in each metropolitan statistical area over time. Results Over the 12 study years, heroin price decreased 62%. The median percentage of all heroin samples that are of South American origin increased an absolute 7% per year. Multivariate models suggest percent South American heroin is a significant predictor of lower heroin price and higher purity adjusting for time and demographics. Conclusion These analyses reveal trends to historically low-cost heroin in many US cities. These changes correspond to the entrance into and rapid domination of the US heroin market by Colombian-sourced heroin. The implications of these changes are discussed. PMID:19201184

  15. Heroin in brown, black and white: Structural factors and medical consequences in the US heroin market

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarone, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Background Heroin coming into the United States historically comes from three widely dispersed geographical regions: Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Mexico. A fourth source of US-bound heroin, from Colombia, originated in the early 1990s. The fact that the four heroin sources produce differing morphologies and qualities of heroin has not been critically examined. In addition, it is not well established how the contemporary competing dynamics of interdiction, or restriction of heroin flows across international boundaries, and neoliberal, e.g., global expansion of free trade, policies are affecting heroin markets. This paper will highlight changes in the US heroin market, including source trends, the political economy of the now dominant source and the resultant effects on the heroin risk environment by US region. Methods Using a structural and historical framework this paper examines two decades of secondary data sources, including government and drug control agency documents, on heroin flows together with published work on the political and economic dynamics in Latin America. Results Co-occurring neoliberal economic reforms may have contributed to paradoxical effects of US/Colombian interdiction efforts. Since entering the US market, heroin from Colombia has been distributed at a much higher quality and lower retail price. An increasingly exclusive market has developed with Mexican and Colombian heroin gaining market share and displacing Asian heroin. These trends have had dramatic effects on the risk environment for heroin consumers. An intriguing factor is that different global sources of heroin produce substantially different products. Plausible associations exist between heroin source/form and drug use behaviours and harms. For example, cold water-soluble powdered heroin (sources: Asia, Colombia) may be associated with higher HIV prevalence in the US, while low-solubility “black tar” heroin (BTH; source: Mexico) is historically used in areas with reduced

  16. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  17. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  18. Heroin: Challenge for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Susan M.

    The rise in heroin use in the 1990s is attributed to an increase in snorting and smoking heroin as opposed to earlier epidemics that relied on intravenous use. An increase in purity has also added to the addiction problem. The trend towards use by young people was confirmed by the 2000 Monitoring the Future Study, which reported that 10.6% of high…

  19. Heroin Purchasing is Income and Price Sensitive

    PubMed Central

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L.; Greenwald, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p < .005) decrease heroin daily purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (mean = $60/day) if: (1) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (2) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (3) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, i.e., live closer to their primary dealer, more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively), and purchasing more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users’ purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. PMID:21443296

  20. Heroin purchasing is income and price sensitive.

    PubMed

    Roddy, Juliette; Steinmiller, Caren L; Greenwald, Mark K

    2011-06-01

    Semi-structured interviews were used to assess behavioral economic drug demand in heroin dependent research volunteers. Findings on drug price, competing purchases, and past 30-day income and consumption, established in a previous study, are replicated. We extended these findings by having participants indicate whether hypothetical environmental changes would alter heroin purchasing. Participants (n = 109) reported they would significantly (p < .005) decrease heroin daily purchasing amounts (DPA) from past 30-day levels (M = $60/day) if: (a) they encountered a 33% decrease in income (DPA = $34), (b) family/friends no longer paid their living expenses (DPA = $32), or (c) they faced four-fold greater likelihood of police arrest at their purchasing location (DPA = $42). Participants in higher income quartiles (who purchase more heroin) show greater DPA reductions (but would still buy more heroin) than those in lower income quartiles. For participants receiving government aid (n = 31), heroin purchasing would decrease if those subsidies were eliminated (DPA = $28). Compared to participants whose urine tested negative for cocaine (n = 31), cocaine-positive subjects (n = 32) reported more efficient heroin purchasing, that is, they live closer to their primary dealer; are more likely to have heroin delivered or walk to obtain it (and less likely to ride the bus), thus reducing purchasing time (52 vs. 31 min, respectively); and purchase more heroin per episode. These simulation results have treatment and policy implications: Daily heroin users' purchasing repertoire is very cost-effective, more so for those also using cocaine, and only potent environmental changes (income reductions or increased legal sanctions) may impact this behavior. PMID:21443296

  1. Polysubstance Use and Heroin Relapse among Adolescents following Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Christopher E.; Clemmey, Philip; Harrell, Paul; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study examined posttreatment patterns of polysubstance use and heroin relapse in a sample of 43 adolescents (ages 14-20) entering short-term residential treatment for primary heroin use. At 12-month follow-up, youths that achieved heroin abstinence (N = 19) were significantly less likely than youths that relapsed to heroin (N = 24) to endorse…

  2. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage after heroin use.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neha; Bhalla, Mary Colleen; Frey, Jennifer A; Southern, Alison

    2015-08-01

    Heroin-associated stroke is a rare complication of use. Various proposed mechanisms of heroin-associated ischemic stroke have been proposed, including the following: cardioembolism in the setting of infective endocarditis, hypoxic ischemic brain injury in the setting of hypoxemia and hypotension, and infective arteritis or vasculitis from drug adulterants. A previously healthy 28-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with altered mental status and normal vitals after she was found wandering outside her apartment. During ambulance transport, she endorsed heroin use. The patient was alert but could not recall her name, place, or time. She intermittently responded "I don't know" to questioning and could not perform simple commands. No motor or sensory deficits were apparent other than sluggish pinpoint pupils. There were no signs of trauma other than antecubital track marks. Her laboratory results were unremarkable. Reevaluation at 2 hours after presentation showed persistent confusion and disorientation. A computed tomographic scan of the head was obtained, which showed a large 5.1 × 5-cm intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, vasogenic edema, and a 5-mm midline shift. A workup for cardioembolic, vasculitis, and other etiologies for stroke did not reveal an underlying cause. The patient remained confused with significant memory loss throughout her hospital stay and was eventually discharged to a long-term care facility. Drug abuse should be considered a risk factor for stoke in young adults. In patients with persistent neurologic deficits, physicians must be vigilant and order appropriate workup while managing drug overdose. PMID:25656330

  3. Field ion spectrometry: a new technology for cocaine and heroin detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnahan, Byron L.; Day, Stephen; Kouznetsov, Viktor; Tarassov, Alexandre

    1997-02-01

    Field ion spectrometry, also known as transverse field compensation ion mobility spectrometry, is a new technique for trace gas analysis that can be applied to the detection of cocaine and heroin. Its principle is based on filtering ion species according to the functional dependence of their mobilities with electric field strength. Field ion spectrometry eliminates the gating electrodes needed in conventional IMS to pulse ions into the spectrometer; instead, ions are injected in to the spectrometer and reach the detector continuously, resulting in improved sensitivity. The technique enables analyses that are difficult with conventional constant field strength ion mobility spectrometers. We have shown that a filed ion spectrometer can selectively detect the vapors from cocaine and heroin emitted from both their base and hydrochloride forms. The estimated volumetric limits of detection are in the low pptv range, based on testing with standardized drug vapor generation systems. The spectrometer can detect cocaine base in the vapor phase, at concentrations well below its estimated 100 pptv vapor pressure equivalent at 20 degrees C. This paper describes the underlying principles of field ion spectrometry in relation to narcotic drug detection, and recent results obtained for cocaine and heroin. The work has been sponsored in part by the United States Advanced Research Projects Agency under contract DAAB10-95C-0004, for the DOD Counterdrug Technology Development Program.

  4. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. It is usually used ... to your doctor.Before you use your insulin oral inhaler the first time, read the written instructions ...

  5. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... metered – dose inhaler (MDI), which uses a chemical propellant to push the medication out of the inhaler. ... powder inhalers (DPIs) deliver medication without using chemical propellants, but they require a strong and fast inhalation. ...

  6. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  7. Assessment of the Halogen Content of Brazilian Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM10) Using High Resolution Molecular Absorption Spectrometry and Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with Direct Solid Sample Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Gois, Jefferson S; Almeida, Tarcisio S; Alves, Jeferson C; Araujo, Rennan G O; Borges, Daniel L G

    2016-03-15

    Halogens in the atmosphere play an important role in climate change and also represent a potential health hazard. However, quantification of halogens is not a trivial task, and methods that require minimum sample preparation are interesting alternatives. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of direct solid sample analysis using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS MAS) for F determination and electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for simultaneous Cl, Br, and I determination in airborne inhalable particulate matter (PM10) collected in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Analysis using HR-CS MAS was accomplished by monitoring the CaF molecule, which was generated at high temperatures in the graphite furnace after the addition of Ca. Analysis using ETV-ICP-MS was carried out using Ca as chemical modifier/aerosol carrier in order to avoid losses of Cl, Br, and I during the pyrolysis step, with concomitant use of Pd as a permanent modifier. The direct analysis approach resulted in LODs that were proven adequate for halogen determination in PM10, using either standard addition calibration or calibration against a certified reference material. The method allowed the quantification of the halogens in 14 PM10 samples collected in a northeastern coastal city in Brazil. The results demonstrated variations of halogen content according to meteorological conditions, particularly related to rainfall, humidity, and sunlight irradiation. PMID:26192198

  8. "Addiction Proneness" and Personality in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jerome J.

    1975-01-01

    A carefully controlled comparison of the personality characteristics of heroin addict (n=27) and nonaddict (n=20) offenders was carried out so as to avoid methodological problems associated with earlier studies. (Editor)

  9. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... addictive drugs. Get the facts. Any method of heroin use—snorting, smoking, swallowing, or injecting the drug—can cause immediate harm and lead to addiction. Stay informed. The untimely deaths of several popular ...

  10. Ecstasy: as harmful as heroin?

    PubMed

    Scott, Russ

    2009-12-01

    There is evidence that the use of MDMA (methylenedioxymethamphetamine), colloquially known as "ecstasy" particularly among late adolescents and young adults is increasing in Australia. Despite recent government-sponsored public education programs, there is a perception that recreational use of MDMA is much less harmful than other illicit substances like heroin. Recent seizures by police in Australia underline the extent of the demand for MDMA and how lucrative trafficking in MDMA has become. In two recent Australian cases, appellate courts considered the legislative intent of both State and Commonwealth legislation and held that a quantity-based penalty regime applied which distinguished between "traffickable" and "commercial" quantities of illicit drugs and that no distinction turned on the relative "harmfulness" of MDMA. In examining the question of harmfulness, this column summarises the pharmacology and morbidity of MDMA and considers the links between MDMA and other substances of abuse and the implications for further prevention programs. PMID:20169795

  11. Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... restlessness muscle and bone pain diarrhea vomiting alternating hot and cold flashes with goosebumps kicking movements severe ...

  12. Heroin shortage in Coastal Kenya: A rapid assessment and qualitative analysis of heroin users’ experiences

    PubMed Central

    Mital, Sasha; Miles, Gillian; McLellan-Lemal, Eleanor; Muthui, Mercy; Needle, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction While relatively rare events, abrupt disruptions in heroin availability have a significant impact on morbidity and mortality risk among those who are heroin dependent. A heroin shortage occurred in Coast Province, Kenya from December 2010 to March 2011. This qualitative analysis describes the shortage events and consequences from the perspective of heroin users, along with implications for health and other public sectors. Methods As part of a rapid assessment, 66 key informant interviews and 15 focus groups among heroin users in Coast Province, Kenya were conducted. A qualitative thematic analysis was undertaken in Atlas.ti. to identify salient themes related to the shortage. Results Overall, participant accounts were rooted in a theme of desperation and uncertainty, with emphasis on six sub-themes: (1) withdrawal and strategies for alleviating withdrawal, including use of medical intervention and other detoxification attempts; (2) challenges of dealing with unpredictable drug availability, cost, and purity; (3) changes in drug use patterns, and actions taken to procure heroin and other drugs; (4) modifications in drug user relationship dynamics and networks, including introduction of risky group-level injection practices; (5) family and community response; and (6) new challenges with the heroin market resurgence. Conclusions The heroin shortage led to a series of consequences for drug users, including increased risk of morbidity, mortality and disenfranchisement at social and structural levels. Availability of evidence-based services for drug users and emergency preparedness plans could have mitigated this impact. PMID:26470646

  13. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using a nebulizer, and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. The ... will come in canisters. Each canister of levalbuterol aerosol is designed to provide 200 inhalations. After the ...

  14. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  15. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... in (inhaled). Common types of abused inhalants are: Aerosols, such as air freshener, deodorant, fabric protector, hair ... a gas from a balloon Dusting: Spraying an aerosol into the nose or mouth Glading: Inhaling air- ...

  16. Opioid Painkiller May Be New Treatment for Heroin Addicts

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Opioid Painkiller May Be New Treatment for Heroin Addicts Study finds hydromorphone an effective, widely available, ... opioid painkiller -- may be another treatment option for heroin addiction, a new Canadian study suggests. The research ...

  17. Anti-Addiction Drug May Help Curb Painkiller, Heroin Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Anti-Addiction Drug May Help Curb Painkiller, Heroin Dependence Study finds lower relapse rate associated with ... the country's escalating addiction to opioid painkillers and heroin, a new study suggests. Researchers found that monthly ...

  18. Birth Order and Polydrug Abuse Among Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Steven E.; Linder, Ronald L.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the significance of possible relationships between birth order and polydrug use patterns of heroin addicts prior to undergoing treatment. Overrepresentation of "only child" heroin addicts was evident among the population studied. (Author)

  19. Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Veterans' Painkiller Abuse Can Raise Odds for Heroin Use 3 of 4 who tried the illicit ... narcotic painkillers may be at high risk for heroin use, a new study cautions. The research included ...

  20. Toxic inhalational exposures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tze-Ming Benson; Malli, Harjoth; Maslove, David M; Wang, Helena; Kuschner, Ware G

    2013-01-01

    Respirable toxicants are a spectrum of irritant and nonirritant gases, vapors, fumes, and airborne particles that can be entrained into the body through the respiratory tract, resulting in exposures that cause pulmonary injury and/or systemic disease. Sources of respirable toxicants include structural fires, industrial accidents, domestic mishaps, and intentional releases of injurious agents on the battleground (warfare) or in civilian settings (acts of terrorism). Acute toxic inhalational exposures may result in respiratory failure, multisystem organ dysfunction, and death. Management of victims includes assessment and protection of the airway, monitoring and treatment of systemic toxicity, and delivery of exposure-specific and nonspecific therapies that improve outcomes. Treatments may include antidotes, hyperbaric oxygen, and other nonspecific life-supporting interventions. PMID:22232204

  1. Methadone dosing, heroin affordability, and the severity of addiction.

    PubMed Central

    Bach, P B; Lantos, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to track changes in US heroin prices from 1988 to 1995 and to determine whether changes in the affordability of heroin were associated with changes in the use of heroin by users seeking methadone treatment, as indexed by methadone dose levels. METHODS: Data on the price of heroin were from the Drug Enforcement Administration; data on methadone doses were from surveys conducted in 1988, 1990, and 1995 of 100 methadone maintenance centers. Multivariable models that controlled for time and city effects were used to ascertain whether clinics in cities where heroin was less expensive had patients receiving higher doses of methadone, which would suggest that these patients had relatively higher physiological levels of opiate addiction owing to increased heroin use. RESULTS: The amount of pure heroin contained in a $100 (US) purchase has increased on average 3-fold between 1988 and 1995. The average dose of methadone in clinics was positively associated with the affordability of local heroin (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: When heroin prices fall, heroin addicts require more methadone (a heroin substitute) to stabilize their addiction--evidence that they are consuming more heroin. PMID:10224975

  2. What You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recipes What You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin KidsHealth > For Kids > What You Need to Know About Drugs: Heroin Print A A A Text Size en español ... sobre las drogas: La heroína What It Is: Heroin (say: HAIR-uh-win) comes from the opium ...

  3. Prenatal Inhalation Exposure to Evaporative Condensates of Gasoline with 15% Ethanol and Evaluation of Sensory Function in Adult Rat Offspring

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of ethanol-blended automotive fuels has raised concerns about potential health effects from inhalation exposure to the combination of ethanol and gasoline hydrocarbon vapors. Previously, we evaluated effects of prenatal inhalation exposure to 100% ethanol (E100) ...

  4. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  5. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  6. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  7. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Zanamivir comes as a powder to inhale (breathe in) by mouth. To treat influenza, it is usually inhaled twice daily for 5 days. You should ... plastic inhaler called a Diskhaler (device for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each ...

  8. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in ... Budesonide comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler and as a suspension to inhale by mouth using a special jet nebulizer ( ...

  9. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Ciclesonide is usually inhaled twice a day. Try to use ciclesonide at around ... than usual.The inhaler that comes with ciclesonide aerosol is designed for use only with a canister ...

  10. Effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Walter, M; Bentz, D; Schicktanz, N; Milnik, A; Aerni, A; Gerhards, C; Schwegler, K; Vogel, M; Blum, J; Schmid, O; Roozendaal, B; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; de Quervain, D

    2015-01-01

    Heroin dependence is a severe and chronically relapsing substance use disorder with limited treatment options. Stress is known to increase craving and drug-taking behavior, but it is not known whether the stress hormone cortisol mediates these stress effects or whether cortisol may rather reduce craving, for example, by interfering with addiction memory. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cortisol administration on craving in heroin-dependent patients and to determine whether the effects depend on the daily dose of heroin consumption. We used a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in 29 heroin-dependent patients in a stable heroin-assisted treatment setting. A single oral dose of 20 mg of cortisol or placebo was administered 105 min before the daily heroin administration. The primary outcome measure was cortisol-induced change in craving. Secondary measures included anxiety, anger and withdrawal symptoms. For the visual analog scale for craving, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.0027) between study medication and heroin-dose group (that is, daily low, medium or high dose of heroin). Cortisol administration reduced craving in patients receiving a low dose of heroin (before heroin administration: P = 0.0019; after heroin administration: P = 0.0074), but not in patients receiving a medium or high dose of heroin. In a picture-rating task with drug-related pictures, cortisol administration did not affect the ratings for the picture-characteristic craving in all the three heroin-dose groups. Cortisol also did not significantly affect secondary outcome measures. In conclusion, a single administration of cortisol leads to reduced craving in low-dose heroin addicts. The present findings might have important clinical implications with regard to understanding stress effects and regarding treatment of addiction. PMID:26218852

  11. Racial/ethnic differences in trends in heroin use and heroin-related risk behaviors among nonmedical prescription opioid users*

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Santaella-Tenorio, Julian; Marshall, Brandon D.L.; Maldonado, Adriana; Cerdá, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines changing patterns of past-year heroin use and heroin-related risk behaviors among individuals with nonmedical use of prescription opioids (NMUPO) by racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Methods We used data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002–2005 and 2008–2011, resulting in a total sample of N=448,597. Results Past-year heroin use increased among individuals with NMUPO and increases varied by frequency of past year NMUPO and race/ethnicity. Those with NMUPO in the 2008–2011 period had almost twice the odds of heroin use as those with NMUPO in the 2002–2005 period (OR=1.89, 95%CI: 1.50, 2.39), with higher increases in Non-Hispanic (NH) Whites and Hispanics. In 2008–2011, the risk of past year heroin use, ever injecting heroin, past-year heroin abuse or dependence, and the perception of availability of heroin increased as the frequency of NMUPO increased across respondents of all race/ethnicities. Conclusion Individuals with NMUPO, particularly non-Hispanic Whites, are at high risk of heroin use and heroin-related risk behaviors. These results suggest that frequent nonmedical users of prescription opioids, regardless of race/ethnicity, should be the focus of novel public health efforts to prevent and mitigate the harms of heroin use. PMID:25869542

  12. Stigma towards Marijuana Users and Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Brown, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Despite high levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward individuals with substance use problems, there is surprisingly limited research on understanding the contributors to such high levels. College students with no history of marijuana or heroin use (N=250) completed self-report measures to examine the level of substance use stigma towards individuals using two illicit substances (marijuana and heroin) and the contribution of three perceiver characteristics (sex, previous contact with substance users, and five beliefs about substance use) to three dimensions of stigma (social distance, negative emotions, and forcing treatment). Greater levels of internalized stigma were noted towards individuals who use heroin (versus marijuana). For marijuana use, those who had less previous contact and higher endorsement of certain beliefs (rarity, severity, and less controllability) were associated with greater stigmatizing attitudes. For heroin use, the associations were weak or non-existent. The findings strengthen the argument that substance use stigma needs to be examined and perhaps addressed substance by substance, rather than as a group. Further, contact interventions may be a particularly effective strategy for altering substance use stigma. PMID:26148124

  13. What caused the recent reduction in heroin supply in Australia?

    PubMed

    Wodak, Alex

    2008-08-01

    Heroin availability and purity decreased and prices increased in Australia suddenly in early 2001. The heroin market in Australia has still not returned to the status quo ante after more than six years. Benefits of the heroin shortage, including a substantial reduction in drug overdose deaths and property crime, are generally considered to have outweighed adverse effects which included increased use of other drugs, especially stimulants, with a subsequent increase in aggression, violence and mental illness. Some commentators attributed the heroin shortage to a combination of factors, while an influential study highlighted the importance of supply control asserting that increased funding and improved effectiveness of domestic drug law enforcement produced critical heroin seizures which disrupted major syndicates, thereby producing the heroin shortage. Evidence to support a critical role for drug law enforcement in the heroin shortage is weak with some recent evidence contradicting key assertions used to support the supply control hypothesis. Although the most likely interpretation is still a combination of multiple factors, the most important factors appear to have been a substantial recent reduction in source opium cultivation and heroin production in Burma, but probably also increased heroin consumption en route through China and a switch from heroin to amphetamine production in Burma. This interpretation is consistent with the international experience of several recent decades in numerous countries where national heroin shortages have occurred rarely and generally only briefly, notwithstanding vigorous and very well resourced supply control efforts. The recent reduction in heroin supply in Australia, the most severe, longest lasting and best-documented heroin shortage in the world, cannot be confidently attributed, solely or largely, to improved domestic drug law enforcement. At best, domestic law enforcement may have made a small contribution compared to several

  14. Plasma level monitoring of the major metabolites of diacetylmorphine (heroin) by the "chasing the dragon" route in severe heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Dubois, N; Demaret, I; Ansseau, M; Rozet, E; Hubert, Ph; Charlier, C

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to verify if severe physical health problems frequently encountered in heroin addicts and the concomitant use of alcohol and legal or illegal drugs other than heroin influenced the pharmacokinetics of the major metabolites of heroin. We conducted a 90 minutes follow-up of the plasma concentrations of the pharmaceutical heroin, named diacetylmorphine (DAM), in patients recruited in a DAM assisted treatment centre. TADAM (Traitement Assisté par DiAcétylMorphine) aimed to compare the efficacy of heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) compared with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for heroin users considered as treatment resistant patients and who have severe physical and mental health problems. Eleven patients were recruited. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 15, 45 and 90 minutes after DAM administration. All patients received DAM by the "chasing the dragon" route. Plasma samples were analyzed by a previously described ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS-MS) method. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed and 8 metabolite concentrations ratios were calculated to evaluate the influence of various factors (DAM dose, patient pathologies, concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin, alcohol and cocaine) on heroin metabolite pharmacokinetics. It seemed to be not affected by the DAM dose, patient pathologies and the concomitant use of medications, methadone, street heroin and alcohol. Cocaine use was the only parameter which showed differences in heroin pharmacokinetics. PMID:24579243

  15. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... stop the pieces of capsule from reaching your mouth as you inhale the medication. Very tiny pieces ...

  16. [Analysis of two year heroin seizures in the Liege area].

    PubMed

    Denooz, R; Dubois, N; Charlier, C

    2005-09-01

    The results of heroin analysis from seizures in the Liege area during the last two years are presented in this article. Between January 2003 and January 2005, 50 samples were analysed in the Laboratory of Clinical Toxicology and Forensic Toxicology of the University of Liege. Mean heroin concentration was 14,7%. Noscapine and papaverine, other opium alcaloïds, were simultaneously present with heroin. As diluents, we only identified caffein and acetaminophen. PMID:16265967

  17. Cocaine abuse among heroin addicts in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torrens, M; San, L; Peri, J M; Olle, J M

    1991-01-01

    Abuse of cocaine is becoming a major problem among heroin addicts in Spain. Between 1987 and 1988, 75% of patients admitted as inpatients for detoxification from opiate dependence had consumed cocaine during the 6 months prior to admission and 25% had abused cocaine daily or several times/week. These cocaine abusers showed more toxicologic and psychopathologic problems than opiate addicts who did not abuse cocaine. The opiate addicts who also abused cocaine had begun using illicit drugs earlier and showed a higher frequency of anti-HIV antibodies. They also had more antisocial personality disorders and persistence of depressive symptoms during opiate detoxification than heroin addicts who did not abuse cocaine. Based on these findings, we insist on the need to develop different treatments for detoxifying patients with this dual addiction. PMID:2029857

  18. Rethinking Informed Consent in Research on Heroin-Assisted Treatment.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Susanne; Broers, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Can heroin addicts give consent to research on trials in which heroin is prescribed to them? Analyses of addicts and informed consent have been objects of debate in several articles. Informed consent requires the agent not only to be competent but also to give consent voluntarily. This has been questioned because of alleged features of heroin addiction. Until recently the discussion has focused on heroin addicts' desires for heroin, whether these are irresistible and thus pose a problem for giving consent. Still, in light of empirical evidence, there seems to be a consensus more or less that the problem is not whether the addicts can resist their desire for heroin. A recent article concentrates specifically on heroin addicts' false assumptions of options and voluntariness. We argue that the prevailing framing of the options in this discussion in terms of heroin and access to it is problematic. The way in which the options are typically laid out suggests an assumption that participation in the research is allegedly based on the addicts' views on using the drug. We argue that this way of presenting the options is, first, a mismatch to the studies carried out and, second, symptomatic of potential misconceptions about heroin addiction and addicts. Furthermore, we also suggest that the account of voluntariness needs to be realistic in order for subjects to be able to give consent voluntarily in actual situations, and for medical research to carry out studies on improving outcomes in addiction treatment in an ethical way. PMID:25425507

  19. A VACCINE STRATEGY THAT INDUCES PROTECTIVE IMMUNITY AGAINST HEROIN

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, G. Neil; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Edwards, Scott; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Misra, Kaushik K.; Schulteis, Gery; Mayorov, Alexander V.; Zakhari, Joseph S.; Koob, George F.; Janda, Kim D.

    2011-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a wide-reaching problem with a spectrum of damaging social consequences. A vaccine capable of blocking heroin's effects could provide a long-lasting and sustainable adjunct to heroin addiction therapy. Heroin, however, presents a particularly challenging immunotherapeutic target as it is metabolized to multiple psychoactive molecules. To reconcile this dilemma we examined the idea of a singular vaccine with the potential to display multiple drug-like antigens; thus two haptens were synthesized, one heroin-like and another morphine-like in chemical structure. A key feature in this approach is that immunopresentation with the heroin-like hapten is thought to be immunochemically dynamic such that multiple haptens are simultaneously presented to the immune system. We demonstrate the significance of this approach though the extremely rapid generation of robust polyclonal antibody titers with remarkable specificity. Importantly, both the antinociceptive effects of heroin and acquisition of heroin self-administration were blocked in rats vaccinated using the heroin-like hapten. PMID:21692508

  20. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management. PMID:17761725

  1. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Flunisolide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled twice daily. Try to use flunisolide at around the same times every ... acting medication than usual.Each canister of flunisolide aerosol is designed to provide 60 or 120 inhalations, ...

  2. Synthesis and immunological effects of heroin vaccines.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuying; Cheng, Kejun; Antoline, Joshua F G; Iyer, Malliga R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar B; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan; Alving, Carl R; Parrish, Damon A; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Rice, Kenner C

    2014-10-01

    Three haptens have been synthesized with linkers for attachment to carrier macromolecules at either the piperidino-nitrogen or via an introduced 3-amino group. Two of the haptens, with a 2-oxopropyl functionality at either C6, or at both the C3 and C6 positions on the 4,5-epoxymorphinan framework, as well as the third hapten (DiAmHap) with diamido moieties at both the C3 and C6 positions, should be much more stable in solution, or in vivo in a vaccine, than a hapten with an ester in one of those positions, as found in many heroin-based haptens. A "classical" opioid synthetic scheme enabled the formation of a 3-amino-4,5-epoxymorphinan which could not be obtained using palladium chemistry. Our vaccines are aimed at the reduction of the abuse of heroin and, as well, at the reduction of the effects of its predominant metabolites, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine. One of the haptens, DiAmHap, has given interesting results in a heroin vaccine and is clearly more suited for the purpose than the other two haptens. PMID:24995943

  3. The Textures of Heroin: User Perspectives on "Black Tar" and Powder Heroin in Two U.S. Cities.

    PubMed

    Mars, Sarah G; Bourgois, Philippe; Karandinos, George; Montero, Fernando; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1990s, U.S. heroin consumers have been divided from the full range of available products: east of the Mississippi River, Colombian-sourced powder heroin (PH) dominates the market while, to the west, Mexican-sourced "black tar" (BTH) is the main heroin available. By conducting qualitative research in two exemplar cities, Philadelphia (PH) and San Francisco (BTH), we compare users' experiences of heroin source-types, markets, health consequences, and consumption preferences. The strict division of heroin markets may be changing with novel forms of powder heroin appearing in San Francisco. Our researchers and interviewees perceived vein loss stemming from the injection of heroin alone to be a particular problem of BTH while, among the Philadelphia sample, those who avoided the temptations of nearby cocaine sales displayed healthier injecting sites and reported few vein problems. Abscesses were common across both sites, the Philadelphia sample generally blaming missing a vein when injecting cocaine and the San Francisco group finding several explanations, including the properties of BTH. Consumption preferences revealed a "connoisseurship of potency," with knowledge amassed and deployed to obtain the strongest heroin available. We discuss the reasons that their tastes take this narrow form and its relationship to the structural constraints of the heroin market. PMID:27440088

  4. Days of heroin use predict poor self-reported health in hospitalized heroin users.

    PubMed

    Meshesha, Lidia Z; Tsui, Judith I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Crooks, Denise; Anderson, Bradley J; Herman, Debra S; Stein, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    This study examined associations between substance use behaviors and self-reported health among hospitalized heroin users. Of the 112 participants, 53 (47%) reported good or better health. In multivariable logistic regression models, each day of heroin use in the last month was associated with an 8% lower odds of reporting health as good or better (OR=.92; 95% CI 0.87, 0.97, p<.05). Cocaine, cannabis, cigarettes, alcohol use, unintentional overdose, nor injection drug use was associated with health status. PMID:24045030

  5. Heroin Use: What Communities Should Know. Monthly Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    This action kit was created in response to a rise in heroin use. Facts are provided about the scope of heroin use since it is the one illegal drug that is growing in popularity in some areas among young people. A brief explanation of some treatment options is provided including detoxification, methadone treatment, other medications, and behavioral…

  6. Neurobiological underpinnings of sensation seeking trait in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Liu, Yu-Pin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Zeng, Hong; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-01

    Neurobiological investigation of heroin revealed that abusers of this highly addictive substance show dysregulation in brain circuits for reward processing and cognitive control. Psychologically, personality traits related to reward processing and cognitive control differed between heroin abusers and non-abusers. Yet, there is no direct evidence on the relationship between these neurobiological and psychological findings on heroin abusers, and whether such relationship is altered in these abusers. The present study filled this research gap by integrating findings obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (structural volume and resting-state functional connectivity) and self-reported personality trait measures (Zuckerman׳s Sensation Seeking Scale and Barratt Impulsivity Scale) on 33 abstinent heroin users and 30 matched healthy controls. The key finding is a negative relationship between high sensation seeking tendency and midbrain structural volume in the heroin users. Importantly, there was stronger coupling between the midbrain and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and weaker coupling between the midbrain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in heroin users. Our findings offer significant insight into the neural underpinning of sensation seeking in heroin users. Importantly, the data shed light on a novel relationship between the mesolimbic-prefrontal pathway of the reward system and the high sensation seeking personality trait in heroin abusers. PMID:26364127

  7. The effects of heroin administration and drug cues on impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jermaine D; Vadhan, Nehal P; Luba, Rachel R; Comer, Sandra D

    2016-08-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking and continued use despite negative consequences. Behavioral impulsivity is a strong predictor of the initiation and maintenance of drug addiction. Preclinical data suggest that heroin may exacerbate impulsive characteristics in an individual but this has yet to be assessed in clinical samples. The current secondary data analysis sought to investigate the effects of heroin on impulsivity along with the effects of exposure to drug cues. Using the current data set, we also tentatively assessed the etiological relationship between impulsivity and heroin abuse. Sixteen heroin-dependent participants were recruited to complete Immediate Memory Task/Delayed Memory Task (IMT/DMT) and GoStop tasks following repeated heroin administration, following acute heroin administration, and following a drug cue exposure session. Four preceding days of active heroin availability, compared to four preceding days of placebo drug availability, increased impulsivity assessed using the IMT and DMT. Presentation of drug cues similarly acted to increase impulsivity assessments on all three tasks. It also appears that heavier users were more susceptible to the influence of drug cues on impulsivity. The present study represents a step toward a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between opioid abuse and impulsivity. A better understanding of these factors could provide critical insight into the maintenance of heroin use and relapse. PMID:27062912

  8. Managing Heroin Addiction in an Outpatient Setting: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Malliarakis, Kate Driscoll

    2015-12-01

    Heroin use may be under-recognized among older adults. Baby Boomers are the largest age as well as the largest drug-using cohort in modern history. Although some drug users age out of their addiction, others do not. Nurses caring for older adults may come into contact with heroin users due to associated conditions or sequelae of their drug use that cause them to seek care. Few nurses are prepared to provide the care needed when heroin use accompanies other health problems. Using an individual example, the current article provides guidance for identifying heroin addiction, essential information about heroin use, and resources for guiding patients to experts for the comprehensive care needed for recovery. PMID:26594950

  9. Relative abuse liability of prescription opioids compared to heroin in morphine-maintained heroin abusers

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D; Sullivan, Maria A; Whittington, Robert A; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Kowalczyk, William J

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of prescription opioid medications has increased dramatically in the U.S. during the past decade, as indicated by a variety of epidemiological sources. However, few studies have systematically examined the relative reinforcing effects of commonly abused opioid medications. The current double-blind, placebo-controlled inpatient study was designed to compare the effects of intravenously delivered fentanyl (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.187, and 0.250 mg/70 kg), oxycodone (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg), morphine (0, 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/70 kg), buprenorphine (0, 0.125, 0.5, 2, and 8 mg/70 kg), and heroin (0, 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/70 kg) in morphine-maintained heroin abusers (N=8 completers maintained on 120 mg per day oral morphine in divided doses [30 mg q.i.d.]). All of the participants received all of the drugs tested; drugs and doses were administered in non-systematic order. All of the drugs produced statistically significant, dose-related increases in positive subjective ratings, such as “I feel a good drug effect” and “I like the drug.” In general, the order of potency in producing these effects, from most to least potent, was: fentanyl > buprenorphine ≥ heroin > morphine = oxycodone. In contrast, buprenorphine was the only drug that produced statistically significant increases in ratings of “I feel a bad drug effect” and it was the only drug that was not self-administered above placebo levels at any dose tested. These data suggest that the abuse liability of buprenorphine in heroin-dependent individuals may be low, despite the fact that it produces increases in positive subjective ratings. The abuse liabilities of fentanyl, morphine, oxycodone, and heroin, however, appear to be similar under these experimental conditions. PMID:17581533

  10. Escalation Patterns of Varying Periods of Heroin Access

    PubMed Central

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Misra, Kaushik K.; Chen, Scott A.; Greenwell, Thomas N.; Koob, George F.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of opioid abuse and dependence has been on the rise in just the past few years. Animal studies indicate that extended access to heroin produces escalation of intake over time, whereas stable intake is observed under limited-access conditions. Escalation of drug intake has been suggested to model the transition from controlled drug use to compulsive drug seeking and taking. Here, we directly compared the pattern of heroin intake in animals with varying periods of heroin access. Food intake was also monitored over the course of escalation. Rats were allowed to lever press on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule of reinforcement to receive intravenous infusions of heroin for 1, 6, 12, or 23 h per day for 14 sessions. The results showed that heroin intake in the 12 and 23 h groups markedly increased over time, whereas heroin intake in the 1 h group was stable. The 6 h group showed a significant but modest escalation of intake. Total heroin intake was similar in the 12 and 23 h groups, but the rate of heroin self-administration was two-fold higher in the 12 h group compared with the 23 h group. Food intake decreased over sessions only in the 12 h group. The 12 and 23 h groups showed marked physical signs of naloxone-precipitated withdrawal. These findings suggest that 12 h heroin access per day may be the optimal access time for producing escalation of heroin intake. The advantages of this model and the potential relevance for studying drug addiction are discussed. PMID:21406200

  11. Personality Differences among Black, White, and Hispanic-American Male Heroin Addicts on MMPI Content Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, M. P.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Assessed personality differences among Black, White, and Hispanic-American heroin addicts (N=423). Results confirmed the hypotheses that minority group heroin addicts (Blacks and Hispanics) would show better adjustment than White heroin addicts and that Hispanic-American heroin addicts would evidence personality characteristics unlike those of…

  12. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  13. The Unsung Heroines 1935-1965

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Martha L.

    2000-04-01

    The middle years of the 20th century found many women working on problems in stellar astrophysics and making significant contributions to the field. But, for the most part, their names are not nearly as well known today as Fleming, Canon and Payne, before them; or as Tinsley, who came afterwards. Important papers were published during this period by Reilly, Iwanowska, Roman, Underhill, Sawyer Hogg, and Swope, among others. This talk will review the contributions of these little-recognized and under-appreciated heroines of mid-century astrophysics.

  14. [Efficiency of noophen in heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Kuchkarov, U I; Ashurov, Z Sh; Sultanov, Sh Kh

    2009-01-01

    24 patients with heroin addiction have been observed with the purpose to assess cognitive and neurosis-like disorders during the treatment with Noofen. The methods of research included clinical-psychopathological examination. The course therapy with Noofen reduced intensity of memory and attention disorders and improved general cognitive status of the patients. The therapy with Noofen has not increased a pathological drive to narcotics. Noofen use has improve cognitive sphere alongside with reduction in concomitant psychopathological symptoms including depressive and other disorders. PMID:20455452

  15. The price elasticity of demand for heroin: matched longitudinal and experimental evidence#

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Todd A.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Kline, Brendan; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports estimates of the price elasticity of demand for heroin based on a newly constructed dataset. The dataset has two matched components concerning the same sample of regular heroin users: longitudinal information about real-world heroin demand (actual price and actual quantity at daily intervals for each heroin user in the sample) and experimental information about laboratory heroin demand (elicited by presenting the same heroin users with scenarios in a laboratory setting). Two empirical strategies are used to estimate the price elasticity of demand for heroin. The first strategy exploits the idiosyncratic variation in the price experienced by a heroin user over time that occurs in markets for illegal drugs. The second strategy exploits the experimentally-induced variation in price experienced by a heroin user across experimental scenarios. Both empirical strategies result in the estimate that the conditional price elasticity of demand for heroin is approximately −0.80. PMID:25702687

  16. The price elasticity of demand for heroin: Matched longitudinal and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Olmstead, Todd A; Alessi, Sheila M; Kline, Brendan; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports estimates of the price elasticity of demand for heroin based on a newly constructed dataset. The dataset has two matched components concerning the same sample of regular heroin users: longitudinal information about real-world heroin demand (actual price and actual quantity at daily intervals for each heroin user in the sample) and experimental information about laboratory heroin demand (elicited by presenting the same heroin users with scenarios in a laboratory setting). Two empirical strategies are used to estimate the price elasticity of demand for heroin. The first strategy exploits the idiosyncratic variation in the price experienced by a heroin user over time that occurs in markets for illegal drugs. The second strategy exploits the experimentally induced variation in price experienced by a heroin user across experimental scenarios. Both empirical strategies result in the estimate that the conditional price elasticity of demand for heroin is approximately -0.80. PMID:25702687

  17. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  18. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  19. Gender Differences Among Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    HAMILTON, ALISON B.; GRELLA, CHRISTINE E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives This purpose of this study was to explore the following question: Are there gender differences among older individuals with a history of heroin addiction with regard to social and family relationships and health problems? Methods Eight gender-specific focus groups were conducted with 38 (19 women, 19 men) older (50+ years) individuals with long-term histories of heroin dependence. Four groups were conducted in a methadone maintenance (MM) clinic and four groups were derived from the Los Angeles community. Results Modest gender differences were observed, but mainly in the focus-group dynamics. Women typically described the impact of their addiction on their families, while men typically described their surprise at still being alive. Hepatitis C was the primary health concern in all groups; mental health issues were also discussed. Discussion Remarkable gender differences were not apparent in the qualitative experiences of these participants. Instead, we found overriding similarities related to the interactive effects of drug use and aging. Longitudinal studies of this population as they age and interact with the health-care system and other social systems will help to untangle the complicated relationship between aging, drug addiction, gender, and health. PMID:19418342

  20. Prescription naloxone: a novel approach to heroin overdose prevention.

    PubMed

    Sporer, Karl A; Kral, Alex H

    2007-02-01

    The mortality and morbidity from heroin overdose have increased in the United States and internationally in the last decade. The lipid solubility allows the rapid deposition of heroin and its metabolites into the central nervous system and accounts for the "rush" experienced by users and for the toxicity. Risk factors for fatal and nonfatal heroin overdoses such as recent abstinence, decreased opiate tolerance, and polydrug use have been identified. Opiate substitution treatment such as methadone or buprenorphine is the only proven method of heroin overdose prevention. Death from a heroin overdose most commonly occurs 1 to 3 hours after injection at home in the company of other people. Numerous communities have taken advantage of this opportunity for treatment by implementing overdose prevention education to active heroin users, as well as prescribing naloxone for home use. Naloxone is a specific opiate antagonist without agonist properties or potential for abuse. It is inexpensive and nonscheduled and readily reverses the respiratory depression and sedation caused by heroin, as well as causing transient withdrawal symptoms. Program implementation considerations, legal ramifications, and research needs for prescription naloxone are discussed. PMID:17141138

  1. Historiography taking issue: analyzing an experiment with heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Dehue, Trudy

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the predicament of historians becoming part of the history they are investigating and illustrates the issue in a particular case. The case is that of the randomized controlled trial (RCT)-more specifically, its use for testing the effects of providing heroin to severe heroin abusers. I counter the established view of the RCT as a matter of timeless logic and argue that this research design was developed in the context of administrative knowledge making under twentieth-century economic liberalism of which it epitomizes some central values. I also argue that the applicability of the RCT depends on the degree to which its advocates can define the issue to be studied according to its inherent values. Next, I demonstrate how advocates of an RCT with heroin provision in the Netherlands steered the political discussion on heroin provision and how the values of economic liberalism also shaped the results of the Dutch maintenance experiment. In addition, I relate how my analysis of this experiment became part of political debates in the Netherlands. Contrary to my intentions, adversaries of heroin maintenance used my critique on the heroin RCT as an argument against heroin maintenance. Such risks are inherent to historiography and sociology of science aiming at practical relevance while challenging treasured scientific beliefs. I conclude that it still seems better to expose arguments on unjustified certainties than to suppress them for strategic reasons. PMID:15237417

  2. Apoptosis may involve in prenatally heroin exposed neurobehavioral teratogenicity?

    PubMed

    Ying, Wang; Jang, Farhan Fateh; Teng, Chen; Tai-Zhen, Han

    2009-12-01

    Heroin abuse during pregnancy is a serious problem worldwide. Among all the illicit drugs, heroin is known as the most commonly abused opioid in the United States and China. Most women addicts are of child-bearing age. Heroin abuse during pregnancy, together with related factors like poor nutrition and inadequate maternal care, has been associated with adverse consequences including developmental delay of the offspring and their neurobehavioral teratogenicity. Researchers have done a lot of work to focus mainly on the variation of neurobehavior and its related factors such as the changes of neurotransmitters, receptors and involvement of the limited brain regions, but no one clearly and comprehensively explain the possible mechanism that may participate in the neurobehavioral teratogenicity induced by prenatal heroin exposure. Studies on animals have shown that heroin is a common neuroteratogen which can produce neurobehavioral defects. There must be some underlying mechanisms in the central nervous system which may take part in these defects. We hypothesized that the alterations in developmental apoptosis during embryogenesis could be one of the possible mechanisms which can cause neurobehavioral teratogenicity in prenatally heroin exposed offspring. Heroin is believed to pass through the placenta and blood-brain barrier much more rapidly than morphine due to the presence of acetyl groups and affects the developing brain. So far, it still remains obscure that whether the apoptosis in a particular brain region induced by heroin exposure in uterus is involved in neurobehavioral teratogenicity. Our hypothesis perhaps provides a more logical and possible explanation of the mechanism responsible for neurobehavioral teratogenicity caused by the prenatal heroin exposure during embryonic development. It can help to develop appropriate experimental animal models to understand the detailed mechanisms involved. PMID:19822399

  3. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G

    1997-11-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. PMID:9519180

  4. Suicide Risk of Heroin Dependent Subjects in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Kazour, François; Soufia, Michel; Rohayem, Jihane; Richa, Sami

    2016-07-01

    The aim is to determine the frequency of suicidal behavior and associated factors among heroin dependent inpatients. 61 heroin dependent inpatients (vs. 61 controls) were assessed on their pattern of substance use, impulsivity, depression and suicidal behavior. 37.7 % of patients had a personal history of suicidal attempt (SA), 14.8 % had current suicidal ideation. SA was associated to younger age at first substance use and to higher rates of depression and impulsivity. IV heroin overdose was the most frequent mode of SA (47.8 %). Long duration, multiple drug use, and family history of suicide were associated with higher risk of suicide among lebanese patients. PMID:26424734

  5. Staff concerns in heroin-assisted treatment centres.

    PubMed

    Demaret, I; Lemaître, A; Ansseau, M

    2012-08-01

    Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) is a solution for improving the condition of treatment-resistant heroin addicts. Since 1994, six randomized controlled trials have concluded that HAT is more efficacious than oral methadone for severe heroin addicts. We visited seven HAT treatment centres in four countries in order to observe diacetylmorphine (DAM) administration and to study the main concerns of the staff. Nurses were concerned by the risk taken if a previously intoxicated patient received his dose of DAM. Another concern was the smuggling of DAM doses. The HAT centres face a dilemma: treating patients while at the same time allowing their risky street habits in the centre. PMID:22074590

  6. Understanding Heroin Overdose: A Study of the Acute Respiratory Depressant Effects of Injected Pharmaceutical Heroin

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Caroline J.; Bell, James; Rafferty, Gerrard F.; Moxham, John; Strang, John

    2015-01-01

    Opioids are respiratory depressants and heroin/opioid overdose is a major contributor to the excess mortality of heroin addicts. The individual and situational variability of respiratory depression caused by intravenous heroin is poorly understood. This study used advanced respiratory monitoring to follow the time course and severity of acute opioid-induced respiratory depression. 10 patients (9/10 with chronic airflow obstruction) undergoing supervised injectable opioid treatment for heroin addiction received their usual prescribed dose of injectable opioid (diamorphine or methadone) (IOT), and their usual prescribed dose of oral opioid (methadone or sustained release oral morphine) after 30 minutes. The main outcome measures were pulse oximetry (SpO2%), end-tidal CO2% (ETCO2%) and neural respiratory drive (NRD) (quantified using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography). Significant respiratory depression was defined as absence of inspiratory airflow >10s, SpO2% < 90% for >10s and ETCO2% per breath >6.5%. Increases in ETCO2% indicated significant respiratory depression following IOT in 8/10 patients at 30 minutes. In contrast, SpO2% indicated significant respiratory depression in only 4/10 patients, with small absolute changes in SpO2% at 30 minutes. A decline in NRD from baseline to 30 minutes post IOT was also observed, but was not statistically significant. Baseline NRD and opioid-induced drop in SpO2% were inversely related. We conclude that significant acute respiratory depression is commonly induced by opioid drugs prescribed to treat opioid addiction. Hypoventilation is reliably detected by capnography, but not by SpO2% alone. Chronic suppression of NRD in the presence of underlying lung disease may be a risk factor for acute opioid-induced respiratory depression. PMID:26495843

  7. Understanding Heroin Overdose: A Study of the Acute Respiratory Depressant Effects of Injected Pharmaceutical Heroin.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Caroline J; Bell, James; Rafferty, Gerrard F; Moxham, John; Strang, John

    2015-01-01

    Opioids are respiratory depressants and heroin/opioid overdose is a major contributor to the excess mortality of heroin addicts. The individual and situational variability of respiratory depression caused by intravenous heroin is poorly understood. This study used advanced respiratory monitoring to follow the time course and severity of acute opioid-induced respiratory depression. 10 patients (9/10 with chronic airflow obstruction) undergoing supervised injectable opioid treatment for heroin addiction received their usual prescribed dose of injectable opioid (diamorphine or methadone) (IOT), and their usual prescribed dose of oral opioid (methadone or sustained release oral morphine) after 30 minutes. The main outcome measures were pulse oximetry (SpO2%), end-tidal CO2% (ETCO2%) and neural respiratory drive (NRD) (quantified using parasternal intercostal muscle electromyography). Significant respiratory depression was defined as absence of inspiratory airflow >10s, SpO2% < 90% for >10s and ETCO2% per breath >6.5%. Increases in ETCO2% indicated significant respiratory depression following IOT in 8/10 patients at 30 minutes. In contrast, SpO2% indicated significant respiratory depression in only 4/10 patients, with small absolute changes in SpO2% at 30 minutes. A decline in NRD from baseline to 30 minutes post IOT was also observed, but was not statistically significant. Baseline NRD and opioid-induced drop in SpO2% were inversely related. We conclude that significant acute respiratory depression is commonly induced by opioid drugs prescribed to treat opioid addiction. Hypoventilation is reliably detected by capnography, but not by SpO2% alone. Chronic suppression of NRD in the presence of underlying lung disease may be a risk factor for acute opioid-induced respiratory depression. PMID:26495843

  8. Facial recognition of heroin vaccine opiates: type 1 cross-reactivities of antibodies induced by hydrolytically stable haptenic surrogates of heroin, 6-acetylmorphine, and morphine.

    PubMed

    Matyas, Gary R; Rice, Kenner C; Cheng, Kejun; Li, Fuying; Antoline, Joshua F G; Iyer, Malliga R; Jacobson, Arthur E; Mayorov, Alexander V; Beck, Zoltan; Torres, Oscar B; Alving, Carl R

    2014-03-14

    Novel synthetic compounds similar to heroin and its major active metabolites, 6-acetylmorphine and morphine, were examined as potential surrogate haptens for the ability to interface with the immune system for a heroin vaccine. Recent studies have suggested that heroin-like haptens must degrade hydrolytically to induce independent immune responses both to heroin and to the metabolites, resulting in antisera containing mixtures of antibodies (type 2 cross-reactivity). To test this concept, two unique hydrolytically stable haptens were created based on presumed structural facial similarities to heroin or to its active metabolites. After conjugation of a heroin-like hapten (DiAmHap) to tetanus toxoid and mixing with liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A, high titers of antibodies after two injections in mice had complementary binding sites that exhibited strong type 1 ("true") specific cross-reactivity with heroin and with both of its physiologically active metabolites. Mice immunized with each surrogate hapten exhibited reduced antinociceptive effects caused by injection of heroin. This approach obviates the need to create hydrolytically unstable synthetic heroin-like compounds to induce independent immune responses to heroin and its active metabolites for vaccine development. Facial recognition of hydrolytically stable surrogate haptens by antibodies together with type 1 cross-reactivities with heroin and its metabolites can help to guide synthetic chemical strategies for efficient development of a heroin vaccine. PMID:24486371

  9. Heroin body packing: three fatal cases of intestinal perforation.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, K D; Pierre-Louis, P J; Zaretski, L; Williams, A W; Lin, R L; Natarajan, G A

    2000-01-01

    Death from heroin body packing has been well described in the forensic literature. Most fatalities are due to drug leakage and consequent acute heroin toxicity. Recently, drug traffickers have become more sophisticated in their packaging, and the risk of rupture of drug packets is more remote. Though intestinal obstruction is a recognized risk of body packing, rarely has this resulted in death. We describe four cases of heroin body packing presenting to the Regional Medical Examiner Office in New Jersey. Death in three of these cases was due to intestinal obstruction, with resultant intestinal rupture and peritonitis. Toxicologic evaluation in these three cases was negative for opiates or other drugs of abuse. In one case, death was due to acute heroin toxicity, validated by toxicologic analysis. We briefly discuss the differing drug packaging found in these four cases and the ramifications of packaging as it relates to intestinal obstruction. PMID:10641918

  10. Diacetylmorphine (heroin) body packer presenting with respiratory arrest.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Arshad; Abbas, Shahid

    2009-04-01

    Intracorporeal concealment of illicit drugs known as 'body packing' is uncommonly reported. A body packer with swallowed capsules containing Diacetylmorphine (heroin) for smuggling purposes presented with respiratory arrest and recovered after ventilatory support and nalaxone infusion. PMID:19356347

  11. Quinine-induced thrombocytopenia following intravenous use of heroin

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, D.J.; Walker, R.H.; Kolins, M.D.; Wilner, F.M.; Aster, R.H.

    1983-06-01

    Profound thrombocytopenia developed in a 22-year-old man after intravenous use of heroin. A high-titer, quinine-dependent, platelet-specific antibody was detected in his serum using lysis of normal platelets labeled with chromium 51 and an electroimmunoassay for measurement of platelet-associated IgG. The antibody was specific for quinine and failed to react with platelets in the presence of quinidine hydrochloride or two structural analogues of heroin. Quinine, a common adulterant found in heroin, was detected in the patient's blood and urine. On the basis of these observations, the patient was judged to have quinine-induced immunologic thrombocytopenia. To our knowledge, this report is the first to confirm that quinine used as an adulterant can induce immunologic thrombocytopenia following an injection of heroin.

  12. Outpatient Heroin Detoxification with Acupuncture and Staplepuncture

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Forest S.

    1976-01-01

    Eighteen heroin addicts were treated as outpatients with acupuncture, electrical stimulation and staplepuncture. Results of treatment were compared with results in two similar groups of 18 persons in whom detoxification was carried out using methadone and propoxyphene napsylate. Withdrawal symptoms were relieved for about two hours in most of the patients after a treatment episode of acupuncture and electrical stimulation. Staplepuncture, which is the manipulation by hand of a surgical staple implanted in the concha of the ear, was reported to relieve withdrawal symptoms at least partially in approximately 40 percent of subjects. In only one person of the group treated with acupuncture or staplepuncture was complete detoxification achieved, compared with 13 and 10 persons, respectively, in the methadone and propoxyphene napsylate groups (p<.001). Use of acupuncture and staplepuncture in outpatient clinics may be limited unless techniques can be found that will relieve withdrawal symptoms for a longer period than that observed in this study. PMID:1086037

  13. Prevalence of heroin markers in urine for pain management patients.

    PubMed

    Knight, Julie; Puet, Brandi L; DePriest, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Hild, Cheryl; Black, David L; Robert, Timothy; Caplan, Yale H; Cone, Edward J

    2014-10-01

    Surveys of current trends indicate heroin abuse is associated with nonmedical use of pain relievers. Consequently, there is an interest in evaluating the presence of heroin-specific markers in chronic pain patients who are prescribed controlled substances. A total of 926,084 urine specimens from chronic pain patients were tested for heroin/diacetylmorphine (DAM), 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), 6-acetylcodeine (6AC), codeine (COD), and morphine (MOR). Heroin and markers were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). Opiates were analyzed following hydrolysis using LC-MS-MS. The prevalence of heroin use was 0.31%, as 2871 were positive for one or more heroin-specific markers including DAM, 6AM, or 6AC (a known contaminant of illicit heroin). Of these, 1884 were additionally tested for the following markers of illicit drug use: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine (MAMP), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetracannabinol (THCCOOH), and benzoylecgonine (BZE); 654 (34.7%) had positive findings for one or more of these analytes. The overall prevalence of heroin markers were as follows: DAM 1203 (41.9%), 6AM 2570 (89.5%), 6AC 1082 (37.7%). MOR was present in 2194 (76.4%) and absent (heroin-positive specimens. COD was present in 1218 (42.4%) specimens. Prevalence of combinations for specimens containing MOR were as follows: DAM only 13 (0.59%), 6AM only 1140 (52.0%), 6AC only 24 (1.1%), DAM/6AM/6AC 710 (32.4%), 6AM/6AC 188 (8.6%), DAM/6AM 113 (5.2%), DAM/6AC 6 (0.27%). Importantly, the prevalence of combinations for specimens without MOR were as follows: DAM only 161 (23.8%), 6AM only 217 (32.1%), 6AC only 92 (13.6%), DAM/6AM/6AC 50 (7.4%), 6AM/6AC 7 (1.0%), DAM/6AM 145 (21.4%), DAM/6AC 5 (0.74%). Unexpected patterns of excretion were observed, such as the presence of DAM and 6AC in the absence of 6AM and MOR; therefore, multiple heroin markers may be useful to assess for

  14. Glutamate release in the nucleus accumbens core is necessary for heroin seeking.

    PubMed

    LaLumiere, Ryan T; Kalivas, Peter W

    2008-03-19

    Long-term changes in glutamate transmission in the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) contribute to the reinstatement of drug seeking after extinction of cocaine self-administration. Whether similar adaptations in glutamate transmission occur during heroin and cue-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking is unknown. After 2 weeks of heroin self-administration and 2 weeks of subsequent extinction training, heroin seeking was induced by a noncontingent injection of heroin or by presentation of light/tone cues previously paired with heroin infusions. Microdialysis was conducted in the NAcore during reinstatement of heroin seeking in animals extinguished from heroin self-administration or in subjects receiving parallel (yoked) noncontingent saline or heroin. Reinstatement by either heroin or cue increased extracellular glutamate in the NAcore in the self-administration group, but no increase was elicited during heroin-induced reinstatement in the yoked control groups. The increase in glutamate during heroin-induced drug seeking was abolished by inhibiting synaptic transmission in the NAcore with tetrodotoxin or by inhibiting glutamatergic afferents to the NAcore from the prelimbic cortex. Supporting critical involvement of glutamate release, heroin seeking induced by cue or heroin was blocked by inhibiting AMPA/kainate glutamate receptors in the NAcore. Interestingly, although a heroin-priming injection increased dopamine equally in animals trained to self-administer heroin and in yoked-saline subjects, inhibition of dopamine receptors in the NAcore also blocked heroin- and cue-induced drug seeking. Together, these findings show that recruitment of the glutamatergic projection from the prelimbic cortex to NAcore is necessary to initiate the reinstatement of heroin seeking. PMID:18354020

  15. Inhalation treatment for asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, J; Warner, J O

    1986-01-01

    Inhaled medication has revolutionised the lives of many children with asthma. Despite this we see many children for whom appropriate inhaled medication has been prescribed but whose symptoms continue to be poorly controlled. In our experience this is often due to poor technique or inappropriately prescribed devices and an inadequate understanding of when and how to use the treatment. The prescribing physician must have a clear idea of the optimal inhalation technique. We have reviewed the standard devices available and our use of them in the treatment of childhood asthma. PMID:3082295

  16. Neuroelectrophysiological approaches in heroin addiction research: A review of literatures.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Farid; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Menke, J Michael; Rashid, Rusdi; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-04-01

    Neuroelectrophysiological properties have been used in human heroin addiction studies. These studies vary in their approach, experimental conditions, paradigms, and outcomes. However, it is essential to integrate previous findings and experimental methods for a better demonstration of current issues and challenges in designing such studies. This Review examines methodologies and experimental conditions of neuroelectrophysiological research among heroin addicts during withdrawal, abstinence, and methadone maintenance treatment and presents the findings. The results show decrements in attentional processing and dysfunctions in brain response inhibition as well as brain activity abnormalities induced by chronic heroin abuse. Chronic heroin addiction causes increased β and α2 power activity, latency of P300 and P600, and diminished P300 and P600 amplitude. Findings confirm that electroencephalography (EEG) band power and coherence are associated with craving indices and heroin abuse history. First symptoms of withdrawal can be seen in high-frequency EEG bands, and the severity of these symptoms is associated with brain functional connectivity. EEG spectral changes and event-related potential (ERP) properties have been shown to be associated with abstinence length and tend to normalize within 3-6 months of abstinence. From the conflicting criteria and confounding effects in neuroelectrophysiological studies, the authors suggest a comprehensive longitudinal study with a multimethod approach for monitoring EEG and ERP attributes of heroin addicts from early stages of withdrawal until long-term abstinence to control the confounding effects, such as nicotine abuse and other comorbid and premorbid conditions. PMID:26748947

  17. Morphine-like insomnia from heroin in nondependent human addicts.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, D C; Pickworth, W B; Neider, G L

    1981-01-01

    1 This study was performed because dose-related effects of heroin on human sleep had not been described previously, and to discover if heroin produces a morphine-like insomnia. 2 After three adaptation nights, the sleep of seven male nondependent opiate addicts was studied following i.m. doses of heroin (3, 6, 12 mg/70 kg), morphine (10, 20 mg/70 kg) or placebo at weekly intervals in a randomized double-blind crossover design. 3 Heroin produces a dose-related increase in wakefulness, drowsiness episodes, muscle tension, and shifts in sleep-waking states. 4 Heroin produces a dose-related decrease in total sleep, sleep efficiency, delta sleep and REM sleep (REMS). 5 Heroin is about twice as potent as morphine in producing this type of insomnia. 6 'Morphine insomnia' appears to be a characteristic initial effect of several opioids, at least in nondependent opiate addicts, and might serve as a model insomnia for evaluation of hypnotics. PMID:7213520

  18. ZNF804A variants confer risk for heroin addiction and affect decision making and gray matter volume in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhao, Li-Yan; Wang, Gui-Bin; Yue, Wei-Hua; He, Yong; Shu, Ni; Lin, Qi-Xiang; Wang, Fan; Li, Jia-Li; Chen, Na; Wang, Hui-Min; Kosten, Thomas R; Feng, Jia-Jia; Wang, Jun; Tang, Yu-De; Liu, Shu-Xue; Deng, Gui-Fa; Diao, Gan-Huan; Tan, Yun-Long; Han, Hong-Bin; Lin, Lu; Shi, Jie

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction shares common neurobiological pathways and risk genes with other psychiatric diseases, including psychosis. One of the commonly identified risk genes associated with broad psychosis has been ZNF804A. We sought to test whether psychosis risk variants in ZNF804A increase the risk of heroin addiction by modulating neurocognitive performance and gray matter volume (GMV) in heroin addiction. Using case-control genetic analysis, we compared the distribution of ZNF804A variants (genotype and haplotype) in 1035 heroin abusers and 2887 healthy subjects. We also compared neurocognitive performance (impulsivity, global cognitive ability and decision-making ability) in 224 subjects and GMV in 154 subjects based on the ZNF804A variants. We found significant differences in the distribution of ZNF804A intronic variants (rs1344706 and rs7597593) allele and haplotype frequencies between the heroin and control groups. Decision-making impairment was worse in heroin abusers who carried the ZNF804A risk allele and haplotype. Subjects who carried more risk alleles and haplotypes of ZNF804A had greater GMV in the bilateral insular cortex, right temporal cortex and superior parietal cortex. The interaction between heroin addiction and ZNF804A variants affected GMV in the left sensorimotor cortex. Our findings revealed several ZNF804A variants that were significantly associated with the risk of heroin addiction, and these variants affected decision making and GMV in heroin abusers compared with controls. The precise neural mechanisms that underlie these associations are unknown, which requires future investigations of the effects of ZNF804A on both dopamine neurotransmission and the relative increases in the volume of various brain areas. PMID:25708696

  19. The dopamine receptor antagonist levo-tetrahydropalmatine attenuates heroin self-administration and heroin-induced reinstatement in rats.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Ma, Baomiao; Ru, Qin; Chen, Lin; Gan, Yongping; Wang, Daisong; Jin, Guozhang; Li, Chaoying

    2012-07-01

    Opiate addiction is a chronic recrudescent disorder characterized by a high rate of relapse. Levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an alkaloid substance extracted from Corydalis and Stephania and is contained in a number of traditional Chinese herbal preparations. Compared to other dopamine receptor antagonists, l-THP has lower affinity for D2 receptors than for D1 receptors, and a recent study showed that l-THP also binds to D3 receptors, possibly functioning as an antagonist. The unique pharmacological profile of l-THP suggests that l-THP may be effective for the treatment of opiate addiction. In this study, we investigated the effects of l-THP on heroin self-administration and reinstatement triggered by a priming injection of heroin in abstinent rats trained to stably self-administer heroin under an extinction/reinstatement protocol, and found that l-THP (2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased heroin self-administration on the fixed-ratio 1 schedule and dose-dependently (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior. Importantly, l-THP (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect locomotion, indicating that the observed effects of l-THP on reinstatement do not appear to be due to motor impairments. The present results demonstrated that dopamine receptor antagonist l-THP attenuates heroin self-administration and heroin-induced reinstatement. PMID:22741173

  20. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  1. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use olodaterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  2. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic ... the puff; continue to take a full, deep breath. Take the inhaler away from you mouth, hold ...

  3. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the dose counter go down. Do not waste doses by opening the inhaler unless you are ... refrigerator or at room temperature away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Store the ...

  4. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  5. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulties (bronchospasm) caused by exercise, cold and dry air, or by inhaling substances such as pet dander, ... of substances that cause inflammation (swelling) in the air passages of the lungs.

  6. Arformoterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... Sit upright and place the mouthpiece in your mouth or put on the facemask. Turn on the ...

  7. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has been sprayed or put into a paper or plastic bag Ballooning: Inhaling a gas from ... empty soda cans, empty perfume bottles, and toilet paper tubes stuffed with rags or toilet paper soaked ...

  8. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk. PMID:25216851

  9. Investigation of trace inorganic elements in street doses of heroin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kar-Weng; Tan, Guan-Huat; Wong, Richard C S

    2013-03-01

    Sixteen trace elements found in 309 street heroin samples, piped water and contaminated water were determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. All the street heroin samples were found to contain high levels of sodium, a reflection of the use of sodium bicarbonate during heroin synthesis. Additionally, this element was also found to be one of the potential contaminants acquired from the piped water. Calcium could be derived from lime while iron, aluminum and zinc could have come from the metallic container used in the processing/cutting stage. The levels of these elements remained low in the heroin and it could be due to the dilution effects from the addition of adulterants. Statistical validation was performed with six links of related heroin samples using principal component analysis to find the best pretreatment for sample classification. It was obtained that normalization followed by fourth root showed promising results with 8% errors in the sample clustering. The technique was then applied to the case samples. Finally, the result suggested that the case samples could have originated from at least two major groups respectively showing unique elemental profiles at the street level. PMID:23380066

  10. Depressive symptoms differentiating between heroin addicts and alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Steer, R A; Beck, A T; Shaw, B F

    1985-05-01

    The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was self-administered to 105 outpatient alcoholics and 211 methadone maintenance patients seeking treatment at a large community mental health center to determine whether or not specific depressive symptoms differentiated the groups. Canonical correlations were first calculated between the set of 21 BDI items and the patients' demographic characteristics of sex, race and age to ascertain if these characteristics should be controlled before making comparisons between the two types of substance abusers. Age and sex were significantly related to self-reported depressive symptomatology and were entered first into a stepwise discriminant analysis with the 21 BDI items followed by type of substance abuse. Four symptoms contributed at least 5% to the overall discrimination between the alcoholics and the heroin addicts; these were sense of failure, weight loss, somatic preoccupation, and loss of libido. The alcoholics described themselves as feeling more like failures and having more somatic preoccupation than the heroin addicts, whereas the heroin addicts reported more weight loss and loss of libido. To estimate the efficiency with which these four symptoms could differentiate between the alcoholics and heroin addicts, discriminant classification analysis was employed; 69.3% of the substance abusers were correctly assigned to their type of addiction. The results were discussed as supporting the contention that alcoholics and heroin addicts may display different depressive symptoms. PMID:4017871

  11. The Developmental Outcome of Children Born to Heroin-Dependent Mothers, Raised at Home or Adopted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornoy, Asher; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Children born to heroin-dependent mothers (n=83) were compared to 76 children born to heroin-dependent fathers and to 3 control groups with and without environmental deprivation and health problems. Results found that developmental delays and behavioral disorders found among heroin-exposed children resulted primarily from severe environmental…

  12. Low dose risperidone attenuates cue-induced but not heroin-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking in an animal model of relapse.

    PubMed

    Lai, Miaojun; Chen, Weisheng; Zhu, Huaqiang; Zhou, Xiaoli; Liu, Huifen; Zhang, Fuqiang; Zhou, Wenhua

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment with risperidone on heroin self-administration and heroin-seeking behaviour induced by cues and heroin priming. Rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a fixed ratio 1 schedule for 2 wk and nose-poke responding was extinguished for 10 d, after which reinstatement of drug seeking was induced by conditioned cues or heroin priming. Acute risperidone administration at doses 10-100 μg/kg potently and dose-dependently inhibited reinstatement of conditioned cue-induced heroin seeking; the minimum dose of inhibition was 30 μg/kg. In contrast, risperidone at the same doses did not attenuate reinstatement induced by two priming doses of heroin (100 or 250 μg/kg s.c.). Risperidone at these doses failed to alter heroin self-administration and locomotion activity. These data demonstrate that acute treatment with low-dose risperidone inhibits conditioned cue-induced heroin seeking and risperidone may be an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of heroin addiction. PMID:23331426

  13. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  14. The α1 Adrenergic Receptor Antagonist Prazosin Reduces Heroin Self-Administration in Rats with Extended Access to Heroin Administration

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell, Thomas N.; Walker, Brendan M.; Cottone, Pietro; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that noradrenergic antagonists alleviate some of the symptoms of opiate withdrawal and dependence. Clinical studies also have shown that modification of the noradrenergic system may help protect patients from relapse. The present study tested the hypothesis that a dysregulated noradrenergic system has motivational significance in heroin self-administration in dependent rats. Prazosin, an α1-adrenergic antagonist (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg, i.p.), was administered to adult male Wistar rats with a history of limited (1 h/day; short access) or extended (12 h/day; long access) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Prazosin dose-dependently reduced heroin self-administration in long-access rats but not short-access rats, with 2 mg/kg of systemic prazosin significantly decreasing 1 h and 2 h heroin intake. Prazosin also reversed some changes in meal pattern associated with extended heroin access, including the taking of smaller and briefer meals (at 3 h), while also increasing total food intake and slowing the eating rate within meals (both 3 h and 12 h). The data show that the α1-adrenergic system may contribute to mechanisms that promote dependence in rats with extended drug access, while also stimulating their food intake by restoring meals to the normal size and duration. PMID:18703080

  15. An exposure system for measuring nasal and lung uptake of vapors in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, A.R.; Brookins, L.K.; Gerde, P.

    1995-12-01

    Inhaled gases and vapors often produce biological damage in the nasal cavity and lower respiratory tract. The specific site within the respirator tract at which a gas or vapor is absorbed strongly influences the tissues at risk to potential toxic effects; to predict or to explain tissue or cell specific toxicity of inhaled gases or vapors, the sites at which they are absorbed must be known. The purpose of the work reported here was to develop a system for determining nose and lung absorption of vapors in rats, an animal commonly used in inhalation toxicity studies. In summary, the exposure system described allows us to measure in the rate: (1) nasal absorption and desorption of vapors; (2) net lung uptake of vapors; and (3) the effects of changed breathing parameters on vapor uptake.

  16. The economic costs of heroin addiction in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mark, T L; Woody, G E; Juday, T; Kleber, H D

    2001-01-01

    This study documents the costs of heroin addiction in the United States, both to the addict and society at large. Using a cost-of-illness approach, costs were estimated in four broad areas: medical care, lost productivity, crime, and social welfare. We estimate that the cost of heroin addiction in the United States was US$21.9 billion in 1996. Of these costs, productivity losses accounted for approximately US$11.5 billion (53%), criminal activities US$5.2 billion (24%), medical care US$5.0 billion (23%), and social welfare US$0.1 billion (0.5%). The large economic burden resulting from heroin addiction highlights the importance of investment in prevention and treatment. PMID:11137285

  17. Business as usual: heroin distribution in the United States.

    PubMed

    McBride, R B

    1984-01-01

    This article criticizes the predominant analysis of heroin use as a social aberration and argues instead that the normal structure and functioning of U.S. capitalism generate both the market for the drug and the industry which supplies it. The structure of the distribution industry is much like those for comparable legal goods, but with distinctive features which provide reduced risk for dealers and long-term stability for the industry as a whole. The expansionary dynamic of the industry and the key role of syndicates in it are analyzed. The heroin industry is deeply integrated into the economy, and far-reaching social and economic change will be necessary if heroin use is to be significantly reduced. PMID:6500783

  18. The neural circuitry underlying reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior in an animal model of relapse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, J L; Ghee, S; See, R E

    2008-01-24

    Reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking has been utilized in the study of the neural substrates of relapse to drugs of abuse, particularly cocaine. However, limited studies have examined the circuitry that drives the reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior in the presence of conditioned cues, or by heroin itself. In order to test the hypothesis that the circuitry underlying reinstatement in heroin-experienced animals would show overlapping, yet distinct differences from cocaine-experienced animals, we used transient inhibition of several cortical, striatal, and limbic brain regions during reinstatement of heroin-seeking produced by heroin-paired cues, or by a single priming dose of heroin. Rats lever pressed for i.v. heroin discretely paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) during daily 3-h sessions for a period of 2 weeks, followed by daily extinction of lever responding. Subsequent reinstatement of heroin-seeking was measured as lever responding in the absence of heroin reinforcement. The first set of reinstatement tests involved response-contingent CS presentations following bilateral intracranial infusion of either a combination of GABA receptor agonists (baclofen-muscimol, B/M) or vehicle (saline) into one of 13 different brain regions. The second set of reinstatement tests involved a single heroin injection (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.) following either B/M or vehicle infusions. Our results showed that vehicle-infused animals reinstated to both CS presentations and a priming injection of heroin, while B/M inactivation of several areas known to be important for the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking also attenuated heroin-seeking in response to CS presentations and/or a priming dose of heroin. However, as predicted, inactivation of areas previously shown to not affect cocaine-seeking significantly attenuated heroin-seeking, supporting the hypothesis that the circuitry underlying the reinstatement of heroin-seeking is more diffusely distributed than that for cocaine

  19. THE NEURAL CIRCUITRY UNDERLYING REINSTATEMENT OF HEROIN-SEEKING BEHAVIOR IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF RELAPSE

    PubMed Central

    ROGERS, J.L.; GHEE, S.; SEE, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Reinstatement of extinguished drug-seeking has been utilized in the study of the neural substrates of relapse to drugs of abuse, particularly cocaine. However, limited studies have examined the circuitry that drives the reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior in the presence of conditioned cues, or by heroin itself. In order to test the hypothesis that the circuitry underlying reinstatement in heroin-experienced animals would show overlapping, yet distinct differences from cocaine-experienced animals, we used transient inhibition of several cortical, striatal, and limbic brain regions during reinstatement of heroin-seeking produced by heroin-paired cues, or by a single priming dose of heroin. Rats lever pressed for i.v. heroin discretely paired with a conditioned stimulus (CS) during daily 3-hr sessions for a period of 2 weeks, followed by daily extinction of lever responding. Subsequent reinstatement of heroin-seeking was measured as lever responding in the absence of heroin reinforcement. The first set of reinstatement tests involved response-contingent CS presentations following bilateral intracranial infusion of either a combination of GABA receptor agonists (baclofen-muscimol, B/M) or vehicle (saline) into one of thirteen different brain regions. The second set of reinstatement tests involved a single heroin injection (0.25 mg/kg, s.c.) following either B/M or vehicle infusions. Our results showed that vehicle infused animals reinstated to both CS presentations and a priming injection of heroin, while B/M inactivation of several areas known to be important for the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking also attenuated heroin-seeking in response to CS presentations and/or a priming dose of heroin. However, as predicted, inactivation of areas previously shown to not affect cocaine-seeking significantly attenuated heroin-seeking, supporting the hypothesis that the circuitry underlying the reinstatement of heroin-seeking is more diffusely distributed than that for

  20. Inhalation of two putative Gulf War toxins by mice.

    PubMed

    Repine, John E; Wilson, Paul; Elkins, Nancy; Klawitter, Jelena; Christians, Uwe; Peters, Ben; Smith, Dwight M

    2016-06-01

    We employed our inhalation methodology to examine whether biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress would be produced in mice following inhalation of aerosols containing carbonaceous particles or the vapor of pesticides prevalent during the first Gulf War. Exposure to two putative Gulf War Illness toxins, fine airborne particles and the pesticide malathion, increased biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in Friend virus B (FVB) female mice. Mice inhaling particles 24 h before had increased lung lavage and plasma Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (a biomarker of inflammation) and PGF2α (a biomarker of oxidative stress) levels, lung lavage protein and lung lavage lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. These changes were a function of particle density and exposure time. Compared to particle inhalation, mice inhaling malathion 24 h before had small increase in plasma LTB4 and PGF2α levels but no increase in lung lavage LTB4, lung lavage protein, lung lavage LDH, and lung lavage alveolar macrophage (AM) levels compared to unexposed control mice. AM from particle-exposed mice contained phagocytosed particles, while AM from malathion-exposed mice showed no abnormalities. Our results indicate that inhaling particles or malathion can alter inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers in mice and raise the possibility that these toxins may have altered inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in Gulf War-exposed individuals. PMID:26950528

  1. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of morphine, heroin, and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Prager, M J; Harrington, S M; Governo, T F

    1979-03-01

    Morphine, heroin, and cocaine are quantitatively determined with the same gas-liquid chromatographic system. The compounds are separated on a 6 ft X 2 mm id glass column packed with a 1:1 mixture of 5% SE-30 on 80--100 mesh Chromosorb W and 3% OV-17 on 80--100 mesh Varaport 30. The column is temperature-programmed. Flame ionization detector responses are measured with a computer-based data system. Heroin and cocaine are chromatographed directly; morphine is derivatized first. The procedure was evaluated with previously analyzed commercial and forensic samples. Accuracy and precision were 5 and 3%, respectively. PMID:447602

  2. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor about how you should take your other oral or inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment with salmeterol and fluticasone inhalation. If you were using a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) on a regular basis, your doctor ...

  3. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  4. Public crack cocaine smoking and willingness to use a supervised inhalation facility: implications for street disorder

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The health risks of crack cocaine smoking in public settings have not been well described. We sought to identify factors associated with public crack smoking, and assess the potential for a supervised inhalation facility to reduce engagement in this behavior, in a setting planning to evaluate a medically supervised crack cocaine smoking facility. Methods Data for this study were derived from a Canadian prospective cohort of injection drug users. Using multivariate logistic regression we identified factors associated with smoking crack cocaine in public areas. Among public crack smokers we then identified factors associated with willingness to use a supervised inhalation facility. Results Among our sample of 623 people who reported crack smoking, 61% reported recently using in public locations. In multivariate analysis, factors independently associated with public crack smoking included: daily crack cocaine smoking; daily heroin injection; having encounters with police; and engaging in drug dealing. In sub analysis, 71% of public crack smokers reported willingness to use a supervised inhalation facility. Factors independently associated with willingness include: female gender, engaging in risky pipe sharing; and having encounters with police. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of public crack smoking locally, and this behavior was independently associated with encounters with police. However, a majority of public crack smokers reported being willing to use a supervised inhalation facility, and individuals who had recent encounters with police were more likely to report willingness. These findings suggest that supervised inhalation facilities offer potential to reduce street-disorder and reduce encounters with police. PMID:21345231

  5. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  6. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns about the…

  7. Isoetharine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Isoetharine comes as an aerosol and a solution to inhale by mouth. It is used as needed to relieve symptoms but usually should not be ... proper disposal of your medication. Avoid puncturing the aerosol container, and do not discard it in an ...

  8. Interaction between Dysfunctional Connectivity at Rest and Heroin Cues-Induced Brain Responses in Male Abstinent Heroin-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jixin; Qin, Wei; Yuan, Kai; Li, Jing; Wang, Wei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yarong; Sun, Jinbo; von Deneen, Karen M.; Liu, Yijun; Tian, Jie

    2011-01-01

    Background The majority of previous heroin cue-reactivity functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies focused on local function impairments, such as inhibitory control, decision-making and stress regulation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that these brain circuits also presented dysfunctional connectivity during the resting state. Yet few studies considered the relevance of resting state dysfunctional connectivity to task-related neural activity in the same chronic heroin user (CHU). Methodology/Principal Findings We employed the method of graph theory analysis, which detected the abnormality of brain regions and dysregulation of brain connections at rest between 16 male abstinent chronic heroin users (CHUs) and 16 non-drug users (NDUs). Using a cue-reactivity task, we assessed the relationship between drug-related cue-induced craving activity and the abnormal topological properties of the CHUs' resting networks. Comparing NDUs' brain activity to that of CHUs, the intensity of functional connectivity of the medial frontal gyrus (meFG) in patients' resting state networks was prominently greater and positively correlated with the same region's neural activity in the heroin-related task; decreased functional connectivity intensity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in CHUs at rest was associated with more drug-related cue-induced craving activities. Conclusions These results may indicate that there exist two brain systems interacting simultaneously in the heroin-addicted brain with regards to a cue-reactivity task. The current study may shed further light on the neural architecture that supports craving responses in heroin dependence. PMID:22028765

  9. AUTS2 in the nucleus accumbens is essential for heroin-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongsheng; Xing, Bo; Dang, Wei; Ji, Yuanyuan; Yan, Peng; Li, Yunxiao; Qiao, Xiaomeng; Lai, Jianghua

    2016-10-01

    Autism susceptibility candidate 2 (AUTS2) is a gene associated with autism and mental retardation. Recent studies have suggested an association of the AUTS2 gene with heroin dependence, and reduced AUTS2 gene expression may confer increased susceptibility to heroin dependence. However, the functional role of the AUTS2 protein in regulating enduring neuroadaptations in response to heroin exposure has not been established. Here, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic heroin exposure on AUTS2 mRNA and protein expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate-putamen (CPu) to determine whether changes in AUTS2 expression are associated with heroin-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. Moreover, we explored whether AUST2 knockdown affects heroin-induced locomotor sensitization. AUTS2 mRNA and protein expression in the NAc, but not the CPu, was decreased after chronic heroin (1mg/kg) administration. In the NAc, the expression of heroin-induced locomotor sensitization was enhanced through the lentiviral-AUTS2-shRNA-mediated knockdown of AUTS2, while the overexpression of AUTS2 attenuated the locomotor-stimulant effects of heroin. Together, these results indicate that AUTS2 in the NAc, but not the CPu, suppresses the initiation and expression of heroin-induced behavioral sensitization, suggesting that AUST2 may be a potential target for the treatment of heroin dependence. PMID:27423627

  10. A five-year review of the medical outcome of heroin body stuffers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Matthew T; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E; Wahl, Michael

    2009-04-01

    The medical outcome of heroin body stuffers has rarely been described. This study was performed to illustrate the clinical course of heroin body stuffers. A retrospective chart analysis was performed on all cases of heroin body stuffers received by a metropolitan poison control center from 2000-2004. We identified 65 heroin body stuffers. Sixty-nine percent were men with a mean age of 35 years. The stated quantity of heroin containers ingested ranged from 1 to 30, with 65% reported as being wrapped in plastic. Six patients (9.2%) developed symptoms of opiate intoxication. All symptoms began within an hour after the ingestion. Three patients (4.6%) needed naloxone. The mean length of observation was 24 h. Opiate intoxication from heroin stuffing is uncommon. Those patients that developed symptoms did so early in their course. These data indicate a benign clinical course in most heroin body stuffers. PMID:18024071

  11. Youth, Heroin, Crack: A Review of Recent British Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, Toby

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the research evidence on recent British trends in the use of heroin and/or crack-cocaine by young people in order to appraise the scale and nature of the contemporary health problem they pose. Design/methodology/approach: The approach consists of a narrative review of the main current data sources on…

  12. Understanding the Adolescent Actress: The True Adolescent Heroine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Susan

    1981-01-01

    Discusses three issues relevant to adolescent heroines in high school theater productions: the need to consider the role model presented by the character being portrayed; the need to focus on the sociodramatic issues of the production; and the need for consciousness-raising among teachers. (JMF)

  13. [About the biochemical criteria of heroin (narcotic) intoxication].

    PubMed

    Korshunov, G V; BYchkov, E N; Borodulin, V B; Arsent'eva, L A; Serkova, S A; Bel'skaia, N A

    2013-06-01

    The article deals with the data of study of biochemical indicators and activity of particular proteolytic enzymes in blood serum of patients with heroin drug addiction. The results can be applied to detect the typical laboratory changes intrinsic to this kind of intoxication. PMID:24340942

  14. Opioid Abstinence Reinforcement Delays Heroin Lapse during Buprenorphine Dose Tapering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwald, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    A positive reinforcement contingency increased opioid abstinence during outpatient dose tapering (4, 2, then 0 mg/day during Weeks 1 through 3) in non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers who had been maintained on buprenorphine (8 mg/day) during an inpatient research protocol. The control group (n = 12) received $4.00 for completing…

  15. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  16. Inapparent pulmonary vascular disease in an ex-heroin user

    SciTech Connect

    Antonelli Incalzi, R.; Ludovico Maini, C.; Giuliano Bonetti, M.; Campioni, P.; Pistelli, R.; Fuso, L.

    1986-04-01

    A severe pulmonary vascular derangement, usually reported in drug addicts, was diagnosed in a 28-year-old asymptomatic ex-heroin user by means of fortuitously performed pulmonary perfusion imaging. Neither physical findings nor pulmonary function tests, aroused suspicion of the diagnosis. A search for asymptomatic pulmonary vascular disease probably should be undertaken in drug addicts.

  17. Tracking Heroin Chic: The Abject Body Reconfigures the Rational Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harold, Christine L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how a recent fashion trend known as "heroin chic" challenges conventional modes of argumentation. Considers how its popularization of abject, emaciated bodies presents an alternative to a logic of rationalism that grounds traditional argumentation. Discusses how by foregrounding corporeal performativity as a form of argument, the…

  18. Heroin Addiction: Psychosocial Characteristics and Considerations for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faherty, John K.

    This paper presents a review of relevant medical and psychological literature that addresses the psychological characteristics of heroin addiction and addicts: dependence (both physical and psychological); explanations of the phenomenon of addiction (both medical and behavioral); and other psychosocial views of causation including escapism,…

  19. Implosive Therapy Treatment of Heroin Addicts during Methadone Detoxification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirt, Michael; Greenfield, Heywood

    1979-01-01

    Examined effectiveness of implosive therapy with heroin addicts during detoxification from methadone. Treatment groups received 12 sessions of implosive therapy or eclectic counseling and were followed for a six-week period. The implosive therapy group were the only ones to significantly reduce their methadone level during treatment and follow-up.…

  20. GABRB2 Haplotype Association with Heroin Dependence in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yung Su; Yang, Mei; Mat, Wai-Kin; Tsang, Shui-Ying; Su, Zhonghua; Jiang, Xianfei; Ng, Siu-Kin; Liu, Siyu; Hu, Taobo; Pun, Frank; Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Jinsong; Chen, Xiaogang; Hao, Wei; Xue, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Substance dependence is a frequently observed comorbid disorder in schizophrenia, but little is known about genetic factors possibly shared between the two psychotic disorders. GABRB2, a schizophrenia candidate gene coding for GABAA receptor β2 subunit, is examined for possible association with heroin dependence in Han Chinese population. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GABRB2, namely rs6556547 (S1), rs1816071 (S3), rs18016072 (S5), and rs187269 (S29), previously associated with schizophrenia, were examined for their association with heroin dependence. Two additional SNPs, rs10051667 (S31) and rs967771 (S32), previously associated with alcohol dependence and bipolar disorder respectively, were also analyzed. The six SNPs were genotyped by direct sequencing of PCR amplicons of target regions for 564 heroin dependent individuals and 498 controls of Han Chinese origin. Interestingly, it was found that recombination between the haplotypes of all-derived-allele (H1; OR = 1.00) and all-ancestral-allele (H2; OR = 0.74) at S5-S29 junction generated two recombinants H3 (OR = 8.51) and H4 (OR = 5.58), both conferring high susceptibility to heroin dependence. Additional recombination between H2 and H3 haplotypes at S1-S3 junction resulted in a risk-conferring haplotype H5 (OR = 1.94x109). In contrast, recombination between H1 and H2 haplotypes at S3-S5 junction rescued the risk-conferring effect of recombination at S5-S29 junction, giving rise to the protective haplotype H6 (OR = 0.68). Risk-conferring effects of S1-S3 and S5-S29 crossovers and protective effects of S3-S5 crossover were seen in both pure heroin dependent and multiple substance dependence subgroups. In conclusion, significant association was found with haplotypes of the S1-S29 segment in GABRB2 for heroin dependence in Han Chinese population. Local recombination was an important determining factor for switching haplotypes between risk-conferring and protective statuses. The present study

  1. Chemiluminescence detection of heroin in illicit drug samples.

    PubMed

    Terry, Jessica M; Smith, Zoe M; Learey, Jessica J; Shalliker, R Andrew; Barnett, Neil W; Francis, Paul S

    2013-11-15

    Heroin (3,6-diacetylmorphine) and several important extraction and synthesis impurities (morphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, codeine and 6-acetylcodeine) were determined in illicit drug samples, using high performance liquid chromatography with 'parallel segmented flow', which enabled the simultaneous use of three complementary modes of detection (UV-absorbance, tris(2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(III) chemiluminescence and permanganate chemiluminescence). This rapid and sensitive approach for the analysis of street heroin was used to explore the chemistry of a proposed heroin screening test that is based on the relative response with these two chemiluminescence reagents using flow injection analysis. Although heroin was the major constituent of the six drug samples (between 16% and 67% by mass), the synthetic by-product 6-acetylcodeine (2.5-8.3%) made a greater contribution to the total [Ru(bipy)3](3+) chemiluminescence response of the screening test. The signal with permanganate was primarily due to the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine (0.9-29%), and was therefore indicative of the degree of sample degradation during clandestine manufacture or poor storage conditions prior to the drug seizure. In the second part of the screening test, the sample is treated with sodium hydroxide, which results in a large increase in the signal with permanganate, due to the rapid hydrolysis of heroin to 6-monoacetylmorphine. As the emission of these two reagents with morphinan-alkaloids and their derivatives largely depends on the substituent at the O(3) position, the slower hydrolysis of 6-monoacetylmorphine to morphine, and 6-acetylcodeine to codeine, did not have a major impact on the characteristic pattern of responses in the screening test. PMID:24148453

  2. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  3. Gray Matter Density Negatively Correlates with Duration of Heroin Use in Young Lifetime Heroin-Dependent Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Yi; Zhu, Zude; Shi, Jinfu; Zou, Zhiling; Yuan, Fei; Liu, Yijun; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Weng, Xuchu

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented cognitive impairments and hypoactivity in the prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in drug users. However, the relationships between opiate dependence and brain structure changes in heroin users are largely unknown. In the present study, we measured the density of gray matter (DGM) with voxel-based…

  4. A monoclonal antibody specific for 6-monoacetylmorphine reduces acute heroin effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Bogen, Inger Lise; Boix, Fernando; Nerem, Elisabeth; Mørland, Jørg; Andersen, Jannike Mørch

    2014-06-01

    Immunotherapy against drugs of abuse is being studied as an alternative treatment option in addiction medicine and is based on antibodies sequestering the drug in the bloodstream and blocking its entry into the brain. Producing an efficient vaccine against heroin has been considered particularly challenging because of the rapid metabolism of heroin to multiple psychoactive molecules. We have previously reported that heroin's first metabolite, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), is the predominant mediator for heroin's acute behavioral effects and that heroin is metabolized to 6-MAM primarily prior to brain entry. On this basis, we hypothesized that antibody sequestration of 6-MAM is sufficient to impair heroin-induced effects and therefore examined the effects of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for 6-MAM. In vitro experiments in human and rat blood revealed that the antibody was able to bind 6-MAM and block the metabolism to morphine almost completely, whereas the conversion of heroin to 6-MAM remained unaffected. Mice pretreated with the mAb toward 6-MAM displayed a reduction in heroin-induced locomotor activity that corresponded closely to the reduction in brain 6-MAM levels. Intraperitoneal and intravenous administration of the anti-6-MAM mAb gave equivalent protection against heroin effects, and the mAb was estimated to have a functional half-life of 8 to 9 days in mice. Our study implies that an antibody against 6-MAM is effective in counteracting heroin effects. PMID:24700886

  5. Diffusivity of the uncinate fasciculus in heroin users relates to their levels of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wong, N M L; Cheung, S-H; Chan, C C H; Zeng, H; Liu, Y-P; So, K-F; Lee, T M C

    2015-01-01

    Heroin use is closely associated with emotional dysregulation, which may explain its high comorbidity with disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, the understanding of the neurobiological etiology of the association between heroin use and emotional dysregulation is limited. Previous studies have suggested an impact of heroin on diffusivity in white matter involving the emotional regulatory system, but the specificity of this finding remains to be determined. Therefore, this study investigated the association between heroin use and diffusivity of white matter tracts in heroin users and examined whether the tracts were associated with their elevated anxiety and depression levels. A sample of 26 right-handed male abstinent heroin users (25 to 42 years of age) and 32 matched healthy controls (19 to 55 years of age) was recruited for this study. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected, and their levels of anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Our findings indicated that heroin users exhibited higher levels of anxiety and depression, but the heroin use-associated left uncinate fasciculus was only related to their anxiety level, suggesting that association between heroin and anxiety has an incremental organic basis but that for depression could be a threshold issue. This finding improves our understanding of heroin addiction and its comorbid affective disorder and facilitates future therapeutic development. PMID:25918991

  6. Latent classes of heroin and cocaine users predict unique HIV/HCV risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, PT; Mancha, B; Petras, H; Trenz, R; Latimer, WW

    2011-01-01

    Background Patterns of heroin and cocaine use vary and may be associated with unique risk factors for bloodborne infections. Methods Latent class analysis identified sub-populations of 552 heroin and cocaine users in Baltimore, Maryland. Using latent class regression, these classes were analyzed for associations with demographic characteristics, risky behaviors, Hepatitis C, and HIV. Results Three classes were found: Crack / Nasal-Heroin users (43.5%), Polysubstance users (34.8%), and Heroin Injectors (21.8%). Compared to Polysubstance users, Crack / Nasal-Heroin users were almost 7 times more likely to identify as Black (OR = 6.97, 95% CI = 4.35-11.2). Sharing needles was over 2.5 times more likely among Polysubstance users than among Heroin Injectors (OR = 2.66, 95% CI = 1.49-4.75). Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were 2.5 times more likely than Polysubstance users to exchange drugs for sex (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.22-5.13). Crack/Nasal-Heroin users were less likely than Heroin Injectors to have Hepatitis C (OR = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.06-0.18), but no significant differences were found for HIV. Conclusions Subpopulations of cocaine and heroin users differed in demographic classifications, HIV-risk behaviors, and Hepatitis C infection. All subpopulations included substantial numbers of HIV-positive individuals. Findings provide further evidence that non-injection drug users face significant infectious disease risk. PMID:22030276

  7. Technosphere inhaled insulin (Afrezza).

    PubMed

    Rendell, M

    2014-12-01

    Technosphere® insulin uses a unique carrier -fumaryl diketopiperazine (FDKP)- which adsorbs insulin to form microparticles to permit delivery to the alveoli by inhalation. Toxicity studies have been entirely negative. The pulmonary absorption of insulin is very rapid, and the disappearance time is shorter than for subcutaneously delivered rapid-acting insulins. As a result, after inhalation, there is a rapid drop in glucose levels which subsequently return to normal in a shorter time than after subcutaneous insulin administration. Consequently, there is a lower incidence of hypoglycemic reactions. Pulmonary function studies have shown a small, reversible decrease in FEV1, and pulmonary imaging studies have shown no adverse effect. The inhalation of Technosphere insulin can produce a cough in up to 27% of patients. The cough has resulted in discontinuance in as many as 9% of users. Technosphere insulin has been approved for use in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Long-term studies of pulmonary safety and surveillance for malignancy will be performed in the future. Studies to assess the optimal time dosing regimen are needed. PMID:25588086

  8. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... methods really work, and people who use these methods may continue to use their inhalers after the inhalers are empty.Some inhalers come with a counter that shows the number of sprays that remain in the inhaler. If your inhaler ...

  9. An Economic Analysis of Income and Expenditures by Heroin-Using Research Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    RODDY, JULIETTE; GREENWALD, MARK

    2015-01-01

    At a Detroit research program from 2004 to 2005, out-of-treatment chronic daily heroin users (N = 100) were interviewed to evaluate relationships between past 30-day income and factors influencing heroin price, expenditures, and consumption. Weekly heroin purchasing frequency was positively related to income and number of suppliers, and negatively related to time cost (min) from primary supplier. Daily heroin consumption was positively related to income and injection heroin use, and negatively related to unit cost of heroin. Implications and limitations are noted. Simulations are underway to assess within-subject changes in drug demand. Supported by NIH/NIDA R01 DA15462 and Joe Young, Sr. Funds (State of Michigan). PMID:19938929

  10. Heroin Mismatch in the Motor City: Addiction, Segregation and the Geography of Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Draus, Paul; Roddy, Juliette; Greenwald, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we employ data drawn from economic and ethnographic interviews with Detroit heroin users, as well as other sources, to illustrate the relationship between heroin users’ mobility patterns and urban and suburban environments, especially in terms of drug acquisition and the geography of opportunity. We explore how the “spatial mismatch” (Kain 1968; 1992) between legal work opportunities and central city residents is seemingly reversed in the case of heroin users. We find that while both geographic location and social networks associated with segregation provide central city residents and African Americans with a strategic advantage over white suburbanites in locating and purchasing heroin easily and efficiently, this same segregation effectively focuses the negative externalities of heroin markets in central city neighborhoods. Finally, we consider how the heroin trade reflects and reproduces the segregated post-industrial landscape, and we discuss directions for potential future research on the relationship between ethnic and economic ghettos and regional drug markets. PMID:22679895

  11. Normalizing effect of heroin maintenance treatment on stress-induced brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, André; Walter, Marc; Gerber, Hana; Seifritz, Erich; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Lang, Undine E; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that a single maintenance dose of heroin attenuates psychophysiological stress responses in heroin-dependent patients, probably reflecting the effectiveness of heroin-assisted therapies for the treatment of severe heroin addiction. However, the underlying neural circuitry of these effects has not yet been investigated. Using a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled design, 22 heroin-dependent and heroin-maintained outpatients from the Centre of Substance Use Disorders at the University Hospital of Psychiatry in Basel were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 17 healthy controls from the general population were included for placebo administration only. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to detect brain responses to fearful faces and dynamic causal modelling was applied to compute fear-induced modulation of connectivity within the emotional face network. Stress responses were assessed by hormone releases and subjective ratings. Relative to placebo, heroin acutely reduced the fear-induced modulation of connectivity from the left fusiform gyrus to the left amygdala and from the right amygdala to the right orbitofrontal cortex in dependent patients. Both of these amygdala-related connectivity strengths were significantly increased in patients after placebo treatment (acute withdrawal) compared to healthy controls, whose connectivity estimates did not differ from those of patients after heroin injection. Moreover, we found positive correlations between the left fusiform gyrus to amygdala connectivity and different stress responses, as well as between the right amygdala to orbitofrontal cortex connectivity and levels of craving. Our findings indicate that the increased amygdala-related connectivity during fearful face processing after the placebo treatment in heroin-dependent patients transiently normalizes after acute heroin maintenance treatment. Furthermore, this study suggests that the assessment of

  12. Abnormal functional integration of thalamic low frequency oscillation in the BOLD signal after acute heroin treatment.

    PubMed

    Denier, Niklaus; Schmidt, André; Gerber, Hana; Vogel, Marc; Huber, Christian G; Lang, Undine E; Riecher-Rossler, Anita; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Heroin addiction is a severe relapsing brain disorder associated with impaired cognitive control, including deficits in attention allocation. The thalamus has a high density of opiate receptors and is critically involved in orchestrating cortical activity during cognitive control. However, there have been no studies on how acute heroin treatment modulates thalamic activity. In a cross-over, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study, 29 heroin-maintained outpatients were studied after heroin and placebo administration, while 20 healthy controls were included for the placebo condition only. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to analyze functional integration of the thalamus by three different resting state analysis techniques. Thalamocortical functional connectivity (FC) was analyzed by seed-based correlation, while intrinsic thalamic oscillation was assessed by analysis of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF). Relative to the placebo treatment and healthy controls, acute heroin administration reduced thalamocortical FC to cortical regions, including the frontal cortex, while the reductions in FC to the mediofrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and frontal pole were positively correlated with the plasma level of morphine, the main psychoactive metabolite of heroin. Furthermore, heroin treatment was associated with increased thalamic ReHo and fALFF values, whereas fALFF following heroin exposure correlated negatively with scores of attentional control. The heroin-associated increase in fALFF was mainly dominated by slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz) oscillations. Our findings show that there are acute effects of heroin within the thalamocortical system and may shed new light on the role of the thalamus in cognitive control in heroin addiction. Future research is needed to determine the underlying physiological mechanisms and their role in heroin addiction. PMID:26441146

  13. Carcinogenicity of inhaled nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Roller, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Large epidemiological studies in the United States have shown a statistical association between air concentration of the fine dust fraction PM(2.5) in the general environment and increased risk of lung cancer. A quantitative risk assessment for lung cancer based on these studies corresponds to risk estimates based on studies at workplaces with exposure to diesel engine emissions; its magnitude cannot be explained by the known carcinogenicity of organic substances or metals adsorbed to the insoluble particle core. Carcinogenic effects of diesel particles were observed after inhalation in rats independently in several studies. The surprisingly strong effect of diesel particles was partially attributed to their small size. This hypothesis was corroborated by inhalation studies with synthetic nanoparticles virtually free of organic compounds. IARC found sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of carbon black and of titanium dioxide in experimental animals. Long-term studies by the method of intratracheal instillation confirmed the carcinogenic effects in rats for an even broader spectrum of synthetic nanoparticles. Non-positive studies with hamsters are not valid because hamsters did not develop lung tumors after inhalation of some known human carcinogens. In recent years, the number of publications reporting in vitro genotoxicity of TiO(2) and of carbon black nanomaterials has increased. Overall, there is clear positive evidence for carcinogenicity in rats, together with supporting evidence from human data of structurally related substances. Therefore, the European Union (EU) criteria for category 2 of carcinogenic substances appear to be fulfilled for bio-durable nanoparticles consisting of matter without known significant specific toxicity. PMID:19558247

  14. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  15. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose-inhalers ( inhaled steroids ), oral forms (pills or syrups) , injections (shots) and intravenous (IV) solutions. Healthcare providers ... slowly decreased. Inhaled steroids and steroid pills and syrups are often prescribed for people with a chronic ...

  16. Accidental condom inhalation.

    PubMed

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio. PMID:14870871

  17. COMPARING THE LIFE CONCERNS OF PRESCRIPTION OPIOID AND HEROIN USERS

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Michael D.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Thurmond, Portia; Bailey, Genie L.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored life concerns of prescription opioid (PO) and heroin users. Persons entering opioid detoxification rated their level of concern about 43 health and welfare items. Using exploratory factor analysis and conceptual rationale, we identified ten areas of concern. Participants (n = 529) were 69.9% male, 87.5% non-Hispanic Caucasian, and 24.2% PO users. Concern about drug problems was perceived as the most serious concern, followed by money problems, relationship problems, mental health, and cigarette smoking. PO users expressed significantly lower concern about drug problems (p=.017) and transmissible diseases (p<.001), but were more concerned about alcohol use (p<.001) than heroin users. There were no significant differences with regard to the other 7 areas of concern. Recognition of the daily worries of opioid dependent persons could allow providers to better tailor their services to the context of their patients’ lives. PMID:25171955

  18. Impaired emotion recognition is linked to alexithymia in heroin addicts

    PubMed Central

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio; Dell’Aera, Stefano; Costanzo, Giulia; Fasciano, Silvia; Tomasello, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Several investigations document altered emotion processing in opiate addiction. Nevertheless, the origin of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here we examined the role of alexithymia in the ability (i.e., number of errors—accuracy and reaction times—RTs) of thirty-one heroin addicts and thirty-one healthy controls to detect several affective expressions. Results show generally lower accuracy and higher RTs in the recognition of facial expressions of emotions for patients, compared to controls. The hierarchical multivariate regression analysis shows that alexithymia might be responsible of the between groups difference with respect to the RTs in emotion detection. Overall, we provide new insights in the clinical interpretation of affective deficits in heroin addicts suggesting a role of alexithymia in their ability to recognize emotions. PMID:27069803

  19. Comparing the life concerns of prescription opioid and heroin users.

    PubMed

    Stein, Michael D; Anderson, Bradley J; Thurmond, Portia; Bailey, Genie L

    2015-01-01

    This study explored life concerns of prescription opioid (PO) and heroin users. Persons entering opioid detoxification rated their level of concern about 43 health and welfare items. Using exploratory factor analysis and conceptual rationale, we identified ten areas of concern. Participants (N=529) were 69.9% male, 87.5% non-Hispanic Caucasian, and 24.2% PO users. Concern about drug problems was perceived as the most serious concern, followed by money problems, relationship problems, mental health, and cigarette smoking. PO users expressed significantly lower concern about drug problems (p=.017) and transmissible diseases (p<.001), but were more concerned about alcohol use (p<.001) than heroin users. There were no significant differences with regard to the other 7 areas of concern. Recognition of the daily worries of opioid dependent persons could allow providers to better tailor their services to the context of their patients' lives. PMID:25171955

  20. Impaired emotion recognition is linked to alexithymia in heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Craparo, Giuseppe; Gori, Alessio; Dell'Aera, Stefano; Costanzo, Giulia; Fasciano, Silvia; Tomasello, Antonia; Vicario, Carmelo M

    2016-01-01

    Several investigations document altered emotion processing in opiate addiction. Nevertheless, the origin of this phenomenon remains unclear. Here we examined the role of alexithymia in the ability (i.e., number of errors-accuracy and reaction times-RTs) of thirty-one heroin addicts and thirty-one healthy controls to detect several affective expressions. Results show generally lower accuracy and higher RTs in the recognition of facial expressions of emotions for patients, compared to controls. The hierarchical multivariate regression analysis shows that alexithymia might be responsible of the between groups difference with respect to the RTs in emotion detection. Overall, we provide new insights in the clinical interpretation of affective deficits in heroin addicts suggesting a role of alexithymia in their ability to recognize emotions. PMID:27069803

  1. Adolescents at risk: pain pills to heroin: part I.

    PubMed

    Fogger, Susanne; McGuinness, Teena M

    2014-12-01

    Prescription pain medication has proliferated in the United States in the past 10 years, and opioid agents are the second most commonly abused substance in the United States. The opioid class comprises various prescription medications, including hydrocodone, as well as illicit substances, such as opium and heroin. The current article offers an example of one adolescent's history that began as weekend use of prescription opioid agents but expanded to daily use and physical dependence. Currently, a trend exists in which adolescents and young adults are moving from prescription opioid medication to heroin use due to increasing restrictions on prescription opioid agents. Nursing implications and web-based resources for teaching are also presented. PMID:25453507

  2. Income Generation in Recovering Heroin Users: A Comparative Analysis of Legal and Illegal Earnings

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Sarah; LoSasso, Anthony; Olson, Bradley; Beasley, Christopher; Nisle, Stephanie; Campagna, Kristina; Jason, Leonard A.

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown employment to be a central mediator to sustained recovery and community reentry for substance abusers; however, heroin users have lower employment rates and report lower mean incomes than other drug users. The authors of the present study assessed income generating behaviors of substance users recruited from substance abuse treatment facilities (N=247). Heroin users had higher mean incomes from illegal sources. Further, logistic regression analysis found heroin use to increase the likelihood of engagement in illegal income generating behaviors. As these results increase the likelihood of involvement in the criminal justice system, the implications for heroin specific treatment and rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:26279611

  3. Neurocognitive Characterizations of Russian Heroin Addicts without a Significant History of Other Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Flannery, Barbara A.; Langevin, Doris J.; Bobashev, Georgiy; Verbitskaya, Elena; Augustine, Cynthia B.; Bolla, Karen I.; Zvartau, Edwin; Schech, Barry; Egorova, Valentina; Bushara, Natali; Tsoy, Marina

    2007-01-01

    Research on the neurocognitive characteristics of heroin addiction is sparse and studies that do exist include polydrug abusers; thus, they are unable to distinguish neurocognitive effects of heroin from those of other drugs. To identify neurocognitive correlates specific to heroin addiction, the present study was conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia where individuals typically abuse and/or become addicted to only one substance, generally alcohol or heroin. Heroin addicts were recruited from an inpatient treatment facility in St. Petersburg. Three comparison groups included alcoholics, addicts who used both alcohol and heroin, and non-abusers. Psychiatric, background, and drug history evaluations were administered after detoxification to screen for exclusion criteria and characterize the sample. Executive Cognitive Functions (ECF) that largely activate areas of the prefrontal cortex and its circuitry measured include complex visual pattern recognition (Paired Associates Learning), working memory (Delayed Matching to Sample), problem solving (Stockings of Cambridge), executive decision making (Cambridge Decision Making Task), cognitive flexibility (Stroop Color-Word Task) and response shifting (Stop Change Task). In many respects, the heroin addicts were similar to alcohol and alcohol\\heroin dependent groups in neurocognitive deficits relative to controls. The primary finding was that heroin addicts exhibited significantly more disadvantageous decision making and longer deliberation times while making risky decisions than the other groups. Because the nature and degree of recovery from drug abuse are likely a function of the type or pattern of neurocognitive impairment, differential drug effects must be considered. PMID:17382488

  4. DRD3 variation associates with early-onset heroin dependence, but not specific personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shin-Chang; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Chen, Chun-Yen; Huang, Chang-Chih; Chang, Hsin-An; Yen, Che-Hung; Ho, Pei-Shen; Liang, Chih-Sung; Chou, Han-Wei; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Dopamine D3 receptor-mediated pathways are involved in the mechanism of addiction, and genetic factors play a role in the vulnerability to heroin dependence. The aim of this study was to examine whether the corresponding gene, DRD3, is associated with the development of heroin dependence and specific personality traits in HD patients. Eight polymorphisms in DRD3 were analyzed in 1067 unrelated Han Chinese subjects (566 heroin dependence patients and 501 controls). All participants were screened using the same assessment tool and all patients met the criteria for heroin dependence. A Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire was used to assess personality traits in 276 heroin dependence patients. In addition, heroin dependence patients were divided into 4 clinical subgroups based on age-of-onset and family history of substance abuse, to reduce the clinical heterogeneity. The rs6280 and rs9825563 variants showed association with the development of early-onset heroin dependence. The GTA haplotype frequency in the block (rs324029, rs6280, rs9825563) was significantly associated with early-onset heroin dependence (p=0.003). However, these significant associations were weaker after Bonferroni's correction. In addition, these DRD3 polymorphisms did not influence novelty seeking and harm avoidance scores in HD patients. DRD3 is possibly a genetic factor in the development of early-onset heroin dependence, but is not associated with specific personality traits in these patients among the Han Chinese population. PMID:24398431

  5. Abnormal interhemispheric resting state functional connectivity of the insula in heroin users under methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Huang-Chi; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yang, Yi-Hsin Connie; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-09-30

    Abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity is attracting more and more attention in the field of substance use. This study aimed to examine 1) the differences in interhemispheric functional connections of the insula with the contralateral insula and other brain regions between heroin users under methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and healthy controls, and 2) the association between heroin users' interhemispheric insular functional connectivity using resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and the results of urine heroin analysis. Sixty male right-handed persons, including 30 with heroin dependence under MMT and 30 healthy controls, were recruited to this study. Resting fMRI experiments and urine heroin analysis were performed. Compared with the controls, the heroin users had a significantly lower interhemispheric insular functional connectivity. They also exhibited lower functional connectivity between insula and contralateral inferior orbital frontal lobe. After controlling for age, educational level and methadone dosage, less deviation of the interhemispheric insula functional connectivity was significantly associated with a lower risk of a positive urine heroin analysis result. Our findings demonstrated that the heroin users under MMT had abnormal long-range and interhemispheric resting functional connections. Those with a less dysfunctional interhemispheric insula functional connectivity had a lower risk of a positive urine heroin test. PMID:27497215

  6. Effect of heroin-conditioned auditory stimuli on cerebral functional activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Trusk, T.C.; Stein, E.A.

    1988-08-01

    Cerebral functional activity was measured as changes in distribution of the free fatty acid (1-14C)octanoate in autoradiograms obtained from rats during brief presentation of a tone previously paired to infusions of heroin or saline. Rats were trained in groups of three consisting of one heroin self-administering animal and two animals receiving yoked infusions of heroin or saline. Behavioral experiments in separate groups of rats demonstrated that these training parameters imparts secondary reinforcing properties to the tone for animals self-administering heroin while the tone remains behaviorally neutral in yoked-infusion animals. The optical densities of thirty-seven brain regions were normalized to a relative index for comparisons between groups. Previous pairing of the tone to heroin infusions irrespective of behavior (yoked-heroin vs. yoked-saline groups) produced functional activity changes in fifteen brain areas. In addition, nineteen regional differences in octanoate labeling density were evident when comparison was made between animals previously trained to self-administer heroin to those receiving yoked-heroin infusions, while twelve differences were noted when comparisons were made between the yoked vehicle and self administration group. These functional activity changes are presumed related to the secondary reinforcing capacity of the tone acquired by association with heroin, and may identify neural substrates involved in auditory signalled conditioning of positive reinforcement to opiates.

  7. Repeated episodes of heroin cause enduring alterations of circadian activity in protracted abstinence.

    PubMed

    Stinus, Luis; Cador, Martine; Caille, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Opiate withdrawal is followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome consisting of craving and physiological changes. However, few studies have been dedicated to both the characterization and understanding of these long-term alterations in post-dependent subjects. The aim of the present study was to develop an opiate dependence model, which induces long-lasting behavioral changes in abstinent rats. Here, we first compared the effects of several protocols for the induction of opiate dependence (morphine pellets, repeated morphine or heroin injections) on the subsequent response to heroin challenges (0.25 mg/kg) at different time points during abstinence (3, 6, 9 and 18 weeks). In a second set of experiments, rats were exposed to increasing doses of heroin and subsequently monitored for general circadian activity up to 20 weeks of abstinence. Results show that heroin injections rather than the other methods of opiate administration have long-term consequences on rats' sensitivity to heroin with its psychostimulant effects persisting up to 18 weeks of abstinence. Moreover, intermittent episodes of heroin dependence rather than a single exposure produce enduring alteration of the basal circadian activity both upon heroin cessation and protracted abstinence. Altogether, these findings suggest that the induction of heroin dependence through intermittent increasing heroin injections is the optimal method to model long-term behavioral alterations during protracted abstinence in rats. This animal model would be useful in further characterizing long-lasting changes in post-dependent subjects to help understand the prolonged vulnerability to relapse. PMID:24961201

  8. Repeated Episodes of Heroin Cause Enduring Alterations of Circadian Activity in Protracted Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Stinus, Luis; Cador, Martine; Caille, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Opiate withdrawal is followed by a protracted abstinence syndrome consisting of craving and physiological changes. However, few studies have been dedicated to both the characterization and understanding of these long-term alterations in post-dependent subjects. The aim of the present study was to develop an opiate dependence model, which induces long-lasting behavioral changes in abstinent rats. Here, we first compared the effects of several protocols for the induction of opiate dependence (morphine pellets, repeated morphine or heroin injections) on the subsequent response to heroin challenges (0.25 mg/kg) at different time points during abstinence (3, 6, 9 and 18 weeks). In a second set of experiments, rats were exposed to increasing doses of heroin and subsequently monitored for general circadian activity up to 20 weeks of abstinence. Results show that heroin injections rather than the other methods of opiate administration have long-term consequences on rats’ sensitivity to heroin with its psychostimulant effects persisting up to 18 weeks of abstinence. Moreover, intermittent episodes of heroin dependence rather than a single exposure produce enduring alteration of the basal circadian activity both upon heroin cessation and protracted abstinence. Altogether, these findings suggest that the induction of heroin dependence through intermittent increasing heroin injections is the optimal method to model long-term behavioral alterations during protracted abstinence in rats. This animal model would be useful in further characterizing long-lasting changes in post-dependent subjects to help understand the prolonged vulnerability to relapse. PMID:24961201

  9. TEMPORAL MOISTURE CONTENT VARIABILITY BENEATH AND EXTERNAL TO A BUILDING AND THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS ON VAPOR INTRUSION RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Migration of vapors from organic chemicals residing in the subsurface into overlying buildings is known as vapor intrusion. Because of the difficulty in evaluating vapor intrusion by indoor air sampling, models are often employed to determine if a potential indoor inhalation exp...

  10. Predicting Heroin and Alcohol Usage Among Young Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Ronald L.; Nuttall, Ena Vazquez

    Using 1968 data collected from junior and senior high school students in Bayamon, Puerto Rico, substance usage patterns for heroin and alcohol were predicted for 1975-6. A sample of 1,000 of the initial 5,000 students were selected for re-interview; half were selected to be at high risk of substance abuse and half were selected randomly. Some 657…

  11. Health effects of inhaled gasoline engine emissions.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jacob D; Reed, Matthew D; Campen, Matthew J; Barrett, Edward G; Seagrave, JeanClare; Mauderly, Joe L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their prevalence in the environment, and the myriad studies that have shown associations between morbidity or mortality with proximity to roadways (proxy for motor vehicle exposures), relatively little is known about the toxicity of gasoline engine emissions (GEE). We review the studies conducted on GEE to date, and summarize the findings from each of these studies. While there have been several studies, most of the studies were conducted prior to 1980 and thus were not conducted with contemporary engines, fuels, and driving cycles. In addition, many of the biological assays conducted during those studies did not include many of the assays that are conducted on contemporary inhalation exposures to air pollutants, including cardiovascular responses and others. None of the exposures from these earlier studies were characterized at the level of detail that would be considered adequate today. A recent GEE study was conducted as part of the National Environmental Respiratory Center (www.nercenter.org). In this study several in-use mid-mileage General Motors (Chevrolet S-10) vehicles were purchased and utilized for inhalation exposures. An exposure protocol was developed where engines were operated with a repeating California Unified Driving Cycle with one cold start per day. Two separate engines were used to provide two cold starts over a 6-h inhalation period. The exposure atmospheres were characterized in detail, including detailed chemical and physical analysis of the gas, vapor, and particle phase. Multiple rodent biological models were studied, including general toxicity and inflammation (e.g., serum chemistry, lung lavage cell counts/differentials, cytokine/chemokine analysis, histopathology), asthma (adult and in utero exposures with pulmonary function and biochemical analysis), cardiovascular effects (biochemical and electrocardiograph changes in susceptible rodent models), and susceptibility to infection (Pseudomonas bacteria challenge). GEE resulted in

  12. Epigenetically modified nucleotides in chronic heroin and cocaine treated mice.

    PubMed

    Chao, Mu-Rong; Fragou, Domniki; Zanos, Panos; Hu, Chiung-Wen; Bailey, Alexis; Kouidou, Sofia; Kovatsi, Leda

    2014-09-17

    Epigenetic changes include the addition of a methyl group to the 5' carbon of the cytosine ring, known as DNA methylation, which results in the generation of the fifth DNA base, namely 5-methylcytosine. During active or passive demethylation, an intermediate modified base is formed, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine. We have currently quantified 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the liver and brain of mice treated with cocaine or heroin, using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Our results show that global 5-methylcytosine levels are not affected by heroin or cocaine administration, neither in the liver nor in the brain. However, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine levels are reduced in the liver following cocaine administration, while they are not affected by cocaine in the brain or by heroin administration in the liver and the brain. Elucidation of the epigenetic phenomena that takes place with respect to drug abuse and addiction, via quantitative analysis of different modified bases, may enable a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms and may lead to more personalized and effective treatment options. PMID:25064621

  13. Heroin impurity profiling: trends throughout a decade of experimenting.

    PubMed

    Dams, R; Benijts, T; Lambert, W E; Massart, D L; De Leenheer, A P

    2001-12-01

    Heroin is still one of the most frequently abused drugs of today. All over the world, law enforcement agencies try to eradicate the illicit production and trafficking of this potent and highly addictive narcotic. To this aim, important information is provided by physical and chemical toxicological analysis of confiscated samples, with special attention for the identification and the quantification of minor components, such as the impurities related to the origin and manufacturing. By combining these data complex characterisations, i.e. impurity profiles, chemical signatures or fingerprints, can be obtained and used for comparative analysis. This review focuses on heroin impurity profiling during the 1990s, proclaimed by the United Nations as the 'Decade for Eradicating Drug Abuse'. Special attention will be given to the new trends in analytical techniques as well as in data handling strategies, so called chemometrics, to produce these profiles. The latter can be used in comparative analysis of seized heroin samples for tactical (batch-to-batch comparison) and strategic (origin determination) intelligence purposes. PMID:11728732

  14. Ethnic dimensions of habitus among homeless heroin injectors

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Schonberg, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Ten years of participant-observation fieldwork and photography among a multi-ethnic social network of homeless heroin injectors and crack smokers in California reveal hierarchical interpersonal relations between African Americans, whites and Latinos despite the fact that they all share a physical addiction to heroin and live in indigent poverty in the same encampments. Focusing on tensions between blacks and whites, we develop the concept of ‘ethnicized habitus’ to understand how divisions drawn on the basis of skin color are enforced through everyday interaction to produce ‘intimate apartheid’ in the context of physical proximity and shared destitution. Specifically, we examine how two components of ethnic habitus are generated. One is a simple technique of the body, a preference for intravenous versus intramuscular or subcutaneous heroin injection. The second revolves around income-generation strategies and is more obviously related to external power constraints. Both these components fit into a larger constellation of ethnic distinction rooted in historically entrenched political, economic and ideological forces. An understanding of the generative forces of the ethnic dimensions of habitus allows us to recognize how macro-power relations produce intimate desires and ways of being that become inscribed on individual bodies and routinized in behavior. These distinctions are, for the most part, interpreted as natural attributes of genetics and culture by many people in the United States, justifying a racialized moral hierarchy. PMID:19777125

  15. Heroin body packer's death in Haryana; India: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jakhar, Jitender Kumar; Dhattarwal, S K; Aggarwal, A D; Chikara, Pankaj; Khanagwal, Vijay Pal

    2013-08-01

    We report a case of death due to heroin leakage in a body packer, attempting to smuggle the drug by concealing it in his gastro-intestinal tract. The body was recovered 3-5 days of incidence that was confirmed by autopsy. Fifty pellets (packages) were recovered from the body, 42 identical oval shaped "egg" packages were found in the stomach out of which two were damaged, 6 in small intestine, 2 in large intestine. The total weight of the powder was 267 g. Toxicological analysis of the powder samples from the damaged package and other 48 packages was performed and was found positive for heroin, caffeine and codeine. The main pathological findings at autopsy were pulmonary and cerebral edema. This case illustrates the challenges in postmortem evaluation of narcotic fatalities and the need to consider factors such as ante-mortem history, thorough post mortem examination, toxicology results and photography in forensic diagnosis. This case is unique in the sense that cause of death was intoxication caused by leakage of heroin from damaged packages detected at autopsy and demonstrates that body packing is an existing problem in India. PMID:23910863

  16. 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct formation in aortic DNA following inhalation of acrolein.

    PubMed Central

    Penn, A; Nath, R; Pan, J; Chen, L; Widmer, K; Henk, W; Chung, F L

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that many of the cytotoxic and health-threatening components of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) reside in the vapor phase of the smoke. We have reported previously that inhalation of 1,3-butadiene, a prominent vapor phase component of ETS, accelerates arteriosclerotic plaque development in cockerels. In this study we asked whether inhaled acrolein, a reactive aldehyde that is also a prominent vapor-phase component of ETS, damages artery-wall DNA and accelerates plaque development. Cockerels inhaled 0, 1, or 10 ppm acrolein mixed with HEPA-filtered air for 6 hr. Half were killed immediately (day 1 group) for detection of the stable, premutagenic 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine acrolein adduct (AdG3) in aortic DNA via a (32)P-postlabeling/HPLC method, and half were killed after 10 days (day 10 group) for indirect assessment of adduct repair. In the day 1 group, acrolein-DNA adducts were 5 times higher in the 1 and 10 ppm groups than in HEPA-filtered air controls. However, in the day 10 group, adduct levels in the 1 and 10 ppm acrolein groups were reduced to the control adduct level. For the plaque studies, cockerels inhaled 1 ppm acrolein (6 hr/day, 8 weeks), mixed with the same HEPA-filtered air inhaled by controls. Plaque development was measured blind by computerized morphometry. Unlike butadiene inhalation, acrolein inhalation did not accelerate plaque development. Thus, even though repeated exposure to acrolein alone has no effect on plaque size under the exposure conditions described here, a single, brief inhalation exposure to acrolein elicits repairable DNA damage to the artery wall. These results suggest that frequent exposure to ETS may lead to persistent artery-wall DNA damage and thus provide sites on which other ETS plaque accelerants can act. PMID:11333181

  17. Vaporizer performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. H.; Perez-Ortiz, B. M.; Whitelaw, J. H.

    This paper examines the nature of the flow leaving a vaporizer, its dependence on the flowrates of air and kerosene fuel, the inlet air temperature, and the possible consequences for the performance of a combustor fueled by the vaporizer. A phase Doppler velocimeter was used to examine the distribution of droplet diameters, velocities of the droplets, and the liquid-fuel flux at the exit. Measurements are also reported which show the nature of the two-phase flow away from the vaporizer exits and in important regions within a combustor corresponding to a one-sixth annular sector of a reverse-flow arrangement. The distribution of droplets within the combustor was observed and photographs of the combusting flow are presented.

  18. Vapor fragrancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Q. Tran; Bryant, Timothy D.

    1987-05-01

    This invention relates to a vapor fragrancer for continuously, uniformly, and economically odorizing or deodorizing an environment. Homes, offices, automobiles, and space stations require either odorizing or deodorizing of the atmosphere to create pleasant conditions for work or leisure. A vapor fragrancer is provided to accomplish these goals. A supplier continuously supplies a predetermined amount of desired liquid fragrance from a container to a retaining material, which is positioned in the circulation path of the atmosphere. The supplier is either a low powered pump or a gravity dispenser. The atmosphere flowing in a circulation path passes over the retaining material containing the liquid fragrance and lifts a fragrant vapor from the retaining material. The atmosphere is thereby continuously and uniformly fragranced.

  19. Exchanging expertise and constructing boundaries: The development of a transnational knowledge network around heroin-assisted treatment.

    PubMed

    Duke, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Over the last 20 years, supervised injectable and inhalable heroin prescribing has been developed, tested and in some cases introduced as a second line treatment for limited groups of entrenched heroin users in a number of European countries and Canada. Based on documentary analyses and eleven key informant interviews, this paper investigates the growth of 'expertise' and the sharing of knowledge between scientific stakeholders from different countries involved in researching and developing this area of treatment. Drawing on Stone's concept of the 'knowledge network' (Stone, 2013) and Gieryn's theory of 'boundary-work' (Gieryn, 1983), the analysis demonstrates the collective power of this group of scientists in producing a particular form of knowledge and expertise which has accrued and been exchanged over time. It also illustrates the ways in which this type of science has gained credibility and authority and become legitimised, reinforced and reproduced by those who employ it in both scientific and political debates. Boundaries were constructed by the knowledge network between different types of professions/disciplines, different forms of science and between the production of science and its consumption by non-scientists. The uniformity of the knowledge network in terms of their professional and disciplinary backgrounds, methodological expertise and ideological perspectives has meant that alternative forms of knowledge and perspectives have been neglected. This limits the nature and scope of the scientific evidence on which to base policy and practice decisions impacting on the work of policy makers and practitioners as well as the experiences of those in treatment who are most affected by this research and policy development. PMID:26790692

  20. Attitudes of Australian Heroin Users to Peer Distribution of Naloxone for Heroin Overdose: Perspectives on Intranasal Administration

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Paul; Kelly, Anne-Maree; Jolley, Damien

    2008-01-01

    Naloxone distribution to injecting drug users (IDUs) for peer administration is a suggested strategy to prevent fatal heroin overdose. The aim of this study was to explore attitudes of IDUs to administration of naloxone to others after heroin overdose, and preferences for method of administration. A sample of 99 IDUs (median age 35 years, 72% male) recruited from needle and syringe programs in Melbourne were administered a questionnaire. Data collected included demographics, attitudes to naloxone distribution, and preferences for method of administration. The primary study outcomes were attitudes of IDUs to use of naloxone for peer administration (categorized on a five-point scale ranging from “very good idea” to “very bad idea”) and preferred mode of administration (intravenous, intramuscular, and intranasal). The majority of the sample reported positive attitudes toward naloxone distribution (good to very good idea: 89%) and 92% said they were willing to participate in a related training program. Some participants raised concerns about peer administration including the competence of IDUs to administer naloxone in an emergency, victim response on wakening and legal implications. Most (74%) preferred intranasal administration in comparison to other administration methods (21%). There was no association with age, sex, or heroin practice. There appears to be strong support among Australian IDU for naloxone distribution to peers. Intranasal spray is the preferred route of administration. PMID:18347990

  1. Cerebellar neuronal apoptosis in heroin-addicted rats and its molecular mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Hongwei; Wang, Xuemei; Zhang, Jianlong; Ma, Chuang; Su, Yinxia; Li, Xiujuan; Liu, Xiaoshan; Su, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Background: The overall objective of this study was to investigate neuronal apoptosis and expression of apoptosis related proteins (c-jun, cytc and Bax) in the cerebellum of rates with heroin addiction. Material/Methods: 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats which weighing 200-220 g were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 8 per group): control group, 10-day heroin-addicted group, 20-day heroin-addicted group, 30-day heroin-addicted group and 40-day heroin-addicted group. Rats in the control group were treated with normal saline. Rats in the addiction groups (20 d, 30 d, 40 d) were all given subcutaneous injection with heroin for 15 days to induce heroin addiction. After injected with heroin for 15 days, rats were treated with naloxone at a dose of 5 mg/kg to induce abstinence for 30 mins to examine the addiction of rats. They were then continued to be treated with heroin for another 10 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 40 days respectively to establish heroin-addicted models. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was employed to identify apoptotic cells [6]. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot assay were also used in the study to examine the protein expressions of c-jun, cytc and Bax in the cerebellum. Results: Compared with the control group, the proportion of apoptotic neurons increased significantly in the heroin addiction groups (10 d, 20 d, 30 d, 40 d) (P < 0.05), also accompanied by markedly increased expressions of c-jun, cytc and Bax (P < 0.05) depending on doses of heroin in the cerebellum. Thus, the significant differences were observed in heroin addiction groups (10 d, 20 d,30 d, 40 d) and control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Long-term use of heroin may induce neuronal apoptosis in the cerebellum by raising the expressions of pro-apoptotic c-jun, cytc and Bax, which might be one of mechanisms underlying the heroin-induced cerebellum neuronal damage. PMID:26339395

  2. Discriminative stimulus effects of intravenous heroin and its metabolites in rhesus monkeys: opioid and dopaminergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Platt, D M; Rowlett, J K; Spealman, R D

    2001-11-01

    Heroin has characteristic subjective effects that contribute importantly to its widespread abuse. Drug discrimination procedures in animals have proven to be useful models for investigating pharmacological mechanisms underlying the subjective effects of drugs in humans. However, surprisingly little information exists concerning the mechanisms underlying the discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of heroin. This study characterized the DS effects of heroin in rhesus monkeys trained to discriminate i.v. heroin from saline. In drug substitution experiments, heroin, its metabolites 6-monoacetylmorphine, morphine, morphine-6-glucuronide, and morphine-3-glucuronide, and the mu-agonists fentanyl and methadone engendered dose-dependent increases in heroin-lever responding, reaching average maximums of >80% (full substitution) at doses that did not appreciably suppress response rate. In contrast, the delta-agonist SNC 80, the kappa-agonist spiradoline, and the dopamine uptake blockers/releasers cocaine, methamphetamine, and GBR 12909 did not engender heroin-like DS effects regardless of dose. In antagonism studies, in vivo apparent pA2 and pK(B) values for naltrexone combined with heroin, morphine, and 6-monoacetylmorphine (8.0-8.7) were comparable with those reported previously for naltrexone antagonism of prototypical mu-agonists. The results show that the DS effects of heroin are pharmacologically specific and mediated primarily at mu-opioid receptors. Moreover, the acetylated and glucuronated metabolites of heroin appear to play significant roles in these effects. Despite previous speculation that morphine-3-glucuronide lacks significant opioid activity, it substituted fully for heroin in our study, suggesting that it can exhibit prominent mu-agonist effects in vivo. PMID:11602692

  3. Mephedrone inhalation causes pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Ruth; Bowen, Nia; Singh, Joy

    2014-01-01

    A 17-year-old male patient presented to A&E with swelling on the right side of his neck, extending to below the clavicle, associated with neck pain and dysphonia. On examination, subcutaneous supraclavicular and chest wall emphysema was noted. Clinical observations and bloods were normal. A chest X-ray and subsequent CT of the thorax showed evidence of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. The patient denied any history of trauma but admitted to inhalation of mephedrone 3 days previously. The patient was discussed with the regional cardiothoracic unit who advised conservative management. He was treated prophylactically with antibiotics and was initially kept nil by mouth, but diet was introduced 24 h later. He remained well, his dysphonia resolved and his subcutaneous emphysema improved. He was discharged after 3 days. He has not attended any formal follow-up but was well when contacted by phone. PMID:24614784

  4. Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Gian Paolo; Searles, Robert; Yu, Binglan; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito; Zapol, Warren M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Breathing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to induce a suspended animation–like state with hypothermia and a concomitant metabolic reduction in rodents. However, the impact of H2S breathing on cardiovascular function remains incompletely understood. In this study, the authors investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of inhaled H2S in a murine model. Methods The impact of breathing H2S on cardiovascular function was examined using telemetry and echocardiography in awake mice. The effects of breathing H2S on carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption were measured at room temperature and in a warmed environment. Results Breathing H2S at 80 parts per million by volume at 27°C ambient temperature for 6 h markedly reduced heart rate, core body temperature, respiratory rate, and physical activity, whereas blood pressure remained unchanged. Echocardiography demonstrated that H2S exposure decreased both heart rate and cardiac output but preserved stroke volume. Breathing H2S for 6 h at 35°C ambient temperature (to prevent hypothermia) decreased heart rate, physical activity, respiratory rate, and cardiac output without altering stroke volume or body temperature. H2S breathing seems to induce bradycardia by depressing sinus node activity. Breathing H2S for 30 min decreased whole body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production at either 27° or 35°C ambient temperature. Both parameters returned to baseline levels within 10 min after the cessation of H2S breathing. Conclusions Inhalation of H2S at either 27° or 35°C reversibly depresses cardiovascular function without changing blood pressure in mice. Breathing H2S also induces a rapidly reversible reduction of metabolic rate at either body temperature. PMID:18362598

  5. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  6. Inhaled antibiotics: dry or wet?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Bos, Aukje C; Mouton, Johan W; Devadason, Sunalene; Janssens, Hettie M

    2014-11-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) delivering antibiotics for the suppressive treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients were developed recently and are now increasingly replacing time-consuming nebuliser therapy. Noninferiority studies have shown that the efficacy of inhaled tobramycin delivered by DPI was similar to that of wet nebulisation. However, there are many differences between inhaled antibiotic therapy delivered by DPI and by nebuliser. The question is whether and to what extent inhalation technique and other patient-related factors affect the efficacy of antibiotics delivered by DPI compared with nebulisers. Health professionals should be aware of the differences between dry and wet aerosols, and of patient-related factors that can influence efficacy, in order to personalise treatment, to give appropriate instructions to patients and to better understand the response to the treatment after switching. In this review, key issues of aerosol therapy are discussed in relation to inhaled antibiotic therapy with the aim of optimising the use of both nebulised and DPI antibiotics by patients. An example of these issues is the relationship between airway generation, structural lung changes and local concentrations of the inhaled antibiotics. The pros and cons of dry and wet modes of delivery for inhaled antibiotics are discussed. PMID:25323242

  7. Heroin use among Miami's public school students, 1992: peers and the "drug subculture" overwhelm parents, religion and schools.

    PubMed

    Yarnold, B M

    1996-01-01

    This analysis examines the use of heroin by 481 adolescents in Dade County, Florida public schools during 1992. Statistically significant factors which tend to increase the probability of heroin use by adolescents include: peer use of heroin and students' involvement in school clubs. Not significantly related to heroin use is their access to the drug, their ethnic background or race, and their gender. Although not statistically significant, adolescents were more likely to use heroin if they knew of the risks associated with heroin use. There are no statistically significant variables which inhibit the rise of heroin by Miami adolescents. When religion was an important part of their lives, they were at lower risk for heroin use, but this was not significant. Also not significantly related to heroin use are a number of other variables, including family-related variables (whether adolescents live with their mothers, fathers, or alone: and whether someone in the family has a problem with drugs or alcohol). Similarly, early cigarette smoking and alcohol rise did not serve as gateways to later heroin use. Academic performance, and extracurricular school activities (athletics, music, and other activities) were all unrelated to the use of heroin by adolescents, with the exception of involvement in school clubs which substantially increased the risk of heroin use. PMID:10184654

  8. Trajectories of Heroin Addiction: Growth Mixture Modeling Results Based on a 33-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang, David; Chou, Chih-Ping; Anglin, M. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates trajectories of heroin use and subsequent consequences in a sample of 471 male heroin addicts who were admitted to the California Civil Addict Program in 1964-1965 and followed over 33 years. Applying a two-part growth mixture modeling strategy to heroin use level during the first 16 years of the addiction careers since…

  9. Time course of pharmacokinetic and hormonal effects of inhaled high-dose salvinorin A in humans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew W; MacLean, Katherine A; Caspers, Michael J; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Griffiths, Roland R

    2016-04-01

    Salvinorin A is a kappa opioid agonist and the principal psychoactive constituent of the Salvia divinorum plant, which has been used for hallucinogenic effects. Previous research on salvinorin A pharmacokinetics likely underestimated plasma levels typically resulting from the doses administered due to inefficient vaporization and not collecting samples during peak drug effects. Six healthy adults inhaled a single high dose of vaporized salvinorin A (n = 4, 21 mcg/kg; n = 2, 18 mcg/kg). Participant- and monitor-rated effects were assessed every 2 min for 60 min post-inhalation. Blood samples were collected at 13 time points up to 90 min post-inhalation. Drug levels peaked at 2 min and then rapidly decreased. Drug levels were significantly, positively correlated with participant and monitor drug effect ratings. Significant elevations in prolactin were observed beginning 5 min post-inhalation and peaking at 15 min post-inhalation. Cortisol showed inconsistent increases across participants. Hormonal responses were not well correlated with drug levels. This is the first study to demonstrate a direct relationship between changes in plasma levels of salvinorin A and drug effects in humans. The results confirm the efficacy of an inhalation technique for salvinorin A. PMID:26880225

  10. Inhalation Exposure Systems for the Development of Rodent Models of Sulfur Mustard-Induced Pulmonary Injury

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Waylon M.; Kracko, Dean A.; Lehman, Mericka R.; Irvin, Clinton M.; Blair, Lee F.; White, Richard K.; Benson, Janet M.; Grotendorst, Gary R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; McDonald, Jacob D.

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical threat agent for which its effects have no current treatment. Due to the ease of synthesis and dispersal of this material, the need to develop therapeutics is evident. The present manuscript details the techniques used to develop SM laboratory exposure systems for the development of animal models of pulmonary injury. These models are critical for evaluating SM injury and developing therapeutics against that injury. Iterative trials were conducted to optimize a lung injury model. The resulting pathology was used as a guide, with a goal of effecting homogeneous and diffuse lung injury comparable to that of human injury. Inhalation exposures were conducted by either nose-only inhalation or intubated inhalation. The exposures were conducted to either directly vaporized SM or SM that was nebulized from an ethanol solution. Inhalation of SM by nose-only inhalation resulted in severe nasal epithelial degeneration and minimal lung injury. The reactivity of SM did not permit it to transit past the upper airways to promote lower airway injury. Intratracheal inhalation of SM vapors at a concentration of 5400 mg · min/m3 resulted in homogeneous lung injury with no nasal degeneration. PMID:20025432

  11. A Collection of NIDA NOTES. Articles That Address Research on Heroin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on heroin research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuses (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. Titles include: Buprenorphine Taken Three Times Per Week Is as Effective as Daily Doses in Treating Heroin Addiction; 33-Year Study Finds Lifelong, Lethal Consequences…

  12. Buprenorphine and methadone maintenance treatment of heroin addicts preserves immune function.

    PubMed

    Sacerdote, Paola; Franchi, Silvia; Gerra, Gilberto; Leccese, Vincenzo; Panerai, Alberto E; Somaini, Lorenzo

    2008-05-01

    Opiate addiction influences many physiological functions including immune responses. The objective of this study was to investigate the immune system function in heroin addicted patients submitted to methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment compared to untreated heroin addicts and healthy controls. Four groups were studied: group A included nine heroin addicted subjects, who were still injecting heroin; groups B and C were composed of 12 patients previously addicted to heroin, being treated with methadone (mean dosage 58+/-12.7 mg/day) or buprenorphine (mean dose 9.3+/-2.3mg/day) since at least 6 months; group D was composed of 15 sex and age matched healthy controls. Lymphoproliferation and peripheral mononuclear cell cultures production of the Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-gamma, the Th2 cytokine IL-4, and of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha were evaluated in all the patients and controls. PHA-lymphoproliferation was lower in untreated heroin addicts than in controls, while it was normal in methadone and buprenorphine treated patients. An altered Th1/Th2 balance, characterized by reduced IL-4, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha but normal IL-2 levels, was present in untreated heroin addicted subjects, while the Th1/Th2 balance was well conserved in the methadone and buprenorphine groups. These findings suggest that the immune system abnormalities in heroin addicted patients can be restored to almost normal values by controlled treatment with methadone and buprenorphine. PMID:18294814

  13. Heroin self-administration: I. Incubation of goal-directed behavior in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Kara L.; Twining, Robert C.; Baldwin, Anne E.; Vrana, Kent E.; Grigson, Patricia Sue

    2009-01-01

    This study used heroin self-administration to investigate incubation of goal-directed heroin-seeking behavior following abstinence. Male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered heroin on a fixed ratio 10 (FR10) schedule of reinforcement with licking of an empty spout serving as the operant behavior during 14 daily 3 h sessions. After this acquisition period, all rats received a 90 min extinction session following either 1 d or 14 d of home cage abstinence. When the extinction session occurred after only 1 d of home cage abstinence, rats with a history of heroin self-administration divided their responses equally between the previously “active” and “inactive” spouts. However, when the extinction session occurred following 14 d of home cage abstinence, the rats exhibited marked goal-directed heroin-seeking behavior by licking more on the previously “active” than “inactive” spout. These findings demonstrate that heroin-seeking behavior incubates over time, resulting in goal-directed heroin-seeking behavior in rats following 14 d but not 1 d of abstinence. Moreover, this facilitatory effect occurred in response to a different training schedule, a lower total drug intake, and after shorter periods of daily access than previously reported with heroin. PMID:18471868

  14. Heroin: Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Although heroin use has decreased in the general population during the last few years, a troubling new trend is emerging. Use is up among school-age children and they are now subject to a popular culture in music and films that glamorizes its use. This trend along with increased availability and purity of heroin has created a major health concern…

  15. Opioid Agonist Treatments and Heroin Overdose Deaths in Baltimore, Maryland, 1995–2009

    PubMed Central

    Gryczynski, Jan; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Sharfstein, Joshua M.; Warren, Gregory; Olsen, Yngvild; Mitchell, Shannon G.; Jaffe, Jerome H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the association between the expansion of methadone and buprenorphine treatment and the prevalence of heroin overdose deaths in Baltimore, Maryland from 1995 to 2009. Methods. We conducted a longitudinal time series analysis of archival data using linear regression with the Newey–West method to correct SEs for heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation, adjusting for average heroin purity. Results. Overdose deaths attributed to heroin ranged from a high of 312 in 1999 to a low of 106 in 2008. While mean heroin purity rose sharply (1995–1999), the increasing number of patients treated with methadone was not associated with a change in the number of overdose deaths, but starting in 2000 expansion of opioid agonist treatment was associated with a decline in overdose deaths. Adjusting for heroin purity and the number of methadone patients, there was a statistically significant inverse relationship between heroin overdose deaths and patients treated with buprenorphine (P = .002). Conclusions. Increased access to opioid agonist treatment was associated with a reduction in heroin overdose deaths. Implementing policies that support evidence-based medication treatment of opiate dependence may decrease heroin overdose deaths. PMID:23488511

  16. Heroin Use among Southern Arrestees: Regional Findings from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Ross, Michael W.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    To be effective with rehabilitation counseling, counselors need to be aware of cultural patterns of drug use. This study analyzed trends in heroin use between 1990 and 1997 among the arrestee population in some parts of the South. Findings suggest geographic, ethnic, and age-related variables for heroin use. (JDM)

  17. Marijuana Use by Heroin Abusers as a Factor in Program Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellner, Melvyn

    1977-01-01

    Primary heroin abusers who remained in a voluntary drug-free treatment program for an average of nine months were carefully matched with not-retained control subjects. Marijuana was used by the retained subjects as a heroin substitute and those who used marijuana were more apt to remain in the treatment program. (Author)

  18. Interactions between Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and heroin: self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Xu; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2012-12-01

    The cannabinoid receptor agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances the antinociceptive effects of µ-opioid receptor agonists, raising the possibility of using a combination of THC and opioids for treating pain. This study examined the effects of noncontingent and contingent administration of THC on intravenous heroin self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Self-administration of different unit doses of heroin (0.0001-0.1 mg/kg/infusion) generated a typical inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. In one experiment (n=4), noncontingent THC (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently shifted the heroin dose-response curve downward in three monkeys and slightly leftward in one monkey. In a second experiment (n=4), monkeys could self-administer THC alone (0.0032-0.032 mg/kg/infusion), heroin alone, or a mixture of THC and heroin. THC alone did not maintain responding above that obtained with saline; however, increasing the THC dose with heroin dose dependently decreased the number of infusions received and the rate of responding, as compared with data that were obtained with heroin alone. These results indicate that THC does not significantly enhance the positive reinforcing effects of heroin, further supporting the view that combining cannabinoid and opioid receptor agonists (e.g. for treating pain) does not increase, and might decrease, the abuse liability of individual drugs. PMID:23044830

  19. An approach to heroin use disorder intervention within the South African context: A content analysis study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The field of heroin use disorder intervention has been in transition in South Africa since the outbreak of the heroin epidemic. Yet despite growing evidence of an association between heroin users' use of supplementary intervention services and intervention outcomes, heroin use disorder intervention programmes in South Africa generally fail to meet international research-based intervention standards. Methods Semi-structured interviews with ten heroin use disorder specialists were conducted and the interviews were subjected to content analysis. Results and Discussion In terms of theory and practice, findings of the study suggest that the field of heroin use disorder intervention in South Africa remains fragmented and transitional. Specifically, limited strategic public health care polices that address the syndromes' complexities have been implemented within the South Africa context. Conclusions Although many interventions and procedures have begun to be integrated routinely into heroin use disorder clinical practice within the South African context, comorbidity factors, such as psychiatric illness and HIV/AIDS, need to be more cogently addressed. Pragmatic and evidence-based public health care policies designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with heroin use still needs to be implemented in the South African context. PMID:20569481

  20. [A case of traveller who showed heroin withdrawal after returning from abroad].

    PubMed

    Tohhara, S; Kato, A; Tsuji, M; Nakajima, T; Kato, N

    1991-10-01

    A 28-year old Japanese man with heroin abuse was reported. He is an ex-beautician and has abused a variety of substances such as toluene, marihuana, methamphetamine, LSD, and so on since he was in a junior high school in Japan. He experienced an intravenous injection of heroin for five days on his first trip to Thailand in 1989. Soon after he returned home, he went back there to use heroin again. He also experienced tearing and running nose as withdrawal at the end of his ten-day trip. During his third stay there he got a job as a wholesale dealer of heroin under a illegal drug organization in the northern part of Thailand. Before he returned home in Japan, he managed to withdraw from heroin by reducing the dose and replacing it with opium smoking. On his fourth trip he failed to withdraw from heroin and injected the drug intravenously at Chiang Mai Airport before leaving Thailand. He began to show acute heroin withdrawal just after he arrived in Osaka, Japan and sought treatment without telling heroin abuse. He was hospitalized next day and soon showed more severe withdrawal and delirium for next ten days. The delirium was thought to be due to not only heroin but the other drugs which he used. Recently heroin abuse, once prevalent during the latter half of 1950s in Japan, has been hardly seen owing to changing the law to severe punishment in 1963. To avoid strict regulations in home some of young Japanese seem to travel abroad and abuse drugs in Asian countries where the drugs are easily available.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1772378

  1. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  2. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the dose counter go down. Do not waste doses by closing or tilting the inhaler, playing ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  3. Umeclidinium and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  4. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000036.htm Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. If you breathe a foreign object into your nose, mouth, or respiratory tract, it ...

  5. The cutting of cocaine and heroin: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Esseiva, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The illicit drug cutting represents a complex problem that requires the sharing of knowledge from addiction studies, toxicology, criminology and criminalistics. Therefore, cutting is not well known by the forensic community. Thus, this review aims at deciphering the different aspects of cutting, by gathering information mainly from criminology and criminalistics. It tackles essentially specificities of cocaine and heroin cutting. The article presents the detected cutting agents (adulterants and diluents), their evolution in time and space and the analytical methodology implemented by forensic laboratories. Furthermore, it discusses when, in the history of the illicit drug, cutting may take place. Moreover, researches studying how much cutting occurs in the country of destination are analysed. Lastly, the reasons for cutting are addressed. According to the literature, adulterants are added during production of the illicit drug or at a relatively high level of its distribution chain (e.g. before the product arrives in the country of destination or just after its importation in the latter). Their addition seems hardly justified by the only desire to increase profits or to harm consumers' health. Instead, adulteration would be performed to enhance or to mimic the illicit drug effects or to facilitate administration of the drug. Nowadays, caffeine, diltiazem, hydroxyzine, levamisole, lidocaïne and phenacetin are frequently detected in cocaine specimens, while paracetamol and caffeine are almost exclusively identified in heroin specimens. This may reveal differences in the respective structures of production and/or distribution of cocaine and heroin. As the relevant information about cutting is spread across different scientific fields, a close collaboration should be set up to collect essential and unified data to improve knowledge and provide information for monitoring, control and harm reduction purposes. More research, on several areas of investigation, should be

  6. Severity of heroin dependence and HIV risk. I. Sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Gossop, M; Griffiths, P; Powis, B; Strang, J

    1993-01-01

    The HIV risks associated with the sexual behaviour of drug injectors have sometimes been overshadowed by the more obvious risks of injection behaviour. In this study, 408 heroin users were interviewed in the community; 50% were not currently in treatment and 42% had never had any treatment contact. In addition to data on drug use, information was collected on sexual risk behaviour by means of a linked anonymous questionnaire (96% returned). Eighty-nine per cent of the sample had had at least one sexual partner in the previous year and 58% had a regular sexual partner at the time of interview. Drug users who had a sexual partner who was injecting drugs were more severely dependent upon heroin. Twenty-three per cent of the men and 20% of the women reported having had anal intercourse in the previous year. Seventeen per cent of the women and 6% of the men had engaged in some form of prostitution. Severity of heroin dependence was positively related to the occurrence and to the frequency of sex-for-money transactions and to the less well recognized phenomenon of sex-for-drugs; this association with severity of dependence applied to the women and to the men who have sex with men. The overall level of condom use was low in this sample, though condom use was more frequent among those involved in sex-for-money or sex-for-drugs transactions. Low levels of condom use were reported even for such high risk activities as anal sex.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8329480

  7. Neurophysiological Assessment of Auditory, Peripheral Nerve, Somatosensory, and Visual System Functions after Developmental Exposure to Ethanol Vapors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol-blended gasoline entered the market in response to demand for domestic renewable energy sources, and may result in increased inhalation of ethanol vapors in combination with other volatile gasoline constituents. It is important to understand potential risks of inhalation ...

  8. Specific serum binding of morphine, levorphanol and heroin

    PubMed Central

    Herndon, B. L.; Baeder, D. H.; Ringle, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of repeated subcutaneous pellet implantation of a series of narcotic drugs on the serum binding of [14C]morphine was studied in rabbits. Three of the compounds, morphine, heroin and levorphanol, elicited production of a morphine-binding globulin in the implanted rabbits. This serum response did not occur with several other compounds tested, including the potent analgesic methadone, and the narcotic antagonist naloxone. The time course of production of this globulin response, as well as the specificity of the binding for the drug that induced the response are both characteristic of an immunological reaction.

  9. Comparison of dermal and inhalation routes of entry for organic chemicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jepson, Gary W.; Mcdougal, James N.; Clewell, Harvey J., III

    1992-01-01

    The quantitative comparison of the chemical concentration inside the body as the result of a dermal exposure versus an inhalation exposure is useful for assessing human health risks and deciding on an appropriate protective posture. In order to describe the relationship between dermal and inhalation routes of exposure, a variety of organic chemicals were evaluated. The types of chemicals chosen for the study were halogenated hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, non-polar hydrocarbons and inhalation anesthetics. Both dermal and inhalation exposures were conducted in rats and the chemicals were in the form of vapors. Prior to the dermal exposure, rat fur was closely clipped and during the exposure rats were provided fresh breathing air through latex masks. Blood samples were taken during 4-hour exposures and analyzed for the chemical of interest. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model was used to predict permeability constants (cm/hr) consistent with the observed blood concentrations of the chemical. The ratio of dermal exposure to inhalation exposure required to achieve the same internal dose of chemical was calculated for each test chemical. The calculated ratio in humans ranged from 18 for styrene to 1180 for isoflurane. This methodology can be used to estimate the dermal exposure required to reach the internal dose achieved by a specific inhalation exposure. Such extrapolation is important since allowable exposure standards are often set for inhalation exposures, but occupational exposures may be dermal.

  10. Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate) and sand (predominant silicon dioxide) are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 μm) and fine aluminum particles (< 1 μm), magnesium and several other elements forming a spectrum compatible with the stated water pipe smoking of talcum-adulterated marijuana. Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html. PMID:22420484

  11. Asymmetric generalization and interaction profiles in rhesus monkeys discriminating intravenous cocaine or intravenous heroin from vehicle.

    PubMed

    Platt, Donna M; Rowlett, James K; Spealman, Roger D

    2010-03-01

    Many polydrug abusers combine cocaine with heroin in the form of a "speedball." This study investigated the discriminative stimulus (DS) effects of speedballs in rhesus monkeys trained to discriminate either intravenous cocaine or intravenous heroin from vehicle. Initial substitution tests revealed an asymmetry in the generalization profile of dopamine and opioid agonists such that mu agonists partially substituted for cocaine, but direct and indirect dopamine agonists did not substitute for heroin. Subsequent speedball tests in which drug mixtures were administered by coinjecting the component drugs while keeping the dose-ratio constant revealed an additional asymmetry. In cocaine-trained monkeys, coadministration of cocaine and heroin produced leftward shifts in the cocaine dose-response function. Heroin's cocaine-enhancing effects were mimicked by the mu agonists fentanyl and methadone and less consistently by the delta agonist (+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide (SNC 80) and reversed by the mu antagonist naltrexone and the delta antagonist naltrindole. In heroin-trained monkeys, coadministration of cocaine and heroin attenuated the DS effects of heroin. Cocaine's heroin-attenuating effects were mimicked by the D1-like agonist 6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-(1H)-3-benzazepine (SKF 81297) and the D2-like agonist R-(-)-propylnorapomorphine and reversed by the D1-like antagonist (6aS-trans)-11-chloro-6,6a,7,8,9,13b-hexahydro-7-methyl-5H- benzo[d] aphtha[2,1-b]azepin-12-ol hydrobromide (SCH 39166) and the D2-like antagonist raclopride. Attenuation of the effects of heroin was accompanied by decreases in response rate. These results suggest that heroin enhances the DS effects of cocaine via mu, and to a lesser extent delta, receptor mechanisms; whereas cocaine-induced inhibition of the DS effects of heroin probably was due at least in part to masking of the heroin DS presumably

  12. Inflammatory response in heroin addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yuan-Yu; Yang, Szu-Nian; Lin, Jyh-Chyang; Chang, Junn-Liang; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Lo, Wan-Yu

    2015-03-30

    Opioid addiction influences many physiological functions including reactions of the immune system. The objective of this study was to investigate the immune system function in heroin addicted patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) compared to healthy controls. We tested the cytokine production of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from a group of heroin addicts (n=34) and healthy controls (n=20). The results show that production of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was significantly higher in the group of methadone-maintained patients than in the healthy control group. Plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly correlated with the dairy methadone dosage administered, and the IL-1β level was significantly correlated with the duration of methadone maintenance treatment. These findings suggest that methadone maintenance treatment influences the immune system functions of opioid-dependent patients and may also induce long-term systemic inflammation. PMID:25660662

  13. Biased Perception of Mean Emotion in Abstinent Heroin Abusers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xuan; Hu, Chun; Liao, Huayu; Yang, Tong; Shen, Mowei

    2015-01-01

    Although evidence suggests that drug abusers exhibit biases when coding individual emotional facial expressions, little is known about how they process multiple expressions simultaneously. The present study evaluated the mean emotions perceived by abstinent heroin abusers. Male abstinent heroin abusers (AHs) and healthy controls (HCs) were randomly assigned into three emotional conditions (happy, sad, or angry), viewed sets of four faces (Experiment 1) or individual faces (Experiment 2) that varied in emotionality (neutral to happy/sad/angry), and judged whether a test face presented later was more/less emotional than the preceding stimuli. Average points of subjective equality were calculated to reflect participants' biases in perceiving emotions of sets or single faces. Relative to HCs, AHs overestimated mean emotions for sad and angry faces in Experiment 1; however, no such biases were found in Experiment 2. This suggests biased ensemble coding towards negative emotional facial expressions in AHs. Furthermore, when controlling for depression and anxiety, AHs' enhanced perception of mean emotion for angry or sad faces in Experiment 1 decreased, indicating a possible mediating effect of these psychopathological variables in the relationship between drug addiction history and abnormal ensemble processing for sets of emotional expressions. PMID:26595559

  14. Subchronic inhalation exposure study of an airborne polychlorinated biphenyl mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xin; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri; Thorne, Peter S

    2012-09-01

    Although inhalation of atmospheric polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is the most universal exposure route and has become a substantial concern in urban areas, research is lacking to determine the body burden of inhaled PCBs and consequent health effects. To reflect the Chicago airshed environment and mimic the PCB profile in Chicago air, we generated vapors from a Chicago air mixture (CAM). Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the CAM vapor for 1.6 h/day via nose-only inhalation for 4 weeks, 520 ± 10 μg/m(3). Congener-specific quantification in tissue and air samples was performed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS). In contrast to the lower-chlorinated congener-enriched vapor, body tissues mainly contained tri- to hexachlorobiphenyls. Congener profiles varied between vapor and tissues and among different organs. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) were also investigated for tissue distribution. We evaluated a variety of end points to catalogue the effects of long-term inhalation exposure, including immune responses, enzyme induction, cellular toxicity, and histopathologic abnormalities. Glutathione oxidized/reduced ratio (GSSG/GSH) was increased in the blood of exposed animals, accompanied by elevation of hematocrit. This study demonstrated that inhalation contributed to the body burden of mostly tri- to hexachlorobiphenyls and produced a distinct profile of congeners in tissue, yet minimal toxicity was found at this exposure dose, estimated at 134 μg/rat. PMID:22846166

  15. Immune Function Alterations during 12 Weeks of Abstinence in Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Yang, X-R; Song, H; Cao, B-R; Yin, F; An, Z-M; Kang, L; Li, J

    2015-01-01

    The intent of the study was to evaluate immune system changes during 12 weeks of abstinence in heroin users. We recruited men (N = 65) aged 18-45 years and collected demographic and heroin use pattern data. Serum blood levels of total interleukin 2 (IL-2), interferon γ (IFN-γ), immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgM were assessed at five time points. The IL-2 level was increased on day 84 as compared to that in healthy controls. The IFN-γ level was higher in heroin users than in healthy controls between days 0 and 28, and was decreased on day 84. IgG and IgM levels in heroin users were higher than those in healthy controls in our 12-week study, and were in positive correlation with the way of using the drug, duration of heroin dependence, and daily heroin intake. Our data revealed that the immune system was not restored during the 12 weeks of heroin withdrawal. PMID:26789146

  16. Acute cross-tolerance to opioids in heroin delta-opioid-responding Swiss Webster mice.

    PubMed

    Rady, J J; Fujimoto, J M

    2000-01-01

    It is generally thought that the mu receptor actions of metabolites, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6MAM) and morphine, account for the pharmacological actions of heroin. However, upon intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration in Swiss Webster mice, heroin and 6MAM act on delta receptors while morphine acts on mu receptors. Swiss Webster mice made tolerant to subcutaneous (s.c.) morphine by morphine pellet were not cross-tolerant to s.c. heroin (at 20 min in the tail flick test). Now, opioids were given in combination, s.c. (6.5 h) and i.c.v. (3 h) preceding testing the challenging agonist i.c.v. (at 10 min in the tail flick test). The combination (s.c. + i.c.v.) morphine pretreatment induced tolerance to the mu action of morphine but no cross-tolerance to the delta action of heroin, 6MAM and DPDPE and explained why morphine pelleting did not produce cross-tolerance to s.c. heroin above. Heroin plus heroin produced tolerance to delta agonists but not to mu agonists. Surprisingly, all combinations of morphine with the delta agonists produced tolerance to morphine which now acted through delta receptors (inhibited by i.c.v. naltrindole), an unusual change in receptor selectivity for morphine. PMID:10810246

  17. A Conjugate Vaccine Attenuates Morphine- and Heroin-Induced Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian-Qian; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Xue, Yan-Xue; Meng, Shi-Qiu; Xu, Ling-Zhi; Chen, Na; Deng, Jia-Hui; Zhai, Hai-Feng; Kosten, Thomas R.; Shi, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently approved medications for opioid addiction have shown clinical efficacy, but undesired side effects, dependence induced by the medications themselves, and low treatment compliance necessitate the need for novel therapies. Methods: A novel morphine-keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine was synthesized with 6-glutarylmorphine as the hapten and a lengthened linker of 6 carbon atoms. The titer and specificity of the triggered antibody were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of the vaccine on the morphine-induced elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The effects of the vaccine on morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and heroin-primed reinstatement of heroin self-administration were also assessed. Results: After subcutaneous administration in rats, the vaccine triggered a high antibody titer, with comparable specificity for morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, and heroin, but no interaction with dissimilar therapeutic opioid compounds, including buprenorphine, naloxone, and nalorphine, was observed. The vaccine significantly prevented the elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens induced by a single morphine challenge. Moreover, the vaccine prevented the expression of morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and heroin-primed reinstatement of heroin seeking, suggesting its potential for preventing relapse. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that active immunization with the present vaccine induces a robust morphine/heroin-specific antibody response in rats and attenuates the behavioral effects of morphine and heroin. PMID:25522425

  18. Pneumoconiosis after sericite inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Algranti, E; Handar, A; Dumortier, P; Mendonca, E; Rodrigues, G; Santos, A; Mauad, T; Dolhnikoff, M; De Vuyst, P; Saldiva, P; Bussacos, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and describe the radiological, clinical, and pathological changes in miners and millers exposed to sericite dust with mineralogical characteristics of inhaled dust. Methods: The working premises were visited to examine the sericite processing and to classify the jobs according to make qualitative evaluation. Respirable dust was collected and the amount of crystalline silica and particle size distribution were measured. Forty four workers were examined by a standard questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and chest x ray. Material from an open lung biopsy was reviewed for histopathological and mineralogical analysis, together with sericite samples from the work site to compare the mineral characteristics in lung lesions and work area. Results: Respirable dust contained 4.5–10.0% crystalline silica. Particle size distribution showed a heavy burden of very fine particles (23–55%) with a mean diameter of <0.5 µm. Mean age of sericite miners was 41.0 (11.9) and mean number of years of exposure was 13.5 (10.1). In 52.3% of workers (23/44), chest radiographs presented a median category of 1/0 or above, and 18.2% (8/44) had a reduced FEV1. There was a significant association between exposure indices and x ray category. Histological studies of the lung biopsy showed lesions compatible with mixed dust fibrosis with no silicotic nodules. x Ray diffraction analysis of the lung dust residue and the bulk samples collected from work area showed similar mineralogical characteristics. Muscovite and kaolinite were the major mineral particle inclusions in the lung. Conclusion: Exposure to fine sericite particles is associated with the development of functional and radiological changes in workers inducing mixed dust lesions, which are distinct histologically from silicosis. PMID:15723874

  19. Acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression requires IL-1 signaling in the dorsal hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Lebonville, Christina L; Jones, Meghan E; Hutson, Lee W; Cooper, Letty B; Fuchs, Rita A; Lysle, Donald T

    2016-08-01

    Opioid users experience increased incidence of infection, which may be partially attributable to both direct opiate-immune interactions and conditioned immune responses. Previous studies have investigated the neural circuitry governing opioid conditioned immune responses, but work remains to elucidate the mechanisms mediating this effect. Our laboratory has previously shown that hippocampal IL-1 signaling, specifically, is required for the expression of heroin conditioned immunosuppression following learning. The current studies were designed to further characterize the role of hippocampal IL-1 in this phenomenon by manipulating IL-1 during learning. Experiment 1 tested whether hippocampal IL-1 is also required for the acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression, while Experiment 2 tested whether hippocampal IL-1 is required for the expression of unconditioned heroin immunosuppression. We found that blocking IL-1 signaling in the dorsal hippocampus with IL-1RA during each conditioning session, but not on interspersed non-conditioning days, significantly attenuated the acquisition of heroin conditioned immunosuppression. Strikingly, we found that the same IL-1RA treatment did not alter unconditioned immunosuppression to a single dose of heroin. Thus, IL-1 signaling is not a critical component of the response to heroin but rather may play a role in the formation of the association between heroin and the context. Collectively, these studies suggest that IL-1 signaling, in addition to being involved in the expression of a heroin conditioned immune response, is also involved in the acquisition of this effect. Importantly, this effect is likely not due to blocking the response to the unconditioned stimulus since IL-1RA did not affect heroin's immunosuppressive effects. PMID:27072068

  20. Psychopathic Heroin Addicts are not Uniformly Impaired across Neurocognitive Domains of Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Vassileva, Jasmin; Georgiev, Stefan; Martin, Eileen; Gonzalez, Raul; Segala, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Background Impulsivity is a hallmark characteristic of drug addiction and a prominent feature of externalizing disorders such as psychopathy that are commonly comorbid with drug addiction. In a previous study (Vassileva et al., 2007) we have shown that psychopathic heroin addicts evidence more impulsive decision-making on the Iowa Gambling Task relative to non-psychopathic heroin addicts. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether the observed impulse-control deficits in psychopathic heroin addicts would generalize to other neurocognitive domains of impulsivity, such as delay discounting and behavioral inhibition among a group of relatively “pure” heroin addicts in Bulgaria who participated in our previous study. Methods We tested 92 currently abstinent male heroin addicts, classified as psychopathic or non-psychopathic based on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R). We administered two neurocognitive tasks of impulsivity: (1) Delayed Rewards Discounting Task, a measure of temporal discounting of rewards; and (2) Passive Avoidance Learning Task, a measure of behavioral inhibition. Results Psychopathic heroin addicts were not impaired relative to non-psychopathic heroin addicts on the Delayed Rewards Discounting Task and the Passive Avoidance Learning Task, on the latter of which they showed better attentional capacity. Conclusions These results indicate that psychopathic heroin users are not uniformly impaired across neurocognitive domains of impulsivity. Combined with our previous findings, these results suggest that the presence of psychopathy may exacerbate decision-making deficits in psychopathic heroin addicts, but it may not have significant effect on other neurocognitive domains of impulsivity in this population. PMID:21112701

  1. Increased functional connectivity in the resting-state basal ganglia network after acute heroin substitution

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, A; Denier, N; Magon, S; Radue, E-W; Huber, C G; Riecher-Rossler, A; Wiesbeck, G A; Lang, U E; Borgwardt, S; Walter, M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement signals in the striatum are known to be crucial for mediating the subjective rewarding effects of acute drug intake. It is proposed that these effects may be more involved in early phases of drug addiction, whereas negative reinforcement effects may occur more in later stages of the illness. This study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether acute heroin substitution also induced positive reinforcement effects in striatal brain regions of protracted heroin-maintained patients. Using independent component analysis and a dual regression approach, we compared resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) strengths within the basal ganglia/limbic network across a group of heroin-dependent patients receiving both an acute infusion of heroin and placebo and 20 healthy subjects who received placebo only. Subsequent correlation analyses were performed to test whether the rsFC strength under heroin exposure correlated with the subjective rewarding effect and with plasma concentrations of heroin and its main metabolites morphine. Relative to the placebo treatment in patients, heroin significantly increased rsFC of the left putamen within the basal ganglia/limbic network, the extent of which correlated positively with patients' feelings of rush and with the plasma level of morphine. Furthermore, healthy controls revealed increased rsFC of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus in this network relative to the placebo treatment in patients. Our results indicate that acute heroin substitution induces a subjective rewarding effect via increased striatal connectivity in heroin-dependent patients, suggesting that positive reinforcement effects in the striatum still occur after protracted maintenance therapy. PMID:25803496

  2. Simultaneous analysis of codeine, morphine, and heroin after B-glucuronidase hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Zezulak, M; Snyder, J J; Needleman, S B

    1993-11-01

    Analysis of the opiates, morphine and codeine, often proceeds by way of acid hydrolysis for release of the parent morphine from its glucuronide formed during metabolism. Following use, heroin is rapidly deacetylated to 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), which can be detected in the urine for a short time following injection of heroin. Only a small amount of 6-MAM may be further metabolized to morphine glucuronide. Thus, in general, the urine specimen has not been hydrolyzed prior to analysis for heroin, using a separate procedure from morphine and codeine. Simultaneous analysis of morphine, codeine, 6-MAM and heroin would be complicated by loss of identity between morphine and heroin when heroin converts to morphine following acid hydrolysis for removal of the glucuronide moiety from morphine glucuronide. Another significant problem in simultaneous analysis is the relative disparity in concentration between morphine/codeine and 6-MAM/heroin (which might be present in the urine specimen). In the proposed method of analysis, free morphine resulting from B-glucuronidase rather than acid hydrolysis of morphine glucuronide is derivatized with propionic anhydride to form dipropionylmorphine. Heroin that does not react with B-glucuronidase remains unhydrolyzed as the diacetylmorphine derivative. Some of the more exacting steps for the acid procedure are eliminated altogether making overall costs for the enzyme procedure comparable to those of the acid hydrolysis method. The enzyme reaction mixture is purified through a solid phase column system. The optimal conditions for concentration of enzyme, temperature of hydrolysis and pH are individually characterized for B-glucuronidase hydrolysis and the ions which identify the propionyl derivatives are characterized for the simultaneous analysis of morphine, codeine, 6-MAM and heroin. PMID:8263474

  3. Moisture transport into chlorofluorocarbon-free metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Williams, G

    1999-12-01

    Moisture is known to affect the stability of some metered dose inhalers (MDIs). Hydrofluoroalkanes such as tetrafluoroethane (134a) and heptafluoropropane (227) are known to have higher affinity for moisture than the currently used chlorofluorocarbon propellents. An initial study was conducted to determine the water vapor transmission rates of various elastomers that may be used as gaskets in MDIs. A further study was conducted to measure the moisture ingress rates of various chlorofluorocarbon-free MDIs. The data indicate that moisture transport into chlorofluorocarbon-free MDIs is influenced by the elastomeric nature of the gaskets used and the type of hydrofluoroalkane formulation and storage conditions used. PMID:10588979

  4. Comparison of sarin and cyclosarin toxicity by subcutaneous, intravenous and inhalation exposure in Gottingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Hulet, Stanley W; Sommerville, Douglas R; Miller, Dennis B; Scotto, Jacqueline A; Muse, William T; Burnett, David C

    2014-02-01

    Sexually mature male and female Gottingen minipigs were exposed to various concentrations of GB and GF vapor via whole-body inhalation exposures or to liquid GB or GF via intravenous or subcutaneous injections. Vapor inhalation exposures were for 10, 60 or 180 min. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to calculate the median effect levels for severe effects (ECT50 and ED50) and lethality (LCT50 and LD50). Ordinal regression was used to model the concentration × time profile of the agent toxicity. Contrary to that predicted by Haber's rule, LCT50 values increased as the duration of the exposures increased for both nerve agents. The toxic load exponents (n) were calculated to be 1.38 and 1.28 for GB and GF vapor exposures, respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures to vapor GB in male minipigs were 73, 106 and 182 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60 - and 180-min exposures to vapor GB in female minipigs were 87, 127 and 174 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures to vapor GF in male minipigs were 218, 287 and 403 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures in female minipigs were 183, 282 and 365 mg min/m(3), respectively. For GB vapor exposures, there was a tenuous gender difference which did not exist for vapor GF exposures. Surprisingly, GF was 2-3 times less potent than GB via the inhalation route of exposure regardless of exposure duration. Additionally GF was found to be less potent than GB by intravenous and subcutaneous routes. PMID:24517840

  5. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ross G

    2008-04-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl(2) inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  6. Strain dependence of adolescent Cannabis influence on heroin reward and mesolimbic dopamine transmission in adult Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cadoni, Cristina; Simola, Nicola; Espa, Elena; Fenu, Sandro; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent Cannabis exposure has been hypothesized to act as a gateway to opiate abuse. In order to investigate the role of genetic background in cannabinoid-opiate interactions, we studied the effect of Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure of adolescent Lewis and Fischer 344 rats on the responsiveness of accumbens shell and core dopamine (DA), as monitored by microdialysis, to THC and heroin at adulthood. Heroin reward and reinstatement by heroin priming were studied by conditioned place preference (CPP) and cognitive and emotional functions by object recognition, Y maze and elevated plus maze paradigms. THC stimulated shell DA in Lewis but not in Fischer 344 rats. Adolescent THC exposure potentiated DA stimulant effects of heroin in the shell and core of Lewis and only in the core of Fischer 344 rats. Control Lewis rats developed stronger CPP to heroin and resistance to extinction compared with Fischer 344 strain. In Lewis rats, THC exposure did not affect heroin CPP but potentiated the effect of heroin priming. In Fischer 344 rats, THC exposure increased heroin CPP and made it resistant to extinction. Lewis rats showed seeking reactions during extinction and hedonic reactions in response to heroin priming. Moreover, adolescent THC exposure affected emotional function only in Lewis rats. These observations suggest that long-term effects of Cannabis exposure on heroin addictive liability and emotionality are dependent on individual genetic background. PMID:23957273

  7. Pharmacological Effects of a Monoclonal Antibody against 6-Monoacetylmorphine upon Heroin-Induced Locomotor Activity and Pharmacokinetics in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kvello, Anne Marte Sjursen; Andersen, Jannike Mørch; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Mørland, Jørg; Bogen, Inger Lise

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapy can provide a supplemental treatment strategy against heroin use on the principle of sequestering the active drug in the bloodstream, thereby reducing its distribution to the brain. Previous studies have shown that heroin's first metabolite, 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM), is the main mediator of acute heroin effects. The objective of the present study was to characterize the pharmacological potential of a monoclonal antibody against 6-MAM (anti-6-MAM mAb) to counteract the heroin response. The individual contributions from heroin and 6-MAM to heroin effects were also examined by pretreating mice with anti-6-MAM mAb (10-100 mg/kg) prior to either heroin or 6-MAM injection (1.25-2.5 μmol/kg). The opioid-induced behavioral response was assessed in a locomotor activity test, followed by opioid and antibody quantification in blood and brain tissue. Pretreatment with mAb caused a profound reduction of heroin- and 6-MAM-induced behavior, accompanied by correspondingly decreased levels of 6-MAM in brain tissue. mAb pretreatment was more efficient against 6-MAM injection than against heroin, leading to an almost complete blockade of 6-MAM-induced effects. mAb pretreatment was unable to block the immediate (5-minute) transport of active metabolites across the blood-brain barrier after heroin injection, indicating that heroin itself appears to enhance the immediate delivery of 6-MAM to the brain. The current study provides additional evidence that 6-MAM sequestration is crucial for counteracting the acute heroin response, and demonstrates the pharmacological potential of immunotherapy against heroin use. PMID:27217591

  8. Anaphylaxis induced by lentil inhalation.

    PubMed

    Ayşenur, Kaya; Akan, Ayşegül; Mustafa, Erkoçoğlu; Müge, Toyran; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2012-06-01

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid onset serious allergic reaction which may be fatal. Foods are the most common allergens leading to anaphylaxis especially for childhood. Most of the food-induced anaphylactic reactions take place after ingestion of the allergic food and only a few cases exist with anaphylactic reactions induced by inhalation of foods such as peanut, soybean and lupine. The case we present is unusual in that an 8 1/2-year-old boy developed anaphylaxis with the inhalation of steam from boiling lentils. PMID:22830298

  9. A Case Report of Nystagmus with Acute Comitant Esotropia Secondary to Heroin Withdrawal: A Novel Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute comitant esotropia secondary to heroin withdrawal is a rarely reported phenomenon that has never been described with nystagmus. Adverse effects of heroin on eye alignment were first reported in soldiers returning from Vietnam, yet no theory is generally accepted as the cause of these abnormalities. Method We present a case of a 22-year-old female who developed 40 prism diopters of alternating comitant esotropia with nystagmus 8 days after abrupt heroin cessation, review the existing literature, and propose a novel hypothesis for this phenomenon. Results After 76 days, her esotropia resolved, and she was left with 7 prism diopters of esophoria. Conclusion This case demonstrates that acquired nystagmus can present in addition to acute-onset esotropia after abrupt heroin cessation. We compare and contrast the theories of this mechanism and review the literature. PMID:26483678

  10. Geographic origin determination of heroin and cocaine using site-specific isotopic ratio deuterium NMR

    PubMed

    Hays; Remaud; Jamin; Martin

    2000-05-01

    SNIF-NMR (Site-specific natural isotopic fractionation measured by deuterium NMR) was employed on 36 heroin samples from seven different known origins, and two cocaine samples from two different known origins. Heroin has two "synthetic" deuterium labeled sites (the two acetyls from acetic anhydride, each representing three equivalent nuclei) and 15 "natural" deuterium labeled sites (originating from the morphine produced in the opium plant). The "natural" sites have the potential for determining geographic location of the original opium plant, while the "synthetic" sites could assist in giving information about the commercial source of acetic anhydride used to convert morphine to heroin. Cocaine has 15 "natural" deuterium labeled sites. This study shows that SNIF-NMR has some use in determining the geographic origin of heroin and also has good potential for determining the geographical origin of cocaine. PMID:10855958

  11. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Pain Relievers May Raise the Risk of Turning to Heroin Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... turning to heroin use + Newsroom Media Guidelines for Bullying Prevention Press Announcements SAMHSA in the News Speeches and Presentations Infographics Newsroom Media Guidelines for Bullying Prevention Press Announcements SAMHSA in the News Speeches ...

  12. Correlations Between Awareness of Illness (Insight) and History of Addiction in Heroin-Addicted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Rovai, Luca; Rugani, Fabio; Pacini, Matteo; Lamanna, Francesco; Bacciardi, Silvia; Perugi, Giulio; Deltito, Joseph; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2012-01-01

    In a group of 1066 heroin addicts, who were seeking treatment for opioid agonist treatment, we looked for differences in historical, demographic, and clinical characteristics, between patients with different levels of awareness of illness (insight). The results showed that, in the cohort studied, a majority of subjects lacked insight into their heroin-use behavior. Compared with the impaired-insight group, those who possessed insight into their illness showed significantly greater awareness of past social, somatic, and psychopathological impairments, and had a greater number of past treatment-seeking events for heroin addiction. In contrast with other psychiatric illnesses, the presence of awareness appears to be related to the passing of time and to the worsening of the illness. Methodologies to improve the insight of patients should, therefore, be targeted more directly on patients early in their history of heroin dependence, because the risk of lack of insight is greatest during this period. PMID:22787450

  13. Dopamine D1 receptors within the basolateral amygdala mediate heroin-induced conditioned immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Szczytkowski, Jennifer L; Lysle, Donald T

    2010-09-14

    This study investigates the role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) dopamine in heroin-induced conditioned immunomodulation. Animals underwent conditioning in which heroin administration was repeatedly paired with placement into a conditioning chamber. Six days after the final conditioning session animals were returned to the chamber and received intra-BLA microinfusions of dopamine, D(1) or D(2), antagonist. Antagonism of D(1), but not D(2), receptors within the BLA blocked the suppressive effect of heroin-associated environmental stimuli on iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1β. This study is the first to demonstrate that the expression of heroin's conditioned effects on proinflammatory mediators require dopamine D(1) receptors within the BLA. PMID:20605224

  14. Reconceptualizing Early- and Late-Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    PubMed Central

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite their increasing numbers. In this paper we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods Qualitative data were collected from 29 older heroin users. Life course analysis focused on the users’ experiences across the life span. Results The findings suggest that those aging-into heroin use (late-onset) are disadvantaged compared to those who are maturing-in (early-onset) except in areas of health. Implications We propose that conceptualizing the use of heroin and other illicit drugs among older adults based on their life course trajectory will provide insights for social and health services, including drug treatment. PMID:18981280

  15. Providing free heroin to addicts participating in research – ethical concerns and the question of voluntariness

    PubMed Central

    Henden, Edmund; Bærøe, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Providing heroin to people with heroin addiction taking part in medical trials assessing the effectiveness of the drug as a treatment alternative breaches ethical research standards, some ethicists maintain. Heroin addicts, they say, are unable to consent voluntarily to taking part in these trials. Other ethicists disagree. In our view, both sides of the debate have an inadequate understanding of ‘voluntariness’. In this article we therefore offer a fuller definition of the concept, one which allows for a more flexible, case-to-case approach in which some heroin addicts are considered capable of consenting voluntarily, others not. An advantage of this approach, it is argued, is that it provides a safety net to minimise the risk of inflicting harm on trial participants. PMID:26191421

  16. The Development of Preschool Children of Heroin-Addicted Mothers: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Geraldine S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Disturbances of growth and behavior in children of heroin-addicted mothers was studied in 77 preschool children. Arthur Retlaw and Associates, Inc., Suite 2080, 1603 Orrington Avenue, Evanston, Illinois 60201. (Author/DLS)

  17. Goiter in portraits of Judith the Jewish heroine

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Davide; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Lippi, Donatella; Weisz, George M.

    2016-01-01

    Judith was a legendary Hebrew heroine who beheaded the general Holofernes and saved the children of Israel from destruction by the Assyrian army. In the Book of Judith, which is still present in the Catholic and Orthodox Christian Bibles, Judith is presented as an illustrious woman who defeated the enemy using her virtue and fortitude. The present investigation has revealed 24 portraits in which Judith has been depicted with variable grades of thyroid gland enlargement on the scene where she decapitates Holofernes. There is no doubt that the integration of a slight thyroid enlargement in the paintings is a stylistic hallmark that portrays an idealized female beauty with a balanced neck and graceful body. The large extended goiter was probably depicted by the artists as a symbol of a powerful masculine body and her courage, and at the same time, it probably also reflects better anatomic accuracy and knowledge of artists from that period. PMID:26904480

  18. Adolescents at risk: pain pills to heroin: part II.

    PubMed

    Fogger, Susanne; McGuinness, Teena M

    2015-02-01

    Casually exposing adolescents to prescription opioid agents may escalate to daily use. A trend exists for adolescents using prescription opioid agents to substitute heroin because it is significantly cheaper than pills (approximately half of the cost) and is often more readily available. Additionally, it is more potent than most prescription opioid agents and carries increased risks of overdose and death. Although treatment for substance use disorders has traditionally centered on total abstinence, opioid replacement therapy (ORT) is an option that saves lives and prevents overdose deaths. In the United States, ORT is based on two medicines: methadone and buprenorphine. These drugs can be substituted for other opiate agents and have much lower overdose risks. Nursing implications and web-based resources for teaching are presented. PMID:25654572

  19. Development after prenatal exposure to cocaine, heroin and methadone.

    PubMed

    van Baar, A L; Soepatmi, S; Gunning, W B; Akkerhuis, G W

    1994-11-01

    In Amsterdam a longitudinal, prospective and multidisciplinary study on the development of infants of drug-dependent mothers (IDDM) was started in 1983: 35 IDDM and 35 reference infants were originally enrolled. The drug-dependent women had used combinations of methadone, heroin, cocaine and other drugs during pregnancy. Of the IDDM, 80% had to be treated pharmaceutically for neonatal abstinence symptoms (NAS). Physical, neurological, cognitive and the socio-emotional development of the children were studied regularly from birth until 5.5 years of age. Differences between the reference group and the IDDM were found most clearly in cognitive development. The IDDM also had more behavioural problems at some of the ages studied. No group differences were seen in motor development. So far the results of the study show that IDDM and their caregivers need extra support in order to improve early communication and the children's cognitive development. PMID:7531042

  20. Heroin delay discounting: Modulation by pharmacological state, drug-use impulsivity, and intelligence.

    PubMed

    Stoltman, Jonathan J K; Woodcock, Eric A; Lister, Jamey J; Lundahl, Leslie H; Greenwald, Mark K

    2015-12-01

    Delay discounting (DD) refers to how rapidly an individual devalues goods based on delays to receipt. DD usually is considered a trait variable but can be state dependent, yet few studies have assessed commodity valuation at short, naturalistically relevant time intervals that might enable state-dependent analysis. This study aimed to determine whether drug-use impulsivity and intelligence influence heroin DD at short (ecologically relevant) delays during two pharmacological states (heroin satiation and withdrawal). Out-of-treatment, intensive heroin users (n = 170; 53.5% African American; 66.7% male) provided complete DD data during imagined heroin satiation and withdrawal. Delays were 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours; maximum delayed heroin amount was thirty $10 bags. Indifference points were used to calculate area under the curve (AUC). We also assessed drug-use impulsivity (subscales from the Impulsive Relapse Questionnaire [IRQ]) and estimated intelligence (Shipley IQ) as predictors of DD. Heroin discounting was greater (smaller AUC) during withdrawal than satiation. In regression analyses, lower intelligence and IRQ Capacity for Delay as well as higher IRQ Speed (to return to drug use) predicted greater heroin discounting in the satiation condition. Lower intelligence and higher IRQ Speed predicted greater discounting in the withdrawal condition. Sex, race, substance use variables, and other IRQ subscales were not significantly related to the withdrawal or satiation DD behavior. In summary, heroin discounting was temporally rapid, pharmacologically state dependent, and predicted by drug-use impulsivity and estimated intelligence. These findings highlight a novel and sensitive measure of acute DD that is easy to administer. PMID:26595426

  1. Heroin delay discounting: modulation by pharmacological state, drug-use impulsivity and intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Stoltman, Jonathan J.K.; Woodcock, Eric A.; Lister, Jamey J.; Lundahl, Leslie H.; Greenwald, Mark K.

    2015-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) refers to how rapidly an individual devalues goods based on delays to receipt. DD usually is considered a trait variable but can be state-dependent; yet few studies have assessed commodity valuation at short, naturalistically relevant time intervals that might enable state-dependent analysis. This study aimed to determine whether drug-use impulsivity and intelligence influence heroin DD at short (ecologically relevant) delays during two pharmacological states (heroin satiation and withdrawal). Out-of-treatment, intensive heroin users (n=170; 53.5% African-American; 66.7% male) provided complete DD data during imagined heroin satiation and withdrawal. Delays were 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours; maximum delayed heroin amount was thirty $10 bags. Indifference points were used to calculate area under the curve (AUC). We also assessed drug-use impulsivity (subscales from the Impulsive Relapse Questionnaire, IRQ) and estimated intelligence (Shipley IQ) as predictors of DD. Heroin discounting was greater (smaller AUC) during withdrawal than satiation. In regression analyses, lower intelligence and IRQ Capacity for Delay as well as higher IRQ Speed (to return to drug use) predicted greater heroin discounting in the satiation condition. Lower intelligence and higher IRQ Speed predicted greater discounting in the withdrawal condition. Sex, race, substance use variables, and other IRQ subscales were not significantly related to the withdrawal or satiation DD behavior. In summary, heroin discounting was temporally rapid, pharmacological state-dependent, and predicted by drug-use impulsivity and estimated intelligence. These findings highlight a novel and sensitive measure of acute DD that is easy to administer. PMID:26595426

  2. Comparing Characteristics of Prescription Painkiller Misusers and Heroin Users in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rigg, Khary K.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Prescription painkiller misuse (PPM) is a major U.S. public health concern. However, as prescribing practices have tightened and prescription painkillers have become less accessible, many users have turned to heroin as a substitute. This trend suggests the face of heroin users has likely changed over the past several years. Understanding the demographic, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and substance use characteristics of different groups of opiate users is important for properly tailoring interventions. Methods This study uses data from the 2010-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to examine differences in characteristics of U.S. adults in three mutually exclusive categories of past-year opiate use: heroin-only (H-O, N=179), prescription painkiller-only (PP-O, N=9,516), and heroin and prescription painkiller (H-PP, N=506). Results Socioeconomic disadvantage, older age, disconnection from social institutions, criminal justice involvement, and easy access to heroin were associated with greater odds of being in the H-O group. HH-P users were more likely to be young white males with poor physical and mental health who also misuse other prescription medications and began such misuse as adolescents. PP-O users were the most economically stable, most connected to social institutions, least likely to have criminal justice involvement, and had the least access to heroin. Conclusions Results suggest the socio-demographic characteristics of heroin users versus PP misusers vary widely, and the conditions leading to heroin use versus PPM versus both may be different. Ultimately, a one-size-fits-all approach to opiate prevention and treatment is likely to fail. Interventions must account for the unique needs of different user groups. PMID:26253938

  3. Heart Rate Variability and the Efficacy of Biofeedback in Heroin Users with Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lin, I-Mei; Ko, Jiun-Min; Fan, Sheng-Yu; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been confirmed in heroin users, but the effects of heart-rate-variability–biofeedback in heroin users remain unknown. This study examined (1) correlations between depression and HRV indices; (2) group differences in HRV indices among a heroin-user group, a group with major depressive disorder but no heroin use, and healthy controls; and (3) the effects of heart-rate-variability–biofeedback on depressive symptoms, HRV indices, and respiratory rates within the heroin group. Methods All participants completed a depression questionnaire and underwent electrocardiogram measurements, and group differences in baseline HRV indices were examined. The heroin group underwent electrocardiogram and respiration rate measurements at baseline, during a depressive condition, and during a happiness condition, before and after which they took part in the heart-rate-variability–biofeedback program. The effects of heart-rate-variability–biofeedback on depressive symptoms, HRV indices, and respiration rates were examined. Results There was a negative correlation between depression and high frequency of HRV, and a positive correlation between depression and low frequency to high frequency ratio of HRV. The heroin group had a lower overall and high frequency of HRV, and a higher low frequency/high frequency ratio than healthy controls. The heart-rate-variability–biofeedback intervention increased HRV indices and decreased respiratory rates from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Conclusion Reduced parasympathetic and increased sympathetic activations were found in heroin users. Heart-rate-variability–biofeedback was an effective non-pharmacological intervention to restore autonomic balance. PMID:27121428

  4. Incarcerated intravenous heroin users: Predictors of post-release utilization of methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huang-Chi; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Incarcerated intravenous heroin users have more problematic patterns of heroin use, but are less likely to access methadone maintenance treatment by their own initiative than heroin users in the community. The present study examined predictors for receiving methadone maintenance treatment post-release among incarcerated intravenous heroin users within a 24-month period. This cohort study recruited 315 incarcerated intravenous heroin users detained in 4 prisons in southern Taiwan and followed up within the 24-month period post-release. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was applied to determine the predictive effects of sociodemographic and drug-use characteristics, attitude toward methadone maintenance treatment, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression for access to methadone maintenance treatment after release. There were 295 (93.7%) incarcerated intravenous heroin users released that entered the follow-up phase of the study. During the 24-month follow-up period, 50.8% of them received methadone maintenance treatment. After controlling for the effects of the detainment period before and after recruitment by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, incarcerated intravenous heroin users who had positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus (HR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.80-4.52, p < .001) and had ever received methadone maintenance treatment before committal (HR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.23-3.05, p < .01) were more likely to enter methadone maintenance treatment within the 24-month follow-up period. Positive human immunodeficiency virus serostatus with fully subsidized treatment and previous methadone maintenance treatment experiences predicted access of methadone maintenance treatment post-release. Strategies for getting familiar with methadone maintenance treatment during detainment, including providing methadone maintenance treatment prior to release and lowering the economic burden of receiving treatment, may

  5. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children. PMID:26398098

  6. William TG Morton's early ether inhalers: a tale of three inhalers and their inscriptions.

    PubMed

    Haridas, R P

    2009-07-01

    Three ether inhalers with inscriptions stating that they had been used in early ether anaesthesia were found. All three inhalers were initially linked to WTG Morton. Two of the inhalers were probably among several types of inhalers used by Morton. The third inhaler was found to have been incorrectly attributed to Morton. It was first used by John Foster Brewster Flagg, a dentist in Philadelphia. PMID:19705631

  7. Estimated trends in the prevalence of heroin addiction in Switzerland. A multiple-indicator approach.

    PubMed

    Maag, Verena

    2003-10-01

    Data on the prevalence of heroin addiction have considerable relevance in the field of public health as a means of evaluating measures aimed at improving the lives of the individuals concerned. The number of heroin addicts in Switzerland was estimated by six different methods based on various data sources. This resulted in an overall estimate for the reference year 1997 ranging from a minimum of 24,000 to a maximum of 35,000 heroin addicts. In the 1990s, the trend in the prevalence of heroin addiction was characterised by a rapid rise up to 1993/94 followed by a gradual decline. The increasing medicalisation (focus on treatment rather than on punishment) of Switzerland's heroin problem has therefore not translated into a clear downward trend in the estimated prevalence of heroin addiction; however, the data for the various sub-groups lend plausibility to the assumption that this population is more integrated, less conspicuous and receiving better medical care. PMID:12970586

  8. Heroin inhibits HIV-restriction miRNAs and enhances HIV infection of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Tong-Cui; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Geller, Ellen B.; Adler, Martin W.; Peng, Jin-Song; Zhou, Wang; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Although opioids have been extensively studied for their impact on the immune system, limited information is available about the specific actions of opioids on intracellular antiviral innate immunity against HIV infection. Thus, we investigated whether heroin, one of the most abused drugs, inhibits the expression of intracellular HIV restriction microRNA (miRNA) and facilitates HIV replication in macrophages. Heroin treatment of macrophages enhanced HIV replication, which was associated with the downregulation of several HIV restriction miRNAs. These heroin-mediated actions on the miRNAs and HIV could be antagonized by naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the in vitro negative impact of heroin on HIV-associated miRNAs was confirmed by the in vivo observation that heroin addicts had significantly lower levels of macrophage-derived HIV restriction miRNAs than those in the control subjects. These in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that heroin use compromises intracellular anti-HIV innate immunity, providing a favorable microenvironment for HIV survival in the target cells. PMID:26583016

  9. DEVELOPING A VACCINE AGAINST MULTIPLE PSYCHOACTIVE TARGETS: A CASE STUDY OF HEROIN

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, G. Neil; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Edwards, Scott; Misra, Kaushik K.; Schulteis, Gery; Zakhari, Joseph S.; Koob, George F.; Janda, Kim D.

    2012-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a wide-reaching problem with a spectrum of damaging social consequences. Currently approved heroin addiction medications include drugs that bind at the same receptors (e.g. opioid receptors) occupied by heroin and/or its metabolites in the brain, but undesired side effects of these treatments, maintenance dependence and relapse to drug taking remains problematic. A vaccine capable of blocking heroin’s effects could provide an economical, long-lasting and sustainable adjunct to heroin addiction therapy without the side effects associated with available treatment options. Heroin, however, presents a particularly challenging vaccine target as it is metabolized to multiple psychoactive molecules of differing lipophilicity, with differing abilities to cross the blood brain barrier. In this review, we discuss the opiate scaffolding and hapten design considerations to confer immunogenicity as well as the specificity of the immune response towards structurally similar opiates. In addition, we detail different strategies employed in the design of immunoconjugates for a vaccine-based therapy for heroin addiction treatment. PMID:22229311

  10. [The Perioperative Management of Pain in Patients Who Are Addicted to Heroin].

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Yi; Weng, Chia-Hsing; Hsu, Yu-Ping; Lin, Pao-Chen

    2015-06-01

    Heroin addicts admitted to the hospital for surgery should be treated as high-risk patients because these patients face a significantly higher risk of experiencing severe drug withdrawal symptoms and of pain management complications during hospitalization. The lack of proper pain management often suffered by heroin addicts during hospitalization has been attributed to care providers' insufficient knowledge regarding opioid medications and their addicting effects as well as fears that opioid medications may cause addiction symptoms to reemerge. The objective of this article is to illustrate the pain management process across the entire hospitalization period for heroin-addicted patients undergoing surgical procedures. This process includes management of the heroin-related physical and psychological reactions from surgery, of the mechanism of pain induced specifically from surgery, and of the heroin addiction during the surgical procedure and subsequent clinical management and nursing care. It is hoped that this article assists healthcare providers to better understand the need for the proper pain management and care of heroin-addicted surgical patients over the entire period of hospitalization and thus the enhancement of the overall quality and safety of patient care management procedures. PMID:26073959

  11. Synaptic Glutamate Spillover Due to Impaired Glutamate Uptake Mediates Heroin Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Scofield, Michael D.; Boger, Heather; Hensley, Megan; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Reducing the enduring vulnerability to relapse is a therapeutic goal in treating drug addiction. Studies with animal models of drug addiction show a marked increase in extrasynaptic glutamate in the core subcompartment of the nucleus accumbens (NAcore) during reinstated drug seeking. However, the synaptic mechanisms linking drug-induced changes in extrasynaptic glutamate to relapse are poorly understood. Here, we discovered impaired glutamate elimination in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration that leads to spillover of synaptically released glutamate into the nonsynaptic extracellular space in NAcore and investigated whether restoration of glutamate transport prevented reinstated heroin seeking. Through multiple functional assays of glutamate uptake and analyzing NMDA receptor-mediated currents, we show that heroin self-administration produced long-lasting downregulation of glutamate uptake and surface expression of the transporter GLT-1. This downregulation was associated with spillover of synaptic glutamate to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors within the NAcore. Ceftriaxone restored glutamate uptake and prevented synaptic glutamate spillover and cue-induced heroin seeking. Ceftriaxone-induced inhibition of reinstated heroin seeking was blocked by morpholino-antisense targeting GLT-1 synthesis. These data reveal that the synaptic glutamate spillover in the NAcore results from reduced glutamate transport and is a critical pathophysiological mechanism underling reinstated drug seeking in rats extinguished from heroin self-administration. PMID:24741055

  12. Fatal heroin intoxication in body packers in northern Thailand during the last decade: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Sribanditmongkol, Pongruk; Supasingsiripreecha, Wiroon; Thampitak, Subharat; Junkuy, Anongphan

    2006-01-01

    A body packer is an important means of drug trafficking. While drug packets are inside the body, they can leak or rupture causing acute substance toxicity. Most of the reports of body packer syndrome have come from Europe and North America, which are destination targets. In the present study, the authors reported two cases of fatal heroin body packers from the northern part of Thailand. Both cases were foreign tourists who came to Chiang Mai and stayed in a hotel or a guesthouse room in which the deaths occurred. The autopsy findings revealed rupturing of heroin packages in the stomach. The packaging used in both cases was not sophisticated. The powder was packed inside condoms without extra covering, as observed in some other professional packers. The amount of heroin transported was about 30-50 gm. The purity of heroin in this powder was about 50-90%. Their destinations were their home countries and not directly to Europe or North America. Deaths occurred just prior to their return. The cause of death was a heroin overdose. A significant level of heroin metabolites, 6-MAM and morphine were detected in the blood and urine. PMID:16583590

  13. Impurities, adulterants and diluents of illicit heroin. Changes during a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Kaa, E

    1994-02-01

    Changes in the content of impurities, adulterants and diluents are described for 383 samples of illicit heroin seized in the western part of Denmark during the 12-year period 1981 through 1992. A wide range in purity was found within each year, whereas the average purity did not vary much from one year to another. The average purity of wholesale samples (45%) was only slightly higher than the purity of retail samples (36%). The SW Asian type of heroin, containing high concentrations of noscapine, predominated from the mid-eighties. Heroin base and heroin hydrochloride each accounted for approximately half of the samples during the eighties. However, in recent years the base form has become predominant. During the early eighties caffeine and procaine were the most frequent additives next to sugars. During the middle and late eighties an increasing number of heroin samples were cut with phenobarbital and methaqualone. During the early nineties the occurrence of phenobarbital and methaqualone has decreased, whereas paracetamol in combination with caffeine has become predominant. Re-analyses of samples which had been kept in storage for several years showed that most samples had not changed after being stored in the dark for a couple of years at room temperature. However, storage for more than 5 years often resulted in decomposition, particularly in samples consisting of the SW Asian type of heroin. PMID:8175088

  14. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  15. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  16. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  17. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  18. Does Chinese culture influence psychosocial factors for heroin use among young adolescents in China? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little empirical research has examined how cultural factors influence psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. The objectives of the study were to investigate the levels of individualism and collectivism among young adolescents and how cultural differences were associated with the constructs of the Theory of Planned Behavior and other psychosocial factors for heroin drug use. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among young adolescents in an HIV and heroin-stricken area in China. The Individualism-Collectivism Interpersonal Assessment Inventory (ICIAI) was used to measure cultural norms and values in the context of three social groups: family members, close friends, and classmates. Results A total of 220 boys and 241 girls were recruited and participated in an interview. Compared to boys, girls reported higher levels of the three specific-relationship ICIAIs, as well as higher levels of perceived behavioral control for heroin use, perceived peer control, and communication with parent about heroin use, but a lower level of favorable attitude towards heroin use. The levels of descriptive and subjective norms of heroin use were low in both girls and boys. Among boys, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control, and friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control and communication with parent. Among girls, family ICIAI was positively associated with perceived behavioral control and communication with parents about heroin use, but negatively with favorable attitudes to heroin use; friend ICIAI was positively associated with perceived peer control, and classmate ICIAI was negatively associated with favorable attitudes toward heroin use. Conclusions This study documents that collectivistic aspects of Chinese culture may influence psychosocial factors for heroin use, although the patterns are varied by gender. Findings provide an empirical basis for the development of culturally competent intervention

  19. Hanford Tank Ventilation System Condensates and Headspace Vapors: An Assessment of Potential Dermal Exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.; Springer, David L.

    2006-04-24

    This study considers the question of whether potential dermal exposures to Hanford high-level radioactive waste tank headspace vapors and their condensates could result in significant exposure to workers. Three types of potential exposures were evaluated; dermal contact with aqueous condensate, organic condensate, and direct contact with head space vapors. The dermal absorption rates from aqueous and organic condensates were estimated for selected chemicals using a model described by EPA (1992) with a modified correlation for dermal permeability suggested by Wilschut et al. (1995). Dermal absorption rates of vapors were estimated using a model given by AIHA (2000). Results were compared to an ''equivalent inhalation dose'' calculated by multiplying the inhalation occupational exposure limit by a nominal daily inhalation rate. The results should provide guidance for industrial hygienists to prepare specific recommendations based on specific scenarios.

  20. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    PubMed Central

    Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same. PMID:22084541

  1. The Entry of Colombian-Sourced Heroin into the US Market: The Relationship between Competition, Price, and Purity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. PMID:24211155

  2. How constant is an individual's route of heroin administration? Data from treatment and non-treatment samples.

    PubMed

    Strang, J; Griffiths, P; Powis, B; Abbey, J; Gossop, M

    1997-06-01

    Three routes of heroin use were identified--injecting, 'chasing the dragon' and snorting. Whilst injecting and 'chasing the dragon' accounted for virtually all current heroin use, snorting had been the first route of use for nearly a fifth of heroin users in both the treatment and community samples. Overlap of lifetime experience of the different routes was widespread, with the majority of heroin users in both the treatment and community samples having used heroin by more than one route. Although less than half of the treatment sample had used heroin by injection on the first occasion, more than 90% had injected at least once, and over 80% had at some time used by 'chasing the dragon'. Only a quarter of the community sample had first used heroin by injecting, and yet, by the time of interview, two-thirds of the sample had injected. The majority of durable changes in route of heroin use were towards injecting and 'chasing the dragon', with transitions to snorting being extremely rare. For both the samples, transitions to injecting were twice as frequent as transitions to 'chasing'. Snorting appeared to be an unstable route of use, with almost all who initially snorted their heroin now using by injecting or 'chasing the dragon'. PMID:9246559

  3. Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

    2006-01-01

    A decade of research in Switzerland, The Netherlands, Germany, and Spain now constitutes a massive body of work supporting the use of heroin treatment for the most difficult patients addicted to opiates. These trials concur on this method's safety and efficacy and are now serving as a prelude to the institution of heroin treatment in clinical practice throughout Europe. While the different sampling and research protocols for heroin treatment in these studies were important to the academic claims about specific results and conclusions that could be drawn from each study, the overall outcomes were quite clear – and uniformly positive. They all find that the use of prescribed pharmaceutical heroin does exactly what it is intended to do: it reaches a treatment refractory group of addicts by engaging them in a positive healthcare relationship with a physician, it reduces their criminal activity, improves their health status, and increases their social tenure through more stable housing, employment, and contact with family. The Canadian trial (NAOMI), now underway for over a year, but not yet completed, now faces a dilemma about what to do with its patients who have successfully completed 12 months of heroin and must be withdrawn from heroin and transferred to other treatments in accordance with the research protocol approved by Government of Canada, federal granting body and host institutions. The problem is that the principal criterion for acceptance to NAOMI was their history of repeated failure in these very same treatment programs to which they will now be referred. The existence of the results from abroad (some of which were not yet available when NAOMI was designed and initiated) now raises a very important question for Canada: is it ethical to continue to prohibit the medical use of heroin treatment that has already been shown to be feasible and effective in numerous medical studies throughout the world? And while this is being worked out, is it acceptable to

  4. [Effects of Instruction on Inhalation Techniques Using iPads - Web Application "Inhalation Lessons"].

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Noriko; Ito, Reiko; Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Instruction on inhalation techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and asthma patients being treated with inhalants have sufficient therapeutic effects and are important to maintain adherence. However, problems continue to exist, including time constraints of medical staff that have a large number of patients and a lack of knowledge on inhalation instruction methods. A web application,"Inhalation Lessons,'for the iPad has been developed. It explains inhalation methods, and consists of videos and review tests. Instruction on inhalation techniques was performed using this application for patients that use Diskus, and the effects were examined. As a result, there are significant improvements in the inhalation techniques of patients after viewing the"Inhalation Lessons'application. Uniform instruction on inhalation techniques can be performed even in the field of homecare. PMID:26809400

  5. Characterization of an inhaled toluene drug discrimination in mice: effect of exposure conditions and route of administration

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Keith L.; Slavova-Hernandez, Galina

    2009-01-01

    The drug discrimination procedure in animals has been extensively utilized to model the abuse related, subjective effects of drugs in humans, but it has seldom been used to examine abused volatile inhalants like toluene. The present study sought to characterize the temporal aspects of toluene's discriminative stimulus as well assess toluene blood concentrations under identical exposure conditions. B6SJLF1/J mice were trained to discriminate 10 min of exposure to 6000 ppm inhaled toluene vapor from air. Toluene vapor concentration dependently substituted for the training exposure condition with longer exposures to equivalent concentrations producing greater substitution than shorter exposures. Toluene's discriminative stimulus effects dissipated completely by 60 min after the cessation of exposure. Injected liquid toluene dose-dependently substituted for toluene vapor as well as augmenting the discriminative stimulus effects of inhaled toluene. Toluene blood concentrations measured under several exposure conditions which produced full substitution were all nearly identical suggesting that the concentration of toluene in the animals tissues at the time of testing determined discriminative performance. These results indicate that the discriminative stimulus effects of inhaled toluene vapor are likely mediated by CNS effects rather than by it's pronounced peripheral stimulus effects. PMID:19268500

  6. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  7. Calibrated vapor generator source

    DOEpatents

    Davies, John P.; Larson, Ronald A.; Goodrich, Lorenzo D.; Hall, Harold J.; Stoddard, Billy D.; Davis, Sean G.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Conrad, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet.

  8. Stress enhances retrieval of drug-related memories in abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Epstein, David H; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Yu; Kosten, Thomas R; Lu, Lin

    2010-02-01

    Stress is associated with relapse to drugs after abstinence, but the mechanisms for this association are unclear. One mechanism may be that stress enhances abstinent addicts' recall of memories of drugs as stress relievers. This study assessed the effects of stress on free recall and cued recall of 10 heroin-related and 10 neutral words learned 24 h earlier by 102 abstinent heroin addicts. These participants were randomly assigned to three experiments that also assessed attention and working memory. Experiment 1 used a psychosocial stressor (Trier social stress test (TSST)) before testing for recall of heroin-related words. Experiment 2 added administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol 1 h before the psychosocial stressor. Experiment 3 added administration of either cortisol with propranolol, cortisol alone, or propranolol alone 1 h before word recall to determine whether stress enhancement of heroin-related word recall required noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interactions. We found that free recall of heroin-related words in abstinent addicts was enhanced after stress or cortisol administration when compared with a non-stress condition or placebo, respectively, whereas these interventions had no effect on neutral word recall. beta-adrenergic blockade blocked the enhancing effect of stress or cortisol on free recall of heroin-related words. Neither stress nor cortisol affected cued recall, attention, or working memory. The potential of beta-adrenergic blockade to reduce or block stress-induced enhancement of drug-related memory retrieval may be relevant to preventing stress-induced relapse in abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:19890257

  9. Assessment of individual differences in the rat nucleus accumbens transcriptome following taste-heroin extended access.

    PubMed

    Imperio, Caesar G; McFalls, Ashley J; Colechio, Elizabeth M; Masser, Dustin R; Vrana, Kent E; Grigson, Patricia S; Freeman, Willard M

    2016-05-01

    Heroin addiction is a disease of chronic relapse that harms the individual through devaluation of personal responsibilities in favor of finding and using drugs. Only some recreational heroin users devolve into addiction but the basis of these individual differences is not known. We have shown in rats that avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue reliably identifies individual animals with greater addiction-like behavior for heroin. Here rats received 5min access to a 0.15% saccharin solution followed by the opportunity to self-administer either saline or heroin for 6h. Large Suppressors of the heroin-paired taste cue displayed increased drug escalation, motivation for drug, and drug loading behavior compared with Small Suppressors. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these individual differences in addiction-like behavior. We examined the individual differences in mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats that were behaviorally stratified by addiction-like behavior using next-generation sequencing. We hypothesized that based on the avoidance of the drug-paired cue there will be a unique mRNA profile in the NAc. Analysis of strand-specific whole genome RNA-Seq data revealed a number of genes differentially regulated in NAc based on the suppression of the natural saccharine reward. Large Suppressors exhibited a unique mRNA prolife compared to Saline controls and Small Suppressors. Genes related to immunity, neuronal activity, and behavior were differentially expressed among the 3 groups. In total, individual differences in avoidance of a heroin-paired taste cue are associated with addiction-like behavior along with differential NAc gene expression. PMID:26733446

  10. Effects of daily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol treatment on heroin self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Maguire, David R; France, Charles P

    2016-04-01

    Opioid abuse remains a significant public health problem; together with the greater availability of marijuana in some regions there is an increasing likelihood that opioids and marijuana will be used together. Polydrug abuse is associated with increased toxicity and poorer treatment outcome; thus, a better understanding of the consequences of repeated coadministration of these drugs will facilitate the development of better prevention and treatment strategies. This study examined the effects of daily treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-THC) and its discontinuation on self-administration of heroin in rhesus monkeys (n=4) lever-pressing under a fixed-ratio 30 schedule. Heroin self-administration (0.32-32 μg/kg/infusion, intravenously) generated an inverted U-shaped dose-effect curve. Administered acutely, Δ-THC (0.01-0.32 mg/kg, subcutaneously) dose dependently decreased responding for heroin and flattened the self-administration dose-effect curve. Daily treatment with Δ-THC (0.01-0.1 mg/kg/12 h, subcutaneously) either had no effect on or decreased responding for heroin. In addition, daily treatment did not significantly impact extinction of heroin self-administration or resumption of responding for heroin after extinction. Discontinuation of daily Δ-THC treatment did not systematically impact rates of heroin self-administration. These data suggest that repeated administration of a cannabinoid receptor agonist likely does not increase, and possibly decreases, the positive reinforcing effects of a mu opioid receptor agonist. PMID:26397756

  11. Bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head due to the use of heroin: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Ozkunt, Okan; Sarıyılmaz, Kerim; Sungur, Mustafa; Ilen, Ferhat; Dikici, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Femoral head avascular necrosis is caused by disruption of the blood supply of the femoral head, which finally results in hip dysfunction. Non traumatic osteonecrosis may related with corticosteroid use, alcohol abuse, SLE, hemoglobinopathies or exposure to cytotoxic agents. But avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) due to heroin use is a rare condition. We report a patient with bilateral ANFH due to heroin use treated by simultaneous bilateral hip arthroplasty. Presentation of case 37 year-old male patient presented with bilateral hip pain that had been occurring for four years. The patient had no history of smoking, excessive drinking, using corticosteroid and the other drugs or trauma but used heroin for 10 years. In clinic and radiologic examination indicated advanced degenerative changes on both hip due to femoral head avascular necrosis. The patient was treated with simultaneous bilateral total hip arthroplasty. After 6 months postoperatively the active hip range of motion was painless. Discussion Avascular femoral head necrosis caused by the using of heroin is rare. Ultimately, osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurs through one final common pathway, which is decreased blood flow to the femoral head that leads bone ischemia and death. But it is still unknown that heroin’s systemic effects. Intravenous drug use more as a serious problem for today. There is a need for comprehensive studies to demonstrate effects of heroin on bone and vascularity metabolism. Conclusion Heroin use will be important problem for population. That’s why is crucial to understand the effect of heroin. PMID:26595896

  12. Relationship of personality traits and drug of choice by cocaine addicts and heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Bertacca, S; Zaimovic, A; Pirani, M; Branchi, B; Ferri, M

    2008-01-01

    The link between specific personality profiles and a single psychotropic drug of choice is still unclear and only partially explored. The present study compares three groups of male subjects: 85 patients manifesting heroin dependence (age: 30.07 +/- 2.78), 60 patients manifesting cocaine dependence (age: 31.96 +/- 3.1), and 50 healthy subjects from a random population sample (age: 33.25 +/- 1.45). The patients included in the study showed a long-lasting history of dependence on heroin or cocaine, respectively, 5.2 +/- 2.5 years, 4.6 +/- 2.9 years, and were stabilized in treatment, and abstinent, at least 4 weeks at the time of the diagnostic assessment. Heroin addicts (52.90%) were on methadone maintenance treatment. Cocaine addicts (11.60%) were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Personality traits were measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) and Cloninger's Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Character and quantification of aggressiveness were measured by the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Heroin-dependent patients (group A) scored significantly higher on hysteria, masculine-feminine and social introversion subscales of the MMPI, and significantly lower on the harm avoidance (HA) subscale of the TPQ than cocaine addicts. In contrast, scores on the MMPI for hypochondria, psychopathic deviance, and paranoia dimensions were more elevated in cocaine addicts than in heroin-dependent patients. Cocaine addicts scored higher than heroin addicts on the "direct" aggressiveness subscale and on the BDHI total score. Cocaine addicts did not differ from healthy controls on harm avoidance (behavioral control). Although cocaine addicts showed more consistent psychopathic deviance and overt aggressiveness than heroin addicts, higher harm avoidance (behavioral control), hypochondria (or worry about their health), and social extroversion may reduce their proneness to overt antisocial behavior and allow

  13. The impact of cocaine and heroin on the placental transfer of methadone

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Antoine; Obrist, Cristina; Wenzinger, Silvana; von Mandach, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Background Methadone is the therapeutic agent of choice for the treatment of opiate addiction in pregnancy. The co-consumption (heroin, cocaine) which may influence the effects of methadone is frequent. Therefore, the impact of cocaine and heroin on the placental transfer of methadone and the placental tissue was investigated under in vitro conditions. Methods Placentae (n = 24) were ex-vivo perfused with medium (m) (control, n = 6), m plus methadone (n = 6), m plus methadone and cocaine (n = 6) or m plus methadone and heroin (n = 6). Placental functionality parameters like antipyrine permeability, glucose consumption, lactate production, hormone production (hCG and leptin), microparticles release and the expression of P-glycoprotein were analysed. Results Methadone accumulated in placental tissue. Methadone alone decreased the transfer of antipyrine from 0.60 +/- 0.07 to 0.50 +/- 0.06 (fetal/maternal ratio, mean +/- SD, P < 0.01), whereas the combination with cocaine or heroin increased it (0.56 +/- 0.08 to 0.68 +/- 0.13, P = 0.03 and 0.58 +/- 0.21 to 0.71 +/- 0.24; P = 0.18). Microparticles (MPs) released from syncytiotrophoblast into maternal circuit increased by 30% after cocaine or heroin (P < 0.05) and the expression of P-glycoprotein in the tissue increased by ≥ 49% after any drug (P < 0.05). All other measured parameters did not show any significant effect when methadone was combined with cocaine or heroine. Conclusion The combination of cocaine or heroin with methadone increase antipyrine permeability. Changes of MPs resemble findings seen in oxidative stress of syncytiotrophoblast. PMID:19519880

  14. Profile of inhalant users seeking treatment at a de-addiction centre in north India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sunil; Nebhinani, Naresh; Basu, Debasish; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Inhalants are substances whose chemical vapors are inhaled to produce euphoric, disinhibiting, and exciting effects. Data on inhalant abuse in India are relatively scarce. We report the demographic and clinical profile of inhalant users among the treatment seekers at a Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre in north India. Methods: The records of treatment seekers at the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, over 10 years (2002-2011) were scanned to identify 92 cases reporting inhalant use. Of these 92 cases, the complete record files were available for 87 (94.6%) cases. These case files were reviewed and the relevant data were collected and analyzed. Results: Over the study period of 10 years, the number of cases with inhalant abuse per year rose steadily to peak at 20 cases (4.08% of new cases) in 2006 and then stabilized at 1-3 per cent of new cases annually. Of the 87 cases studied, all were males with a mean age of 18.9±4.12 yr, mean education of 9.8±3.42 yr and mean family income of 7676±7343.15 (median: 5000). Majority of subjects were unmarried (89.7%), urban resident (79.3%), and from a nuclear family (78.2%). About half of the subjects were students (50.6%). The most common inhalant used was typewriter correction fluid (73.6%) followed by typewriter diluent fluid (19.5%) and glue (6.9%). The most common reason for initiation was curiosity. The mean age of onset of inhalant use was 16.3±4.22 yr. Most subjects fulfilled the criteria for inhalant dependence (85.1%). Psychiatric co-morbidity and the family history of substance dependence were present in 26.4 and 32.9 per cent subjects, respectively. Majority of the subjects reported drug related problems, occupation and finance being the worst affected. Interpretations & conclusions: Our results showed that the inhalant users were mostly urban youth belonging to middle socio-economic class families. The principal sources of inhalant abuse were the commonly available substances

  15. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  16. A series of forensic toxicology and drug seizure cases involving illicit fentanyl alone and in combination with heroin, cocaine or heroin and cocaine.

    PubMed

    Marinetti, Laureen J; Ehlers, Brooke J

    2014-10-01

    The Montgomery County Coroner's Office Toxicology Section and the Miami Valley Regional Crime Lab (MVRCL) Drug Chemistry Section have been receiving case work in drug seizures, death cases and human performance cases involving products marketed as heroin or as illicit fentanyl. Upon analysis by the Drug Chemistry Section, these products were found to contain various drug(s) including illicit fentanyl only, illicit fentanyl and heroin, illicit fentanyl and cocaine and illicit fentanyl, heroin and cocaine. Both the Chemistry and Toxicology Sections began seeing these combinations starting in late October 2013. The percentage of the combinations encountered by the MVRCL as well as the physical appearance of the product, and the results of presumptive screening tests will be discussed. The demographics of the users and the results of toxicology and autopsy findings on the decedents will also be discussed. According to regional drug task force undercover agents, there is evidence that some of the products are being sold as illicit fentanyl and not just as a heroin product. Also, there is no evidence to support that the fentanyl source is being diverted from pharmaceutical grade fentanyl. The chemistry section currently has over 109 confirmed cases, and the toxicology section currently has 81 confirmed drug deaths, 8 driving under the influence of drugs and 1 suicidal hanging. Both sections are continuing to see these cases at the present time. PMID:25217552

  17. Heroin impurity profiling. A harmonization study for retrospective comparisons.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, L; Lundberg, L; Neumann, H; Bobon, B; Huizer, H; van der Stelt, N W

    2000-11-13

    Three laboratories present a harmonised system for the retrospective comparison of south west Asian heroin. It consists of an improved gas chromatographic (GC) profiling method and a computerised data retrieval. The investigations of the GC were necessary with a view to improve the reproducibility of the system. The necessity of a strict quality control is emphasized. The peaks of the GC profile were investigated for abundance, intensity, GC behaviour (reproducibility) and correlations; 16 of them were selected for describing the heroin profile in the database. The results from intra-lab profile comparisons are reported. The reproducibility of the analysis was good and the variation between the samples was large, thus, allowing conclusions with a high degree of certainty. The criteria of similarity were defined. The system is successfully running in all three labs. In connection with inter-laboratory comparison, the aspects of method harmonisation and standardisation are discussed. It appeared that the GC method is a very subtile one, urging for a strict standardisation between the three labs. Despite a long cooperation between three well-equipped and experienced labs, a more or less serious loss of reproducibility was noticed in the inter-lab results in comparison with the intra-lab results. The loss could for the greater part be attributed to the (limits of the) GC technique; a number of compounds, necessary for making the discrimination between samples, showed difficult chromatographic behaviour, leading to insufficient inter-lab reproducibility. Using the actual variables, improvements in performance can hardly be expected in the near future. The loss of reproducibilty implies that the number of false positive matches in a database search increases. This may strongly reduce the value of a relatively large, international database. The study shows that so far, the best option for international comparison is the analysis in a central laboratory. The idea of local

  18. Human inhalation exposure to ethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Carstens, Jörn; Csanády, György A; Faller, Thomas H; Filser, Johannes G

    2003-08-01

    Two male volunteers (A and B) inhaled 1.43 and 1.34 mmol, respectively, of vaporous (13)C-labeled ethylene glycol ((13)C(2)-EG) over 4 h. In plasma, (13)C(2)-EG and its metabolite (13)C(2)-glycolic acid ((13)C(2)-GA) were determined together with the natural burden from background GA using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Maximum plasma concentrations of (13)C(2)-EG were 11.0 and 15.8 micromol/l, and of (13)C(2)-GA were 0.9 and 1.8 micromol/l, for volunteers A and B, respectively. Corresponding plasma half-lives were 2.1 and 2.6 h for (13)C(2)-EG, and 2.9 and 2.6 h for (13)C(2)-GA. Background GA concentrations were 25.8 and 28.3 micro mol/l plasma. Unlabeled background EG, GA and oxalic acid (OA) were detected in urine in which the corresponding (13)C-labeled compounds were also quantified. Within 28 h after the start of the exposures, 6.4% and 9.3% (13)C(2)-EG, 0.70% and 0.92% (13)C(2)-GA, as well as 0.08% and 0.28% (13)C(2)-OA of the inhaled amounts of (13)C(2)-EG, were excreted in urine by volunteers A and B, respectively. The amounts of (13)C(2)-GA represented 3.7% and 14.2% of background urinary GA excreted over 24 h (274 and 88 micromol). The amounts of (13)C(2)-OA were 0.5% and 2.1% of background urinary OA excreted over 24 h (215 and 177 micromol). From the findings obtained in plasma and urine and from a toxicokinetic analysis of these data, it is highly unlikely that workplace EG exposure according to the German exposure limit (MAK-value 10 ppm EG, 8 h) could lead to adverse effects from the metabolically formed GA and OA. PMID:12856104

  19. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies. PMID:26070575

  20. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  1. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mars, Sarah G; Fessel, Jason N; Bourgois, Philippe; Montero, Fernando; Karandinos, George; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Heroin overdose, more accurately termed 'heroin-related overdose' due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black 'tar' heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influences on HOD, both fatal and non-fatal, using data from a qualitative study of injecting drug users of black tar heroin in San Francisco and powder heroin in Philadelphia Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 that were conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007-12) and of users in San Francisco (1994-2007, 2012). Our findings suggest three types of previously unconsidered influences on overdose risk that arise both from structural socio-economic factors and from the physical properties of the heroin source-types: 1) retail market structure including information flow between users; 2) marketing techniques such as branding, free samples and pricing and 3) differences in the physical characteristics of the two major heroin source forms and how they affect injecting techniques and vascular health. Although chosen for their contrasting source-forms, we found that the two cities have contrasting dominant models of drug retailing: San Francisco respondents tended to buy through private dealers and Philadelphia respondents frequented an open-air street market where heroin is branded and free samples are distributed, although each city included both types of drug sales. These market structures and marketing techniques shape the availability of information regarding heroin potency and its dissemination among users who tend to seek out the

  2. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Sarah G.; Fessel, Jason N.; Bourgois, Philippe; Montero, Fernando; Karandinos, George; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Heroin overdose, more accurately termed ‘heroin-related overdose’ due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black ‘tar’ heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influences on HOD, both fatal and non-fatal, using data from a qualitative study of injecting drug users of black tar heroin in San Francisco and powder heroin in Philadelphia Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 that were conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007–12) and of users in San Francisco (1994–2007, 2012). Our findings suggest three types of previously unconsidered influences on overdose risk that arise both from structural socio-economic factors and from the physical properties of the heroin source-types: 1) retail market structure including information flow between users; 2) marketing techniques such as branding, free samples and pricing and 3) differences in the physical characteristics of the two major heroin source forms and how they affect injecting techniques and vascular health. Although chosen for their contrasting source-forms, we found that the two cities have contrasting dominant models of drug retailing: San Francisco respondents tended to buy through private dealers and Philadelphia respondents frequented an open-air street market where heroin is branded and free samples are distributed, although each city included both types of drug sales. These market structures and marketing techniques shape the availability of information regarding heroin potency and its dissemination among users who tend to seek out

  3. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    PubMed

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  4. Heroin users: the need for improved treatment for incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Horton, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of drugs, specifically heroin, by women. While women's rate of incarceration in the nation have dramatically increased, tripling in the last decade, prisons have not kept pace with the growth of the number of women in prison and the need for drug treatment and recovery for this population. This paper examines one programmatic effort to provide services to this most vulnerable population in the state of Illinois. The continuum of care model is considered in light of the challenges of high recidivism rates, particularly in the state of Illinois. It identifies a need for more effective evidence-based services at the state level for prison inmates before and after discharge. Effective program evaluation has not been a priority in some states, and perhaps Illinois correction is prototypical. More effective intervention may require more community involvement post-release for ex-offenders. Barriers to healthcare, employment and housing, are just as evident with female drug offenders as in the male population. PMID:21400368

  5. Site- and species-specific hydrolysis rates of heroin.

    PubMed

    Szöcs, Levente; Orgován, Gábor; Tóth, Gergő; Kraszni, Márta; Gergó, Lajos; Hosztafi, Sándor; Noszál, Béla

    2016-06-30

    The hydroxide-catalyzed non-enzymatic, simultaneous and consecutive hydrolyses of diacetylmorphine (DAM, heroin) are quantified in terms of 10 site- and species-specific rate constants in connection with also 10 site- and species-specific acid-base equilibrium constants, comprising all the 12 coexisting species in solution. This characterization involves the major and minor decomposition pathways via 6-acetylmorphine and 3-acetylmorphine, respectively, and morphine, the final product. Hydrolysis has been found to be 18-120 times faster at site 3 than at site 6, depending on the status of the amino group and the rest of the molecule. Nitrogen protonation accelerates the hydrolysis 5-6 times at site 3 and slightly less at site 6. Hydrolysis rate constants are interpreted in terms of intramolecular inductive effects and the concomitant local electron densities. Hydrolysis fraction, a new physico-chemical parameter is introduced and determined to quantify the contribution of the individual microspecies to the overall hydrolysis. Hydrolysis fractions are depicted as a function of pH. PMID:27130543

  6. Dysfunctional Default Mode Network in Methadone Treated Patients Who Have a Higher Heroin Relapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Defeng; Xiao, Wei; Liu, Kai; Shi, Lin; Zhu, Jia; Li, Yongbin; Yan, Xuejiao; Chen, Jiajie; Ye, Jianjun; Li, Zhe; Wang, Yarong; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify whether heroin relapse is associated with changes in the functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN) during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of chronic heroin relapsers (HR) (12 males, 1 female, age: 36.1 ± 6.9 years) and abstainers (HA) (11males, 2 female; age: 42.1 ± 8.1 years) were investigated with an independent component analysis to address the functional connectivity of their DMN. Group comparison was then performed between the relapsers and abstainers. Our study found that the left inferior temporal gyrus and the right superior occipital gyrus associated with DMN showed decreased functional connectivity in HR when compared with HA, while the left precuneus and the right middle cingulum had increased functional connectivity. Mean intensity signal, extracted from left inferior temporal gyrus of HR patients, showed a significant negative correlation corresponding to the degree of heroin relapse. These findings suggest that altered functional connectivity of DMN may contribute to the potential neurobiological mechanism(s) of heroin relapse and have a predictive value concerning heroin relapse under MMT. PMID:26469876

  7. Genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction; a candidate-gene association study

    PubMed Central

    Levran, O.; Londono, D.; O’Hara, K.; Nielsen, D. A.; Peles, E.; Rotrosen, J.; Casadonte, P.; Linzy, S.; Randesi, M.; Ott, J.; Adelson, M.; Kreek, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify genetic variants that are associated with susceptibility to develop heroin addiction, by analyzing 1350 variants in 130 candidate genes. All subjects had Caucasian ancestry. The sample consisted of 412 former severe heroin addicts in methadone treatment, and 184 healthy controls with no history of drug abuse. Nine variants, in six genes, showed the lowest nominal P values in the association tests (P < 0.01). These variants were in non-coding regions of the genes encoding the mu (OPRM1; rs510769, rs3778151), kappa (OPRK1; rs6473797), and delta opioid receptors, (OPRD1; rs2236861, rs2236857 and rs3766951), the neuropeptide galanin (GAL; rs694066), the serotonin receptor subtype 3B (HTR3B; rs3758987) and the casein kinase 1 isoform epsilon (CSNK1E; rs1534891). Several haplotypes and multi-locus genotype patterns showed nominally significant associations (e.g. OPRM1; P = 0.0006 and CSNK1E; P = 0.0007). Analysis of a combined effect of OPRM1 and OPRD1 showed that rs510769 and rs2236861 increase the risk of heroin addiction (P = 0.0005). None of these associations remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. This study suggests the involvement of several genes and variants in heroin addiction that is worthy of future study. PMID:18518925

  8. Correlates of Heroin and Methamphetamine Use among Homeless Male Ex-Jail and Prison Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Salem, Benissa E.; Farabee, David; Hall, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheldon; Marfisee, Mary; Khalilifard, Farinaz; Musto, Stefanie; Leake, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Homeless men exiting California State jails and prisons are a heterogeneous community with varied childhood, incarceration and drug use histories. This cross-sectional study assessed whether homeless men who were discharged from either jail or prison into a residential substance abuse treatment program, differed in terms of methamphetamine and heroin use. This study utilized baseline data collected on 540 recently paroled men randomized to one of three programs that assessed the impact of a peer coaching intervention on subsequent drug use and re-incarceration. We found that younger ex-offenders exiting prisons and jails were more likely to have used methamphetamine alone, whereas African American ex-offenders were less likely to have used methamphetamine alone when compared to other ethnic groups. Further, ex-offenders exiting jails and self-reporting use of heroin only at baseline were significantly more likely than their counterparts to have been removed from home before age 18. For men exiting jails, there was an association between lower self-esteem and having used methamphetamine but not heroin. However, having used both heroin and methamphetamine was associated with both violent crime and cognitive problems in both jail and prison samples. Our findings showcase the need to understand unique correlates of both heroin and methamphetamine as they relate to jail and prison populations. PMID:25489295

  9. Heroin Use and HIV Disease Progression: Results from a Pilot Study of a Russian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, E. Jennifer; Cheng, Debbie M.; Krupitsky, Evgeny M.; Bridden, Carly; Quinn, Emily; Walley, Alexander Y.; Lioznov, Dmitry A.; Blokhina, Elena; Zvartau, Edwin; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Opioids have immunosuppressive properties, yet their impact on HIV disease progression remains unclear. Using longitudinal data from HIV-infected antiretroviral therapy-naïve Russian individuals (n=77), we conducted a pilot study to estimate the effect of heroin use on HIV disease progression. Heroin use was categorized based on past 30 day self-report at baseline, 6 months and 12 months as none, intermittent or persistent. We estimated the effect of heroin use on HIV disease progression, measured as change in CD4 count from baseline to 12 months, using multivariable linear regression. Those with intermittent (n=21) and no heroin use (n=39) experienced mean decreases in CD4 count from baseline to 12 months (−103 cells/mm3 and −10 cells/mm3, respectively; adjusted mean difference (AMD) −93, 95% CI: −245, 58). Those with persistent use (n=17) showed a mean increase of 53 cells/mm3 (AMD 63, 95% CI: −95, 220). Future studies exploring the effects of heroin withdrawal on HIV disease progression are warranted. PMID:25413642

  10. Hypocretin Receptor 2 Antagonism Dose-Dependently Reduces Escalated Heroin Self-Administration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schmeichel, Brooke E; Barbier, Estelle; Misra, Kaushik K; Contet, Candice; Schlosburg, Joel E; Grigoriadis, Dimitri; Williams, John P; Karlsson, Camilla; Pitcairn, Caleb; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2015-01-01

    The hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) system has been associated with both positive and negative drug reinforcement, implicating HCRT receptor 1 (HCRT-R1) signaling in drug-related behaviors for all major drug classes, including opioids. However, to date there are limited studies investigating the role of HCRT receptor 2 (HCRT-R2) signaling in compulsive-like drug seeking. Escalation of drug intake with extended access has been suggested to model the transition from controlled drug use to compulsive-like drug seeking/taking. The current study examined the effects of a HCRT-R2 antagonist, NBI-80713, on heroin self-administration in rats allowed short- (1 h; ShA) or long- (12 h; LgA) access to intravenous heroin self-administration. Results indicate that systemically administered NBI-80713 dose-dependently decreased heroin self-administration in LgA, but not in ShA, animals. Quantitative PCR analyses showed an increase in Hcrtr2 mRNA levels in the central amygdala, a stress-related brain region, of LgA rats. These observations suggest a functional role for HCRT-R2 signaling in compulsive-like heroin self-administration associated with extended access and indicate HCRT-R2 antagonism as a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of heroin dependence. PMID:25367502

  11. Unfavorable attitudes toward receiving methadone maintenance therapy and associated factors among the inmates using intravenous heroin.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Wang, Peng-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Liu, Shu-Chun; Wang, Shu-Hui; Wang, Chao-Ching

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine unfavorable attitudes toward receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and associated factors among inmates using intravenous heroin in Taiwan. A total of 315 inmates using intravenous heroin were recruited. Their unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT after discharge from prison were evaluated using the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale. The associations of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT with sociodemographic and drug-using characteristics, human immunodeficiency virus serostatus, perceived family support, and depression were examined using multiple regression analysis. The results of this study showed that the mean score of unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT, determined on the Client Attitudes Toward Methadone Programs Scale, was 9.918 (standard deviation=2.277, range=5-20). Heroin-using inmates who were young, started using heroin earlier, perceived many advantages and few disadvantages of heroin use, had never received MMT, and had severe depression, had unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that inmates who have the factors associated with unfavorable attitudes toward receiving MMT should receive intervention and motivational interviewing to improve their attitudes toward MMT and to increase their opportunity to receive MMT after discharge from prison. PMID:21329889

  12. Vaporization as a smokeless cannabis delivery system: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D I; Vizoso, H P; Shade, S B; Jay, C; Kelly, M E; Benowitz, N L

    2007-11-01

    Although cannabis may have potential therapeutic value, inhalation of a combustion product is an undesirable delivery system. The aim of the study was to investigate vaporization using the Volcano((R)) device as an alternative means of delivery of inhaled Cannabis sativa. Eighteen healthy inpatient subjects enrolled to compare the delivery of cannabinoids by vaporization to marijuana smoked in a standard cigarette. One strength (1.7, 3.4, or 6.8% tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) and delivery system was randomly assigned for each of the 6 study days. Plasma concentrations of Delta-9-THC, expired carbon monoxide (CO), physiologic and neuropsychologic effects were the main outcome measures. Peak plasma concentrations and 6-h area under the plasma concentration-time curve of THC were similar. CO levels were reduced with vaporization. No adverse events occurred. Vaporization of cannabis is a safe and effective mode of delivery of THC. Further trials of clinical effectiveness of cannabis could utilize vaporization as a smokeless delivery system. PMID:17429350

  13. The Skeletal Effects of Inhaled Glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Stephanie A; Stein, Emily M

    2016-06-01

    The skeletal effects of inhaled glucocorticoids are poorly understood. Children with asthma treated with inhaled glucocorticoids have lower growth velocity, bone density, and adult height. Studies of adults with asthma have reported variable effects on BMD, although prospective studies have demonstrated bone loss after initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids in premenopausal women. There is a dose-response relationship between inhaled glucocorticoids and fracture risk in asthmatics; the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures is greater in subjects treated with the highest doses in the majority of studies. Patients with COPD have lower BMD and higher fracture rates compared to controls, however, the majority of studies have not found an additional detrimental effect of inhaled glucocorticoids on bone. While the evidence is not conclusive, it supports using the lowest possible dose of inhaled glucocorticoids to treat patients with asthma and COPD and highlights the need for further research on this topic. PMID:27091558

  14. Misuse of xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Salamon, Marek; Habrat, Boguslaw; Scinska, Anna; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-12-01

    Six male prisoners who misused xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation were interviewed by a prison physician in 2006. The prisoners received xylometazoline drops during regular visits in the prison ambulatory service. In order to get the medication, the subjects reported false symptoms of rhinosinusitis and allergic reactions. Psychoactive effects of inhaled xylometazoline were described as "stimulation," "excitation," and "feeling of strength." Although preliminary, our findings suggest that topical adrenergic decongestants can produce rewarding effects when administered by inhalation. PMID:19085441

  15. Who Are America's Heroes and Heroines? C&I [Curriculum and Instruction] 350 Elementary Social Studies Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Judith G.; And Others

    This unit involves students in researching information about history's heroes and heroines. Emphasized are library, mathematics, artistic, communication, and decision-making skills. To introduce the unit, students participate in a brainstorming session to develop a list of heroes and heroines and a set of criteria to determine why people are…

  16. The association between heroin expenditure and dopamine transporter availability--a single-photon emission computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Chen, Kao Chin; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chiu, Nan Tsing; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Po See; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Lu, Ru-Band; Chen, Chia-Chieh; Liao, Mei-Hsiu; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2015-03-30

    One of the consequences of heroin dependency is a huge expenditure on drugs. This underlying economic expense may be a grave burden for heroin users and may lead to criminal behavior, which is a huge cost to society. The neuropsychological mechanism related to heroin purchase remains unclear. Based on recent findings and the established dopamine hypothesis of addiction, we speculated that expenditure on heroin and central dopamine activity may be associated. A total of 21 heroin users were enrolled in this study. The annual expenditure on heroin was assessed, and the availability of the dopamine transporter (DAT) was assessed by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using [(99m)TC]TRODAT-1. Parametric and nonparametric correlation analyses indicated that annual expenditure on heroin was significantly and negatively correlated with the availability of striatal DAT. After adjustment for potential confounders, the predictive power of DAT availability was significant. Striatal dopamine function may be associated with opioid purchasing behavior among heroin users, and the cycle of spiraling dysfunction in the dopamine reward system could play a role in this association. PMID:25659472

  17. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  18. [Inhalation of nitric oxide - dependence: case report

    PubMed

    Carvalho, W B; Matsumoto, T; Horita, S M; Almeida, N M; Martins, F R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the hemodynamic response with rebound of pulmonary hypertension after withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in a pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Case report of a child with ARDS and pulmonary hypertension evaluated through ecocardiografic with dopller, receiving inhaled NO for a period of 21 days. RESULTS: There was a decrease of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 52 mmHg to 44 mmHg after the initial titulation of NO inhalation dose. After the withdrawal of inhaled NO an elevation of PAP was observed (55 mmHg). It was necessary to reinstall the inhaled NO to obtain a more appropriate value (34 mmHg). A new attempt of interruption of the inhaled NO after prolonged inhalation (20 days) resulted in a new clinic worsening and increase of PAP, with the indication to reinstall the inhaled NO. In the 24th day of permanence in the intensive care unit the patient died due to multiple organ dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of pulmonary hypertension rebound after withdrawal of inhaled NO is a complication that may have important clinical implications for patients who need a prolonged treatment with NO. This case report emphasizes these implications. PMID:14647690

  19. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, an unusual complication of heroin intoxication: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Gang; Luo, Qiancheng; Guo, Enwei; Yao, Yulan; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Bingyu; Li, Longxuan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) has rarely been described in patients with heroin intoxication. Here, we report a rare case of MODS involving six organs, due to heroin intoxication. The patient was a 32-year-old Chinese man with severe heroin intoxication complicated by acute pulmonary edema and respiratory insufficiency, shock, myocardial damage and cardiac insufficiency, rhabdomyolysis and acute renal insufficiency, acute liver injury and hepatic insufficiency, toxic leukoencephalopathy, and hypoglycemia. He managed to survive and was discharged after 10 weeks of intensive care. The possible pathogenesis and therapeutic measures of MODS induced by heroin intoxication and some suggestions for preventing and treating severe complications of heroin intoxication, based on clinical evidence and the pertinent literature, are discussed in this report. PMID:26617935

  20. Acute respiratory distress syndrome in a woman with heroin and methamphetamine misuse.

    PubMed

    Yeh, P S; Yuan, A; Yu, C J; Kuo, S H; Luh, K T; Yang, P C

    2001-08-01

    Methamphetamine, heroin, and cannabis are three of the most commonly misused drugs in Asia. In Taiwan, cases of misuse of methamphetamine have been increasing. In this paper, we report the case of a 23-year-old woman who had a 10-year history of smoking methamphetamine and intermittent use of heroin for 3 to 4 years. She developed pulmonary toxic effects associated with misuse of heroin and methamphetamine. She was brought to the emergency room because of consciousness disturbance and acute respiratory failure. Her symptoms of rapid progression of refractory hypoxemia, ill-defined densities over both lung fields, and normal pulmonary artery wedge pressure were consistent with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Rapid resolution of infiltrations and improvement of oxygenation were observed after mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure support and oxygen therapy. She was discharged on the fifteenth hospital day without any sequela except for mild exertional dyspnea. PMID:11678007

  1. Supply-side response to declining heroin purity: fentanyl overdose episode in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Katherine; Yildirim, Emel O

    2014-06-01

    The inelastic price demand observations characteristic of illegal drug markets have led to the conclusion that the burden of a negative supply shock would be completely reflected to consumers. This paper argues that the increasing availability of prescription opioids may threaten heroin sellers' profit margin and force them to find alternative methods to compensate buyers in the event of a supply shock. We investigate the 2006 fentanyl overdose episode in New Jersey and argue that the introduction of non-pharmaceutical fentanyl, its spatial distribution, and the timing of overdose deaths may have been related to trends in heroin purity. Using medical examiner data, as well as data from the Drug Enforcement Administration, Office of Diversion Control on retail sales of prescription opioids in a negative binomial specification, we show that month-to-month fluctuations in heroin purity have a significant effect on fentanyl-related overdoses, particularly in those areas where prescription opioids are highly available. PMID:23740651

  2. The Risk Environment of Heroin Use Initiation: Young Women, Intimate Partners, and "Drug Relationships".

    PubMed

    Mayock, Paula; Cronly, Jennifer; Clatts, Michael C

    2015-05-01

    This paper examines young women's initiation to heroin use in the context of an intimate relationship based on data from a small-scale ethno-epidemiology of heroin use in Ireland, 2007-2009. The epidemiological sample included 120 young people, and life history interviews were conducted with a sub-sample of 40 youth aged 16-25 years. A detailed analysis of the "risk environment" of young women's heroin initiation highlights a complex interplay between women's agency and intimate partner influence. It is argued that dichotomous representations of women as victims or emancipated consumers do not adequately capture the complexity of women's initiation journeys. The study's limitations are noted and implications for drug use prevention and harm reduction strategies are discussed. PMID:25774809

  3. Characteristics of drivers testing positive for heroin or ecstasy in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hausken, A M; Skurtveit, S; Christophersen, A S

    2004-06-01

    An increasing number of heroin and ecstasy seizures were recorded by the Norwegian police and customs authorities in the 1990s. The number of apprehended drivers in whom heroin and ecstasy were detected also rose in the same period (Heroin, 1991: n = 17, 1999: n = 320. Ecstasy, 1995: n = 6, 1999: n = 123). Drivers who tested positive for heroin (detected in urine as the metabolite 6-monoacetyl-morphine, 6-MAM) or ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine, MDMA, detected in blood) were characterized with regard to age distribution, drug use pattern, and earlier arrests. In 1998-1999, the police apprehended 9013 drivers on suspicion of being under the influence of drugs other than alcohol. Blood and urine samples from the drivers were sent to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse and analyzed for the most commonly abused drugs. 6-MAM was detected in urine in 7% of the cases (n = 637), representing 542 different drivers (male: 85%, n = 463, female: 15%, n = 79) as some drivers were rearrested several times during the selection period. MDMA was detected in 2% of the cases (n = 190), representing 177 drivers (male: 90%, n = 160, female: 10%, n = 17). The median ages of drivers who tested positive for 6-MAM or MDMA were 32 and 24 years, respectively. Multi-drug use was very common in both groups (83% and 98% for the heroin and ecstasy group, respectively). Drivers in both groups were followed back to 1985 to detect earlier arrests for the same offence. Of the heroin group, 78% (n = 417) had earlier been arrested for drunken or drugged driving. Alcohol was the drug most frequently detected on first arrest. Of the ecstasy group, 47% (n = 83) had earlier been arrested, and amphetamine was most frequently found on first arrest. PMID:15203944

  4. Lifetime history of heroin use is associated with greater drug severity among prescription opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Andrew C.; Patrick, Mollie E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While research suggests primary prescription opioid (PO) abusers may exhibit less severe demographic and drug use characteristics than primary heroin abusers, less is known about whether a lifetime history of heroin use confers greater severity among PO abusers. Objective In this secondary analysis, we examined demographic and drug use characteristics as a function of lifetime heroin use among 89 PO-dependent adults screened for a trial evaluating the relative efficacy of buprenorphine taper durations. Exploratory analyses also examined contribution of lifetime heroin use to treatment response among a subset of participants who received a uniform set of study procedures. Methods Baseline characteristics were compared between participants reporting lifetime heroin use ≥5 (H+; n=41) vs. <5 (H−; n=48) times. Treatment response (i.e., illicit opioid abstinence and treatment retention at end of study) was examined in the subset of H+ and H− participants randomized to receive the 4-week taper condition (N=22). Results H+ participants were significantly older and more likely to be male. They reported longer durations of illicit opioid use, greater alcohol-related problems, more past-month cocaine use, greater lifetime IV drug use, and greater lifetime use of cigarettes, amphetamines and hallucinogens. H+ participants also had lower scores on the Positive Symptom Distress and Depression subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Finally, there was a trend toward poorer treatment outcomes among H+ participants. Conclusion A lifetime history of heroin use may be associated with elevated drug severity and unique treatment needs among treatment-seeking PO abusers. PMID:25481453

  5. Hyperalgesia in Heroin Dependent Patients and the Effects of Opioid Substitution Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Peggy; Canamar, Catherine P.; Hillhouse, Maureen; Ling, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that patients on opiate maintenance therapy for the treatment of addiction present with opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). This study compared the experimental (cold-pressor, electrical stimulation) pain responses of 82 treatment-seeking heroin-dependent adults randomized to methadone (METH, n = 11) or buprenorphine (BUP, n = 64) therapy, with matched drug free controls (n = 21). Heroin-dependent participants were evaluated at baseline (treatment entry), medication (METH or BUP) stabilization (4-8 weeks), and chronic administration (12-18 weeks), at trough (just prior to dosing) and peak (3 hours after dosing) plasma levels. Collection of the control group’s pain responses occurred twice during a single session, three hours apart. Baseline comparisons indicate that heroin-dependent individuals demonstrate significantly shorter latencies to threshold and tolerance for cold-pressor pain than the control group. Across pain stimuli and time points, little change in pain responses were found over time, the exception being cold pressor pain tolerance, for which hyperalgesia significantly increased at trough METH/BUP levels in both groups as they stabilized in treatment. We conclude that heroin-dependent individuals are hyperalgesic, and that once stabilized in treatment, are not different in pain responses regardless of treatment agent. The effects of non-pharmacologic therapy and previous heroin use may explain increased hyperalgesia found with treatment. Perspective To better understand the clinical phenomenon of OIH, this article describes experimental pain responses of heroin-dependent participants both prior to and over the course of maintenance therapy with methadone or buprenorphine. Hyperalgesia is present with illicit and treatment opioid use, and does not appear to appreciably improve over the course of treatment. PMID:22424799

  6. Motivational Assessment of Non-Treatment Buprenorphine Research Participation in Heroin Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Papke, Gina; Greenwald, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Heroin abuse remains an important public health problem, particularly in economically disadvantaged areas. Insight into this problem is gained from interviewing addicted individuals. However, we lack systematic data on factors that motivate heroin users to participate in non-treatment research that offers both financial incentives (compensation) and non-financial incentives (e.g., short-term medication). Aim To better understand the relative importance of several types of personal motivations to participate in non-treatment buprenorphine research, and to relate self-motivations to social, economic, demographic and drug use factors. Methods Heroin dependent volunteers (N = 235 total; 57 female and 178 male; 136 African American, 86 Caucasian, and 13 Other) applied for non-therapeutic buprenorphine research in an urban outpatient setting from 2004–2008. We conducted a semi-structured behavioral economic interview, after which participants ranked 11 possible motivations for research participation. Results Although the study was repeatedly described as non-treatment research involving buprenorphine, participants often ranked some treatment-related motivations as important (wanting to reduce/stop heroin use, needing a medication to get stabilized/detoxify). Some motivations correlated with income, heroin use, and years since marketing of buprenorphine. Two dimensions emerged from principal component analysis of motivation rankings: (1) treatment motivation vs. greater immediate needs, and (2) commitment to trying alternatives vs. a more accepting attitude toward traditional interventions. In summary, heroin addicts’ self-motivations to engage in non-therapeutic research are complex – they value economic gain but not exclusively or primarily – and relate to variables such as socioeconomic factors and drug use. PMID:22137646

  7. Replication of ZNF804A gene variant associations with risk of heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Hancock, D B; Levy, J L; Gaddis, N C; Glasheen, C; Saccone, N L; Page, G P; Bierut, L J; Kral, A H; Johnson, E O

    2015-11-01

    Heroin addiction is heritable, but few specific genetic variants have been reproducibly associated with this disease. The zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene is a biologically plausible susceptibility gene for heroin addiction, given its function as a transcription factor in human brain. Novel associations of two common ZNF804A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs7597593 and rs1344706, with heroin addiction have been reported in Han Chinese. Both SNPs have also been implicated for regulating ZNF804A expression in human brain, including the addiction-relevant dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this independent replication study, we tested the rs7597593 and rs1344706 SNP genotypes and their corresponding haplotypes for association with heroin addiction using cases drawn from the Urban Health Study and population controls: total N = 10 757 [7095 European Americans (EAs) and 3662 African Americans (AAs)]. We independently replicated both ZNF804A SNP associations in EAs: the rs7597593-T (P = 0.016) and rs1344706-A (P = 0.029) alleles both being associated with increased risk of heroin addiction, consistent with the prior report. Neither SNP was associated in AAs alone, but meta-analysis across both ancestry groups resulted in significant associations for rs1344706-A [P = 0.016, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.13 (1.02-1.25)] and its haplotype with rs7597593-T [P = 0.0067, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.16 (1.04-1.29)]. By showing consistent associations across independent studies and diverse ancestry groups, our study provides evidence that these two ZNF804A SNPs and their risk haplotype are among the few replicable genetic associations with heroin addiction. PMID:26382569

  8. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. PMID:23786241

  9. A Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Immunosensors for Sensitive Detection of Heroin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhong-cheng; Chen, Wen-ge; Wang, Lian-chao; Ge, Yu; Yu, Cheng-duan; Fang, Ting-jian

    2000-12-01

    A simple technique for sensitive detection of heroin based on surface-plasmon-resonance has been theoretically and experimentally investigated. The experiment was realized by using an anti-MO monoclonal antibody and a morphine (MO)-bovine serum albumin (MO-BSA) conjugate (antigen). The reason for using MO-BSA in the detection of heroine was also discussed. MO-BSA was immobilized on a gold thin film of SPR sensor chip by physical adsorption. The configuration of the device is allowed to be further miniaturized, which is required for the construction of a portable SPR device in the application of in-situ analysis.

  10. Contingency contracting and systematic desensitization for heroin addicts in methadone maintenance programs.

    PubMed

    Piane, G

    2000-01-01

    The use and effectiveness of contingency contracting and systematic desensitization with heroin addicts being treated in methadone maintenance programs are discussed. Both behavior therapies can be practically implemented in methadone maintenance programs to supplement methadone pharmacotherapy. Contingency contracting has been effectively employed to reduce illicit drug use and to manage patients in the clinic. Systematic desensitization has less effect on actual heroin usage yet effectively reduces the fear of withdrawal and general anxiety, while improving self-image, assertiveness, and adjustment in the community. A clinic protocol that incorporates all three therapies-methadone maintenance, contingency contracting, and systematic desensitization-is proposed. PMID:11061683

  11. Initiation of Heroin and Prescription Opioid Pain Relievers by Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Novak, Scott P; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Wenger, Lynn; Chu, Daniel; Kral, Alex H

    2016-02-01

    We examined initiation patterns among different birth cohorts of people who used prescription opioids and heroin because of historical differences in drug use availability. We examined data from a community-based study of persons who inject drugs (n = 483) in California and a general population survey from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 1264) and found that individuals born after 1980 were more likely than were individuals born before 1980 to initiate opioids through nonmedical use of prescription opioids than heroin. PMID:26691120

  12. Symptoms discriminating between heroin addicts seeking ambulatory detoxification or methadone maintenance.

    PubMed

    Steer, R A

    1982-08-01

    The self-report symptom inventory, SCL-90-R, was administered to 240 heroin addicts seeking ambulatory detoxification and 240 requesting methadone maintenance. Controlling for age, a stepwise discriminant analysis employing a backward elimination model was performed with the SCL-90-R's nine symptom factors to determine if the addicts described different levels of symptomatology. Interpersonal sensitivity and depression differentiated between the two groups; the ambulatory detoxification patients were more depressed and described less interpersonal sensitivity than the methadone maintenance patients. The results supported the contention that heroin addicts seeking ambulatory detoxification or methadone maintenance may display different symptoms. PMID:7128452

  13. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inhalation toxicity. 798.2450 Section 798.2450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2450 Inhalation toxicity. (a) Purpose. In the assessment...

  14. How to use an inhaler - with spacer

    MedlinePlus

    ... out through your mouth. After using your inhaler, rinse your mouth with water, gargle, and spit. This helps reduce side effects from your medicine. Keep your inhaler clean Look at the ... mouthpiece. Rinse only the mouthpiece and cap in warm water. ...

  15. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... site at www. whitehousedrugpolicy. gov. No.Even though household products like glue and air freshener have legal,useful ... A. A. Q.Since inhalants are found in household products,aren’t they safe? Q.Can inhalants make ...

  16. Inhaled antimicrobial therapy - barriers to effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Weers, Jeffry

    2015-05-01

    Inhaled antibiotics dramatically improve targeting of drug to the site of respiratory infections, while simultaneously minimizing systemic exposure and associated toxicity. The high local concentrations of antibiotic may enable more effective treatment of multi-drug resistant pathogens. This review explores barriers to effective treatment with inhaled antibiotics. In addition, potential opportunities for improvements in treatment are reviewed. PMID:25193067

  17. Nanotechnology and pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R; Vavia, P R

    2007-02-01

    Pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols have been playing a crucial role in the health and well being of millions of people throughout the world for many years. The technology's continual advancement, the ease of use and the more desirable pulmonary-rather-than-needle delivery for systemic drugs has increased the attraction for the pharmaceutical aerosol in recent years. But administration of drugs by the pulmonary route is technically challenging because oral deposition can be high, and variations in inhalation technique can affect the quantity of drug delivered to the lungs. Recent advances in nanotechnology, particularly drug delivery field have encouraged formulation scientists to expand their reach in solving tricky problems related to drug delivery. Moreover, application of nanotechnology to aerosol science has opened up a new category of pharmaceutical aerosols (collectively known as nanoenabled-aerosols) with added advantages and effectiveness. In this review, some of the latest approaches of nano-enabled aerosol drug delivery system (including nano-suspension, trojan particles, bioadhesive nanoparticles and smart particle aerosols) that can be employed successfully to overcome problems of conventional aerosol systems have been introduced. PMID:17375556

  18. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases. Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  19. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... that your kids will use drugs such as marijuana or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs ...

  20. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the wide variety of substances—including solvents, aerosols, gases, and nitrites—that are rarely, if ever, ... a glue bottle or a marking pen), spray aerosols (such as computer cleaning dusters) directly into their ...

  1. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... electronic contact cleaner Aerosols are sprays that contain propellants and solvents. They include: Spray paint, hair spray, ... burn injuries Freon (difluoroethane substitutes) Refrigerant and aerosol propellant Sudden sniffing death Breathing problems and death (from ...

  2. Vapor phase pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis process is designed exclusively for the lunar production of oxygen. In this concept, granulated raw material (soil) that consists almost entirely of metal oxides is vaporized and the vapor is raised to a temperature where it dissociates into suboxides and free oxygen. Rapid cooling of the dissociated vapor to a discrete temperature causes condensation of the suboxides, while the oxygen remains essentially intact and can be collected downstream. The gas flow path and flow rate are maintained at an optimum level by control of the pressure differential between the vaporization region and the oxygen collection system with the aid of the environmental vacuum.

  3. Prenatal exposure to vapors of gasoline-ethanol blends causes few cognitive deficits in adult rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental exposure to inhaled ethanol-gasoline fuel blends is a potential public health concern. Here we assessed cognitive functions in adult offspring of pregnant rats that were exposed to vapors of gasoline blended with a range of ethanol concentrations, including gasoli...

  4. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis by a Cool-Mist Vaporizer a Detailed Microbiologic and Immunologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Chun; Choi, Jin Myung; Lee, Hyun Woo; Hong, Suhk; Kim, Chung Sook

    1989-01-01

    A patient with hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by a contaminated cool-mist vaporizer was evaluated. A detailed microbiologic and immunologic study was done, and a Pseudomonas species was isolated as the possible causative organism by inhalational provocative and serologic tests. PMID:2486849

  5. Technical Note: Simple, scalable, and sensitive protocol for retrieving Bacillus anthracis (and other live bacteria) from heroin.

    PubMed

    Grass, Gregor; Ahrens, Bjoern; Schleenbecker, Uwe; Dobrzykowski, Linda; Wagner, Matthias; Krüger, Christian; Wölfel, Roman

    2016-02-01

    We describe a culture-based method suitable for isolating Bacillus anthracis and other live bacteria from heroin. This protocol was developed as a consequence of the bioforensic need to retrieve bacteria from batches of the drug associated with cases of injectional anthrax among heroin-consumers in Europe. This uncommon manifestation of infection with the notorious pathogen B. anthracis has resulted in 26 deaths between the years 2000 to 2013. Thus far, no life disease agent has been isolated from heroin during forensic investigations surrounding these incidences. Because of the conjectured very small number of disease-causing endospores in the contaminated drug it is likely that too few target sequences are available for molecular genetic analysis. Therefore, a direct culture-based approach was chosen here. Endospores of attenuated B. anthracis artificially spiked into heroin were successfully retrieved at 84-98% recovery rates using a wash solution consisting of 0.5% Tween 20 in water. Using this approach, 82 samples of un-cut heroin originating from the German Federal Criminal Police Office's heroin analysis program seized during the period between 2000 and 2014 were tested and found to be surprisingly poor in retrievable bacteria. Notably, while no B. anthracis was isolated from the drug batches, other bacteria were successfully cultured. The resulting methodical protocol is therefore suitable for analyzing un-cut heroin which can be anticipated to comprise the original microbiota from the drug's original source without interference from contaminations introduced by cutting. PMID:26734987

  6. Corticotropin-releasing factor-1 receptor antagonists decrease heroin self-administration in long- but not short-access rats

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell, Thomas N.; Funk, Cindy K.; Cottone, Pietro; Richardson, Heather N.; Chen, Scott A.; Rice, Kenner C.; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Koob, George F.

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulation of the stress-related corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system has been implicated in the development of drug dependence. The present study examined the effects of administering CRF type 1 (CRF1) receptor antagonists on heroin self-administration in animals allowed short (1 hour) or long (8–12 hours) access to intravenous heroin self-administration sessions. The nonpeptide CRF1 antagonists MJL-1-109-2 (1 hour versus 8 hours access) or R121919 (1 hour versus 12 hours access) were systemically injected in both short- and long-access rats. MJL-1-109-2 (10 mg/kg) and R121919 (10 and 20 mg/kg) reduced heroin self-administration in long-access animals without altering heroin intake in short-access animals. Both MJL-1-109-2 and R121919 decreased first-hour intravenous heroin self-administration selectively in long-access rats, with R121919 decreasing cumulative heroin intake across the 12-hour session. The results demonstrate that blockade of the CRF–CRF1 receptor system attenuates the increased heroin intake of rats with extended access to the drug. PMID:19291009

  7. Illicit Heroin and Methamphetamine Use among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients in Dehong Prefecture of Yunnan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Song; Ye, Runhua; Yang, Yuecheng; Wang, Jibao; Tang, Renhai; Gao, Meiyang; He, Na

    2015-01-01

    Objective Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was introduced to China in 2004 to reduce the harm of injecting drug users (IDUs). However, little is known about continued drug use, especially methamphetamine (MAMP), among MMT patients. Methods A survey was conducted among patients attending five major MMT clinics in Dehong Prefecture in 2014 to investigate the heroin and MAMP use and their associated risk factors. Participants were administered with face-to-face interviews, and urine tests for morphine and MAMP. Results A total of 2,121 were eligible and participated in the study. Among them, 220 (10.4%) were only positive for morphine, 12.9% were only positive for MAMP, and 196 (9.2%) were positive for both morphine and MAMP. Compared with neither use of heroin nor MAMP during MMT, heroin use (not using MAMP) was associated with ethnicity, shorter duration of MMT, lower dose of methadone, and having had no more than two sex partners in the past year; MAMP use (not using heroin) was associated with ethnicity, longer duration of MMT, higher dose of methadone and being aged <30 years (vs. ≥50 years); use of both heroin and MAMP was associated with being Dai minority (vs. Han), a marital status of divorced or widowed, having used drugs for ≥10 years and shorter duration of MMT. Conclusion These findings indicate the complexity in the treatment of heroin users and underscore the importance in prescribing appropriate methadone dosages in order to reduce both heroin and MAMP use. PMID:26196394

  8. Comparison of acute effects of heroin and Kerack on sensory and motor activity of honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour-Ezatti, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Previous studies demonstrated a functional similarity between vertebrate and honey bee nervous systems. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of heroin and Iranian street Kerack, a combination of heroin and caffeine, on sensory threshold and locomotor activity in honey bees. Materials and Methods: All drugs were given orally to honey bees 30 min before each experiment. The levels of these drugs and their metabolites in brain samples of honey bees were determined by GC/MS. The sucrose sensitivity test was used for evaluation of changes in honey bees’ sensory threshold. Following the administration of both drugs, the honey bees’ locomotor activity changes were evaluated in open fields. Results: 6-acetylmorphine had a higher concentration in comparison with other heroin metabolites in honey bees’ brains. Concentration of the compound in the brain was directly proportional to the amount ingested. Heroin reduced the sensory threshold of honey bees, but Kerack increased it in the same doses. Locomotor activity of honey bee in open field was enhanced after the administration of both drugs. However, immobility time of honey bees was only affected by high doses of heroin. Conclusion: Acute effects of heroin andKerack on the sensory and motor functions of honey bees were different. Findings of this research suggest that these differences originated from the activation of different neurotransmitter systems by caffeine together with activation of opioid receptors by heroin. PMID:26019799

  9. Activation of AMPA receptor in the infralimbic cortex facilitates extinction and attenuates the heroin-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weisheng; Wang, Yiqi; Sun, Anna; Zhou, Linyi; Xu, Wenjin; Zhu, Huaqiang; Zhuang, Dingding; Lai, Miaojun; Zhang, Fuqiang; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Huifen

    2016-01-26

    Infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction, but whether the IL regulates the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior is unknown. To address this issue, the male SD rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, then the rats underwent 7 daily 2h extinction session in the operant chamber. The activation of IL by microinjection PEPA, an allosteric AMPA receptor potentiator into IL before each of extinction session facilitated the extinction responding after heroin self-administration, but did not alter the locomotor activity in an open field testing environment. Other rats were first trained under a FR1 schedule for heroin self-administration for 14 days, followed by 14 days of extinction training, and reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues was measured for 2h. Intra-IL microinjecting of PEPA at 15min prior to test inhibited the reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues. Moreover, the expression of GluR1 in the IL and NAc remarkably increased after treatment with PEPA during the reinstatement. These finding suggested that activation of glutamatergic projection from IL to NAc shell may be involved in the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking. PMID:26639425

  10. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patients with inhalation injury. Several factors explain slower progress for improvement in management of patients with inhalation injury. Inhalation injury is a more complex clinical problem. Burned cutaneous tissue may be excised and replaced with skin grafts. Injured pulmonary tissue must be protected from secondary injury due to resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and infection while host repair mechanisms receive appropriate support. Many of the consequences of smoke inhalation result from an inflammatory response involving mediators whose number and role remain incompletely understood despite improved tools for processing of clinical material. Improvements in mortality from inhalation injury are mostly due to widespread improvements in critical care rather than focused interventions for smoke inhalation. Morbidity associated with inhalation injury is produced by heat exposure and inhaled toxins. Management of toxin exposure in smoke inhalation remains controversial, particularly as related to carbon monoxide and cyanide. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been evaluated in multiple trials to manage neurologic sequelae of carbon monoxide exposure. Unfortunately, data to date do not support application of hyperbaric oxygen in this population outside the context of clinical trials. Cyanide is another toxin produced by combustion of natural or synthetic materials. A number of antidote strategies have been evaluated to address tissue hypoxia associated with cyanide exposure. Data

  11. A role for the prefrontal cortex in heroin-seeking after forced abstinence by adult male rats but not adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-02-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir(+) and Fos-ir(-) neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir(+) neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  12. A Role For The Prefrontal Cortex In Heroin-Seeking After Forced Abstinence By Adult Male Rats But Not Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, James M; Cooke, Bradley M; Frantz, Kyle J

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent drug abuse is hypothesized to increase the risk of drug addiction. Yet male rats that self-administer heroin as adolescents show attenuated drug-seeking after abstinence, compared with adults. Here we explore a role for neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in age-dependent heroin-seeking. Adolescent (35-day-old at start; adolescent-onset) and adult (86-day-old at start) male rats acquired lever-pressing maintained by heroin using a fixed ratio one reinforcement schedule (0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg per infusion). Following 12 days of forced abstinence, rats were tested for heroin-seeking over 1 h by measuring the number of lever presses on the active lever. Unbiased stereology was then used to estimate the number of Fos-ir+ and Fos-ir− neurons in prelimbic and infralimbic mPFC. As before, adolescents and adults self-administered similar amounts of heroin, but subsequent heroin-seeking was attenuated in the younger rats. Similarly, the adolescent-onset group failed to show significant neural activation in the prelimbic or infralimbic mPFC during the heroin-seeking test, whereas the adult-onset heroin self-administration group showed two to six times more Fos-ir+ neurons than their saline counterparts in both mPFC subregions. Finally, the overall number of neurons in the infralimbic cortex was greater in rats from the adolescent-onset groups than adults. The mPFC may thus have a key role in some age-dependent effects of heroin self-administration. PMID:23072838

  13. Role of Acetylcholine Transmission in Nucleus Accumbens and Ventral Tegmental Area in Heroin-Seeking Induced by Conditioned Cues

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Huifen; Zhang, Fuqiang; Tang, Suien; Zhu, Huaqiang; Lai, Miaojun; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    The involvement of cholinergic transmission in heroin self-administration and the reinstatement of heroin-seeking was examined in rats trained to nose-poke for intravenous heroin. Systemic treatment with physostigmine, an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, modestly reduced the acquisition and rate of heroin self-administration, and this suppression of heroin intake was reversed by pretreatment with scopolamine but not by mecamylamine. Following 10–14 days of self-administration, rats were left in the home environment for 14 days. Subsequently, rats were evaluated for extinction of nose-pokes during the first hour after being returned to the self-administration apparatus. One hr later a conditioned stimulus (house light, light in the nose-poke hole, sound of the infusion pump) was presented to initiate cue-induced reinstatement. Physostigmine produced a dose-dependent inhibition of cue-induced reinstatement, but only the dose of 0.5 mg/kg significantly decreased nose-poke responding in the extinction test. Chronic treatment with physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) did not impair performance during acquisition of heroin self-administration. However, during a subsequent reinstatement test conducted in the absence of physostigmine pretreatment, heroin seeking was significantly below that of rats chronically pretreated with saline. To evaluate brain regions mediating the effects of systemic drug treatment on reinstatement, physostigmine was microinjected into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) or ventral tegmental area (VTA). Microinjection of physostigmine into the NAc prior to presenting conditioned cues inhibited the reinstatement of heroin-seeking, without affecting extinction responding. In contrast, microinjection of physostigmine into the VTA augmented the reinstatement induced by conditioned cues and extinction responding. Inactivation of either NAc or VTA by microinjecting tetrodotoxin blocked both extinction responding and cue-induced reinstatement. These data demonstrate

  14. Gender differences in recovery consequences among heroin dependent patients after compulsory treatment programs

    PubMed Central

    Haifeng, Jiang; Di, Liang; Jiang, Du; Haiming, Sun; Zhikang, Chen; Liming, Fu; Min, Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Studies on recovery patterns and how baseline factors influence recovery consequences among heroin dependent patients have shown mixed results. This study is aimed at describing the gender differences in long-term recovery patterns and exploring the predictors of negative recovery consequences by gender among heroin dependent patients in Shanghai, China. At baseline, this study recruited 503 heroin dependent patients discharged from Shanghai compulsory rehabilitation facilities in 2007 and 2008. In this cohort study, the baseline data was then linked with participants’ 5-year follow-up data from official records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to compare males with females in terms of the presence of negative consequences (incarceration, or readmission to compulsory treatment, or both), in the subsequent 5-years after their discharge from compulsory treatment. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression was used to explore factors associated to the time length of negative consequences in 5 years after the discharge for males and females separately. Our findings indicate that female heroin dependent patients tend to have less negative recovery outcomes than male patients. Male patients with a life-time history of poly drug use and female patients with borderline personality disorder are especially at risk of incarceration and readmission into compulsory treatment programs. PMID:26644283

  15. Qualitative, quantitative and temporal study of cutting agents for cocaine and heroin over 9 years.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Bonadio Pont, Federica; Garcia Gongora, Juan Manuel; Gasté, Laëtitia; Esseiva, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Forensic laboratories mainly focus on the qualification and the quantitation of the illicit drug under analysis as both aspects are used for judiciary purposes. Therefore, information related to cutting agents (adulterants and diluents) detected in illicit drugs is limited in the forensic literature. This article discusses the type and frequency of adulterants and diluents detected in more than 6000 cocaine specimens and 3000 heroin specimens, confiscated in western Switzerland from 2006 to 2014. The results show a homogeneous and quite unchanging adulteration for heroin, while for cocaine it could be characterised as heterogeneous and relatively dynamic. Furthermore, the results indicate that dilution affects more cocaine than heroin. Therefore, the results provided by this study tend to reveal differences between the respective structures of production or distribution of cocaine and heroin. This research seeks to promote the systematic analysis of cutting agents by forensic laboratories. Collecting and processing data related to the presence of cutting agents in illicit drug specimens produces relevant information to understand and to compare the structure of illicit drug markets. PMID:26448535

  16. Disciplining addictions: the bio-politics of methadone and heroin in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, P

    2000-06-01

    Biomedical understanding of methadone as a magic-bullet pharmacological block to the euphoric effects of heroin is inconsistent with epidemiological and clinical data. An ethnographic perspective on the ways street-based heroin addicts experience methadone reveals the quagmire of power relations that shape drug treatment in the United States. The phenomenon of the methadone clinic is an unhappy compromise between competing discourses: A criminalizing morality versus a medicalizing model of addiction-as-a-brain-disease. Treatment in this context becomes a hostile exercise in disciplining the unruly misuses of pleasure and in controlling economically unproductive bodies. Most of the biomedical and epidemiological research literature on methadone obscures these power dynamics by technocratically debating dosage titrations in a social vacuum. A foucaultian critique of the interplay between power and knowledge might dismiss debates over the Swiss experiments with heroin prescription as merely one more version of biopower disciplining unworthy bodies. Foucault's ill-defined concept of the specific intellectual as someone who confronts power relations on a practical technical level, however, suggests there can be a role for political as well as theoretical engagement with debates in the field of applied substance abuse treatment. Meanwhile, too many heroin addicts who are prescribed methadone in the United States suffer negative side effects that range from an accentuated craving for polydrug abuse to a paralyzing sense of impotence and physical and emotional discomfort. PMID:10885786

  17. From Heroes and Heroines to Hermaphrodites: Emasculation or Emancipation of School Leaders and Leadership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugrue, Ciaran

    2009-01-01

    In the fast paced, fluid contemporary world, and in a headlong rush to invent the future, there is a tendency to jettison aspects of the past as flotsam and jetsam, unworthy of a place in steerage into the future. This paper argues that is some respects the ordinary heroes and heroines who enact school leaderships, and from their practice…

  18. Characteristics of Mexican and Mexican American Adolescents in Treatment for “Cheese” Heroin Use

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robrina; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Adinoff, Bryon; Carmody, Thomas; Coton, Casey E.; Tirado, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    Clinical and cultural characteristics of Hispanic adolescent heroin users are not well described. The current exploratory study was conducted to describe a sample of in-treatment Hispanic adolescents with opioid dependence, specifically, cheese heroin. Mexican and Mexican American adolescents with heroin dependence (N = 72) in three treatment programs were interviewed and completed self-report measures. Participants reported, on average, first using cheese heroin at 13.5 years old and daily use at age 14.2. The majority (74%) reported a previous overdose. Adolescents being raised by caregivers other than both biological parents, who used drugs with relatives, and whose immediate family members have documentation to be in the U.S. fared worse on several indicators of drug use severity and other risky behaviors. The self-reported brief time period from first use to daily use strongly suggests the need for early prevention efforts. Additional research is needed to add to these preliminary results and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25176119

  19. Linkage to Care for Suburban Heroin Users with Hepatitis C Virus Infection, New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Akyar, Eda; Seneca, Kathleen H; Akyar, Serra; Schofield, Neal; Schwartz, Mark P; Nahass, Ronald G

    2016-05-01

    We identified a 41.4% prevalence of hepatitis C virus, absence of HIV, and unexpectedly high frequency of hepatitis C virus genotype 3 among suburban New Jersey heroin users 17-35 years of age during 2014-2015. Despite 2 clinicians prepared to engage these users, few were successfully linked to care and treated. PMID:27089172

  20. Chronic CRF1 receptor blockade reduces heroin intake escalation and dependence-induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Park, Paula E; Schlosburg, Joel E; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schulteis, Gery; Edwards, Scott; Koob, George F

    2015-03-01

    Opioids represent effective drugs for the relief of pain, yet chronic opioid use often leads to a state of increased sensitivity to pain that is exacerbated during withdrawal. A sensitization of pain-related negative affect has been hypothesized to closely interact with addiction mechanisms. Neuro-adaptive changes occur as a consequence of excessive opioid exposure, including a recruitment of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE) brain stress systems. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the transition to dependence, we determined the effects of functional antagonism within these two systems on hyperalgesia-like behavior during heroin withdrawal utilizing models of both acute and chronic dependence. We found that passive or self-administered heroin produced a significant mechanical hypersensitivity. During acute opioid dependence, systemic administration of the CRF1 receptor antagonist MPZP (20 mg/kg) alleviated withdrawal-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. In contrast, several functional adrenergic system antagonists (clonidine, prazosin, propranolol) failed to alter mechanical hypersensitivity in this state. We then determined the effects of chronic MPZP or clonidine treatment on extended access heroin self-administration and found that MPZP, but not clonidine, attenuated escalation of heroin intake, whereas both drugs alleviated chronic dependence-associated hyperalgesia. These findings suggest that an early potentiation of CRF signaling occurs following opioid exposure that begins to drive both opioid-induced hyperalgesia and eventually intake escalation. PMID:24330252

  1. Using a Group Approach to Preventing Heroin Overdose in North London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Peter; Glover, Chris; Allan, Teresa; Khoo, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Aims: This study used group psycho-education methods to assist injecting heroin users in preventing, and responding to overdose. Methods: An "OD Prevention" group was advertised in a London prescribing service and associated primary care unit. The intervention took place in a small group over one afternoon (3.5 hours), and trained participants in…

  2. Linkage to Care for Suburban Heroin Users with Hepatitis C Virus Infection, New Jersey, USA

    PubMed Central

    Seneca, Kathleen H.; Akyar, Serra; Schofield, Neal; Schwartz, Mark P.; Nahass, Ronald G.

    2016-01-01

    We identified a 41.4% prevalence of hepatitis C virus, absence of HIV, and unexpectedly high frequency of hepatitis C virus genotype 3 among suburban New Jersey heroin users 17–35 years of age during 2014–2015. Despite 2 clinicians prepared to engage these users, few were successfully linked to care and treated. PMID:27089172

  3. Anthrax among heroin users in Europe possibly caused by same Bacillus anthracis strain since 2000.

    PubMed

    Grunow, R; Klee, S R; Beyer, W; George, M; Grunow, D; Barduhn, A; Klar, S; Jacob, D; Elschner, M; Sandven, P; Kjerulf, A; Jensen, J S; Cai, W; Zimmermann, R; Schaade, L

    2013-01-01

    Injection anthrax was described first in 2000 in a heroin-injecting drug user in Norway. New anthrax cases among heroin consumers were detected in the United Kingdom (52 cases) and Germany (3 cases) in 2009-10. In June 2012, a fatal case occurred in Regensburg, Bavaria. As of December 2012, 13 cases had been reported in this new outbreak from Germany, Denmark, France and the United Kingdom. We analysed isolates from 2009-10 and 2012 as well as from the first injection anthrax case in Norway in 2000 by comparative molecular typing using a high resolution 31 marker multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and a broad single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. Our results show that all cases may be traced back to the same outbreak strain. They also indicate the probability of a single source contaminating heroin and that the outbreak could have lasted for at least a decade. However, an additional serological pilot study in two German regions conducted in 2011 failed to discover additional anthrax cases among 288 heroin users. PMID:23557972

  4. Marathon Groups. Facilitating the Personal Growth of Imprisoned, Black Female Heroin Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Kubiak, Larry

    1978-01-01

    Apparent success of the marathon groups in altering the perceptions of Black female heroin addicts toward the future, counseling, and themselves offers preliminary evidence that marathons may have potential as a counseling strategy with these clients. Future research needs to be performed to substantiate or reject these findings. (Author/PD)

  5. Utilization of Heroin Information by Adolescent Girls in Australia: A Cognitive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study of a small group of girls in Australia that investigated how older adolescents cognitively utilize information on heroin. The study sought to establish the perceived effects of exposures to information and to establish how the perceived effects are associated with changes to the girls' knowledge structures. (Author/LRW)

  6. Development and Initial Examination of a Brief Intervention for Heightened Anxiety Sensitivity among Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tull, Matthew T.; Schulzinger, David; Schmidt, Norman B.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS) recently has been identified as a potential cognitive vulnerability underlying substance use problems, with some evidence specifically indicating its relevance to heroin. Focusing on the potential utility of interventions centered on increasing willingness to have anxiety-related sensations reduce vulnerability for relapse…

  7. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  8. Street "Doctory" among a Group of Heroin Addicts in India: Naturalistic Peer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhand, Amar

    2009-01-01

    Street "doctory" is a form of peer-based medical care performed in street settings among a group of heroin addicts in Yamuna Bazaar, New Delhi. Using participant observation and semi-structured interviews, this study describes three components of the practice, and suggests that each contained peer learning processes. First, participants conducted…

  9. The Practice of Poetry among a Group of Heroin Addicts in India: Naturalistic Peer Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhand, Amar

    2006-01-01

    As part of an ongoing ethnographic study, this paper aims to consider the practice of poetry, "sher-o-shayari", as naturalistic peer learning among a group of heroin addicts in Yamuna Bazaar, New Delhi. By examining meanings given to "sher-o-shayari" and experiences of participating in the practice, this article makes the claim that the practice…

  10. Heroin Abuse and Collective Identity: Correlates and Consequences of Geographical Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furst, R. Terry; Balletto, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Ethnographic and qualitative research were utilized to examine how the effects of geographic place can be related to heroin abuse and collective identity in non-metropolitan areas (NMAs) in the mid-Hudson region of New York State, U.S. The socio-geographic consequences of this interrelationship are explored. In-depth interviews were conducted with…

  11. Randomized Trial of Prize-Based Reinforcement Density for Simultaneous Abstinence from Cocaine and Heroin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of reinforcer density in prize-based abstinence reinforcement, heroin/cocaine users (N = 116) in methadone maintenance (100 mg/day) were randomly assigned to a noncontingent control group (NonC) or to 1 of 3 groups that earned prize draws for abstinence: manual drawing with standard prize density (MS) or computerized drawing…

  12. Reward devaluation and heroin escalation is associated with differential expression of CRF signaling genes.

    PubMed

    McFalls, Ashley J; Imperio, Caesar G; Bixler, Georgina; Freeman, Willard M; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Vrana, Kent E

    2016-05-01

    One of the most damaging aspects of drug addiction is the degree to which natural rewards (family, friends, employment) are devalued in favor of seeking, obtaining and taking drugs. We have utilized an animal model of reward devaluation and heroin self-administration to explore the role of the coricotropin releasing factor (CRF) pathway. Given access to a saccharin cue followed by the opportunity to self-administer heroin, animals will parse into distinct phenotypes that suppress their saccharin intake (in favor of escalating heroin self-administration) or vice versa. We find that large saccharin suppressors (large heroin takers) demonstrate increased mRNA expression for elements of the CRF signaling pathway (CRF, CRF receptors and CRF binding protein) within the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral tegmental area. Moreover, there were no gene expression changes of these components in the nucleus accumbens. Use of bisulfite conversion sequencing suggests that changes in CRF binding protein and CRF receptor gene expression may be mediated by differential promoter methylation. PMID:26655889

  13. Heroin Addiction and Methadone Treatment in America: Using Our Heads in the Search for Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basham, Richard

    1977-01-01

    An examination of America's attempts to cope with the problem of heroin (and other drug) addiction must proceed through an analysis of the basic responses to the problem--penal, behavioral and medical--from two quite different, and frequently conflicting, vantage points: that of the individual addict and that of the society as a whole. (Author/NQ)

  14. Cinderella vs Statistics: The Silent Movie Heroine as a Jazz Age Working Girl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higashi, Sumiko

    The portrayal of the working girl in the silent films of the 1920s ignored the fact that in reality women worked to help support their families, to be financially independent, or to supplement their family's income. A study of movie heroines from that era reveals that these characterizations reinforce the image of the traditionally dependent woman…

  15. [Influence of inhaler and fine particle on efficacy of inhalation therapy in COPD].

    PubMed

    Sliwiński, Paweł; Chazan, Ryszarda; Dąbrowiecki, Piotr; Jahnz-Różyk, Karina; Mróz, Robert; Pirożyński, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Orally inhaled products delivered via inhalation exert their effect directly to the target organ. This allows to administer a very low dose of a drug compared with an oral route with similar clinical effect and significantly reduced toxicity. However inhalation therapy is also limited by several factors. Delivery of the desired dose of the drug to the airways depends on a type of the inhaler - pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) or dry powder inhaler (DPI), inhaler characteristics (low or high internal resistance, diameter of particles and distribution of the generated aerosol fine particles), thermal conditions of air, and ability of patient to generate sufficient inspiratory flow (for DPI) or to coordinate actuation with inhalation (for pMDI). Unlike pMDIs, DPIs are breath- -actuated, hence avoiding the need for the patient to coordinate actuation with inspiration. Furthermore, DPIs are propellant-free and do not produce the cold sensation on inhalation. Currently available DPIs vary widely in design, operating characteristics and performance. And poor inhalation technique may compromise treatment efficacy. Hence, there is a clear need for a careful selection of DPIs for different patient groups, including children, elderly patients and those with severe airway obstruction. PMID:24793155

  16. Correlates of syringe coverage for heroin injection in 35 large metropolitan areas in the US in which heroin is the dominant injected drug

    PubMed Central

    Tempalski, Barbara; Cooper, Hannah L.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Brady, Joanne; Gostnell, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Background Scientific consensus holds that if, at the outset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, injection drug users (IDUs) had had better access to sterile syringes, much of the epidemic among IDUs in the U.S. could have been prevented. In the context of preventing infectious diseases, 100% syringe coverage—that is, one sterile syringe per injector for each injection—is a public health goal. Notably, we know little about variations in syringe coverage within the U.S. and elsewhere, or about the social and political factors that might determine this coverage. Methods Using data from Holmberg (AJPH, 1996), the 1990 United States Census, the 2000 Beth Israel National Syringe Exchange Survey (n=72), and estimates of IDUs in metropolitan areas (MSAs); (Friedman et al., 2004), we explore the impact of (1) political factors (ACT UP, outreach, early syringe exchange programme (SEP) presence, men who have sex with men (MSM) per capita, drug arrests, and police per capita); (2) local resources for SEPs; and (3) indicators of socioeconomic inequality on SEP coverage. We define “syringe coverage” as the ratio of syringes distributed at SEPs to the number of syringes heroin injectors need in a year. We calculated the number of syringes heroin injectors need in a year by multiplying an estimate of the number of IDUs in each MSA by an estimate of the average number of times heroin injectors inject heroin per year (2.8 times per day times 365 days). In this analysis, the sample was limited to 35 MSAs in which the primary drug of choice among injectors was heroin. Results SEP coverage varies greatly across MSAs, with an average of 3 syringes distributed per 100 injection events (std dev = 0.045; range: 2 syringes per 10 injection events, to 3 syringes per 10,000 injection events). In bivariate regression analyses, a 1 unit difference in the proportion of the population that was MSM per 1,000 was associated with a difference of 0.002 in SEP coverage (p=0.052); early SEP presence was

  17. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  18. Dysregulated responses to emotions among abstinent heroin users: correlation with childhood neglect and addiction severity.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Somaini, L; Manfredini, M; Raggi, M A; Saracino, M A; Amore, M; Leonardi, C; Cortese, E; Donnini, C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the subjective responses of abstinent heroin users to both neutral and negative stimuli and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal reactions to emotional experience in relationship to their perception of childhood adverse experiences. Thirty male abstinent heroin dependents were included in the study. Emotional responses and childhood neglect perception were measured utilizing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-1 and the Child Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Neutral and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System and the Self-Assessment Manikin procedure have been used to determine ratings of pleasure and arousal. These ratings were compared with normative values obtained from healthy volunteers used as control. Blood samples were collected before and after the experimental sessions to determine both adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol plasma levels. Basal anxiety scores, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were higher in abstinent heroin users than in controls. Tests showed that anxiety scores did not change in controls after the vision of neutral slides, whilst they did in abstinent heroin addicts, increasing significantly; and increased less significantly after the unpleasant task, in comparison to controls. Abstinent heroin users showed significantly higher levels of parent antipathy and childhood emotional neglect perception than controls for both the father and the mother. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels did not significantly increase after unpleasant slide set viewing among addicted individuals, because of the significantly higher basal levels characterizing the addicted subjects in comparison with controls. Multiple regression correlation showed a significant relationship between childhood neglect perception, arousal reaction, impaired hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response and addiction severity. Early adverse experiences

  19. Changes in dopamine transporter binding in nucleus accumbens following chronic self-administration cocaine: heroin combinations.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Lindsey P; McIntosh, Scot; Sexton, Tammy; Childers, Steven R; Hemby, Scott E

    2014-10-01

    Concurrent use of cocaine and heroin (speedball) has been shown to exert synergistic effects on dopamine neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), as observed by significant increases in extracellular dopamine levels and compensatory elevations in the maximal reuptake rate of dopamine. The present studies were undertaken to determine whether chronic self-administration of cocaine, heroin or a combination of cocaine:heroin led to compensatory changes in the abundance and/or affinity of high- and low-affinity DAT binding sites. Saturation binding of the cocaine analog [(125) I] 3β-(4-iodophenyl)tropan-2β-carboxylic acid methyl ester ([(125) I]RTI-55) in rat NAc membranes resulted in binding curves that were best fit to two-site binding models, allowing calculation of dissociation constant (Kd ) and binding density (Bmax ) values corresponding to high- and low-affinity DAT binding sites. Scatchard analysis of the saturation binding curves clearly demonstrate the presence of high- and low- affinity binding sites in the NAc, with low-affinity sites comprising 85 to 94% of the binding sites. DAT binding analyses revealed that self-administration of cocaine and a cocaine:heroin combination increased the affinity of the low-affinity site for the cocaine congener RTI-55 compared to saline. These results indicate that the alterations observed following chronic speedball self-administration are likely due to the cocaine component alone; thus further studies are necessary to elaborate upon the synergistic effect of cocaine:heroin combinations on the dopamine system in the NAc. PMID:24916769

  20. Pain is Associated with Heroin Use over Time in HIV-Infected Russian Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Judith I.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon M.; Blokhina, Elena; Bridden, Carly; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study evaluated whether pain was associated with increased risk of using heroin, stimulants or cannabis among HIV-infected drinkers in Russia. Design Secondary analysis of longitudinal data from the HERMITAGE study, a behavioral randomized controlled trial, with data collected at baseline, 6 month and 12 month visits. Setting Recruitment occurred at HIV and addiction treatment sites in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. Participants Six-hundred and ninety-nine HIV-infected adult drinkers. Measurements The primary outcome was past month illicit drug use; secondary outcomes examined each drug (heroin, stimulants and cannabis) separately. The main predictor was pain that at least moderately interfered with daily living. General estimating equations (GEE) logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between pain and subsequent illicit drug use adjusting for potential confounders. Findings Participants reporting pain appeared to have higher odds of using illicit drugs, although the results did not reach statistical significance (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]=1.32; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.76, p=0.06). There was a significant association between pain and heroin use (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.15, p=0.01) but not other drugs (OR=0.75; 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.40, p=0.35 for stimulants and OR=0.70; 95% CI: 0.45 to 1.07, p=0.09 for cannabis). Conclusions HIV-infected Russian drinkers who reported pain were more likely to use heroin over time. Pain may be an unrecognized risk factor for persistent heroin use with implications for HIV transmission in Russia. PMID:23773361

  1. Possible mechanism for inhibition of morphine formation from 6-acetylmorphine after intake of street heroin.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Maria; Björkhem-Bergman, Linda; Beck, Olof

    2015-07-01

    Heroin is de-acetylated in the body to morphine in two steps. The intermediate 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) is formed rapidly and is considered important for the pharmacological effect of heroin. In urine drug testing, an atypical pattern of morphine and 6-AM is known to occur in low frequency. The aim of this study was to investigate this atypical pattern in more detail and to identify responsible substances for a possible inhibition of the conversion from 6-AM to morphine. Urine samples were selected from a routine flow of samples sent for drug testing. Out of 695 samples containing morphine and 6-acetylmorphine, 11.5% had the atypical pattern of a 6-AM to morphine ratio above 0.26 as derived from a bimodal frequency distribution. An in vitro study of the conversion of 6-acetylmorphine to morphine in human liver homogenates demonstrated that a number of known carboxylesterase inhibitors were able to inhibit the reaction mimicking the situation in vivo. Compound 3 (3,6-Dimethoxy-4-acetoxy-5-[2-(N-methylacetamido)ethyl]phenanthrene) a substance formed from thebaine during the production of heroin was found to be a strong inhibitor. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to identify possible inhibitors present in vivo. This part of the investigation demonstrated that several components may contribute to the effect. It is concluded that inhibition of liver carboxylesterase activity is a possible mechanism causing the atypical pattern and that one candidate compound is the result of the heroin production process. An inhibition of 6-AM metabolism is likely to increase the pharmacological effect of heroin and may be related to a higher risk of lethal toxicity. PMID:26002801

  2. Heroin Use and Injection Risk Behaviors in Colombia: Implications for HIV/AIDS Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Mateu-Gelabert, Pedro; Harris, Shana; Berbesi, Dedsy; Segura Cardona, Ángela María; Montoya Vélez, Liliana Patricia; Mejía Motta, Inés Elvira; Jessell, Lauren; Guarino, Honoria; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Heroin production in Colombia has increased dramatically in recent decades, and some studies point to an increase in local heroin use since the mid-1990s. Despite this rapid increase, little is known about the effects of these activities on heroin injection within Colombia. One of the biggest concerns surrounding heroin injection is the potential spread of HIV through drug user networks. Objectives This article examines injection risk behaviors among heroin injectors in the Colombian cities of Medellín and Pereira to explore the implications for possible increased HIV transmission within this group. Methods A cross-sectional study used respondent-driving sampling to recruit a sample of 540 people who inject drugs (PWID) over 18 years of age (Medellín: n = 242, Pereira: n = 298). Structured interviews with each participant were conducted using the World Health Organization Drug Injection Study Phase II Survey. An HIV test was also administered. Results Information regarding the socio-demographics, injection drug use, HIV risk and transmission behaviors, injection risk management, and HIV knowledge and prevalence of participants are reported. The study identified many young, newly initiated injectors who engage in risky injection practices. The study also found that HIV prevalence is fairly low among participants (2.7%). Conclusions/Importance Findings indicate a potential risk for the spread of HIV among PWID in Colombia given their widespread sharing practices, high rate of new injector initiation, and unsafe syringe cleaning practices. Colombia has a possibly time-limited opportunity to prevent an HIV epidemic by implementing harm reduction interventions among young, newly initiated PWID. PMID:26800352

  3. Heroin addiction in African Americans: a hypothesis-driven association study.

    PubMed

    Levran, O; Londono, D; O'Hara, K; Randesi, M; Rotrosen, J; Casadonte, P; Linzy, S; Ott, J; Adelson, M; Kreek, M J

    2009-07-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify gene variants associated with heroin addiction in African Americans. The emphasis was on genes involved in reward modulation, behavioral control, cognitive function, signal transduction and stress response. We have performed a case-control association analysis by screening with 1350 variants of 130 genes. The sample consisted of 202 former severe heroin addicts in methadone treatment and 167 healthy controls with no history of drug abuse. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), haplotype and multi-SNP genotype pattern analyses were performed. Seventeen SNPs showed point-wise significant association with heroin addiction (nominal P< 0.01). These SNPs are from genes encoding several receptors: adrenergic (ADRA1A), arginine vasopressin (AVPR1A), cholinergic (CHRM2), dopamine (DRD1), GABA-A (GABRB3), glutamate (GRIN2A) and serotonin (HTR3A) as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH7), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD1 and GAD2), the nucleoside transporter (SLC29A1) and diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). The most significant result of the analyses was obtained for the GRIN2A haplotype G-A-T (rs4587976-rs1071502-rs1366076) with protective effect (P(uncorrected) = 9.6E- 05, P(corrected) = 0.058). This study corroborates several reported associations with alcohol and drug addiction as well as other related disorders and extends the list of variants that may affect the development of heroin addiction. Further studies will be necessary to replicate these associations and to elucidate the roles of these variants in drug addiction vulnerability. PMID:19500151

  4. Inhalational exposure to nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Niven, Alexander S; Roop, Stuart A

    2004-03-01

    The respiratory system plays a major role in the pathogenesis of nerve agent toxicity. It is the major route of entry and absorption of nerve agent vapor, and respiratory failure is the most common cause of death follow-ing exposure. Respiratory symptoms are mediated by chemical irritation,muscarinic and nicotinic receptor overstimulation, and central nervous system effects. Recent attacks have demonstrated that most patients with an isolated vapor exposure developed respiratory symptoms almost immediately. Most patients had only mild and transient respiratory effects, and those that did develop significant respiratory compromise did so rapidly. These observations have significant ramifications on triage of patients in a mass-casualty situation, because patients with mild-to-moderate exposure to nerve agent vapor alone do not require decontamination and are less likely to develop progressive symptoms following initial antidote therapy. Limited data do not demonstrate significant long-term respiratory effects following nerve agent exposure and treatment. Provisions for effective respiratory protection against nerve agents is a vital consideration in any emergency preparedness or health care response plan against a chemical attack. PMID:15062227

  5. Vapor spill monitoring method

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, Gregory M.; McRae, Thomas G.

    1985-01-01

    Method for continuous sampling of liquified natural gas effluent from a spill pipe, vaporizing the cold liquified natural gas, and feeding the vaporized gas into an infrared detector to measure the gas composition. The apparatus utilizes a probe having an inner channel for receiving samples of liquified natural gas and a surrounding water jacket through which warm water is flowed to flash vaporize the liquified natural gas.

  6. Activation of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor suppresses behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xian; Pang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Xu, Shengchun; Dong, Liuyi; Stackman, Robert W; Zhang, Gongliang

    2015-10-21

    Abuse and dependence to heroin has evolved into a global epidemic as a significant clinical and societal problem with devastating consequences. Repeated exposure to heroin can induce long-lasting behavioral sensitization and withdrawal. Pharmacological activation of 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) suppresses psychostimulant-induced drug-seeking and behavioral sensitization. The present study examined the effect of a selective 5-HT2CR agonist lorcaserin on behavioral sensitization and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. Male mice received heroin (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of heroin (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to examine the expression of behavioral sensitization. Lorcaserin administered during the development, withdrawal or expression stage suppressed heroin-induced behavioral sensitization on day 9. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of heroin over a 4.5-day period. Lorcaserin, or the positive control clonidine (an α2-adrenoceptor agonist) suppressed naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms in heroin-treated mice. These findings suggest that activation of 5-HT2CRs suppresses behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in heroin-treated mice. Thus, pharmacological activation of 5-HT2CRs may represent a new avenue for the treatment of heroin addiction. PMID:26375926

  7. Supplemental fuel vapor system

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, P.M.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes a supplemental fuel system utilizing fuel vapor. It comprises: an internal combustion engine including a carburetor and an intake manifold; a fuel tank provided with air vents; a fuel conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank and in communication with liquid fuel in the tank and a second end connected to the carburetor; the fuel conduit delivering the liquid fuel to the carburetor from the fuel tank; a fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel tank at a location displaced from contact with the liquid fuel and a second end connected to a carbon canister; a PCV conduit having a first end connected to a pollution control valve and a second end connected to the intake manifold; and, an intermediate fuel vapor conduit having a first end connected to the fuel vapor conduit and a second end connected to the PCV conduit; wherein the air vents continuously provide air to the tank to mix with the liquid fuel and form fuel vapor. The fuel vapor drawn from the fuel tank by vacuum developed in the intake manifold and flows through the fuel vapor conduit. The intermediate fuel vapor conduit and the intake manifold to combustion chambers of the internal combustion engine so as to supplement fuel delivered to the engine by the fuel conduit. The liquid fuel and the fuel vapor constantly delivered to the engine during normal operation.

  8. Clinical efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation capsules inhaled by Cyclohaler compared with Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler.

    PubMed

    Vink-van Wijngaarden, T; Blom-Ross, M E; Lansdorp, D; Goedhart, D M; Eelhart, J; Guelen, P J; de Vos, D

    1998-09-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation powder inhaled by Rotahaler (Becotide Rotacaps, Glaxo Wellcome) and by Cyclohaler (Beclomethasone Cyclocaps, Pharmachemie). Both the Cyclohaler and the Rotahaler are single-dose dry powder inhalation devices for inhalation capsules. 182 asthma patients stabilized on inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate 800 micrograms daily, were randomly assigned to treatment with 800 micrograms beclomethasone dipropionate inhaled by Rotahaler (91 patients) or Cyclohaler (91 patients) in a double-blind manner, using the double-dummy method. It was shown that the asthma remained stable during the 16-week study period with both preparations. There were no statistically significant differences in the pulmonary parameters (morning PEF, evening PEF, FEV1). The test/reference ratio of the morning PEF (99.5%, CI 93.0% - 106.5%) was well within the equivalence interval, which had been set a priori from 85% to 117.6%. There were no marked differences between the Cyclocaps and Rotacaps group in symptom scores and adverse events. A total of 12 patients had an asthma exacerbation: 8 exacerbations occurred in the Rotahaler group and 4 in the Cyclohaler group. The difference was not statistically significant. The use of rescue medication was somewhat higher in the Rotahaler group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Significantly more patients (17 patients) withdrew from the study in the Rotahaler group than in the Cyclohaler group (5 patients). In conclusion, there was no difference in asthma control of patients treated with Beclomethasone Cyclocaps inhaled by Cyclohaler and Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler. Both preparations are therapeutically equivalent. PMID:9760014

  9. Fetotoxic effects of exposure to the vapor of organic solvents from a synthetic adhesive in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Tachi, N.; Shimotori, S.; Naruse, N.; Itani, T.; Aoyama, M. ); Fujise, H.; Sonoki, S. )

    1994-09-01

    Synthetic adhesives are widely used in various industries as well as at home. Adhesives usually contain several organic solvents which easily vaporize. Exposure can cause aplastic anemia and polyneuropathy in adults. Chronic glue sniffing results in aplastic anemia, polyneuropathy, and muscular atrophy. Inhalation of the solvent contained in adhesives, such as n-hexane, toluene, xylene, and benzene by pregnant animals can decrease the number of live fetuses and retard fetal growth. In humans, the risk of spontaneous abortion is increased in workers exposed to organic solvents. However, information is still limited about the effects of exposure to organic solvents vaporized from adhesives on fetuses. In the present study, female mice were exposed throughout pregnancy to organic solvents vaporized from an adhesive to clarify the effects of the inhalation on progeny. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of solid-phase microextraction in detection of contraband drug vapors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzechowska, Grazyna E.; Poziomek, Edward J.; Tersol, Vangielynn; Homstead, Juliana

    1997-02-01

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has emerged as a rapid alternative to conventional sample extraction techniques. SPME can be used in solids, liquids, and sample headspace. Compounds are sorbed by a stationary phase coated on a fused silica fiber. The compounds are desorbed, and analyzed using gas chromatography (GC), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). As a part of the present work we have found that SPME can also be used conveniently with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). Cocaine and heroin vapors sorbed on a SPME fiber were detected using IMS. The use of SPME-GC or SPME-HPLC has been reported in analysis of urine samples containing cocaine and its metabolites. We are evaluating SPME-IMS, and SPME-GC systems for the detection of cocaine and heroin and their decomposition products in the headspace above surfaces. This is part of our research on the surface decomposition of contraband drugs for detection applications. This paper will give a variety of examples in the use of SPME in the detection of contraband drugs and their reaction/decomposition products in the vapor state. An example is the detection of cocaine in the headspace above cocaine HCl at room temperature.

  11. The Severity, Frequency, and Variety of Crime in Heroin-Dependent Prisoners Enrolled in a Buprenorphine Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Schwartz, Robert P.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Data were obtained on four dimensions of criminal activity (frequency, variety, severity, and income) from male and female prisoners (N = 200) with preincarceration heroin dependence who participated in a randomized clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment. The article examines the above-mentioned dimensions of crime and their relationships with demographic characteristics, substance use, legitimate employment, drug treatment episodes, and psychological problems. Results largely show several important similarities to results on previous prison inmate cohorts with histories of heroin addiction, although the present sample may have more of a tendency toward violent crime than earlier cohorts of heroin-dependent offenders. This study’s findings may have implications for the design of appropriate treatment interventions for prisoners with preincarceration heroin dependence that address not only substance use but also criminal activity. PMID:25392564

  12. Precocious transitions and long-term heroin use outcomes: A longitudinal study of gang-affiliated Mexican-American males.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Alice; Nowotny, Kathryn M; Frankeberger, Jessica; Valdez, Avelardo

    2016-09-01

    A longitudinal study (15years) investigates heroin use patterns following precocious transition experiences for gang-affiliated Mexican-American males (n=119) in San Antonio, Texas. Five precocious transitions are examined: cohabitation, early nest leaving, school dropout, teenage parenthood, and unemployment (while not in school). Half of these men used heroin over the follow-up period for an average of under 4years. Findings from a zero-inflated Poisson model indicate that while these transitions do not have a significant effect on initiation of heroin use, they do have an important influence on individual's drug trajectories once they have initiated. Early-nest leaving and teenage parenthood are protective factors for continued heroin use while dropping out of high school and cohabiting during this same period are risk factors. Findings are discussed within the context of these disadvantaged and marginalized communities. PMID:27092995

  13. Lessons for Control of Heroin-Associated Anthrax in Europe from 2009–2010 Outbreak Case Studies, London, UK

    PubMed Central

    Abbara, Aula; Brooks, Tim; Taylor, Graham P.; Nolan, Marianne; Donaldson, Hugo; Manikon, Maribel

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of serious infections associated with heroin use in persons who inject drugs (PWIDs) occur intermittently and require vigilance and rapid reporting of individual cases. Here, we give a firsthand account of the cases in London during an outbreak of heroin-associated anthrax during 2009–2010 in the United Kingdom. This new manifestation of anthrax has resulted in a clinical manifestation distinct from already recognized forms. During 2012–13, additional cases of heroin-associated anthrax among PWIDs in England and other European countries were reported, suggesting that anthrax-contaminated heroin remains in circulation. Antibacterial drugs used for serious soft tissue infection are effective against anthrax, which may lead to substantial underrecognition of this novel illness. The outbreak in London provides a strong case for ongoing vigilance and the use of serologic testing in diagnosis and serologic surveillance schemes to determine and monitor the prevalence of anthrax exposure in the PWID community. PMID:24959910

  14. INTERSPECIES MODELING OF INHALED PARTICLE DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the potential toxic effects of ambient contaminants or therapeutic effects of airborne drugs, inhalation exposure experiments can be performed with surrogate laboratory animals. erein, an interspecies particle deposition theory is presented for physiologically based p...

  15. Nitrous Oxide and the Inhalation Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably, but it may be combined with other inhalation and/or intravenous agents in deep sedative/general anesthestic techniques. However, as a single agent, it has impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive dental patients. To gain a full appreciation of the pharmacology, physiologic influences, and proper use of nitrous oxide, one must compare it with other inhalation anesthetics. The purpose of this CE article is to provide an overview of inhalation anesthetics in general and to address nitrous oxide more specifically in comparison. PMID:19108597

  16. REGIONAL DEPOSITION OF INHALED REACTIVE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical concept in inhalation toxicology involves the determination of dose as the first component for providing a perspective to judge the applicability of various toxicological results to human exposure conditions. Available experimental data for reactive gases were reviewed...

  17. Inhaled insulin: too soon to be forgotten?

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Papanas, Nikolaos; Kouliatsis, Georgios; Spyratos, Dionysis; Zarogoulidis, Kostas; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2011-10-01

    Inhalation is a potentially viable route of administration for numerous agents. In diabetes mellitus, the need for frequent injections to achieve ideal glycemic control remains a significant limitation for initiating and complying with insulin therapy in a large number of patients. To overcome this barrier, inhaled insulin was developed. The inhalation form of regular human insulin has been tested and administered in a large number of trials. Respiratory capacity was evaluated in patients with normal lung parenchyma in whom inhaled insulin was administered without complications. However, issues like cost, bulky device, fear for lung safety, and the small number of studies in subjects with underlying respiratory disease prevented widespread use of this new mode of delivery. In the present review, we will suggest a number of methods that could be applied in this form of administration to maximize drug absorption and fully exploit the advantages of this route of administration. PMID:21689020

  18. Team research methods for studying intranasal heroin use and its HIV risks.

    PubMed

    Ouellet, L J; Wiebel, W W; Jimenez, A D

    1995-01-01

    qualitative methods were combined to a degree uncommon in social science research. While many of these research groups have since disbanded, COIP was fortunate enough to remain in operation. The authors have described how they assembled a field research team composed of COIP members that combined ethnographers with selected indigenous staff to address a particular problem--new heroin use and its implications for HIV/AIDS. The goals the researchers set for the study would have been impossible for a single ethnographer or for a survey research team acting alone: to discern potential trends in new heroin use (though researchers were limited to studying mostly poor people); to develop fairly deep understandings regarding the study's central concerns (e.g., factors likely to influence the decision to inject heroin); and to quickly and economically collect data that were useful and valid. The authors note that all members of the research team had a host of other responsibilities; thus, this study was conducted as a sort of side job, that is, researchers had to fit it in when time and circumstances allowed. Altogether, the team field research method as applied to new heroin use in Chicago has enabled the research team to quickly and economically generate data that can be used to inform public policy on this issue (Ouellet et al. 1993; Ouellet et al., submitted). The authors believe that they can make a reasonably strong case for the following: New heroin use deserves greater study--the prevalence and incidence of use are probably sufficient to form a new cohort of potentially longtime users. New users are most likely to be found where major heroin street drug markets operate. Among youth there is a need for education about heroin--current users often report being surprised by heroin's addictiveness. Intranasal use is the predominant form of heroin administration among young, new users, and there is strong peer pressure against injection. Experimentation with injection, how PMID

  19. Predictors of Continued Use of Extended-Released Naltrexone (XR-NTX) for Opioid-Dependence: An Analysis of Heroin and Non-Heroin Opioid Users in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Sarah J; Radfar, Seyed Ramin; Crèvecoeur-MacPhail, Desirée; Ang, Alfonso; Darfler, Kendall; Rawson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is associated with an increased number of opioid-free days, improved adherence rates in substance use disorder treatment programs, and reduced cravings and drug-seeking behaviors. There is little evidence on the predictive associations between baseline characteristics of opioid-dependent patients and XR-NTX utilization. Some studies have demonstrated better pharmacotherapy adherence and/or retention rates among non-heroin opioid users compared to heroin users. This study examines predictive associations between characteristics of patients and XR-NTX utilization, as well as participants' urge to use opiates. Our findings suggest that XR-NTX may contribute to decreases in urges to use among both heroin and non-heroin opioid users. Non-heroin opioid users and heroin users were retained in XR-NTX treatment for comparable periods of time. However, those who identified as homeless, injected opioids (regardless of opioid-type), or were diagnosed with a mental illness were less likely to be retained in treatment with XR-NTX. PMID:26823295

  20. Urban segregation and the US heroin market: A quantitative model of anthropological hypotheses from an inner-city drug market

    PubMed Central

    Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Bourgois, Philippe; Mars, Sarah; Karandinos, George; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesize that the location of highly segregated Hispanic and in particular Puerto Rican neighborhoods can explain how Colombian-sourced heroin, which is associated with a large-scale decade long decline in heroin price and increase in purity, was able to enter and proliferate in the US. Methods Our multidisciplinary analysis quantitatively operationalizes participant-observation ethnographic hypotheses informed by social science theory addressing complex political economic, historical, cultural and social processes. First, we ethnographically document the intersection of structural forces shaping Philadelphia's hypersegregated Puerto Rican community as a regional epicenter of the US heroin market. Second, we estimate the relationship between segregation and: a) the entry of Colombian heroin into the US, and b) the retail price per pure gram of heroin in 21 Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Results Ethnographic evidence documents how poverty, historically-patterned antagonistic race relations, an interstitial socio-cultural political and geographic linkage to both Caribbean drug trafficking routes and the United States and kinship solidarities combine to position poor Puerto Rican neighborhoods as commercial distribution centers for high quality, low cost Colombian heroin. Quantitative analysis shows that heroin markets in cities with highly segregated Puerto Rican communities were more quickly saturated with Colombian-sourced heroin. The level of Hispanic segregation (specifically in cities with a high level of Puerto Rican segregation) had a significant negative association with heroin price from 1990–2000. By contrast, there is no correlation between African-American segregation and Colombian-sourced heroin prevalence or price. Discussion Our iterative mixed methods dialogue allows for the development and testing of complex social science hypotheses and reduces the limitations specific to each method used in isolation. We build on prior research

  1. Vapor Pressure of Hexamethylene Triperoxide Diamine (HMTD) Estimated Using Secondary Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aernecke, Matthew J; Mendum, Ted; Geurtsen, Geoff; Ostrinskaya, Alla; Kunz, Roderick R

    2015-11-25

    A rapid method for vapor pressure measurement was developed and used to derive the vapor pressure curve of the thermally labile peroxide-based explosive hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) over the temperature range from 28 to 80 °C. This method uses a controlled flow of vapor from a solid-phase HMTD source that is presented to an ambient-pressure-ionization mass spectrometer equipped with a secondary-electrospray-ionization (SESI) source. The subpart-per-trillion sensitivity of this system enables direct detection of HMTD vapor through an intact [M + H](+) ion in real time at temperatures near 20 °C. By calibrating this method using vapor sources of cocaine and heroin, which have known pressure-temperature (P-T) curves, the temperature dependence of HMTD vapor was determined, and a Clausius-Clapeyron plot of ln[P (Pa)] vs 1/[T (K)] yielded a straight line with the expression ln[P (Pa)] = {(-11091 ± 356) × 1/[T (K)]} + 25 ± 1 (error limits are the standard error of the regression analysis). From this equation, the sublimation enthalpy of HMTD was estimated to be 92 ± 3 kJ/mol, which compares well with the theoretical estimate of 95 kJ/mol, and the vapor pressure at 20 °C was estimated to be ∼60 parts per trillion by volume, which is within a factor of 2 of previous theoretical estimates. Thus, this method provides not only the first direct experimental determination of HMTD vapor pressure but also a rapid, near-real-time capability to quantitatively measure low-vapor-pressure compounds, which will be useful for aiding in the development of training aids for bomb-sniffing canines. PMID:26505487

  2. Animal models of smoke inhalation induced injuries.

    PubMed

    David, Poon; Dunsford, Denny; Lu, Jia; Moochhala, Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury is the leading cause of mortality from structural fires, as a result of complications such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can be caused by a localized or systemic response. In this review, the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation injury, along with the characteristics found in clinical settings, common animal models, current treatment methods and future potential therapeutics are discussed. PMID:19273376

  3. Amorphous powders for inhalation drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-05-01

    For inhalation drug delivery, amorphous powder formulations offer the benefits of increased bioavailability for poorly soluble drugs, improved biochemical stability for biologics, and expanded options of using various drugs and their combinations. However, amorphous formulations usually have poor physicochemical stability. This review focuses on inhalable amorphous powders, including the production methods, the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the excipients with a highlight on stabilization of the particles. PMID:26780404

  4. Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use in Childhood and Early Adolescence Predicts Transitions to Heroin Use in Young Adulthood: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Santaella, Julián; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kim, June H.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between nonmedical use of prescription opioids and heroin initiation from childhood to young adulthood, and to test whether certain ages, racial/ethnic, and income groups were at higher risk for this transition. Study design Among a nationally representative sample of US adolescents assessed in the 2004-2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health cross-sectional surveys (n = 223 534 respondents aged 12-21 years), discrete-time hazard models were used to estimate the age-specific hazards of heroin initiation associated with prior history of nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Interactions were estimated between prior history of nonmedical use of prescription opioids and age of nonmedical use of prescription opioid initiation, race/ethnicity, and income. Results A prior history of nonmedical use of prescription opioids was strongly associated with heroin initiation (hazard ratio 13.12, 95% CI 10.73, 16.04). Those initiating nonmedical use of prescription opioids at ages 10-12 years had the highest risk of transitioning to heroin use; the association did not vary by race/ethnicity or income group. Conclusions Prior use of nonmedical use of prescription opioids is a strong predictor of heroin use onset in adolescence and young adulthood, regardless of the user's race/ethnicity or income group. Primary prevention of nonmedical use of prescription opioids in late childhood may prevent the onset of more severe types of drug use such as heroin at later ages. Moreover, because the peak period of heroin initiation occurs at ages 17-18 years, secondary efforts to prevent heroin use may be most effective if they focus on young adolescents who already initiated nonmedical use of prescription opioids. PMID:26054942

  5. Racial and Ethnic Changes in Heroin Injection in the United States: Implications for the HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet, Lawrence J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Racial/ethnic differences in drug injection prevalence contribute to disparities in HIV infection rates in the U.S. between Whites, Blacks and Hispanics. We examine trends in the demographic characteristics of heroin injection drug users (IDUs) that may impact future HIV rates. Methods Descriptive analyses were conducted of 1) the national Treatment Episode Data Set for 1992−2004 and of the 2002−2004 baseline data from 2) CIDUS-III, a 5-city study that recruited 3,285 young IDUs, and 3) NIHU-HIT, a Chicago study of 647 young noninjecting heroin users. Results Between 1992 and 2004, heroin was the injected drug most often reported at admission to drug treatment. During this period, the proportion of admissions reporting injection declined 44% among Blacks but only 14% for Whites. The peak age for heroin IDUs in treatment increased 10 years for Blacks while declining over 10 years for Whites. CIDUS-III enrolled about 8 times more White (64%) than Black (8%) young IDUs despite recruiting two-thirds of the sample in cities where Blacks constituted 27%−64% of the population. Blacks comprised 53% of noninjecting heroin users in the Chicago NIHU-HIT, but only 2% of Chicago's CIDUS-III sample of heroin IDUs. Among noninjecting heroin users, Whites were more likely than Blacks to have ever injected (X2d.f.=1=17.1, p<0.001). Qualitative data supported greater resistance to injection among young Blacks than Whites. Conclusions Among heroin users, young Blacks are resisting injection initiation while young Whites exhibit the opposite tendency. New research should investigate reasons for this trend and its impact on the HIV epidemic and future service needs. PMID:18242879

  6. Mass-transport models to predict toxicity of inhaled gases in the upper respiratory tract

    SciTech Connect

    Hubal, E.A.C.; Fedkiw, P.S.; Kimbell, J.S.

    1996-04-01

    Mass-transport (the movement of a chemical species) plays an important role in determining toxic responses of the upper respiratory tract (URT) to inhaled chemicals. Mathematical dosimetry models incorporate physical characteristics of mass transport and are used to predict quantitative uptake (absorption rate) and distribution of inhaled gases and vapors in the respiratory tract. Because knowledge of dose is an essential component of quantitative risk assessment, dosimetry modeling plays an important role in extrapolation of animal study results to humans. A survey of existing mathematical dosimetry models for the URT is presented, limitations of current models are discussed, and adaptations of existing models to produce a generally applicable model are suggested. Reviewed URT dosimetry models are categorized as early, lumped-parameter, and distributed-parameter models. Specific examples of other relevant modeling work are also presented. 35 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Effects of inhalation of organic chemical air contaminants on murine lung host defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Aranyi, C.; O'Shea, W.J.; Graham, J.A.; Miller, F.J.

    1986-05-01

    The potential health hazards of exposure to threshold limit value (TLV) concentrations of acetaldehyde, acrolein, propylene oxide, chloroform, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, allyl chloride, methylene chloride, ethylene trichloride, perchloroethylene, benzene, phenol, monochlorobenzene, and benzyl chloride, compounds which may be present in the ambient or work room atmosphere were investigated. The effects of single and multiple 3-hr inhalation exposures were evaluated in mice by monitoring changes in their susceptibility to experimentally induced streptococcus aerosol infection and pulmonary bactericidal activity to inhaled Klebsiella pneumoniae. When significant changes in these parameters were found, further exposures were performed at reduced vapor concentrations until the no-measurable-effect level was reached. Multiple exposures on 5 consecutive days were then performed at this concentration. Significant increases in susceptibility to respiratory streptococcus infection were observed after single 3-hr exposure to TLV concentrations of methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, and ethylene trichloride. For methylene chloride and perchloroethylene, these exposure conditions also resulted in significantly decreased pulmonary bactericidal activity.

  8. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27147888

  9. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  10. Water vapor pressure calculation.

    PubMed

    Hall, J R; Brouillard, R G

    1985-06-01

    Accurate calculation of water vapor pressure for systems saturated with water vapor can be performed using the Goff-Gratch equation. A form of the equation that can be adapted for computer programming and for use in electronic databases is provided. PMID:4008425

  11. Characterization of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for hydrocarbon mixtures and jet fuels.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sheppard A; Tremblay, Raphael T; Brunson, Kristyn F; Kendrick, Christine; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2010-04-01

    A directed-flow nose-only inhalation exposure system was constructed to support development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models for complex hydrocarbon mixtures, such as jet fuels. Due to the complex nature of the aerosol and vapor-phase hydrocarbon exposures, care was taken to investigate the chamber hydrocarbon stability, vapor and aerosol droplet compositions, and droplet size distribution. Two-generation systems for aerosolizing fuel and hydrocarbons were compared and characterized for use with either jet fuels or a simple mixture of eight hydrocarbons. Total hydrocarbon concentration was monitored via online gas chromatography (GC). Aerosol/vapor (A/V) ratios, and total and individual hydrocarbon concentrations, were determined using adsorbent tubes analyzed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TDS-GC-MS). Droplet size distribution was assessed via seven-stage cascade impactor. Droplet mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was between 1 and 3 mum, depending on the generator and mixture utilized. A/V hydrocarbon concentrations ranged from approximately 200 to 1300 mg/m(3), with between 20% and 80% aerosol content, depending on the mixture. The aerosolized hydrocarbon mixtures remained stable during the 4-h exposure periods, with coefficients of variation (CV) of less than 10% for the total hydrocarbon concentrations. There was greater variability in the measurement of individual hydrocarbons in the A-V phase. In conclusion, modern analytical chemistry instruments allow for improved descriptions of inhalation exposures of rodents to aerosolized fuel. PMID:20109056

  12. Stratospheric water vapor feedback

    PubMed Central

    Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Wang, T.; Davis, S. M.; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2013-01-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry–climate model to be +0.3 W/(m2⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  13. Stratospheric water vapor feedback.

    PubMed

    Dessler, A E; Schoeberl, M R; Wang, T; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K H

    2013-11-01

    We show here that stratospheric water vapor variations play an important role in the evolution of our climate. This comes from analysis of observations showing that stratospheric water vapor increases with tropospheric temperature, implying the existence of a stratospheric water vapor feedback. We estimate the strength of this feedback in a chemistry-climate model to be +0.3 W/(m(2)⋅K), which would be a significant contributor to the overall climate sensitivity. One-third of this feedback comes from increases in water vapor entering the stratosphere through the tropical tropopause layer, with the rest coming from increases in water vapor entering through the extratropical tropopause. PMID:24082126

  14. Cannabidiol, a nonpsychotropic component of cannabis, inhibits cue-induced heroin-seeking and normalizes discrete mesolimbic neuronal disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yanhua; Whittard, John; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Morris, Claudia V.; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2010-01-01

    There remains debate regarding the impact of cannabis on neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we examined the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a nonpsychoactive constituent of cannabis on heroin self-administration and drug-seeking behavior using an experimental rat model. CBD (5-20 mg/kg) did not alter stable intake of heroin self-administration, extinction behavior, or drug seeking induced by a heroin prime injection. Instead, it specifically attenuated heroin-seeking behavior reinstated by exposure to a conditioned stimulus cue. CBD had a protracted effect with significance evident after 24h and even 2 weeks after administration. The behavioral effects were paralleled by neurobiological alterations in the glutamatergic and endocannabinoid systems. Discrete disturbances of AMPA GluR1 and cannabinoid type-1 receptor expression observed in the nucleus accumbens associated with stimulus cue-induced heroin seeking were normalized by CBD treatment. The findings highlight the unique contributions of distinct cannabis constituents to addiction vulnerability and suggest that CBD may be a potential treatment for heroin craving and relapse. PMID:19940171

  15. "Hooked on" prescription-type opiates prior to using heroin: results from a survey of syringe exchange clients.

    PubMed

    Peavy, K Michelle; Banta-Green, Caleb J; Kingston, Susan; Hanrahan, Michael; Merrill, Joseph O; Coffin, Phillip O

    2012-01-01

    The availability and diversion of prescription-type opioids increased dramatically in the first decade of the twenty-first century. One possible consequence of increased prescription opioid use and accessibility is the associated rise in opioid dependence, potentially resulting in heroin addiction. This study aimed to determine how common initial dependence on prescription-type opioids is among heroin injectors; associations with demographic and drug-using characteristics were also examined. Interview data were collected at syringe exchanges in King County, Washington in 2009. Among the respondents who had used heroin in the prior four months, 39% reported being "hooked on" prescription-type opioids first. Regression analysis indicated that younger age, sedative use and no recent crack use were independently associated with self-report of being hooked on prescription-type opioids prior to using heroin. These data quantify the phenomenon of being hooked on prescription-type opioids prior to initiating heroin use. Further research is needed to characterize the epidemiology, etiology and trajectory of prescription-type opioid and heroin use in the context of continuing widespread availability of prescription-type opioids. PMID:23061326

  16. μ Opioid receptor A118G polymorphism in association with striatal opioid neuropeptide gene expression in heroin abusers

    PubMed Central

    Drakenberg, Katarina; Nikoshkov, Andrej; Horváth, Monika Cs; Fagergren, Pernilla; Gharibyan, Anna; Saarelainen, Kati; Rahman, Sadia; Nylander, Ingrid; Bakalkin, Georgy; Rajs, Jovan; Keller, Eva; Hurd, Yasmin L.

    2006-01-01

    μ Opioid receptors are critical for heroin dependence, and A118G SNP of the μ opioid receptor gene (OPRM1) has been linked with heroin abuse. In our population of European Caucasians (n = 118), ≈90% of 118G allelic carriers were heroin users. Postmortem brain analyses showed the OPRM1 genotype associated with transcription, translation, and processing of the human striatal opioid neuropeptide system. Whereas down-regulation of preproenkephalin and preprodynorphin genes was evident in all heroin users, the effects were exaggerated in 118G subjects and were most prominent for preproenkephalin in the nucleus accumbens shell. Reduced opioid neuropeptide transcription was accompanied by increased dynorphin and enkephalin peptide concentrations exclusively in 118G heroin subjects, suggesting that the peptide processing is associated with the OPRM1 genotype. Abnormal gene expression related to peptide convertase and ubiquitin/proteosome regulation was also evident in heroin users. Taken together, alterations in opioid neuropeptide systems might underlie enhanced opiate abuse vulnerability apparent in 118G individuals. PMID:16682632

  17. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Man, Jonathan C; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P; Sommerer, K; Stone, Howard A; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-12-14

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These "exhaled bioaerosols" may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these "high-producer" individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 +/- 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension. PMID:15583121

  18. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  19. Effects of formaldehyde inhalation on the junctional proteins of nasal respiratory mucosa of rats.

    PubMed

    Arican, R Yavuz; Sahin, Zeliha; Ustunel, Ismail; Sarikcioglu, Levent; Ozdem, Sadi; Oguz, Nurettin

    2009-07-01

    Exposure to formaldehyde, which is an organic compound, disturbs the integrity of nasal mucosa. In this study, we aimed to clarify the protein changes in the junctional complex of nasal mucosa of Wistar rats exposed to formaldehyde inhalation. The study was performed in 20 female Wistar rats. Rats were divided into two groups randomly. Control rats were allowed free access to standard rat chaw and tap water (n:10). Experimental group was exposed to formaldehyde vapor at 15ppm, 6h/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks (n:10). Histological evaluation of the experimental model was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stainings of paraffin-embedded nasal mucosa tissues and by electron microscopy. The effects of formaldehyde inhalation on the distribution of occludin, E-cadherin, and gamma-catenin were assessed by immunohistochemistry. The nasal mucosa of the experimental group was correlated with hypertrophy in goblet cell, degeneration in basal lamina, stratification of epithelium, and proliferation. Thickness of basal lamina and also local degenerative regions, vacuole increase in cytoplasmic areas, irregular forms of kinocilium and loss of sharpness in the kinocilium membrane were the findings at the ultrastructural level. The expressions of E-cadherin, occludin, gamma-catenin proteins in intercellular junctional complexes of rat nasal mucosa were also decreased in experimental group compared to control group. The findings of the present study indicated that formaldehyde vapor inhalation in the concentrations and duration of exposure used in the present experiment significantly decreased the density of structural proteins of the junctional complex in the nasoepithelium. It was suggested that, the formaldehyde inhalation could cause complete impairment of intercellular junctional complexes and disturb the tissue integrity in nasal mucosa at higher concentrations. PMID:18996001

  20. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions. PMID:24065038

  1. Development of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for inhalation of jet fuels in the rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sheppard A; Campbell, Jerry L; Tremblay, Raphael T; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic behavior of the majority of jet fuel constituents has not been previously described in the framework of a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for inhalation exposure. Toxic effects have been reported in multiple organ systems, though exposure methods varied across studies, utilizing either vaporized or aerosolized fuels. The purpose of this work was to assess the pharmacokinetics of aerosolized and vaporized fuels, and develop a PBPK model capable of describing both types of exposures. To support model development, n-tetradecane and n-octane exposures were conducted at 89 mg/m(3) aerosol+vapor and 1000-5000 ppm vapor, respectively. Exposures to JP-8 and S-8 were conducted at ~900-1000 mg/m(3), and ~200 mg/m(3) to a 50:50 blend of both fuels. Sub-models were developed to assess the behavior of representative constituents and grouped unquantified constituents, termed "lumps", accounting for the remaining fuel mass. The sub-models were combined into the first PBPK model for petroleum and synthetic jet fuels. Inhalation of hydrocarbon vapors was described with simple gas-exchange assumptions for uptake and exhalation. For aerosol droplets systemic uptake occurred in the thoracic region. Visceral tissues were described using perfusion and diffusion-limited equations. The model described kinetics at multiple fuel concentrations, utilizing a chemical "lumping" strategy to estimate parameters for fractions of speciated and unspeciated hydrocarbons and gauge metabolic interactions. The model more accurately simulated aromatic and lower molecular weight (MW) n-alkanes than some higher MW chemicals. Metabolic interactions were more pronounced at high (~2700-1000 mg/m(3)) concentrations. This research represents the most detailed assessment of fuel pharmacokinetics to date. PMID:22188408

  2. Individual differences in gene expression of vasopressin, D2 receptor, POMC and orexin: vulnerability to relapse to heroin-seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Leri, Francesco; Cummins, Erin; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2015-02-01

    Individual vulnerability to stress-induced relapse during abstinence from chronic heroin exposure is a key feature of opiate addiction, with limited studies on this topic. Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its V1b receptor, components of the brain stress responsive systems, play a role in heroin-seeking behavior triggered by foot shock (FS) stress in rats. In this study, we tested whether individual differences in the FS-induced heroin-seeking were associated with alterations of AVP and V1b, as well as other stress responsive systems, including pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), orexin, plasma ACTH and corticosterone, as well as dopamine D2 receptor (D2) and plasma prolactin. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 3-hour intravenous heroin self-administration (SA) and then tested in extinction, and FS-induced and heroin priming-induced reinstatements. The rats that self-administered heroin were divided into high and low reinstatement responders induced by FS (H-RI; L-RI). Over SA sessions, both the H-RI and L-RI displayed similar active lever responding, heroin infusion and total heroin intake. Compared to the L-RI, however, the H-RI showed greater active lever responses during stress-induced reinstatement, with higher AVP mRNA levels in medial/basolateral amygdala and lower D2 mRNA levels in caudate putamen. However, heroin priming resulted in similar reinstatement in both groups and produced similarly low POMC and high orexin mRNA levels in hypothalamus. Our results indicate that: 1) enhanced amygdalar AVP and reduced striatal D2 expression may be related to individual vulnerability to stress-induced reinstatement of heroin- seeking; and 2) heroin abstinence-associated alterations of hypothalamic orexin and POMC expression may be involved in drug priming-induced heroin-seeking. PMID:25446223

  3. A pharmacokinetic model of inhaled methanol in humans and comparison to methanol disposition in mice and rats.

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, R A; Ward, K W; Pollack, G M

    1995-01-01

    We estimated kinetic parameters associated with methanol disposition in humans from data reported in the literature. Michaelis-Menten elimination parameters (Vmax = 115 mg/L/hr; Km = 460 mg/L) were selected for input into a semi-physiologic pharmacokinetic model. We used reported literature values for blood or urine methanol concentrations in humans and nonhuman primates after methanol inhalation as input to an inhalation disposition model that evaluated the absorption of methanol, expressed as the fraction of inhaled methanol concentration that was absorbed (phi). Values of phi for nonexercising subjects typically varied between 0.64 and 0.75; 0.80 was observed to be a reasonable upper boundary for fractional absorption. Absorption efficiency in exercising subjects was lower than that in resting individuals. Incorporation of the kinetic parameters and phi into a pharmacokinetic model of human exposure to methanol, compared to a similar analysis in rodents, indicated that following an 8-hr exposure to 5000 ppm of methanol vapor, blood methanol concentrations in the mouse would be 13- to 18-fold higher than in humans exposed to the same methanol vapor concentration; blood methanol concentrations in the rat under similar conditions would be 5-fold higher than in humans. These results demonstrate the importance in the risk assessment for methanol of basing extrapolations from rodents to humans on actual blood concentrations rather than on methanol vapor exposure concentrations. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7588485

  4. Inhalant Initiation and the Relationship of Inhalant Use to the Use of Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study…

  5. Pharmacological effects of methamphetamine and alpha-PVP vapor and injection.

    PubMed

    Marusich, Julie A; Lefever, Timothy W; Blough, Bruce E; Thomas, Brian F; Wiley, Jenny L

    2016-07-01

    Vaporizing drugs in e-cigarettes is becoming a common method of administration for synthetic cathinones and classical stimulants. Heating during vaporization can expose the user to a cocktail of parent compound and thermolytic degradants, which could lead to different toxicological and pharmacological effects compared to ingesting the parent compound alone via injection or nasal inhalation. This study examined the in vivo toxicological and pharmacological effects of vaporized and injected methamphetamine (METH) and α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP). Male and female ICR mice were administered METH or α-PVP through vapor or i.p. injection. Dose-effect curves were determined for locomotor activity and a functional observational battery (FOB). METH and α-PVP vapor were also evaluated for place preference in male mice. Vapor exposure and injection led to more similarities than differences in toxicological and pharmacological effects. In the FOB, both routes of administration produced typical stimulant effects, and injection also increased some bizarre behaviors (e.g. licking, teeth chattering, darting). Both METH and α-PVP vapor exposure produced conditioned place preference. The two routes of administration had comparable efficacy in locomotor activation, with vapor producing longer lasting effects than injection. Females showed greater METH-induced locomotor activity, and greater incidence of a few somatic signs in the FOB than males. These results explore the toxicology of stimulant vapor inhalation in mice using an e-cigarette device. Despite the current technological and methodological difficulties, studying drug vapor promises to allow determination of toxicological effects of thermolytic products and flavor additives. PMID:27237056

  6. Concentration-time relationships for the effects of inhaled trichloroethylene on signal detection behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Bushnell, P J

    1997-03-01

    The risk from inhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is presently assessed on the basis of lifetime exposure to average concentrations of the vapor. This strategy yields rational predictions of risk if the product of concentration (C) and the duration of exposure (t) yields constant effects on health (Haber's Rule). The validity of this assumption was evaluated by assessing the acute behavioral effects of inhaled trichloroethylene (TCE) vapor at various values of C and t. Adult male Long-Evans rats (n = 11) were trained to perform a signal detection task in which a press on one lever produced food on trials containing a signal (a brief, unpredictable light flash); a press on a second lever produced food on trials lacking a signal. Response time (RT) and indices of sensitivity (SI) and bias (RI) derived from the theory of signal detection were calculated at three times during repeated daily 60-min tests conducted in air containing 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, or 2400 ppm TCE. Behavior remained stable during tests in air. In TCE, SI declined and RT increased as functions of both C and t. RI was not affected by TCE. Effects on SI and RT were not predictable from the C x t product: both endpoints were more affected by C than by t. To quantify the change in the effect of TCE across exposure times, concentration-effect relationships for inhaled TCE on SI and RT were modeled with cubic polynomial functions at each of the three exposure durations. Concentrations of inhaled TCE associated with preselected changes in SI and RT were then estimated for each animal from these functions. Criterion concentrations, SI0.1 and RT100, were defined as the concentration of TCE associated with a 0.1-unit decrease in SI or a 100-msec increase in RT, respectively. Both SI0. 1 and RT100 increased as exposure duration decreased, but did so more slowly than would be predicted by Haber's Rule. This pattern indicates that application of Haber's Rule overestimates the concentration of

  7. Effect of Nano-sized Carbon Black Particles on Lung and Circulatory System by Inhalation Exposure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gu; Cho, Hae-Won; Han, Jeong-Hee; Chung, Yong-Hyun; Rim, Kyung-Taek; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kim, Hwa; Lee, Moo-Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We sought to establish a novel method to generate nano-sized carbon black particles (nano-CBPs) with an average size smaller than 100 nm for examining the inhalation exposure risks of experimental rats. We also tested the effect of nano-CBPs on the pulmonary and circulatory systems. Methods We used chemical vapor deposition (CVD) without the addition of any additives to generate nano-CBPs with a particle size (electrical mobility diameter) of less than 100nm to examine the effects of inhalation exposure. Nano-CBPs were applied to a nose-only inhalation chamber system for studying the inhalation toxicity in rats. The effect on the lungs and circulatory system was determined according to the degree of inflammation as quantified by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The functional alteration of the hemostatic and vasomotor activities was measured by plasma coagulation, platelet activity, contraction and relaxation of blood vessels. Results Nano-CBPs were generated in the range of 83.3-87.9 nm. Rats were exposed for 4 hour/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks to 4.2 × 106, 6.2 × 105, and 1.3 × 105 particles/cm3. Exposure of nano-CBPs by inhalation resulted in minimal pulmonary inflammation and did not appear to damage the lung tissue. In addition, there was no significant effect on blood functions, such as plasma coagulation and platelet aggregation, or on vasomotor function. Conclusion We successfully generated nano-CBPs in the range of 83.3-87.9 nm at a maximum concentration of 4.2 × 106 particles/cm3 in a nose-only inhalation chamber system. This reliable method can be useful to investigate the biological and toxicological effects of inhalation exposure to nano-CBPs on experimental rats. PMID:22953212

  8. Lichenoid Drug Eruption following Intravenous Application of Orally Formulated Diamorphine, a Semisynthetic Heroin

    PubMed Central

    Kolm, I.; Eggmann, N.; Kamarashev, J.; Kerl, K.; French, L.E.; Hofbauer, G.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lichen planus is a common skin disorder of unknown etiology. Most cases are idiopathic, but substances such as gold, antimalarials, penicillamine, thiazide diuretics, β-blockers, arsenic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been implicated as trigger factors. Case Presentation We report the case of a lichenoid eruption in a male drug addict who administered oral heroin (diamorphine) intravenously. Diamorphine was stopped immediately. Following topical steroids, phototherapy and oral acitretin, the lesions gradually disappeared. A lymphocyte transformation test was negative for pure morphine and codeine. Discussion A coincidental association between the intravenous application of orally formulated semisynthetic heroin and the lichenoid eruption cannot be completely ruled out. However, the diagnosis of a lichenoid drug eruption is favoured over idiopathic lichen planus because of the clear chronological correlation between drug use and appearance as well as drug withdrawal and disappearance of the skin lesions, and because of a flare-up following repeated intravenous application of diamorphine. PMID:23874294

  9. [Heroin abuse among Danish prisoners on remand. I. Prevalence related to form of administration].

    PubMed

    Andersen, H S; Sestoft, D M; Lillebaek, T; Gabrielsen, G

    1996-08-19

    Two groups of Danish prisoners on remand (in solitary confinement and not in solitary confinement) were examined by interview on reception (n = 133 & n = 95) in order to evaluate the prevalence and form of administration of opioid abuse/dependence. About 50% had abused opioids during their lifetime; one third were dependent at the time of reception. Twenty percent of opioid dependent prisoners administered opioids by smoking. More intravenous users were treated with methadone before and during imprisonment than those who were dependent on smoking opioids. Few were objectively suffering from withdrawal symptoms. The psycho-social impact of dependence on smoking heroin and intravenous heroin one month prior to imprisonment was at the same level and substantial as measured by the Global Assessment Scale. PMID:8801682

  10. Characteristics of Hidden Status Among Users of Crack, Powder Cocaine, and Heroin in Central Harlem

    PubMed Central

    Davis, W. Rees; Johnson, Bruce D.; Liberty, Hilary James; Randolph, Doris D.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyzes hidden status among crack, powder cocaine, and heroin users and setters, in contrast to more accessible users/sellers. Several sampling strategies acquired 657 users (N=559) and sellers (N=98). Indicators of hidden status were those who (1) paid rent in full in the last 30 days, (2) used nonstreet drug procurement. (3) had legal jobs, and (4) earned $1,000 or more in legal income in the last 30 days. Nearly half had at least one indicator: approximately 16% of users/sellers had two to four indicators. In logistic regression analyses, those who had not panhandled in the last 30 days, those who had used powder cocaine in the last 30 days, and those never arrested were the most likely to have hidden status, whether the analysis predicted those having any indicators or those having two to four indicators. The four indicators begin to operationally define hidden status among users of cocaine and heroin. PMID:17710217

  11. What a validation strategy means for the quantitation of cocaine and heroin?

    PubMed

    Dujourdy, Laurence; Charvoz, Céline; Dalmasso, Marion; Dufour, Anne-Béatrice

    2015-06-01

    A method of separation by gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector was developed for quantifying cocaine and heroin in powders seized by law enforcement. The method was validated by studying parameters of calibration, trueness, precision based on trueness error (or systematic bias) and random error. Total error, which is the combination of these errors, verified its adequacy with the objectives fixed by the analyst. Accuracy profile proved to be an efficient decision tool for that purpose. Results obtained with weighted regression model were analysed and allowed to conclude that the method enables quantitation of heroin and cocaine in powders on 2-100% concentration (w/w) range with acceptance limits fixed at 10% and a risk at 5%. The possible sources of uncertainty were evaluated and measurement of their contribution was integrated. The combined standard uncertainty and expanded uncertainty were determined. PMID:25839678

  12. Cigarette smoking, illicit drug use, and routes of administration among heroin and cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, PT; Trenz, RC; Scherer, M; Ropelewski, LR; Latimer, WW

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is ubiquitous among illicit drug users. Some have speculated that this may be partially due to similarities in the route of administration. However, research examining the relationship between cigarette smoking and routes of administration of illicit drugs is limited. To address this gap, we investigated sociodemographic and drug use factors associated with cigarette smoking among cocaine and heroin users in the Baltimore, Maryland community (N=576). Regular and heavy cigarette smokers were more likely to be White, have a history of a prior marriage, and have a lower education level. Regular smoking of marijuana and crack was associated with cigarette smoking, but not heavy cigarette smoking. Injection use was more common among heavy cigarette smokers. In particular, regular cigarette smokers were more likely to have a lifetime history of regularly injecting heroin. Optimal prevention and treatment outcomes can only occur through a comprehensive understanding of the interrelations between different substances of abuse. PMID:22305644

  13. Incarceration and opioid withdrawal: the experiences of methadone patients and out-of-treatment heroin users.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; Kelly, Sharon M; Brown, Barry S; Reisinger, Heather Schacht; Peterson, James A; Ruhf, Adrienne; Agar, Michael H; Schwartz, Robert P

    2009-06-01

    Both heroin-addicted individuals and methadone maintenance patients are likely to face untreated opioid withdrawal while incarcerated. Limited research exists concerning the withdrawal experiences of addicted inmates and their impact on individuals' attitudes and plans concerning drug abuse treatment. In the present study, 53 opioid dependent adults (32 in methadone treatment and 21 out of treatment) were interviewed in an ethnographic investigation of withdrawal experiences during incarceration. When treatment for opioid withdrawal was unavailable, detoxification experiences were usually described as negative and were often associated with a variety of unhealthy behaviors designed to relieve withdrawal symptoms. Negative methadone withdrawal experiences also negatively influenced participants' receptivity to seeking methadone treatment upon release. A minority of participants took a positive view of their withdrawal experience and saw it as an opportunity to detox from heroin or discontinue methadone. Findings support the importance of providing appropriate opioid detoxification and/or maintenance therapy to opioid-dependent inmates. PMID:19705676

  14. Implementing harm reduction for heroin users in Afghanistan, the worldwide opium supplier.

    PubMed

    Maguet, Olivier; Majeed, Murtaza

    2010-03-01

    Afghanistan has suffered decades of war, occupation and unrest. It is also the world's greatest producer of opium and drug production and trafficking account for a third of the total Afghan economy. Currently alongside the "War on Terrorism", the control and eradication of opium production and related trafficking is a main concern of the international community. However, this focus on supply reduction has meant scant attention has been paid to increasing drug use problems within the country; it is estimated there are up to 25,000 opium users and 20,000 heroin users in Kabul city. Drug use is often a response to war, poverty and under-development, however, street opium and heroin manufactured in the country are widely available, affordable and of high purity. This paper documents the efforts of non-governmental organisations to promote and develop harm reduction and treatment services for problem drug users in Afghanistan in this difficult context. PMID:20171864

  15. Vacuum vapor deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poorman, Richard M. (Inventor); Weeks, Jack L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for vapor deposition of a thin metallic film utilizing an ionized gas arc directed onto a source material spaced from a substrate to be coated in a substantial vacuum while providing a pressure differential between the source and the substrate so that, as a portion of the source is vaporized, the vapors are carried to the substrate. The apparatus includes a modified tungsten arc welding torch having a hollow electrode through which a gas, preferably inert, flows and an arc is struck between the electrode and the source. The torch, source, and substrate are confined within a chamber within which a vacuum is drawn. When the arc is struck, a portion of the source is vaporized and the vapors flow rapidly toward the substrate. A reflecting shield is positioned about the torch above the electrode and the source to ensure that the arc is struck between the electrode and the source at startup. The electrode and the source may be confined within a vapor guide housing having a duct opening toward the substrate for directing the vapors onto the substrate.

  16. Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

    1987-12-01

    Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

  17. Olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Kimbell, Julia S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Inhaled nanoparticles can migrate to the brain via the olfactory bulb, as demonstrated in experiments in several animal species. This route of exposure may be the mechanism behind the correlation between air pollution and human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Objectives This manuscript aims to (1) estimate the dose of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the human olfactory epithelium during nasal breathing at rest and (2) compare the olfactory dose in humans with our earlier dose estimates for rats. Materials and methods An anatomically-accurate model of the human nasal cavity was developed based on computed tomography scans. The deposition of 1–100 nm particles in the whole nasal cavity and its olfactory region were estimated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our CFD methods were validated by comparing our numerical predictions for whole-nose deposition with experimental data and previous CFD studies in the literature. Results In humans, olfactory dose of inhaled nanoparticles is highest for 1–2 nm particles with approximately 1% of inhaled particles depositing in the olfactory region. As particle size grows to 100 nm, olfactory deposition decreases to 0.01% of inhaled particles. Discussion and conclusion Our results suggest that the percentage of inhaled particles that deposit in the olfactory region is lower in humans than in rats. However, olfactory dose per unit surface area is estimated to be higher in humans due to their larger minute volume. These dose estimates are important for risk assessment and dose-response studies investigating the neurotoxicity of inhaled nanoparticles. PMID:26194036

  18. Dopamine D1 receptor antagonism in the prelimbic cortex blocks the reinstatement of heroin-seeking in an animal model of relapse.

    PubMed

    See, Ronald E

    2009-04-01

    In brain regions that have been implicated in the reinstatement of drug-seeking, the prelimbic cortex has emerged as a critical regulator of relapse behaviours. Here, the effects of prelimbic cortex dopamine (DA) D(1) receptor antagonism on drug-seeking produced by heroin-paired cues, or by a single priming dose of heroin are examined. Rats lever-pressed daily for i.v. heroin discretely paired with a conditioned stimulus during 3-h sessions for a period of 2 wk, followed by extinction and reinstatement of drug-seeking by previously heroin-paired cues (tone+light) or heroin-priming injections (0.25 mg/kg) in the absence of heroin reinforcement. Intracranial infusion of the DA D(1) receptor antagonist, SCH 23390 (0.02-2.0 microg/side), into the prelimbic cortex potently and dose dependently attenuated heroin-seeking in response to either cue presentations or a priming dose of heroin. These results suggest that DA D1 receptors regulate prefrontal cortex pathways necessary for the reinstatement of heroin-seeking. PMID:19236732

  19. Metabonomic Study of Biochemical Changes in Human Hair of Heroin Abusers by Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xie, Pu; Wang, Tie-jie; Yin, Guo; Yan, Yan; Xiao, Li-he; Li, Qing; Bi, Kai-shun

    2016-01-01

    Hair analysis is with the advantage of non-invasive collection and long surveillance window. The present study employed a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry method to study the metabonomic characters in the hair of 58 heroin abusers and 72 non-heroin abusers. Results indicated that certain endogenous metabolites, such as sorbitol and cortisol, were accelerated, and the level of arachidonic acid, glutathione, linoleic acid, and myristic acid was decreased in hair of heroin abusers. The metabonomic study is helpful for further understanding of heroin addiction and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26445826

  20. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. Results: For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8–110.6 L/min (range: 41.6–142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p < 0.05) strong correlations (R > 0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. Conclusions: All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma

  1. Fundamental Reaction Pathway and Free Energy Profile for Butyrylcholinesterase-Catalyzed Hydrolysis of Heroin

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yan; Han, Keli; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacological function of heroin requires an activation process which transforms heroin into 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) which is the most active form. The primary enzyme responsible for this activation process in human plasma is butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). The detailed reaction pathway of the activation process via BChE-catalyzed hydrolysis has been explored computationally, for the first time, in the present study by performing molecular dynamics simulation and first-principles quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical free energy calculations. It has been demonstrated that the whole reaction process includes acylation and deacylation stages. The acylation consists of two reaction steps, i.e. the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of 3-acetyl group of heroin by the hydroxyl oxygen of Ser198 side chain and the dissociation of 6-MAM. The deacylation also consists of two reaction steps, i.e. the nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl carbon of the acyl-enzyme intermediate by a water molecule and the dissociation of the acetic acid from Ser198. The calculated free energy profile reveals that the second transition state (TS2) should be rate-determining. The structural analysis reveals that the oxyanion hole of BChE plays an important role in the stabilization of the rate-determining transition state TS2. The free energy barrier (15.9±0.2 or 16.1±0.2 kcal/mol) calculated for the rate-determining step is in good agreement with the experimentally-derived activation free energy (~16.2 kcal/mol), suggesting that the mechanistic insights obtained from the present computational study are reliable. The obtained structural and mechanistic insights could be valuable for use in future rational design of a novel therapeutic treatment of heroin abuse. PMID:23992153

  2. Heroin use, HIV-risk, and criminal behavior in Baltimore: Findings from Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Robert P.; Kelly, Sharon M.; Gryczynski, Jan; Mitchell, Shannon Gwin; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Jaffe, Jerome H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews research conducted in Baltimore over the past 15 years that examined accessibility and barriers to methadone treatment, compared those who enter treatment to those who do not, studied retention and counseling issues, as well as the impact of treatment on criminality, HIV risk among participants and overdose death in the community. Recommendations to develop policies are presented to reduce heroin use and its negative impact in the community. PMID:26079104

  3. Overdose beliefs and management practices among ethnic Vietnamese heroin users in Sydney, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Lisa; Ho, Hien T

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnic Vietnamese injecting drug users (IDUs) in Australia draw on a range of beliefs and etiologic models, sometimes simultaneously, in order to make sense of health and illness. These include understandings of illness as the result of internal imbalances and Western concepts of disease causation including germ/pollution theory. Methods Observational fieldwork and in-depth interviews were conducted between 2001 and 2006 in neighbourhoods characterised by high proportions of Asian background IDUs and street-based drug markets. Eligibility criteria for the study were: 1) ethnic Vietnamese cultural background; 2) aged 16 years and over and; 3) injected drugs in the last 6 months. Results Participants commonly attempted to treat heroin overdose by withdrawing blood (rút máu) from the body. Central to this practice are cultural beliefs about the role and function of blood in the body and its relationship to illness and health. Participants' beliefs in blood were strongly influenced by understandings of blood expressed in traditional Chinese and Vietnamese medicine. Many participants perceived Western drugs, particularly heroin, as "hot" and "strong". In overdose situations, it was commonly believed that an excessive amount of drugs (particularly heroin) entered the bloodstream and traveled to the heart, making the heart work too hard. Withdrawing blood was understood to reduce the amount of drugs in the body which in turn reduced the effects of drugs on the blood and the heart. Conclusion The explanatory model of overdose employed by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs privileges traditional beliefs about the circulatory, rather than the respiratory, system. This paper explores participants' beliefs about blood, the effects of drugs on blood and the causes of heroin overdose in order to document the explanatory model of overdose used by ethnic Vietnamese IDUs. Implications for overdose prevention, treatment and management are identified and discussed. PMID:19397811

  4. Estimating incidence trends in regular heroin use in 26 regions of Switzerland using methadone treatment data

    PubMed Central

    Nordt, Carlos; Landolt, Karin; Stohler, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Background Regional incidence trends in regular heroin use are important for assessing the effectiveness of drug policies and for forecasting potential future epidemics. Methods To estimate incidence trends we applied both the more traditional Reporting Delay Adjustment (RDA) method as well as the new and less data demanding General Inclusion Function (GIF) method. The latter describes the probability of an individual being in substitution treatment depending on time since the onset of heroin use. Data on year of birth, age at first regular heroin use and date of admission to and cessation of substitution treatment was available from 1997 to 2006 for 11 of the 26 regions (cantons) of Switzerland. For the remaining cantons, we used the number of patients in 5-year age group categories published in annual statistics between 1999 and 2006. Results Application of the RDA and GIF methods on data from the whole of Switzerland produced equivalent incidence trends. The GIF method revealed similar incidence trends in all of the Swiss cantons. Imputing a constant age of onset of 21 years resulted in almost equal trends to those obtained when real age of onset was used. The cantonal incidence estimates revealed that in the mid 80s there were high incidence rates in various regions distributed throughout all of the linguistic areas in Switzerland. During the following years these regional differences disappeared and the incidence of regular heroin use stabilized at a low level throughout the country. Conclusion It has been demonstrated that even with incomplete data the GIF method allows to calculate accurate regional incidence trends. PMID:19519920

  5. Primary septic arthritis of the manubriosternal joint in a heroin user

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Longo, F.J.; Monteagudo, I.; Vaquero, F.J.; Martinez Moreno, J.L.; Carreno, L.

    1986-01-01

    A 20-year-old heroin user developed staphylococcus septic arthritis of the manubrium joint. The diagnosis was established by a culture of the infected tissue and blood culture. The clinical impression was aided by 99mTc radionuclide scintimetry. Early diagnosis localized the infection. Immediate antibiotic therapy solved a problem in the sternum that seems not to have been reported in the English literature.

  6. Inflammatory effects of inhaled sulfur mustard in rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Malaviya, Rama; Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Cervelli, Jessica; Anderson, Dana R.; Holmes, Wesley W.; Conti, Michele L.; Gordon, Ronald E.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2010-10-15

    Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes severe lung damage, is a significant threat to both military and civilian populations. The mechanisms mediating its cytotoxic effects are unknown and were investigated in the present studies. Male rats Crl:CD(SD) were anesthetized, and then intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.7-1.4 mg/kg SM by vapor inhalation. Animals were euthanized 6, 24, 48 h or 7 days post-exposure and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid pulmonary toxicity, including focal ulceration and detachment of the trachea and bronchial epithelia from underlying mucosa, thickening of alveolar septal walls and increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the tissue. There was also evidence of autophagy and apoptosis in the tissue. This was correlated with increased BAL protein content, a marker of injury to the alveolar epithelial lining. SM exposure also resulted in increased expression of markers of inflammation including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), each of which has been implicated in pulmonary toxicity. Whereas COX-2, TNF{alpha} and iNOS were mainly localized in alveolar regions, MMP-9 was prominent in bronchial epithelium. In contrast, expression of the anti-oxidant hemeoxygenase, and the anti-inflammatory collectin, surfactant protein-D, decreased in the lung after SM exposure. These data demonstrate that SM-induced oxidative stress and injury are associated with the generation of cytotoxic inflammatory proteins which may contribute to the pathogenic response to this vesicant.

  7. Disposition of ( UC)methyl bromide in rats after inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.A.; Dutcher, J.S.; Medinsky, M.A.; Henderson, R.F.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of ( UC)methyl bromide in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose only to a vapor concentration of 337 nmol ( UC)methyl bromide/liter air (9.0 ppm, 25C, 620 torr) for 6 hr. Urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Elimination of UC as UCO2 was the major route of excretion with about 47% (3900 nmol/rat) of the total ( UC)methyl bromide absorbed excreted by this route. CO2 excretion exhibited a biphasic elimination pattern with 85% of the UCO2 being excreted with a half-time of 3.9 +/- 0.1 hr (anti x +/- SE) and 15% excreted with a half-time of 11.4 +/- 0.2 hr. Half-times for elimination of UC in urine and feces were 9.6 +/- 0.1 and 16.1 +/- 0.1 hr, respectively. By 65 hr after exposure, about 75% of the initial radioactivity had been excreted with 25% remaining in the body. Radioactivity was widely distributed in tissues immediately following exposure with lung (250 nmol equivalents/g), adrenal (240 nmol equivalents/g), and nasal turbinates (110 nmol equivalents/g) containing the highest concentrations of UC. Radioactivity in livers immediately after exposure accounted for about 17% of the absorbed methyl bromide. Radioactivity in all other tissues examined accounted for about 10% of the absorbed methyl bromide. Elimination half-times of UC from tissues were on the order of 1.5 to 8 hr. In all tissues examined, over 90% of the UC in the tissues was methyl bromide metabolities. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation methyl bromide is rapidly metabolized in tissues and readily excreted. 22 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Vapor resistant arteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor); Dussinger, Peter M. (Inventor); Buchko, Matthew T. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A vapor block resistant liquid artery structure for heat pipes. A solid tube artery with openings is encased in the sintered material of a heat pipe wick. The openings are limited to that side of the artery which is most remote from the heat source. The liquid in the artery can thus exit the artery through the openings and wet the sintered sheath, but vapor generated at the heat source is unlikely to move around the solid wall of the artery and reverse its direction in order to penetrate the artery through the openings. An alternate embodiment uses finer pore size wick material to resist vapor entry.

  9. Outcome of heroin-dependent adolescents presenting for opiate substitution treatment.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Bobby P; Fagan, John; Kernan, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Because the outcome of methadone and buprenorphine substitution treatment in adolescents is unclear, we completed a retrospective cohort study of 100 consecutive heroin-dependent adolescents who sought these treatments over an 8-year recruitment period. The participants' average age was 16.6 years, and 54 were female. Half of the patient group remained in treatment for over 1 year. Among those still in treatment at 12 months, 39% demonstrated abstinence from heroin. The final route of departure from the treatment program was via planned detox for 22%, dropout for 32%, and imprisonment for 8%. The remaining 39% were transferred elsewhere for ongoing opiate substitution treatment after a median period of 23 months of treatment. Males were more likely to exit via imprisonment (p < .05), but other outcomes were not predicted by gender. There were no deaths during treatment among these 100 patients who had a cumulative period of 129 person years at risk. Our findings suggest that this treatment delivers reductions in heroin use and that one fifth of patients will exit treatment following detox completion within a 1- to 2-year time frame. PMID:21940134

  10. Synthesis and immunological effects of heroin vaccines containing haptens with improved stability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fuying; Cheng, Kejun; Antoline, Joshua F. G.; Iyer, Malliga R.; Matyas, Gary R.; Torres, Oscar B.; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan; Alving, Carl R.; Parrish, Damon A.; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2014-01-01

    Three haptens have been synthesized with linkers for attachment to carrier macromolecules at either the piperidino-nitrogen or via an introduced 3-amino group. Two of the haptens, with a 2-oxopropyl functionality at either C6, or at both the C3 and C6 positions on the 4,5-epoxymorphinan framework, as well as the third hapten (DiAmHap) with diamido moieties at both the C3 and C6 positions, should be much more stable in solution, or in vivo in a vaccine, than a hapten with an ester in one of those positions, as found in many heroin-based haptens. A “classical” opioid synthetic scheme enabled the formation of a 3-amino-4,5-epoxymorphinan which could not be obtained using palladium chemistry. Our vaccines are aimed at the reduction of the abuse of heroin and, as well, at the reduction of the effects of its predominant metabolites, 6-acteylmorphine and morphine. One of the haptens, DiAmHap, has given interesting results in a heroin vaccine and is clearly more suited for the purpose than the other two haptens. PMID:24995943

  11. Understanding Prolonged Cessation From Heroin Use: Findings From a Community-Based Sample

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Linda; Gass, Jonathon; Egan, James E.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Trezza, Claudia; Vlahov, David

    2014-01-01

    Background There is abundant literature describing heroin initiation, co-morbidities, and treatment. Few studies focus on cessation, examining the factors that motivate and facilitate it. Methods The CHANGE study utilized mixed methods to investigate heroin cessation among low-income New York City participants. This paper describes findings from qualitative interviews with 20 former and 11 current heroin users. Interviews focused on background and current activities, supports, drug history, cessation attempts, and motivators and facilitators to cessation. Results Participants found motivation for cessation in improved quality of life; combination of treatment, strategic avoidance of triggers, and engagement in alternative activities, including support groups, exercise, and faith-based practice. Several reported that progress toward goals served as motivators that increased confidence and facilitated cessation. Ultimatums were key motivators for some participants. Beyond that, they could not articulate factors that distinguished successful from unsuccessful cessation attempts, although data suggest that those who were successful could describe more individualized and concrete—rather than general—motivators and strategies. Conclusions Our findings indicate that cessation may be facilitated by multifaceted and individualized strategies, suggesting a need for personal and comprehensive approaches to treatment. PMID:25052788

  12. Personality Measures In Former Heroin Users Receiving Methadone or in Protracted Abstinence from Opiates

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lisa J.; Gertmenian-King, Enid; Kunik, Lauren; Weaver, Carrie; London, Edythe D.; Galynker, Igor

    2007-01-01

    Objective Methadone Maintenance Therapy (MMT) and detoxification to abstinence are among the most common treatment options for opiate-dependent patients. This paper compares personality traits in detoxified former heroin users and those on MMT in order to assess their relevance to treatment selection. Methods Twenty-six formerly heroin-dependent subjects receiving MMT (MM), 33 formerly heroin-dependent subjects withdrawn from MMT (MW), and 43 healthy controls were compared on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results On the TCI, MM patients had higher Novelty Seeking and lower Self Directedness scores than controls. Both MM and MW subjects scored higher than controls on multiple MCMI-II scales. MW but not MM subjects scored higher than controls on 2 Cluster A scales and the Delusional Disorder scale. Conclusions Schizophrenia-spectrum pathology in former opiate users may be greater than previously recognized and could potentially be relevant to treatment selection. PMID:15992397

  13. The process of paradoxical autonomy and survival in the heroin careers of Mexican American women

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Cepeda, Alice

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the process of paradoxical autonomy and survival in the heroin careers of Mexican American women. We explore how gender roles among Mexican American female heroin users influence the emergence of a paradoxical autonomy. Five key subprocesses of this autonomy were identified from 14 life history narratives: sustaining employment, working the welfare system, illegal activities, emotional aloofness, and loss of family and children. Dependency on drugs did not lead simply to the reproduction of traditional gender dependency but, paradoxically, seemed to contribute to a new type of gender autonomy. This autonomy did not necessarily make the survival less arduous, only more independent from gendered responsibilities associated with men and often with family and children. We discuss how this paradoxical autonomy is not acquired without ambiguity by some of these women, who place a value on maintaining relationships with men and family. Our study makes a contribution to a better understanding of the diverse processes by which Mexican American female heroin users struggle to survive. Although this struggle leads to a paradoxical autonomy from their traditional gender roles, it does little to change other barriers to self-development originating from poverty, ethnic discrimination, and the severity of their drug addiction. PMID:21057594

  14. 'I just want to be normal': An analysis of discourses of normality among recovering heroin users.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, Sarah; Neale, Joanne; Pickering, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    Research that has explored the lives of men and women recovering from heroin addiction has reported that users often claim that they 'just want to be normal'. Working within a Foucauldian tradition, we argue in this article that the notions of 'governmentality' and the 'norm' are especially apposite to understanding the ubiquity of this aspiration. Here we focus not on the formal institutions of governance that encourage individuals to adhere to social, cultural and political norms, but rather seek to explore recovering users' accounts of normality as they are envisaged and expressed. The reported empirical data were generated from interviews with 40 men and women in England at various stages of recovery from heroin use. The analytic focus is upon the accounts of normality articulated during the interviews in order to identify the ways in which being normal is presented by the participants. In keeping with the methodological tradition of discourse analysis we identify six discursive repertoires of 'normality talk' that transcend the accounts. It is concluded that the negotiation of normality is a precarious route for this social group. Articulations of a desire to be normal are replete with tensions; there are expressions of both resistance and resignation. Despite claims by some contemporary social theorists that diversity is the 'new normality', the accepted bounds of 'difference' are limited for those who have been addicted to heroin. PMID:22763795

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Saliva in HIV-Positive Heroin Addicts Reveals Proteins Correlated with Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Mark I.; Gritsenko, Marina; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last several years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse; however, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored. Saliva is the most accessible gut biofluid, and is therefore of great scientific interest for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This study presents a longitudinal, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics study investigating saliva samples taken from 8 HIV-positive (HIV+), 11 −negative (HIV−) heroin addicts. In addition, saliva samples were investigated from 11 HIV−, non-heroin addicted healthy controls. In the HIV+ group, 58 proteins were identified that show significant correlations with cognitive scores, implicating disruption of protein quality control pathways by HIV. Notably, only one protein from the HIV− heroin addict cohort showed a significant correlation with cognitive scores, and no proteins correlated with cognitive scores in the healthy control group. In addition, the majority of correlated proteins have been shown to be associated with exosomes, allowing us to propose that the salivary glands and/or oral epithelium may modulate brain function during HIV infection through the release of discrete packets of proteins in the form of exosomes. PMID:24717448

  16. AMTEC vapor-vapor series connected cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Mark L. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Nakamura, Barbara J. (Inventor); Oconnor, Dennis E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) having a plurality of cells structurally connected in series to form a septum dividing a plenum into two chambers, and electrically connected in series, is provided with porous metal anodes and porous metal cathodes in the cells. The cells may be planar or annular, and in either case a metal alkali vapor at a high temperature is provided to the plenum through one chamber on one side of the wall and returned to a vapor boiler after condensation at a chamber on the other side of the wall in the plenum. If the cells are annular, a heating core may be placed along the axis of the stacked cells. This arrangement of series-connected cells allows efficient generation of power at high voltage and low current.

  17. Deposition and biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Particle biokinetics is important in hazard identification and characterization of inhaled particles. Such studies intend to convert external to internal exposure or biologically effective dose, and may help to set limits in that way. Here we focus on the biokinetics of inhaled nanometer sized particles in comparison to micrometer sized ones. The presented approach ranges from inhaled particle deposition probability and retention in the respiratory tract to biokinetics and clearance of particles out of the respiratory tract. Particle transport into the blood circulation (translocation), towards secondary target organs and tissues (accumulation), and out of the body (clearance) is considered. The macroscopically assessed amount of particles in the respiratory tract and secondary target organs provides dose estimates for toxicological studies on the level of the whole organism. Complementary, microscopic analyses at the individual particle level provide detailed information about which cells and subcellular components are the target of inhaled particles. These studies contribute to shed light on mechanisms and modes of action eventually leading to adverse health effects by inhaled nanoparticles. We review current methods for macroscopic and microscopic analyses of particle deposition, retention and clearance. Existing macroscopic knowledge on particle biokinetics and microscopic views on particle organ interactions are discussed comparing nanometer and micrometer sized particles. We emphasize the importance for quantitative analyses and the use of particle doses derived from real world exposures. PMID:20205860

  18. Second Vapor-Level Sensor For Vapor Degreaser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, Nance M.; Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Second vapor-level sensor installed at lower level in vapor degreaser makes possible to maintain top of vapor at that lower level. Evaporation reduced during idle periods. Provides substantial benefit, without major capital cost of building new vapor degreaser with greater freeboard height.

  19. Gasoline Vapor Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Gasoline is volatile and some of it evaporates during storage, giving off hydrocarbon vapor. Formerly, the vapor was vented into the atmosphere but anti-pollution regulations have precluded that practice in many localities, so oil companies and storage terminals are installing systems to recover hydrocarbon vapor. Recovery provides an energy conservation bonus in that most of the vapor can be reconverted to gasoline. Two such recovery systems are shown in the accompanying photographs (mid-photo at right and in the foreground below). They are actually two models of the same system, although.configured differently because they are customized to users' needs. They were developed and are being manufactured by Edwards Engineering Corporation, Pompton Plains, New Jersey. NASA technological information proved useful in development of the equipment.

  20. Predictors of buprenorphine initial outpatient maintenance and dose taper response among non-treatment-seeking heroin dependent volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Woodcock, Eric A.; Lundahl, Leslie H.; Greenwald, Mark K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Buprenorphine (BUP) is effective for treating opioid use disorder. Individuals’ heroin-use characteristics may predict their responses to BUP, which could differ during maintenance and dose-taper phases. If so, treatment providers could use pre-treatment characteristics to personalize level of individual care and possibly improve treatment outcomes. Methods Non-treatment-seeking heroin-dependent volunteers (N=34) initiated outpatient BUP maintenance (8-mg/day) and submitted urine samples thrice weekly tested for opioids (non-contingent result). After completing three programmatically-related inpatient behavioral pharmacology experiments (while maintained on 8-mg/day BUP), participants were discharged and underwent a double-blind BUP dose taper (4-mg/day, 2-mg/day and 0-mg/day during weeks 1-3, respectively) with an opioid-abstinence incentive ($30 per consecutive opioid-negative urine specimen, obtained thrice weekly). Results Participants who reported less pre-study (past-month) heroin use and shorter lifetime duration of heroin use were more likely to submit an opioid-negative urine sample during initial outpatient BUP maintenance. Participants who reported more lifetime heroin-quit attempts and provided any opioid-free urine sample during initial outpatient maintenance sustained longer continuous opioid-abstinence during the BUP dose taper. Participants who reported >3 lifetime quit attempts abstained from opioid use nearly one week longer (14 vs. 8 days to opioid-lapse) and nearly half (46.7%) refrained from opioid use during dose taper. Conclusions Number of prior heroin quit attempts may predict BUP dose taper response and provide a metric for stratifying heroin-dependent individuals by relative risk for opioid lapse. This metric may inform personalized relapse prevention care and improve treatment outcomes. PMID:25479914