Science.gov

Sample records for herschel revolution unveiling

  1. Unveiling the Composite Nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riguccini, Laurie A.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Mullaney, James

    2015-08-01

    DOGs are bright 24um-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. Some of them are characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (T_D ~ 200-1000 K) in the near-IR emission indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an AGN. Whereas DOGs with a fainter 24um flux display a stellar bump and their mid-IR luminosity is believed to be mainly powered by dusty star-formation. Another explanation is that the mid-IR emission still comes from AGN activity but the torus emission is so obscured that it becomes negligible with respect to the emission from the host component.In an effort to characterize the nature of the physical processes underlying their IR emission, we focus on DOGs (F24/FR>982) within the COSMOS field with Herschel data and derive their far-IR properties (e.g., total IR luminosities; mid-to-far IR colors; dust temperatures and masses and AGN contribution) based on SED fitting.Of particular interest are the 24um-bright DOGs (F24>1mJy). They present bluer far-IR/mid-IR colors than the rest of the sample, unveiling the potential presence of an AGN. The AGN contribution to the total 8-1000um flux increases as a function of the rest-frame 8um-luminosity irrespective of the redshift, with a stronger contribution at lower redshift. This confirms that faint DOGs (F24<1mJy) are dominated by star-formation while brighter DOGs show a larger contribution from an AGN.Is this FIR-selection technique allowing us to probe a new population of obscured AGN? Or does it corresponds to already known AGN in the X-rays, NIR or radio? The wealth of multi wavelength data in COSMOS will allow us to describe our results here.

  2. A new 4D trajectory-based approach unveils abnormal LV revolution dynamics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Andrea; Piras, Paolo; Re, Federica; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Giura, Geltrude; Evangelista, Antonietta; Dominici, Tania; Varano, Valerio; Zachara, Elisabetta; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of left ventricular shape changes during cardiac revolution may be a new step in clinical cardiology to ease early diagnosis and treatment. To quantify these changes, only point registration was adopted and neither Generalized Procrustes Analysis nor Principal Component Analysis were applied as we did previously to study a group of healthy subjects. Here, we extend to patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the original approach and preliminarily include genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals to explore the potential that incumbent pathology might also be detected. Using 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, we recorded left ventricular shape of 48 healthy subjects, 24 patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 3 genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals. We then applied Generalized Procrustes Analysis and Principal Component Analysis and inter-individual differences were cleaned by Parallel Transport performed on the tangent space, along the horizontal geodesic, between the per-subject consensuses and the grand mean. Endocardial and epicardial layers were evaluated separately, different from many ecocardiographic applications. Under a common Principal Component Analysis, we then evaluated left ventricle morphological changes (at both layers) explained by first Principal Component scores. Trajectories' shape and orientation were investigated and contrasted. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to compare these morphometric indicators with traditional 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters. Geometric morphometrics indicators performed better than 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters in recognizing pathology both in systole and diastole. Genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals clustered with patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy during diastole, suggesting that incumbent pathology may indeed be foreseen by these methods. Left

  3. A New 4D Trajectory-Based Approach Unveils Abnormal LV Revolution Dynamics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, Andrea; Piras, Paolo; Re, Federica; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Giura, Geltrude; Evangelista, Antonietta; Dominici, Tania; Varano, Valerio; Zachara, Elisabetta; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of left ventricular shape changes during cardiac revolution may be a new step in clinical cardiology to ease early diagnosis and treatment. To quantify these changes, only point registration was adopted and neither Generalized Procrustes Analysis nor Principal Component Analysis were applied as we did previously to study a group of healthy subjects. Here, we extend to patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the original approach and preliminarily include genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals to explore the potential that incumbent pathology might also be detected. Using 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, we recorded left ventricular shape of 48 healthy subjects, 24 patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 3 genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals. We then applied Generalized Procrustes Analysis and Principal Component Analysis and inter-individual differences were cleaned by Parallel Transport performed on the tangent space, along the horizontal geodesic, between the per-subject consensuses and the grand mean. Endocardial and epicardial layers were evaluated separately, different from many ecocardiographic applications. Under a common Principal Component Analysis, we then evaluated left ventricle morphological changes (at both layers) explained by first Principal Component scores. Trajectories’ shape and orientation were investigated and contrasted. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to compare these morphometric indicators with traditional 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters. Geometric morphometrics indicators performed better than 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters in recognizing pathology both in systole and diastole. Genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals clustered with patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy during diastole, suggesting that incumbent pathology may indeed be foreseen by these methods

  4. A Herschel view of IC 1396 A: Unveiling the different sequences of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Henning, Thomas; Merín, Bruno; Eiroa, Carlos; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Currie, Thayne

    2014-02-01

    Context. The IC 1396 A globule, located to the west of the young cluster Tr 37, is known to host many very young stars and protostars, and is also assumed to be a site of triggered star formation. Aims: Our aim is to test the triggering mechanisms and sequences leading to star formation in Tr 37 and similar regions. Methods: We mapped IC 1396 A with Herschel/PACS at 70 and 160 μm. The maps reveal the structure of the most embedded parts of the star-forming site in great detail. Results: The Herschel/PACS maps trace the very embedded protostellar objects and the structure of the cloud. PACS data reveal a previously unknown Class 0 object, labeled IC 1396 A-PACS-1, located behind the ionization front. IC 1396 A-PACS-1 is not detectable with Spitzer, but shows marginal X-ray emission. The data also allow the study of three of the Class I intermediate-mass objects within the cloud. We derived approximate cloud temperatures to study the effect and potential interactions between the protostars and the cloud. The Class 0 object is associated with the densest and coldest part of IC 1396 A. Heating in the cloud is dominated by the winds and radiation of the O6.5 star HD 206267 and, to a lesser extent, by the effects of the Herbig Ae star V 390 Cep. The surroundings of the Class I and Class II objects embedded in the cloud also appear warmer than the sourceless areas, although most of the low-mass objects cannot be individually extracted owing to distance and beam dilution. Conclusions: The observations suggest that at least two episodes of star formation have occurred in IC 1396 A. One would have been the origin of the known, ˜1 Myr-old Class I and II objects in the cloud, and a new wave of star formation would have produced the Class 0 source at the tip of the bright-rimmed cloud. From its location and properties, IC 1396 A-PACS-1 is consistent with having been triggered via radiative driven implosion (RDI) induced by HD 206267. The mechanisms behind the formation of the

  5. Herschel observations of Hickson compact groups of galaxies: Unveiling the properties of cold dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Appleton, P. N.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Le Floc'h, E.; da Cunha, E.; Alatalo, K.; Cluver, M.

    2014-05-01

    We present a Herschel far-infrared and sub-millimetre (sub-mm) study of a sample of 120 galaxies in 28 Hickson compact groups (HCGs). Fitting their UV to sub-mm spectral energy distributions with the model of da Cunha et al. (2008), we accurately estimate the dust masses, luminosities, and temperatures of the individual galaxies. We find that nearly half of the late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups, those with more than 25% of early-type members and redder UV-optical colours, also have significantly lower dust-to-stellar mass ratios compared to those of actively star-forming galaxies of the same mass found both in HCGs and in the field. Examining their dust-to-gas mass ratios, we conclude that dust was stripped out of these systems as a result of the gravitational and hydrodynamic interactions, experienced owing to previous encounters with other group members. About 40% of the early-type galaxies (mostly lenticulars), in dynamically "old" groups, display dust properties similar to those of the UV-optical red late-type galaxies. Given their stellar masses, star formation rates, and UV-optical colours, we suggest that red late-type and dusty lenticular galaxies represent transition populations between blue star-forming disk galaxies and quiescent early-type ellipticals. On the other hand, both the complete absence of any correlation between the dust and stellar masses of the dusty ellipticals and their enhanced star formation activity, suggest the increase in their gas and dust content due to accretion and merging. Our deep Herschel observations also allow us to detect the presence of diffuse cold intragroup dust in 4 HCGs. We also find that the fraction of 250 μm emission that is located outside of the main bodies of both the red late-type galaxies and the dusty lenticulars is 15-20% of their integrated emission at this band. All these findings are consistent with an evolutionary scenario in which gas dissipation, shocks, and turbulence, in addition to

  6. Herschel observations of Hickson compact groups of galaxies: Unveiling the properties of cold dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsakis, Th.

    2013-09-01

    We present results of a Herschel far-IR and sub-mm study of a sample of 120 galaxies in 28 Hickson Compact Groups. Using the theoretical model of da Cunha et al. (2008), we have estimated the dust masses, luminosities and temperatures of the individual galaxies. Based on our results, we find that about half of the late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups, which were found to display redder UV-optical colors, have significantly lower dust-to-stellar mass ratios compared to those of actively star-forming galaxies of the same mass found both in HCGs and the field. Examining their dust-to-gas ratios we conclude that it is much easier for the dynamical interactions to strip the HI rather than the interstellar dust and H2 out of the galaxies. About 40% of the early-type galaxies (mostly lenticulars), of the dynamically "old" groups, where found to display similar dust properties with the "red" late-type galaxies. We detect the presence of diffuse cold dust in 4 HCGs and we estimate its mass. In addition, we quantify the fraction of the 250Ïm emission, which is located out of the main bodies of the "red" late-type galaxies to be 20% of their total emission at this band. Our findings suggest that the "red" late-type, as well as these lenticular galaxies should consist the transition populations between the star-forming and the quiescent galaxies sequences. On the other hand, the complete absence of any correlation between the dust and stellar masses of the elliptical galaxies (about 30% of the far-IR detected early-type galaxies), implies the external origin of their dust content.

  7. Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of revolution. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Following an introduction, material is…

  8. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  9. Unveiling Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lakhtakia, Ritu; Burney, Ikram; Qureshi, Asim; Al-Azawi, Sinan; Al-Badi, Hamid; Al-Hajri, Shaikha

    2015-08-01

    This article narrates a multifaceted educational journey undertaken by a medical student through a weekly SCRAPS (surgery, clinical disciplines, radiology, anatomy, psychiatry and laboratory sciences) clinico-pathological meeting held in the College of Medicine & Health Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman. Through a presentation titled 'Unveiling Cancer', the multidisciplinary and interprofessional audience witnessed a simulated interaction between a medical student, a technologist peer and tutors in medicine, pathology and radiology. The presentation was based on the complexities of presentation, diagnosis and management of a patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in the aftermath of a bone marrow transplantation. After describing the case, the student shared with the audience a spectrum of learning objectives, which included integration in the complex world of contemporary medicine, insight into the triumphs and travails of technology (immunohistochemistry) and peer collaboration, communication and mentorship. PMID:26355844

  10. Unveiling Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lakhtakia, Ritu; Burney, Ikram; Qureshi, Asim; Al-Azawi, Sinan; Al-Badi, Hamid; Al-Hajri, Shaikha

    2015-01-01

    This article narrates a multifaceted educational journey undertaken by a medical student through a weekly SCRAPS (surgery, clinical disciplines, radiology, anatomy, psychiatry and laboratory sciences) clinico-pathological meeting held in the College of Medicine & Health Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman. Through a presentation titled ‘Unveiling Cancer’, the multidisciplinary and interprofessional audience witnessed a simulated interaction between a medical student, a technologist peer and tutors in medicine, pathology and radiology. The presentation was based on the complexities of presentation, diagnosis and management of a patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in the aftermath of a bone marrow transplantation. After describing the case, the student shared with the audience a spectrum of learning objectives, which included integration in the complex world of contemporary medicine, insight into the triumphs and travails of technology (immunohistochemistry) and peer collaboration, communication and mentorship. PMID:26355844

  11. The Herschels and Modern Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerke, Agnes Mary

    2010-05-01

    Preface; 1. Early life of William Herschel; 2. The King's astronomer; 3. The explorer of the heavens; 4. Herschel's special investigations; 5. The influence of Herschel's career on modern astronomy; 6. Caroline Herschel; 7. Sir John Herschel at Cambridge and Slough; 8. Expedition to the Cape; 9. Life at Collingwood; 10. Writings and experimental investigations; Index.

  12. The Herschel Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, Eva

    2015-12-01

    The Herschel mission required a Science Archive able to serve data to very different users: The own Data Analysis Software (both Pipeline and Interactive Analysis), the consortia of the different instruments and the scientific community. At the same time, the KP consortia were committed to deliver to the Herschel Science Centre, the processed products corresponding to the data obtained as part of their Science Demonstration Phase and the Herschel Archive should include the capability to store and deliver them. I will explain how the current Herschel Science Archive is designed to cover all these requirements.

  13. The Herschel ATLAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eales, S.; Dunne, L.; Clements, D.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Maddox, S.; Negrello, M.; Serjeant, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Van Kampen, E.; Amblard, A.; Andreani, P.; Baes, M.; Beelen, A.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Benford, D.; Bock, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel ATLAS is the largest open-time key project that will be carried out on the Herschel Space Observatory. It will survey 570 sq deg of the extragalactic sky, 4 times larger than all the other Herschel extragalactic surveys combined, in five far-infrared and submillimeter bands. We describe the survey, the complementary multiwavelength data sets that will be combined with the Herschel data, and the six major science programs we are undertaking. Using new models based on a previous submillimeter survey of galaxies, we present predictions of the properties of the ATLAS sources in other wave bands.

  14. Herschel's Interference Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S.; Freeman, J. Reuben

    2000-01-01

    Describes Herschel's demonstration of interference arising from many coherent rays. Presents a method for students to reproduce this demonstration and obtain beautiful multiple-beam interference patterns. (CCM)

  15. Surgical revolutions.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    Many surgical revolutions distinguish the history and evolution of surgery. They come in different sizes and exert a variable effect on the development and practice of the discipline. As science and technology rapidly evolve, so too does the creation of new paradigms, ideas and innovations or discoveries for the improvement of the surgical sciences. Surgical revolutions are not new, and have existed for centuries even though they have been more frequently recognized since the middle of the 19th century, 20th century and down to the present. Surgical revolutionaries are indispensable in the conception and completion of any surgical revolution. However, scientific and technological advances have supported the culmination of each revolution. PMID:18615311

  16. Dunes of Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes on the floor of the large martian impact crater, Herschel, located in the Terra Cimmeria region of Mars. The winds responsible for these dunes blew from the northeast (upper right).

    Location near: 15.7oS, 228.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  17. Eisenhower Unveils Marshall Bust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Mrs. George C. Marshall unveil the bronze bust of General George C. Marshall during the dedication ceremony of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, on September 8, 1960. On October 21, 1959, President Eisenhower directed the transfer of personnel from the Redstone Arsenal's Army Ballistic Missile Agency Development Operations Division to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A new field installation of NASA was designated as George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and its complex was formed within the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. MSFC began its operation on July 1, 1960 after the transfer ceremony, with Dr. Werher von Braun as Center Director.

  18. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  19. Charles Darwin and John Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, B.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts of Charles Darwin, both through the former's book, Natural Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter's lifelong work on the subject.

  20. The REAL Caroline Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) is famous as the discoverer of eight comets, and the author of an Index to Flamsteed's British Catalogue of Stars, which the Royal Society published at its own expense. She was the devoted collaborator of her brother William during the twenty years he spent 'sweeping' for nebulae; and in old age she reorganized William's 2500 nebulae into a zone catalog that enabled his son John to re-examine these objects systematically, a work for which she was awarded a Gold Medal of the RAS. Nevertheless, study of her autobiographies and other manuscripts shows that her attitude to astronomy was ambivalent. William had rescued her from drudgery in Hanover, and her primary concern was to express her gratitude to him, even when his interests turned from music to astronomy and as a result she was required to abandon her career as a singer. Yet although the decision was hers, she often resented the sacrifice she had made. She emerges as a complex and often troubled personality, very different from the serene observer of legend.

  1. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  2. John Herschel and astronomy: a bicentennial appraisal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M. A.

    An assessment is given of John Herschel's overall contributions to nineteenth century astronomy. John Herschel built on his pioneering father William Herschel's foundations, with revisions and extensions to the southern hemisphere. His work, incorporated into his general treatises on astronomy, had a major influence on the direction of astronomical progress.

  3. John Herschel: Britain's first modern physical scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, M. J.

    The author presents a sketch of the life and contributions to science of Sir John F. W. Herschel (1792 - 1871). One of the theses he develops is that John Herschel can meaningfully be described as Britain's first modern physical scientist. In addition to developing this thesis, the author makes some remarks about lesser known aspects of Herschel's life.

  4. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  5. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  6. The Herschel knighthoods under scrutiny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-06-01

    William Herschel and his son John, respectively the first and fourth Presidents of the Royal Astronomical Society, were each "knights" of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order and were (and are) commonly referred to as "Sir". But, as Michael Hoskin explains, the Guelphic Order, being foreign, in fact conferred no title on British holders.

  7. The Green Revolution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  8. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  9. An evergreen revolution.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S

    2000-04-01

    The term 'Green Revolution' was coined in 1968 to indicate revolutionary improvements in crop yield in several Asian countries. Many of these improvements came at the cost of adverse environmental effects in areas subjected to intensive farming. However, where population pressure is high, there is no option except to produce more food. Productivity must increase, but in ways which are environmentally safe, economically viable and socially sustainable. This has been christened an 'Evergreen Revolution'. PMID:11190235

  10. The Cosmology of William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M.

    2009-08-01

    William Herschel was an amateur astronomer for half his life, until his discovery of Uranus earned him a royal pension. He then set himself to study "the construction of the heavens" with great reflectors, and discovered over 2,500 nebulae and star clusters. Clusters had clearly formed by the action of gravity, and so scattered clusters would in time become ever more compressed: scattered clusters were young, compressed clusters old. This marked the end of the 'clockwork' universe of Newton and Leibniz.

  11. Herschel flight models sorption coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duband, L.; Clerc, L.; Ercolani, E.; Guillemet, L.; Vallcorba, R.

    2008-03-01

    The Herschel and Planck satellites will be jointly launched on an ARIANE 5 in 2008. The Herschel payload consists of three instruments built by international scientific consortia, heterodyne instrument for first (HIFI), photo-conductor array camera and spectrometer (PACS) and spectral and photometric imaging receiver (SPIRE). The spacecraft provides the environment for astronomical observations in the infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength range requiring cryogenic temperatures for the cold focal plane units. The spectral and photometric imaging receiver (SPIRE) will cover the 200-670 μm spectral range using bolometric detectors, as the photo-conductor array camera and spectrometer (PACS) will cover the 60-210 μm spectral range. Both instruments SPIRE and PACS feature detectors operating at 300 mK. This cooling will be effected by two helium sorption coolers developed at the Service des Basses Températures of the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA-SBT). These coolers based on an evaporative cooling cycle features no moving parts and can be recycled indefinitely pending the availability of a cold heat sink at temperature below 3 K. Several models were developed in the course of the Herschel program and this paper deals with the design, manufacturing and qualification of the flight model coolers.

  12. The Chemical Revolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hasok

    2015-02-01

    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination. PMID:26109414

  13. Ireland unveils new license regime

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Ireland has unveiled new terns designed to integrate the licensing regime for oil and gas exploration and development. They apply to new exploration and development authorizations and replace the exclusive offshore licensing terns introduced in 1975. Holders of existing licenses are still subject to the 1975 terms but can choose the new terns under appropriate circumstances. Frontier exploration licenses are currently available to complement the standard and deepwater exploration licenses in use. Rental fees are now spread evenly over the duration of the license, thereby eliminating large upfront payments. Lease extensions also have been introduced to enable operators to judge commerciality of a discovery beyond the set license period.

  14. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  15. Architecture and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Porter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Traces how technological changes affect the architecture of the workplace. Traces these effects from the industrial revolution up through the computer revolution. Offers suggested designs for the computerized office of today and tomorrow. (JM)

  16. The Herschel Point Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Schulz, Bernhard; Altieri, Bruno; Calzoletti, Luca; Kiss, Csaba; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Paladini, Roberta; Papageorgiou, Andreas; Pearson, Chris; Rector, John; Shupe, David; Valtchanov, Ivan; Verebélyi, Erika; Xu, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the submillimetre and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinized and still has potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments that scanned >10% of the sky at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 microns. Some source catalogs have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that would never be analyzed for their full source content. To maximize the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, our international team of instrument experts is in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalog (HPSC) from all scan map observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The extracted point sources will contain individual YSOs of our Galaxy, unresolved YSO clusters in resolved nearby galaxies and unresolved galaxies of the local and distant Universe that are related to star formation. Such a huge dataset will help scientists better understand the evolution from interstellar clouds to individual stars. Furthermore the analysis of stellar clusters and the star formation on galactic scales will add more details to the understanding of star formation laws through time.We present our findings on comparison of different source detection and photometric tools. First results of the extractions are shown along with the description of our pipelines and catalogue entries. We also provide an additional science product, the structure noise map, that is used for the quality assessment of the catalogue in

  17. The Brain Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1998-01-01

    A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

  18. The Unfinished Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgmore, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The 157 Group recently published "Adult further education--the unfinished revolution," a policy paper setting out proposals for a truly market-driven further education sector in which the choices of individuals and individual employers are central in determining the programmes that are offered. Their overall aim is to allow institutions to respond…

  19. The High Tech Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, Robert Arnold

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of the effects of Information Revolution on special libraries highlights changes in clients that consume services and approve budgets (institutions, corporations, government departments); interrelated triggers to informationization (network organization, information technology, human capital); and three types of information for…

  20. The Skills Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The government, through several White and Green Papers, has promoted the 'Skills Revolution'. This requires central direction and coordination of a wide range of policies, practices and partnerships. But there are several difficulties: the impossibility of micromanaging the complex social and economic system; the dominance of the rather limited…

  1. Nicaragua: Literacy and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenal, Fernando; Miller, Valerie

    1982-01-01

    A national adult literacy program was established in Nicaragua in 1979, after the Sandanista revolution, as part of a plan for socio-economic development. Program development, implementation and evaluation methods, curriculum content, educational methodology, and teacher training methods are described. (AM)

  2. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  3. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  4. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms, revolutions…

  5. Cyberinfrastructure: The Second Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bement, Arden L.

    2007-01-01

    The engine of change for the next revolution is cyberinfrastructure, a comprehensive phenomenon that involves the creation, dissemination, preservation, and application of knowledge. It adds new dimensions that greatly increase transformational potential. Cyberinfrastructure combines complex elements to create a dynamic system. It eclipses its…

  6. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Tappert, Claus; Hoffman, Douglas I.; Campbell, Ryan K. E-mail: rthamilt@nmsu.edu E-mail: dhoffman@ipac.caltech.edu

    2013-01-01

    We have used the PACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe eight cataclysmic variables at 70 and 160 {mu}m. Of these eight objects, only AM Her was detected. We have combined the Herschel results with ground-based, Spitzer, and WISE observations to construct spectral energy distributions for all of the targets. For the two dwarf novae in the sample, SS Cyg and U Gem, we find that their infrared luminosities are completely dominated by their secondary stars. For the two highly magnetic 'polars' in our survey, AM Her and EF Eri, we find that their mid-infrared excesses, previously attributed to circumbinary dust emission, can be fully explained by cyclotron emission. The WISE light curves for both sources show large, orbitally modulated variations that are identically phased to their near-IR light curves. We propose that significant emission from the lowest cyclotron harmonics (n {<=} 3) is present in EF Eri and AM Her. Previously, such emission would have been presumed to be optically thick, and not provide significant orbitally modulated flux. This suggests that the accretion onto polars is more complicated than assumed in the simple models developed for these two sources. We develop a model for the near-/mid-IR light curves for WZ Sge with an L2 donor star that shows that the ellipsoidal variations from its secondary star are detected. We conclude that none of the targets surveyed have dusty circumbinary disks.

  7. Filaments, ridges and a mini-starburst - HOBYS' view of high mass star formation with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T.; Motte, F.; Didelon, P.

    2012-03-01

    With its unprecedented spatial resolution and high sensitivity, Herschel is revolutionising our understanding of high mass star formation and the interstellar medium (ISM). In particular, Herschel is unveiling the filamentary structure and molecular cloud constituents of the ISM where star formation takes place. The Herschel Imaging Survey of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS; Motte, Zavagno, Bontemps, see http://www.herschel.fr/cea/hobys/en/index.php) key program targets burgeoning young stellar objects with the aim of characterising them and the environments in which they form. HOBYS has already proven fruitful with many clear examples of high-mass star formation in nearby molecular cloud complexes (e.g. Motte et al., 2010). Through multi-wavelength Herschel observations I will introduce select regions of the HOBYS program, including Vela C, M16 and W48 to start. These data are rich with filamentary structures and a wealth of sources which span a large mass range including, low, intermediate and high-mass objects in the pre-collapse or protostellar phase of formation, many of which will proceed to form stars. The natal filaments themselves come in many shapes and sizes, they can form thick ridge-like structures, be dispersed in low column density regions or cluster in higher density regions. In Vela C, high-mass star formation proceeds preferentially in high column density supercritical filaments, called ridges, which may result from the constructive convergence of flows (Hill et al., 2011). I will present other examples of ridges identified in HOBYS regions. In addition, I will present the latest results on the Eagle Nebula (M16). This region was made iconic by Hubble, but only Herschel can trace the cold, dense early prestellar phases of star formation, and their natal interstellar filaments, in this infamous star-forming complex. The cavity ionised by the nearby OB cluster in M16 serves to heat the Pillars of Creation and the surrounding interstellar filaments

  8. Caroline Herschel: 'the unquiet heart'.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Caroline Herschel was famous in her own time as the discoverer of eight comets, but of even greater significance was the help she gave her brother William in his exploration of 'the construction of the heavens'. She acted as his amanuensis during night watches, wrote up neat copies of their observing records and prepared his papers for publication. She also compiled an index to John Flamsteed's Star Catalogue, which was published by the Royal Society at its own expense, and after William's death she reorganized his catalogues of nebulae so that his son John could revise his father's work. Yet Caroline's was a hard and largely loveless life, for which she found the recognition that came her way a scant consolation. PMID:15749149

  9. Strategy as revolution.

    PubMed

    Hamel, G

    1996-01-01

    How often does the strategic-planning process start with senior executives asking what the rest of the organization can teach them about the future? Not often enough, argues Gary Hamel. In many companies, strategy making is an elitist procedure and ¿strategy¿ consists of nothing more than following the industry's rules. But more and more companies, intent on overturning the industrial order, are rewriting those rules. What can industry incumbents do? Either surrender the future to revolutionary challengers or revolutionize the way their companies create strategy. What is needed is not a tweak to the traditional strategic-planning process, Hamel says, but a new philosophical foundation: strategy is revolution. Hamel offers ten principles to help a company think about the challenge of creating truly revolutionary strategies. Perhaps the most fundamental principle is that so-called strategic planning doesn't produce true strategic innovation. The traditional planning process is little more than a rote procedure in which deeply held assumptions and industry conventions are reinforced rather than challenged. Such a process harnesses only a tiny proportion of an organization's creative potential. If there is to be any hope of industry revolution, senior managers must give up their monopoly on the creation of strategy. They must embrace a truly democratic process that can give voice to the revolutionaries that exist in every company. If senior managers are unwilling to do this, employees must become strategy activists. The opportunities for industry revolution are mostly unexplored. One thing is certain: if you don't let the revolutionaries challenge you from within, they will eventually challenge you from without--in the marketplace. PMID:10158475

  10. OPACs and the Mobile Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, one of the hottest topics in the IT world has been the coming mobile revolution. While there's been some arguing over the details, the fundamental tenet of the mobile revolution is that lots and lots of people will start accessing web content from handheld portable devices instead of using a traditional laptop or…

  11. The Scientific Revolution: Paradigm Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Traces the historiography of the scientific revolution through a bibliographic essay. Examines trends in recent scholarly publications in an effort to identify new areas of research. Maintains that the study of the scientific revolution is problematic and cannot be reduced to simple analysis. (RW)

  12. Three Steps to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, W.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the uses of television in education and considers the future in relationship to the microelectronics revolution. New microelectronic technology, cheap information storage, and cheap transmission of information are discussed as major components of a revolution in educational television use. (Author/BK)

  13. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  14. Women and the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Contends that anyone teaching the history of the American Revolution today faces the challenge of including the role of women. Asserts that historians continue to debate whether the changes in women's role and status were necessary or incidental outcomes of the Revolution. (CFR)

  15. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  16. Tracking a Global Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.; Reisberg, Liz; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    A global revolution has been taking place in higher education during the past half-century. In the educators' view, four fundamental and interrelated forces have impelled the current academic revolution: the "massification" of higher education, globalization, the advent of the knowledge society and the importance of research universities within…

  17. Revolutions in the earth sciences

    PubMed Central

    Allègre, C.

    1999-01-01

    The 20th century has been a century of scientific revolutions for many disciplines: quantum mechanics in physics, the atomic approach in chemistry, the nonlinear revolution in mathematics, the introduction of statistical physics. The major breakthroughs in these disciplines had all occurred by about 1930. In contrast, the revolutions in the so-called natural sciences, that is in the earth sciences and in biology, waited until the last half of the century. These revolutions were indeed late, but they were no less deep and drastic, and they occurred quite suddenly. Actually, one can say that not one but three revolutions occurred in the earth sciences: in plate tectonics, planetology and the environment. They occurred essentially independently from each other, but as time passed, their effects developed, amplified and started interacting. These effects continue strongly to this day.

  18. Caroline Herschel as an Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M. A.

    2005-08-01

    Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) made an immense contribution to astronomy as amanuensis to her brother William during his sweeps for nebulae that resulted in catalogues of 2507 nebulae and clusters, but she was also an observer on her own account. From their arrival near Windsor in the fall of 1782 until William required her services at the beginning of 1784, she was free to observe when she so wished. During this time she discovered a number of nebulae, and, more importantly, demonstrated to William that nebulae were there in such numbers that even an amateur with a primitive refractor could find them. There then followed years when William's need for her help limited the time for her own observing, but in 1786, during his absence abroad, she discovered her first comet. In the period between William's marriage in 1788 (which relieved her of household duties) and her inexplicable move into lodgings in 1797, she found seven more, including Encke's Comet. In my paper I assess her work as an observer and discuss the objects she found.

  19. Herschel and the Molecular Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Helmich, F. P.

    2006-01-01

    Over the next decade, space-based missions will open up the universe to high spatial and spectral resolution studies at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. This will allow us to study, in much greater detail, the composition and the origin and evolution of molecules in space. Moreover, molecular transitions in these spectral ranges provide a sensitive probe of the dynamics and the physical and chemical conditions in a wide range of objects at scales ranging from budding planetary systems to galactic and extragalactic sizes. Hence, these missions provide us with the tools to study key astrophysical and astrochemical processes involved in the formation and evolution of planets, stars, and galaxies. These new missions can be expected to lead to the detection of many thousands of new spectral features. Identification, analysis and interpretation of these features in terms of the physical and chemical characteristics of the astronomical sources will require detailed astronomical modeling tools supported by laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of chemical reactions and collisional excitation rates on species of astrophysical relevance. These data will have to be made easily accessible to the scientific community through web-based data archives. In this paper, we will review the Herschel mission and its expected impact on our understanding of the molecular universe.

  20. Contraception: a social revolution.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2007-03-01

    Modern contraceptive technology is more than a technical advance: it has brought about a true social revolution, the 'first reproductive revolution' in the history of mankind. This latter was followed in rapid succession by other major changes in human reproductive strategies. In the human species, sexual activity began to lose its exclusive reproductive meaning at an early stage of its evolution. Human beings must have practiced non-conceptive sex from the outset and therefore must have had a need to avoid, rather than to seek conception during intercourse from time immemorial. The search for methods to control fertility went on for millennia, but a valid solution was only found during the twentieth century, when the population explosion had forever changed the shape of humanity: in only one century the total population of the planet had grown from some 1.6 billion to more than 6 billion. That increase will remain unique in the history of Homo sapiens. At the global level, contraception provided a tool to deal with overpopulation and, in only 50 years, went a long way towards its resolution. However, to solve the problem, national and international family planning initiatives were required. For individuals, contraception also meant a revolution. It allowed sexual intercourse without reproduction. Only 25 years later, in vitro fertilisation permitted childbearing without sexual intercourse. Other advances followed and now cloning, that is, reproduction without the two gametes, looms on the horizon. Such a series of rapid, major changes in human reproductive strategies has confused many. For this reason, a constructive dialogue between sociology and biology is mandatory. Contraception is a powerful tool to promote equity between sexes; it improves women's status in the family and in the community. Avoiding pregnancy during the teens increases opportunities for a young woman's education, training and employment. By controlling their fertility, women get a chance to

  1. On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is “statistically significant.” On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are “insignificant.” Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

  2. On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2013-08-01

    We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is "statistically significant." On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are "insignificant." Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

  3. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in…

  4. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as 'epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  5. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  6. Herschel-detected LBGs at 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojno, Jennifer L.; Nichols, M. T.; Haberzettl, L.; Williger, G. M.; Leist, B.

    2014-01-01

    Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) are well-known indicators of star formation. By analyzing the dust of moderate redshift ( 2) LBGs, we can further investigate the properties of these strongly star forming galaxies at an epoch when global star formation is expected to peak. Using data observed by Herschel and publicly available via PEP (PACS Evolutionary Probe) and the HerMES (Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey) surveys, we derive far-infrared fluxes for our color-selected sample of 73 LBGs in the GOODS-S field. This sample includes a subsample of 14 infrared-luminous LBGs (ILLBGs). Measuring fluxes in the 70, 100, and 160 µm PACS bands, as well as the 250, 350, 500 µm SPIRE bands, we fit modified Planck curves and model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to make estimations for dust temperatures and masses for our Herschel-detected LBGs.

  7. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  8. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF INTERSTELLAR CHLORONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, David A.; Indriolo, Nick; Roueff, Evelyne; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Snell, Ronald L.; Lis, Dariusz; Monje, Raquel; Phillips, Thomas G.; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Black, John H.; Larsson, Bengt; De Luca, Massimo; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Gupta, Harshal; Melnick, Gary J.; Menten, Karl M.; Nagy, Zsofia; and others

    2012-03-20

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared, we have observed para-chloronium (H{sub 2}Cl{sup +}) toward six sources in the Galaxy. We detected interstellar chloronium absorption in foreground molecular clouds along the sight lines to the bright submillimeter continuum sources Sgr A (+50 km s{sup -1} cloud) and W31C. Both the para-H{sup 35}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and para-H{sup 37}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} isotopologues were detected, through observations of their 1{sub 11}-0{sub 00} transitions at rest frequencies of 485.42 and 484.23 GHz, respectively. For an assumed ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 3, the observed optical depths imply that chloronium accounts for {approx}4%-12% of chlorine nuclei in the gas phase. We detected interstellar chloronium emission from two sources in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1: the Orion Bar photodissociation region and the Orion South condensation. For an assumed OPR of 3 for chloronium, the observed emission line fluxes imply total beam-averaged column densities of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} and {approx}1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, respectively, for chloronium in these two sources. We obtained upper limits on the para-H{sup 35}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} line strengths toward H{sub 2} Peak 1 in the Orion Molecular cloud and toward the massive young star AFGL 2591. The chloronium abundances inferred in this study are typically at least a factor {approx}10 larger than the predictions of steady-state theoretical models for the chemistry of interstellar molecules containing chlorine. Several explanations for this discrepancy were investigated, but none has proven satisfactory, and thus the large observed abundances of chloronium remain puzzling.

  9. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    ScienceCinema

    Lemonick, Michael [Princeton University and Time Magazine, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2010-01-08

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus?the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  10. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonick, Michael

    2008-11-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus—the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  11. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonick, Michael

    2008-11-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus - the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  12. Germany unveils €18bn research plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The German government has unveiled an ambitious plan to inject a total of €18bn into teaching and research over the next decade. The German chancellor Angela Merkel, who has a degree in physics, announced that she was releasing the funds despite concerns from her social-democrat coalition partners that financing the package could be difficult in the economic downturn.

  13. Revised list of Sir William Herschel's Fields of Diffuse Nebulosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latusseck, A.

    2008-12-01

    William Herschel's catalogue of more than 2500 nonstellar celestial objects is without doubt one of the great astronomical achievements of this exceptional astronomer. Largely unknown, however, is a list containing fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity, which Herschel published in 1811 as a supporting argument to his nebular hypothesis (Herschel, 1811: 275-276), all of which were observed as a by-product of his sweeps between 1783 and 1802. For the purpose of a final revision of Herschel's objects, his sister Caroline's copies of the eight observing books containing the results of his decade-long sweeps (Herschel, Herschel and Herschel, 2004) were analyzed. As a result, a number of errors and inaccuracies were found and corrected. Furthermore, the terminology used to describe the observed nebulosities--which differed widely from that used by Herschel to describe non-stellar objects in his better-known catalogues of nebulae--was investigated in order to obtain a clearer impression of the appearance of Herschel's objects. The resulting revised list, being one principal result of the review of Herschel's list of fifty-two nebulosities, contains corrected physical information on each of the nebulosities. It further gives estimates on the reliability of Herschel's observations and finally summarizes all of the noticed peculiarities in a separate column.

  14. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  15. The Copernican Revolution Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    1999-12-01

    The rapid pace of modern astronomy seems driven by technological advances: larger telescopes, new detectors, a wider spectral range, more powerful computers. In contrast, the revolution in astronomy initiated by Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus seems slow and unrelated to any new observations; it was an idea ``pleasing to the mind." On aesthetic grounds but without empirical proof Copernicus argued for 1) the perfection of the circle, and 2) the elegance of the heliocentric plan. This prize lecture will argue that in fact the slow acceptance of Copernicus' radical heliocentric cosmology resulted primarily because Copernicus was far in advance of the technological developments needed to test his hypotheses. Tycho Brahe's precision instruments (and his failed campaign to find the parallax of Mars) produced the observational base for Kepler's physical astronomy, while in Galileo's hands the telescope provided evidence from the phases of Venus that disproved the Ptolemaic arrangement. Once the new instrumentation opened the way for observational tests, Copernicus' insistence on the uniform, circular motion fell by the wayside, but his other grand aesthetic vision, the heliocentric cosmology, found relatively rapid adoption. The lecture will include vignettes from our three-decades-long search for annotated copies of Copernicus' book, leading to the census of 270 copies of the first edition (Nuremberg, 1543) and nearly 320 copies of the second edition (Basel, 1566).

  16. Nanosciences: Evolution or revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautrat, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    In miniaturized objects fabricated by modern technology the smallest linear size may be of a few nanometers. In the field of microelectronics, the advantages of such a miniaturization are huge (increased complexity and reliability, reduced costs). The technology is now approaching the limits where further size reduction will be impossible, except for very novel techniques such as molecular electronics. Miniaturization research has also led to the discovery of nanometric objects such as carbon nanotubes, which turn out to be particularly appropriate for inventing new materials. Miniaturization techniques have been progressively applied in other fields, with the hope of obtaining improvements similar to those encountered in microelectronics. Examples are biochips, which concentrate on a few cm 2 the recognition of ADN sequences, or 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, each of which constitutes a whole laboratory of chemical analysis, or MEMs (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems). New therapies will use miniaturized objects with multiple functions: For instance a nanoparticle can both recognize the target organ thanks to an appropriate protein, and deliver the therapeutic molecule to this target. These results have only been possible through new observation instruments, able to observe and manipulate nano objects. Is the observed evolution really a revolution of science and techniques? This is a point discussed in the conclusion, which also deals with risks associated to nanotechnologies, while the need for a social regulation is stressed.

  17. China's revolution in health.

    PubMed

    Miller, N N; Strickler, J C

    1980-01-01

    Since the revolution and the overthrow of the Gang of Four, China has embarked upon a program of modernization, internationalization, and technological development. The sloganeering campaign for general health as espoused by Chairman Mao is as follows: 1) prevention, including immunizations and early illness detection; 2) serve the workers, peasants, and soldiers; 3) medical work integrated into all other modernization efforts; and 4) combine traditional and Western medicine. The mass campaign aims to involve individuals in improving their health care facilities at the same time they are involved in production of goods and services. Rural workers are mobilized in mass cleanup and prevention campaigns. Of the 8.7 million health workers, nearly 2 million are barefoot doctors, or other types of doctors serving at the lowest rung of paramedical service. Basic services are widely available. Costs are low, access is easy. For about 95% of illnesses the system works very well. Patients with illnesses requiring high technology care, e.g., organ transplant, cannot survive. Chairman Mao codified traditional medicine as a curriculum component for education; it is based on ancient West-Central Chinese practices, mostly from the Han people. The 4 main components are theory, diagnosis and prescription, herbal medicine, and accupuncture. PMID:12336183

  18. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  19. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development.

    PubMed

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn's account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of "higher" cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool's motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn's famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  20. The HERSCHEL/PACS early Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieprecht, E.; Wetzstein, M.; Huygen, R.; Vandenbussche, B.; De Meester, W.

    2006-07-01

    ESA's Herschel Space Observatory to be launched in 2007, is the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength range (60 - 670 microns). The Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) is one of the three science instruments. It contains two Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays and two bolometer arrays to perform imaging line spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the 60 - 210 micron wavelength band. The HERSCHEL ground segment (Herschel Common Science System - HCSS) is implemented using JAVA technology and written in a common effort by the HERSCHEL Science Center and the three instrument teams. The PACS Common Software System (PCSS) is based on the HCSS and used for the online and offline analysis of PACS data. For telemetry bandwidth reasons PACS science data are partially processed on board, compressed, cut into telemetry packets and transmitted to the ground. These steps are instrument mode dependent. We will present the software model which allows to reverse the discrete on board processing steps and evaluate the data. After decompression and reconstruction the detector data and instrument status information are organized in two main PACS Products. The design of these JAVA classes considers the individual sampling rates, data formats, memory and performance optimization aspects and comfortable user interfaces.

  1. Cuba. A healthy revolution?

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M; Haendel, M

    1991-01-01

    Discussing Cuba's remarkable accomplishments in health care, this article considers the cost of maintaining such a system at a time of economic hardship. Following the revolution of 1959, Cuba has achieved immense advances in health care. Today, its infant mortality rate if the lowest in Latin America and at par with industrialized countries. Its life expectancy is actually higher than that of the US. At 1 doctor for every 297 inhabitants, Cuba has one of the highest ratios in the world. Furthermore, the island nation has created a pharmaceutical industry that supplies 80% of the country's needs, and has a developed high-tech medical techniques which rival the best in the world. And beginning in mid-1980s, Cuba began the Family Doctor Program, in which a physician lives and works in the neighborhood and acts as a public health advocate, while remaining part of the larger health care system. The program has been very popular with the population, and evidence suggests that the program has been highly successful in reducing infant mortality, the number of emergency room visits, and the average hospital stay. Despite its remarkable success, Cuba's health care system does attract criticism. Some charge that Cubans are "over-medicated," and that Cubans no longer take responsibility for their health. Also, some charge that the country has too many doctors and not enough assistants, nurses, and midwives. These criticisms have become even more pointed, as the country's economic crisis deepens. People complain about the scarcity of food. And due to drastic cuts in Soviet aid and the US blockade, Cuba has been forced to impose severe austerity measures. While the authors believe it unlikely that Cuba will be able to maintain its health care system, they say that ending it will be tragic. PMID:12159276

  2. Telemedicine: the slow revolution.

    PubMed

    Moncrief, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    The use of interactive video has been recognized as a means of delivering medical support to isolated areas since the 1950s. The Department of Defense recognized early the capacity of telemedicine to deliver medical care and support to front-line military personnel. In 1989, the Texas Telemedicine Project received grants and support from the then American Telephone and Telegraph Company (now AT&T) and the Meadows Foundation of Dallas, Texas, to establish and evaluate telemedicine delivery in central Texas. That project had 6 connected telemedicine sites: 3 in Austin, Texas, and 3 in Giddings, Texas (a small community 55 miles to the southeast of Austin). The sites in Giddings included a chronic outpatient dialysis facility, an inpatient psychiatric hospital, and the emergency department at Giddings Hospital. Patient contact began in April 1991 and continued through March 1993. During that period, data on the 1500 patient contacts made were recorded. After termination of the Texas Telemedicine Project, AT&T continued to provide the transmission lines, and between 1993 and 1996, another 12,000 patient contacts were made. Approximately 80% were dialysis evaluations and 20% were non-dialysis primary care contacts. The original cost of materials and equipment in the Texas Telemedicine Project exceeded $50,000 per site. Today, a secure Internet connection with full-motion video and wireless data transfer to almost any location in the world is achievable with an iPad. Multiple inexpensive applications with connections for electrocardiogram, otoscope, and stethoscope, among others, make this technology extremely inexpensive and user-friendly. The revolution now is rapidly moving forward, with Medicare reimbursing telemedicine contacts in medically underserved areas. Multiple bills are before Congress to expand Medicare and therefore private insurance payment for this service. PMID:25338434

  3. Support of Herschel Key Programme Teams at the NASA Herschel Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, David L.; Appleton, P. N.; Ardila, D.; Bhattacharya, B.; Mei, Y.; Morris, P.; Rector, J.; NHSC Team

    2010-01-01

    The first science data from the Herschel Space Observatory were distributed to Key Programme teams in September 2009. This poster describes a number of resources that have been developed by the NASA Herschel Science Center (NHSC) to support the first users of the observatory. The NHSC webpages and Helpdesk serve as the starting point for information and queries from the US community. Details about the use of the Herschel Common Science Software can be looked up in the Helpdesk Knowledgebase. The capability of real-time remote support through desktop sharing has been implemented. The NHSC continues to host workshops on data analysis and observation planning. Key Programme teams have been provided Wiki sites upon request for their team's private use and for sharing information with other teams. A secure data storage area is in place for troubleshooting purposes and for use by visitors. The NHSC draws upon close working relationships with Instrument Control Centers and the Herschel Science Center in Madrid in order to have the necessary expertise on hand to assist Herschel observers, including both Key Programme teams and respondents to upcoming open time proposal calls.

  4. A Revolution that never happened.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ursula

    2015-02-01

    If we define scientific revolutions as changes of scientists' ontologies, types of causal explanation, and paradigmatic types of methods and instruments, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier's contribution to chemistry did not amount to a scientific revolution. Contrary to the received view that Lavoisier initiated a "chemical revolution," which is accepted by Chang and Kusch, I argue that Lavoisier shared with the phlogistonists their "flat ontology" of chemical substance, established decades before the 1770s, their types of explaining chemical transformation, and their quantitative methods. Based on my historical reconstruction, I criticize Chang's argument that the late eighteenth-century phlogistic systems and Lavoisier's system belonged to two different theoretical traditions. As a consequence, I also question Chang's argument that the acceptance of Lavoisier's system can be explained in terms of dominance of "compositionism" over "principlism." PMID:26109413

  5. Quality-Enhanced Legacy Products in the Herschel Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, D.

    2016-05-01

    There is on-going effort within the Herschel Ground Segment to improve the data quality and science readiness of the Herschel standard Products. These Highly-Processed Data Products will focus both on dedicated data post-processing, and source and line catalogue generation. Eventually they shall be stored and served by the Herschel Science Archive. We present here an overview of the work packages contemplated in this effort.

  6. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  7. Herschel Observations of Debris Disks from WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, D. L.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Liu, W.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.

    2012-01-01

    The \\Vide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6,12 and 22 microns. We report on a study of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars within 120 pc with WISE 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred of the WISE new warm debris disk candidates detected among FGK stars are being observed by Herschel/PACS to characterize circumstellar dust. Preliminary results indicate 70 micron detection rates in excess of 80% for these targets, suggesting that most of these systems have both warm and cool dust in analogy to our asteroid and Kuiper belts. In this contribution, we will discuss the WISE debris disk survey and latest results from Herschel observations of these sources.

  8. John Herschel on the Discovery of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2006-12-01

    The letters of John Herschel that concern the discovery of the planet Neptune have not been greatly discussed by historians of science. I have transcribed these in the course of archiving the British Neptune-discovery documents. Herschel tends to be depicted as a background figure in narrations of the story of Neptune's discovery, whereas the present account focuses upon his evolving view of the topic: the rival merits of the two main protagonists, and the startling manner in which an obscure branch of mathematics (perturbation theory) was able to pinpoint the position of a new sphere in the sky. As the son of the man who found Uranus, his views have a special relevance. Also, I suggest that his eloquent prose style may still be enjoyed today.

  9. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  10. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  11. The Herschels: A very fashionable scientific family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterburn, Emily

    2011-01-01

    What is special about the Herschel family? It is a family that has attracted the attention of historians of science for many years and has done so for a number of reasons. Some simply marvel at the family's ability to have produced generations upon generation of great men and women of science. Others have highlighted the work of individuals within the family and how their work changed the way astronomy was done, what it was about, and then later did the same for science as a whole. The unusually high status enjoyed by Herschel women, Caroline Herschel in particular, has not escaped notice, though I will here question some of the conclusions drawn about her motivations. Most of all, however I will argue in this paper, they should be interesting to a modern audience for the way in which they managed time and again, generation on generation, to make science fashionable and popular. In this paper I will look at three generations of this family - from William and Caroline discovering comets and planets in the late eighteenth century, through John and his claim that society needs science to be properly civilised, to John and Margaret's children and their varied takes on the relationship between astronomy, science and the public. I will look at the role astronomy played in each of their lives, how they were taught and taught each other and how in each generation they managed to make their work the talk of the town.

  12. The HERSCHEL/PACS Spectrometer Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, J.; Wieprecht, E.; de Jong, J.; Wetzstein, M.; Jacobson, J.; Huygen, R.; Appleton, P.; Bouwman, J.; Contursi, A.; Fadda, D.; Jean, C.; Klaas, U.; Royer, P.; Vandenbussche, B.

    2009-09-01

    ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, to be launched in 2009, is the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength range (60 - 670 micron). The Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) is one of the three science instruments. It employs two Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays and two bolometer arrays to perform integral field spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the 60 - 210 micron wavelength band. The interactive PACS Spectrometer and Photometer \\citep{wieprecht09} Data Reduction Pipeline is integrated in the Herschel Data Processing System. The DP is implemented using Java technology and written in a common effort by the HERSCHEL Science Center (HSC) and the three instrument teams. We overview the concept and status of the PACS Spectrometer Data Reduction Pipeline. Additionally, we address the instrument mode-dependent data processing and the definition of the products of the different processing levels. Finally, we show first results by applying the pipeline on flight model instrument level test data.

  13. Observations of Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armus, Lee

    2014-01-01

    A major result of the IRAS survey was the discovery of a large population of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) which emit a significant fraction of their bolometric luminosity in the far-infrared. LIRGs cover the full range of morphologies from isolated disk galaxies, to advanced mergers, exhibiting enhanced star-formation rates and a higher fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) compared to less luminous galaxies. A detailed study of low-redshift LIRGs is critical for our understanding of the cosmic evolution of galaxies and black holes, since LIRGs comprise the bulk of the cosmic far-infrared background and dominate the star-formation between 0.5 < z < 1. With ISO, it was possible to measure the full suite of infrared diagnostic lines in local normal and luminous infrared galaxies for the first time, but samples were small and observations challenging. With Herschel, we have been able to study large samples of low-redshift LIRGs, and even probe the physical conditions in poweful starburst galaxies out to significant redshifts. By combining the Herschel data with those from Spitzer, it is now possible to understand the heating and cooling of the dust and gas in complete samples of LIRGs for the first time. I will review recent results from a number of GTO, OTKP and GO programs in an attempt to summarize the advances we have made in understanding star formation and black hole accretion in LIRGs as a direct result of the Herschel mission.

  14. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  15. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  16. Electronic Revolution on Main Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Gail Garfield

    1986-01-01

    The electronics revolution is changing way work is done and description of available jobs, shifting some jobs from office to home, and offering new communication services. Technology's impact on central business districts (CBDs) will depend on broad economic forces, but its effects on CBDs as business locations will be conditioned by local real…

  17. Women and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajcsy, Ruzena; Reynolds, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Provides a social and economic context to the information revolution and women's part in it. Speculates on how current and near-term developments in information technology can benefit women scientists from all disciplines. Discusses some of the efforts of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to increase the participation of women in computer and…

  18. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  19. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  20. Automation; The New Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnstein, George E.

    Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…

  1. Ruin and Revolution in ``Hamlet."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1999-05-01

    In the cosmic allegorical interpretation of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" (BAAS 28, 859 & 1305, 1996; Mercury 26:1, 20, 1997; RPS 18:3, 6, 1997; Giornale di Astronomia 24:3, 27, 1998), the usurper King Claudius, namesake of Ptolemy, personifies geocentricity. Textual support for this reading is found in 1.2 where Hamlet is associated with the Sun, as befits a rightful heir, while Claudius is associated with the Earth. In 3.3 Claudius fears Hamlet's antics. Rosencrantz states that the lives of many depend on the well-being of the King. He warns that if the King were to be imperiled, his subjects, those "ten thousand lesser things", would fall in a "boisterous ruin" along with "each small annexment" and "petty consequence." These 10,000 lesser lights are the naked eye stars (mv ~ 6.5) which would collapse with the demise of the pre-Diggesian firmament, along with ancient planets and their geometrical contrivances. In 5.1 Shakespeare puns on "De revolutionibus" when he refers to "fine revolution." The double meaning of "revolution" (alteration, orbital motion) was in use long before 1600. Since "revolution" is used in the context of digging, it may refer as much to the Diggesian as the Copernican Revolution. Shakespeare's prescience is revealed by his anticipation of change, as encapsulated geocentricity is transformed to stellar boundlessness, while his presence is suggested by fatherly concerns and ghost-like direction.

  2. India and the Green Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Vikram

    1972-01-01

    The introduction of new grain varieties has had profound social effects in addition to increasing food supply. If political power is sensitive to the needs of the underprivileged...advanced technology in agriculture, as in (nuclear) power generation, is indeed going to create a social revolution.'' (Author/AL)

  3. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  4. NASA Facts, Orbits and Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is intended for senior high physics students. It contains information on the sidereal and synodic periods of revolution of an orbiting satellite, including their calculation. This pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook.…

  5. Humanities II: Man and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.

    "Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…

  6. The Quality Revolution in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonstingl, John Jay

    1992-01-01

    Whether viewed through Deming's 14 points, Juran's Trilogy, or Kaoru Ishikawa's Thought Revolution, Total Quality Management embodies 4 fundamental tenets: primary focus on customers and suppliers, universal commitment to continuous improvement, a systems approach, and top management responsibility. Educational organizations are recreating their…

  7. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  8. Unveiling Neutrino Mixing and Leptonic CP Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, Olga

    We review the present understanding of neutrino masses and mixings, discussing what are the unknowns in the three-family oscillation scenario. Despite the anticipated success coming from the planned long baseline neutrino experiments in unraveling the leptonic mixing sector, there are two important unknowns which may remain obscure: the mixing angle θ13 and the CP-phase δ. The measurement of these two parameters has led us to consider the combination of superbeams and neutrino factories as the key to unveil the neutrino oscillation picture.

  9. Unveiling neutrino mixing and leptonic CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    We review the present understanding of neutrino masses and mixings, discussing what are the unknowns in the three family oscillation scenario. Despite the anticipated success coming from the planned long baseline neutrino experiments in unraveling the leptonic mixing sector, there are two important unknowns which may remain obscure: the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and the CP-phase {delta}. The measurement of these two parameters has led us to consider the combination of superbeams and neutrino factories as the key to unveil the neutrino oscillation picture.

  10. The Herschel Oxygen Project: Herschel Space Observatory Open Time Key Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    Topics include: Why oxygen and why at submillimeter wavelengths; gas phase chemistry for water, oxygen, and carbon monoxide is relatively simple; molecular oxygen structure; lower rotational levels and transitions of oxygen; oxygen abundance in interstellar clouds; SWAS spectra of terrestrial oxygen; what Herschel offers HOP; key regions for probing oxygen in the dense interstellar medium; HOP sources and strategy; and HOP data and analysis.

  11. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in 1774, and soon his telescopes were recognized as the finest in the world. It was through one of his homemade telescopes, a Newtonian reflector with a focal length of seven feet and an aperture of 6.2 inches, that Herschel first spotted the planet Uranus in 1781. The discovery of a new planet catapulted Herschel to fame and secured him a position as personal astronomer to King George III.

  12. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  13. The Herschel DUNES Open Time Key Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2009-01-01

    We will use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby stars. Our sensitivity-limited Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) aims at finding and characterizing faint extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) in an unbiased, statistically significant sample of nearby FGK main-sequence stars. Our target set spans a broad range of stellar ages (from 0.1 to 10 Gyr) and is volume-limited (distances < 20 pc). All stars with known extrasolar planets within this distance are included; additionally, some M- and A-type stars will be observed in collaboration with the Herschel DEBRIS OTKP, so that the entire sample covers a decade in stellar mass, from 0.2 to 2 solar masses. We will perform PACS and SPIRE photometric observations covering the wavelength range from 70 to 500 microns. The PACS observations at 100 microns have been designed to detect the stellar photospheres down to the confusion limit with a signal-to-noise ratio > 5. The observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach fractional dust luminosities of a few times 10-7, close to the EKB level in the Solar System. This will provide an unprecedented lower limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems and allow us to assess the presence of giant planets, which would play dynamical roles similar to those played by Jupiter and Neptune in the Solar System. The proposed observations will provide new and unique evidence for the presence of mature planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood and, in turn, will address the universality of planet/planetary system formation in disks around young stars.

  14. Results from the Herschel Oxygen Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul; Herschel Oxygen Project HOP Team

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the cosmos. In the gas phase, oxygen can be ionized, atomic, or in molecular, and it is also incorporated into grains. Gas-phase chemistry models predict molecular oxygen (O2) to be almost as abundant as carbon monoxide (CO). A number of searches for molecular oxygen have been carried out, including ground-based searches for the isotopologue 16O18O and searches for O2 in redshifted galaxies. Searches for Galactic O2 carried out with the SWAS and Odin spacecraft have yielded upper limits on the abundance of molecular oxygen typically 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below those predicted by gas-phase models. There has been a fairly clear detection of O2 in one source, again indicating a low abundance. A variety of explanations have been proposed to explain this low abundance. Some of these are based on depletion of atomic oxygen onto dust grains, resulting in incorporation of this species into water that remains on the grain surface. Available gas-phase oxygen is largely incorporated into CO, leaving little for gas-phase O2. Other models involve circulation of material between UV-irradiated and well-shielded regions. The Herschel Open Time Key Project HOP (Herschel Oxygen Project) addresses this important problem in astrochemistry, exploiting the high angular resolution and sensitivity of the Herschel HIFI instrument to observe 3 rotational transitions of O2 in a broad sample of molecular clouds. The sensitivity and angular resolution of HIFI is a dramatic improvement over anything previously available at these frequencies. These data should, whether yielding detections or significantly improved upper limits, provide critical information about interstellar chemistry and the structure of these varied molecular regions. We will discuss the HOP observations to date including exceptionally low upper limits to the abundance of O2 as well as some provocative, tentative positive results.

  15. Herschel's 20ft Telescope at the Smithsonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVorkin, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The tube and one of the mirrors from the original Herschel 20-foot telescope have been on display at the National Air and Space Museum since September 12, 2001. Approximately 3,000 visitors walk past it each day, inspecting how William and Caroline jointly operated the telescope in their garden. This presentation will recount how the telescope was brought to NASM, and prepared for exhibition. We will also discuss a bit of what we've learned about the telescope's history from developing this display.

  16. The Safety System of the Herschel Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfermann, M.; Jahn, G.; Hohn, R.; Ruehe, W.; Jewell, C.

    2004-06-01

    The cryostat for the `Herschel Space Observatory' for the European Space Agency (ESA) science program, planned for a launch with Ariane 5 in 2007, is designed for 6 days ground hold time and 3.5 years lifetime in orbit. The system comprises two tanks containing about 346 kg of liquid and superfluid Helium, with two cryogenic cold safety valves and burst disks, surrounded by three vapor cooled shields and a vacuum vessel. The safety system is two faults tolerant with three independent paths for pressure relief. The analyses of failure modes and resulting mass flows and the safety elements of the cryogenic system will be discussed.

  17. Deep Herschel PACS point spread functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchio, M.; Bianchi, S.; Abergel, A.

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) of imaging instruments represents a fundamental requirement for astronomical observations. The Herschel PACS PSFs delivered by the instrument control centre are obtained from observations of the Vesta asteroid, which provides a characterisation of the central part and, therefore, excludes fainter features. In many cases, however, information on both the core and wings of the PSFs is needed. With this aim, we combine Vesta and Mars dedicated observations and obtain PACS PSFs with an unprecedented dynamic range (~106) at slow and fast scan speeds for the three photometric bands. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.FITS files of our PACS PSFs (Fig. 2) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A117

  18. Vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen near Herschel 36

    SciTech Connect

    Rachford, Brian L.; Snow, Theodore P.; Ross, Teresa L.

    2014-05-10

    We present the first high resolution UV spectra toward Herschel 36, a Trapezium-like system of high-mass stars contained within the Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC 6523). The spectra reveal extreme rovibrational excitation of molecular hydrogen in material at a single velocity or very small range of velocities, with this component presumably lying near the star system and undergoing fluorescent excitation. The overall H{sub 2} excitation is similar to, but apparently larger than, that seen toward HD 37903 which previously showed the largest vibrationally excited H{sub 2} column densities seen in UV absorption spectra. While the velocities of the highly excited H{sub 2} lines are consistent within each observation, it appears that they underwent a ∼60 km s{sup –1} redshift during the 3.6 yr between observations. In neither case does the velocity of the highly excited material match the velocity of the bulk of the line-of-sight material which appears to mostly be in the foreground of M8. Recent work shows unusually excited CH and CH{sup +} lines and several unusually broad diffuse interstellar bands toward Herschel 36. Along with the H{sub 2} excitation, all of these findings appear to be related to the extreme environment within ∼0.1 pc of the massive young stellar system.

  19. Unveiling new chemical scaffolds as Mnk inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Diab, Sarah; Li, Peng; Basnet, Sunita K C; Lu, Jingfeng; Yu, Mingfeng; Albrecht, Hugo; Milne, Robert W; Wang, Shudong

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of small molecules that selectively inhibit Mnks is considered of paramount importance towards deciphering the exact role of these proteins in carcinogenesis and to further validate them as anti-cancer drug targets. However, the dearth of structural information of Mnks is a major hurdle. This study unveils the 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives as potent inhibitors of Mnks. ATP and substrate competition assays showed that this scaffold interacts with the ATP binding site, but not with the substrate site. Screened against a panel of cancer cells, Mnk inhibitors were most potent against MV4-11 acute myeloid leukemia cells. The induction of apoptosis was shown to be mediated by downregulation of Mcl-1. PMID:26910782

  20. Unveiling the potential of prohibitin in cancer.

    PubMed

    Koushyar, Sarah; Jiang, Wen G; Dart, D Alwyn

    2015-12-28

    Recently, research has shed new light on the role of Prohibitin (PHB) in cancer pathogenesis across an array of cancer types. Important mechanisms for PHB have been unveiled in several cancers, especially with regard to the androgen independent state of prostate cancer (PC) and oestrogen dependent breast cancer. However, PHB is often overlooked due to its complex but subtle roles within the cell. Having gathered both historical and current research exploring PHB's role in different cancer types including prostate and breast, here we aim to pair this information with its molecular properties in the hope of translating this information into a clinical perspective, thus discussing its possible use in future cancer therapy. PMID:26450374

  1. William Herschel and the 'garnet' stars: μ Cephei and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinicke, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Although William Herschel's 'Garnet Star' (μ Cephei) is a prominent object, the story of the discovery of this famous red star is not well documented. Prior to and after Herschel, the identification of this star was the subject of confusion in various catalogues and atlases. The case is complex and involves other stars in southern Cepheus, including double stars, found by Herschel in the course of his star surveys. It is also fascinating to learn that μ Cephei is not the only star called 'garnet' by him. This study reveals that there are 21 in all, resulting in a 'Herschel Catalogue of Garnet Stars' - the first historical catalogue of red stars. Among them are prominent objects, which in the literature are credited to later observers. This misconception is corrected here, for Herschel was the true discoverer of all of them. The most interesting cases are Hind's 'Crimson Star', Secchi's 'La Superba', John Herschel's 'Ruby Star' and Schmidt's V Aquilae. Finally, we discussed whether Herschel speculated about the physical nature of his garnet stars, many of which are now known to be variable.

  2. The Herschel/PACS view of the Cep OB2 region: Global protoplanetary disk evolution and clumpy star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Birnstiel, Tilman; Merín, Bruno; Fang, Min; Henning, Thomas; Eiroa, Carlos; Currie, Thayne

    2015-01-01

    . The mini-clusters reveal multi-episodic star formation in Tr 37. The long survival of mini-clusters suggest that they formed from the fragmentation of the same core. Their various morphologies favour different formation/triggering mechanisms acting within the same cluster. The beads-on-a-string structure in one mini-cluster is consistent with gravitational fragmentation or gravitational focusing, acting on very small scales (solar-mass stars in ~0.5 pc filaments). Multi-episodic star formation could also produce evolutionary variations between disks in the same region. Finally, Herschel also unveils what could be the first heavy mass loss episode of the O6.5 star HD 206267 in Tr 37. Based on observations obtained with the Herschel Space Telescope within open time proposal "Disk dispersal in Cep OB2", OT1_asicilia_1. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led PI consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  4. Microbial proteomics: the quiet revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Seraphin, Bertrand; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments in DNA sequencing and their application to study thousands of microbial genomes or even microbial ecosystems still today often make the headlines of general newspapers and scientific journals. These revolutionary changes are hiding another revolution that is unfolding more quietly in the background: the development of microbial proteomics to study genome expression products. It is important to recognize that while DNA sequencing reveals extensive details about the genomic potential of an organism or community, proteomic measurements reveal the functional gene products that are present and operational under specific environmental conditions, and thus perhaps better characterize the critical biomolecules that execute the life processes (enzymes, signaling, structural factors, etc.).

  5. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols – Nh, Mc, Ts and Og – after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  6. The neutral diffuse ISM after Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Observations with the Herschel Space Observatory have greatly enhanced our understanding of neutral diffuse material in the interstellar medium. In particular, high-resolution absorption line spectroscopy at THz frequencies has led to the discovery of several new interstellar molecules - including SH+, OH+, H2O, H2Cl+, HCl+, and ArH+ (the first known astrophysical molecule containing a noble gas atom) - and has enabled astrochemical studies in which the abundances of multiple species are measured and modeled. Because of the different chemical pathways responsible for their formation and destruction, different molecules probe specific aspects of the interstellar environment. Carefully interpreted, they provide unique information about the cosmic ray density, the molecular fraction, the ultraviolet radiation field, and the dissipation of energy within the turbulent interstellar medium. Future spectroscopic observations with ALMA and SOFIA promise to extend further our understanding of fundamental physical and chemical processes the neutral diffuse ISM.

  7. Caroline Herschel: agency and self-presentation

    PubMed Central

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Caroline Herschel was rare among her female contemporaries in gaining public recognition for her work in science, yet her role in this process and her role in designing her training have never previously been studied. We know that access to education and participation in science was different for men and women in the eighteenth century. However, drawing on feminist, pedagogical and biographical approaches to history, I argue that although access depended on a variety of factors, a more consistent gender divide came in lessons on how to learn, and in what was regarded as appropriate behaviour. Caroline's skill—so often misunderstood—was to be aware of the differences and to use them to her own advantage. PMID:26489184

  8. CAROLINE HERSCHEL: AGENCY AND SELF-PRESENTATION.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-03-20

    Caroline Herschel was rare among her female contemporaries in gaining public recognition for her work in science, yet her role in this process and her role in designing her training have never previously been studied. We know that access to education and participation in science was different for men and women in the eighteenth century. However, drawing on feminist, pedagogical and biographical approaches to history, I argue that although access depended on a variety of factors, a more consistent gender divide came in lessons on how to learn, and in what was regarded as appropriate behaviour. Caroline's skill--so often misunderstood--was to be aware of the differences and to use them to her own advantage. PMID:26489184

  9. First Observations Of Titan With Herschel Spire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtin, Regis D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Fulton, T.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Hartogh, P.; Jarchow, C.; Rengel, M.; HssO Team

    2010-10-01

    A Titan spectrum was recorded on June 22, 2010 with the SPIRE instrument of the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the guaranteed time key programme "Water and related chemistry in the Solar System" (KP-GT HssO). This initial spectrum, corresponding to an exposure time of 1322s, was designed as a test of the full 10h Titan observation performed on July 16, 2010. It covers the 14.6-51.8 cm-1 interval with a unapodized spectral resolution of 0.04 cm-1. Despite the limited integration time, numerous transitions are detected, notably those of CH4, CO, HCN, and of the isotopologues 13CO, C18O, H13CN, and HC15N. The analysis of this set of observations will provide new determinations of the abundances of these species, and hence new contraints on the isotopic ratios 12C/13C, 14N/15N and 16O/18O in Titan's atmosphere.

  10. An image display package for Herschel DP based on Jsky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meester, W. D.; Huygen, R.

    2006-07-01

    The Data Processing software for ESA's Herschel Space Observatory is written in JAVA as a joint effort of ESA and the three instrument teams. The observers as well as the instrument specialists will use a jython environment to reduce the science observations and to analyse the calibration measurements of the instrument. We describe the development of an image display package for Herschel DP (Data Processing) based on JSky, which is being developed as part of the Gemini Observing Tool and the difficulties we encountered in adapting the JSky library to the needs of Herschel DP. We give insights in the adaption to the Herschel DP data structures and the possibility to display both two- and three dimensional arrays and images. We describe the power of using Jython as a frontend and the possibility to use this image display in GUI's written by or for observers.

  11. Herschel Dust Measurements of SDSS Supernovae Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Donald; Cooray, Asantha R.; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Herschel Hermes and h-atlas Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We use Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) far-infrared observations of Supernova host galaxies to study the cosmological distant measurement from Hubble diagrams. We investigate the dust content of SN host galaxy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survery (SDSS) using the far-infrared stacks of Herschel in the Equatorial Stripe using , Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey (HELMS), and the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HERS). Cosmic dust may contribute to much more obscuring of standard candles than previously thought. Measuring the average flux values of stacks from dim Type-Ia supernovae provides a measure of the dust content of galaxies as a function of deviation of those sources from the Hubble diagram given a standard cosmology. Using the optical to far infrared stacked data of the galaxies we also measure the physical properties of the standard candles as a function of dust content.

  12. Sir William Herschel's notebooks - Abstracts of solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the background of Sir William Herschel's notebooks and the historical context within which his observations were made are provided. The observations have relevance in reconstructing solar behavior, as discussed in a separate analysis paper by Hoyt and Schatten (1992), and in understanding active features on the sun such as faculae. The text of Herschel's notebooks with modern terms used throughout forms the body of this paper. The complete text has not previously been published and is not easily accessible to scholars. Herschel used different words for solar features than are used today, and thus, for clarity, his terminology is changed on two occasions. A glossary explains the terminology changed. In the text of the notebooks, several contemporaries are mentioned; a brief description of Herschel's colleagues is provided.

  13. Herschel Measurements of Molecular Oxygen in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Liseau, René; Bell, Tom A.; Black, John H.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Hollenbach, David; Kaufman, Michael J.; Li, Di; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pagani, Laurent; Snell, Ronald; Benz, Arnold O.; Bergin, Edwin; Bruderer, Simon; Caselli, Paola; Caux, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Pierre; Falgarone, Edith; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Hjalmarson, Åke; Larsson, Bengt; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; De Luca, Massimo; Nagy, Zsofia; Roueff, Evelyne; Sandqvist, Aage; van der Tak, Floris; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Vastel, Charlotte; Viti, Serena; Yıldız, Umut

    2011-08-01

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O2) in emission from the H2 Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s-1 to 12 km s-1 and widths of 3 km s-1. The beam-averaged column density is N(O2) = 6.5 × 1016 cm-2, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O2 relative to H2 is (0.3-7.3) × 10-6. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a ~5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is ~10 M sun and the dust temperature is >=150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O2 abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T >= 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O2. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature >=180 K. The inferred O2 column density sime5 × 1018 cm-2 can be produced in Peak A, having N(H2) ~= 4 × 1024 cm-2. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s-1) C-shock, which can produce N(O2) up to 1017 cm-2. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  14. [Cardiac surgery: within the revolution!].

    PubMed

    Raanani, Ehud

    2007-11-01

    Cardiac surgery is undergoing major changes. Until recently, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) constituted the majority of cardiac surgery cases that were performed. The sharp rise in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) mainly due to the development of drug eluting stents resulted in a drop in the worldwide number of CABG cases. The cardiac surgery community reacted by developing several new surgical procedures and techniques to better treat cardiac patients. Some of those procedures are demonstrated in this special issue of the Harefuah journal. Those procedures include better techniques to repair the aortic and mitral valves, minimally invasive techniques including video assisted methodology for valves and CABG surgery, surgery for congestive heart failure including new axial flow assist devices, surgery for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and more. The excellent results in cardiac surgery caused older and sicker patients to be referred to surgery. All these are creating a "revolution" in cardiac surgery. Those new technologies, surgical techniques and high risk patients require special financing. In order to complete the revolution and continue providing advanced "state of the art" cardiac surgery procedures for the patients, there is a need for special long term economic planning by the government and the Ministry of Health. PMID:18087831

  15. The Nature of the Darwinian Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the writings of anti-evolutionists contemporary with Darwin reveals that there were many objections that had to be overcome and that the Darwinian revolution" does not conform to the simple model of a scientific revolution as outlined by T. S. Kuhn. (AL)

  16. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  17. COUNTER-REVOLUTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOCKING, ELTON

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT THE AUDIOLINGUAL REVOLUTION IS BEING SUBJECTED TO A COUNTER-REVOLUTION IS APPARENT IN SUCH RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AS THE 1966 NORTHEAST CONFERENCE, WHEN CARROLL, FERGUSON, AND CHOMSKY DENIED THAT PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS PROVIDE DIRECT SUPPORT FOR AUDIOLINGUAL TEACHING, THE WRITINGS OF RIVERS, HAYES, BELASCO, AND VALDMAN WHO…

  18. Teaching Brinton's Model for Analyzing Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Bob; Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model for studying and identifying revolution condensed from Crane Brinton's "Anatomy of Revolution." Explains how the characteristics of the model can be applied to hypothetical, historical, and contemporary situations. Outlines the teaching sequence, illustrating how students are taught a historical model and how to apply it to…

  19. Extending the Computer Revolution into Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1999-01-01

    The computer revolution is far from over on Earth. It is just beginning in space. We can look forward to an era of enhanced scientific exploration of the solar system and even other start systems. We can look forward to the benefits of this space revolution to commercial uses on and around Earth.

  20. Unveiling the Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinto, Angela V.

    2015-04-01

    The origin of cosmic rays, relativistic particles that range from below GeVs to hundreds of EeVs, is a century old mystery. Extremely energetic phenomena occurring over a wide range of scales, from the Solar System to distant galaxies, are needed to explain the non-thermal particle spectrum that covers over 12 orders of magnitude. Space Missions are the most effective platforms to study the origin and history of these cosmic particles. Current missions probe particle acceleration and propagation in the Solar System and in our Galaxy. This year ISS-CREAM and CALET join AMS in establishing the International Space Station as the most active site for studying the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. These missions will study astrophysical cosmic ray accelerators as well as other possible sources of energetic particles such as dark matter annihilation or decay. In the future, the ISS may also be the site for studying extremely high-energy extragalactic cosmic rays with JEM-EUSO. We review recent results in the quest for unveiling the sources of energetic particles with balloons and space payloads and report on activities of the Cosmic ray Science Interest Group (CosmicSIG) under the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG).

  1. A Herschel view of the far-infrared properties of submillimetre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnelli, B.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Saintonge, A.; Berta, S.; Albrecht, M.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Bertoldi, F.; Béthermin, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Capak, P.; Chapman, S.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Cooray, A.; Daddi, E.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Farrah, D.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Hwang, H. S.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez García, A.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Rosario, D.; Roseboom, I.; Salvato, M.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Scott, D.; Smail, I.; Sturm, E.; Swinbank, A. M.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wang, L.; Wuyts, S.

    2012-03-01

    We study a sample of 61submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) selected from ground-based surveys, with known spectroscopic redshifts and observed with the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time key programmes. Our study makes use of the broad far-infrared and submillimetre wavelength coverage (100-600 μm) only made possible by the combination of observations from the PACS and SPIRE instruments aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. Using a power-law temperature distribution model to derive infrared luminosities and dust temperatures, we measure a dust emissivity spectral index for SMGs of β = 2.0 ± 0.2. Our results unambiguously unveil the diversity of the SMG population. Some SMGs exhibit extreme infrared luminosities of s1013{L⊙} and relatively warm dust components, while others are fainter (a few times 1012 L⊙) and are biased towards cold dust temperatures. Although at zs2 classical SMGs (>5 mJy at 850 μm) have large infrared luminosities (s1013 L⊙), objects only selected on their submm flux densities (without any redshift informations) probe a large range in dust temperatures and infrared luminosities. The extreme infrared luminosities of some SMGs (LIR ≳ 1012.7 L⊙, 26/61 systems) imply star formation rates (SFRs) of >500 M⊙ yr-1 (assuming a Chabrier IMF and no dominant AGN contribution to the FIR luminosity). Such high SFRs are difficult to reconcile with a secular mode of star formation, and may instead correspond to a merger-driven stage in the evolution of these galaxies. Another observational argument in favour of this scenario is the presence of dust temperatures warmer than that of SMGs of lower luminosities (s40 K as opposed to s25 K), consistent with observations of local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies triggered by major mergers and with results from hydrodynamic simulations of major mergers combined with radiative transfer calculations

  2. The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS): HST Frontier Field Coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS; PI: Egami) is a large Far-IR/Submm imaging survey of massive galaxy clusters using the Herschel Space Observatory. Its main goal is to detect and study IR/Submm galaxies that are below the nominal confusion limit of Herschel by taking advantage of the strong gravitational lensing power of massive galaxy clusters. HLS has obtained deep PACS (100/160 um) and SPIRE (250/350/500 um) images for 54 cluster fields (HLS-deep) as well as shallower but nearly confusion-limited SPIRE-only images for 527 cluster fields (HLS-snapshot) with a total observing time of ~420 hours. Extensive multi-wavelength follow-up studies are currently on-going with a variety of observing facilities including ALMA.Here, I will focus on the analysis of the deep Herschel PACS/SPIRE images obtained for the 6 HST Frontier Fields (5 observed by HLS-deep; 1 observed by the Herschel GT programs). The Herschel/SPIRE maps are wide enough to cover the Frontier-Field parallel pointings, and we have detected a total of ~180 sources, some of which are strongly lensed. I will present the sample and discuss the properties of these Herschel-detected dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) identified in the Frontier Fields. Although the majority of these Herschel sources are at moderate redshift (z<3), a small number of extremely high-redshift (z>6) candidates can be identified as "Herschel dropouts" when combined with longer-wavelength data. We have also identified ~40 sources as likely cluster members, which will allow us to study the properties of DSFGs in the dense cluster environment.A great legacy of our HLS project will be the extensive multi-wavelength database that incorporates most of the currently available data/information for the fields of the Frontier-Field, CLASH, and other HLS clusters (e.g., HST/Spitzer/Herschel images, spectroscopic/photometric redshifts, lensing models, best-fit SED models etc.). Provided with a user-friendly GUI and a flexible search engine, this

  3. A Herschel study of NGC 650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, P. A. M.; Van de Steene, G. C.; Exter, K. M.; Barlow, M. J.; Ueta, T.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E. T.; Swinyard, B. M.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.; Wesson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the Herschel guaranteed time key project Mass loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) we have imaged a sample of planetary nebulae. In this paper we present the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) images of the classical bipolar planetary nebula NGC 650. We used these images to derive a temperature map of the dust. We also constructed a photoionization and dust radiative transfer model using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. To constrain this model, we used the PACS and SPIRE fluxes and combined them with hitherto unpublished International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) spectra as well as various other data from the literature. A temperature map combined with a photoionization model were used to study various aspects of the central star, the nebula, and in particular the dust grains in the nebula. The central star parameters are determined to be Teff = 208 kK and L = 261 L⊙ assuming a distance of 1200 pc. The stellar temperature is much higher than previously published values. We confirm that the nebula is carbon-rich with a C/O ratio of 2.1. The nebular abundances are typical for a type IIa planetary nebula. With the photoionization model we determined that the grains in the ionized nebula are large (assuming single-sized grains, they would have a radius of 0.15 μm). Most likely these large grains were inherited from the asymptotic giant branch phase. The PACS 70/160 μm temperature map shows evidence of two radiation components heating the grains. The first component is direct emission from the central star, while the second component is diffuse emission from the ionized gas (mainly Lyα). We show that previous suggestions of a photo-dissociation region surrounding the ionized region are incorrect. The neutral material resides in dense clumps inside the ionized region. These may also harbor stochastically heated very small grains in addition to the large

  4. Uzbekistan unveiled. [Uranium production to commence

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurkevich, A.P.

    1993-05-01

    Through centuries of revolution, war and strife, the people of Uzbekistan have built a reputation as skilled and tenacious merchants. Since antiquity, when the Silk Road from China turned toward Europe at Smarakand, they have been master traders of such valuable commodities as cotton, fruits, vegetables, spices and gold. Now, they're about to introduce another of their specialties to the world: Uranium. Uranium mining in the country is controlled by a new, independent company, the Kizilkumredmetzoloto, parent of the Navoi Mining Metallurgy Combine [NMMC]. Established in 1958 at the height of the Cold War, when uranium mining for military stockpiles got started in earnest, Navoi was wholly owned by the USSR's Ministry of Medium Machine Building. Up until 1991, virtually all of Navoi's uranium production, strictly in the form of uranium concentrates, was used for either military purposes or for nuclear power plants within the former Soviet Union. The republic exerted no control over the final destination of its uranium. All production and operating decisions for Navoi's mines were dictated by the Soviet Union's Ministry of Atomic Power Industry [MAPI], which developed annual quotas for uranium production in each republic of the country. Uranium from the republics was sold to Techsnabexport [Tenex], the distribution and marketing arm of MAPI. Exports to other countries were handled strictly by Tenex.

  5. Observations of ammonia in comets with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Hartogh, P.; Crovisier, J.; de Val-Borro, M.; Kidger, M.; Küppers, M.; Lis, D.; Moreno, R.; Szutowicz, S.; HssO Team

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia is the most abundant nitrogen bearing species in comets. However, it has been scarcely observed in comets due to the weakness of the lines observable from the ground at infrared and centimetre wavelengths. Nevertheless, its main photodissociation product NH_2 has been observed in several comets in the visible. The fundamental rotational J_{K}=(1_0-0_0) transition of NH_3 at 572.5 GHz has been observed in comets since 2004, with the Odin satellite (Biver et al. 2007). In the frame of the Herschel guaranteed time key program ''HssO'' (Hartogh et al. 2009), ammonia was detected with the HIFI instrument in comets 10P/Tempel 2 (Biver et al. 2012), 45P/Honda- Mrkos-Pajdusakova, 103P/Hartley 2, and C/2009 P1 (Garradd). The hyperfine structure of the line is resolved. We have built a complete excitation model to interpret these observations, including the radial distribution in comet 103P. The derived abundances relative to water are on the order of 0.5 %, similar to the values inferred from visible observations of NH_2.

  6. New results from the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.

    2013-11-01

    The Herschel Reference Survey is a SPIRE guaranteed time key project aimed at studying the properties of the interstellar medium of a K-band selected, volume-limited (15 ≤ D ≤ 25 Mpc) complete sample of 322 galaxies spanning a large range in morphological type and stellar mass. We study the far infrared colours of the late-type galaxies of the cluster with the purpose of tracing with an empirical approach the relationships between the shape of the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) and different physical parameters such as the star formation rate, the birthrate parameter (or specific star formation rate), here taken as a tracer of the hardness of the inciding radiation, the intensity of the ionising and non ionising radiation, the metallicity and the Hα and FUV attenuation. We also show that the far infrared shape of the SED cannot be fitted with a modified black body with a fixed grain emissivity parameter β. All this analysis is a brief summary of a work presented in Boselli_etal. (2012).

  7. The dual Green Revolutions in South Korea: reforestation and agricultural revolution under the authoritarian regime.

    PubMed

    Moon, Manyong

    2012-01-01

    In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals. PMID:22834068

  8. Science with Herschel: Results from the HERITAGE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, M.; Seale, J.; Roman-Duval, J.; Gordon, K.; HERITAGE Team

    The Herschel Space Observatory completed its last observation on 2013 April 29 after completing 35 000 astronomical observations resulting in numerous discoveries. In this review, we describe the capabilities and general scope of the Herschel mission. In particular, we review the science results from one of the open time key programs, the HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) in the Magellanic Clouds. The HERITAGE project mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm using the SPIRE/PACS parallel mode. The total global fluxes for the LMC and SMC agree with measurements by other missions, including Planck. The HERITAGE maps of the LMC and SMC are dominated by the ISM dust emission and bear most resemblance to the tracers of ISM gas rather than the stellar content of the galaxies. The overriding science goal of HERITAGE is to study the life cycle of matter as traced by dust in the LMC and SMC. The far-infrared and submillimeter emission is an effective tracer of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust, the most deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) and the dust ejected by the most massive stars which are discussed briefly in this review. The HERITAGE team has delivered the maps and source catalogs created for each of the 5 bands to the Herschel Science Center archive which will hold the legacy of Herschel.

  9. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas where laboratory study is required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front, chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can he properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  10. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-11-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas for laboratory study required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can be properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  11. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  12. Making Room for Revolution in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Revolutions of all kinds are a mainstay of social studies and history classes across Canada. While revolution as subject matter is prevalent in Canadian social studies classrooms, it is unclear the degree to which what Howard Gardner calls the "cognitive revolution" has found its way into those same classrooms. This is the revolution in thinking…

  13. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  14. The American Revolution: A Bicentennial Booklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon, Elner

    1976-01-01

    Both fiction and nonfiction citations are included in this booklist of children's literature pertaining to the American Revolution, and grade levels are assigned to each of the nearly 500 citations. (JC)

  15. High School Textbooks and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine; Trusz, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    In terms of teaching about the American Revolution, this article surveys strengths and weaknesses of representative, frequently used high school history books. It suggests how the most common weaknesses can be corrected. (Author/AV)

  16. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  17. Must We Have a Cultural Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampf, Louis

    1970-01-01

    Argues that a cultural revolution must precede anything approaching substantial, meaningful curriculum change; a speech given at annual meeting of Conference on College Composition and Communication, National Council of Teachers of English (Seattle, Washington, March 19, 1970). (Editor/RD)

  18. Casimir energy for perturbed surfaces of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Almazan, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the zeta function arising from a small perturbation on a surface of revolution and the effect of this on the functional determinant and on the change of the Casimir energy associated with the surface.

  19. The spine of the swan: a Herschel study of the DR21 ridge and filaments in Cygnus X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Didelon, P.; Hill, T.; Arzoumanian, D.; Bontemps, S.; Csengeri, T.; André, Ph.; Konyves, V.; Louvet, F.; Marston, A.; Men'shchikov, A.; Minier, V.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Sauvage, M.; Zavagno, A.; Anderson, L. D.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Di Francesco, J.; Elia, D.; Li, J. Z.; Martin, P. G.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Russeil, D.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Sousbie, T.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2012-07-01

    In order to characterise the cloud structures responsible for the formation of high-mass stars, we present Herschel observations of the DR21 environment. Maps of the column density and dust temperature unveil the structure of the DR21 ridge and several connected filaments. The ridge has column densities higher than 1023 cm-2 over a region of 2.3 pc2. It shows substructured column density profiles and branches into two major filaments in the north. The masses in the filaments range between 130 and 1400 M⊙, whereas the mass in the ridge is 15 000 M⊙. The accretion of these filaments onto the DR21 ridge, suggested by a previous molecular line study, could provide a continuous mass inflow to the ridge. In contrast to the striations seen in, e.g., the Taurus region, these filaments are gravitationally unstable and form cores and protostars. These coresformed in the filaments potentially fall into the ridge. Both inflow and collisions of cores could be important to drive the observed high-mass star formation. The evolutionary gradient of star formation running from DR21 in the south to the northern branching is traced by decreasing dust temperature. This evolution and the ridge structure can be explained by two main filamentary components of the ridge that merged first in the south. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA (Pilbratt et al. 2010).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  20. Outpatient care: a nationwide revolution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H J; Hudson, T; Eubanks, P

    1990-08-01

    Most CEOs expect outpatient utilization to increase, but are executives planning ahead for what some term a virtual "revolution" in health care delivery? This issue's cover story takes a look at some of the key strategies that outpatient executives are implementing in their markets. Examples range from a large university teaching hospital, to a suburban facility, to a 40-bed rural hospital in Minnesota. Business strategy is only part of the outpatient story, however. One of the key questions that health care executives must answer is where the outpatient management talent will come from. Outpatient executives report that many of the same skills are needed in this setting as are necessary in the traditional inpatient side; however, there are major differences in management expertise that could make or break a hospital's outpatient services. Moreover, some experts say that this emerging definition of what it takes to be a successful outpatient services executive may be shaping the mold for all future health care executives, both inpatient and outpatient. PMID:2373495

  1. Laparoscopic revolution in bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sundbom, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21st century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery. PMID:25386062

  2. OverPlotter: A Utility for Herschel Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Mei, Y.; Schulz, B.

    2008-08-01

    The OverPlotter utility is a GUI tool written in Java to support interactive data processing (DP) and analysis for the Herschel Space Observatory within the framework of the Herschel Common Science System (HCSS)(Wieprecht et al 2004). The tool expands upon the capabilities of the TableViewer (Zhang & Schulz 2005), providing now also the means to create additional overlays of several X/Y scatter plots within the same display area. These layers can be scaled and panned, either individually, or together as one graph. Visual comparison of data with different origins and units becomes much easier. The number of available layers is not limited, except by computer memory and performance. Presentation images can be easily created by adding annotations, labeling layers and setting colors. The tool will be very helpful especially in the early phases of Herschel data analysis, when a quick access to contents of data products is important.

  3. A concert of music by Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.; Hammer, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Orchester Göttinger Musikfreunde presented an evening of music in the magnificent Aula of the University as one of the social events of the conference. The astronomical highlights of the concert were two symphonic works by Sir William Herschel, including an oboe solo by a member of the LOC (W. Glatzel). This is the text from the concert programme. A recording of the concert is included in this proceedings. Programme --------- Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Symphony No. 13 in D Major (1762) W. A. Mozart (1756-1791): Piano Concerto No. 27 in B Major (KV 595), C. Hammer (piano) Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Fragment of an Oboe Concerto in C Major (MS790), W. Glatzel (oboe) J. Haydn (1732-1809): Symphony No. 91 E-flat Major We would like to acknowledge the Sparkasse Göttingen and the Versicherungsgesellschaft Hannover for generously making this concert possible.

  4. Interstellar dust on the eve of Herschel and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.

    2008-11-01

    In this contribution I review some of the key scientific questions that animate the interstellar dust community a few months before the launch of Herschel and Planck. Great progress have been made in the past 25 years on the subject of interstellar dust using infrared observations from space. With the advent of sub-millimeter and millimeter observations with Herschel and Planck, new scientific challenges are coming and exciting discoveries are to be expected. In particular Herschel and Planck will bring key information 1) on the growth process of dust grains, the first step toward the formation of planetesimals, 2) on the structure of the interstellar medium and its link with interstellar turbulence, 3) on the physical conditions of the Galactic halo clouds which are thought to have some cold dust, 4) on the properties of the interstellar magnetic field and 5) on the interstellar PAHs using their spinning dust emission in the millimeter.

  5. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  6. Infrared study of transitional disks in Ophiuchus with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollido, Isabel; Merín, Bruno; Ribas, Álvaro; Bustamante, Ignacio; Bouy, Hervé; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Prusti, Timo; Pilbratt, Göran L.; André, Philippe; Ábrahám, Péter

    2015-09-01

    Context. Observations of nearby star-forming regions with the Herschel Space Observatory complement our view of the protoplanetary disks in Ophiuchus with information about the outer disks. Aims: The main goal of this project is to provide new far-infrared fluxes for the known disks in the core region of Ophiuchus and to identify potential transitional disks using data from Herschel. Methods: We obtained PACS and SPIRE photometry of previously spectroscopically confirmed young stellar objects (YSO) in the region and analysed their spectral energy distributions. Results: From an initial sample of 261 objects with spectral types in Ophiuchus, we detect 49 disks in at least one Herschel band. We provide new far-infrared fluxes for these objects. One of them is clearly a new transitional disk candidate. Conclusions: The data from Herschel Space Observatory provides fluxes that complement previous infrared data and that we use to identify a new transitional disk candidate. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Final reduced Herschel maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A30Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgAll tables are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A30

  7. Galaxy formation from deep surveys with Herschel-PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.

    2011-11-01

    Deep far-infrared photometric surveys studying galaxy evolution and the nature of the cosmic infrared background are a key strength of the Herschel mission. The PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) guaranteed time key program obtains deep photometric surveys of some of the key extragalactic multiwavelength fields at wavelengths between 70 and 160 μm. This contribution gives an overview of first science results, illustrating the potential of Herschel in providing calorimetric star formation rates for various high redshift galaxy populations, thus testing and superseding previous extrapolations from other wavelengths, and enabling a wide range of galaxy evolution studies.

  8. Models of the η Corvi Debris Disk from the Keck Interferometer, Spitzer, and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Defrère, D.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Boccaletti, A.

    2016-02-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is especially striking, as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ∼1.4 Gyr. We undertake constructing a consistent model of the system that can explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectrophotometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images, to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries along the major axis. KIN enables us to establish that the warm dust consists of a ring that peaks between 0.2 and 0.8 AU. To reconcile this location with the ∼400 K dust temperature, very high albedo dust must be invoked, and a distribution of forsterite grains starting from micron sizes satisfies this criterion, while providing an excellent fit to the spectrum. We discuss additional constraints from the LBTI and near-infrared spectra, and we present predictions of what James Webb Space Telescope can unveil about this unusual object and whether it can detect unseen planets.

  9. Peace Revolution's Online Social Platform: From Inner Revolution to Global Evolution of Ethical Media Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Samantha; Dhanissaro, Phra John Paramai; Thangsurbkul, Worakate

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a project called Peace Revolution [http://peacerevolution.net], which provides an opportunity for young people from around the world to learn and share positive messages and activities relating to peace. The Peace Revolution project aims to empower young people via a unique process related to youth development, helping young…

  10. Revolution and the Re-Birth of Inequality: The Bolivian National Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jonathan; Klein, Herbert S.

    This study of Bolivia's National Revolution of 1952 illustrates the effects of a peasant revolution on inequality and status inheritance. It was hypothesized that when an exploited peasantry revolts and overthrows the traditonal elite, peasants would be better off because inequality and status inheritance would decline as a result of the…

  11. First National Picture of Trends in the Humanities Is Unveiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to hard data about what they do, policy makers and educators in the humanities have been mostly left out in the cold, forced to rely on isolated statistics that do not give an overview of the field. That changed this month, as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences unveiled the prototype of its long-awaited Humanities Indicators…

  12. Unveiling Reality of the Mind: Cultural Arbitrary of Consumerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Su-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the cultural arbitrary of consumerism by focusing on a personal realm. That is, I discuss what consumerism appeals to and how it flourishes in relation to our minds. I argue that we need to unveil reality of the mind, be aware of ourselves in relation to the perpetuation of consumerism, in order to critically intervene in the…

  13. The Landscape Documentary: Unveiling the Face of "Wasteland."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Craig L.

    This paper outlines the process of a photographic landscape documentary project which set out to unveil the face of Utah's West Desert (a 42,000 square-mile, sparsely-populated, broad, rugged land of salt bed "playas" and high mountain ranges) comprising one-third of the state and which hoped to make the West Desert, recently under consideration…

  14. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  15. HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di; Liseau, Rene; Black, John H.; Bell, Tom A.; Hollenbach, David; Kaufman, Michael J.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre; Snell, Ronald; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Bergin, Edwin; Caselli, Paola; Caux, Emmanuel; Falgarone, Edith

    2011-08-20

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

  16. Exploring New Spectral Windows with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2011-10-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA cornerstone mission with NASA participation, has been in operation for over a year. I will briefly outline the overall capabilities of Herschel which has both photometric and spectroscopic coverage from 63 to 610 microns. Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high resolution spectroscopy. In particular, I will present and discuss the most complete molecular spectrum of star-forming gas ever obtained in the spectrum of Orion KL and the galactic center molecular cloud Sagittarius B2. These spectra have over 1.4 THz of bandwidth and a resolution of 1 MHz. We estimate that there are over 100,000 spectral lines alone in the Orion KL spectrum with numerous lines of water vapor, ammonia, sulfur-bearing molecules, and numerous organics. I will demonstrate the power of molecular spectroscopy in characterizing the physical state of dense gas near massive stars through the perspective offered by observations of hundreds of lines of a single molecule and our new ability to peer through the Milky Way to reveal a hidden molecular phase. I will show how the spectra provide a near complete chemical assay and cooling census of star-forming gas. Ultimately the gains from Herschel have tremendous potential to extend our understanding of the physics of star birth and feedback while informing on the origin of water and organics in space.

  17. Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebélyi, Erika; Dobos, László; Kiss, Csaba

    2015-08-01

    Using all telemetry and observational meta-data, we created a searchable database of Herschel observation footprints. Data from the Herschel space observatory is freely available for everyone but no uniformly processed catalog of all observations has been published yet. As a first step, we unified the data model for all three Herschel instruments in all observation modes and compiled a database of sky coverage information. As opposed to methods using a pixellation of the sphere, in our database, sky coverage is stored in exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. Indexing of the footprints allows for very fast search among observations based on pointing, time, sky coverage overlap and meta-data. This enables us, for example, to find moving objects easily in Herschel fields. The database is accessible via a web site and also as a set of REST web service functions which makes it usable from program clients like Python or IDL scripts. Data is available in various formats including Virtual Observatory standards.

  18. John Herschel's position in the post-Neptune discovery debates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, N.

    2005-08-01

    In the course of archiving Britain's Neptune correspondence I have transcribed letters by Herschel (from the Royal Society Library) that have been little appreciated by scholars. The great polemical debates took place chiefly within the RAS but also affecting the Royal Society and the British Association, and Herschel was very much at the centre of things. His views become especially interesting once the sceptical American view started to be heard some months after the discovery, that because the real Neptune was so very different in its motions from that predicted by Adams and LeVerrier, and because the 2:1 resonance between Uranus and Neptune is such a large effect and yet was wholly unknown to these two, the prediction had to have been a mere happy coincidence. Herschel's view that the synchrony involved was beneficial for public understanding of science remains of relevance today. During these intense debates, Herschel was completing his bestseller 'Outlines of Astronomy' that was to go through twelve editions.

  19. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  20. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  1. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Prusti, T.; Pilbratt, G. L.; André, Ph.

    2015-06-01

    Context. New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star-forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful for identifying transitional disk candidates. Aims: The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Methods: We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. Results: We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using recently defined criteria, we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 μm fluxes are systematically higher than those of normal T Tauri stars in the same associations, as already found in T Cha and in the transitional disks in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud. Conclusions: Herschel efficiently complements mid-infrared surveys for identifying transitional disk candidates and confirms that these objects seem to have substantially different outer disks than the T Tauri stars in the same molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 5-7 and Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature - and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  3. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-02-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature — and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  4. "Heart" of Herschel to be presented to media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    The Herschel mission, equipped with the largest telescope ever launched in space (3.5 m diameter), will give astronomers their best capability yet to explore the universe at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths. By measuring the light at these wavelengths, scientists see the ‘cold’ universe. Herschel will give them an unprecedented view, allowing them to see deep into star forming regions, galactic centres and planetary systems. In order to achieve its objectives and to be able to detect the faint radiation coming from the coolest objects in the cosmos, otherwise ‘invisible’, Herschel’s detectors must operate at very low and stable temperatures. The spacecraft is equipped so as to cool them close to absolute zero (-273.15 ºC), ranging from -271 ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. To have achieved this particular feature alone is a remarkable accomplishment for European industry and science. The final integration of the various components of the Herschel spacecraft - payload module, cryostat, service module, telescope and solar arrays - will be completed in the next few months. This phase will be followed by a series of tests to get the spacecraft ready for launch at the end of July 2008. Herschel will be launched into space on an Ariane 5 ECA rocket. The launch is shared with Planck, ESA’s mission to study relic radiation from the Big Bang. Media interested to attend the press event are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note for editors The Prime Contractor for the Herschel spacecraft is Thales Alenia Space (Cannes, France). It leads a consortium of industrial partners with Astrium (Germany) responsible for the Extended Payload Module (EPLM, including the Herschel cryostat), Astrium (France) responsible for the telescope, and the Thales Alenia Space industry branch of Torino, Italy, responsible for the Service Module (SVM). There is also a host of subcontractors spread throughout Europe. The three Herschel

  5. The third therapeutic revolution: behavioral medicine.

    PubMed

    Basmajian, J V

    1999-06-01

    Behavioral medicine--and one of its progenitors, biofeedback--are expanding as the Third Therapeutic Revolution, supplementing surgery and pharmacology in treating human illnesses. Parallel development of nonscience-based therapies is a part of the same revolution. Labeling their positive results as "placebo effects" hides a greater truth: faith and trust play an enormous role in therapy. The successes of both behavioral medicine and unorthodox complementary medicine are the result of the debonafide effect (my Latin for "from good faith"). Readers are urged to adopt this better definition of the "unexplicable" and substantial good results of both the placebos in research and the ministration of unorthodox treatments. PMID:10575538

  6. De Humani Corporis Fabrica surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543), by the Belgian anatomy master Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), represents one of the most advanced surgical revolutions in history. The creation of an anatomy book that carefully and systematically introduced the structure of the human body in a way that was truthful to the findings of human dissection had never been accomplished before. No one challenged Galen's teachings as Vesalius did. De Humani Corporis Fabrica offered to the surgeon's world new knowledge and a systematic approach to human anatomy. The novel concepts and perspectives introduced by Vesalius constituted a real surgical revolution worthy of study in the annals of surgery. PMID:19160130

  7. Manifesto for a new (computational) cognitive revolution.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    The cognitive revolution offered an alternative to merely analyzing human behavior, using the notion of computation to rigorously express hypotheses about the mind. Computation also gives us new tools for testing these hypotheses - large behavioral databases generated by human interactions with computers and with one another. This kind of data is typically analyzed by computer scientists, who focus on predicting people's behavior based on their history. A new cognitive revolution is needed, demonstrating the value of minds as intervening variables in these analyses and using the results to evaluate models of human cognition. PMID:25497482

  8. Finding the Axis of Revolution of an Algebraic Surface of Revolution.

    PubMed

    Alcazar, Juan G; Goldman, Ron

    2016-09-01

    We present an algorithm for extracting the axis of revolution from the implicit equation of an algebraic surface of revolution based on three distinct computational methods: factoring the highest order form into quadrics, contracting the tensor of the highest order form, and using univariate resultants and gcds. We compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of each of these three techniques and we derive conditions under which each technique is most appropriate. In addition, we provide several necessary conditions for an implicit algebraic equation to represent a surface of revolution. PMID:26561460

  9. So What About History and the American Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Edmund S.

    1974-01-01

    A short introduction to the study of the American Revolution coordinates photographs and pertinent questions to gain a perspective on history as a discipline in general and the history of the revolution in particular. (KM)

  10. Postal Service unveils new space stamps at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Applauding the unveiling of the U.S. Postal Service's newest series of stamps, Space Discovery, are are (left to right) Barry Ziehl, U.S. Postal Service; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director of advanced development and shuttle upgrades; Karla Corcoran, Postal Service inspector general; Kristene A. Graves, a student from Lewis Carroll Elementary School; and Dr. Donald Thomas, astronaut and veteran of four Shuttle missions. During the ceremony, Kristene read her essay 'My Stamp Adventure' that she had written for an area-wide contest for the event. The unveiling took place at the KSC Visitor Complex and coincided with NASA's 40th anniversary on this date. Behind the large display can be seen the mockup of an orbiter. The stamps were designed by renowned aerospace artist Attila Heija. The strip of five individual stamps together make up a futuristic scene complete with space vehicles, a futuristic space city, and space explorers. The stamps are available nationwide beginning Oct. 1.

  11. Postal Service unveils new space stamps at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Postal Service unveils its newest series of stamps, Space Discovery, at the KSC Visitor Complex. The event coincided with NASA's 40th anniversary on this date. Participating in the unveiling are (left to right) Barry Ziehl, U.S. Postal Service; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director of advanced development and shuttle upgrades; Karla Corcoran, Postal Service inspector general; Kristene A. Graves, a student from Lewis Carroll Elementary School ; and Dr. Donald Thomas, astronaut and veteran of four Shuttle missions. Behind them is the mockup of an orbiter. During the ceremony, Kristene read her essay 'My Stamp Adventure' that she had written for an area-wide contest for the event. The stamps were designed by renowned aerospace artist Attila Heija. The strip of five individual stamps together make up a futuristic scene complete with space vehicles, a futuristic space city, and space explorers. The stamps are available nationwide beginning Oct. 1.

  12. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  13. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  14. Using the Microcomputer to Study the Anatomy of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…

  15. The Bayesian Revolution Approaches Psychological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary reviews five articles that apply Bayesian ideas to psychological development, some with psychology experiments, some with computational modeling, and some with both experiments and modeling. The reviewed work extends the current Bayesian revolution into tasks often studied in children, such as causal learning and word learning, and…

  16. The Microarray Revolution: Perspectives from Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…

  17. The Challenge of the Micro Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of choices posed by the current microtechnology revolution notes librarians' reluctance to utilize new technologies, ability of libraries to deal with success and fund new services, strategic decision facing libraries and professionals concerning essential "business" of libraries, new microcomputer portables and more powerful software,…

  18. The American Revolution. An Eyewitness History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, David F.

    While the American Revolution officially began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the seeds of rebellion had been sown for decades. The struggle for representation in the British Parliament left many colonists eager to seek out independence. This book provides hundreds of firsthand accounts of the period from diary entries, letters,…

  19. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  20. Governing Education: Remaking the Long Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Behind the thin veil of the Conservative regime's rationale of deficit reduction hides the final demolition of public comprehensive education and Raymond Williams's more expansive long revolution unfolding over a century of creating a democratic state that affords opportunity, voice and justice for all. Restoring the politics of a pre-war or…

  1. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  2. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  3. "ZEAL": An Aesthetic Revolution for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Barbara A.; French, James Joss

    2012-01-01

    Educators are hesitant to venture into the unknown landscape within a child's heart and mind because they have throughout their education experienced the same non-compassionate teachers. This research proposes an awakening, making a wave for a new revolution of compassionate teachers that institutes aesthetic methodology to address relevant…

  4. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  5. Key Roles in the Revolution of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverin-Simard, Danielle

    At the height of the work revolution and its great social challenges, career development and employment counseling specialists have essential key roles to play in order to support the socioeconomic growth of our community. This book suggests four pro-active key roles for the profession. This recommendation is based on research conducted over the…

  6. The Early Childhood Mathematics Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We are in the midst of a revolution. Prior to the onset of the 21st century, mathematics education in the United States was deemphasized (Geary, 1996), and mathematics as an instructional subject has traditionally been considered above the preschool and kindergarten levels. However, the old regime--the knowledge and philosophies…

  7. The American Revolution: Causes. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Gary

    Based on an 18th century poem (actually, a song originally) about the Boston Tea Party, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that taxation of the American colonists by the British led to the American Revolution; all eras have protest poetry or songs; and students can perform and analyze old literature. The main…

  8. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the analysis of Thomas S. Kuhn's book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Science history is reviewed as it is viewed through the idea of a paradigm. The sequence in science or life cycle of a paradigm is explained. (SA)

  9. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

  10. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  11. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  12. Anthropology's disenchantment with the cognitive revolution(1).

    PubMed

    Shweder, Richard A

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin should be congratulated for their generous attempt at expressive academic therapy for troubled interdisciplinary relationships. In this essay, I suggest that a negative answer to the central question ("Should anthropology be part of cognitive science?") is not necessarily distressing, that in retrospect the breakup seems fairly predictable, and that disenchantment with the cognitive revolution is nothing new. PMID:22685098

  13. Unveiling the Broze Bust of General George C. Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    President Eisenhower and Mrs. Marshall unveil the bronze bust of General George C. Marshall at the dedication ceremony of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on September 8. 1960. On March 15, 1960, a Presidential Executive Order arnouced that the missile development complex within the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal would become the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Center was activated on July 1, 1960

  14. The Mexican Revolution and health care or the health of the Mexican Revolution.

    PubMed

    Horn, J J

    1985-01-01

    Despite a victorious social revolution, a self-proclaimed "revolutionary" government, and a significant post-war economic growth, Mexico has not achieved a just or equitable social system. The Mexican Revolution led to the emergence of a new bureaucratic class whose "trickle-down" development strategy sacrificed social welfare to capital accumulation. Mexican morbidity and mortality patterns resemble those of more impoverished developing nations without revolutionary experience. The patterns of health care in Mexico reflect inequities and contradictions in the society and economy at large and flow from the erosion of the egalitarian aims of the revolution concomitant with the expansion of capitalism and the concentration of the benefits of "modernization" in the hands of privileged elites. Mexico's health problems are symptomatic of a general socio-economic malaise which questions the legitimacy of the Revolution. PMID:3932229

  15. A complete census of Herschel-detected infrared sources within the HST Frontier Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Egami, E.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Boone, F.; Clement, B.; Ivison, R. J.; Richard, J.; Rujopakarn, W.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G.; Weiner, B. J.; Blain, A. W.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Lutz, D.; Rodighiero, G.; Schaerer, D.; Smail, I.

    2016-06-01

    We present a complete census of all Herschel-detected sources within the six massive lensing clusters of the HST Frontier Fields (HFF). We provide a robust legacy catalogue of 263 sources with Herschel fluxes, primarily based on imaging from the Herschel Lensing Survey and PEP/HerMES Key Programmes. We optimally combine Herschel, Spitzer and WISE infrared (IR) photometry with data from HST, VLA and ground-based observatories, identifying counterparts to gain source redshifts. For each Herschel-detected source we also present magnification factor (μ), intrinsic IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature, providing a comprehensive view of dust-obscured star formation within the HFF. We demonstrate the utility of our catalogues through an exploratory overview of the magnified population, including more than 20 background sub-LIRGs unreachable by Herschel without the assistance gravitational lensing.

  16. A "large and graceful sinuosity". John Herschel's graphical method.

    PubMed

    Hankins, Thomas L

    2006-12-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published a graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He argued that his method, which depended on human judgment rather than mathematical analysis, gave better results than computation, given the uncertainty in the data. Herschel found that astronomy and terrestrial physics were especially suitable for graphical treatment, and he expected that graphs would soon become important in all areas of science. He argued with William Whewell and James D. Forbes over the process of induction, over the application of probability, and over the moral content of science. Graphs entered into all these debates; but because they constituted a method, not a metaphysics, they were acceptable to most practicing scientists and became increasingly popular throughout the nineteenth century. PMID:17367002

  17. HERSCHEL Sounding Rocket Mission Observations of the Helium Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, Jeffrey; Moses, J.; Antonucci, E.; Fineschi, S.; Abbo, L.; Telloni, D.; Auchere, F.; Barbey, N.; Romoli, M.

    2010-05-01

    The HERSCHEL (Helium Resonant Scattering in the Corona and Heliosphere) investigation successfully obtained unprecedented images of the helium and hydrogen components of the solar corona out to 3 solar radii during a suborbital flight on 14 September 2009. Preliminary analysis of these observations indicates the spatial distribution of the helium abundance and outflow velocity provides powerful diagnostics for the source and dynamics of the slow solar wind during the time of solar minimum activity. An analysis of co-temporal STEREO EUVI data to derive the temperature of low coronal structures associated with the regions of enhanced helium abundance observed by HERSCHEL provides evidence the relative first ionization potential (FIP) of helium and hydrogen may play an important role in the observed abundance distribution. NRL was supported by the Office of Naval Research and NASA under NDPRS6598G.

  18. Binaries in Nebulae: Recent Observations of John Herschel's List

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. L.

    1993-12-01

    During the 19th century John Herschel observed double stars from England and his Feldhausen Station in South Africa, using a 5-inch refractor and an 18-inch reflector, ``The 20-ft". A few of his discoveries were annotated ``nebulosity" in his 1874 catalog. Most of these ``nebulous binaries'' have been examined recently at the U.S. Naval Observatory's Flagstaff Station using the 1-m telescope equipped with a CCD. A few objects were added from lists by S. W. Burnham and W.H. van den Bos. This study began as an exploratory project to detect possible morphological connections between binaries and nebulosities, but it was soon apparent that Herschel's keen eyesight had originally detected more than double stars. The application of Aitken's criterion indicates few of the objects are physical binaries. Galaxy and gas-dust configurations are more descriptive of the nature of these objects.

  19. Herschel observation of C3 in star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookerjea, B.; Giesen, T.; Stutzki, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Black, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    We present spectrally resolved observations of triatomic carbon (C3) in several ro-vibrational transitions between the vibrational ground state and the low-energy ν2 bending mode at frequencies above 1.6 THz using HIFI onboard Herschel, towards several Galactic star forming regions including W31C, W49N, DR21(OH), W33A and W51. These observations have been performed as part of the Herschel key programme PRISMAS. C3 lines arising from the warm envelopes surrounding the hot cores associated with these star forming regions are detected in absorption. We shall present results of detailed radiative transfer models in which the C3 lines are excited by FIR pumping by the dust continuum.

  20. A "Large and Graceful Sinuosity": John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2006-12-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published a graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He argued that this method, which depended on human judgment rather than mathematical analysis, gave better results than computation, given the uncertainty in the data. Herschel found that astronomy and terrestrial physics were especially suitable for graphical treatment, and he expected that graphs would soon become important in all areas of science. He argued with William Whewell and James D. Forbes over the process of induction, over the application of probability, and over the moral content of science. Graphs entered into all these debates, but because they constituted a method, not a metaphysics, they were acceptable to most practicing scientists and became increasingly popular throughout the nineteenth century.

  1. John Herschel and the Cape flora, 1834 - 1839.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, J. P.

    John Herschel's interest in botany was stimulated by his contact with the species-rich Cape flora while resident in Cape Town, 1834 - 1838. The comparative study of his extensive living collection of bulbous plants, mainly of the Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Amarayllidaceae and Orchidaceae led him to consider some basic aspects of the origin of species and of taxonomic theory, in letters to colleagues in Europe.

  2. Exploring science and technology through the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Rouzé, M.

    2015-03-01

    Because modern astronomy associates the quest of our origins and high-tech instruments, communicating and teaching astronomy explore both science and technology. We report here on our work in communicating astronomy to the public through Web sites (www.herschel.fr), movies on Dailymotion (www.dailymotion.com/AstrophysiqueTV) and new ITC tools that describe interactively the technological dimension of a space mission for astrophysics.

  3. OT2_smalhotr_3: Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations (HELLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.

    2011-09-01

    We request 59.8 hours of Herschel time to observe 20 normal star-forming galaxies in the [CII] 158 micron and [OI] 63 micron lines. These galaxies lie at high redshift (1Herschel offers the unique opportunity to study both lines with high sensitivity throughout this epoch (using HIFI for [CII] and PACS for [OI]). These two lines are the main cooling lines of the atomic medium. By measuring their fluxes, we will measure (1) the cooling efficiency of gas, (2) gas densities and temperatures near starforming regions, and (3) gas pressures, which are important to drive the winds that provide feedback to starformation processes. By combining the proposed observations with existing multiwavelength data on these objects, we will obtain as complete a picture of galaxy-scale star formation and ISM physical conditions at high redshifts as we have at z=0. Then perhaps we can understand why star formation and AGN activity peaked at this epoch. In Herschel cycle OT1, 49 high redshift IR luminous galaxies were approved for spectroscopy, but only two so-called normal galaxies were included. This is an imbalance that should be corrected, to balance Herschel's legacy.

  4. The poetry of light: Herschel, art and photography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, L. J.

    The public disclosure of photography was played out in a drama where personalities and nationalistic rivalries frequently overshadowed true scientific and artistic advances. Unwittingly plunged into centre of this confused drama was Sir John Herschel. His unusually diverse background equipped him to comprehend at once both the immedate practice and the future potential of photography. He supplied cruical elements to its technical foundation and established outlines for its systematic growth.

  5. Secondary ("Plain Mirror") Testing Methods of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F. M.

    2004-12-01

    Although many of Sir William Herschel's telescope designs did not require a secondary mirror, he did construct Newtonian style optical systems that used "plain mirrors." A look at Herschel's own writings on the matter gives some interesting insights into the techniques of this skilled 18th - 19th century telescope maker. The author provides glimpses acquired from unpublished Herschel documents that are now in the possession of the British RAS -- these include a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." Herschel constructed secondary mirrors for his instruments by grinding and polishing his small mirrors in a sequence that involved two tools. He tested the optical quality of a small plain mirror by utilizing two slips of white card or pasteboard. One slip was made exactly twice the length of the second. The shorter card was placed against the mirror while the longer placed at some distance away so that its reflected image exactly matched the other. The larger card was carefully placed near the eye and oriented so that it was parallel to the shorter card strip. In order to test various sections of the secondary mirror, cards of different length were used. The mirror was judged flat if the reflected image was exactly identical to the card resting on the mirror. If the mirror were concave, the reflected image would be larger (i.e., magnified) than that of the smaller slip. However, should the reflected image be lesser in size, then the mirror was convex. Figuring was done with the mirror resting above the polishing tool. A convex mirror could be made plain by lengthening the stroke while a concave mirror could be made plain by shortening the stroke.

  6. The Herschel Space Observatory, Opening the Far Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John C.

    2009-06-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel) is a multi user observatory operated by the European Space Agency with a significant NASA contribution. Herschel features a passively cooled 3.5 meter telescope expected to operate near 78 Kelvin and three cryogenic instruments covering the 670 to 57 μm spectral region. The mission life time, determined by the consumption of 2500 liters of liquid helium, is expected to be at least 3.5 years with at least 3 years of operational lifetime in an L2 orbit. The three payload instruments are the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI). SPIRE covers 200-670 μm and is a three band bolometer based photometer and a two band imaging Martin-Puplett FTS with a spectral resolution of up to 600. PACS covers 57-200 μm and is a three band bolometer based photometer and a grating slit spectrometer illuminating photoconductor arrays in two bands with a resolution of up to 5000. HIFI covers 480-1272 GHz and 1440-1910 GHz and is a series of seven dual polarization heterodyne receivers with a spectral resolution up to 5×10^6. The observatory performance, selected science program and upcoming opportunities will be discussed.

  7. A Herschel View on Galaxy/AGN Co-Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Pep Consortium

    2011-10-01

    Deep far-infrared photometric surveys studying galaxy evolution and the nature of the cosmic infrared background are a key strength of the Herschel mission. The PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) guaranteed time key program obtains deep photometric surveys of some of the key extragalactic multiwavelength fields at wavelengths between 70 and 160μm. This contribution gives an overview of first science results, illustrating the potential of Herschel in providing calorimetric star formation rates for various high redshift galaxy populations, thus testing and superseding previous extrapolations from other wavelengths, and enabling a wide range of galaxy evolution studies. Herschel measured star formation rates of high redshift X-ray AGN suggest an interplay between two paths of AGN/host coevolution. A correlation of AGN luminosity and host star formation is traced locally over a wide range of luminosities and also extends to luminous high-z AGN. This correlation reflects an evolutionary connection, likely via merging. For lower AGN luminosities, star formation is similar to that in non-active massive galaxies and shows little dependence on AGN luminosity. The level of this secular, non-merger driven star formation increasingly dominates over the correlation at increasing redshift.

  8. THROES: A Catalogue of Herschel Observations of Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Medina, J.; Sánchez-Contreras, C.; García-Lario, P.; Rodrigo, C.

    2015-12-01

    We are building a catalogue of fully-reprocessed observations of all evolved stars observed with Herschel (THROES). In a first stage, we focus on observations performed with the PACS instrument in its full range spectroscopy mode. Once finished, the catalogue will offer all reduced data for each observation, as well as, complementary information from other observatories. As a first step, we concentrate our efforts on two main activities: 1) the reprocessing and data-reduction of more than 200 individual sources, observed by Herschel/PACS in the 55-210 micron range, available in the Herschel Science Archive (HSA); 2) The creation of an initial catalogue, accesible via web and the Virtual Observatory (VO), with all the information relative to PACS observations and the classification of the sources. Our ultimate goal will be to carry out a comprehensive and systematic study of the far infrared properties of low-and intermediate-mass (1-8 FX1) evolved stars using these data. These objects cover the whole range of possible evolutionary stages in this short-lived phase of stellar evolution, from AGB phase to the PN stage, displaying a wide variety of chemical and physical properties.

  9. Herschel Observations of (21) Lutetia around the Rosetta Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Müller, T.; Valtchanov, I.; Altieri, B.; González-Garcia, B. M.; Bhattacharya, B.; Jorda, L.; Carry, B.; Küppers, M.; Groussin, O.; Altwegg, K.; Barucci, M. A.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Dotto, E.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Kidger, M.; Llorente, A.; Lorente, R.; Marston, A. P.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Schulz, R.; Sierra, M.; Teyssier, D.; Vavrek, R.

    2011-10-01

    Prior to and around ESA Rosetta's flyby of (21) Lutetia, a collaborative observation campaign using another ESA satellite, the ESA Herschel Space Observatory, was performed whereby Herschel's two photometers observed the asteroid in the far infrared, at wavelengths not covered by the Rosetta instruments. The Herschel observations, fed into a thermophysical model (TPM) using as input a flyby image based shape model (built upon Rosetta OSIRIS instrument observations) were further correlated with ~70 multi-wavelength (IRAS, ISOVISIR, IRTF, Akari, ESO-TIMMI2, Spitzer-IRAC) observations of Lutetia. We confirm the albedo measured by Rosetta and derive a "true" H-mag value based upon the cross-sections of the asteroid observed from all aspect angles. From our measurements we find that (21) Lutetia has an extremely low thermal inertia as well as a very low surface temperature. In addition, we have been able to identify a hill/crater surface feature located on the asteroids southern region not observed by Rosetta. We conclude that only through the merging of in-situ flyby based observations and remote sensing observations can a true global picture be obtained of this peculiar asteroid.

  10. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  11. The Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver for Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Schulz, B.; Shupe, D.; Xu, C. K.; Schwartz, A.; Zhang, L.; ICC, SPIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) is one of the three instruments on board the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory launched on May 14, 2009. SPIRE features an imaging photometer with passbands centered at 250, 350 and 500 microns, and an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer covering the wavelength range between 194 and 672 microns. In view of its latest performance verification results, we describe the updated SPIRE instrumental capabilities, and its scientific potential. The instrument was developed by a consortium of European and American scientists, led by P.I. Prof. M. Griffin of Cardiff University (UK). The US is playing a crucial role in SPIRE, by providing its bolometer arrays (developed by Dr. J. Bock at JPL), participating in SPIRE's ground and in-flight commissioning and calibration, and in the development of the Herschel Common Science System (HCSS) data reduction software. Support for both Key and Open Time Programs of US astronomers is provided by the NASA Herschel Science Center (NHSC) at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC).

  12. Windblown Dunes on the Floor of Herschel Impact Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Herschel Basin, one of many meteor impact craters on Mars, has some dark material on its floor that appeared from earlier spacecraft missions to have been blown and/or deposited by wind. Herschel Basin was imaged at low resolution by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters ((A) above) in the 1970s, and again by the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989.

    On June 14, 1998, Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera revealed that part of the dark surface on the floor of Herschel Basin consists of a field of sand dunes ((B) above). These dunes have a distinct crescent-like shape characteristic of dunes on Earth called barchan dunes. They result from winds that blow from a single dominant direction.

    In the case of Herschel Basin, the dunes indicate that the strongest winds blow approximately north-to-south. The crescent horns on the ends of some of the dunes in this image are elongated. This condition indicates that the dominant winds do not always blow in exactly the same direction-- sometimes the winds blow from the northeast, sometimes from the northwest, and sometimes from the north. The local topography probably influences the wind direction--and hence dune shape--because this dune field is located on a narrow, low plain between a high crater rim to the east, and a narrow mountain range-- the inner ring of the Herschel impact basin--to the west (see image (A)).

    MOC image 36507 was obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 365th orbit around 10:51 a.m. PDT on June 14, 1998. This subframe is centered around 14.27oS, 231.68oW.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  13. Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

  14. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance. PMID:26040216

  15. Scientific pluralism and the Chemical Revolution.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable "systems of practice" in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment of Lavoisier's and Priestley's work and character follows the phlogistonists' "actors' sociology"; second, that Chang simplifies late-eighteenth-century chemical debates by reducing them to an alleged conflict between two systems of practice; third, that Chang's evidence for a slow transition from phlogistonist theory to oxygen theory is not strong; and fourth, that he is wrong to assume that chemists at the time did not have overwhelming good reasons to favour Lavoisier's over the phlogistonists' views. PMID:26109412

  16. Data Science: The Revolution in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    I will describe the data science undergraduate and graduate programs at George Mason University, within the context of the ongoing revolution in data-intensive science. Both general and specific recommendations regarding science education will also be presented, extending from graduate training, to undergraduate science majors, and to undergraduate general education students. Examples of professional opportunities for data scientists in the key informatics (data science) research areas will be highlighted.

  17. They Say They Want a Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    Even if one does not believe--and it is getting increasingly difficult not to--that the "green revolution" on college campuses is akin to the great movements for social change that rocked universities in the 1960s and '70s, there is no denying that it has taken root in such a way that no campus administrator can afford to ignore it. And unlike the…

  18. The upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Joseph L.

    2011-04-01

    This paper will include discussions on fundamental principles and market forces associated with the upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves. A literature survey is also outlined covering some selected major developments this past decade. A few applications in pipe, rail, bonding and composites, imaging and tomography, ultrasonic vibration, de-icing, structural health monitoring, gas entrapment, and non-linear methods are treated to provide an idea of where we are heading with ultrasonic guided waves.

  19. Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn suggested that science progresses discontinuously: As a scientific theory becomes obsolete, a period of crisis results, at the end of which the old theory is overthrown and replaced by a new, sounder, more complete theory [Kuhn, 1962]. After the scientific community has accepted the new [paradigm,] it undertakes only routine research until a new crisis occurs, usually as a result of an anomalous experiment that accidentally happens to be critical.

  20. Toward a new toxicology - evolution or revolution?

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    This essay summarises the author's thoughts on the current paradigm change in toxicology. The driving factors and mechanisms of this change, and obstacles to it, are discussed. Current developments are discussed on the basis of some key assumptions in Thomas Kuhn's famous book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. The author's personal view is that there is clear evidence that revolutionary changes in regulatory toxicology are emerging. PMID:19154090

  1. The Newly-named "Herschel Space Observatory" revisits its science goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    In science, new answers often trigger new questions. And in astronomy, new questions often mean new instruments. The ESA 'Herschel Space Observatory', formerly called 'Far Infrared and Submillimetre Telescope' (FIRST), is the instrument that inherits many of the questions triggered by its predecessor, ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). 200 astronomers from all over the world met last week in Toledo, Spain, to discuss how to insert these new questions in Herschel's 'scientific agenda'. Thus, Herschel will study the origin of stars and galaxies -its main goals-, but it will also keep on searching for water in space -as ISO did-, and will help us to understand the formation of our own Solar System through detailed observations of comets and of the poorly known 'transneptunian objects'. A new name for 'FIRST' The new name for FIRST, 'Herschel Space Observatory', or 'Herschel', was announced at the opening of the Toledo conference by ESA's Director of Science, Roger Bonnet. William Herschel was an Anglo-German astronomer who discovered infrared light in 1800. Thanks to his discovery, astronomers can now observe a facet of the Universe that remains hidden to other telescopes. ESA's Herschel is the first space observatory covering a major part of the far-infrared and submillimetre waveband (from 57 to 670 microns) and its new name honours Herschel on the 200th anniversary of his discovery. Roger Bonnet explained: "It strikes me that we are at a key scientific conference devoted to the next ESA infrared space mission, gathering many 'infrared pioneers', 200 years after a famous musician and astronomer discovered that by placing a thermometer in the remote part of the solar spectrum, where apparently there was no light, he could detect heat. What we call now infrared radiation. This meeting marks two events: the beginning of a very promising utilisation of FIRST, and the adoption of a new name for the telescope: the Herschel Space Observatory". Roger Bonnet also

  2. New stamp of Shuttle Columbia unveiled at Visitors Center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A new series of U.S. Postage stamps, The 1980s, is unveiled at the KSC Visitors Complex. Shown taking part in the 'First Day of Issue Ceremony' are (left to right) astronaut Richard Linnehan, U.S. Representative, 15th Congressional District, Dave Weldon, U.S. Postal Service District Manager Viki Brennan, Center Director Roy Bridges and President of the Visitor Complex Rick Abramson. Among the stamps issued is one of Space Shuttle Columbia, first launched in April 1981. This collection of stamps is the ninth in the Post Office's 'Celebrate the Century' commemorative series honoring the last 100 years of American history.

  3. New stamp of Shuttle Columbia unveiled at Visitors Center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One of a new series of U.S. Postage stamps, The 1980s, is unveiled at the KSC Visitors Complex. The stamp, shown here, is the Space Shuttle Columbia, first launched in April 1981. This collection of stamps is the ninth in the Post Office's 'Celebrate the Century' commemorative series honoring the last 100 years of American history. Taking part in the 'First Day of Issue Ceremony' were astronaut Richard Linnehan, U.S. Representative, 15th Congressional District, Dave Weldon, U.S. Postal Service District Manager Viki Brennan, Center Director Roy Bridges and President of the Visitor Complex Rick Abramson.

  4. New stamp of Shuttle Columbia unveiled at Visitors Center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One of a new series of U.S. Postage stamps, The 1980s, is unveiled at the KSC Visitors Complex. The stamp, shown here, is the Space Shuttle Columbia, first launched in April 1981. This collection of stamps is the ninth in the Post Office's 'Celebrate the Century' commemorative series honoring the last 100 years of American history. Taking part in the 'First Day of Issue Ceremony' are (left to right) astronaut Richard Linnehan, U.S. Representative, 15th Congressional District, Dave Weldon, U.S. Postal Service District Manager Viki Brennan, Center Director Roy Bridges and President of the Visitor Complex Rick Abramson.

  5. New stamp of Shuttle Columbia unveiled at Visitors Center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A new series of U.S. Postage stamps, The 1980s, is unveiled at the KSC Visitors Complex. Taking part in the 'First Day of Issue Ceremony' were astronaut Richard Linnehan, U.S. Representative, 15th Congressional District, Dave Weldon, U.S. Postal Service District Manager Viki Brennan, Center Director Roy Bridges and President of the Visitor Complex Rick Abramson. Among the stamps issued is one of Space Shuttle Columbia (upper left corner), first launched in April 1981. This collection of stamps is the ninth in the Post Office's 'Celebrate the Century' commemorative series honoring the last 100 years of American history.

  6. Herschel detects oxygen in the β Pictoris debris disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandeker, A.; Cataldi, G.; Olofsson, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Acke, B.; Barlow, M. J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cohen, M.; Dent, W. R. F.; Dominik, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Fridlund, M.; Gear, W. K.; Glauser, A. M.; Greaves, J. S.; Harvey, P. M.; Heras, A. M.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Holland, W. S.; Huygen, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Liseau, R.; Matthews, B. C.; Pantin, E.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Royer, P.; Sibthorpe, B.; Waelkens, C.; Walker, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    The young star β Pictoris is well known for its dusty debris disk produced through collisional grinding of planetesimals, kilometre-sized bodies in orbit around the star. In addition to dust, small amounts of gas are also known to orbit the star; this gas is likely the result of vaporisation of violently colliding dust grains. The disk is seen edge on and from previous absorption spectroscopy we know that the gas is very rich in carbon relative to other elements. The oxygen content has been more difficult to assess, however, with early estimates finding very little oxygen in the gas at a C/O ratio that is 20 × higher than the cosmic value. A C/O ratio that high is difficult to explain and would have far-reaching consequences for planet formation. Here we report on observations by the far-infrared space telescope Herschel, using PACS, of emission lines from ionised carbon and neutral oxygen. The detected emission from C+ is consistent withthat previously reported observed by the HIFI instrument on Herschel, while the emission from O is hard to explain without assuming a higher density region in the disk, perhaps in the shape of a clump or a dense torus required to sufficiently excite the O atoms. A possible scenario is that the C/O gas is produced by the same process responsible for the CO clump recently observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in the disk and that the redistribution of the gas takes longer than previously assumed. A more detailed estimate of the C/O ratio and the mass of O will have to await better constraints on the C/O gas spatial distribution. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey: HerMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S.J.; Bock, J.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Beelen, A.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Boselli, A.; Bridge, C.; Brisbin, D; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Cirasuolo, M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dwek, E.; Levenson, L.; Nguyen, H. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, HerMES, is a legacy program designed to map a set of nested fields totalling approx. 380 deg(exp 2). Fields range in size from 0.01 to approx. 20 deg (exp 2), using Herschel-SPIRE (at 250, 350 and 500 micron), and Herschel-PACS (at 100 and 160 micron), with an additional wider component of 270 deg. (exp. 2) with SPIRE alone. These bands cover the peak of the redshifted thermal spectral energy distribution from interstellar dust and thus capture the re-processed optical and ultra-violet radiation from star formation that has been absorbed by dust, and are critical for forming a complete multi-wavelength understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The survey will detect of order 100,000 galaxies at 5-sigma in some of the best studied fields in the sky. Additionally, HerMES is closely coordinated with the PACS Evolutionary Probe survey. Making maximum use of the full spectrum of ancillary data, from radio to X-ray wavelengths, it is designed to: facilitate redshift determination; rapidly identify unusual objects; and understand the relationships between thermal emission from dust and other processes. Scientific questions HerMES will be used to answer include: the total infrared emission of galaxies; the evolution of the luminosity function; the clustering properties of dusty galaxies; and the properties of populations of galaxies which lie below the confusion limit through lensing and statistical techniques. This paper defines the survey observations and data products, outlines the primary scientific goals of the HerMES team, and reviews some of the early results.

  8. Debris disks as seen by Herschel/DUNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhne, T.; Eiroa, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Absil, O.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; Bayo, A.; del Burgo, C.; Danchi, W.; Krivov, A. V.; Lebreton, J.; Letawe, G.; Magain, P.; Maldonado, J.; Montesinos, B.; Pilbratt, G. L.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2012-06-01

    The far-infrared excesses produced by debris disks are common features of stellar systems. These disks are thought to contain solids ranging from micron-sized dust to planetesimals. Naturally, their formation and evolution are linked to those of potential planets. With this motivation, the Herschel open time key programme DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars) aims at further characterising known debris disks and discovering new ones in the regime explored by the Herschel space observatory. On the one hand, in their survey of 133 nearby FGK stars, DUNES discovered a class of extremely cold and faint debris disks, different from well-known disks such as the one around Vega in that their inferred typical grain sizes are rather large, indicating low dynamical excitation and low collision rates. On the other hand, for the more massive disk around the sun-like star HD 207129, well-resolved PACS images confirmed the ring-liked structure seen in HST images and provided valuable information for an in-depth study and benchmark for models. Employing both models for power-law fitting and collisional evolution we found the disk around HD 207129 to feature low collision rates and large grains, as well. Transport by means of Poynting-Robertson drag likely plays a role in replenishing the dust seen closer to the star, inside of the ring. The inner edge is therefore rather smooth and the contribution from the extended halo of barely bound grains is small. Both slowly self-stirring and planetary perturbations could potentially have formed and shaped this disk. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. The universe unveiled : instruments and images through history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Bruce; Bolt, Marvin; Friedman, Anna Felicity

    2000-11-01

    The search for understanding creates more than answers; it also produces instruments, books, maps, and other tools made and used by those seeking knowledge. The Universe Unveiled uniquely focuses on these artifacts and devices resulting from the attempts to decipher the Universe from the late fifteenth to the early twentieth century. Beautiful, full-color photographs capture these extremely rare and sometimes unusual curios. Beginning with the discovery of ways to keep time, The Universe Unveiled depicts the shift from an Earth-centered understanding of the Universe to a Sun-centered view, the mapping of the stars, and the ever-expanding knowledge of the heavens using telescopes. It also examines the developing technologies of navigation and of the measuring and mapping of the Earth. In addition to rare European curios, the book is illustrated with non-Western and American works. With more than 250 full-color images, this unique volume will delight the inventive as well as the curious.

  10. The Herschel Data Processing System - Hipe And Pipelines - During The Early Mission Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, David R.; Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science program, was launched 14th of May 2009. With a 3.5 m telescope, it is the largest space telescope ever launched. Herschel's three instruments (HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE) perform photometry and spectroscopy in the 55 - 672 micron range and will deliver exciting science for the astronomical community during at least three years of routine observations. Here we summarize the state of the Herschel Data Processing System and give an overview about future development milestones and plans. The development of the Herschel Data Processing System started seven years ago to support the data analysis for Instrument Level Tests. Resources were made available to implement a freely distributable Data Processing System capable of interactively and automatically reduce Herschel data at different processing levels. The system combines data retrieval, pipeline execution and scientific analysis in one single environment. The software is coded in Java and Jython to be platform independent and to avoid the need for commercial licenses. The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) is the user-friendly face of Herschel Data Processing. The first PACS preview observation of M51 was processed with HIPE, using basic pipeline scripts to a fantastic image within 30 minutes of data reception. Also the first HIFI observations on DR-21 were successfully reduced to high quality spectra, followed by SPIRE observations on M66 and M74. The Herschel Data Processing System is a joint development by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the HIFI, PACS and SPIRE consortium members.

  11. Herschel observations of the debris disc around HIP 92043

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. P.; Krivov, A. V.; del Burgo, C.; Eiroa, C.; Mora, A.; Montesinos, B.; Ertel, S.; Bryden, G.; Liseau, R.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bayo, A.; Danchi, W.; Löhne, T.; Maldonado, J.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Typical debris discs are composed of particles ranging from several micron sized dust grains to km sized asteroidal bodies, and their infrared emission peaks at wavelengths 60-100 μm. Recent Herschel DUNES observations have identified several debris discs around nearby Sun-like stars (F, G and K spectral type) with significant excess emission only at 160 μm. Aims: We observed HIP 92043 (110 Her, HD 173667) at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths with Herschel PACS and SPIRE. Identification of the presence of excess emission from HIP 92043 and the origin and physical properties of any excess was undertaken through analysis of its spectral energy distribution (SED) and the PACS images. Methods: The PACS and SPIRE images were produced using the HIPE photProject map maker routine. Fluxes were measured using aperture photometry. A stellar photosphere model was scaled to optical and near infrared photometry and subtracted from the far-infared and sub-mm fluxes to determine the presence of excess emission. Source radial profiles were fitted using a 2D Gaussian and compared to a PSF model based on Herschel observations of α Boo to check for extended emission. Results: Clear excess emission from HIP 92043 was observed at 70 and 100 μm. Marginal excess was observed at 160 and 250 μm. Analysis of the images reveals that the source is extended at 160 μm. A fit to the source SED is inconsistent with a photosphere and single temperature black body. Conclusions: The excess emission from HIP 92043 is consistent with the presence of an unresolved circumstellar debris disc at 70 and 100 μm, with low probability of background contamination. The extended 160 μm emission may be interpreted as an additional cold component to the debris disc or as the result of background contamination along the line of sight. The nature of the 160 μm excess cannot be determined absolutely from the available data, but we favour a debris disc interpretation, drawing parallels with

  12. Herschel survey of brown dwarf disks in ρ Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves de Oliveira, C.; Ábrahám, P.; Marton, G.; Pinte, C.; Kiss, Cs.; Kun, M.; Kóspál, Á.; André, P.; Könyves, V.

    2013-11-01

    Context. Young brown dwarfs are known to possess circumstellar disks, a characteristic that is fundamental to the understanding of their formation process, and raises the possibility that these objects harbour planets. Aims: We want to characterise the far-IR emission of disks around the young brown dwarf population of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster in LDN 1688. Methods: Recent observations of the ρ Ophiuchi cluster with the Herschel Space Observatory allow us to probe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the brown dwarf population in the far-IR, where the disk emission peaks. We performed aperture photometry at 70, 100, and 160 μm, and constructed SEDs for all previously known brown dwarfs detected. These were complemented with ancillary photometry at shorter wavelengths. We compared the observed SEDs to a grid of synthetic disks produced with the radiative transfer code MCFOST, and used the relative figure of merit estimated from the Bayesian inference of each disk parameter to analyse the structural properties. Results: We detected 12 Class II brown dwarfs with Herschel, which corresponds to one-third of all currently known brown dwarf members of ρ Ophiuchi. We did not detect any of the known Class III brown dwarfs. Comparison to models reveals that the disks are best described by an inner radius between 0.01 and 0.07 AU, and a flared disk geometry with a flaring index between 1.05 and 1.2. Furthermore, we can exclude values of the disk scale-height lower than 10 AU (measured at a fiducial radius of 100 AU). We combined the Herschel data with recent ALMA observations of the brown dwarf GY92 204 (ISO-Oph 102), and by comparing its SED to the same grid of disk models, we derived an inner disk radius of 0.035 AU, a scale height of 15 AU with a flaring index of β ~ 1.15, an exponent for dust settling of -1.5, and a disk mass of 0.001 M⊙. This corresponds to a disk-to-central object mass ratio of ~1%. Conclusions: The structural parameters constrained by the

  13. The Photoconductor Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) instrument for Herschel.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Babar; Frayer, D. T.; Fadda, D.; Appleton, P.; Latter, B.

    2007-05-01

    PACS is one of three science instruments for ESA ’ s Herschel Space Observatory (HSO, formerly known as FIRST). It operates either as an imaging photometer or an integral field spectrometer over the spectral band from 57 to 210 µm. PACS is being designed and built by a consortium of institutes and university departments from across Europe under the leadership of Principal Investigator Albrecht Poglitsch located at Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Garching, Germany. Consortium members are: Austria: UVIE; Belgium: IMEC, KUL, CSL; France: CEA, OAMP; Germany: MPE, MPIA; Italy: IFSI, OAP/OAT, OAA/CAISMI, LENS, SISSA; Spain: IAC.

  14. Beam profile for the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Makiwa, Gibion; Naylor, David A; Ferlet, Marc; Salji, Carl; Swinyard, Bruce; Polehampton, Edward; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D

    2013-06-01

    One of the instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory is the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). SPIRE employs a Fourier transform spectrometer with feed-horn-coupled bolometers to provide imaging spectroscopy. To interpret the resultant spectral images requires knowledge of the wavelength-dependent beam, which in the case of SPIRE is complicated by the use of multimoded feed horns. In this paper we describe a series of observations and the analysis conducted to determine the wavelength dependence of the SPIRE spectrometer beam profile. PMID:23736346

  15. Herschel and Planck: surprises in the sub-mm band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Nuevo González, J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper focused on three of the most spectacular and almost unexpected results obtained from the observations in the sub-mm band coming from the ESA's Herschel and Planck missions: the detection of hundred of strongly lensed galaxies, the identification of high-z proto-clusters, and the study of the weak lensing signal through the cross-correlation analysis. Although, there were theoretical works that anticipate them, none of these interesting results appeared in the original scientific programs of both mission. For this reason we have called them ``surprises''.

  16. Candidate High Redshift Clusters of Dusty Galaxies from Herschel & Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, David L.

    2015-08-01

    The cross identification of Planck compact sources with objects in karger area Herschel surveys, such as HerMES and H-ATLAS, has led to the discovery of candidate high redshift (out to z~3) clusters of far-IR luminous star forming galaxies. These objects are not easily reproduced in the current generations of galaxy and large scale formation simulations and are thus a potentially powerful new tool for comnstraining galaxy and cluster formation models. We will review the current results on these sources and examine future prospects for progress in this novel and potentially important new field.

  17. Einstein and Lorentz: The structure of a scientific revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, W.

    1980-06-01

    In a course entitled ''Revolutions in Physics'' a number of episodes in the history of physics are examined, in order to test the theories of Kuhn, Popper, Lakatos, and others, with regard to any common structure exhibited by the various revolutions that physics has undergone. The conflict between Lorentz's Electron Theory and Einstein's Special Relativity becomes a major focal point in the second half of the course for the models of scientific revolutions that are studied.

  18. The Effects on Education of Scientific Revolutions (In the Sense of T. S. Kuhn).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter G.

    1981-01-01

    Examined are social factors that influence biological science knowledge content in terms of these paradigm shifts: the DNA revolution, the Continental Drift revolution, the Darwinian revolution, and the sociobiology revolution, with the term "revolution" being used in the sense of Thomas S. Kuhn's writings. (PB)

  19. How Personal Is the Political? Democratic Revolution and Fertility Decline

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Amy Kate

    2010-01-01

    Existing theory has identified the capacity of political revolutions to effect change in a variety of social institutions, although relationships between revolution and many institutions remain unexplored. Using historical data from 22 European and four diaspora countries, I examine the temporal relationship between timing of revolution and onset of fertility decline. I hypothesize that specific kinds of revolutionary events affect fertility by engendering ideological changes in popular understandings of the individual’s relationship to society, and ultimately the legitimacy of couples’ authority over their reproductive capacities. Results demonstrate that popular democratic revolution – but not institutionalized democratic structures – predict the timing of the onset of fertility decline. PMID:19999826

  20. Rotor Wake Development During the First Revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAlister, Kenneth W.

    2003-01-01

    The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.

  1. [The beginning of the Cuban demographic revolution].

    PubMed

    Hernandez Castellon, R

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of the Cuban demographic revolution associated with the main economic, political, and social changes in the country are analyzed. The authors begin with a brief historical outline of the political-economic situation in the country in the middle of the 19th century. There is emphasis on the dependency of the Cuban economy and its monoproducer nature (with sugar being the major export). This was due to the Spanish colonization and to the subsequent American neocolonization. The discovery of the cause for yellow fever by a Cuban physician and the sanitation campaign conducted by the Americans contributed to a diminishing of mortality. A great migratory flow occurred due to the price of sugar in the world market. This must have influenced Cuban demographic patterns which are a major factor linked to the demographic revolution. The influence on proliferation of urbanization and educational trends is emphasized. The low participation in economic activities of women during the early part of the century did affect fertility levels. The trends in mortality throughout the period 1907-43 are pointed out. It was found that 1 major aspect which had a bearing on Cuban demographic patterns was the 2 large migratory flows. An analysis of growth rates in the population--which also confirms the demographic changes in Cuba--is presented. It is concluded that the 4th decade of this century witnessed Cuba's entry in a new stage of the demographic revolution, a stage in which decreased fertility and mortality go together to create a new period. (author's) PMID:12279297

  2. Perspective: the revolution is upon us.

    PubMed

    Sierles, Frederick S

    2010-05-01

    Profound socioeconomic pressures on medical student education have been catalogued extensively. These pressures include teaching patient shortages, teacher shortages, conflicting systems, and financial problems. Many of these problems have been caused by an unregulated free market affecting medicine overall, with market values sometimes overshadowing the academic values of education, research, and patient care. This has caused profound changes in the conduct of medical student education. Particularly important has been a reduction in the "gold standard" of teaching: direct student-teacher and supervised student-patient interaction, replaced by a potpourri of online and simulated modules. The aggregate of these changes constitutes a revolution that challenges whether medical schools, school buildings, classes, and dedicated faculty are even necessary. The author posits several recommendations in response to this revolution: (1) recognize the revolution as such, and carefully guide or abort it, lest its outcome be inadequate, inauthentic, or corrupt, (2) prioritize academic rather than business values, (3) ensure that funds allotted for education are used for education, (4) insist that medical schools, not industry, teach students, (5) value authentic education more than simulation, (6) adopt learner-centered teaching without misusing it, (7) maintain acceptable class attendance without requiring it, (8) provide, from the first school day, authentic, patient-centered medical education characterized by vertical integration, humanism, early patient exposure, biopsychosocial orientation, and physician role modeling, (9) ensure that third- and fourth-year students have rich patient-care responsibility, and 10) keep tenure. These actions would permit the preservation of an educational gold standard that justifies medical education's cost. PMID:20520029

  3. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics.

    PubMed

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-14

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics. PMID:24226887

  4. Mathematics as an Instigator of Scientific Revolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brush, Stephen G.

    2015-07-01

    In a famous 1960 paper, Wigner discussed "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences." I suggest that the effectiveness of mathematics in producing successful new theories and surprising discoveries is even more unreasonable than Wigner claimed. In this paper, I present several historical case studies to support the claim that mathematics is often responsible for instigating scientific revolutions. However, that does not mean that mathematics is always the key to the universe, and other cases where mathematization was not successful are discussed in order to problematize a naïve Platonism.

  5. Sound and heat revolutions in phononics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldovan, Martin

    2013-11-01

    The phonon is the physical particle representing mechanical vibration and is responsible for the transmission of everyday sound and heat. Understanding and controlling the phononic properties of materials provides opportunities to thermally insulate buildings, reduce environmental noise, transform waste heat into electricity and develop earthquake protection. Here I review recent progress and the development of new ideas and devices that make use of phononic properties to control both sound and heat. Advances in sonic and thermal diodes, optomechanical crystals, acoustic and thermal cloaking, hypersonic phononic crystals, thermoelectrics, and thermocrystals herald the next technological revolution in phononics.

  6. Toward a microbial Neolithic revolution in buildings.

    PubMed

    Thaler, David S

    2016-01-01

    The Neolithic revolution--the transition of our species from hunter and gatherer to cultivator--began approximately 14,000 years ago and is essentially complete for macroscopic food. Humans remain largely pre-Neolithic in our relationship with microbes but starting with the gut we continue our hundred-year project of approaching the ability to assess and cultivate benign microbiomes in our bodies. Buildings are analogous to the body and it is time to ask what it means to cultivate benign microbiomes in our built environment. A critical distinction is that we have not found, or invented, niches in buildings where healthful microbial metabolism occurs and/or could be cultivated. Key events affecting the health and healthfulness of buildings such as a hurricane leading to a flood or a burst pipe occur only rarely and unpredictably. The cause may be transient but the effects can be long lasting and, e.g., for moisture damage, cumulative. Non-invasive "building tomography" could find moisture and "sentinel microbes" could record the integral of transient growth. "Seed" microbes are metabolically inert cells able to grow when conditions allow. All microbes and their residue present actinic molecules including immunological epitopes (molecular shapes). The fascinating hygiene and microbial biodiversity hypotheses propose that a healthy immune system requires exposure to a set of microbial epitopes that is rich in diversity. A particular conjecture is that measures of the richness of diversity derived from microbiome next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be mechanistically coupled to--rather than merely correlated with some measures of--human health. These hypotheses and conjectures inspire workers and funders but an alternative is also consequent to the first Neolithic revolution: That the genetic uniformity of contemporary foods may also decrease human exposure to molecular biodiversity in a heath-relevant manner. Understanding the consequences--including the unintended

  7. Imagineering the astronomical revolution - Essay review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, Nicholas.

    2006-11-01

    Concerning following Books: (I) Transmitting knowledge - words, images, and instruments in early modern Europe. Kusukawa and Maclean (eds.), OUP, Oxford, 2006; (II) Widmung, Welterklärung und Wissenschaftslegitimierung: Titelbilder und ihre Funktionen in der wissenschaftlichen Revolution. Remmert, Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 2005; (III) The power of images in early modern science. Lefevre, Renn and Schoepflin (eds.), Birkhäuser, Basel, 2003; (IV) Immagini per conoscere - dal Rinascimento alla rivoluzione scientifica. Meroi and Pogliano (eds.), Olschki, Florenz, 2001; (V) Erkenntnis Erfindung Konstruktion - Studien zur Bildgeschichte von Naturwissenschaften und Technik vom 16. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert. Holländer (ed.), Mann, Berlin, 2000.

  8. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-01

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  9. THE HERSCHEL INVENTORY OF THE AGENTS OF GALAXY EVOLUTION IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS, A HERSCHEL OPEN TIME KEY PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Meixner, M.; Roman-Duval, J.; Seale, J.; Gordon, K.; Beck, T.; Boyer, M. L.; Panuzzo, P.; Hony, S.; Sauvage, M.; Okumura, K.; Chanial, P.; Babler, B.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bolatto, A.; Bot, C.; Carlson, L. R.; Clayton, G. C.; and others

    2013-09-15

    We present an overview of the HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) in the Magellanic Clouds project, which is a Herschel Space Observatory open time key program. We mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instruments on board Herschel using the SPIRE/PACS parallel mode. The overriding science goal of HERITAGE is to study the life cycle of matter as traced by dust in the LMC and SMC. The far-infrared and submillimeter emission is an effective tracer of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust, the most deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dust ejected by the most massive stars. We describe in detail the data processing, particularly for the PACS data, which required some custom steps because of the large angular extent of a single observational unit and overall the large amount of data to be processed as an ensemble. We report total global fluxes for the LMC and SMC and demonstrate their agreement with measurements by prior missions. The HERITAGE maps of the LMC and SMC are dominated by the ISM dust emission and bear most resemblance to the tracers of ISM gas rather than the stellar content of the galaxies. We describe the point source extraction processing and the criteria used to establish a catalog for each waveband for the HERITAGE program. The 250 {mu}m band is the most sensitive and the source catalogs for this band have {approx}25,000 objects for the LMC and {approx}5500 objects for the SMC. These data enable studies of ISM dust properties, submillimeter excess dust emission, dust-to-gas ratio, Class 0 YSO candidates, dusty massive evolved stars, supernova remnants (including SN1987A), H II regions, and dust evolution in the LMC and SMC. All images and catalogs are delivered to the Herschel Science Center as part of the community support

  10. The HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Magellanic Clouds, a HERschel Open Time Key Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meixner, Margaret; Panuzzo, P.; Roman-Duval, J.; Engelbracht, C.; Babler, B.; Seale, J.; Hony, S.; Montiel, E.; Sauvage, M.; Gordon, K.; Misselt, K.; Okumura, K.; Chanial, P.; Beck, T.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bolatto, A.; Bot, C.; Boyer, M. L.; Carlson, L. R.; Clayton, G. C.; Chen, C.-H. R.; Cormier, D.; Fukui, Y.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview or the HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) in the Magellanic Clouds project, which is a Herschel Space Observatory open time key program. We mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instruments on board Herschel using the SPIRE/PACS parallel mode. The overriding science goal of HERITAGE is to study the life cycle of matter as traced by dust in the LMC and SMC. The far-infrared and submillimeter emission is an effective tracer of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust, the most deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dust ejected by the most massive stars. We describe in detail the data processing, particularly for the PACS data, which required some custom steps because of the large angular extent of a single observational unit and overall the large amount of data to be processed as an ensemble. We report total global fluxes for LMC and SMC and demonstrate their agreement with measurements by prior missions. The HERITAGE maps of the LMC and SMC are dominated by the ISM dust emission and bear most resemblance to the tracers of ISM gas rather than the stellar content of the galaxies. We describe the point source extraction processing and the critetia used to establish a catalog for each waveband for the HERITAGE program. The 250 micron band is the most sensitive and the source catalogs for this band have approx. 25,000 objects for the LMC and approx. 5500 objects for the SMC. These data enable studies of ISM dust properties, submillimeter excess dust emission, dust-to-gas ratio, Class 0 YSO candidates, dusty massive evolved stars, supemova remnants (including SN1987A), H II regions, and dust evolution in the LMC and SMC. All images and catalogs are delivered to the Herschel Science Center as part of the conummity support

  11. Cryogenic Testing of the Herschel Flight Model Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, G.; Langfermann, M.; Wagner, K.; Hohn, R.; Demolder, B.; Jewell, C.; Linder, M.

    2010-04-01

    The `Herschel Space Observatory' is the fourth cornerstone mission in the `Horizons 2000' program of the European Space Agency (ESA), with the objectives to study the formation of galaxies in the early universe and the creation of stars. It will observe the chemical composition of surfaces and atmospheres of comets, planets and natural satellites, and examine the molecular chemistry of the universe. Herschel was launched into an operational Lissajous orbit around the Earth-Sun L2 point by an Ariane 5 on May 14th 2009 to perform photometer and spectrometer measurements, covering the full far infrared to sub-millimeter wavelength range from 60 to 670 micrometers during its operational lifetime of more than four years. This paper gives a short overview of the cryogenic system and summarises the cryogenic aspects of the different phases of the acceptance test campaign, including the launch preparation phase as well as the post-launch transient cool-down of the system, the verification of the Passive Phase Separator performance and the evaluation of pressure drop measurements performed on the helium venting system. The impact of thermo-acoustic oscillations within the helium subsystem is described, which were present during the initial cool-down test phase. A comparison of measurements to numerical analysis results is shown.

  12. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2015-08-01

    Water is a key molecule in the physics and chemistry of regions in which new stars and planets are born. This poster summarizes recent results on the chemistry of water in protostellar envelopes and protoplanetary disks obtained with the Herschel-HIFI and PACS instruments in the context of the 'Water in Star-forming Regions with Herschel' (WISH) Key Program. About 80 sources have been observed, covering a wide range of masses as well as evolutionary stages -from the earliest stages represented by pre-stellar cores to the late stages represented by the pre-main sequence stars surrounded only by disks. The data elucidate the physical and dynamical processes associated with forming stars and planets (outflow, infall, expansion), test basic gas-phase and gas-grain chemical processes, and reveal the chemical evolution of water and the oxygen-reservoir into planet-forming disks.This poster is presented on behalf of the WISH team. See http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/WISH for list of papers and results.

  13. Star formation in Herschel's Monsters versus semi-analytic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruppioni, C.; Calura, F.; Pozzi, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; De Lucia, G.; Fontanot, F.; Franceschini, A.; Marchetti, L.; Menci, N.; Monaco, P.; Vaccari, M.

    2015-08-01

    We present a direct comparison between the observed star formation rate functions (SFRFs) and the state-of-the-art predictions of semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation and evolution. We use the PACS Evolutionary Probe Survey and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey data sets in the COSMOS and GOODS-South fields, combined with broad-band photometry from UV to sub-mm, to obtain total (IR+UV) instantaneous star formation rates (SFRs) for individual Herschel galaxies up to z ˜ 4, subtracted of possible active galactic nucleus (AGN) contamination. The comparison with model predictions shows that SAMs broadly reproduce the observed SFRFs up to z ˜ 2, when the observational errors on the SFR are taken into account. However, all the models seem to underpredict the bright end of the SFRF at z ≳ 2. The cause of this underprediction could lie in an improper modelling of several model ingredients, like too strong (AGN or stellar) feedback in the brighter objects or too low fallback of gas, caused by weak feedback and outflows at earlier epochs.

  14. Modeling IR SED of AGN with Spitzer and Herschel data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltre, A.

    2012-12-01

    One of the remaining open issues in the context of the analysis of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is the evidence that nuclear gravitational accretion is often accompanied by a concurrent starburst (SB) activity. What is, in this picture, the role played by the obscur- ing dust around the nucleus and what do the state of the art AGN torus models have to say? Can the IR data provided by Spitzer and Herschel help us in extensively investigate both phenomena and, if so, how and with what limitations? In this paper we present our contribution to the efforts of answering these questions. We show some of the main results coming from a comparative study of various AGN SED modeling approaches, focusing mostly on the much-debated issue about the morphology of the dust distribution in the toroidal structure surrounding the AGN. We found that the properties of dust in AGN as measured by matching observations (be it broad band IR photometry or IR spectra) with models, strongly depend on the choice of the dust distribution. Then, we present the spec- tral energy distribution (SED) fitting procedure we developed, making make the best use of Spitzer and Herschel SPIRE mid- and far-IR observations, to dig into the role played by the possible presence of an AGN on the host galaxy's properties.

  15. A snapshot beyond the Local Universe with Herschel/SPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinter, Sandor; Marton, Gabor; Toth, L. Viktor; Pearson, Chris; Bagoly, Zsolt; Balazs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Racz, Istvan I.

    The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) N1 field is one of the extragalactic windows where the lack of the Galactic ISM allows us to analyze the unbiased FIR properties of extragalactic objects. The field was investigated recently based on Herschel observations by the HerMES key project. We present a survey of the field covering a larger area than HerMES (12.54 deg2 vs 3.47 deg2). We provide accurate 250, 350, and 500 micrometer flux densities for about 8000 point sources using the latest Herschel analysis and calibration procedures. Based on SDSS spectroscopic and SWIRE photometric data our sample has approximately 4000 and 4500 galaxies with 0.2 < z < 0.5 and z > 0.5 redshifts, respectively. The new flux densities are crucial limiting the star-forming activity of galaxies outside the Local Universe, as it is demonstrated in the star-forming galaxy 2MASS J16072472+5412119.

  16. A snapshot beyond the Local Universe with Herschel/SPIRE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Pinter, Sandor; Toth, L. Viktor

    2015-08-01

    The European Large-Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) N1 field is one of the extragalactic windows where the lack of the Galactic ISM allows us to analyze the unbiased FIR properties of extragalactic objects. The field was observed by the ISO and Spitzer infrared space telescopes, and followed-up with a number of ground base measurements in various wavelength bands. Its content was investigated in more details recently based on deep Herschel observations by the HerMES key project. We present a list of objects from observations covering a larger area than that of the HerMES ones and correlate our results with theirs to achieve a sufficient photometric accuracy. We provide accurate 250 micrometer flux densities for about 8000 point sources using the latest Herschel analysis and calibration procedures. Our sample has approximately 500 and 6000 galaxies with 0.21 redshifts respectively based on SDSS spectroscopic data. The new flux densities are crucial limiting the star forming activity of galaxies outside the Local Universe, and especially for the ones at z>1.

  17. Herschel Observations of Circinus X-1 during Outburst and Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Buxton, Michelle; Fost, Tyler

    2014-07-01

    We have used the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe Cir X-1 both in and out of outburst. We detected Cir X-1 during outburst at 70 μm. Unfortunately, a cold background source dominates Cir X-1 at longer wavelengths. We have assembled optical and infrared (IR) data for Cir X-1 to model its spectral energy distribution (SED) in both quiescence and outburst and find that in both states it is consistent with a heavily reddened, 10,000 K blackbody. We believe this behavior is completely consistent with previous suggestions that these outbursts are due to accretion disk events, not unlike those of dwarf novae. To explore the behavior of other low-mass X-ray binaries with reported synchrotron jets, we have extracted and/or compiled optical and near- and mid-IR data sets for five such systems to construct their SEDs. The Z-source GX 349+2 and the black hole system GRS 1915+105 have strong and variable mid-IR excesses that suggest synchrotron emission. The other Z-sources have rather weak (or no) IR excesses that can be explained as reddened blackbody spectra with the addition of either synchrotron or bremsstrahlung components. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. The Herschel-ATLAS survey: main results and data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiante, Elisabetta

    2015-08-01

    I describe the first major data release of the largest single key-project carried out in opentime with the Herschel Space Observatory. The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey(H-ATLAS) was a survey of 550 deg^2 in five photometric bands: 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 micron.In this talk I will show some of the results of the survey: 1) the development of a technique to select lensed objects with 100% efficiency, 2) how to select up to 1000 lensed sources, 3) the development of a technique to select very high redshift galaxies, 4) the discover of a high-redshift proto-cluster, 5) the definition of the local far-ir luminosity function, 6) dust properties of nearby galaxies.Moreover, I will describe images and catalogues of the three fields on the celestial equator previouslyobserved in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) redshift survey, which cover a total area of 161.6 deg^2. These data will be released and made available to the public during 2015.Our catalogues include ~3x10^5 sources detected at 5 sigma at 250, 350 and 500 micron, respectively. I will describe a detailed analysis of the effects of instrumental noise and source confusion on the images and the catalogues, as well as other simulations which will aid the interpretation of the H-ATLAS data by the astronomical community.

  19. The Herschel-ATLAS survey: main results and data release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiante, Elisabetta

    2015-08-01

    I describe the first major data release of the largest single key-project carried out in opentime with the Herschel Space Observatory. The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey(H-ATLAS) was a survey of 550 deg^2 in five photometric bands: 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 micron.In this talk I will show some of the results of the survey: 1) the development of a technique to select lensed objects with 100% efficiency, 2) how to select up to 1000 lensed sources, 3) the development of a technique to select very high redshift galaxies, 4) the discover of a high-redshift proto-cluster, 5) the definition of the local far-ir luminosity function, 6) dust properties of nearby galaxies.Moreover, I will describe images and catalogues of the three fields on the celestial equator previously observed in the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) redshift survey, which cover a total area of 161.6 deg^2. These data will be released and made available to the public during 2015.Our catalogues include ~3x10^5 sources detected at 5 sigma at 250, 350 and 500 micron, respectively. I will describe a detailed analysis of the effects of instrumental noise and source confusion on the images and the catalogues, as well as other simulations which will aid the interpretation of the H-ATLAS data by the astronomical community.

  20. Great revolutions in the history of life.

    PubMed

    Seilacher, A

    1997-03-25

    Evolution is a historical process. Like human history its course is unpredictable, because it results from the response of organisms and their biographies to changing outside conditions. Yet it makes perfect sense in retrospect, because every move was conditioned by the previous one. Another characteristic of historical changes is that they proceed gradually on the one hand, but are accentuated by events on the other. With regard to human history, one has always emphasized the events, such as wars and political revolutions; only recently historians got also interested in the more gradual changes in everyday life during the intervening periods. In evolutionary biology, emphasis was reversed. Darwinian theory focuses in gradual transformations, because this is what we can directly observe in natural and domesticated populations. Therefore the breaks that paleontologists noted in the fossil record were for a long time considered as preservational artifacts. Today we know that they reflect real evolutionary cascades induced by environmental perturbations of higher order. We are also becoming aware that the impact of our own species on the global environment could mark such a break which a few million years later will be taken as the end of the Cenozoic and the beginning of a new era, the "Anthropozoic". With such perspectives in mind we shall now study the patterns of the great revolutions in the history of life, back to the greatest of all, the "Cambrian Explosion". PMID:11541730

  1. Energetics and kinetics unveiled on helium cluster growth in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Niu, Liang-Liang; Shu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-09-01

    The energetics and kinetics regarding helium (He) cluster growth in bcc tungsten (W) are unveiled using combined techniques of molecular statics and molecular dynamics. The principal mechanisms accounting for the decrease of system potential energy are identified to be trap mutation, < 100>   →  1/2< 111> cluster transformation, loop punching, coalescence between 1/2[1 1-1] and 1/2[1-1-1] loops, and loop capturing. The kinetic barriers associated with these key atomistic events are estimated. This work provides new insights into the complex yet intriguing atomistic evolution sequence of the He cluster and interstitial loop in W-based nuclear fusion materials under irradiation.

  2. Unveiling the physics of the Thomson jumping ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladera, Celso L.; Donoso, Guillermo

    2015-04-01

    We present a new theoretical model and validating experiments that unveil the rich physics behind the flight of the conductive ring in the Thomson experiment—physics that is hard to see because of the rapid motion. The electrodynamics of the flying ring exhibits interesting features, e.g., varying mutual inductance between the ring and the electromagnet. The dependences of the ring electrodynamics upon time and position as the ring travels upward are conveniently separated and determined to obtain a comprehensive view of the ring motion. We introduce a low-cost jumping ring setup that incorporates pickup coils connected in opposition, allowing us to scrutinize the ring electrodynamics and confirm our theoretical model with good accuracy. This work is within the reach of senior students of science or engineering, and it can be implemented either as a teaching laboratory experiment or as an open-ended project.

  3. Nanoparticle amplification via photothermal unveiling of cryptic collagen binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Justin H.; von Maltzahn, Geoffrey; Douglass, Jacqueline; Park, Ji-Ho; Sailor, Michael J.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2013-01-01

    The success of nanoparticle-based cancer therapies ultimately depends on their ability to selectively and efficiently accumulate in regions of disease. Outfitting nanoparticles to actively target tumor-specific markers has improved specificity, yet it remains a challenge to amass adequate therapy in a selective manner. To help address this challenge, we have developed a mechanism of nanoparticle amplification based on stigmergic (environment-modifying) signalling, in which a “Signalling” population of gold nanorods induces localized unveiling of cryptic collagen epitopes, which are in turn targeted by “Responding” nanoparticles bearing gelatin-binding fibronectin fragments. We demonstrate that this two-particle system results in significantly increased, selective recruitment of responding particles. Such amplification strategies have the potential to overcome limitations associated with single-particle targeting by leveraging the capacity of nanoparticles to interact with their environment to create abundant new binding motifs. PMID:24177171

  4. The JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Surveys: A comparison of SCUBA-2 and Herschel data of dense cores in the Taurus dark cloud L1495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward-Thompson, D.; Pattle, K.; Kirk, J. M.; Marsh, K.; Buckle, J.; Hatchell, J.; Nutter, D. J.; Griffin, M. J.; Di Francesco, J.; André, P.; Beaulieu, S.; Berry, D.; Broekhoven-Fiene, H.; Currie, M.; Fich, M.; Jenness, T.; Johnstone, D.; Kirk, H.; Mottram, J.; Pineda, J.; Quinn, C.; Sadavoy, S.; Salji, C.; Tisi, S.; Walker-Smith, S.; White, G.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Palmeirim, P.; Pezzuto, S.

    2016-08-01

    We present a comparison of SCUBA-2 850-μm and Herschel 70-500-μm observations of the L1495 filament in the Taurus Molecular Cloud with the goal of characterising the SCUBA-2 Gould Belt Survey (GBS) data set. We identify and characterise starless cores in three data sets: SCUBA-2 850-μm, Herschel 250-μm, and Herschel 250-μm spatially filtered to mimic the SCUBA-2 data. SCUBA-2 detects only the highest-surface-brightness sources, principally detecting protostellar sources and starless cores embedded in filaments, while Herschel is sensitive to most of the cloud structure, including extended low-surface-brightness emission. Herschel detects considerably more sources than SCUBA-2 even after spatial filtering. We investigate which properties of a starless core detected by Herschel determine its detectability by SCUBA-2, and find that they are the core's temperature and column density (for given dust properties). For similar-temperature cores, such as those seen in L1495, the surface brightnesses of the cores are determined by their column densities, with the highest-column-density cores being detected by SCUBA-2. For roughly spherical geometries, column density corresponds to volume density, and so SCUBA-2 selects the densest cores from a population at a given temperature. This selection effect, which we quantify as a function of distance, makes SCUBA-2 ideal for identifying those cores in Herschel catalogues that are closest to forming stars. Our results can now be used by anyone wishing to use the SCUBA-2 GBS data set.

  5. [SANTORIO AND THE FIRST SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION OF XVII CENTURY].

    PubMed

    Jmurkin, V P; Chalova, V V

    2015-01-01

    The national publications about Santorio and his works factually provide no information to medical society of Russia. The article presents discussion about significance of his works for the first scientific revolution in XVII century. The conception of this significance is expanded. The personal position is substantiated concerning evaluation of ratio of inputs by Santorio and Galileo into initiation of scientific revolution. PMID:27116842

  6. Theological Higher Education in Cuba: Part 3--The Cuban Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esqueda, Octavio J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Cuban Revolution and its implications and consequences for Christian higher education in Cuba. Christian institutions experienced the same oppression from the communist revolution as the rest of the evangelical denominations during the sixties and seventies. The worst period for Protestantism began in 1965…

  7. The On-Going Revolution: Rhetoric, Fantasy, and Vested Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Robert L.

    The historical rhetoric, mythic heroes, and values of the American Revolution have become the justification for many other contemporary "revolutions." Collective movements advocating states' independence, the abolition of slavery, women's rights, civil rights, and so on, have manipulated the concept of heroic equality as it is embodied in the…

  8. The Cognitive Revolution and the Computer. Version 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Richard J.; Mueller, Christine L.

    The cognitive revolution began in the 1950s as researchers began to move away from the study of knowledge acquisition and behaviorism to the study of information and the way it is processed. Four factors are discussed in chapter 1 as contributing to the increase in popularity of the "cognitive revolution" (increasing enthusiasm for the cognitive…

  9. Modern Times: The Industrial Revolution and the Concept of Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppen, Frans H.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role the Industrial Revolution had in changing humankind's perception of time and recommends using the flashback approach in order to encourage students to think about how the process of industrialization still affects their lives. Provides activities that address the concept of time caused by the Industrial Revolution. (CMK)

  10. Revolutions: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Teaching Printmaking and Latin American History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…

  11. Mexican Birthdays: Independence and Revolution, 1810 and 1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…

  12. Why Are Your Students Sleeping through the French Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…

  13. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically "valid" is…

  14. Science in History, Volume 2: The Scientific and Industrial Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, J. D.

    This volume, the second of four, includes parts four and five of the eight parts in the series. Part Four deals with what is called the Scientific Revolution from 1440-1690. This "revolution" is divided into three phases: Phase 1 (1440-1540) includes the Renaissance and the Reformation, during which the world-picture adopted from classical times…

  15. Navigating the Information Revolution: Choices for Laggard Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gatune, Julius

    2007-01-01

    The rapid diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) during the last two decades has had a profound impact on all spheres of human endeavors, changes that are collectively referred to as the Information Revolution (IR). But the revolution has been uneven, with some countries being far ahead and others far behind in IR,…

  16. Philomaths, Herschel, and the myth of the self-taught man.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Emily

    2014-09-20

    The role of technicians and background characters in the historical practice of science is slowly gaining recognition. This paper looks at the collective effort involved in learning science, using as my case study the eighteenth-century musician turned astronomer, William Herschel. Lacking a university education, Herschel, like many contemporaries, presented himself as self-taught, thereby hiding his engagement with a rich network of didactic resources. Placing Herschel's story within the history of pedagogy, I argue that this network, previously discussed only in the context of popular or marketplace science, was an important resource for science education at its highest level. PMID:25254276

  17. Philomaths, Herschel, and the myth of the self-taught man

    PubMed Central

    Winterburn, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The role of technicians and background characters in the historical practice of science is slowly gaining recognition. This paper looks at the collective effort involved in learning science, using as my case study the eighteenth-century musician turned astronomer, William Herschel. Lacking a university education, Herschel, like many contemporaries, presented himself as self-taught, thereby hiding his engagement with a rich network of didactic resources. Placing Herschel's story within the history of pedagogy, I argue that this network, previously discussed only in the context of popular or marketplace science, was an important resource for science education at its highest level. PMID:25254276

  18. Herschel Search for O2 toward the Orion Bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, Gary J.; Tolls, Volker; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Kaufman, Michael J.; Hollenbach, David J.; Black, John H.; Encrenaz, Pierre; Falgarone, Edith; Gerin, Maryvonne; Hjalmarson, Åke; Li, Di; Lis, Dariusz C.; Liseau, René; Neufeld, David A.; Pagani, Laurent; Snell, Ronald L.; van der Tak, Floris; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.

    2012-06-01

    We report the results of a search for molecular oxygen (O2) toward the Orion Bar, a prominent photodissociation region at the southern edge of the H II region created by the luminous Trapezium stars. We observed the spectral region around the frequency of the O2 NJ = 33-12 transition at 487 GHz and the 54-34 transition at 774 GHz using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory. Neither line was detected, but the 3σ upper limits established here translate to a total line-of-sight O2 column density <1.5 × 1016 cm-2 for an emitting region whose temperature is between 30 K and 250 K, or <1 × 1016 cm-2 if the O2 emitting region is primarily at a temperature of lsim100 K. Because the Orion Bar is oriented nearly edge-on relative to our line of sight, the observed column density is enhanced by a factor estimated to be between 4 and 20 relative to the face-on value. Our upper limits imply that the face-on O2 column density is less than 4 × 1015 cm-2, a value that is below, and possibly well below, model predictions for gas with a density of 104-105 cm-3 exposed to a far-ultraviolet flux 104 times the local value, conditions inferred from previous observations of the Orion Bar. The discrepancy might be resolved if (1) the adsorption energy of O atoms to ice is greater than 800 K (2) the total face-on A V of the Bar is less than required for O2 to reach peak abundance; (3) the O2 emission arises within dense clumps with a small beam filling factor; or (4) the face-on depth into the Bar where O2 reaches its peak abundance, which is density dependent, corresponds to a sky position different from that sampled by our Herschel beams. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  19. The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueta, T.; Ladjal, D.; HerPlaNS Team

    2012-12-01

    The Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS, PI: T. Ueta) is one of the largest Herschel Open Time 1 program in which we explore the far-infrared aspects of 11 planetary nebulae (PNs) with the Herschel Space Observatory, exploiting its unprecedented capabilities in broadband photometry mapping, spectral mapping, and integral-field spectroscopy. We perform (1) deep PACS/SPIRE broadband mapping to account for the coldest dust component of the nebulae and determine the spatial distribution of the dusty haloes in the target PNs, (2) exhaustive PACS/SPIRE line mapping in far-IR atomic and molecular lines in two representative PNs to diagnose the energetics of the nebulae as a function of location in the nebulae, and (3) PACS/SPIRE spectral-energy-distribution spectroscopy at several positions in the target PNs to understand variations in the physical conditions as a function of location in the nebulae, to build a more complete picture of the interplay between the dust and gas components as a function of location in the nebulae. The HerPlaNS survey is distinguished from the existing guaranteed-time Key Program (KPGT), "Mass Loss of Evolved StarS" (MESS, PI: M. Groenewegen, including 10 PNs) by the extra dimension added by spectral mapping and integral-field spatio-spectroscopy that permit simultaneous probing of the gas and dust component in the target PNs. Through these investigations, we will consider the energetics of the entire gas-dust system as a function of location in the nebulae, which is a novel approach that has rarely been taken previously. HerPlaNS is conducted in collaboration with the Chandra Planetary Survey (ChanPlaNS, PI: J.H. Kastner) to furnish substantial PN data resources that would allow us—a community of PN astronomers—to tackle a multitude of unanswered issues in PN physics, from the shaping mechanisms of the nebulae to the energetics of the multi-phased gas-dust system surrounding the central white dwarf. These PN surveys, combined with

  20. Herschel/HIFI deepens the circumstellar NH3 enigma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menten, K. M.; Wyrowski, F.; Alcolea, J.; De Beck, E.; Decin, L.; Marston, A. P.; Bujarrabal, V.; Cernicharo, J.; Dominik, C.; Justtanont, K.; de Koter, A.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D. A.; Olofsson, H.; Planesas, P.; Schmidt, M.; Schöier, F. L.; Szczerba, R.; Teyssier, D.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Edwards, K.; Olberg, M.; Phillips, T. G.; Morris, P.; Salez, M.; Caux, E.

    2010-10-01

    Context. Circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) of a variety of evolved stars have been found to contain ammonia (NH3) in amounts that exceed predictions from conventional chemical models by many orders of magnitude. Aims: The observations reported here were performed in order to better constrain the NH3 abundance in the CSEs of four, quite diverse, oxygen-rich stars using the NH3 ortho JK = 10-00 ground-state line. Methods: We used the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared aboard Herschel to observe the NH3 JK = 10-00 transition near 572.5 GHz, simultaneously with the ortho-H2O JKa , Kc = 11,0 - 10,1 transition, toward VY CMa, OH 26.5+0.6, IRC+10420, and IK Tau. We conducted non-LTE radiative transfer modeling with the goal to derive the NH3 abundance in these objects' CSEs. For the last two stars, Very Large Array imaging of NH3 radio-wavelength inversion lines were used to provide further constraints, particularly on the spatial extent of the NH3-emitting regions. Results: We find remarkably strong NH3 emission in all of our objects with the NH3 line intensities rivaling those of the ground state H2O line. The NH3 abundances relative to H2 are very high and range from 2×10-7 to 3×10-6 for the objects we have studied. Conclusions: Our observations confirm and even deepen the circumstellar NH3 enigma. While our radiative transfer modeling does not yield satisfactory fits to the observed line profiles, it does lead to abundance estimates that confirm the very high values found in earlier studies. New ways to tackle this mystery will include further Herschel observations of more NH3 lines and imaging with the Expanded Very Large Array. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix A (page 5) is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. A Herschel-PACS view of 16 Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffard, Rene; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Vilenius, E.; Ortiz, J.; Mueller, T.; Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Pal, A.; Kiss, C.; Mueller, M.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Peixinho, N.

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize a set of Centaurs in terms of their size, albedo, and thermal properties. The Herschel open time key program "TNOs are Cool!'' observed 130 Centaurs and TNOs in 2009-2012. In this particular work we use Herschel/PACS three-band photometry to obtain monochromatic flux densities at 70, 100 and 160 μm. Additionally, we also incorporate Spitzer/MIPS flux densities at 24 and 70 μm when available. We use a consistent method for data reduction and aperture photometry to finally determine sizes and albedos of 16 Centaurs using radiometric techniques. We study the correlations between the size and albedo resulting from our models and other physical (i.e spectral slope) and orbital parameters using a more extended sample (obtained from literature). The final sample comprises 36 objects: 18 Centaurs observed with Herschel/PACS; 10 observed only with Spitzer and 8 SDOs. The first conclusion is that the albedo of the Centaurs is not determined by their orbit. Similarly we do not find any correlation between diameter and orbital parameters. We also find that most of the objects in our sample are dark (pv < 7%) and most of them are small (D < 120km). However, we do not find any correlation between albedo and diameter, in particular for the group of the small objects we can find albedo values homogeneously distributed from 4 - 15%. When it comes to correlation with the color of the objects, we find that the red objects are all small (mean diameter 65 km), while the gray ones are either small or large (mean diameter 120 km). Also, the gray objects seem to be darker, with a mean value of 5.6%, while for the red objects the albedo can vary from 5 to 15%, with a mean value of 8.5%. All of this shows that there are other physical properties (size and albedo distribution) that make differences between the gray and red objects, even if we do not yet have a physical explanation for the origin of this bimodality.

  2. The astronomical revolution. Copernicus - Kepler - Borelli.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyré, A.

    The work was originally published in 1961 under the title "La révolution astronomique" as part of the series, Histoire de la pensée. This book is an unabridged and unaltered republication of the English translation, by R. E. W. Maddison, originally published in 1973 (see 10.003.074). The author elucidates, precisely and in stages, the revolutionary ideas of Nicolaus Copernicus as well as the work of two other thinkers who made major contributions to the astronomical revolution: Johannes Kepler and Giovanni Borelli. He illuminates the exact contribution of each man, placing his work in its historical context and dispelling a host of misconceptions about it. In order to effectively recapture the ferment and flavor of the times, the author, whenever possible, has allowed Copernicus, Kepler and Borelli to speak for themselves by quoting key passages from their writings. Many of these passages were here translated for the first time.

  3. Directiveness in psychotherapy and the "sexual revolution".

    PubMed

    Comfort, A

    1981-11-01

    The "sexual revolution" has produced both tangible gains and new contexts in which susceptible people can get into trouble. Increasing separation of "sexuality" from reproduction is a gain. Psychotherapy itself can profit, both by the need to deal with new problems and by the opportunity which new social behaviors afford for rethinking theory on a basis of observation. We are no longer likely to be overzealous in categorizing sexual deviance. The potential separation of sex from parenthood makes possible a better-aimed directive psychotherapy. The fact that we no longer moralize irrationally about sexual preferences makes us free to moralize rationally about parenting and about responsible behavior--the area which an antidote to "anything goes" is most evidentially defensible on psychiatric grounds. PMID:7291375

  4. Another Semiconductor Revolution: This Time It's Lighting!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haitz, Roland

    A 40 year old semiconductor technology, Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) has steadily improved performance and cost to a point where it will move from its home turf, signaling applications to the much larger market, general lighting. The white LEDs are building momentum at such a rapid rate that we predict a revolution in lighting comparable to blowing out the gaslights by Edison's incandescent lamp 100 years ago. One technology will compete for all applications from the smallest indicator lamp to the lighting system for sports stadiums. LEDs will provide superior performance and lower cost of ownership, at any point in this dynamic range of 11 orders of magnitude. A complete conversion to LED based lamps could reduce electricity consumption for lighting by up to 75% and reduce global coal production by approximately 600 Mtons/year. There is no single technology investment on the horizon with a better environmental benefits to cost ratio.

  5. Second industrial revolution: a crisis in black

    SciTech Connect

    Bayless, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    America is on the verge of a second industrial revolution made possible by the digital computer. In the near future, entire automated factories will be capable o designing products from the start, sending orders to robots on the shop floor telling them what to make and how to make it, and all without the intervention of human hands. Revolutionary changes of this nature always entail a mixture of blessings and curses. These machines will relieve humans of the dirty, dangerous, and menial tasks, but a heavy price may be paid as workers are exploited and displaced. Nearly half of all black workers are today in those very occupational categories most threatened, and the present black unemployment rates of 20% or more are almost certain to rise, unless dramatic steps are taken to bring these disadvantaged victims into the educational mainstream. 13 references.

  6. Silicon: Child and Progenitor of Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahn, R. W.

    Antoine Lavoisier, the pioneering French chemist who (together with Joseph Priestley in England) identified oxygen as an element and gave it its name, in 1789 concluded that quartz was probably a compound with an as-yet undiscovered but presumably extremely common element. That was also the year in which the French Revolution broke out. Five years later, the Jacobins accused Lavoisier of offences against the people and cut off his head, thereby nearly cutting off the new chemistry. It was not until 1824 that Jöns Berzelius in Sweden succeeded in confirming Lavoisier's speculation by isolating silicon. Argument at once broke out among the scientific elite as to whether the newly found element was a metal or an insulator. It took more than a century to settle that disagreement decisively: As so often, when all-or-nothing alternatives are fiercely argued, the truth turned out to be neither all nor nothing.

  7. Nanotechnology: A Revolution in Cancer Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jaishree, V; Gupta, P D

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology has brought revolution in cancer detection and treatment. It has capability to detect even a single cancerous cell in vivo and deliver the highly toxic drugs to the cancerous cells. Nanoshells, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, supermagnetic nanoparticles, nano wires, nanodiamonds, dandrimers, and recently synthesized nanosponges are some of the materials used for cancer detection. Using specific cross linkers, such as specific antibodies against cancer cells individual cancer cells can be located. With the aid of a novel set of lipid-coated, targeted quantum dots a method for quantifying multiple specific biomarkers on the surfaces of individual cancer cells was also developed. This approach to quantitative biomarker detection stands to improve the histopathology methods used to diagnosis pancreatic and other cancers and enable the development of methods to spot cancer cells circulating in the blood stream. Certain nano materials can also deliver cancer drugs at the site so the drug toxicity can also be reduced. PMID:26405378

  8. A Debris Disk Case Study: 49 Ceti with Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2011-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from one debris disk, Beta Pictoris. Here I discuss a well-known debris disk system in the GASPS survey, 49 Ceti. It serves as a case study for modeling low-density gas in optically thin disks. The dust disk appears to be spatially resolved at 70 um. Most interestingly, there appears to be a hint of ClI 158 urn emission at the roughly 2 sigma level. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission from this system with the weak or non-existent far-IR atomic lines may require an unusual chemical composition in the gas of this disk.

  9. The Spectral And Photometric Imaging Receiver For Herschel (spire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Bernhard; Lu, N.; Schwartz, A.; Shupe, D.; Xu, K.; Zhang, L.

    2007-05-01

    SPIRE is one of three instruments to be carried on the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory (formerly called FIRST). We are describing the instrument which is designed for observations at far infrared and submillimetre wavelengths and its scientific potential. SPIRE features an imaging photometer with passbands around 250, 350 and 500 microns, and an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer covering the wavelength range between 194 and 672 microns. The instrument is being developed by a consortium of European and American scientists, led by PI Professor Matt Griffin at the Physics and Astronomy Department of Cardiff University (UK). The US is playing a crucial role in SPIRE by delivering its detector arrays, consisting of so-called "Spider Web Bolometers" developed by SPIRE Co-I Jamie Bock at JPL.

  10. The Next Information Revolution in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennicutt, R. C.

    2006-08-01

    The information revolution has truly revolutionized our profession, through such innovations as the astronomical data centres, electronic journals and preprint servers, and bibliographic interfaces that link these resources through instantaneous and freely available web interfaces. For most of us the effects of these innovations have been profound, changing forever the way we access the research literature, disseminate results to our colleagues, and even in the ways we carry out our research and write papers. Astronomy's efforts in this area have attracted the attention and admiration of other scientific professions as well as the information technology community. We now stand at the threshold of a second revolution, in which enormous and rich collections of astronomical observations, models, software, and tools will be accessible through a common Virtual Observatory interface. The next logical step beyond that is an integration of these VO resources with the web of astronomical literature, to provide mechanisms for quality certification of those resources, and to provide a seamless mechanism by which authors can make the results of their research available to other scientists in their most useful form. If this is done successfully its impacts on the way we conduct and disseminate our research may be as profound as those of the past decade. However this success will require cooperative approaches to information archiving and publication involving the data centres, journals, and library communities, and which incorporate or at least emulate the features of curation, provenance, quality assurance, and intellectual property protections that underlie the traditional publishing system. This talk will highlight some of the efforts being made in the VO and journal communities to make this vision a reality, and identify some of the key challenges that remain.

  11. Herschel Observations of the Hayabusa-2 Asteroid 162173 (1999 JU3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Müller, T.; Altieri, B.; Gónzalez-García, B.; Kiss, C.; Pal, A.; Barucci, A.; Yoshikawa, M.; Dotto, E.; Küppers, M.; Sanchez Portal, M.

    2012-05-01

    Herschel observed the Hayabusa-2 target in early April 2012. Our measurements through the use of a thermophysical model (TPM) will aid to derive its rotation direction, thermal inertia & address its surface properties; all important for the mission.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectroscopy of Herschel Dwarf Galaxy Survey (Cormier+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, D.; Madden, S. C.; Lebouteiller, V.; Abel, N.; Hony, S.; Galliano, F.; Remy-Ruyer, A.; Bigiel, F.; Baes, M.; Boselli, A.; Chevance, M.; Cooray, A.; de Looze, I.; Doublier, V.; Galametz, M.; Hugues, T.; Karczewski, O. L.; Lee, M.-Y.; Lu, N.; Spinoglio, L.

    2015-02-01

    Far-infrared line fluxes from the Herschel PACS instrument are provided for the 48 galaxies of the Dwarf Galaxy Survey. An atlas of images also shows spectral maps and line profiles for all sources. (9 data files).

  13. Herschel and ALMA observations of AGB star envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrien Els Decin, Leen

    2015-08-01

    The stellar winds of evolved (super)giant stars are known to be the prime birthplaces for the interstellar material in our galaxy. Fusion in the stellar interiors creates carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and for more massive stars elements such as magnesium, sulphur etc. are synthesized. Thanks to dredge-ups in the stellar atmosphere and subsequent extensive mass loss through a stellar wind this material is injected into the interstellar medium (ISM).These stellar winds are really unique chemical laboratories in which various gas-phase and gas-dust processes create and destroy gas and dust species and hence manufacture the pristine building blocks of the ISM. The efficiency and working of these various chemical processes is ultimately linked to the dynamical processes which establish the morpho-kinematical structure of the wind. Unraveling the intriguing coupling between these macro-scale dynamical and micro-scale chemical processes is a real challenge to which recent advances in instrumentation, theoretical modeling, and laboratory experiments have contributed a lot. Thanks to their unprecedented sensitivity, spatial resolution and wavelength coverage, Herschel and ALMA have proven to be two key instruments in solving some enigmas related to AGB stellar winds. In this talk, I will give a review of some of the most recent results in the field of AGB stellar winds based on Herschel and ALMA data and I will discuss some open questions that I hope will be answered in the next decade thanks to a combined effort between instrumentation and laboratory specialists and theoretical astrophysicists.

  14. JCMT in the Post-Herschel ERA of Alma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Doug

    2013-07-01

    The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), with a 15m dish, is the largest single-dish astronomical telescope in the world designed specifically to operate in the sub-mm wavelength regime. The JCMT is located close to the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4092m. The most recent addition to the JCMT's suite of instruments is the 10,000 bolometer sub-mm continuum instrument: SCUBA-2. SCUBA-2 operates simultaneously with 7' x7' foot print sub-arrays at both 450 and 850-microns. SCUBA-2's wide field surveying potential, combined with a 65% shared view of the sky from both sites, makes it the ideal instrument to provide complementary data for the ALMA Project. Furthermore, the SCUBA-2 sub-millimetre wavelength coverage and angular resolution complement existing Herschel observations. A set of comprehensive surveys of the submillimetre sky is underway at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) using SCUBA-2 and HARP, a heterodyne array receiver operating between 325 and 375 GHz. The JCMT Legacy Survey (JLS) is comprised of seven survey projects, and ranges in scope from the study of nearby debris disk systems, the study of star formation in nearby molecular cloud systems and more distant structures in our Galactic Plane, to the structure and composition of galaxies in our local neighbourhood and the number and evolution of submillimetre galaxies at high redshifts in the early Universe. In addition to the JLS, the COHR survey is imaging the Galactic plane in CO (3-2) and a JAC Staff-led project is using SCUBA-2 to survey the Galactic Centre. This poster highlights the significant survey capabilities of SCUBA-2 and HARP and reveals the continuing importance of the JCMT in a post-Herschel, ALMA world.

  15. Physical Properties of the Haumea Family from Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansberry, J. A.; Mueller, T. G.; Ortiz, J.-L.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Vilenius, E.; Lellouch, E.; Kiss, C.

    2011-10-01

    We present thermal observations and results for 10 objects that are dynamically associated with the large TNO, Haumea. The data were acquired under the "TNOs are Cool" Herschel Key Programme (T. Mueller, PI). The targets are about evenly divided between those with IR spectra and/or colors consistent with the presence of water ice (postulated to be part of the Haumea collisional family [1]), and those lacking evidence of water ice [2]. Final reduction of the Herschel data is incomplete at this time, and only 2 objects have good Spitzer data, precluding us from giving results here. Our goal is to test the hypothesis that the targets with water ice on their surfaces have albedos (and possibly diameters) that are distinct from those lacking surficial water ice. A positive outcome would strengthen the idea that the true Haumea family members can be identified based on their reflectance properties (in addition to their dynamical association with Haumea), and that dynamically associated TNOs lacking water ice are not family members. A negative outcome would suggest that the Haumea family might be significantly larger than currently thought, since it could well include dynamically associated objects that lack clear evidence of surficial water ice. If the latter is true, it could have significant implications for size of the parent body and formation scenarios. If most of the targets are detected at adequate signalto- noise ratio (SNR), we will use the data to perform the test just outlined. If not, we will present albedo and diameter results for those targets with clean detections, and explore why the detections lacked sufficient SNR, and draw whatever more limited conclusions are possible.

  16. Herschel SPIRE-FTS observations of RCW 120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodón, J. A.; Zavagno, A.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Habart, E.; Köhler, M.; Le Bourlot, J.; Le Petit, F.; Abergel, A.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The expansion of Galactic H ii regions can trigger the formation of a new generation of stars. However, little is know about the physical conditions that prevail in these regions. Aims: We study the physical conditions that prevail in specific zones towards expanding H ii regions that trace representative media such as the photodissociation region, the ionized region, and condensations with and without ongoing star formation. Methods: We use the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) on board Herschel to observe the H ii region RCW 120. Continuum and lines are observed in the 190-670μm range. Line intensities and line ratios are obtained and used as physical diagnostics of the gas. We used the Meudon PDR code and the RADEX code to derive the gas density and the radiation field at nine distinct positions including the PDR surface and regions with and without star-formation activity. Results: For the different regions we detect the atomic lines [NII] at 205μm and [CI] at 370 and 609μm, the 12CO ladder between the J = 4 and J = 13 levels and the 13CO ladder between the J = 5 and J = 14 levels, as well as CH+ in absorption. We find gas temperatures in the range 45-250 K for densities of 104-106 cm-3, and a high column density on the order of NH ~ 1022 cm-2 that is in agreement with dust analysis. The ubiquitousness of the atomic and CH+ emission suggests the presence of a low-density PDR throughout RCW 120. High-excitation lines of CO indicate the presence of irradiated dense structures or small dense clumps containing young stellar objects, while we also find a less dense medium (NH ~ 1020 cm-2) with high temperatures (80-200 K). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  17. Water Vapor in nearby Infrared Galaxies as Probed by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chentao; Gao, Yu; Omont, A.; Liu, Daizhong; Isaak, K. G.; Downes, D.; van der Werf, P. P.; Lu, Nanyao

    2013-07-01

    We report the first systematic study of the submillimeter water vapor rotational emission lines in infrared (IR) galaxies based on the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) data of Herschel SPIRE. Among the 176 galaxies with publicly available FTS data, 45 have at least one H2O emission line detected. The H2O line luminosities range from ~1 × 105 L ⊙ to ~5 × 107 L ⊙ while the total IR luminosities (L IR) have a similar spread (~1-300 × 1010 L ⊙). In addition, emission lines of H2O+ and H_2^{18}O are also detected. H2O is found, for most galaxies, to be the strongest molecular emitter after CO in FTS spectra. The luminosity of the five most important H2O lines is near-linearly correlated with L IR, regardless of whether or not strong active galactic nucleus signature is present. However, the luminosity of H2O(211-202) and H2O(220-211) appears to increase slightly faster than linear with L IR. Although the slope turns out to be slightly steeper when z ~ 2-4 ULIRGs are included, the correlation is still closely linear. We find that L_{H_2O}/L IR decreases with increasing f 25/f 60, but see no dependence on f 60/f 100, possibly indicating that very warm dust contributes little to the excitation of the submillimeter H2O lines. The average spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the entire sample is consistent with individual SLEDs and the IR pumping plus collisional excitation model, showing that the strongest lines are H2O(202-111) and H2O(321-312). Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel counterparts of SDC (Peretto+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peretto, N.; Lenfestey, C.; Fuller, G. A.; Traficante, A.; Molinari, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Ward-Thompson, D.

    2016-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to identify which of the clouds from the Spitzer Dark Cloud catalogue (Peretto & Fuller, 2009, Cat. J/A+A/505/405) are real, which are artefacts. For this we used Herschel Hi-GAL (Molinari et al., 2010PASP..122..314M) column density maps and search for spatial associations between Spitzer Dark Cloud and Herschel column density peaks. Description: This table provides some of the key properties of the Spitzer Dark Clouds that we estimated using the Herschel data and used to disentangle between real and spurious clouds. For each cloud of the Peretto & Fuller (2009, Cat. J/A+A/505/405) catalogue we give the cloud name, the cloud equivalent radius, the average Herschel column density within the boundaries of the SDCs, the average Herschel column density immediately outside the boundary of the SDCs, the Herschel column density noise at the position of the SDC, the Herschel column density peak within the boundaries of the SDCs, the value for criterion c1, the value for criterion c2, the value for criterion c3, and a tag that indicates if the cloud has been identified as real by our automated detection scheme based on the values of c1 and c2. This tag can take a number of values. These are: 'y' for yes; n for no; 'sat' for a SDC entirely located in a saturated portion of the Herschel images; 'ysat' for a cloud that is considered real despite being partially saturated; 'out' for a SDC that is not covered by Herschel images; 'yout' for a cloud that is considered real despite being partially covered by Herschel images; 'nout' for a cloud considered spurious despite being partially covered by Herschel images. Also, note that the column referring to the equivalent radius Req is the same quantity as the one quoted in Table 1 column 11 of Peretto & Fuller (2009, Cat. J/A+A/505/405). However, these latter values should be discarded since a mistake has been found in the calculation of the equivalent radius. Only the new values, the ones provided in Table 1

  19. A 'private adventure'? John Herschel's Cape voyage and the production of the 'Cape Results'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruskin, Steven William

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation considers the life of John Herschel (1792 1871) from the years 1833 to 1847. In 1833 Herschel sailed from London to Cape Town, southern Africa, to undertake (at his own expense) an astronomical exploration of the southern heavens, as well as a terrestrial exploration of the area around Cape Town. After his return to England in 1838, he was highly esteemed and became Britain's most recognized scientist. In 1847 his southern hemisphere astronomical observations were published as the Cape Results. The main argument of this dissertation is that Herschel's voyage, and the publication of the Cape Results, in addition to their contemporary scientific importance, were also significant for nineteenth-century politics and culture. This dissertation is a two-part dissertation. The first part is entitled “John Herschel's Cape Voyage: Private Science, Public Imagination, and the Ambitions of Empire”; and the second part, “The Production of the Cape Results.” In the first part it is demonstrated that the reason for Herschel's cultural renown was the popular notion that his voyage to the Cape was a project aligned with the imperial ambitions of the British government. By leaving England for one of its colonies, and pursuing there a significant scientific project, Herschel was seen in the same light as other British men of science who had also undertaken voyages of exploration and discovery. It is then demonstrated, in the second part of this work, that the production of the Cape Results, in part because of Herschel's status as Britain's scientific figurehead, was a significant political and cultural event. In addition to the narrow area of Herschel scholarship, this dissertation touches on other areas of research in the history of science as well: science and culture, science and empire, science and politics, and what has been called the “new” history of scientific books.

  20. The Darwinian revolution: Rethinking its meaning and significance

    PubMed Central

    Ruse, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Darwinian revolution is generally taken to be one of the key events in the history of Western science. In recent years, however, the very notion of a scientific revolution has come under attack, and in the specific case of Charles Darwin and his Origin of Species there are serious questions about the nature of the change (if there was such) and the specifically Darwinian input. This article considers these issues by addressing these questions: Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, was there a revolution at all? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the specific contribution of Charles Darwin? Was there a Darwinian revolution? That is, what was the conceptual nature of what occurred on and around the publication of the Origin? I argue that there was a major change, both scientifically and in a broader metaphysical sense; that Charles Darwin was the major player in the change, although one must qualify the nature and the extent of the change, looking particularly at things in a broader historical context than just as an immediate event; and that the revolution was complex and we need the insights of rather different philosophies of scientific change to capture the whole phenomenon. In some respects, indeed, the process of analysis is still ongoing and unresolved. PMID:19528652

  1. Herschel Observations of the Pre-Collapse Phase of Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, J.

    2012-03-01

    Stars form after compact gas cores condense out of larger molecular clouds and collapse. How these cores themselves form has been difficult to observe, given the limitations of detecting from the ground faint, diffuse sub-structure in clouds (e.g., clumps and filaments). With its sensitive, spaceborne instrumentation, however, Herschel has now detected these structures in numerous clouds out to several kiloparsecs from their continuum emission. Indeed, the continuum data from PACS and SPIRE are revolutionizing our understanding of the environments from which cores themselves arise. In this review, we will summarize the recent results of several Herschel Key Programmes whose goals include better physical understanding of these environments. The specific programmes with prestellar core targets include the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (GBS; PI: Ph. André), the Herschel OB Young Star survey (HOBYS; PI: F. Motte), Galactic Cold Cores (GCC; PI: M. Juvela), the Earliest Phases of Star Formation (EPoS; PI: O. Krause), and the Herschel Galactic Plane Survey (HiGAL; PI: S. Molinari). We show in general that filaments are found on many scales throughout the Galaxy, and are a key aspect to the pre-collapse phase of star formation not previously appreciated before Herschel. In addition, the continuum data are providing new direct probes of the thermal and density structures of pre-collapse star-forming objects.

  2. Green revolution: impacts, limits, and the path ahead.

    PubMed

    Pingali, Prabhu L

    2012-07-31

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a "redux" version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified. PMID:22826253

  3. Green Revolution: Impacts, limits, and the path ahead

    PubMed Central

    Pingali, Prabhu L.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a “redux” version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified. PMID:22826253

  4. How Can Agricultural and Extension Educators Contribute to a Successful New Green Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Maria

    2006-01-01

    In the middle of the 20th century, many in the world were predicting catastrophic starvation that was halted by the Green Revolution. To address continued population growth and the unsolved problems of the Green Revolution, many hope for a new and different Green Revolution. Supporters of a biotechnology-based revolution claim that it could…

  5. The Revolution and the Bicentennial: A Conference (Yale University, May 2, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Council for the Social Studies.

    Nine essays, written by distinguished historians and scholars at Yale University, discuss both content and teaching techniques about the American Revolution and the Bicentennial. The essay titles include (1) What Not to Teach about the American Revolution, (2) The British Side of the Revolution, (3) Women and Revolution in the 18th Century, (4)…

  6. William Herschel's fifty-two fields of extensive diffused nebulosity - a revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latusseck, Arndt

    2008-11-01

    Since its publication in 1811, William Herschel's list of fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity has been largely disregarded, or even discredited, by the astronomical community. Neither he nor his successors decided to include the observations of large structureless fields of background nebulosity in their major catalogues. lt was only during a short period in the early twentieth century that astronomers like I. Roberts, E.E. Barnard, and M. Wolf started more serious investigations into the nature and reality of Herschel's nebulosities, but without deriving conclusive results. Those few who tried to understand Herschel's elusive observations were often puzzled by his ambiguous descriptions and frequently tended to reject the nebulosities as being optical illusions, because only a small number of them could be proven by celestial photography. The only unconditional supporter of the reality of the nebulosities was Johann Georg Hagen, who in the 1920s used them as evidence for his hypothesis that nebulous matter covered almost the entire celestial sphere. He claimed to have succeeded in visually observing nebulous matter in every single one of Herschel's fields, which raised sharp opposition from his numerous critics. The questionable quality of Herschel's original descriptions, the weak supporting arguments, and the lack of photographic evidence, finally led historians to conclude that Herschel's fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity were illusions. But it would seem astonishing that this gifted observer could have been fooled to such an extent. As a first approach to investigate this apparent anomaly, a complete analysis of Herschel's observing books was carried out, and the raw observations of the various catalogued nebulous fields were extracted. Some important stylistic uncertainties in the descriptions of the visual appearance of the nebulosities were cleared up, leading to a better understanding of what Herschel actually saw. Possible sources of error

  7. Goblins, Morlocks, and Weasels: Classic Fantasy and the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanger, Jules

    1977-01-01

    Examines three fantasy classics written at the time of the Industrial Revolution to illustrate the effects of drastic social change on fantasy writing; suggests the possible impact of these fantasies on their readers. (GT)

  8. Prelude to, and Nature of the Space Photometry Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.

    2015-09-01

    It is now less than a decade since CoRoT initiated the space photometry revolution with breakthrough discoveries, and five years since Kepler started a series of similar advances. I'll set the context for this revolution noting the status of asteroseismology and exoplanet discovery as it was 15-25 years ago in order to give perspective on why it is not mere hyperbole to claim CoRoT and Kepler fostered a revolution in our sciences. Primary events setting up the revolution will be recounted. I'll continue with noting the major discoveries in hand, and how asteroseismology and exoplanet studies, and indeed our approach to doing science, have been forever changed thanks to these spectacular missions.

  9. The Revolution in Science and Technology and Problems of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turchenko, V. N.

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses the interrelated processes of science, education, and production and stresses the need for their simultaneous and harmonious development. The historical development of education which accompanies a scientific revolution is analyzed. (RM)

  10. The 'Anglo' Revolution in New Mexico Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Thomas K.

    1978-01-01

    First in a three-part series of case studies tracing the impact of the "Anglo Revolution" on New Mexico, this article deals with copper mining in New Mexico, particularly the Santa Rita del Cobre copper mine. (NQ)

  11. Green Revolution (I): A Just Technology, Often Unjust in Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the social and economic impact of the Green Revolution and the resulting problems such as benefiting rich farmers more than poor farmers, displacing labor and increasing rural unemployment. (BR)

  12. Current Debates in the Study of the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of the literature on the debates surrounding the industrial revolution using four categories: (1) definition and characteristics; (2) context and causation; (3) impacts and scope; and (4) industrialization as a worldwide phenomenon. (CMK)

  13. Illiteracy in Devon During the Industrial Revolution, 1754-1844

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    Indicates the likelihood that the initial period of the Industrial Revolution was one of deteriorating educational standards in most areas, especially in those that were seats of displaced domestic textile industries. (Author)

  14. Teaching the American Revolution Through an Interdisciplinary Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coats, James A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Activities with specific examples of how social studies, art, music, and literature can be integrated into the elementary and junior high school classroom in teaching the American Revolution are provided. (Author/DE)

  15. Engaging doctors in the health care revolution.

    PubMed

    Lee, Thomas H; Cosgrove, Toby

    2014-06-01

    A health care revolution is under way, and doctors must be part of it. But many are deeply anxious and angry about the transformation, fearing loss of autonomy, respect, and income. Given their resistance, how can health system Leaders engage them in redesigning care? In this article, Dr. Thomas H. Lee, Press Ganey's chief medical officer, and Dr. Toby Cosgrove, the CEO of the Cleveland Clinic, describe a framework they've developed for encouraging buy-in. Adapting Max Weber's "typology of motives," and applying behavioral economics and other motivational principles, they describe four tactics leadership must apply in concert: engaging doctors in a noble shared purpose; addressing their economic self-interest; leveraging their desire for respect; and appealing to their sense of tradition. Drawing from experiences at the Mayo Clinic, Geisinger Health System, Partners HealthCare, the Cleveland Clinic, Ascension Health, and others, the authors show how the four motivational levers work together to bring this critical group of stakeholders on board. PMID:25051859

  16. Evolution and revolution as organizations grow. 1972.

    PubMed

    Greiner, L E

    1998-01-01

    The influence of history on an organization is a powerful but often overlooked force. Managers, in their haste to build companies, frequently fail to ask such critical developmental questions as, Where has our organization been? Where is it now? and What do the answers to these questions mean for where it is going? Instead, when confronted with problems, managers fix their gaze outward on the environment and toward the future, as if more precise market projections will provide the organization with a new identity. In this HBR Classic, Larry Greiner identifies a series of developmental phases that companies tend to pass through as they grow. He distinguishes the phases by their dominant themes: creativity, direction, delegation, coordination, and collaboration. Each phase begins with a period of evolution, steady growth, and stability, and ends with a revolutionary period of organizational turmoil and change. The critical task for management in each revolutionary period is to find a new set of organizational practices that will become the basis for managing the next period of evolutionary growth. Those new practices eventually outlast their usefulness and lead to another period of revolution. Managers therefore experience the irony of seeing a major solution in one period become a major problem in a later period. Originally published in 1972, the article's argument and insights remain relevant to managers today. Accompanying the original article is a commentary by the author updating his earlier observations. PMID:10179654

  17. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Bumb, Dipika

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Photographs are symbolic of memories and with the advent of digital photography it has become much easier to collect them in a second in a more comprehensive and qualitative manner. Technological advancements in the field of digital photography have revolutionized the concept of photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication. It also offers a spectrum of perception, interpretation and execution. Photography and dentistry go hand in hand for revelation of the hidden and overlooked defects in teeth and other parts of the cavity. This article emphasizes on the significance of digital photography in dentistry and guidelines for capturing orofacial structures and radiographs in a more accurate and informative manner. Conclusion: Dental world constitutes of microstructures that have to be recorded in a detailed manner in order to perform patient education, documentation of records and treatment, illustration of lectures, publication and web connectivity of complicated cases. How to cite this article: Desai V, Bumb D. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):193-196. PMID:25206221

  18. Dinosaurs and the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Graeme T; Davis, Katie E; Pisani, Davide; Tarver, James E; Ruta, Marcello; Sakamoto, Manabu; Hone, David W.E; Jennings, Rachel; Benton, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The observed diversity of dinosaurs reached its highest peak during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, the 50 Myr that preceded their extinction, and yet this explosion of dinosaur diversity may be explained largely by sampling bias. It has long been debated whether dinosaurs were part of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR), from 125–80 Myr ago, when flowering plants, herbivorous and social insects, squamates, birds and mammals all underwent a rapid expansion. Although an apparent explosion of dinosaur diversity occurred in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the emergence of new groups (e.g. neoceratopsians, ankylosaurid ankylosaurs, hadrosaurids and pachycephalosaurs), results from the first quantitative study of diversification applied to a new supertree of dinosaurs show that this apparent burst in dinosaurian diversity in the last 18 Myr of the Cretaceous is a sampling artefact. Indeed, major diversification shifts occurred largely in the first one-third of the group's history. Despite the appearance of new clades of medium to large herbivores and carnivores later in dinosaur history, these new originations do not correspond to significant diversification shifts. Instead, the overall geometry of the Cretaceous part of the dinosaur tree does not depart from the null hypothesis of an equal rates model of lineage branching. Furthermore, we conclude that dinosaurs did not experience a progressive decline at the end of the Cretaceous, nor was their evolution driven directly by the KTR. PMID:18647715

  19. Glycans – the third revolution in evolution

    PubMed Central

    Lauc, Gordan; Krištić, Jasminka; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2014-01-01

    The development and maintenance of a complex organism composed of trillions of cells is an extremely complex task. At the molecular level every process requires a specific molecular structures to perform it, thus it is difficult to imagine how less than tenfold increase in the number of genes between simple bacteria and higher eukaryotes enabled this quantum leap in complexity. In this perspective article we present the hypothesis that the invention of glycans was the third revolution in evolution (the appearance of nucleic acids and proteins being the first two), which enabled the creation of novel molecular entities that do not require a direct genetic template. Contrary to proteins and nucleic acids, which are made from a direct DNA template, glycans are product of a complex biosynthetic pathway affected by hundreds of genetic and environmental factors. Therefore glycans enable adaptive response to environmental changes and, unlike other epiproteomic modifications, which act as off/on switches, glycosylation significantly contributes to protein structure and enables novel functions. The importance of glycosylation is evident from the fact that nearly all proteins invented after the appearance of multicellular life are composed of both polypeptide and glycan parts. PMID:24904645

  20. Herschel Survey of the Trans-Neptunian Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas G.

    2015-08-01

    Transneptunian Objects (TNOs) are believed to retain the most pristine and least altered material of the Solar System. We studied a sample of more than 130 objects with Herschel as part of a key program "TNOs are Cool" and smaller projects related to prominent targets.Our sample includes TNOs in each of the dynamical classes, including Centaurs, and 2 satellites. The PACS data were used to determine diameters and albedos for over 100 of those targets. We were also able to constrain the temperature distribution on the surfaces of over 80 objects, in some cases by combining the Herschel data with shorter-wavelength Spitzer or WISE measurements. The temperature distribution is controlled by the thermal inertia and roughness of the surface, and so gives deeper insight into surface processes in the outer Solar System. We obtained thermal lightcurve observations for a few interesting targets like Haumea, Eris, Varuna, to discriminate between shape and surface variegation effects. For the characterization of dwarf planets (e.g. Makemake, Orcus, Quaoar) and other bright object we extented the wavelength coverage into the submm by using the SPIRE photometer. Also the two Centaurs with ring systems -Chariklo and Chiron- have been observed at far-IR wavelengths with very high photometric accuracy. We were also able to study a few Centaurs with extreme orbits, including the super-comet candidate 2013 AZ60 showing very perculiar properties.The diameters measured in this program have been combined with mass-determinations for binary systems to give an intriguing first-look at the density of TNOs as a function of size. The analysis of albedo data revealed the existence of two distinct types of surface among mid-sized TNOs: The colour-albedo diagram shows that the objects located in dynamically stable orbits within the classical Kuiper Belt region and beyond have high albedo and red colours, implying a formation further from the Sun than the dark, neutral-colour bodies.The results

  1. Wear analysis of revolute joints with clearance in multibody systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, ZhengFeng; Zhao, Yang; Wang, XingGui

    2013-08-01

    In this work, the prediction of wear for revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems is investigated using a computational methodology. The contact model in clearance joint is established using a new hybrid nonlinear contact force model and the friction effect is considered by using a modified Coulomb friction model. The dynamics model of multibody system with clearance is established using dynamic segmentation modeling method and the computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint in multibody systems is presented. The main computational process for wear analysis of clearance joint includes two steps, which are dynamics analysis and wear analysis. The dynamics simulation of multibody system with revolute clearance joint is carried out and the contact forces are drawn and used to calculate the wear amount of revolute clearance joint based on the Archard's wear model. Finally, a four-bar multibody mechanical system with revolute clearance joint is used as numerical example application to perform the simulation and show the dynamics responses and wear characteristics of multibody systems with revolute clearance joint. The main results of this work indicate that the contact between the joint elements is wider and more frequent in some specific regions and the wear phenomenon is not regular around the joint surface, which causes the clearance size increase non-regularly after clearance joint wear. This work presents an effective method to predict wear of revolute joint with clearance in multibody systems.

  2. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-07-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  3. INTEGRAL Observations Of Massive Stars Unveil Dynamics Of Stellar Winds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Roland; Zurita-Heras, J.; Leyder, J. C.

    2008-03-01

    INTEGRAL tripled the number of super-giant high-mass X-ray binaries (sgHMXB) known in the Galaxy by revealing absorbed and fast transient systems (SFXT). INTEGRAL also unambiguously detected hard X-ray emission from the colliding wind binary Eta Carinae. These observations provide new insights and quantitative constraints on these binary systems. First wind clumping in massive stars could be characterized observationally from the study of the hard X-ray variability of the compact accreting objects. A large fraction of the hard X-ray emission is emitted in the form of flares with a typical duration of 3 ks, frequency of 7 days and luminosity of 1036 erg/s. Such flares are most probably emitted by the interaction of a compact object orbiting at about 10 R* with wind clumps (1022-23 g) representing a large fraction of the stellar mass-loss rate. The density ratio between the clumps and the inter-clump medium is 102-4 in SFXT systems. These parameters are in good agreement with macro-clumping scenario and line driven instability simulations. SFXT have probably a larger orbital radius than classical sgHMXB. The first unambiguous detection of hard X-rays from Eta Carinae by INTEGRAL unveil relativistic particle acceleration in its colliding stellar winds. The observed emission is in agreement with the predictions of inverse Compton models, and corresponds to about 0.1% of the energy available in the wind collision. Eta Car is expected to be detected in the GeV energy range.

  4. Herschel's View of LITTLE THINGS Metal-Poor Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa; Cormier, Diane; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Hunter, Deidre Ann; Madden, Suzanne; Little Things

    2015-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies present interesting challenges for the studies of various galaxy properties, due in part to their faintness and their typically low metal content. Low metallicity can lead to quite different physical conditions in the ISM of these systems, which can affect star formation and other processes. To determine the structure of star-forming molecular clouds at low metallicity and moderate star formation rates, far infrared (FIR) fine-structure lines were mapped with Herschel in selected regions of five dwarf irregular galaxies with metal abundances ranging from 13% down to 5% of solar. Abundances of [C II] 158, [O I] 63, [N II] 122, and [O III] 88 microns - the major FIR cooling lines - help to probe the conditions in the gas, and allow us to put these dwarfs in context with spirals and other galaxy types. We report our integrated fluxes and line ratios, and discuss the results: [C II] is the dominant FIR coolant in these systems, and it mostly originates in PDRs instead of the more diffuse phase. Funding for this project was provided by NASA JPL RSA grant 1433776.

  5. Fan Noise Control Using Herschel-quincke Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Ng, Wing F.; Provenza, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The research effort proposed for this NASA NRA is mainly experimental. In addition, Virginia Tech is working in partnership with Goodrich Aerospace, Aerostructures Group for the analytical development needed to support the experimental endeavor, i.e. model development, design, and system studies. In this project, Herschel-Quincke (HQ)liner technology experiments will be performed at the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) facility. A schematic of both inlet and aft HQ-liner systems installed in the ANCF rig as well as a picture of the Glenn facility is shown. The main goal is to simultaneously test in both the inlet and bypass duct sections. The by-pass duct will have HQ-systems in both the inner and outer duct walls. The main advantages of performing tests at the ANCF facility are that the effect of the inlet HQ-system on the by-pass HQ-system and vice versa, can be accurately determined from the in-duct modal data. Another significant advantage is that it offers the opportunity to assess (on a common basis) the proposed noise reduction concept on the ANCF rig which in the past has been used for assessing other active and passive noise reduction strategies.

  6. Fan Noise Control Using Herschel-Quincke Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Ng, Wing F.

    2003-01-01

    The research effort proposed for this NASA NRA is mainly experimental. In addition, Virginia Tech is working in partnership with Goodrich Aerospace, Aerostructures Group for the analytical development needed to support the experimental endeavor, i.e. model development, design, and system studies. In this project, Herschel-Quincke (HQ)liner technology experiments will be performed at the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) facility. A schematic of both inlet and aft HQ-liner systems installed in the ANCF rig as well as a picture of the Glenn facility is shown. The main goal is to simultaneously test in both the inlet and bypass duct sections. The by-pass duct will have HQ-systems in both the inner and outer duct walls. The main advantages of performing tests at the ANCF facility are that the effect of the inlet HQ-system on the by-pass HQ-system and vice versa, can be accurately determined from the in-duct modal data. Another significant advantage is that it offers the opportunity to assess (on a common basis) the proposed noise reduction concept on the ANCF rig which in the past has been used for assessing other active and passive noise reduction strategies.

  7. The Herschel/planck Programme Planck Pfm Testing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reix, Jean-Michel; Rideau, Pascal; Gavila, Emmanuel; Chambelland, Jean-Philippe; Collaudin, Bernard; Passvogel, Thomas; Guillaume, Bernard

    2010-04-01

    The two science missions Herschel, an observatory-type mission, and Planck, a survey mission, are combined in one programme within ESAs long-term science programme. The objective for Planck is to image systematically the whole sky simultaneously with two scientific instruments in nine frequency channels between 30 and 900 GHz to unravel the temperature fluctuations, the anisotropy, of the cosmic background radiation. For both satellites, which have now been launched from the European Space Port in Kourou, French Guiana, on a single Ariane 5 launcher, the orbits will be Lissajous orbits around the 2nd Lagrange Point L2 of the Earth-Sun system. Having surpassed the technological problems and more generally the development phase, this paper focuses on the extensive assembly, integration and tests undertaken for the Proto-Flight Model (PFM) of the Planck Satellite. The paper details the early stages of the integration of the PFM until completeness of the assembly. It then describes the logic and the various tests implemented for the acceptance verification of the Planck PFM. It finally depicts the Launch campaign activities up to the launch from Kourou in the first half of May 2009.

  8. THE DEBRIS DISK AROUND {gamma} DORADUS RESOLVED WITH HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Matthews, Brenda C.; Booth, Mark; Kavelaars, J. J.; Koning, Alice; Kennedy, Grant M.; Wyatt, Mark C.; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Lawler, Samantha M.; Qi, Chenruo; Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Wilner, David J.; Greaves, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    We present observations of the debris disk around {gamma} Doradus, an F1V star, from the Herschel Key Programme DEBRIS (Disc Emission via Bias-free Reconnaissance in the Infrared/Submillimetre). The disk is well resolved at 70, 100, and 160 {mu}m, resolved along its major axis at 250 {mu}m, detected but not resolved at 350 {mu}m, and confused with a background source at 500 {mu}m. It is one of our best resolved targets and we find it to have a radially broad dust distribution. The modeling of the resolved images cannot distinguish between two configurations: an arrangement of a warm inner ring at several AU (best fit 4 AU) and a cool outer belt extending from {approx}55 to 400 AU or an arrangement of two cool, narrow rings at {approx}70 AU and {approx}190 AU. This suggests that any configuration between these two is also possible. Both models have a total fractional luminosity of {approx}10{sup -5} and are consistent with the disk being aligned with the stellar equator. The inner edge of either possible configuration suggests that the most likely region to find planets in this system would be within {approx}55 AU of the star. A transient event is not needed to explain the warm dust's fractional luminosity.

  9. Winds of Binary AGB Stars as Observed by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Jorissen, A.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.; Mečina, M.; Paladini, C.; Cox, N. L. J.; Nowotny, W.; Aringer, B.; Pourbaix, D.; Mohamed, S.; Siopis, C.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.

    2015-08-01

    We present Herschel/PACS observations of the large-scale environments of binary AGB stars as part of the Mass-loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) sample. From the literature we found 18 of the objects to be members of physically bound multiple systems. Several show a large-scale far-IR emission which differs significantly from spherical symmetry. A probable cause is the gravitational force of the companion on the stellar AGB wind and the mass-losing star itself. A spiral pattern is thereby imprinted in the dusty stellar wind. The most remarkable structures are found around o Ceti, W Aquilæ, R Aquarii, and π1 Gruis. The environments of o Cet and W Aql show a spiral pattern while the symbiotic nature of R Aqr is revealed as two opposing arms which reflect a nova outburst. The emission around π1 Gru is dominated by two structures, a disk and an arc, which are presumably not caused by the same companion. We found evidence that π1 Gru is a hierarchical triple system in which a close companion attracts the AGB wind onto the orbital plane and the outer companion forms a spiral arm. These far-IR observations underline the role of a companion as a major external influence in creating asymmetric winds in the AGB phase, even before the star becomes a planetary nebula (PN).

  10. Present-day aeolian activity in Herschel Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardinale, Marco; Silvestro, Simone; Vaz, David A.; Michaels, Timothy; Bourke, Mary C.; Komatsu, Goro; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2016-02-01

    In this report, we show evidence for ripple and dune migration in Herschel Crater on Mars. We estimate an average dune migration of 0.8 m and a minimum ripple migration of 1.1 m in a time span of 3.7 Earth-years. These dunes and ripples are mainly shaped by prevailing winds coming from the north, however we also report the presence of secondary winds which elongate the barchans' horns. Such a complex wind scenario is likely caused by the influence of winds blowing off the western crater rim as suggested by the Mars Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (MRAMS), an atmospheric mesoscale model. A multi-directional wind regime at the local scale is also supported by the observed bimodal distribution of the ripple trends. For the first time, a survey integrating the assessment of dune and ripple migration is presented, showing how dune topography can influence the migration patterns of ripples and how underlying topography appears to control the rates of dune migration.

  11. Herschel-SPIRE spectroscopy of nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, N.; Spinoglio, L.; Wilson, C. D.; Kamenetzky, J.; Rangwala, N.; Rykala, A.; Isaak, K. G.; Bendo, G. J.; Bradford, M.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Barlow, M. J.; Bock, J. J.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Chanial, P.; Charlot, S.; Ciesla, L.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Cortese, L.; Davies, J. I.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S. A.; Elbaz, D.; Galametz, M.; Galliano, F.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Griffin, M.; Hony, S.; Levenson, L. R.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; O'Halloran, B.; Okumura, K.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Parkin, T. J.; Perez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rigby, E. E.; Roussel, H.; Sauvage, M.; Schulz, B.; Smith, M. W. L.; Stevens, J. A.; Sundar, S.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Vaccari, M.; Vigroux, L.; Wozniak, H.; Wright, G. S.; Zeilinger, W. W.

    2011-05-01

    We present the 450-1550 GHz spectra of three nearby Seyfert galaxies (NGC1068, NGC7130 and NGC7582) taken with the Herschel SPIRE FTS. For the case of NGC1068 we reconstruct the nuclear spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the CO lines, applying nonLTE radiative transfer and a Bayesian likelihood analysis to estimate the physical properties of the molecular gas in the circumnuclear region. Groundbased observations of the low-J transitions with high (few arcsec) angular resolution are required to reconstruct the nuclear SLED avoiding contamination from colder molecular gas on larger galactic scales. We find evidence for a very warm molecular gas component with a density ~10^3.9 cm-3, similar to that found in previous works (Papadopoulos & Seaquist 1999, Usero et al. 2004, Kamenetzky et al. 2011), but with a much higher temperature (~ 550 K instead of 20-160 K). The higher-J transitions of CO are compatible with being excited in X-ray dissociation regions (XDR). However, in order to explain the entire CO SLED a comparable contribution from photodissociation regions (PDR) is required.

  12. Herschel FIR Spectroscopic Observations of L1448-MM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinhee; Lee, J.; DIGIT Team

    2012-01-01

    We present the FIR (continuum and line) maps and spectra of L1448-MM at 55 to 210 micron observed with the range scan mode of PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the DIGIT key program. L1448-MM was previously known as an embedded Class 0 and prominent outflow source, and a secondary YSO was claimed by the Spitzer images and confirmed by submm interferometric observations. The PACS detected various CO, OH, H2O, and OI lines. The PACS line and continuum maps show that the emission at shorter wavelengths peaks at the central spatial pixel (the primary YSO position) although the line emission of low energy levels distributes along the outflow direction. According to our excitation analysis, the CO gas has two temperature components (warm and hot) that are tentatively attributed to PDR and shock, respectively. However, the H2O gas with the rotational temperature of 200 K seems to trace the shock. Interestingly, the relative strength of OH transitions suggests the IR pumping process dominates in L1448-MM. The gas along the outflow cavities in L1448-MM seems to be heated mainly by shock and UV photons, and relative line luminosities indicate that H2O and CO are the main coolants of this gas, although cooling by OI and OH cannot be ignored.

  13. Herschel observations of Circinus X-1 during outburst and quiescence

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Buxton, Michelle; Fost, Tyler E-mail: dawn@ipac.caltech.edu E-mail: tyler.fost@gmail.com

    2014-07-01

    We have used the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver instruments on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe Cir X-1 both in and out of outburst. We detected Cir X-1 during outburst at 70 μm. Unfortunately, a cold background source dominates Cir X-1 at longer wavelengths. We have assembled optical and infrared (IR) data for Cir X-1 to model its spectral energy distribution (SED) in both quiescence and outburst and find that in both states it is consistent with a heavily reddened, 10,000 K blackbody. We believe this behavior is completely consistent with previous suggestions that these outbursts are due to accretion disk events, not unlike those of dwarf novae. To explore the behavior of other low-mass X-ray binaries with reported synchrotron jets, we have extracted and/or compiled optical and near- and mid-IR data sets for five such systems to construct their SEDs. The Z-source GX 349+2 and the black hole system GRS 1915+105 have strong and variable mid-IR excesses that suggest synchrotron emission. The other Z-sources have rather weak (or no) IR excesses that can be explained as reddened blackbody spectra with the addition of either synchrotron or bremsstrahlung components.

  14. First Year In-Flight and Early Science with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lario, P.

    2011-07-01

    Herschel, an ESA space observatory equipped with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia with important participation from NASA, was launched on 14 May 2009. With its 3.5m diameter primary mirror, Herschel is the largest telescope ever launched into space. Herschel carries three science instruments whose focal plane units are cryogenically cooled inside a superfluid helium cryostat. The PACS and SPIRE instruments provide broadband imaging photometry in six bands centered on 75, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm and imaging spectroscopy over the range 55-672 μm. The HIFI instrument provides very high-resolution heterodyne spectroscopy over the ranges 157-212 and 240-625 μm. The prime science objectives of Herschel are intimately connected to the physics of, and processes in, the interstellar medium (ISM) in the widest sense. Near and far in both space and time, they stretch from solar system objects and the relics of the formation of the sun and our solar system, through star formation in the ISM and the feedback material returned by evolved stars to the ISM, to the star formation history of the universe, galaxy evolution, and cosmology. The very first observational results from Herschel already show that it will have strong impact on research in all of these fields, as exemplified by the few observational results presented here, These are just the tip of the iceberg of what is yet to come in the remaining 2 years of operations.

  15. Herschel spectral surveys of star-forming regions. Overview of the 555-636 GHz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Boogert, A.; Caux, E.; Dominik, C.; Lefloch, B.; Lis, D.; Schilke, P.; van der Tak, F.; Caselli, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Codella, C.; Comito, C.; Fuente, A.; Baudry, A.; Bell, T.; Benedettini, M.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G. A.; Bottinelli, S.; Cabrit, S.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Crimier, N.; Demyk, K.; Encrenaz, P.; Falgarone, E.; Gerin, M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Helmich, F.; Hennebelle, P.; Henning, T.; Herbst, E.; Hily-Blant, P.; Jacq, T.; Kahane, C.; Kama, M.; Klotz, A.; Langer, W.; Lord, S.; Lorenzani, A.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Neufeld, D.; Nisini, B.; Pacheco, S.; Pagani, L.; Parise, B.; Pearson, J.; Phillips, T.; Salez, M.; Saraceno, P.; Schuster, K.; Tielens, X.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Yorke, H.; Liseau, R.; Olberg, M.; Szczerba, R.; Benz, A. O.; Melchior, M.

    2010-10-01

    High resolution line spectra of star-forming regions are mines of information: they provide unique clues to reconstruct the chemical, dynamical, and physical structure of the observed source. We present the first results from the Herschel key project “Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star forming regions”, CHESS. We report and discuss observations towards five CHESS targets, one outflow shock spot and four protostars with luminosities bewteen 20 and 2 × 105 L_⊙: L1157-B1, IRAS 16293-2422, OMC2-FIR4, AFGL 2591, and NGC 6334I. The observations were obtained with the heterodyne spectrometer HIFI on board Herschel, with a spectral resolution of 1 MHz. They cover the frequency range 555-636 GHz, a range largely unexplored before the launch of the Herschel satellite. A comparison of the five spectra highlights spectacular differences in the five sources, for example in the density of methanol lines, or the presence/absence of lines from S-bearing molecules or deuterated species. We discuss how these differences can be attributed to the different star-forming mass or evolutionary status. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Figures [see full textsee full text]-[see full textsee full text] and Tables 3, 4 (pages 6 to 8) are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. 'Land-marks of the universe': John Herschel against the background of positional astronomy.

    PubMed

    Case, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    John Herschel (1792-1871) was the leading British natural philosopher of the nineteenth century, widely known and regarded for his work in philosophy, optics and chemistry as well as his important research and popular publications on astronomy. To date, however, there exists no extended treatment of his astronomical career. This paper, part of a larger study exploring Herschel's contributions to astronomy, examines his work in the context of positional astronomy, the dominant form of astronomical practice throughout his lifetime. Herschel, who did not himself practice positional astronomy and who was known for his non-meridional observations of specific stellar objects, was nonetheless a strong advocate for positional astronomy-but for very different reasons than the terrestrial applications to which it was most often put. For Herschel, the star catalogues of positional astronomy were the necessary observational foundation upon which information about the stars as physical objects could be constructed. Positional astronomy practiced in the great national observatories was not about navigation or timekeeping; it was a way to standardize stellar observations and make them useful data for constructing theories of the stars themselves. For Herschel, the seeds of the new astronomy emerged from the practices of the old. PMID:26221834

  17. 'Land-marks of the universe': John Herschel against the background of positional astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Case, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    John Herschel (1792-1871) was the leading British natural philosopher of the nineteenth century, widely known and regarded for his work in philosophy, optics and chemistry as well as his important research and popular publications on astronomy. To date, however, there exists no extended treatment of his astronomical career. This paper, part of a larger study exploring Herschel's contributions to astronomy, examines his work in the context of positional astronomy, the dominant form of astronomical practice throughout his lifetime. Herschel, who did not himself practice positional astronomy and who was known for his non-meridional observations of specific stellar objects, was nonetheless a strong advocate for positional astronomy - but for very different reasons than the terrestrial applications to which it was most often put. For Herschel, the star catalogues of positional astronomy were the necessary observational foundation upon which information about the stars as physical objects could be constructed. Positional astronomy practiced in the great national observatories was not about navigation or timekeeping; it was a way to standardize stellar observations and make them useful data for constructing theories of the stars themselves. For Herschel, the seeds of the new astronomy emerged from the practices of the old.

  18. 450 Revolutions Later: ``De revolutionibus" in Retrospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, Owen

    1993-05-01

    We do not know precisely when or why Nicholas Copernicus adopted a heliocentric system. Before 1514, he wrote a brief prospectus for his radical rearrangement of the planets (the so-called Commentariolus), but he realized that to compete with Ptolemy's Almagest, he had to prepare a major treatise that included key observations distributed over each planet's orbit. Copernicus remained hard at work on this task in his late 60s. His still partly unfinished magnum opus would not have been printed in his lifetime except for the arrival of a young disciple from Wittenberg, Georg Joachim Rheticus, who eventually took a copy of the manuscript to Nuremberg for publication. The printing of approximately 400 copies of the book was completed in April of 1543, and the final sheets (actually the front matter, which was struck off last) reached Copernicus only on the day he died, 24 May 1543. Copernicus had found a ``theory pleasing to the mind," but he had no observational evidence to prove the sun-centered layout. As for his contemporaries, the entire weight of tradition reinforced the notion that astronomers dealt with geometry and hypotheses, not physics or physical reality. Hence, in the sixteenth century, heliocentrism was viewed almost universally as a curious hypothesis, not as a viable cosmology. The annotations that early owners made in the margins of their copies of De revolutionibus substantiate this view. Yet, despite the fact that the earth's motion seemed contrary to the evidence of the senses, a brilliant cosmological vision had seized Copernicus' imagination, one that would eventually capture Kepler's as well. When Galileo saw that a moving Jupiter did not lose its satellites, he, too, became an enthusiastic heliocentrist. De revolutionibus rapidly became an icon, rather than a handbook for the new astronomy; even today, at a price of over \\$100,000 for a first edition, it remains a symbol of the revolution in our world view.

  19. Solar Photovoltaics Technology: The Revolution Begins . . .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazmerski, Lawrence

    2009-11-01

    The prospects of current and coming solar-photovoltaic (PV) technologies are envisioned, arguing this solar-electricity source is at a tipping point in the complex worldwide energy outlook. The emphasis of this presentation is on R&D advances (cell, materials, and module options), with indications of the limitations and strengths of crystalline (Si and GaAs) and thin-film (a-Si:H, Si, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2, CdTe). The contributions and technological pathways for now and near-term technologies (silicon, III-Vs, and thin films) and status and forecasts for next- generation PV (organics, nanotechnologies, non-conventional junction approaches) are evaluated. Recent advances in concentrators with efficiencies headed toward 50%, new directions for thin films (20% and beyond), and materials/device technology issues are discussed in terms of technology progress. Insights into technical and other investments needed to tip photovoltaics to its next level of contribution as a significant clean-energy partner in the world energy portfolio. The need for R&D accelerating the now and imminent (evolutionary) technologies balanced with work in mid-term (disruptive) approaches is highlighted. Moreover, technology progress and ownership for next generation solar PV mandates a balanced investment in research on longer-term (the revolution needs revolutionary approaches to sustain itself) technologies (quantum dots, multi-multijunctions, intermediate-band concepts, nanotubes, bio-inspired, thermophotonics, solar hydrogen. . . ) having high-risk, but extremely high performance and cost returns for our next generations of energy consumers. Issues relating to manufacturing are explored-especially with the requirements for the next-generation technologies. This presentation provides insights into how this technology has developed-and where the R&D investments should be made and we can expect to be by this mid-21st century.

  20. [(R)evolution in pediatric diabetology].

    PubMed

    Dorchy, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Before the discovery of insulin 87 years ago, all diabetic children died within a few weeks or months following diagnosis. Since then, improvements in the treatment and live of young diabetics have sometimes occurred in (r)evolutions that have caused debate among physicians. They are briefly reviewed in this paper. Today's young diabetics, properly trained in self-monitoring and self-treatment, are as competitive physically and intellectually as their non-diabetic peers provided their glycemic control (i.e., their glycated hemoglobin levels) is kept close to normal. They escape the potentially incapacitating complications associated with chronic hyperglycemia of several decades' duration: blindness, renal failure, amputations, excess cardiovascular mortality, etc. To achieve this favourable outcome, diabetic children should be followed by multidisciplinary teams that include pediatric diabetologists and have a large enough case load to acquire a high level of expertise. Quality of care and patient well-being should be compared across teams with the goal of optimizing both these parameters. Any dogmatism must be avoided. The international comparisons of the Hvidøre Study Group on Childhood Diabetes have shown that diabetic children and adolescents on twice-daily free-mix regimens have significantly lower HbA1c than those on basal-bolus, pumps or twice-daily premixed/insulin regimens. Attempts to prevent type 1 diabetes are under way: vitamin D supplementation, avoidance of beta-casein (cow's milk hypothesis), etc. A definitive cure for type 1 diabetes mellitus is difficult to foresee. PMID:21812211

  1. Historisches Rätsel Liebe, Revolution und Mathematik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loos, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    In Jahr 1800 wies William Herschel bei der Untersuchung des Sonnenlichts erstmals Strahlung außerhalb des sichtbaren Spektrums nach. Sein Sohn Frederick entwickelte ein Gerät zur Vermessung der Sonnenintensität, das Aktinometer. Dieses Gerät wurde in einigen Messkampagnen verwendet, setzte sich aber letztlich nicht durch. Heute ist die Vermessung der Sonneneinstrahlung ein wesentlicher Bereich, der zur Modellierung solarer Energiegewinnungsanlagen erforderlich ist.

  2. UNIMAP: a generalized least-squares map maker for Herschel data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzo, Lorenzo; Calzoletti, Luca; Faustini, Fabiana; Pestalozzi, Michele; Pezzuto, Stefano; Elia, Davide; di Giorgio, Anna; Molinari, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    The Herschel space telescope hosts two infrared photometers having an unprecedented resolution, sensitivity and dynamic range. The map making, i.e. the formation of sky images from the instruments' data, is critical for the full exploitation of the satellite and is a difficult task, since the readouts are affected by several disturbances, most notably by correlated noise. An effective map making approach is based on generalized least squares (GLS). However, when applied to Herschel data this approach poses several challenges and requires a specific pre- and post-processing. In the paper, we describe these challenges and introduce a set of algorithms and procedures which successfully address the issues. We also describe the implementation of the procedures and how these are integrated into an image formation software called UNIMAP, which is the first GLS map maker capable of automatically producing quality Herschel images with manageable memory and complexity requirements.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS): SEDs (Furlan+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlan, E.; Fischer, W. J.; Ali, B.; Stutz, A. M.; Stanke, T.; Tobin, J. J.; Megeath, S. T.; Osorio, M.; Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N.; Poteet, C. A.; Booker, J.; Manoj, P.; Watson, D. M.; Allen, L.

    2016-06-01

    To summarize, starting from a sample of 410 Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS) targets (see section 2), but excluding likely contaminants and objects not observed or detected by PACS, there are 330 remaining objects that have Spitzer and Herschel data and are considered protostars (based on their Spitzer classification from Megeath et al. 2012, J/AJ/144/192). They form the sample studied in this work. In order to construct SEDs for our sample of 330 YSOs, we combined our own Herschel/PACS observations (see Proposal KPOTtmegeath2) with data from the literature and existing catalogs (see section 3.1). To extend the SEDs into the submillimeter, most of the YSOs were also observed in the continuum at 350 and 870um with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope (Stutz et al. 2013, J/ApJ/767/36). (5 data files).

  4. A Herschel and CARMA view of CO and [C ii] in Hickson Compact groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Appleton, Philip N.; Lisenfeld, Ute

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the evolution of galaxies from the starforming blue cloud to the quiescent red sequence has been revolutionized by observations taken with Herschel Space Observatory, and the onset of the era of sensitive millimeter interferometers, allowing astronomers to probe both cold dust as well as the cool interstellar medium in a large set of galaxies with unprecedented sensitivity. Recent Herschel observations of of H2-bright Hickson Compact Groups of galaxies (HCGs) has shown that [C ii] may be boosted in diffuse shocked gas. CARMA CO(1-0) observations of these [C ii]-bright HCGs has shown that these turbulent systems also can show suppression of SF. Here we present preliminary results from observations of HCGs with Herschel and CARMA, and their [C ii] and CO(1-0) properties to discuss how shocks influence galaxy transitions and star formation.

  5. Determining the Importance of Shocks on Galaxy Evolution in Compact Groups: a Herschel and CARMA View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatalo, Katherine A.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.; Cluver, M. E.; Bitsakis, T.; Guillard, P.; Charmandaris, V.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of galaxies from starforming blue cloud objects into quiescent red sequence galaxies has been revolutionized by observations taken with the Herschel Space Observatory, allowing astronomers to probe both the cold dust as well as the cool ISM in a large set of galaxies, with unprecedented sensitivity. Recent Herschel observations of [C II], a known tracer of star formation, in Hickson Compact Groups of galaxies (HCGs) has shown that [C II] can also be highly excited in shocks. CARMA CO observations of these [C II]-bright HCGs therefore shed light on the impact of shocks on the excitation of the ISM, as well as the starforming (molecular) material. I will present preliminary results from our Herschel-CARMA combined observations of HCGs, which are able to tell us about the synergistic relationships between shocks, star formation and the cool ISM in the context of galaxy evolution.

  6. Essential shift: Scientific revolution in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismay, David K.

    1993-05-01

    With the publishing of Sir Isaac Newton's Principia Mathematica in 1687, a scientific paradigm was established that clearly dominated society for two and half centuries. Many historians of science have identified the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory, formulated c.1927, as having completed a scientific revolution that ended the reign of classical Newtonian science. A rival claim to contemporary scientific revolution, however, has been put forward by Ilya Prigogine and the Brussels school of thermodynamics based on Prigogine's work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Using the historical consensus model of scientific revolution first articulated by Thomas S. Kuhn in 1962, this analysis examines the extent to which the Copenhagen interpretation of the quantum theory and the work of IIya Prigogine complete the conceptual, scientific paradigm-shift necessary for a scientific revolution. The resulting historical evidence shows that the Copenhagen interpretation did not complete a paradigm-shift; instead, it was a self-revelation by the scientific community which revealed the essence and fundamental limitations of Newtonian science. Evidence further indicates that the valid claim to scientific revolution in the 20th century lies with the contemporary work of Prigogine and the Brussels school. By abandoning the deterministic, mechanical world-view of the Newtonian paradigm and accepting a new reality of process and irreversible time, Prigogine and his associates have established the foundations for a revolutionary new scientific paradigm.

  7. The multiplicity of 250-μm Herschel sources in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, Jillian M.; Oliver, Seb; Hurley, Peter D.; Griffin, Matt; Sargent, Mark T.; Scott, Douglas; Wang, Lingyu; Wardlow, Julie L.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the multiplicity of extragalactic sources detected by the Herschel Space Observatory in the COSMOS field. Using 3.6- and 24-μm catalogues, in conjunction with 250-μm data from Herschel, we seek to determine if a significant fraction of Herschel sources are composed of multiple components emitting at 250 μm. We use the XID+ code, using Bayesian inference methods to produce probability distributions of the possible contributions to the observed 250-μm flux for each potential component. The fraction of Herschel flux assigned to the brightest component is highest for sources with total 250-μm fluxes <45 mJy; however, the flux in the brightest component is still highest in the brightest Herschel sources. The faintest 250-μm sources (30-45 mJy) have the majority of their flux assigned to a single bright component; the second brightest component is typically significantly weaker, and contains the remainder of the 250-μm source flux. At the highest 250-μm fluxes (45-110 mJy), the brightest and second brightest components are assigned roughly equal fluxes, and together are insufficient to reach 100 per cent of the 250-μm source flux. This indicates that additional components are required, beyond the brightest two components, to reproduce the observed flux. 95 per cent of the sources in our sample have a second component that contains more than 10 per cent of the total source flux. Particularly for the brightest Herschel sources, assigning the total flux to a single source may overestimate the flux contributed by around 150 per cent.

  8. Spitzer Imaging of Strongly lensed Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C.; Baes, M.; Chapman, S.; Dannerbauer, H.; da Cunha, E.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Magdis, G.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.; Riechers, D. A.; Scott, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vieira, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 1010-4 × 1011 M⊙ and star formation rates of around 100 M⊙ yr-1. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  9. The multiplicity of 250-μm Herschel sources in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, Jillian M.; Oliver, Seb; Hurley, Peter D.; Griffin, Matt; Sargent, Mark T.; Scott, Douglas; Wang, Lingyu; Wardlow, Julie L.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the multiplicity of extragalactic sources detected by the Herschel Space Observatory in the COSMOS field. Using 3.6- and 24-μm catalogues, in conjunction with 250-μm data from Herschel, we seek to determine if a significant fraction of Herschel sources are composed of multiple components emitting at 250 μm. We use the XID+ code, using Bayesian inference methods to produce probability distributions of the possible contributions to the observed 250-μm flux for each potential component. The fraction of Herschel flux assigned to the brightest component is highest for sources with total 250-μm fluxes <45 mJy; however, the flux in the brightest component is still highest in the brightest Herschel sources. The faintest 250-μm sources (30-45 mJy) have the majority of their flux assigned to a single bright component; the second brightest component is typically significantly weaker, and contains the remainder of the 250-μm source flux. At the highest 250-μm fluxes (45-110 mJy), the brightest and second brightest components are assigned roughly equal fluxes, and together are insufficient to reach 100 per cent of the 250-μm source flux. This indicates that additional components are required, beyond the brightest two components, to reproduce the observed flux. 95 per cent of the sources in our sample have a second component that contains more than 10 per cent of the total source flux. Particularly for the brightest Herschel sources, assigning the total flux to a single source may overestimate the flux contributed by around 150 per cent.

  10. HerMES: point source catalogues from Herschel-SPIRE observations II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Viero, M.; Clarke, C.; Bock, J.; Buat, V.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Guo, K.; Heinis, S.; Magdis, G.; Marchetti, L.; Marsden, G.; Norberg, P.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Roehlly, Y.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Smith, A. J.; Vaccari, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) is the largest Guaranteed Time Key Programme on the Herschel Space Observatory. With a wedding cake survey strategy, it consists of nested fields with varying depth and area totalling ˜380 deg2. In this paper, we present deep point source catalogues extracted from Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) observations of all HerMES fields, except for the later addition of the 270 deg2 HerMES Large-Mode Survey (HeLMS) field. These catalogues constitute the second Data Release (DR2) made in 2013 October. A sub-set of these catalogues, which consists of bright sources extracted from Herschel-SPIRE observations completed by 2010 May 1 (covering ˜74 deg2) were released earlier in the first extensive data release in 2012 March. Two different methods are used to generate the point source catalogues, the SUSSEXTRACTOR point source extractor used in two earlier data releases (EDR and EDR2) and a new source detection and photometry method. The latter combines an iterative source detection algorithm, STARFINDER, and a De-blended SPIRE Photometry algorithm. We use end-to-end Herschel-SPIRE simulations with realistic number counts and clustering properties to characterize basic properties of the point source catalogues, such as the completeness, reliability, photometric and positional accuracy. Over 500 000 catalogue entries in HerMES fields (except HeLMS) are released to the public through the HeDAM (Herschel Database in Marseille) website (http://hedam.lam.fr/HerMES).

  11. The curriculum revolution: can educational reform take place without a revolution in practice?

    PubMed

    Spence, D G

    1994-01-01

    Nursing scholars from around the world have written extensively in the past decade of the need to transform current health care systems and of the role of nursing education in achieving this goal. Proposals for change abound in the literature and are beginning to emerge in practice but not without difficulties. Having examined new curricular developments, this paper will discuss barriers to further progress. It is suggested that emphasis on reforming schools of nursing and teaching practices has tended to overlook broader institutional influences, in particular the clinical settings in which 50% of nurse education occurs. This paper will outline the major themes of the curriculum revolution, examine the ways in which educational institutions, health care settings and nursing organizations hinder the progress of curricular reform, and discuss possible solutions and their limitations. PMID:8138623

  12. Resolved imaging of the HR 8799 Debris disk with Herschel

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Brenda; Booth, Mark; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Marois, Christian; Kennedy, Grant; Wyatt, Mark; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Macintosh, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    We present Herschel far-infrared and submillimeter maps of the debris disk associated with the HR 8799 planetary system. We resolve the outer disk emission at 70, 100, 160, and 250 μm and detect the disk at 350 and 500 μm. A smooth model explains the observed disk emission well. We observe no obvious clumps or asymmetries associated with the trapping of planetesimals that is a potential consequence of planetary migration in the system. We estimate that the disk eccentricity must be <0.1. As in previous work by Su et al., we find a disk with three components: a warm inner component and two outer components, a planetesimal belt extending from 100 to 310 AU, with some flexibility (±10 AU) on the inner edge, and the external halo that extends to ∼2000 AU. We measure the disk inclination to be 26° ± 3° from face-on at a position angle of 64° E of N, establishing that the disk is coplanar with the star and planets. The spectral energy distribution of the disk is well fit by blackbody grains whose semi-major axes lie within the planetesimal belt, suggesting an absence of small grains. The wavelength at which the spectrum steepens from blackbody, 47 ± 30 μm, however, is short compared with other A star debris disks, suggesting that there are atypically small grains likely populating the halo. The PACS longer wavelength data yield a lower disk color temperature than do MIPS data (24 and 70 μm), implying two distinct halo dust-grain populations.

  13. HERSCHEL/SPIRE SUBMILLIMETER SPECTRA OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES {sup ,}

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Wilson, Christine D.; Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Isaak, Kate G.; Baes, Maarten; Barlow, Michael J.; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Cormier, Diane

    2013-05-01

    We present the submillimeter spectra from 450 to 1550 GHz of 11 nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) on board Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J{sub up} = 4 to 12, as well as the two [C I] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [N II]1461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions. The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n{sub H{sub 2}}{approx} 10{sup 3.2}-10{sup 3.9} cm{sup -3} and T{sub kin} {approx} 300-800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H{sub 2} emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however, it is possibly related to the star formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [C I] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T{sub kin} < 30 K) and dense (n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}) molecular gas. Transitions of other molecules are often detected in our SPIRE/FTS spectra. The HF J = 1-0 transition at 1232 GHz is detected in absorption in UGC 05101 and in emission in NGC 7130. In the latter, near-infrared pumping, chemical pumping, or collisional excitation with electrons are plausible excitation mechanisms likely related to the active galactic nucleus of this galaxy. In some galaxies, few H{sub 2}O emission lines are present. Additionally, three OH{sup +} lines at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz are identified in NGC 7130.

  14. Systematic characterization of the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopwood, R.; Polehampton, E. T.; Valtchanov, I.; Swinyard, B. M.; Fulton, T.; Lu, N.; Marchili, N.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Benielli, D.; Imhof, P.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Pearson, C.; Clements, D. L.; Griffin, M. J.; Lim, T. L.; Makiwa, G.; Naylor, D. A.; Noble, G.; Puga, E.; Spencer, L. D.

    2015-05-01

    A systematic programme of calibration observations was carried out to monitor the performance of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Observations of planets (including the prime point-source calibrator, Uranus), asteroids, line sources, dark sky and cross-calibration sources were made in order to monitor repeatability and sensitivity, and to improve FTS calibration. We present a complete analysis of the full set of calibration observations and use them to assess the performance of the FTS. Particular care is taken to understand and separate out the effect of pointing uncertainties, including the position of the internal beam steering mirror for sparse observations in the early part of the mission. The repeatability of spectral-line centre positions is <5 km s-1, for lines with signal-to-noise ratios >40, corresponding to <0.5-2.0 per cent of a resolution element. For spectral-line flux, the repeatability is better than 6 per cent, which improves to 1-2 per cent for spectra corrected for pointing offsets. The continuum repeatability is 4.4 per cent for the SPIRE Long Wavelength spectrometer (SLW) band and 13.6 per cent for the SPIRE Short Wavelength spectrometer (SSW) band, which reduces to ˜1 per cent once the data have been corrected for pointing offsets. Observations of dark sky were used to assess the sensitivity and the systematic offset in the continuum, both of which were found to be consistent across the FTS-detector arrays. The average point-source calibrated sensitivity for the centre detectors is 0.20 and 0.21 Jy [1σ; 1 h], for SLW and SSW. The average continuum offset is 0.40 Jy for the SLW band and 0.28 Jy for the SSW band.

  15. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS REVEAL ANOMALOUS MOLECULAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnentrucker, P.; Neufeld, D. A.; Indriolo, N.; Gerin, M.; De Luca, M.; Lis, D. C.; Goicoechea, J. R.

    2013-01-20

    We report the Herschel detections of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and para-water (p-H{sub 2}O) in gas intercepting the sight lines to two well-studied molecular clouds in the vicinity of the Sgr A complex: G-0.02-0.07 (the {sup +}50 km s{sup -1} cloud{sup )} and G-0.13-0.08 (the {sup +}20 km s{sup -1} cloud{sup )}. Toward both sight lines, HF and water absorption components are detected over a wide range of velocities covering {approx}250 km s{sup -1}. For all velocity components with V{sub LSR} > -85 km s{sup -1}, we find that the HF and water abundances are consistent with those measured toward other sight lines probing the Galactic disk gas. The velocity components with V{sub LSR} {<=} -85 km s{sup -1}, which are known to trace gas residing within {approx}200 pc of the Galactic center, however, exhibit water vapor abundances with respect to HF at least a factor three higher than those found in the Galactic disk gas. Comparison with CH data indicates that our observations are consistent with a picture where HF and a fraction of the H{sub 2}O absorption arise in diffuse molecular clouds showing Galactic disk-like abundances while the bulk of the water absorption arises in warmer (T {>=} 400 K) diffuse molecular gas for V{sub LSR} {<=} -85 km s{sup -1}. This diffuse Interstellar Medium (ISM) phase has also been recently revealed through observations of CO, HF, H{sup +}{sub 3}, and H{sub 3}O{sup +} absorption toward other sight lines probing the Galactic center inner region.

  16. Herschel Spectroscopic Observations of Little Things Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa; Cormier, Diane; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne; Hunter, Deidre; Brinks, Elias; Elmegreen, Bruce; Schruba, Andreas; Heesen, Volker; the Little Things Team

    2016-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) spectral line observations of five galaxies from the Little Things sample: DDO 69, DDO 70, DDO 75, DDO 155, and WLM. While most studies of dwarfs focus on bright systems or starbursts due to observational constraints, our data extend the observed parameter space into the regime of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and moderate star formation rates. Our targets were observed with Herschel at the [C ii] 158 μm, [O i] 63 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and [N ii] 122 μm emission lines using the PACS Spectrometer. These high-resolution maps allow us for the first time to study the FIR properties of these systems on the scales of larger star-forming complexes. The spatial resolution in our maps, in combination with star formation tracers, allows us to identify separate photodissociation regions (PDRs) in some of the regions we observed. Our systems have widespread [C ii] emission that is bright relative to continuum, averaging near 0.5% of the total infrared (TIR) budget—higher than in solar-metallicity galaxies of other types. [N ii] is weak, suggesting that the [C ii] emission in our galaxies comes mostly from PDRs instead of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium (ISM). These systems exhibit efficient cooling at low dust temperatures, as shown by ([O i]+[C ii])/TIR in relation to 60 μm/100 μm, and low [O i]/[C ii] ratios which indicate that [C ii] is the dominant coolant of the ISM. We observe [O iii]/[C ii] ratios in our galaxies that are lower than those published for other dwarfs, but similar to levels noted in spirals.

  17. Chemical Herschel Surveys of Star Forming Regions (chess)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emprechtinger, Martin

    2011-06-01

    CHESS is an unbiased line survey of low-, intermediate-, and high-mass star forming regions at different stages of their evolution. The eight sources in the CHESS program are observed with the HIFI instrument on board of the Herschel Space Telescope, which provides a high spectral resolution (R˜ 10^6) and covers a frequency range from 480 to 1910 GHz. The objective of CHESS is to study the chemical composition and physical conditions in star forming regions and their variation with mass and evolutionary stage. To date about 50% of the program have been completed. One of the eight objects in the CHESS program is the hot core NGC 6334 I. With an envelope mass of 200 M_⊙ and temperatures 100 K, NGC 6334 I is very line rich. In this object emission lines of more than 40 species have been identified, including first detections of H_2Cl^+ (Lis et al. 2010) and H_2O^+ (Ossenkopf et al. 2010). Furthermore, several lines of ortho and para water and ammonia have been detected, allowing to determine the ortho/para ratio of these crucial species. In addition many hydrides (HF, CH) and hydride ions (SH^+, OH^+, CH^+) have been found. In the low mass protostar IRAS 16293-2422, another source of our sample, several deuterated species, including the first detection of ND (Bacmann et al. 2010), were found. The data allowed also the first determination of the ortho/para ratio of D_2H^+ (>2.6) (Vastel et al. 2010). In this talk I will give a summary of the conducted observation and highlight the most important results.

  18. [CII] emission across M31 seen by Herschel and ISO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapala, Maria Julia; Groves, Brent; Sandstrom, Karin; Survey of Lines in M31 (SLIM)

    2015-01-01

    The [CII] 158 micron line is typically the brightest far-IR emission line from star-forming (SF) galaxies. As such, this line is a potentially useful tracer of star formation. To calibrate such applications, we must understand the relative contributions of different ISM phases to the [CII] emission. Using high physical resolution observations of the [CII] 158 micron line from Herschel PACS in five 3'x3' field in M31 and optical IFU spectra from PPaK and ancillary IR data, we are able to spatially separate out the ISM phases. Additionally, to study the full radial profile of heating and cooling of the ISM in Andromeda, we include [CII] observations from ISO in the bulge. We find that SF regions in M31 do not exhibit a "[CII] line deficit" on 50 pc scales, even in regions where the dust is very warm. Using the optical line emission, we determine the fraction of [CII] emission spatially associated with SF regions. Our method implies a high fraction ~20-90% of [CII] emission is coming from diffuse regions. These diffuse regions appear to dominated by the UV interstellar radiation field which arises from B stars and possible photon leakage from the SF regions. Due to the presence of this large diffuse fraction, we find on ~50pc scales that the relation between [CII] and SFR is sub-linear in most of the fields. However, when averaged over ~700pc scales it becomes steeper and is in agreement with other extragalactic studies on similar scales. Interestingly, even with this correlation of SFR & [CII], we find that [CII]/TIR decreases with radius by a factor of ~3 from 16 to 7 kpc, with a slight increase in the bulge. We discuss metallicity, stellar radiation fields and emission from diffuse ionized phase as possible explanations for these trends.

  19. Sir John F. W. Herschel, meteoroid streams and the solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    Some theories flourish and some die quickly. In 1864 Sir John Herschel tried to link two fashionable astronomical topics, these being the meteor showers, seen periodically in the Earth's atmosphere, and solar spot activity. Lurking in the wings at that time was the impression that the solar luminosity was obtained from the kinetic energy of impacting meteorites. Herschel suggested that the Sun's steady rain of meteoritic material was enhanced by periodic swarms of meteoroids, these causing the 11.1 year and 56 year sunspot cycles. Just over four decades later it was realised that sunspots and meteor showers have absolutely nothing to do with each other.

  20. Modelling the evolution of Comet Siding Spring's activity using Herschel Space Observatory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Csaba; Müller, Thomas; Kidger, Mark Richard; Mattisson, Peter; Marton, Gabor

    2015-08-01

    Comet Siding Spring was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory in March 2013 at a heliocentric distance of 6.5 au, already showing siginficant activity. Using the far-infrared radial intensity profiles of the coma at 70, 100 and 160um we were able to construct a detailed model of the dust emission and costrain the dust properties. Our results show a significant overaboundance of large grains in the coma with a size frequency index of ~2. We were also able to estimate the activity onset time: this likely happened at a helicentric distance of ~8 au, six months before the Herschel observations.

  1. Impact of the Headscarf Ban Policy on the Identity Development of Part-Time Unveilers in Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seggie, Fatma Nevra; Austin, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the impact of the Turkish higher education headscarf ban policy on the plural self-identities (i.e., as Turkish citizens, as Muslims, and as females) of part-time unveilers, female students who cover their hair in their private life but who remove the headscarf (or conceal it to appear unveiled) while at a Turkish…

  2. A Short (Personal) Future History of Revolution 2.0.

    PubMed

    Spellman, Barbara A

    2015-11-01

    Crisis of replicability is one term that psychological scientists use for the current introspective phase we are in-I argue instead that we are going through a revolution analogous to a political revolution. Revolution 2.0 is an uprising focused on how we should be doing science now (i.e., in a 2.0 world). The precipitating events of the revolution have already been well-documented: failures to replicate, questionable research practices, fraud, etc. And the fact that none of these events is new to our field has also been well-documented. I suggest four interconnected reasons as to why this time is different: changing technology, changing demographics of researchers, limited resources, and misaligned incentives. I then describe two reasons why the revolution is more likely to catch on this time: technology (as part of the solution) and the fact that these concerns cut across social and life sciences-that is, we are not alone. Neither side in the revolution has behaved well, and each has characterized the other in extreme terms (although, of course, each has had a few extreme actors). Some suggested reforms are already taking hold (e.g., journals asking for more transparency in methods and analysis decisions; journals publishing replications) but the feared tyrannical requirements have, of course, not taken root (e.g., few journals require open data; there is no ban on exploratory analyses). Still, we have not yet made needed advances in the ways in which we accumulate, connect, and extract conclusions from our aggregated research. However, we are now ready to move forward by adopting incremental changes and by acknowledging the multiplicity of goals within psychological science. PMID:26581743

  3. Herschel Observations of Extraordinary Sources: Analysis of the Full Herschel/HIFI Molecular Line Survey of Sagittarius B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Justin L.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Schilke, Peter; Crockett, Nathan R.; Favre, Cécile; Emprechtinger, Martin; Comito, Claudia; Qin, Sheng-Li; Anderson, Dana E.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Harris, Brent J.; Lord, Steven D.; McGuire, Brett A.; McNeill, Trevor D.; Monje, Raquel R.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Steber, Amanda L.; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Yu, Shanshan

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive broadband molecular line survey of the Sagittarius B2(N) star-forming region has been obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory, offering the first high spectral resolution look at this well-studied source in a wavelength region largely inaccessible from the ground (625-157 μm). From the roughly 8000 spectral features in the survey, a total of 72 isotopologues arising from 44 different molecules have been identified, ranging from light hydrides to complex organics, and arising from a variety of environments from cold and diffuse to hot and dense gas. We present a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model to the spectral signatures of each molecule, constraining the source sizes for hot core species with complementary Submillimeter Array interferometric observations and assuming that molecules with related functional group composition are cospatial. For each molecule, a single model is given to fit all of the emission and absorption features of that species across the entire 480-1910 GHz spectral range, accounting for multiple temperature and velocity components when needed to describe the spectrum. As with other HIFI surveys toward massive star-forming regions, methanol is found to contribute more integrated line intensity to the spectrum than any other species. We discuss the molecular abundances derived for the hot core where the LTE approximation is generally found to describe the spectrum well, in comparison to abundances derived for the same molecules in the Orion KL region from a similar HIFI survey. Notably, we find significantly higher abundances of amine- and amide-bearing molecules (CH3NH2, CH2NH, and NH2CHO) toward Sgr B2(N) than Orion KL and lower abundances of some complex oxygen-bearing molecules (CH3OCHO in particular). In addition to information on the chemical composition of the hot core, the strong far-infrared dust continuum allows a number of molecules to be

  4. Nonlinear behavior of shells of revolution under cyclic loading.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. S.; Armen, H., Jr.; Winter, R.; Pifko, A.

    1973-01-01

    A large deflection elastic-plastic analysis is presented applicable to orthotropic axisymmetric plates and shells of revolution subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading conditions. The analysis is based on the finite-element method. It employs a new higher order, fully compatible, doubly curved orthotropic shell-of-revolution element using cubic Hermitian expansions for both meridional and normal displacements. Both perfectly plastic and strain hardening behavior are considered. Strain hardening is incorporated through use of the Prager-Ziegler kinematic hardening theory, which predicts an ideal Bauschinger effect. Numerous sample problems involving monotonic and cyclic loading conditions are analyzed.

  5. Transonic wall interference effects on bodies of revolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Couch, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to develop a near sonic transport have placed renewed emphasis on obtaining accurate aerodynamic force and pressure data in the near sonic speed range. Comparison of wind-tunnel and flight data obtained for a blunt-nose body of revolution showed significant discrepancies in drag levels near Mach 1 - apparently due to wind-tunnel wall interference. Subsequent tests of geometrically similar bodies of revolution showed that increasing the model-to-test-section blockage ratio from 0.00017 to 0.0043 resulted in altered drag curve shapes, delayed drag divergence, and 'transonic creep' from subsonic drag levels due to increased wall interference.

  6. Analysis of the Rotopod: An all revolute parallel manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, D.J.; Benavides, G.L.; Bieg, L.F.; Kozlowski, D.M.

    1998-05-16

    This paper introduces a new configuration of parallel manipulator call the Rotopod which is constructed from all revolute type joints. The Rotopod consists of two platforms connected by six legs and exhibits six Cartesian degrees of freedom. The Rotopod is initially compared with other all revolute joint parallel manipulators to show its similarities and differences. The inverse kinematics for this mechanism are developed and used to analyze the accessible workspace of the mechanism. Optimization is performed to determine the Rotopod design configurations which maximum the accessible workspace based on desirable functional constraints.

  7. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    BALTIMORE - At a Tuesday ceremony at the National Federation of the Blind, NASA unveiled a new book that brings majestic images taken by its Great Observatories to the fingertips of the blind. "Touch the Invisible Sky" is a 60-page book with color images of nebulae, stars, galaxies and some of the telescopes that captured the original pictures. Each image is embossed with lines, bumps and other textures. These raised patterns translate colors, shapes and other intricate details of the cosmic objects, allowing visually impaired people to experience them. Braille and large-print descriptions accompany each of the book's 28 photographs, making the book's design accessible to readers of all visual abilities. Sample page Sample page The book contains spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope and powerful ground-based telescopes. The celestial objects are presented as they appear through visible-light telescopes and different spectral regions invisible to the naked eye, from radio to infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray light. The book introduces the concept of light and the spectrum and explains how the different observatories complement each others' findings. Readers take a cosmic journey beginning with images of the sun, and travel out into the galaxy to visit relics of exploding and dying stars, as well as the Whirlpool galaxy and colliding Antennae galaxies. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Black Holes Are The Rhythm at The Heart of Galaxies "Touch the Invisible Sky" was written by astronomy educator and accessibility specialist Noreen Grice of You Can Do Astronomy LLC and the Museum of Science, Boston, with authors Simon Steel, an astronomer with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Doris Daou, an astronomer

  8. Using microbial community interactions within plant microbiomes to advance an evergreen agricultural revolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative plant breeding and technology transfer fostered the Green Revolution, which transformed agriculture worldwide by increasing grain yields in developing countries. The Green Revolution temporarily alleviated world hunger, but also reduced biodiversity, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestr...

  9. WATER VAPOR IN NEARBY INFRARED GALAXIES AS PROBED BY HERSCHEL

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Chentao; Gao Yu; Liu Daizhong; Isaak, K. G.; Downes, D.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Lu Nanyao

    2013-07-10

    We report the first systematic study of the submillimeter water vapor rotational emission lines in infrared (IR) galaxies based on the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) data of Herschel SPIRE. Among the 176 galaxies with publicly available FTS data, 45 have at least one H{sub 2}O emission line detected. The H{sub 2}O line luminosities range from {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} L{sub Sun} to {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} L{sub Sun} while the total IR luminosities (L{sub IR}) have a similar spread ({approx}1-300 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} L{sub Sun }). In addition, emission lines of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O are also detected. H{sub 2}O is found, for most galaxies, to be the strongest molecular emitter after CO in FTS spectra. The luminosity of the five most important H{sub 2}O lines is near-linearly correlated with L{sub IR}, regardless of whether or not strong active galactic nucleus signature is present. However, the luminosity of H{sub 2}O(2{sub 11}-2{sub 02}) and H{sub 2}O(2{sub 20}-2{sub 11}) appears to increase slightly faster than linear with L{sub IR}. Although the slope turns out to be slightly steeper when z {approx} 2-4 ULIRGs are included, the correlation is still closely linear. We find that L{sub H{sub 2O}}/L{sub IR} decreases with increasing f{sub 25}/f{sub 60}, but see no dependence on f{sub 60}/f{sub 100}, possibly indicating that very warm dust contributes little to the excitation of the submillimeter H{sub 2}O lines. The average spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the entire sample is consistent with individual SLEDs and the IR pumping plus collisional excitation model, showing that the strongest lines are H{sub 2}O(2{sub 02}-1{sub 11}) and H{sub 2}O(3{sub 21}-3{sub 12}).

  10. The Herschel census of infrared SEDs through cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symeonidis, M.; Vaccari, M.; Berta, S.; Page, M. J.; Lutz, D.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Capak, P. L.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Farrah, D.; Franceschini, A.; Giovannoli, E.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H.-S.; Ibar, E.; Ilbert, O.; Ivison, R. J.; Floc'h, E. Le; Lilly, S.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Magnelli, B.; Magdis, G.; Marchetti, L.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nordon, R.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Omont, A.; Papageorgiou, A.; Patel, H.; Pearson, C. P.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Rigopoulou, D.; Riguccini, L.; Rosario, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Salvato, M.; Schulz, B.; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wang, L.; Xu, C. K.; Zemcov, M.; Wuyts, S.

    2013-05-01

    Using Herschel data from the deepest SPIRE and PACS surveys (HerMES and PEP) in COSMOS, GOODS-S and GOODS-N, we examine the dust properties of infrared (IR)-luminous (LIR > 1010 L⊙) galaxies at 0.1 < z < 2 and determine how these evolve with cosmic time. The unique angle of this work is the rigorous analysis of survey selection effects, making this the first study of the star-formation-dominated, IR-luminous population within a framework almost entirely free of selection biases. We find that IR-luminous galaxies have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with broad far-IR peaks characterized by cool/extended dust emission and average dust temperatures in the 25-45 K range. Hot (T > 45 K) SEDs and cold (T < 25 K), cirrus-dominated SEDs are rare, with most sources being within the range occupied by warm starbursts such as M82 and cool spirals such as M51. We observe a luminosity-temperature (L-T) relation, where the average dust temperature of log [LIR/L⊙] ˜ 12.5 galaxies is about 10 K higher than that of their log [LIR/L⊙] ˜ 10.5 counterparts. However, although the increased dust heating in more luminous systems is the driving factor behind the L-T relation, the increase in dust mass and/or starburst size with luminosity plays a dominant role in shaping it. Our results show that the dust conditions in IR-luminous sources evolve with cosmic time: at high redshift, dust temperatures are on average up to 10 K lower than what is measured locally (z ≲ 0.1). This is manifested as a flattening of the L-T relation, suggesting that (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies [(U)LIRGs] in the early Universe are typically characterized by a more extended dust distribution and/or higher dust masses than local equivalent sources. Interestingly, the evolution in dust temperature is luminosity dependent, with the fraction of LIRGs with T < 35 K showing a two-fold increase from z ˜ 0 to z ˜ 2, whereas that of ULIRGs with T < 35 K shows a six-fold increase. Our results suggest a

  11. Unveiling a Reflective Diary Methodology for Exploring the Lived Experiences of Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This article unveils a diary methodology exploring accounts of ongoing experiences during the final furlong of university life and examines the role of diary keeping for gaining insights into stress and coping with performance-related and general life stressors. The focus is on thirty young people who, following a year working in industry, were in…

  12. Unveiling Learners' Attention during Language Processing: The Case of Epistemic Meanings of a Modal Verb

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko

    2012-01-01

    In an analysis of learners' reflections taken in real time, this study attempts to unveil what learners attend to during a task session. A total of 110 Japanese learners of English noted rationales for their form selections of epistemic modal verbs. The data were then coded and tallied to enable quantitative analysis and to examine the association…

  13. Biorheological Model on Flow of Herschel-Bulkley Fluid through a Tapered Arterial Stenosis with Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Priyadharshini, S.; Ponalagusamy, R.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = 1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = −1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature. PMID:27041979

  14. Herschel observations of the Rosetta target 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Groussin, O.; Küppers, M.; Müller, T.; Kiss, C.; Crovisier, J.; Altieri, B.; Gònzalez-Garcìa, B.; Altwegg, K.; Schulz, R.

    2012-09-01

    In June 2010, the Herschel Space Observatory observed comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko with the PACS Instrument when the comet was at a heliocentric distance of 4.1 AU. This comet is the prime target for the Rosetta spacecraft due to arrive to orbit it in mid-2014 [1].

  15. The first release of data from the Herschel ATLAS: the SPIRE images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, E.; Auld, R.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Maddox, S.; Panuzzo, P.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, D. J. B.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Dye, S.; de Zotti, G.; Fritz, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Leeuw, L.; López-Caniego, M.; Rigby, E.; Rodighiero, G.; Scott, D.; Smith, M. W. L.; Temi, P.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.

    2011-07-01

    We have reduced the data taken with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) photometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory in the Science Demonstration Phase (SDP) of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). We describe the data reduction, which poses specific challenges, both because of the large number of detectors which can have noise correlated in each array, and because only two scans are made for each region. We implement effective solutions to process the bolometric timelines into maps, and show that correlations among detectors are negligible, and that the photometer is stable on time scales up to 250 s. This is longer than the time the telescope takes to cross the observed sky region, and it allows us to use naive binning methods for an optimal reconstruction of the sky emission. The maps have equal contribution of confusion and white instrumental noise, and the former is estimated to 5.3, 6.4 and 6.7 mJy beam-1 (1σ), at 250, 350 and 500 μm, respectively. This pipeline is used to reduce other H-ATLAS observations, as they became available, and we discuss how it can be used with the optimal map maker implemented in the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE), to improve computational efficiency and stability. The SDP data set is available from . Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. Java-Based Astronomical Software - The HERSCHEL/ PACS Common Software System as Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieprecht, E.; Huygen, R.; Vandenbussche, B.; De Meester, W.; Guest, S.; de Jonge, A.; Zaal, P.; Osterhage, S.; Wetzstein, M.

    2005-12-01

    ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, planned to be launched in 2007, is the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and submillimetre wavelength range (60 - 670 microns). The Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) is one of its three science instruments. It employs two Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays and two bolometer arrays to perform imaging line spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the 60 - 210 micron wavelength band. The HERSCHEL Common Software System (HCSS) forms the base of the HERSCHEL ground segment. HCSS is implemented using JAVA/Jython technology and interacts with an object oriented database. It is written in a common effort by the HERSCHEL Science Centre and the three instrument teams. The PACS Common Software System (PCSS) is based on the HCSS. Both systems were designed for a smooth transition between the different phases of the project. Instrument engineers use PCSS during instrument tests, calibration specialists for instrument characterization on ground and in orbit, and finally the observer will use it for data reduction. The design allows use of the same components for automatic processing, quick look analysis, and interactive processing. We outline some design aspects of such a highly complex system and present user experiences with PCSS, gathered during first instrument tests of PACS.

  17. How bright planets became dim stars: planetary speculations in John Herschel's double star astronomy.

    PubMed

    Case, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Previous research on the origins of double star astronomy in the early nineteenth century emphasized the role mathematical methods and instrumentation played in motivating early observations of these objects. The work of the British astronomer John Herschel, however, shows that questions regarding the physical nature of double stars were also important. In particular, an analysis of John Herschel's early work on double stars illustrates the way in which speculations regarding these objects were shaped by assumptions of the properties of stars themselves. For Herschel, a major consideration in double star astronomy was distinguishing between types of double stars. Optical doubles were useful in determining parallax while binary doubles were not. In practice, classification of a specific double star pair into one of these categories was based on the assumption that stars were of approximately the same luminosity and thus differences in relative brightness between stars were caused by difference in distances. Such assumptions, though ultimately abandoned, would lead Herschel in the 1830s to advance the possibility that the dim companion stars in certain double star pairs were not stars at all but in fact planets. PMID:24508199

  18. The New Era of Sub-millimeter Cosmoloty: First Results from Herschel Space Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Cooray, Asantha

    2010-12-01

    This talk will summarize some of the first science results from the Herschel Space Observatory, now imaging the universe at 100 to 500 microns. The results come from the SPIRE Instrument Team's science program (HerMES) and a separate large area survey, Herschel-ATLAS. At the sub-mm wavelengths, we are sensitive to the thermal re-radiation by dust in star-forming galaxies and previous studies had already shown the presence of a large number of galaxies in the distant universe that remain hidden to the visible light. With Herschel, we are now finally able to obtain adequate statistics on this galaxy population, their nature and evolution, and connections to galaxies we see in the local universe. I will also show several cosmological results, including studies that can be done with a large population of gravitationally lensed sub-mm galaxies by foreground massive galaxies and the dark matter properties of bright and faint sub-mm galaxies as revealed by clustering and fluctuation studies. I will also summarize the scientific goals of the Herschel-SPIRE Legacy Survey, a program proposed to ESA to cover 4000 sq. degrees with SPIRE in a fast-scan mode with the ultimate goal of recovering a catalog of 2.5 to 3 million bright sub-mm sources for future studies with ALMA, CCAT, and SPICA.

  19. Tracing the gas composition of Titan's atmosphere with Herschel : Advances and Discoveries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengel, Miriam; Moreno, Raphael; Courtin, Régis; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Sagawa, Hideo; Hartogh, Paul; Swinyard, Bruce; Lara, Luisa; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Jarchow, Christopher; Fulton, Trevor; Cernicharo, José; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Biver, Nicolás; Banaszkiewicz, Marek; González, Armando

    2014-11-01

    The nitrogen-dominated atmosphere of Titan exhibits a great diversity and complexity of molecules and high organic material abundances. The origin of Titan atmosphere is poorly understood and its chemistry is rather complicated. In the framework of the Herschel guaranteed time key programme "Water and Related Chemistry in the Solar System" (Hartogh et al 2009), we carried out observations of the atmosphere of Titan with HIFI, PACS and SPIRE onboard Herschel (Rengel et al. 2014; Courtin et al. 2011, Moreno et al. 2011, 2012). Here we will review key results and discoveries on the atmosphere of Titan obtained with Herschel:-an inventory of species detected including some isotopes from a new survey between 51 and 671 microns.-the determination of the abundance of trace constituents and comparisons with previous efforts.-the unexpected detection of hydrogen isocyanide (HNC), a specie not previously identified in Titan's atmosphere, and the measurement of 16O/18O ratio in CO in Titan for the first time published.-the determination of the vertical profile of water vapor over the 100-450 km altitude range, distribution which does not follow previous predictions and allows to strength an Enceladus' activity as the source for the current water on Titan.With the advent of Herschel, these advances and discoveries allow a further characterization of the complex atmosphere of Titan and help to advance the study of the abundance distribution and the investigation of a variety of processes in Titan atmosphere.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cold gas properties of Herschel Reference Survey (Boselli+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Cortese, L.; Boquien, M.

    2013-11-01

    12CO(1-0) and HI data for galaxies of the Herschel Reference (Boselli et al., 2010, Cat. J/PASP/122/261). The data are either collected in the literature, or taken from our own observations done with the 12m Keat Peak radio telescope. (7 data files).

  1. Biorheological Model on Flow of Herschel-Bulkley Fluid through a Tapered Arterial Stenosis with Dilatation.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini, S; Ponalagusamy, R

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = 1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = -1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature. PMID:27041979

  2. HerMES: ALMA Imaging of Herschel-selected Dusty Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Riechers, D.; Fialkov, A.; Scudder, J.; Hayward, C. C.; Cowley, W. I.; Bock, J.; Calanog, J.; Chapman, S. C.; Cooray, A.; De Bernardis, F.; Farrah, D.; Fu, Hai; Gavazzi, R.; Hopwood, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M.; Lacey, C.; Loeb, A.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Rigopoulou, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Scott, Douglas; Smith, A. J.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.

    2015-10-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) has identified large numbers of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) over a wide range in redshift. A detailed understanding of these DSFGs is hampered by the limited spatial resolution of Herschel. We present 870 μm 0.″45 resolution imaging obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of 29 HerMES DSFGs that have far-infrared (FIR) flux densities that lie between the brightest of sources found by Herschel and fainter DSFGs found via ground-based surveys in the submillimeter region. The ALMA imaging reveals that these DSFGs comprise a total of 62 sources (down to the 5σ point-source sensitivity limit in our ALMA sample; σ ≈ 0.2 {mJy}). Optical or near-infrared imaging indicates that 36 of the ALMA sources experience a significant flux boost from gravitational lensing (μ \\gt 1.1), but only six are strongly lensed and show multiple images. We introduce and make use of uvmcmcfit, a general-purpose and publicly available Markov chain Monte Carlo visibility-plane analysis tool to analyze the source properties. Combined with our previous work on brighter Herschel sources, the lens models presented here tentatively favor intrinsic number counts for DSFGs with a break near 8 {mJy} at 880 μ {{m}} and a steep fall-off at higher flux densities. Nearly 70% of the Herschel sources break down into multiple ALMA counterparts, consistent with previous research indicating that the multiplicity rate is high in bright sources discovered in single-dish submillimeter or FIR surveys. The ALMA counterparts to our Herschel targets are located significantly closer to each other than ALMA counterparts to sources found in the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. Theoretical models underpredict the excess number of sources with small separations seen in our ALMA sample. The high multiplicity rate and small projected separations between sources seen in our sample argue in favor of interactions

  3. Basic Literacy or New Literacies? Examining the Contradictions of Australia's Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Rachel; Holmes, Kathryn; Preston, Gregory; Shaw, Kylie

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Labor Government came to power with the promise to bring to Australia an "Education Revolution". More than four years later we are still waiting for the full impact of this series of policy initiatives. Among the various facets of the Education Revolution was the assurance that the Education Revolution would focus on the most…

  4. 76 FR 55564 - Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake Erie, Cedar Point, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Triathlon. This temporary... in the preceding paragraph. Background and Purpose The Revolution 3 Triathlon will occur between 6...

  5. The "Philosophes" and the French Revolution: Reflections on Some Recent Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1988-01-01

    Reexamines the role of ideas as a factor in the French Revolution. Discusses recent research concerning the influence of philosophy upon this Revolution. Looks at research dealing with the Enlightenment thinkers and the "Cercle Social" Girondists among other philosophies. Views the French Revolution as a means of understanding the modern age. (KO)

  6. A Reassessment of R. R. Palmer's "The Age of Democratic Revolution."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Marvin

    1991-01-01

    Compares Robert Palmer's interpretation of the French Revolution with the Marxist and revisionist views. Stresses Palmer's theory that the French Revolution belongs to the same spiritual family as the American. Reports that Palmer saw the French Revolution as the climactic event in a series of similar upheavals that integrated liberal democracy…

  7. Contemplative Pedagogy: A Quiet Revolution in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zajonc, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    During the last fifteen years a quiet pedagogical revolution has taken place in colleges, universities, and community colleges across the United States and increasingly around the world. Often flying under the name "contemplative pedagogy," it offers to its practitioners a wide range of educational methods that support the development of student…

  8. Digital Imaging and the Cognitive Revolution: A Media Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Ute

    This paper discusses the role of digital technology within the cognitive revolution of the perception of images. It analyzes the traditional values placed on images as a source of cognition. These values are discussed in terms of the ethical and social issues raised by the use of digital image manipulation in so far as the digital era is falsely…

  9. Learning Difficulties with Solids of Revolution: Classroom Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofolo-Mbokane, Batseba; Engelbrecht, Johann; Harding, Ansie

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to identify areas of difficulty in learning about volumes of solids of revolution (VSOR) at a Further Education and Training college in South Africa. Students' competency is evaluated along five skill factors which refer to knowledge skills required to succeed in performing tasks relating to applications of the definite…

  10. Rosalind Franklin: Unsung Hero of the DNA Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    On April 25, 1953, three papers were published in "Nature," the prestigious scientific journal, which exposed the "fundamentally beautiful" structure of DNA to the public, and sounded the starting gun of the DNA Revolution. The authors of these papers revealed the now-famous double-helix structure of DNA, thereby unlocking the secret code of the…

  11. The Computer Revolution and Adult Education. Growth Prospects in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduaran, Akpovire

    Most African countries are presently overburdened by their debts, declining economies, and quality of living as well as abiding struggles for the restoration of democracy. However, they have noted the global revolution in the development and application of computers. Most Africans believe that computers and intensive and relevant education for all…

  12. Before 1776: The Massachusetts Bay Colony from Founding to Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruenbaum, Thelma

    Designed for use at 4th-through-10th-grade level, this short history of the Massachusetts Bay Colony provides a view of colonial life style and culture prior to the American Revolution. The first sections discuss the Puritan migration and early settlement around Boston. Descriptions of colonial housing, furniture, food, clothing, clothing styles,…

  13. Cable Communications Revolution. Future: Broadband Communications, Local Origination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Robert W.

    The revolution in two-way broadband communications envisioned for the future includes remote access to libraries, interactive educational programing, shopping at home, personal and property security, and many other services limited only by man's imagination and his ability to deliver the service at a price the consumer is willing and able to pay.…

  14. The genomics revolution and its effect on water quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genomic-based molecular tools are emerging as powerful laboratory methods for assessing water quality characteristics and improving our ability to assess the human health risks posed by microbial contaminants in drinking water. To a great extent, this revolution in genomics-rese...

  15. The E-business Revolution and Human Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the electronic business (e-business) revolution and suggests ways it will affect human performance improvement professionals. Highlights include customer reliance on the Web; use of the Internet and associated software to link employees, applications, and companies; information access and sharing; business-to-consumer and…

  16. Higher Education in the Israeli Kibbutz: Revolution and Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leviatan, Uri

    1982-01-01

    Increase in the number of individuals pursuing postsecondary schooling involves economic and social costs to the kibbutz. "Educational revolution" in the kibbutz refers to growing aspirations of the kibbutzim toward higher education. Measures taken by the kibbutz movement and individual kibbutzim to counteract the problems created by the increase…

  17. Stiffness and mass matrices for shells of revolution (SAMMSOR II)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tillerson, J. R.; Haisler, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing element properties, structural stiffness and mass matrices are generated for as many as twenty harmonics and stored on magnetic tape. Matrices generated constitute input data to be used by other stiffness of revolution programs. Variety of boundary and loading conditions can be employed without having to create new mass and stiffness matrices for each case.

  18. Pedro Gutierrez Bueno's Textbooks: Audiences, Teaching Practices and Chemical Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jose Ramon Bertomeu; Belmar, Antonio Garcia

    2006-01-01

    Pedro Gutierrez Bueno wrote two editions of a chemistry textbook between 1788 and 1802. The paper offers a comparative view of both editions taking into account Gutierrez Bueno's biography, his intended audience and the changes related to the so-called chemical revolution. Some conclusions are at odds with common images about scientific…

  19. The Copernican Revolution--From Then to Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravetz, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the developmental cycle of the Copernican revolution as a swinging pendulum of philosophical and historical interpretation of views of the nature. Indicates that the paradigm shift'' in science results from interactions between scientific evidence and man's expectations of what the universe should be like. (CC)

  20. Medieval Science, the Copernican Revolution, and Physics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uritam, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Points out the need for a greater awareness, among physicists, of medieval physical science. Reviews briefly and gives examples of notable achievements of the era and argues that the view of science of fourteenth-century nominalism has greater affinity to today's theoretical physics than that of the Scientific Revolution. (Author/GS)

  1. Education for Librarianship in China after the Cultural Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sharon Chien

    1983-01-01

    Description of present status of library education in China emphasizes Chinese government mobilization of limited resources to cope with severe shortage of library personnel caused by destructiveness of cultural revolution. New trends in library modernization, expansion of library science education, and possible future developments are discussed.…

  2. Science Teachers' Response to the Digital Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Wendy; Miller, K. Alex; Hoban, Garry

    2015-01-01

    We report a case study of two highly qualified science teachers as they implemented laptop computers in their Years 9 and 10 science classes at the beginning of the "Digital Education Revolution," Australia's national one-to-one laptop program initiated in 2009. When a large-scale investment is made in a significant educational change,…

  3. Historical Experience and the Haitian Revolution in the History Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozono, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    The article examines a mainstream curricular unit on the Haitian Revolution, centered on a culminating role-play activity. Cultural studies, subaltern studies, and hermeneutics are applied as theoretical frameworks to read the curriculum unit and its activities. These theoretical lenses sharpen an understanding of what it means to experience…

  4. The limits of Catholic science and the Mexican revolution.

    PubMed

    Van Oosterhout, Aaron; Smith, Benjamin T

    2010-06-01

    This article examines the church's embrace of scientific methodologies in the late nineteenth century. It is argued that in general, the shift worked to repel liberal ridicule and control popular devotions. However, in Mexico the effects were mixed. During the Mexican Revolution, a desperate church was forced to apply these new scientific methodologies to increasingly unauthorized cults. PMID:20494443

  5. Wheat domestication: Key to agricultural revolutions past and future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The domestication of wheat was instrumental in the transition of human behavior from hunter-gatherers to farmers. It was a key event in the agricultural revolution that occurred about 10,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East. Transitions of forms with natural seed dispersal mechan...

  6. "Ed Tech in Reverse": Information Technologies and the Cognitive Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Norm; Feenberg, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    As we rapidly approach the 50th year of the much-celebrated "cognitive revolution", it is worth reflecting on its widespread impact on individual disciplines and areas of multidisciplinary endeavour. Of specific concern in this paper is the example of the influence of cognitivism's equation of mind and computer in education. Within education, this…

  7. Computer program for predicting creep behavior of bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, R.; Greenbaum, G.

    1971-01-01

    Computer program, CRAB, uses finite-element method to calculate creep behavior and predict steady-state stresses in an arbitrary body of revolution subjected to a time-dependent axisymmetric load. Creep strains follow a time hardening law and a Prandtl-Reuss stress-strain relationship.

  8. The Inside Story of the Teacher Revolution in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Don

    2005-01-01

    In this book Cameron addresses the compelling story of the teacher revolution that took place in America in the 1960s and 1970s. He gives an insider's view of what happened, how it happened, and who made it happen, describing why teachers in America organized into unions and became more militant in the 1960s. American teachers had been taken for…

  9. Starting a Revolution in Family Life Education: A Feminist Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Katherine R.; Baber, Kristine M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses feminist concerns that will ignite revolution in family life education in 1990s: decline of traditional marriage, reconstruction of intimate relationships, gender equality, economic autonomy, reproductive freedom. Asserts that paradigm shift is needed to embrace inclusiveness of all families and to champion goals of pedagogical…

  10. The American Revolution: The Declaration and Beyond. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Paula

    Based on Thomas Paine's pamphlet "Common Sense," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that as the American Revolution approached, writers created highly persuasive documents calling for separation from England. The main activity in the lesson involves students in writing a persuasive essay. It includes…

  11. Factual Literature About the American Revolution: The Intermediate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Thomas C.

    This briefly annotated bibliography is designed to accommodate intermediate grade students' interests in the American Revolution. Books were included based on the following criteria: (1) appealing content (action, humor, in-depth accounts); (2) authenticated information; and (3) good literary style (vivid, realistic dialog and language). Of the 30…

  12. After the Revolution: Welfare Patterns since TANF Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R.; Wu, Chi-Fang

    2005-01-01

    Welfare programs changed dramatically in 1996. Caseloads dropped by more than 9 million recipients over an eight-year period, and millions entered the labor market in the wake of these changes. Since the start of the "welfare revolution," research has emerged to document the new ways former welfare recipients are using federal entitlement programs…

  13. Tokugawa Japan and Industrial Revolution Britain: Two Misunderstood Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellington, Lucien

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…

  14. The Electronic Revolution in the Classroom: Promise or Threat?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechinger, Fred M.; And Others

    Three authorities in the field of education offer their views on the technological revolution in instructional materials. Fred Hechinger, education editor of the New York Times, discusses the range of devices available, from film strips to computers. He feels that industry is oversold on the future of educational technology, both because of the…

  15. Four Traditions: Women of New York During the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pauw, Linda Grant

    The role of New York women in the American Revolution is discussed in a survey of four cultural traditions in 17th and 18th century New York--Iroquois, African, Dutch, and English. The purpose is to provide a historical record on the subject of women's history. Women from the four cultural traditions were bound by different conventions which…

  16. Decades of Chaos and Revolution: Showdowns for College Presidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    "Decades of Chaos and Revolution: Showdowns for College Presidents" is the story and comparison of two eras in the history of higher education. The first era covers the period of the 1960s through the mid-1970s, and the second is the first decade of the twenty-first century. Both decades were marked by events that shook the foundations of colleges…

  17. The Conservative Counter-Revolution in Economic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, James

    1983-01-01

    Reaganomics is a counter-revolution to the synthesis of Keynesian and neo-classical doctrine that became orthodoxy in the 1960s. The program is replacing macroeconomic stabilization and economic inequality policies. The new policies cannot cure inflation and unemployment or revive productivity, investment, hard work, and thrift. (Author/AM)

  18. Teaching about the French Revolution--A Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezone, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents a play about the French Revolution, discussing how the play was used within a global history course. States that students read the play, work in groups to rewrite the play, and perform their version of the play. Includes key questions that are asked of the students. (CMK)

  19. Free Secondary Education in France before and after the Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    Before the French Revolution, in 1789, 46 percent of the pupils in public secondary schools received free instruction compared to 13 percent of the pupils in 1842. The article examines the means by which the conclusion is arrived at, assesses its validity, and comments on some of its implications. (Author/SM)

  20. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  1. The Haitian Revolution and the Forging of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jim

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events of the Haitian Revolution, including the slave rebellion which began on August 22, 1791. Focuses on the efforts of Napoleon to overtake Haiti and the effects of the the slave revolt on the Louisiana Purchase and the U.S. Civil War. Includes an annotated bibliography. (CMK)

  2. Mathematics in Early Childhood Education: Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stipek, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Hachey (2013) aptly describes a recent surge in attention to mathematics for young children. The value of math for children as young as preschool age, however, was discovered before the 21st century. This is presently not a revolution but rather a potentially important step in an evolution of work that began at least a half century ago. Some…

  3. The Learning Revolution: Education Innovations for Global Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Robert, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This theme journal issue is devoted to the learning revolution in educational innovations aimed at global citizens. The article titles and authors are as follows: (1) "A Personal Introduction" by Alan AtKisson; (2) "Onward and Upward!" by Dee Dickinson; (3) "Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom" by Bruce Campbell; (4) "Learning As…

  4. Women and Revolution in Iran: Lessons To Be Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tohidi, Nayereh

    During the Iranian Revolution of 1979, millions of Iranian women left their homes and entered the public sphere, but their public presence was soon restricted with the ascension to power of the Ayatollah Khomeini. For Westerners the Iranian women's seemingly easy acceptance of the forced wearing of the veil (chador) appeared to be their ultimate…

  5. Using Josiah Wedgwood to Teach the Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Phyllis A.; Sprinkle, John H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Uses Josiah Wedgwood and the pottery industry in England to illustrate the theme of technological development in a unit on the Industrial Revolution. States that infusing the biography of a specific individual can enliven history instruction. Presents two lessons on Josiah Wedgwood and shows how historians use the material culture to understand…

  6. A challenge for probing the statistics of interstellar magnetic fields: beyond the Planck resolution with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Andrea; André, Philippe; Boulanger, Francois

    2015-08-01

    The recent Planck results in polarization at sub-mm wavelengths allow us to gain insight into the Galactic magnetic field topology, revealing its statistical correlation with matter, from the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM), to molecular clouds (MCs) (Planck intermediate results. XXXII, XXXIII, XXXV). This correlation has a lot to tell us about the dynamics of the turbulent ISM, stressing the importance of considering magnetic fields in the formation of structures, some of which eventually undergo gravitational collapse producing new star-forming cores.Investigating the early phases of star formation has been a fundamental scope of the Herschel Gould Belt survey collaboration (http://gouldbelt-herschel.cea.fr), which, in the last years, has thoroughly characterized, at a resolution of few tens of arcseconds, the statistics of MCs, such as their filamentary structure, kinematics and column density.Although at lower angular resolution, the Planck maps of dust emission at 353GHz, in intensity and polarization, show that all MCs are complex environments, where we observe a non-trivial correlation between the magnetic field and their density structure. This result opens new perspectives on their formation and evolution, which we have started to explore.In this talk, I will present first results of a comparative analysis of the Herschel-Planck data, where we combine the high resolution Herschel maps of some MCs of the Gould Belt with the Planck polarization data, which sample the structure of the field weighted by the density.In particular, I will discuss the large-scale envelopes of the selected MCs, and, given the correlation between magnetic field and matter, I will show how to make use of the high resolution information of the density structure provided by Herschel to investigate the statistics of interstellar magnetic fields in the Planck data.

  7. Biological Nanomotors with a Revolution, Linear, or Rotation Motion Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peixuan; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yengo, Christopher M; Zhao, Zhengyi; Grainge, Ian

    2016-03-01

    The ubiquitous biological nanomotors were classified into two categories in the past: linear and rotation motors. In 2013, a third type of biomotor, revolution without rotation (http://rnanano.osu.edu/movie.html), was discovered and found to be widespread among bacteria, eukaryotic viruses, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages. This review focuses on recent findings about various aspects of motors, including chirality, stoichiometry, channel size, entropy, conformational change, and energy usage rate, in a variety of well-studied motors, including FoF1 ATPase, helicases, viral dsDNA-packaging motors, bacterial chromosome translocases, myosin, kinesin, and dynein. In particular, dsDNA translocases are used to illustrate how these features relate to the motion mechanism and how nature elegantly evolved a revolution mechanism to avoid coiling and tangling during lengthy dsDNA genome transportation in cell division. Motor chirality and channel size are two factors that distinguish rotation motors from revolution motors. Rotation motors use right-handed channels to drive the right-handed dsDNA, similar to the way a nut drives the bolt with threads in same orientation; revolution motors use left-handed motor channels to revolve the right-handed dsDNA. Rotation motors use small channels (<2 nm in diameter) for the close contact of the channel wall with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) or the 2-nm dsDNA bolt; revolution motors use larger channels (>3 nm) with room for the bolt to revolve. Binding and hydrolysis of ATP are linked to different conformational entropy changes in the motor that lead to altered affinity for the substrate and allow work to be done, for example, helicase unwinding of DNA or translocase directional movement of DNA. PMID:26819321

  8. Social Justice and South African University Student Enrolment Data by "Race", 1998-2012: From "Skewed Revolution" to "Stalled Revolution"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David

    2015-01-01

    The paper looks closely at student enrolment trends through a case study of South African "race" enrolment data, including some hypotheses about how student social class has influenced these trends. First, data on 1988-1998 enrolments showing a "skewed revolution" in student africanisation are summarised. Then, using 2000-2012…

  9. Images of the American Revolution. The Constitution Community: Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traill, David

    This lesson focuses on the American Revolution, which encouraged the founding fathers' desire to create a government that would, as stated in the Preamble to the Constitution, issue domestic tranquility and provide for the common defense. The lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Government…

  10. Herschel-ATLAS: Dusty early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, K.; Dunne, L.; Maddox, S.

    2015-03-01

    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) are thought to be devoid of dust and star-formation, having formed most of their stars at early epochs. We present the detection of the dustiest ETGs in a large-area blind submillimetre survey with Herschel (H-ATLAS, Eales et al. 2010), where the lack of pre-selection in other bands makes it the first unbiased survey for cold dust in ETGs. The parent sample of 1087 H-ATLAS galaxies in this study have a >= 5σ detection at 250μm, a reliable optical counterpart to the submillimetre source (Smith et al. 2011) and a spectroscopic redshift from the GAMA survey (Driver et al. 2011). Additionally, we construct a control sample of 1052 optically selected galaxies undetected at 250μm and matched in stellar mass to the H-ATLAS parent sample to eliminate selection effects. ETGs were selected from both samples via visual classifications using SDSS images. Further details can be found in Rowlands et al. (2012). Physical parameters are derived for each galaxy using the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting code of da Cunha, Charlot and Elbaz (2008), Smith et al. 2012, using an energy balance argument. We investigate the differences between the dusty ETGs and the general ETG population, and find that the H-ATLAS ETGs are more than an order of magnitude dustier than the control ETGs. The mean dust mass of the 42 H-ATLAS ETGs is 5.5 × 107M⊙ (comparable to the dust mass of spirals in our sample), whereas the dust mass of the 233 control ETGs inferred from stacking at optical positions on the 250μm map is (0.8 - 4.0) × 106M⊙ for 25-15 K dust. The average star-formation rate of the H-ATLAS ETGs is 1.0 dex higher than that of control ETGs, and the mean r-band light-weighted age of the H-ATLAS ETGs is 1.8 Gyr younger than the control ETGs. The rest-frame NUV - r colours of the H-ATLAS ETGs are 1.0 magnitudes bluer than the control ETGs, and some ETGs may be transitioning from the blue cloud to the red sequence. Some H-ATLAS ETGs

  11. Measures of galaxy dust and gas mass with Herschel photometry and prospects for ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Genzel, R.; Förster-Schreiber, N. M.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2016-03-01

    Combining the deepest Herschel extragalactic surveys (PEP, GOODS-H, HerMES), and Monte Carlo mock catalogs, we explore the robustness of dust mass estimates based on modeling of broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with two popular approaches: Draine & Li (2007, ApJ, 657, 810; DL07) and a modified blackbody (MBB). We analyze the cause, drivers, and trends of uncertainties and systematics in thorough detail. As long as the observed SED extends to at least 160-200 μm in the rest frame, Mdust can be recovered with a >3σ significance and without the occurrence of systematics. An average offset of a factor ~1.5 exists between DL07- and MBB-based dust masses, based on consistent dust properties. The performance of DL07 modeling turns out to be more robust than that of MBB since relative errors on Mdust are more mildly dependent on the maximum covered rest-frame wavelength and are less scattered. At the depth of the deepest Herschel surveys (in the GOODS-S field), it is possible to retrieve dust masses with a signal-to-noise ratio, S/N ≥ 3 for galaxies on the main sequence of star formation (MS) down to M∗ ~ 1010 [M⊙] up to z ~ 1. At higher redshift (z ≤ 2), the same result is only achieved for objects at the tip of the MS or for those objects lying above the tip owing to sensitivity and wavelength coverage limitations. Molecular gas masses, obtained by converting Mdust through the metallicity-dependent gas-to-dust ratio δGDR, are consistent with those based on the scaling of depletion time, τdep, and on CO sub-mm spectroscopy. Focusing on CO-detected galaxies at z> 1, the δGDR dependence on metallicity is consistent with the local relation, provided that a sufficient SED coverage is available. Once we established that Herschel-only and sub-mm-only estimates of dust masses can be affected by large uncertainties and possibly systematics in some cases, we combined far-IR Herschel data and sub-mm ALMA expected fluxes to study the advantages of a full

  12. Herschel observations of extraordinary sources: Analysis of the full Herschel/HIFI molecular line survey of sagittarius B2(N)

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, Justin L.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Favre, Cécile; Anderson, Dana E.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; McNeill, Trevor D.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Emprechtinger, Martin; Monje, Raquel R.; Phillips, Thomas G.; Schilke, Peter; Comito, Claudia; Qin, Sheng-Li; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Harris, Brent J.; Steber, Amanda L.; Vasyunina, Tatiana; Lord, Steven D.; McGuire, Brett A. E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu; and others

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive broadband molecular line survey of the Sagittarius B2(N) star-forming region has been obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory, offering the first high spectral resolution look at this well-studied source in a wavelength region largely inaccessible from the ground (625-157 μm). From the roughly 8000 spectral features in the survey, a total of 72 isotopologues arising from 44 different molecules have been identified, ranging from light hydrides to complex organics, and arising from a variety of environments from cold and diffuse to hot and dense gas. We present a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model to the spectral signatures of each molecule, constraining the source sizes for hot core species with complementary Submillimeter Array interferometric observations and assuming that molecules with related functional group composition are cospatial. For each molecule, a single model is given to fit all of the emission and absorption features of that species across the entire 480-1910 GHz spectral range, accounting for multiple temperature and velocity components when needed to describe the spectrum. As with other HIFI surveys toward massive star-forming regions, methanol is found to contribute more integrated line intensity to the spectrum than any other species. We discuss the molecular abundances derived for the hot core where the LTE approximation is generally found to describe the spectrum well, in comparison to abundances derived for the same molecules in the Orion KL region from a similar HIFI survey. Notably, we find significantly higher abundances of amine- and amide-bearing molecules (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}NH, and NH{sub 2}CHO) toward Sgr B2(N) than Orion KL and lower abundances of some complex oxygen-bearing molecules (CH{sub 3}OCHO in particular). In addition to information on the chemical composition of the hot core, the strong far-infrared dust continuum allows

  13. Data Revolution. Path From Big Data to Clean Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyurjyan, V.; Bartle, A.; Lukashin, C.; Vakhnin, A.; Mancilla, S.; Oyarzun, R.

    2015-12-01

    We live in the era of Data Revolution, yet we produce data lot faster than we can process them. If not addressed this discrepancy in a timely manner Data Revolution will result in data pollution rather than in economic and intellectual progress.The majority of currently developed and used data processing applications are Von Neumann model based: single, sequential processes that start at a point in time, and advance one step at a time until they are finished. In the current age of cloud computing and multi-core hardware architectures this approach has noticeable limitations in processing large, distributed data. In this paper we describe the CLARA framework that is used to developing Big-data processing applications. We demonstrate the programming methodology and discuss some of the issues for data processing application elasticity, agility and maintenance.

  14. A new sexual revolution? Critical theory, pornography, and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Garlick, Steve

    2011-08-01

    The "sexual revolution" was a central element of North American culture in the 1960s. Today, sex is increasingly central to mainstream culture, in large part due to the Internet, and we might wonder whether we are living through a comparable period of sexual history. In this article, I revisit the work of Herbert Marcuse-the original theorist of the sexual revolution-to ask whether it can contribute to a critical theory of sexuality in the era of digital technology. After outlining Marcuse's theory of the role of Eros in social life, I discuss two pornographic Web sites that combine eroticism and social critique. I argue that Marcuse's work is valuable for its emphasis on the intersection of sex, technology, and capitalist economy, but that it needs to be supplemented by a focus on masculinity and the male body in Internet pornography. PMID:22214041

  15. Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob

    2013-09-17

    For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.

  16. At the dawn of a new revolution in life sciences

    PubMed Central

    Baluška, František; Witzany, Guenther

    2013-01-01

    In a recently published article Sydney Brenner argued that the most relevant scientific revolution in biology at his time was the breakthrough of the role of “information” in biology. The fundamental concept that integrates this new biological “information” with matter and energy is the universal Turing machine and von Neumann’s self-reproducing machines. In this article we demonstrate that in contrast to Turing/von Neumann machines living cells can really reproduce themselves. Additionally current knowledge on the roles of non-coding RNAs indicates a radical violation of the central dogma of molecular biology and opens the way to a new revolution in life sciences. PMID:23710294

  17. After the revolution: the physician executive of the future.

    PubMed

    Goldener, J

    1998-01-01

    There is a revolution in health care occurring in our midst. The roots of this revolution are explored. The physician executive of the future will need a new set of skills because the health care system will change. This new, evolving set of skills includes being: Savvy about business; simultaneously employer- and customer-focused; and technologically driven. This manager must be a team builder rather than a lone ranger. These skills are learnable, just like piloting a plane or doing a surgery. None of us was born with the skill to practice medicine any more than we were born with business skills. While many physicians are depressed by the present health care climate, feeling a loss of power and a loss in spirit, the vision of the physician manager must carry them and the organizations they build forward through uncharted waters to a future which is every bit as exciting as our past. PMID:10186383

  18. Chemists, physicians, and changing perspectives on the scientific revolution.

    PubMed

    Debus, A G

    1998-03-01

    Positivism in the history of science and medicine was challenged by Walter Pagel more than fifty years ago. He sought to understand early modern figures such as Harvey, Paracelsus, and van Helmont by looking at all their work, including nonscientific material generally ignored by other scholars. Of special importance in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries was the chemistry found in the writings of Paracelsus and his followers. These "chemical philosophers" offered a new philosophy based on chemistry and chemical analogies that was to replace the works of the ancients. As physicians, they debated first with Galenists and Aristotelians and later with mechanists. The essay argues that these debates were an essential chapter in the development of the Scientific Revolution and important for understanding the Chemical Revolution of the eighteenth century. PMID:9588105

  19. A Scientific Revolution: The Hubble and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a Rood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, Dr. Gardner will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last 10 years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope.

  20. Intelligent Microsystems: Keys to the Next Silicon Revolution

    SciTech Connect

    MCWHORTER,PAUL J.

    1999-10-20

    Paul McWhorter, Deputy Director for of the Microsystems Center at Sandia National Laboratories, discusses the potential of surface micromachining. A vision of the possibilities of intelligent Microsystems for the future is presented along with descriptions of several possible applications. Applications that are just around the corner and some that maybe quite a ways down the road but have a clear development path to their realization. Microsystems will drive the next silicon revolution.

  1. Cutting surfaces of revolution for millimeter wave optics.

    PubMed

    Dragovan, M

    1988-10-01

    A procedure for cutting surfaces of revolution using a numerically controlled milling machine is described. The procedure differs from conventional techniques in that the curve to be cut is approximated by a circular arc. The errors introduced by the approximation scheme are less than the machining errors. This procedure can be implemented on any machine capable of cutting an arbitrary radius circular arc. It also reduces the number of programming instructions by a factor of ~50. PMID:20539518

  2. Massive Infrared-Quiet Dense Cores: Unveiling the Initial Conditions of High-Mass Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motte, F.; Bontemps, S.; Schneider, N.; Schilke, P.; Menten, K. M.

    2008-05-01

    As Th. Henning said at the conference, cold precursors of high-mass stars are now ``hot topics''. We here propose some observational criteria to identify massive infrared-quiet dense cores which can host the high-mass analogs of Class~0 protostars and pre-stellar condensations. We also show how far-infrared to millimeter imaging surveys of entire complexes forming OB stars are starting to unveil the initial conditions of high-mass star formation.

  3. New space shuttle orbiter Challenger (OV) 099 unveiled after STS-4 landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    New space shuttle orbiter Challenger (OV) 099 unveiled after STS-4 landing at Ellington Air Force Base. A large crowd was on hand to see both the landing and the new orbiter. Dressed in blue flight suits, Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, II (right) and Henry W. hartsfield, Jr., can be seen on the podium at center. Twin NASA Gulfstream aircraft can be seen behind the podium. The new orbiter, atop its 747 carrier aircraft, sits between the two Gulfstreams.

  4. A stamp commemorating NASA's Mars Pathfinder mission is unveiled at KSC's Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Nancy Warren, supervisor of stamp distribution for the U.S. Post Office, unveils the $3 commemorative Mars Pathfinder postage stamp at Kennedy Space Center's Visitor Complex on the second day of its issue. The stamp was first issued on Dec. 10 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. It depicts the Sojourner rover at rest on the Pathfinder spacecraft with a panoramic Martian view that is based on one of the first mission images sent back to Earth.

  5. Green revolution: preparing for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Khush, G S

    1999-08-01

    In the 1960s there were large-scale concerns about the world's ability to feed itself. However, widespread adoption of "green revolution" technology led to major increases in food-grain production. Between 1966 and 1990, the population of the densely populated low-income countries grew by 80%, but food production more than doubled. The technological advance that led to the dramatic achievements in world food production over the last 30 years was the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice. These varieties are responsive to fertilizer inputs, are lodging resistant, and their yield potential is 2-3 times that of varieties available prior to the green revolution. In addition, these varieties have multiple resistance to diseases and insects and thus have yield stability. The development of irrigation facilities, the availability of inorganic fertilizers, and benign government policies have all facilitated the adoption of green-revolution technology. In the 1990s, the rate of growth in food-grain production has been lower than the rate of growth in population. If this trend is not reversed, serious food shortages will occur in the next century. To meet the challenge of feeding 8 billion people by 2020, we have to prepare now and develop the technology for raising farm productivity. We have to develop cereal cultivars with higher yield potential and greater yield stability. We must also develop strategies for integrated nutrient management, integrated pest management, and efficient utilization of water and soil resources. PMID:10464789

  6. Monte Carlo radiation transport: A revolution in science

    SciTech Connect

    Hendricks, J.

    1993-04-01

    When Enrico Fermi, Stan Ulam, Nicholas Metropolis, John von Neuman, and Robert Richtmyer invented the Monte Carlo method fifty years ago, little could they imagine the far-flung consequences, the international applications, and the revolution in science epitomized by their abstract mathematical method. The Monte Carlo method is used in a wide variety of fields to solve exact computational models approximately by statistical sampling. It is an alternative to traditional physics modeling methods which solve approximate computational models exactly by deterministic methods. Modern computers and improved methods, such as variance reduction, have enhanced the method to the point of enabling a true predictive capability in areas such as radiation or particle transport. This predictive capability has contributed to a radical change in the way science is done: design and understanding come from computations built upon experiments rather than being limited to experiments, and the computer codes doing the computations have become the repository for physics knowledge. The MCNP Monte Carlo computer code effort at Los Alamos is an example of this revolution. Physicians unfamiliar with physics details can design cancer treatments using physics buried in the MCNP computer code. Hazardous environments and hypothetical accidents can be explored. Many other fields, from underground oil well exploration to aerospace, from physics research to energy production, from safety to bulk materials processing, benefit from MCNP, the Monte Carlo method, and the revolution in science.

  7. First Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in Taurus and Comparison with Other Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, Jason

    The unparalleled sensitivity and mapping speed of the ESA Herschel Space Observatory makes it possible to now map entire star formation regions in the time it would once have taken to map a single prestellar core. The Herschel Gould Belt Survey is a key program designed to fully map the clouds of the Gould Belt at five wavelengths between 70 and 500 μm. These clouds span a range of physical conditions from the sterility of Polaris to the active cluster forming complexes of Orion and Aquila. These clouds allow us to examine the genesis of the core mass function and how the history of star formation in different regions varies. The early results have demonstrated the markedly different populations of cores in these regions and have revealed the nearly ubiquitous relationship of those cores with dense filaments.

  8. Finite volume methods for submarine debris flow with Herschel-Bulkley rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihwan; Issler, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    Submarine landslides can impose great danger to the underwater structures and generate destructive waves. The Herschel-Bulkley rheological model is known to be appropriate for describing the nonlinear viscoplastic behavior of the debris flow. The numerical implementation of the depth-averaged Herschel-Bulkley models such as BING has so-far been limited to the 1-dimensional Lagrangian coordinate system. In this work, we develop numerical schemes with the finite volume methods in the Eulerian coordinates. We provide parameter sensitivity analysis and demonstrate how common ad-hoc assumptions such as including a minimum shear layer depth influence the modeling of the landslide dynamics. The possibility of adding hydrodynamic resistance forces, hydroplaning, and remolding into this Eulerian framework is also discussed. Finally, the possible extension to a two-dimensional operational model for coupling towards operational tsunami models is discussed.

  9. Analytical Modeling of Herschel-Quincke Concept Applied to Inlet Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallez, Raphael F.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Gerhold, Carl H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the key results obtained by the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratories at Virginia Tech over the period from January 1999 to December 2000 on the project 'Investigation of an Adaptive Herschel-Quincke Tube Concept for the Reduction of Tonal and Broadband Noise from Turbofan Engines', funded by NASA Langley Research Center. The Herschel-Quincke (HQ) tube concept is a developing technique the consists of circumferential arrays of tubes around the duct. The analytical model is developed to provide prediction and design guidelines for application of the HQ concept to turbofan engine inlets. An infinite duct model is developed and used to provide insight into attenuation mechanisms and design strategies. Based on this early model, the NASA-developed TBIEM3D code is modified for the HQ system. This model allows for investigation of the HQ system combined with a passive liner.

  10. ALMA observation of high-z extreme star-forming environments discovered by Planck/Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissl, R.

    2016-05-01

    The Comic Microwave Background satellite Planck with its High Frequency Instrument has surveyed the mm/sub-mm sky in six frequency channels from 100 to 900 GHz. A sample of 228 cold sources of the Cosmic Infrared Background was observed in follow-up with Herschel SPIRE. The majority of sources appear to be over-densities of star-forming galaxies matching the size of high-z proto-cluster regions, while a 3% fraction are individual bright, lensed galaxies. A large observing program is underway with the aim of resolving the regions into the constituent members of the Planck sources. First ALMA data have been received on one Planck/Herschel proto-cluster candidate, showing the expected large over-abundance of bright mm/sub-mm sources within the cluster region. ALMA long baseline data of the brightest lensed galaxy in the sample with > 1 Jy at 350 μm are also forthcoming.

  11. Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) as seen with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Cs.; Müller, T. G.; Kidger, M.; Mattisson, P.; Marton, G.

    2015-02-01

    The thermal emission of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) was observed on March 31, 2013, at a heliocentric distance of 6.48 au using the PACS photometer camera of the Herschel Space Observatory. The comet was clearly active, showing a coma that could be traced to a distance of ~10'', i.e. ~50 000 km. Analysis of the radial intensity profiles of the coma provided a dust mass and dust production rate and the derived grain size distribution characteristics indicate an overabundance of large grains in the thermal emission. We estimate that activity started about 6 months before these observations at a heliocentric distance of ~8 au. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-lead Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. De Herschel à Alma. Les galaxies dévoilent enfin leurs secrets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbaz, David

    2016-08-01

    With deep surveys, one can measure the amount of stars born in slices of the Universe and infer a "cosmic rate of star formation." The latest estimates from the Herschel satellite show a rapid drop of star formation in galaxies since ten billion years. To understand the cause of this fall, we can now measure the interstellar reservoirs of galaxies by combining observations from Herschel and the millimeter interferometer ALMA. Early results suggest that this fall comes from the rapid consumption of interstellar matter which served as reservoir to galaxies. Thanks to the technique of interferometry, ALMA can map interstellar dust within galaxies observed at the time of the peak of cosmic star formation, ten billion years ago. We discover that the stars of the most massive galaxies are born not only at very high rates but also with an extreme concentration.

  13. Constraining the properties of transitional discs in Chamaeleon I with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Merín, B.; Duchêne, G.; Rebollido, I.; Espaillat, C.; Pinte, C.

    2016-05-01

    Transitional discs are protoplanetary discs with opacity gaps/cavities in their dust distribution, a feature that may be linked to planet formation. We perform Bayesian modelling of the three transitional discs SZ Cha, CS Cha, and T25 including photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory to quantify the improvements added by these new data. We find disc dust masses between 2 × 10-5 and 4 × 10-4 M⊙ and gap radii in the range of 7-18 au, with uncertainties of ˜ one order of magnitude and ˜4 au, respectively. Our results show that adding Herschel data can significantly improve these estimates with respect to mid-infrared data alone, which have roughly twice as large uncertainties on both disc mass and gap radius. We also find weak evidence for different density profiles with respect to full discs. These results open exciting new possibilities to study the distribution of disc masses for large samples of discs.

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Herschel-Quincke Tube Concept on the Honeywell TFE731-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jerome P.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Gerhold, Carl H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the key results obtained by the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratories at Virginia Tech over the period from January 1999 to December 2000 on the project 'Investigation of an Adaptive Herschel-Quincke Tube Concept for the Reduction of Tonal and Broadband Noise from Turbofan Engines', funded by NASA Langley Research Center. The Herschel-Quincke (HQ) tube concept is a developing technique that consists of circumferential arrays of tubes around the duct. A fixed array of tubes is installed on the inlet duct of the Honeywell TFE731-60 engine. Two array designs are incorporated into the inlet treatment, each designed for a different circumferential mode order which is expected to be cut on in the duct. Far field and in-duct noise measurement data are presented which demonstrate the effectiveness of the HQ concept for array 1, array 2, and both operating simultaneously.

  15. A Unique Gas-Rich Debris Disk: Herschel Imaging and Spectroscopy of 49 Ceti

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberge, Aki

    2012-01-01

    Gas-poor debris disks represent a fundamentally different class of circumstellar disk than gas-rich protoplanetary disks. Their gas probably originates from the same source as the dust, i.e. planetesimal destruction, but the low gas densities make it difficult to detect. So far, Herschel has detected far-IR gas emission from only one or two debris disks, Beta Pictoris being one of them. Here we present Herschel GASPS observations of a well-known debris disk system, 49 Ceti. The dust disk is spatially resolved in thermal emission at 70 _m. Most interestingly, weak far-IR gas emission is detected. Preliminary modeling suggests that reconciling the sub-mm CO emission seen from this system with the far-IR gas detection and upper limits requires a low gas-to-dust ratio and possibly an unusual gas composition.

  16. A Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of Warm Molecular Gas in Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, C. K.; Gao, Y.; Armus, L.; Appleton, P. N.; Charmandaris, V.; Diaz Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Howell, J.; Issak, K.; Iwasawa, K.; Leech, J.; Lord, S. D.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Petric, A.; Sanders, D. B.; Schulz, B.; Surace, J. A.; Van der Werf, P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe an on-going Herschel 194-671 micron spectroscopic survey of a flux-limited sample of 125 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), targeting primarily at the spectral line energy distribution (SLED) of the CO rotational line emission (from J=4-3 up to J=13-12) from warm and dense molecular gas, the [NII] 205 micron line from ionized gas, and the [CI] 370 and 609 micron lines arising mainly from less dense and colder molecular gas where the CO (J=1-0) line is also strong. We present observational results for the first set of 65 sample galaxies that are more or less point sources with respect to the Herschel beams, and show statistical correlations among the shape of the CO SLED, CO line luminosities, IR dust luminosity, and whether a target is known to harbor AGN or not.

  17. Herschel/HIFI-HRS observation of CH absorption in IRAS16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottinelli, S.; Caux, C.; Wakelam, V.; Ceccarelli, C.; Kahane, C.

    2011-05-01

    We present high spectral resolution observations of CH absorption towards the low-mass protostar IRAS16293-2422. The data were obtained with the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) module of the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on-board Herschel, as part of the CHESS (Chemical HErschel Surveys of Star-forming regions) guaranteed time key program. CH is well known for having column densities correlated with those of H_2 and for its role as a product in the ion-molecule gas-phase chemistry. We derive CH column densities in the envelope of IRAS16293-2422, and investigate the implications when comparing with column densities of H_2 and of other carbon species such as CN or CCH. We also discuss the non-detections of CD and CH^+.

  18. Observations of H2O in Titan's atmosphere with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, R.; Lellouch, E.; Lara, L. M.; Courtin, R.; Hartogh, P.; Rengel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Disk averaged observations of several H2O far infrared lines in Titan’s atmosphere were performed with the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the guaranteed time key program "Water and related chemistry in the Solar System" (HssO, see Hartogh et al 2011). Two instruments were used: (i) HIFI, a heterodyne instrument (R~ 106 ) in the sub-millimeter, which measured the H2O(110-101) rotational transition at 557 GHz on June 10 and Dec. 31, 2010 (ii) PACS, a photoconductor spectrometer (R~103) which measured three water lines at 108.1, 75.4 and 66.4 microns on June 22, 2010. Additional PACS measurements at 66.4 microns on Dec. 15 and 22, 2010 and on July 09, 2011, do not show any significant line intensity variation with time, nor between the leading/trailing sides (i.e. longitude). Spectra were analyzed with a line-by-line radiative transfer code accounting for spherical geometry (Moreno et al. 2011). This model considers the H2O molecular opacity from JPL catalog (Pickett et al. 1998) and also includes collision-induced opacities N2-N2, N2-CH4 and CH4-CH4 (Borysow and Frommhold 1986, 1987, Borysow and Tang 1993). Far infrared aerosol opacities derived by CIRS were included, following Anderson and Samuelson (2011) for their vertical distribution and spectral dependencies. Analysis of the 557 GHz narrow line (FWHM ~ 2 MHz) indicates that it originates at altitudes above 300 km, while lines measured with PACS probe mainly deeper levels (80-150 km). The HIFI and PACS observations are fitted simultaneously, considering a vertical distribution of H2O mixing ratio which follows a power law dependency q=q0(P/P0)n, where q0 is the mixing ratio at some reference pressure level P0, taken near the expected condensation level. Model fits will be presented, and compared with previously proposed H2O vertical distributions. We show in particular that both the steep profile proposed by Lara et al. (1996) (and adopted by Coustenis et al. (1998) to model the first detection of H2O

  19. Using Herschel Far-Infrared Photometry to Constrain Star Formation Rates in CLASH Cluster Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Rebecca L.; Postman, Marc; Fogarty, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH) program obtained broadband images of 25 massive galaxy clusters in 16 passbands from the UV to the near-IR. The data was taken with the Wide-field Camera 3 (WFC3), and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These 25 clusters have also been observed in the mid-IR by Spitzer IRAC, the far-IR by the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE, and in the x-ray by the Chandra and XMM observatories. We focused on the two brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) in the survey (MACS1931.8-2653 and RXJ1532.9+3021) that have reddening-corrected UV-derived star formation rates (SFRs) > 100 M⊙ yr-1 as measured by Fogarty et al (2015). The inclusion of Herschel data provides unique constraints on dust content and independent estimates of the star formation rates in these interesting galaxies. We performed photometry on the five Herschel bands (100-500μm), and removed any contamination from other cluster members. We fit a UV-FIR SED to each galaxy to measure the bolometric dust luminosity (Lbol), which we use to derive the FIR obscured SFR. We calculate the sum of the measured UV unobscured SFR from the HST photometry and the FIR obscured SFR from the Herschel photometry to get a total SFR for these two BCGs. We compared this to the reddening-corrected SFRs and found they were in agreement within error. This confirms that the Kennicutt and Calzetti methods for calculating star formation rates are both applicable for these highly star-forming massive cluster galaxies.

  20. Antecedents to Fechner's law: the astronomers J. Herschel, W. R. Dawes, and N. R. Pogson

    PubMed Central

    Pliskoff, Stanley S.

    1977-01-01

    The history of the stellar magnitude scale is briefly traced from the second century b.c. until the middle of the nineteenth century. It becomes clear that astronomers formulated “Fechner's Law” by about 1850. While Fechner is credited with the grander view of things, the contention is made that the astronomers John Herschel, W. R. Dawes, and N. R. Pogson have not been given their due by historians of psychology. PMID:16812026

  1. Star formation in z > 1 3CR host galaxies as seen by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podigachoski, P.; Barthel, P. D.; Haas, M.; Leipski, C.; Wilkes, B.; Kuraszkiewicz, J.; Westhues, C.; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Chini, R.; Clements, D. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Labiano, A.; Lawrence, C.; Meisenheimer, K.; Peletier, R. F.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Verdoes Kleijn, G.

    2015-03-01

    We present Herschel (PACS and SPIRE) far-infrared (FIR) photometry of a complete sample of z> 1 3CR sources, from the Herschel guaranteed time project The Herschel Legacy of distant radio-loud AGN. Combining these with existing Spitzer photometric data, we perform an infrared (IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) analysis of these landmark objects in extragalactic research to study the star formation in the hosts of some of the brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) known at any epoch. Accounting for the contribution from an AGN-powered warm dust component to the IR SED, about 40% of our objects undergo episodes of prodigious, ULIRG-strength star formation, with rates of hundreds of solar masses per year, coeval with the growth of the central supermassive black hole. Median SEDs imply that the quasar and radio galaxy hosts have similar FIR properties, in agreement with the orientation-based unification for radio-loud AGN. The star-forming properties of the AGN hosts are similar to those of the general population of equally massive non-AGN galaxies at comparable redshifts, thus there is no strong evidence of universal quenching of star formation (negative feedback) within this sample. Massive galaxies at high redshift may be forming stars prodigiously, regardless of whether their supermassive black holes are accreting or not. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 1, 2, 4 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Ophiuchus Main Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladjelate, Bilal; André, Philippe; Könyves, Vera; Men'shchikov, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Results from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey in the Ophiuchus Main CloudThe Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud is a well documented star-forming cloud located ~140 pc from the Sun. It is therefore an excellent laboratory for dense core search and classification. Harbouring low-mass star formation, its protostellar population have been studied for about three decades from the near infrared to the millimeter and radio range.As part of the Herschel Gould Belt Survey (http://www.herschel.fr/cea/gouldbelt/), extensive submillimeter images of the Ophiuchus Main Cloud (L1688) were produced and a deep census of both prestellar cores and young protostars was obtained using the multi-scale, multi-wavelength source extraction algorithm, getsources (Mensh'chikov et al. 2012).About 300 starless cores were extracted, including ~100 candidates gravitationally bound prestellar cores. The prestellar cores are primarily found in high column density filamentary structures above AV~7. Based on these data we discuss, the properties of the prestellar core mass function (CMF) as well as its variations in the various clumps of the cloud. The peak of the prestellar CMF appears to be close to 0.3 Solar masses in L1688.Conceptually, the low-mass end of the prestellar CMF is populated by pre-brown dwarf cores, the prototype of which is Oph-B11, a 20 Jovian masses object identified with SCUBA and IRAM (Greaves et al. 2003, André et al. 2012). Our Herschel census of dense cores in L1688 contains a few other candidate ultra low-mass cores under the hydrogen-burning limit (0.08 M⊙) which will be discussed.

  3. Temporal stereophotogrammetric analysis of retrogressive thaw slumps on Herschel Island, Yukon Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantuit, H.; Pollard, W. H.

    2005-05-01

    The western Canadian Arctic is identified as an area of potentially significant global warming. Thawing permafrost, sea level rise, changing sea ice conditions and increased wave activity will result in accelerated rates of coastal erosion and thermokarst activity in areas of ice-rich permafrost. The Yukon Coastal Plain is widely recognized as one of the most ice-rich and thaw-sensitive areas in the Canadian Arctic. In particular, Herschel Island displays extensive coastal thermokarst. Retrogressive thaw slumps are a common thermokarst landform along the Herschel Island coast that have been increasing in both frequency and extent have in recent years due to increased thawing of massive ground ice and coastal erosion. The volume of sediment and ground ice eroded by retrogressive slump activity and the potential release of climate change related materials like organic carbon, carbon dioxide and methane are largely unknown. The remote setting of Herschel Island, and the Arctic in general, make direct observation of this type of erosion and the analysis of potential climate feedbacks extremely problematic. Remote sensing provides possibly the best solution to this problem. This study looks at two retrogressive thaw slumps located on the western shore of Herschel Island and using stereophotogrammetric methods attempts to (1) develop the first three-dimensional geomorphic analysis of this type of landform, and (2) provide an estimation of the volume of sediment/ground ice eroded through back wasting thermokarst activity. Digital Elevation Models were extracted for the years 1952, 1970 and 2004 and validated using data collected in the field using Kinematic Differential Global Positioning System. Estimates of sediment volumes eroded from retrogressive thaw slumps were found to vary greatly. In one case the total volume of material lost for the 1970-2004 period was approximately 1560000m3. The estimated volume of sediment alone was 360000m3. The temporal analysis of the

  4. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel far-IR counterparts of SDSS galaxies (Dominguez+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez Sanchez, H.; Bongiovanni, A.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Oteo, I.; Cepa, J.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Ederoclite, A.; Lutz, D.; Cresci, G.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present results for galaxies from the SDSS-DR7, with a counterpart from the PEP (Lutz et al., 2011, Cat. J/A+A/532/A90) Herschel survey in two different fields: the COSMOS field (Scoville et al. 2007ApJS..172....1S) and the Lockman Hole (LH hereafter; Lockman, Jahoda & McCammon 1986ApJ...302..432L). (1 data file).

  5. New HErschel Multi-wavelength Extragalactic Survey of Edge-on Spirals (NHEMESES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bianchi, S.; Baes, M.; de Jong, R. S.; Dalcanton, J. J.; Radburn-Smith, D.; Gordon, K.; Xilouris, M.

    2012-08-01

    Edge-on spiral galaxies offer a unique perspective on the vertical structure of spiral disks, both stars and the iconic dark dustlanes. The thickness of these dustlanes can now be resolved for the first time with Herschel in far-infrared and sub-mm emission. We present NHEMESES, an ongoing project that targets 12 edge-on spiral galaxies with the PACS and SPIRE instruments on Herschel. These vertically resolved observations of edge-on spirals will impact on several current topics. First and foremost, these Herschel observations will settle whether or not there is a phase change in the vertical structure of the ISM with disk mass. Previously, a dramatic change in dustlane morphology was observed as in massive disks the dust collapses into a thin lane. If this is the case, the vertical balance between turbulence and gravity dictates the ISM structure and consequently star-formation and related phenomena (spiral arms, bars etc.). We specifically target lower mass nearby edge-ons to complement existing Herschel observations of high-mass edge-on spirals (the HEROES project). Secondly, the combined data-set, together with existing Spitzer observations, will drive a new generation of spiral disk Spectral Energy Distribution models. These model how dust reprocesses starlight to thermal emission but the dust geometry remains the critical unknown. And thirdly, the observations will provide an accurate and unbiased census of the cold dusty structures occasionally seen extending out of the plane of the disk, when backlit by the stellar disk. To illustrate the NHEMESES project, we present early results on NGC 4244 and NGC 891, two well studies examples of a low and high-mass edge-on spiral.

  6. Evolution of interstellar dust with Herschel. First results in the photodissociation regions of NGC 7023

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abergel, A.; Arab, H.; Compiègne, M.; Kirk, J. M.; Ade, P.; Anderson, L. D.; André, P.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Bernard, J.-P.; Blagrave, K.; Bontemps, S.; Boulanger, F.; Cohen, M.; Cox, P.; Dartois, E.; Davis, G.; Emery, R.; Fulton, T.; Gry, C.; Habart, E.; Huang, M.; Joblin, C.; Jones, S. C.; Lagache, G.; Lim, T.; Madden, S.; Makiwa, G.; Martin, P.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Molinari, S.; Moseley, H.; Motte, F.; Naylor, D.; Okumura, K.; Pinheiro Gonçalves, D.; Polehampton, E.; Rodon, J.; Russeil, D.; Saraceno, P.; Sauvage, M.; Sidher, S.; Spencer, L.; Swinyard, B.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.; Zavagno, A.

    2010-07-01

    Context. In photodissociation regions (PDRs), the physical conditions and the excitation evolve on short spatial scales as a function of depth within the cloud, providing a unique opportunity to study how the dust and gas populations evolve with the excitation and physical conditions. The mapping of the PDRs in NGC 7023 performed during the science demonstration phase of Herschel is part of the “Evolution of interstellar dust” key program. The goal of this project is to build a coherent database on interstellar dust emission from diffuse clouds to the sites of star formation. Aims: We study the far-infrared/submillimeter emission of the PDRs and their fainter surrounding regions. We combine the Herschel and Spitzer maps to derive at each position the full emission spectrum of all dust components, which we compare to dust and radiative transfer models in order to learn about the spatial variations in both the excitation conditions and the dust properties. Methods: We adjust the emission spectra derived from PACS and SPIRE maps using modified black bodies to derive the temperature and the emissivity index β of the dust in thermal equilibrium with the radiation field. We present a first modeling of the NGC 7023-E PDR with standard dust properties and abundances. Results: At the peak positions, a value of β equal to 2 is compatible with the data. The detected spectra and the spatial structures are strongly influenced by radiative transfer effects. We are able to reproduce the spectra at the peak positions deduced from Herschel maps and emitted by dust particles at thermal equilibrium, and also the evolution of the spatial structures observed from the near infrared to the submillimeter. On the other hand, the emission of the stochastically heated smaller particles is overestimated by a factor ~2. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. A COOL DUST FACTORY IN THE CRAB NEBULA: A HERSCHEL STUDY OF THE FILAMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Gomez, E. L.; Gear, W. K.; Krause, O.; Besel, M.-A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th.; Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Owen, P. J.; Matsuura, M.; Rho, J.; Ivison, R. J.; Sibthorpe, B.; Polehampton, E. T.

    2012-11-20

    Whether supernovae are major sources of dust in galaxies is a long-standing debate. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Crab Nebula between 51 and 670 {mu}m as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program. We compare the emission detected with Herschel with multiwavelength data including millimeter, radio, mid-infrared, and archive optical images. We carefully remove the synchrotron component using the Herschel and Planck fluxes measured in the same epoch. The contribution from line emission is removed using Herschel spectroscopy combined with Infrared Space Observatory archive data. Several forbidden lines of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are detected where multiple velocity components are resolved, deduced to be from the nitrogen-depleted, carbon-rich ejecta. No spectral lines are detected in the SPIRE wavebands; in the PACS bands, the line contribution is 5% and 10% at 70 and 100 {mu}m and negligible at 160 {mu}m. After subtracting the synchrotron and line emission, the remaining far-infrared continuum can be fit with two dust components. Assuming standard interstellar silicates, the mass of the cooler component is 0.24{sup +0.32} {sub -0.08} M {sub Sun} for T = 28.1{sup +5.5} {sub -3.2} K. Amorphous carbon grains require 0.11 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} of dust with T = 33.8{sup +2.3} {sub -1.8} K. A single temperature modified blackbody with 0.14 M {sub Sun} and 0.08 M {sub Sun} for silicate and carbon dust, respectively, provides an adequate fit to the far-infrared region of the spectral energy distribution but is a poor fit at 24-500 {mu}m. The Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust, suggesting the formation of dust in core-collapse supernova ejecta is efficient.

  8. Herschel-Resolved Outer Belts of Two-Belt Debris Disks--Evidence of Icy Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Farisa Y.; Bryden, Geoffrey; Werner, Michael W.; Stapelfeldt, Karl

    2015-12-01

    We present dual-band Herschel/PACS imaging for 57 main sequence stars (42 A-type and 15 solar-type) with previously known warm dust (Twarm ~200K) detected and characterized by Spitzer. About half of the star-disk systems in our sample have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures that mirror that of the asteroid-Kuiper belt geometry of our own solar system. The Herschel observations at 70 and/or 100 micron spatially resolve the cold/outer dust component for 18 two-belt debris systems (15 for the first time; 10 are also resolved at 160 micron), finding evidence of planetesimals at >100 AU, i.e. larger size than assumed from a simple blackbody fit to the SED. By breaking the degeneracy between the grain properties and the dust's radial location, the resolved images help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust's composition for each system. Based on the combined Spitzer/IRS+MIPS (5 to 70 micron), the Herschel/PACS (70 and/or 100 and 160 micron) dataset, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that the majority of resolved cold/outer belts of star+disk systems are well fit with a mixed ice/rock composition, rather than pure rocky grains. In the absence of spectral features for ice, we find that the behavior of the continuum can help constrain the composition of the grains well (of icy nature and not pure rocky material) given the Herschel-resolved locations of the cold/outer dust belts. We have also begin to identify the presence of candidate companions via Keck direct imaging, which may be interacting with the observed dust.

  9. Herschel Far-IR Observations of the Giant H II Region NGC 3603

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Cecco, Alessandra; Faustini, Fabiana; Paresce, Francesco; Correnti, Matteo; Calzoletti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    We observed the giant H II region around the NGC 3603 YC with the five broad bands (70, 160, 250, 350, 500 μm) of the SPIRE and PACS instruments, on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Together with what is currently known of the stellar, atomic, molecular, and warm dust components, this additional and crucial information should allow us to better understand the details of the star-formation history in this region. The main objective of the investigation is to study, at high spatial resolution, the distribution and main physical characteristics of the cold dust. By reconstructing the temperature and density maps, we found, respectively, a mean value of 36 K and log10 N H = 22.0 ± 0.1 cm-2. We carried out a photometric analysis detecting 107 point-like sources, mostly confined to the north and south of the cluster. By comparing our data with spectral energy distribution models, we found that 35 sources are well represented by young stellar objects in early evolutionary phases, from Class 0 to Class I. The Herschel detections also provided far-IR counterparts for 4 H2O masers and 11 objects previously known from mid-IR observations. The existence of so many embedded sources confirms the hypothesis of intense and ongoing star-formation activity in the region around NGC 3603 YC. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led principal investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  10. Recent Star Formation in the Lupus Clouds as Seen by Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygl, Kazi L. J.; Benedettini, Milena

    We present a study of the star formation histories of the Lupus I, III, and IV clouds using the Herschel 70-500 μm maps obtained by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey Key-Project. By combining the new Herschel data with the existing Spitzer catalog we obtained an unprecedented census of prestellar sources and young stellar objects in the Lupus clouds, which allowed us to study the overall star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE). The high SFE of Lupus III and its decreasing SFR suggest that Lupus III is the most evolved cloud, that after having experienced a major star formation event, is now approaching the end of its current star-forming cycle. Lupus I is currently undergoing a large star formation event, apparent by the increasing SFR. Also Lupus IV has an increasing SFR, however, the relative number of prestellar sources is much lower than in Lupus I, suggesting that its star formation has not yet reached its peak.

  11. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M.; Fu, Hai; Wardlow, J.; Amber, S.; Baker, A. J.; Baes, M.; Bock, J.; Bourne, N.; Dye, S.; Bussmann, R. S.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  12. Properties of interstellar filaments derived from Herschel, Planck, and molecular line observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzoumanian, Doris

    2015-08-01

    The highly filamentary structure of the interstellar medium (ISM) is now impressively revealed by Herschel and Planck images. Previous observations have shown that clouds are filamentary, however, only recently the mapping capabilities of Herscheland Planck have discovered their ubiquity in the ISM. In particular, Herschel images, with their high spatial and intensity dynamic ranges, show that dense filaments are associated with the main sites of star formation, demonstrating their key role in the star formation process.The analysis of the column density profiles of filaments indicates that they all share a common central width of 0.1pc, while they span a wide range in length, column density, mass per unit length. The results derived from observations tracing cold dust and gas emission, in total and polarised intensity, suggest that filaments can be divided into two families: On the one hand, low column density, unbound, and quiescent filaments mostly aligned with the magnetic field orientation, and on the other hand, dense, self-gravitating filaments, which fragment into star forming cores.I will present the properties of the filamentary structures derived from Herschel, Planck, and molecular line observations, and I will discuss the observational constraints on the formation and evolution of interstellar filaments.

  13. HERSCHEL AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF SLOWLY ROTATING, NEARBY ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Popov, S.; Wachter, S.

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 μm, 160 mu m) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ≈ 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 μm emission (>5σ) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 μm detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 μm emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ∼10% to ∼20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 μm emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  14. HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED AND SUBMILLIMETER PHOTOMETRY FOR THE KINGFISH SAMPLE OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. A.; Aniano, G.; Draine, B. T.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Hinz, J. L.; Montiel, E. J.; Krause, O.; Groves, B. A.; Roussel, H.; Appleton, P. N.; Armus, L.; Beirao, P.; Bolatto, A. D.; Brandl, B. R.; Calzetti, D.; Crocker, A. F.; Croxall, K. V.; Galametz, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Hao, C.-N.; and others

    2012-01-20

    New far-infrared and submillimeter photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 61 nearby galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. The spatially integrated fluxes are largely consistent with expectations based on Spitzer far-infrared photometry and extrapolations to longer wavelengths using popular dust emission models. Dwarf irregular galaxies are notable exceptions, as already noted by other authors, as their 500 {mu}m emission shows evidence for a submillimeter excess. In addition, the fraction of dust heating attributed to intense radiation fields associated with photodissociation regions is found to be (21 {+-} 4)% larger when Herschel data are included in the analysis. Dust masses obtained from the dust emission models of Draine and Li are found to be on average nearly a factor of two higher than those based on single-temperature modified blackbodies, as single blackbody curves do not capture the full range of dust temperatures inherent to any galaxy. The discrepancy is largest for galaxies exhibiting the coolest far-infrared colors.

  15. HERSCHEL PACS OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE TUCANA-HOROLOGIUM ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J. K.; Roberge, A.; Chen, C. H.; Augereau, J.-C.; Menard, F.; Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G.; Krivov, A. V.; Mathews, G. S.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Sandell, G.

    2012-07-10

    We present Herschel PACS photometry of 17 B- to M-type stars in the 30 Myr old Tucana-Horologium Association. This work is part of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme 'Gas in Protoplanetary Systems'. 6 of the 17 targets were found to have infrared excesses significantly greater than the expected stellar IR fluxes, including a previously unknown disk around HD30051. These six debris disks were fitted with single-temperature blackbody models to estimate the temperatures and abundances of the dust in the systems. For the five stars that show excess emission in the Herschel PACS photometry and also have Spitzer IRS spectra, we fit the data with models of optically thin debris disks with realistic grain properties in order to better estimate the disk parameters. The model is determined by a set of six parameters: surface density index, grain size distribution index, minimum and maximum grain sizes, and the inner and outer radii of the disk. The best-fitting parameters give us constraints on the geometry of the dust in these systems, as well as lower limits to the total dust masses. The HD105 disk was further constrained by fitting marginally resolved PACS 70 {mu}m imaging.

  16. Herschel and Spitzer Observations of Slowly Rotating, Nearby Isolated Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Popov, S.; Wachter, S.

    2014-11-01

    Supernova fallback disks around neutron stars have been suspected to influence the evolution of the diverse neutron star populations. Slowly rotating neutron stars are the most promising places to find such disks. Searching for the cold and warm debris of old fallback disks, we carried out Herschel PACS (70 μm, 160 μm) and Spitzer IRAC (3.6 μm, 4.5 μm) observations of eight slowly rotating (P ≈ 3-11 s) nearby (<1 kpc) isolated neutron stars. Herschel detected 160 μm emission (>5σ) at locations consistent with the positions of the neutron stars RX J0806.4-4123 and RX J2143.0+0654. No other significant infrared emission was detected from the eight neutron stars. We estimate probabilities of 63%, 33%, and 3% that, respectively, none, one, or both Herschel PACS 160 μm detections are unrelated excess sources due to background source confusion or an interstellar cirrus. If the 160 μm emission is indeed related to cold (10-22 K) dust around the neutron stars, this dust is absorbing and re-emitting ~10% to ~20% of the neutron stars' X-rays. Such high efficiencies would be at least three orders of magnitude larger than the efficiencies of debris disks around nondegenerate stars. While thin dusty disks around the neutron stars can be excluded as counterparts of the 160 μm emission, dusty asteroid belts constitute a viable option.

  17. The far-infrared behaviour of Herbig Ae/Be discs: Herschel PACS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, N.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Mendigutía, I.; Sandell, G.

    2016-02-01

    Herbig Ae/Be objects are pre-main sequence stars surrounded by gas- and dust-rich circumstellar discs. These objects are in the throes of star and planet formation, and their characterisation informs us of the processes and outcomes of planet formation processes around intermediate mass stars. Here we analyse the spectral energy distributions of disc host stars observed by the Herschel open time key programme "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems". We present Herschel/PACS far-infrared imaging observations of 22 Herbig Ae/Bes and 5 debris discs, combined with ancillary photometry spanning ultraviolet to sub-millimetre wavelengths. From these measurements we determine the diagnostics of disc evolution, along with the total excess, in three regimes spanning near-, mid-, and far-infrared wavelengths. Using appropriate statistical tests, these diagnostics are examined for correlations. We find that the far-infrared flux, where the disc becomes optically thin, is correlated with the millimetre flux, which provides a measure of the total dust mass. The ratio of far-infrared to sub-millimetre flux is found to be greater for targets with discs that are brighter at millimetre wavelengths and that have steeper sub-millimetre slopes. Furthermore, discs with flared geometry have, on average, larger excesses than flat geometry discs. Finally, we estimate the extents of these discs (or provide upper limits) from the observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  18. Report of Some Comets: The Discovery of Uranus and Comets by William, Caroline, and John Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery and drawings of comets by William, Caroline, and John Herschel. The first discovery, by William Herschel, in 1781 from Bath, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society with the title "Report of a Comet," turned out to be Uranus, the first planet ever discovered, Mercury through Saturn having been known since antiquity. William's sister Caroline was given duties of sweeping the skies and turned out to be a discoverer of 8 comets in her own right, in addition to keeping William's notes. Caroline's comets were discovered from Slough between 1786 and 1797. In the process, we also discuss original documents from the archives of the Royal Society and of the Royal Astronomical Society. We conclude by showing comet drawings that we have recently attributed to John Herschel, including Halley's Comet from 1836, recently located in the Ransom Center of the University of Texas at Austin. Acknowledgments: Planetary astronomy at Williams College is supported in part by grant NNX08AO50G from NASA Planetary Astronomy. We thank Peter Hingley of the Royal Astronomical Society and Richard Oram of the Harry Ransom Center of The University of Texas at Austin for their assistance.

  19. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex - The embedded young stellar and protostellar population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaczkowski, Benjamin; Preibisch, Thomas; Ratzka, Thorsten; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Ohlendorf, Henrike; Pekruhl, Stephanie

    2013-07-01

    At a distance of 2.3 kpc, the Carina Nebula is the nearest southern region with a large enough massive stellar population to sample the top of the IMF and displays all phenomena of massive star formation. We have performed a 9 square-degree Herschel far-infrared survey of the Carina Nebula complex (CNC) which revealed, for the first time, the very complex and filamentary small-scale structure of the dense clouds. We discovered 642 objects that are independently detected as point-like sources in at least two of the five Herschel bands. About 75% of these are Class 0 protostars with masses between about one and ten solar masses estimated from radiative transfer modeling. Taking the observational limits into account and extrapolating the observed number of Herschel-detected protostars over the stellar initial mass function suggests that the star formation rate of the CNC is about 0.017 solar masses per year. The spatial distribution of the Herschel young stellar objects (YSO) candidates is highly inhomogeneous and does not follow the distribution of cloud mass. Rather, most Herschel YSO candidates are found at the irradiated edges of clouds and pillars. The currently ongoing star formation process forms only low-mass and intermediate-mass stars, but no massive stars. The characteristic spatial configuration of the YSOs provides support to the picture that the formation of this latest stellar generation is triggered by the advancing ionization fronts. Around the bubble-shaped HII region Gum 31 (containing the young stellar cluster NGC 3324) in the north-western part of the CNC we identified 752 candidate YSOs from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel data and analyzed their spectral energy distributions. Their location in the rim of the bubble is suggestive of their being triggered by a 'collect and collapse' scenario, which agrees well with the observed parameters of the region which we obtained from density and temperature maps from our Herschel data.

  20. The structure of the cognitive revolution: An examination from the philosophy of science

    PubMed Central

    O'Donohue, William; Ferguson, Kyle E.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2003-01-01

    The received view is that psychology has undergone several scientific revolutions similar to those that occurred in the physical sciences. Of these, this paper will consider the cognitive revolution. Because the arguments in favor of the existence of a cognitive revolution are cast using the concepts and terms of revolutionary science, we will examine the cognitive revolution using accounts of revolutionary science advanced by five influential philosophers of science. Specifically, we will draw from the philosophical positions of Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos, Laudan, and Gross for the purpose of discussion. We conclude that no substantive revolution took place according to these accounts. This conclusion is based on data gathered from some of the major participants in the “cognitive revolution” and on a general scholarly survey of the literature. We argue that the so-called cognitive revolution is best characterized as a socio-rhetorical phenomenon. PMID:22478396