Science.gov

Sample records for herschel revolution unveiling

  1. Unveiling the Composite Nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riguccini, Laurie A.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Mullaney, James

    2015-08-01

    DOGs are bright 24um-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. Some of them are characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (T_D ~ 200-1000 K) in the near-IR emission indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an AGN. Whereas DOGs with a fainter 24um flux display a stellar bump and their mid-IR luminosity is believed to be mainly powered by dusty star-formation. Another explanation is that the mid-IR emission still comes from AGN activity but the torus emission is so obscured that it becomes negligible with respect to the emission from the host component.In an effort to characterize the nature of the physical processes underlying their IR emission, we focus on DOGs (F24/FR>982) within the COSMOS field with Herschel data and derive their far-IR properties (e.g., total IR luminosities; mid-to-far IR colors; dust temperatures and masses and AGN contribution) based on SED fitting.Of particular interest are the 24um-bright DOGs (F24>1mJy). They present bluer far-IR/mid-IR colors than the rest of the sample, unveiling the potential presence of an AGN. The AGN contribution to the total 8-1000um flux increases as a function of the rest-frame 8um-luminosity irrespective of the redshift, with a stronger contribution at lower redshift. This confirms that faint DOGs (F24<1mJy) are dominated by star-formation while brighter DOGs show a larger contribution from an AGN.Is this FIR-selection technique allowing us to probe a new population of obscured AGN? Or does it corresponds to already known AGN in the X-rays, NIR or radio? The wealth of multi wavelength data in COSMOS will allow us to describe our results here.

  2. A new 4D trajectory-based approach unveils abnormal LV revolution dynamics in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Andrea; Piras, Paolo; Re, Federica; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Giura, Geltrude; Evangelista, Antonietta; Dominici, Tania; Varano, Valerio; Zachara, Elisabetta; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of left ventricular shape changes during cardiac revolution may be a new step in clinical cardiology to ease early diagnosis and treatment. To quantify these changes, only point registration was adopted and neither Generalized Procrustes Analysis nor Principal Component Analysis were applied as we did previously to study a group of healthy subjects. Here, we extend to patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the original approach and preliminarily include genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals to explore the potential that incumbent pathology might also be detected. Using 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, we recorded left ventricular shape of 48 healthy subjects, 24 patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 3 genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals. We then applied Generalized Procrustes Analysis and Principal Component Analysis and inter-individual differences were cleaned by Parallel Transport performed on the tangent space, along the horizontal geodesic, between the per-subject consensuses and the grand mean. Endocardial and epicardial layers were evaluated separately, different from many ecocardiographic applications. Under a common Principal Component Analysis, we then evaluated left ventricle morphological changes (at both layers) explained by first Principal Component scores. Trajectories' shape and orientation were investigated and contrasted. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to compare these morphometric indicators with traditional 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters. Geometric morphometrics indicators performed better than 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters in recognizing pathology both in systole and diastole. Genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals clustered with patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy during diastole, suggesting that incumbent pathology may indeed be foreseen by these methods. Left

  3. A New 4D Trajectory-Based Approach Unveils Abnormal LV Revolution Dynamics in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, Andrea; Piras, Paolo; Re, Federica; Gabriele, Stefano; Nardinocchi, Paola; Teresi, Luciano; Torromeo, Concetta; Chialastri, Claudia; Schiariti, Michele; Giura, Geltrude; Evangelista, Antonietta; Dominici, Tania; Varano, Valerio; Zachara, Elisabetta; Puddu, Paolo Emilio

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of left ventricular shape changes during cardiac revolution may be a new step in clinical cardiology to ease early diagnosis and treatment. To quantify these changes, only point registration was adopted and neither Generalized Procrustes Analysis nor Principal Component Analysis were applied as we did previously to study a group of healthy subjects. Here, we extend to patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy the original approach and preliminarily include genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals to explore the potential that incumbent pathology might also be detected. Using 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography, we recorded left ventricular shape of 48 healthy subjects, 24 patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 3 genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals. We then applied Generalized Procrustes Analysis and Principal Component Analysis and inter-individual differences were cleaned by Parallel Transport performed on the tangent space, along the horizontal geodesic, between the per-subject consensuses and the grand mean. Endocardial and epicardial layers were evaluated separately, different from many ecocardiographic applications. Under a common Principal Component Analysis, we then evaluated left ventricle morphological changes (at both layers) explained by first Principal Component scores. Trajectories’ shape and orientation were investigated and contrasted. Logistic regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were used to compare these morphometric indicators with traditional 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters. Geometric morphometrics indicators performed better than 3D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography global parameters in recognizing pathology both in systole and diastole. Genotype positive/phenotype negative individuals clustered with patients affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy during diastole, suggesting that incumbent pathology may indeed be foreseen by these methods

  4. A Herschel view of IC 1396 A: Unveiling the different sequences of star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Henning, Thomas; Merín, Bruno; Eiroa, Carlos; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Currie, Thayne

    2014-02-01

    Context. The IC 1396 A globule, located to the west of the young cluster Tr 37, is known to host many very young stars and protostars, and is also assumed to be a site of triggered star formation. Aims: Our aim is to test the triggering mechanisms and sequences leading to star formation in Tr 37 and similar regions. Methods: We mapped IC 1396 A with Herschel/PACS at 70 and 160 μm. The maps reveal the structure of the most embedded parts of the star-forming site in great detail. Results: The Herschel/PACS maps trace the very embedded protostellar objects and the structure of the cloud. PACS data reveal a previously unknown Class 0 object, labeled IC 1396 A-PACS-1, located behind the ionization front. IC 1396 A-PACS-1 is not detectable with Spitzer, but shows marginal X-ray emission. The data also allow the study of three of the Class I intermediate-mass objects within the cloud. We derived approximate cloud temperatures to study the effect and potential interactions between the protostars and the cloud. The Class 0 object is associated with the densest and coldest part of IC 1396 A. Heating in the cloud is dominated by the winds and radiation of the O6.5 star HD 206267 and, to a lesser extent, by the effects of the Herbig Ae star V 390 Cep. The surroundings of the Class I and Class II objects embedded in the cloud also appear warmer than the sourceless areas, although most of the low-mass objects cannot be individually extracted owing to distance and beam dilution. Conclusions: The observations suggest that at least two episodes of star formation have occurred in IC 1396 A. One would have been the origin of the known, ˜1 Myr-old Class I and II objects in the cloud, and a new wave of star formation would have produced the Class 0 source at the tip of the bright-rimmed cloud. From its location and properties, IC 1396 A-PACS-1 is consistent with having been triggered via radiative driven implosion (RDI) induced by HD 206267. The mechanisms behind the formation of the

  5. Herschel observations of Hickson compact groups of galaxies: Unveiling the properties of cold dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.; Appleton, P. N.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Le Floc'h, E.; da Cunha, E.; Alatalo, K.; Cluver, M.

    2014-05-01

    We present a Herschel far-infrared and sub-millimetre (sub-mm) study of a sample of 120 galaxies in 28 Hickson compact groups (HCGs). Fitting their UV to sub-mm spectral energy distributions with the model of da Cunha et al. (2008), we accurately estimate the dust masses, luminosities, and temperatures of the individual galaxies. We find that nearly half of the late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups, those with more than 25% of early-type members and redder UV-optical colours, also have significantly lower dust-to-stellar mass ratios compared to those of actively star-forming galaxies of the same mass found both in HCGs and in the field. Examining their dust-to-gas mass ratios, we conclude that dust was stripped out of these systems as a result of the gravitational and hydrodynamic interactions, experienced owing to previous encounters with other group members. About 40% of the early-type galaxies (mostly lenticulars), in dynamically "old" groups, display dust properties similar to those of the UV-optical red late-type galaxies. Given their stellar masses, star formation rates, and UV-optical colours, we suggest that red late-type and dusty lenticular galaxies represent transition populations between blue star-forming disk galaxies and quiescent early-type ellipticals. On the other hand, both the complete absence of any correlation between the dust and stellar masses of the dusty ellipticals and their enhanced star formation activity, suggest the increase in their gas and dust content due to accretion and merging. Our deep Herschel observations also allow us to detect the presence of diffuse cold intragroup dust in 4 HCGs. We also find that the fraction of 250 μm emission that is located outside of the main bodies of both the red late-type galaxies and the dusty lenticulars is 15-20% of their integrated emission at this band. All these findings are consistent with an evolutionary scenario in which gas dissipation, shocks, and turbulence, in addition to

  6. Herschel observations of Hickson compact groups of galaxies: Unveiling the properties of cold dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitsakis, Th.

    2013-09-01

    We present results of a Herschel far-IR and sub-mm study of a sample of 120 galaxies in 28 Hickson Compact Groups. Using the theoretical model of da Cunha et al. (2008), we have estimated the dust masses, luminosities and temperatures of the individual galaxies. Based on our results, we find that about half of the late-type galaxies in dynamically "old" groups, which were found to display redder UV-optical colors, have significantly lower dust-to-stellar mass ratios compared to those of actively star-forming galaxies of the same mass found both in HCGs and the field. Examining their dust-to-gas ratios we conclude that it is much easier for the dynamical interactions to strip the HI rather than the interstellar dust and H2 out of the galaxies. About 40% of the early-type galaxies (mostly lenticulars), of the dynamically "old" groups, where found to display similar dust properties with the "red" late-type galaxies. We detect the presence of diffuse cold dust in 4 HCGs and we estimate its mass. In addition, we quantify the fraction of the 250Ïm emission, which is located out of the main bodies of the "red" late-type galaxies to be 20% of their total emission at this band. Our findings suggest that the "red" late-type, as well as these lenticular galaxies should consist the transition populations between the star-forming and the quiescent galaxies sequences. On the other hand, the complete absence of any correlation between the dust and stellar masses of the elliptical galaxies (about 30% of the far-IR detected early-type galaxies), implies the external origin of their dust content.

  7. Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrahy, Dennis J.

    One of a series of social studies units designed to develop the reading and writing skills of low achievers, this student activity book focuses on the theme of revolution. The unit can be used for high school classes, individual study in alternative and continuing high schools, and adult education classes. Following an introduction, material is…

  8. John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published an account of his graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He had hoped to be the first to determine such orbits, but Felix Savary in France and Johann Franz Encke in Germany beat him to the punch using analytical methods. Herschel was convinced, however, that his graphical method was much superior to analytical methods, because it used the judgment of the hand and eye to correct the inevitable errors of observation. Line graphs of the kind used by Herschel became common only in the 1830s, so Herschel was introducing a new method. He also found computation fatiguing and devised a "wheeled machine" to help him out. Encke was skeptical of Herschel's methods. He said that he lived for calculation and that the English would be better astronomers if they calculated more. It is difficult to believe that the entire Scientific Revolution of the 17th century took place without graphs and that only a few examples appeared in the 18th century. Herschel promoted the use of graphs, not only in astronomy, but also in the study of meteorology and terrestrial magnetism. Because he was the most prominent scientist in England, Herschel's advocacy greatly advanced graphical methods.

  9. Unveiling Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lakhtakia, Ritu; Burney, Ikram; Qureshi, Asim; Al-Azawi, Sinan; Al-Badi, Hamid; Al-Hajri, Shaikha

    2015-01-01

    This article narrates a multifaceted educational journey undertaken by a medical student through a weekly SCRAPS (surgery, clinical disciplines, radiology, anatomy, psychiatry and laboratory sciences) clinico-pathological meeting held in the College of Medicine & Health Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman. Through a presentation titled ‘Unveiling Cancer’, the multidisciplinary and interprofessional audience witnessed a simulated interaction between a medical student, a technologist peer and tutors in medicine, pathology and radiology. The presentation was based on the complexities of presentation, diagnosis and management of a patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in the aftermath of a bone marrow transplantation. After describing the case, the student shared with the audience a spectrum of learning objectives, which included integration in the complex world of contemporary medicine, insight into the triumphs and travails of technology (immunohistochemistry) and peer collaboration, communication and mentorship. PMID:26355844

  10. Unveiling Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lakhtakia, Ritu; Burney, Ikram; Qureshi, Asim; Al-Azawi, Sinan; Al-Badi, Hamid; Al-Hajri, Shaikha

    2015-08-01

    This article narrates a multifaceted educational journey undertaken by a medical student through a weekly SCRAPS (surgery, clinical disciplines, radiology, anatomy, psychiatry and laboratory sciences) clinico-pathological meeting held in the College of Medicine & Health Sciences at Sultan Qaboos University in Muscat, Oman. Through a presentation titled 'Unveiling Cancer', the multidisciplinary and interprofessional audience witnessed a simulated interaction between a medical student, a technologist peer and tutors in medicine, pathology and radiology. The presentation was based on the complexities of presentation, diagnosis and management of a patient with anaplastic large cell lymphoma, a rare type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, in the aftermath of a bone marrow transplantation. After describing the case, the student shared with the audience a spectrum of learning objectives, which included integration in the complex world of contemporary medicine, insight into the triumphs and travails of technology (immunohistochemistry) and peer collaboration, communication and mentorship. PMID:26355844

  11. The Herschels and Modern Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerke, Agnes Mary

    2010-05-01

    Preface; 1. Early life of William Herschel; 2. The King's astronomer; 3. The explorer of the heavens; 4. Herschel's special investigations; 5. The influence of Herschel's career on modern astronomy; 6. Caroline Herschel; 7. Sir John Herschel at Cambridge and Slough; 8. Expedition to the Cape; 9. Life at Collingwood; 10. Writings and experimental investigations; Index.

  12. The Herschel Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdugo, Eva

    2015-12-01

    The Herschel mission required a Science Archive able to serve data to very different users: The own Data Analysis Software (both Pipeline and Interactive Analysis), the consortia of the different instruments and the scientific community. At the same time, the KP consortia were committed to deliver to the Herschel Science Centre, the processed products corresponding to the data obtained as part of their Science Demonstration Phase and the Herschel Archive should include the capability to store and deliver them. I will explain how the current Herschel Science Archive is designed to cover all these requirements.

  13. The Herschel ATLAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eales, S.; Dunne, L.; Clements, D.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Maddox, S.; Negrello, M.; Serjeant, S.; Thompson, M. A.; Van Kampen, E.; Amblard, A.; Andreani, P.; Baes, M.; Beelen, A.; Bendo, G. J.; Bertoldi, F.; Benford, D.; Bock, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel ATLAS is the largest open-time key project that will be carried out on the Herschel Space Observatory. It will survey 570 sq deg of the extragalactic sky, 4 times larger than all the other Herschel extragalactic surveys combined, in five far-infrared and submillimeter bands. We describe the survey, the complementary multiwavelength data sets that will be combined with the Herschel data, and the six major science programs we are undertaking. Using new models based on a previous submillimeter survey of galaxies, we present predictions of the properties of the ATLAS sources in other wave bands.

  14. Herschel's Interference Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkalskis, Benjamin S.; Freeman, J. Reuben

    2000-01-01

    Describes Herschel's demonstration of interference arising from many coherent rays. Presents a method for students to reproduce this demonstration and obtain beautiful multiple-beam interference patterns. (CCM)

  15. Surgical revolutions.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    Many surgical revolutions distinguish the history and evolution of surgery. They come in different sizes and exert a variable effect on the development and practice of the discipline. As science and technology rapidly evolve, so too does the creation of new paradigms, ideas and innovations or discoveries for the improvement of the surgical sciences. Surgical revolutions are not new, and have existed for centuries even though they have been more frequently recognized since the middle of the 19th century, 20th century and down to the present. Surgical revolutionaries are indispensable in the conception and completion of any surgical revolution. However, scientific and technological advances have supported the culmination of each revolution. PMID:18615311

  16. Dunes of Herschel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    4 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark-toned sand dunes on the floor of the large martian impact crater, Herschel, located in the Terra Cimmeria region of Mars. The winds responsible for these dunes blew from the northeast (upper right).

    Location near: 15.7oS, 228.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  17. Eisenhower Unveils Marshall Bust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Mrs. George C. Marshall unveil the bronze bust of General George C. Marshall during the dedication ceremony of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, on September 8, 1960. On October 21, 1959, President Eisenhower directed the transfer of personnel from the Redstone Arsenal's Army Ballistic Missile Agency Development Operations Division to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A new field installation of NASA was designated as George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and its complex was formed within the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. MSFC began its operation on July 1, 1960 after the transfer ceremony, with Dr. Werher von Braun as Center Director.

  18. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  19. Charles Darwin and John Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, B.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts of Charles Darwin, both through the former's book, Natural Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter's lifelong work on the subject.

  20. The REAL Caroline Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M. A.

    2003-12-01

    Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) is famous as the discoverer of eight comets, and the author of an Index to Flamsteed's British Catalogue of Stars, which the Royal Society published at its own expense. She was the devoted collaborator of her brother William during the twenty years he spent 'sweeping' for nebulae; and in old age she reorganized William's 2500 nebulae into a zone catalog that enabled his son John to re-examine these objects systematically, a work for which she was awarded a Gold Medal of the RAS. Nevertheless, study of her autobiographies and other manuscripts shows that her attitude to astronomy was ambivalent. William had rescued her from drudgery in Hanover, and her primary concern was to express her gratitude to him, even when his interests turned from music to astronomy and as a result she was required to abandon her career as a singer. Yet although the decision was hers, she often resented the sacrifice she had made. She emerges as a complex and often troubled personality, very different from the serene observer of legend.

  1. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  2. John Herschel and astronomy: a bicentennial appraisal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M. A.

    An assessment is given of John Herschel's overall contributions to nineteenth century astronomy. John Herschel built on his pioneering father William Herschel's foundations, with revisions and extensions to the southern hemisphere. His work, incorporated into his general treatises on astronomy, had a major influence on the direction of astronomical progress.

  3. John Herschel: Britain's first modern physical scientist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowe, M. J.

    The author presents a sketch of the life and contributions to science of Sir John F. W. Herschel (1792 - 1871). One of the theses he develops is that John Herschel can meaningfully be described as Britain's first modern physical scientist. In addition to developing this thesis, the author makes some remarks about lesser known aspects of Herschel's life.

  4. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  5. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  6. The Herschel knighthoods under scrutiny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-06-01

    William Herschel and his son John, respectively the first and fourth Presidents of the Royal Astronomical Society, were each "knights" of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order and were (and are) commonly referred to as "Sir". But, as Michael Hoskin explains, the Guelphic Order, being foreign, in fact conferred no title on British holders.

  7. The Green Revolution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  8. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  9. An evergreen revolution.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, M S

    2000-04-01

    The term 'Green Revolution' was coined in 1968 to indicate revolutionary improvements in crop yield in several Asian countries. Many of these improvements came at the cost of adverse environmental effects in areas subjected to intensive farming. However, where population pressure is high, there is no option except to produce more food. Productivity must increase, but in ways which are environmentally safe, economically viable and socially sustainable. This has been christened an 'Evergreen Revolution'. PMID:11190235

  10. The Cosmology of William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M.

    2009-08-01

    William Herschel was an amateur astronomer for half his life, until his discovery of Uranus earned him a royal pension. He then set himself to study "the construction of the heavens" with great reflectors, and discovered over 2,500 nebulae and star clusters. Clusters had clearly formed by the action of gravity, and so scattered clusters would in time become ever more compressed: scattered clusters were young, compressed clusters old. This marked the end of the 'clockwork' universe of Newton and Leibniz.

  11. Herschel flight models sorption coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duband, L.; Clerc, L.; Ercolani, E.; Guillemet, L.; Vallcorba, R.

    2008-03-01

    The Herschel and Planck satellites will be jointly launched on an ARIANE 5 in 2008. The Herschel payload consists of three instruments built by international scientific consortia, heterodyne instrument for first (HIFI), photo-conductor array camera and spectrometer (PACS) and spectral and photometric imaging receiver (SPIRE). The spacecraft provides the environment for astronomical observations in the infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength range requiring cryogenic temperatures for the cold focal plane units. The spectral and photometric imaging receiver (SPIRE) will cover the 200-670 μm spectral range using bolometric detectors, as the photo-conductor array camera and spectrometer (PACS) will cover the 60-210 μm spectral range. Both instruments SPIRE and PACS feature detectors operating at 300 mK. This cooling will be effected by two helium sorption coolers developed at the Service des Basses Températures of the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA-SBT). These coolers based on an evaporative cooling cycle features no moving parts and can be recycled indefinitely pending the availability of a cold heat sink at temperature below 3 K. Several models were developed in the course of the Herschel program and this paper deals with the design, manufacturing and qualification of the flight model coolers.

  12. The Chemical Revolution revisited.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hasok

    2015-02-01

    I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination. PMID:26109414

  13. Ireland unveils new license regime

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-23

    Ireland has unveiled new terns designed to integrate the licensing regime for oil and gas exploration and development. They apply to new exploration and development authorizations and replace the exclusive offshore licensing terns introduced in 1975. Holders of existing licenses are still subject to the 1975 terms but can choose the new terns under appropriate circumstances. Frontier exploration licenses are currently available to complement the standard and deepwater exploration licenses in use. Rental fees are now spread evenly over the duration of the license, thereby eliminating large upfront payments. Lease extensions also have been introduced to enable operators to judge commerciality of a discovery beyond the set license period.

  14. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  15. Architecture and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Porter; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Traces how technological changes affect the architecture of the workplace. Traces these effects from the industrial revolution up through the computer revolution. Offers suggested designs for the computerized office of today and tomorrow. (JM)

  16. The Herschel Point Source Catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marton, Gabor; Schulz, Bernhard; Altieri, Bruno; Calzoletti, Luca; Kiss, Csaba; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Paladini, Roberta; Papageorgiou, Andreas; Pearson, Chris; Rector, John; Shupe, David; Valtchanov, Ivan; Verebélyi, Erika; Xu, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was the fourth cornerstone mission in the European Space Agency (ESA) science programme with excellent broad band imaging capabilities in the submillimetre and far-infrared part of the spectrum. Although the spacecraft finished its observations in 2013, it left a large legacy dataset that is far from having been fully scrutinized and still has potential for new scientific discoveries. This is specifically true for the photometric observations of the PACS and SPIRE instruments that scanned >10% of the sky at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 microns. Some source catalogs have already been produced by individual observing programs, but there are many observations that would never be analyzed for their full source content. To maximize the science return of the SPIRE and PACS data sets, our international team of instrument experts is in the process of building the Herschel Point Source Catalog (HPSC) from all scan map observations. Our homogeneous source extraction enables a systematic and unbiased comparison of sensitivity across the different Herschel fields that single programs will generally not be able to provide. The extracted point sources will contain individual YSOs of our Galaxy, unresolved YSO clusters in resolved nearby galaxies and unresolved galaxies of the local and distant Universe that are related to star formation. Such a huge dataset will help scientists better understand the evolution from interstellar clouds to individual stars. Furthermore the analysis of stellar clusters and the star formation on galactic scales will add more details to the understanding of star formation laws through time.We present our findings on comparison of different source detection and photometric tools. First results of the extractions are shown along with the description of our pipelines and catalogue entries. We also provide an additional science product, the structure noise map, that is used for the quality assessment of the catalogue in

  17. Cyberinfrastructure: The Second Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bement, Arden L.

    2007-01-01

    The engine of change for the next revolution is cyberinfrastructure, a comprehensive phenomenon that involves the creation, dissemination, preservation, and application of knowledge. It adds new dimensions that greatly increase transformational potential. Cyberinfrastructure combines complex elements to create a dynamic system. It eclipses its…

  18. The Skills Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The government, through several White and Green Papers, has promoted the 'Skills Revolution'. This requires central direction and coordination of a wide range of policies, practices and partnerships. But there are several difficulties: the impossibility of micromanaging the complex social and economic system; the dominance of the rather limited…

  19. Nicaragua: Literacy and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenal, Fernando; Miller, Valerie

    1982-01-01

    A national adult literacy program was established in Nicaragua in 1979, after the Sandanista revolution, as part of a plan for socio-economic development. Program development, implementation and evaluation methods, curriculum content, educational methodology, and teacher training methods are described. (AM)

  20. The Brain Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1998-01-01

    A cognitive-science revolution, reminiscent of Dewey's Progressive Education Movement, will profoundly affect future educational policy and practice. A comprehensive brain theory will emerge out of Darwin's discoveries about natural selection as a scientific explanation for biodiversity, Einstein's theoretical reconceptualization of…

  1. The Unfinished Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedgmore, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The 157 Group recently published "Adult further education--the unfinished revolution," a policy paper setting out proposals for a truly market-driven further education sector in which the choices of individuals and individual employers are central in determining the programmes that are offered. Their overall aim is to allow institutions to respond…

  2. The High Tech Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russel, Robert Arnold

    1986-01-01

    This discussion of the effects of Information Revolution on special libraries highlights changes in clients that consume services and approve budgets (institutions, corporations, government departments); interrelated triggers to informationization (network organization, information technology, human capital); and three types of information for…

  3. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  4. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  5. Helping Students Analyze Revolutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian

    2012-01-01

    A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms, revolutions…

  6. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas E.; Hamilton, Ryan T.; Tappert, Claus; Hoffman, Douglas I.; Campbell, Ryan K. E-mail: rthamilt@nmsu.edu E-mail: dhoffman@ipac.caltech.edu

    2013-01-01

    We have used the PACS instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory to observe eight cataclysmic variables at 70 and 160 {mu}m. Of these eight objects, only AM Her was detected. We have combined the Herschel results with ground-based, Spitzer, and WISE observations to construct spectral energy distributions for all of the targets. For the two dwarf novae in the sample, SS Cyg and U Gem, we find that their infrared luminosities are completely dominated by their secondary stars. For the two highly magnetic 'polars' in our survey, AM Her and EF Eri, we find that their mid-infrared excesses, previously attributed to circumbinary dust emission, can be fully explained by cyclotron emission. The WISE light curves for both sources show large, orbitally modulated variations that are identically phased to their near-IR light curves. We propose that significant emission from the lowest cyclotron harmonics (n {<=} 3) is present in EF Eri and AM Her. Previously, such emission would have been presumed to be optically thick, and not provide significant orbitally modulated flux. This suggests that the accretion onto polars is more complicated than assumed in the simple models developed for these two sources. We develop a model for the near-/mid-IR light curves for WZ Sge with an L2 donor star that shows that the ellipsoidal variations from its secondary star are detected. We conclude that none of the targets surveyed have dusty circumbinary disks.

  7. Filaments, ridges and a mini-starburst - HOBYS' view of high mass star formation with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T.; Motte, F.; Didelon, P.

    2012-03-01

    With its unprecedented spatial resolution and high sensitivity, Herschel is revolutionising our understanding of high mass star formation and the interstellar medium (ISM). In particular, Herschel is unveiling the filamentary structure and molecular cloud constituents of the ISM where star formation takes place. The Herschel Imaging Survey of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS; Motte, Zavagno, Bontemps, see http://www.herschel.fr/cea/hobys/en/index.php) key program targets burgeoning young stellar objects with the aim of characterising them and the environments in which they form. HOBYS has already proven fruitful with many clear examples of high-mass star formation in nearby molecular cloud complexes (e.g. Motte et al., 2010). Through multi-wavelength Herschel observations I will introduce select regions of the HOBYS program, including Vela C, M16 and W48 to start. These data are rich with filamentary structures and a wealth of sources which span a large mass range including, low, intermediate and high-mass objects in the pre-collapse or protostellar phase of formation, many of which will proceed to form stars. The natal filaments themselves come in many shapes and sizes, they can form thick ridge-like structures, be dispersed in low column density regions or cluster in higher density regions. In Vela C, high-mass star formation proceeds preferentially in high column density supercritical filaments, called ridges, which may result from the constructive convergence of flows (Hill et al., 2011). I will present other examples of ridges identified in HOBYS regions. In addition, I will present the latest results on the Eagle Nebula (M16). This region was made iconic by Hubble, but only Herschel can trace the cold, dense early prestellar phases of star formation, and their natal interstellar filaments, in this infamous star-forming complex. The cavity ionised by the nearby OB cluster in M16 serves to heat the Pillars of Creation and the surrounding interstellar filaments

  8. Caroline Herschel: 'the unquiet heart'.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Caroline Herschel was famous in her own time as the discoverer of eight comets, but of even greater significance was the help she gave her brother William in his exploration of 'the construction of the heavens'. She acted as his amanuensis during night watches, wrote up neat copies of their observing records and prepared his papers for publication. She also compiled an index to John Flamsteed's Star Catalogue, which was published by the Royal Society at its own expense, and after William's death she reorganized his catalogues of nebulae so that his son John could revise his father's work. Yet Caroline's was a hard and largely loveless life, for which she found the recognition that came her way a scant consolation. PMID:15749149

  9. Strategy as revolution.

    PubMed

    Hamel, G

    1996-01-01

    How often does the strategic-planning process start with senior executives asking what the rest of the organization can teach them about the future? Not often enough, argues Gary Hamel. In many companies, strategy making is an elitist procedure and ¿strategy¿ consists of nothing more than following the industry's rules. But more and more companies, intent on overturning the industrial order, are rewriting those rules. What can industry incumbents do? Either surrender the future to revolutionary challengers or revolutionize the way their companies create strategy. What is needed is not a tweak to the traditional strategic-planning process, Hamel says, but a new philosophical foundation: strategy is revolution. Hamel offers ten principles to help a company think about the challenge of creating truly revolutionary strategies. Perhaps the most fundamental principle is that so-called strategic planning doesn't produce true strategic innovation. The traditional planning process is little more than a rote procedure in which deeply held assumptions and industry conventions are reinforced rather than challenged. Such a process harnesses only a tiny proportion of an organization's creative potential. If there is to be any hope of industry revolution, senior managers must give up their monopoly on the creation of strategy. They must embrace a truly democratic process that can give voice to the revolutionaries that exist in every company. If senior managers are unwilling to do this, employees must become strategy activists. The opportunities for industry revolution are mostly unexplored. One thing is certain: if you don't let the revolutionaries challenge you from within, they will eventually challenge you from without--in the marketplace. PMID:10158475

  10. Tracking a Global Academic Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.; Reisberg, Liz; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    A global revolution has been taking place in higher education during the past half-century. In the educators' view, four fundamental and interrelated forces have impelled the current academic revolution: the "massification" of higher education, globalization, the advent of the knowledge society and the importance of research universities within…

  11. The Scientific Revolution: Paradigm Lost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Traces the historiography of the scientific revolution through a bibliographic essay. Examines trends in recent scholarly publications in an effort to identify new areas of research. Maintains that the study of the scientific revolution is problematic and cannot be reduced to simple analysis. (RW)

  12. Three Steps to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosling, W.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the uses of television in education and considers the future in relationship to the microelectronics revolution. New microelectronic technology, cheap information storage, and cheap transmission of information are discussed as major components of a revolution in educational television use. (Author/BK)

  13. The Industrial Revolution: A Misnomer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Rondo

    1982-01-01

    Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)

  14. OPACs and the Mobile Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liston, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, one of the hottest topics in the IT world has been the coming mobile revolution. While there's been some arguing over the details, the fundamental tenet of the mobile revolution is that lots and lots of people will start accessing web content from handheld portable devices instead of using a traditional laptop or…

  15. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  16. Women and the American Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Contends that anyone teaching the history of the American Revolution today faces the challenge of including the role of women. Asserts that historians continue to debate whether the changes in women's role and status were necessary or incidental outcomes of the Revolution. (CFR)

  17. Herschel and the Molecular Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Helmich, F. P.

    2006-01-01

    Over the next decade, space-based missions will open up the universe to high spatial and spectral resolution studies at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. This will allow us to study, in much greater detail, the composition and the origin and evolution of molecules in space. Moreover, molecular transitions in these spectral ranges provide a sensitive probe of the dynamics and the physical and chemical conditions in a wide range of objects at scales ranging from budding planetary systems to galactic and extragalactic sizes. Hence, these missions provide us with the tools to study key astrophysical and astrochemical processes involved in the formation and evolution of planets, stars, and galaxies. These new missions can be expected to lead to the detection of many thousands of new spectral features. Identification, analysis and interpretation of these features in terms of the physical and chemical characteristics of the astronomical sources will require detailed astronomical modeling tools supported by laboratory measurements and theoretical studies of chemical reactions and collisional excitation rates on species of astrophysical relevance. These data will have to be made easily accessible to the scientific community through web-based data archives. In this paper, we will review the Herschel mission and its expected impact on our understanding of the molecular universe.

  18. Caroline Herschel as an Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskin, M. A.

    2005-08-01

    Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) made an immense contribution to astronomy as amanuensis to her brother William during his sweeps for nebulae that resulted in catalogues of 2507 nebulae and clusters, but she was also an observer on her own account. From their arrival near Windsor in the fall of 1782 until William required her services at the beginning of 1784, she was free to observe when she so wished. During this time she discovered a number of nebulae, and, more importantly, demonstrated to William that nebulae were there in such numbers that even an amateur with a primitive refractor could find them. There then followed years when William's need for her help limited the time for her own observing, but in 1786, during his absence abroad, she discovered her first comet. In the period between William's marriage in 1788 (which relieved her of household duties) and her inexplicable move into lodgings in 1797, she found seven more, including Encke's Comet. In my paper I assess her work as an observer and discuss the objects she found.

  19. Revolutions in the earth sciences

    PubMed Central

    Allègre, C.

    1999-01-01

    The 20th century has been a century of scientific revolutions for many disciplines: quantum mechanics in physics, the atomic approach in chemistry, the nonlinear revolution in mathematics, the introduction of statistical physics. The major breakthroughs in these disciplines had all occurred by about 1930. In contrast, the revolutions in the so-called natural sciences, that is in the earth sciences and in biology, waited until the last half of the century. These revolutions were indeed late, but they were no less deep and drastic, and they occurred quite suddenly. Actually, one can say that not one but three revolutions occurred in the earth sciences: in plate tectonics, planetology and the environment. They occurred essentially independently from each other, but as time passed, their effects developed, amplified and started interacting. These effects continue strongly to this day.

  20. On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is “statistically significant.” On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are “insignificant.” Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

  1. On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2013-08-01

    We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is "statistically significant." On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are "insignificant." Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

  2. Contraception: a social revolution.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela

    2007-03-01

    Modern contraceptive technology is more than a technical advance: it has brought about a true social revolution, the 'first reproductive revolution' in the history of mankind. This latter was followed in rapid succession by other major changes in human reproductive strategies. In the human species, sexual activity began to lose its exclusive reproductive meaning at an early stage of its evolution. Human beings must have practiced non-conceptive sex from the outset and therefore must have had a need to avoid, rather than to seek conception during intercourse from time immemorial. The search for methods to control fertility went on for millennia, but a valid solution was only found during the twentieth century, when the population explosion had forever changed the shape of humanity: in only one century the total population of the planet had grown from some 1.6 billion to more than 6 billion. That increase will remain unique in the history of Homo sapiens. At the global level, contraception provided a tool to deal with overpopulation and, in only 50 years, went a long way towards its resolution. However, to solve the problem, national and international family planning initiatives were required. For individuals, contraception also meant a revolution. It allowed sexual intercourse without reproduction. Only 25 years later, in vitro fertilisation permitted childbearing without sexual intercourse. Other advances followed and now cloning, that is, reproduction without the two gametes, looms on the horizon. Such a series of rapid, major changes in human reproductive strategies has confused many. For this reason, a constructive dialogue between sociology and biology is mandatory. Contraception is a powerful tool to promote equity between sexes; it improves women's status in the family and in the community. Avoiding pregnancy during the teens increases opportunities for a young woman's education, training and employment. By controlling their fertility, women get a chance to

  3. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in…

  4. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution

    PubMed Central

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  5. Scrutinizing the epigenetics revolution.

    PubMed

    Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe

    2014-11-01

    Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as 'epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID

  6. Herschel-detected LBGs at 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojno, Jennifer L.; Nichols, M. T.; Haberzettl, L.; Williger, G. M.; Leist, B.

    2014-01-01

    Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) are well-known indicators of star formation. By analyzing the dust of moderate redshift ( 2) LBGs, we can further investigate the properties of these strongly star forming galaxies at an epoch when global star formation is expected to peak. Using data observed by Herschel and publicly available via PEP (PACS Evolutionary Probe) and the HerMES (Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey) surveys, we derive far-infrared fluxes for our color-selected sample of 73 LBGs in the GOODS-S field. This sample includes a subsample of 14 infrared-luminous LBGs (ILLBGs). Measuring fluxes in the 70, 100, and 160 µm PACS bands, as well as the 250, 350, 500 µm SPIRE bands, we fit modified Planck curves and model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to make estimations for dust temperatures and masses for our Herschel-detected LBGs.

  7. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  8. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF INTERSTELLAR CHLORONIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, David A.; Indriolo, Nick; Roueff, Evelyne; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; Snell, Ronald L.; Lis, Dariusz; Monje, Raquel; Phillips, Thomas G.; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Black, John H.; Larsson, Bengt; De Luca, Massimo; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Gupta, Harshal; Melnick, Gary J.; Menten, Karl M.; Nagy, Zsofia; and others

    2012-03-20

    Using the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared, we have observed para-chloronium (H{sub 2}Cl{sup +}) toward six sources in the Galaxy. We detected interstellar chloronium absorption in foreground molecular clouds along the sight lines to the bright submillimeter continuum sources Sgr A (+50 km s{sup -1} cloud) and W31C. Both the para-H{sup 35}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} and para-H{sup 37}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} isotopologues were detected, through observations of their 1{sub 11}-0{sub 00} transitions at rest frequencies of 485.42 and 484.23 GHz, respectively. For an assumed ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of 3, the observed optical depths imply that chloronium accounts for {approx}4%-12% of chlorine nuclei in the gas phase. We detected interstellar chloronium emission from two sources in the Orion Molecular Cloud 1: the Orion Bar photodissociation region and the Orion South condensation. For an assumed OPR of 3 for chloronium, the observed emission line fluxes imply total beam-averaged column densities of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} and {approx}1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, respectively, for chloronium in these two sources. We obtained upper limits on the para-H{sup 35}{sub 2}Cl{sup +} line strengths toward H{sub 2} Peak 1 in the Orion Molecular cloud and toward the massive young star AFGL 2591. The chloronium abundances inferred in this study are typically at least a factor {approx}10 larger than the predictions of steady-state theoretical models for the chemistry of interstellar molecules containing chlorine. Several explanations for this discrepancy were investigated, but none has proven satisfactory, and thus the large observed abundances of chloronium remain puzzling.

  9. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    ScienceCinema

    Lemonick, Michael [Princeton University and Time Magazine, Princeton, New Jersey, United States

    2010-01-08

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus?the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  10. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonick, Michael

    2008-11-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus—the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  11. William Herschel, the First Observational Cosmologist

    SciTech Connect

    Lemonick, Michael

    2008-11-12

    In the late 1700s, a composer, orchestra director and soloist named William Herschel became fascinated with astronomy, and, having built his own reflecting telescope, went out in his garden in Bath, England, one night and discovered Uranus - the first planet in human history ever found by an individual. The feat earned him a lifetime pension from King George III. But Herschel considered the discovery to be relatively unimportant in comparison to his real work: understanding the composition, structure and evolution of the universe. In pursuing that work, he became the first observational cosmologist.

  12. Germany unveils €18bn research plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-07-01

    The German government has unveiled an ambitious plan to inject a total of €18bn into teaching and research over the next decade. The German chancellor Angela Merkel, who has a degree in physics, announced that she was releasing the funds despite concerns from her social-democrat coalition partners that financing the package could be difficult in the economic downturn.

  13. Revised list of Sir William Herschel's Fields of Diffuse Nebulosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latusseck, A.

    2008-12-01

    William Herschel's catalogue of more than 2500 nonstellar celestial objects is without doubt one of the great astronomical achievements of this exceptional astronomer. Largely unknown, however, is a list containing fifty-two fields of extensive nebulosity, which Herschel published in 1811 as a supporting argument to his nebular hypothesis (Herschel, 1811: 275-276), all of which were observed as a by-product of his sweeps between 1783 and 1802. For the purpose of a final revision of Herschel's objects, his sister Caroline's copies of the eight observing books containing the results of his decade-long sweeps (Herschel, Herschel and Herschel, 2004) were analyzed. As a result, a number of errors and inaccuracies were found and corrected. Furthermore, the terminology used to describe the observed nebulosities--which differed widely from that used by Herschel to describe non-stellar objects in his better-known catalogues of nebulae--was investigated in order to obtain a clearer impression of the appearance of Herschel's objects. The resulting revised list, being one principal result of the review of Herschel's list of fifty-two nebulosities, contains corrected physical information on each of the nebulosities. It further gives estimates on the reliability of Herschel's observations and finally summarizes all of the noticed peculiarities in a separate column.

  14. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  15. Nanosciences: Evolution or revolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautrat, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    In miniaturized objects fabricated by modern technology the smallest linear size may be of a few nanometers. In the field of microelectronics, the advantages of such a miniaturization are huge (increased complexity and reliability, reduced costs). The technology is now approaching the limits where further size reduction will be impossible, except for very novel techniques such as molecular electronics. Miniaturization research has also led to the discovery of nanometric objects such as carbon nanotubes, which turn out to be particularly appropriate for inventing new materials. Miniaturization techniques have been progressively applied in other fields, with the hope of obtaining improvements similar to those encountered in microelectronics. Examples are biochips, which concentrate on a few cm 2 the recognition of ADN sequences, or 'lab-on-a-chip' devices, each of which constitutes a whole laboratory of chemical analysis, or MEMs (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems). New therapies will use miniaturized objects with multiple functions: For instance a nanoparticle can both recognize the target organ thanks to an appropriate protein, and deliver the therapeutic molecule to this target. These results have only been possible through new observation instruments, able to observe and manipulate nano objects. Is the observed evolution really a revolution of science and techniques? This is a point discussed in the conclusion, which also deals with risks associated to nanotechnologies, while the need for a social regulation is stressed.

  16. China's revolution in health.

    PubMed

    Miller, N N; Strickler, J C

    1980-01-01

    Since the revolution and the overthrow of the Gang of Four, China has embarked upon a program of modernization, internationalization, and technological development. The sloganeering campaign for general health as espoused by Chairman Mao is as follows: 1) prevention, including immunizations and early illness detection; 2) serve the workers, peasants, and soldiers; 3) medical work integrated into all other modernization efforts; and 4) combine traditional and Western medicine. The mass campaign aims to involve individuals in improving their health care facilities at the same time they are involved in production of goods and services. Rural workers are mobilized in mass cleanup and prevention campaigns. Of the 8.7 million health workers, nearly 2 million are barefoot doctors, or other types of doctors serving at the lowest rung of paramedical service. Basic services are widely available. Costs are low, access is easy. For about 95% of illnesses the system works very well. Patients with illnesses requiring high technology care, e.g., organ transplant, cannot survive. Chairman Mao codified traditional medicine as a curriculum component for education; it is based on ancient West-Central Chinese practices, mostly from the Han people. The 4 main components are theory, diagnosis and prescription, herbal medicine, and accupuncture. PMID:12336183

  17. The Copernican Revolution Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.

    1999-12-01

    The rapid pace of modern astronomy seems driven by technological advances: larger telescopes, new detectors, a wider spectral range, more powerful computers. In contrast, the revolution in astronomy initiated by Nicolaus Copernicus' De revolutionibus seems slow and unrelated to any new observations; it was an idea ``pleasing to the mind." On aesthetic grounds but without empirical proof Copernicus argued for 1) the perfection of the circle, and 2) the elegance of the heliocentric plan. This prize lecture will argue that in fact the slow acceptance of Copernicus' radical heliocentric cosmology resulted primarily because Copernicus was far in advance of the technological developments needed to test his hypotheses. Tycho Brahe's precision instruments (and his failed campaign to find the parallax of Mars) produced the observational base for Kepler's physical astronomy, while in Galileo's hands the telescope provided evidence from the phases of Venus that disproved the Ptolemaic arrangement. Once the new instrumentation opened the way for observational tests, Copernicus' insistence on the uniform, circular motion fell by the wayside, but his other grand aesthetic vision, the heliocentric cosmology, found relatively rapid adoption. The lecture will include vignettes from our three-decades-long search for annotated copies of Copernicus' book, leading to the census of 270 copies of the first edition (Nuremberg, 1543) and nearly 320 copies of the second edition (Basel, 1566).

  18. The HERSCHEL/PACS early Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieprecht, E.; Wetzstein, M.; Huygen, R.; Vandenbussche, B.; De Meester, W.

    2006-07-01

    ESA's Herschel Space Observatory to be launched in 2007, is the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength range (60 - 670 microns). The Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) is one of the three science instruments. It contains two Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays and two bolometer arrays to perform imaging line spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the 60 - 210 micron wavelength band. The HERSCHEL ground segment (Herschel Common Science System - HCSS) is implemented using JAVA technology and written in a common effort by the HERSCHEL Science Center and the three instrument teams. The PACS Common Software System (PCSS) is based on the HCSS and used for the online and offline analysis of PACS data. For telemetry bandwidth reasons PACS science data are partially processed on board, compressed, cut into telemetry packets and transmitted to the ground. These steps are instrument mode dependent. We will present the software model which allows to reverse the discrete on board processing steps and evaluate the data. After decompression and reconstruction the detector data and instrument status information are organized in two main PACS Products. The design of these JAVA classes considers the individual sampling rates, data formats, memory and performance optimization aspects and comfortable user interfaces.

  19. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn’s famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn’s account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of “higher” cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool’s motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn’s famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  20. Revolutions in Neuroscience: Tool Development.

    PubMed

    Bickle, John

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Kuhn's famous model of the components and dynamics of scientific revolutions is still dominant to this day across science, philosophy, and history. The guiding philosophical theme of this article is that, concerning actual revolutions in neuroscience over the past 60 years, Kuhn's account is wrong. There have been revolutions, and new ones are brewing, but they do not turn on competing paradigms, anomalies, or the like. Instead, they turn exclusively on the development of new experimental tools. I adopt a metascientific approach and examine in detail the development of two recent neuroscience revolutions: the impact of engineered genetically mutated mammals in the search for causal mechanisms of "higher" cognitive functions; and the more recent impact of optogenetics and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). The two key metascientific concepts, I derive from these case studies are a revolutionary new tool's motivating problem, and its initial and second-phase hook experiments. These concepts hardly exhaust a detailed metascience of tool development experiments in neuroscience, but they get that project off to a useful start and distinguish the subsequent account of neuroscience revolutions clearly from Kuhn's famous model. I close with a brief remark about the general importance of molecular biology for a current philosophical understanding of science, as comparable to the place physics occupied when Kuhn formulated his famous theory of scientific revolutions. PMID:27013992

  1. Cuba. A healthy revolution?

    PubMed

    Benjamin, M; Haendel, M

    1991-01-01

    Discussing Cuba's remarkable accomplishments in health care, this article considers the cost of maintaining such a system at a time of economic hardship. Following the revolution of 1959, Cuba has achieved immense advances in health care. Today, its infant mortality rate if the lowest in Latin America and at par with industrialized countries. Its life expectancy is actually higher than that of the US. At 1 doctor for every 297 inhabitants, Cuba has one of the highest ratios in the world. Furthermore, the island nation has created a pharmaceutical industry that supplies 80% of the country's needs, and has a developed high-tech medical techniques which rival the best in the world. And beginning in mid-1980s, Cuba began the Family Doctor Program, in which a physician lives and works in the neighborhood and acts as a public health advocate, while remaining part of the larger health care system. The program has been very popular with the population, and evidence suggests that the program has been highly successful in reducing infant mortality, the number of emergency room visits, and the average hospital stay. Despite its remarkable success, Cuba's health care system does attract criticism. Some charge that Cubans are "over-medicated," and that Cubans no longer take responsibility for their health. Also, some charge that the country has too many doctors and not enough assistants, nurses, and midwives. These criticisms have become even more pointed, as the country's economic crisis deepens. People complain about the scarcity of food. And due to drastic cuts in Soviet aid and the US blockade, Cuba has been forced to impose severe austerity measures. While the authors believe it unlikely that Cuba will be able to maintain its health care system, they say that ending it will be tragic. PMID:12159276

  2. Telemedicine: the slow revolution.

    PubMed

    Moncrief, Jack W

    2014-01-01

    The use of interactive video has been recognized as a means of delivering medical support to isolated areas since the 1950s. The Department of Defense recognized early the capacity of telemedicine to deliver medical care and support to front-line military personnel. In 1989, the Texas Telemedicine Project received grants and support from the then American Telephone and Telegraph Company (now AT&T) and the Meadows Foundation of Dallas, Texas, to establish and evaluate telemedicine delivery in central Texas. That project had 6 connected telemedicine sites: 3 in Austin, Texas, and 3 in Giddings, Texas (a small community 55 miles to the southeast of Austin). The sites in Giddings included a chronic outpatient dialysis facility, an inpatient psychiatric hospital, and the emergency department at Giddings Hospital. Patient contact began in April 1991 and continued through March 1993. During that period, data on the 1500 patient contacts made were recorded. After termination of the Texas Telemedicine Project, AT&T continued to provide the transmission lines, and between 1993 and 1996, another 12,000 patient contacts were made. Approximately 80% were dialysis evaluations and 20% were non-dialysis primary care contacts. The original cost of materials and equipment in the Texas Telemedicine Project exceeded $50,000 per site. Today, a secure Internet connection with full-motion video and wireless data transfer to almost any location in the world is achievable with an iPad. Multiple inexpensive applications with connections for electrocardiogram, otoscope, and stethoscope, among others, make this technology extremely inexpensive and user-friendly. The revolution now is rapidly moving forward, with Medicare reimbursing telemedicine contacts in medically underserved areas. Multiple bills are before Congress to expand Medicare and therefore private insurance payment for this service. PMID:25338434

  3. Support of Herschel Key Programme Teams at the NASA Herschel Science Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, David L.; Appleton, P. N.; Ardila, D.; Bhattacharya, B.; Mei, Y.; Morris, P.; Rector, J.; NHSC Team

    2010-01-01

    The first science data from the Herschel Space Observatory were distributed to Key Programme teams in September 2009. This poster describes a number of resources that have been developed by the NASA Herschel Science Center (NHSC) to support the first users of the observatory. The NHSC webpages and Helpdesk serve as the starting point for information and queries from the US community. Details about the use of the Herschel Common Science Software can be looked up in the Helpdesk Knowledgebase. The capability of real-time remote support through desktop sharing has been implemented. The NHSC continues to host workshops on data analysis and observation planning. Key Programme teams have been provided Wiki sites upon request for their team's private use and for sharing information with other teams. A secure data storage area is in place for troubleshooting purposes and for use by visitors. The NHSC draws upon close working relationships with Instrument Control Centers and the Herschel Science Center in Madrid in order to have the necessary expertise on hand to assist Herschel observers, including both Key Programme teams and respondents to upcoming open time proposal calls.

  4. A Revolution that never happened.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ursula

    2015-02-01

    If we define scientific revolutions as changes of scientists' ontologies, types of causal explanation, and paradigmatic types of methods and instruments, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier's contribution to chemistry did not amount to a scientific revolution. Contrary to the received view that Lavoisier initiated a "chemical revolution," which is accepted by Chang and Kusch, I argue that Lavoisier shared with the phlogistonists their "flat ontology" of chemical substance, established decades before the 1770s, their types of explaining chemical transformation, and their quantitative methods. Based on my historical reconstruction, I criticize Chang's argument that the late eighteenth-century phlogistic systems and Lavoisier's system belonged to two different theoretical traditions. As a consequence, I also question Chang's argument that the acceptance of Lavoisier's system can be explained in terms of dominance of "compositionism" over "principlism." PMID:26109413

  5. Quality-Enhanced Legacy Products in the Herschel Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, D.

    2016-05-01

    There is on-going effort within the Herschel Ground Segment to improve the data quality and science readiness of the Herschel standard Products. These Highly-Processed Data Products will focus both on dedicated data post-processing, and source and line catalogue generation. Eventually they shall be stored and served by the Herschel Science Archive. We present here an overview of the work packages contemplated in this effort.

  6. IRAC Snapshot Imaging of Red Herschel Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Wardlow, Julie; Ivison, Rob; Perez-Fournon, Ismael; Riechers, Dominik; Clements, David; Oliver, Seb; Oteo, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    Wide-field submillimeter surveys with Herschel have produced large samples of rare populations, which provide some of the most stringent constraints on galaxy formation theories. In this proposal we request IRAC observations of 'red' Herschel sources, which are the most extreme DSFGs at z>4. The proposed snapshot IRAC 3.6 and 4.5um data will probe the stellar emission from these systems - complementary data to the far-infrared dust emission that led to their identification. We will use these data to extend the SEDs into the near-IR regime and measure more reliable stellar masses than otherwise available. They will be combined with existing survey data and dedicated follow-up programs to map the evolution of DSFGs as a function of redshift, stellar mass and far-IR luminosity.

  7. John Herschel on the Discovery of Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, Nicholas

    2006-12-01

    The letters of John Herschel that concern the discovery of the planet Neptune have not been greatly discussed by historians of science. I have transcribed these in the course of archiving the British Neptune-discovery documents. Herschel tends to be depicted as a background figure in narrations of the story of Neptune's discovery, whereas the present account focuses upon his evolving view of the topic: the rival merits of the two main protagonists, and the startling manner in which an obscure branch of mathematics (perturbation theory) was able to pinpoint the position of a new sphere in the sky. As the son of the man who found Uranus, his views have a special relevance. Also, I suggest that his eloquent prose style may still be enjoyed today.

  8. Herschel Observations of Debris Disks from WISE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgett, D. L.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Liu, W.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.

    2012-01-01

    The \\Vide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has just completed a sensitive all-sky survey in photometric bands at 3.4, 4.6,12 and 22 microns. We report on a study of main sequence Hipparcos and Tycho catalog stars within 120 pc with WISE 22 micron emission in excess of photospheric levels. This warm excess emission traces material in the circumstellar region likely to host terrestrial planets and is preferentially found in young systems with ages < 1 Gyr. Nearly a hundred of the WISE new warm debris disk candidates detected among FGK stars are being observed by Herschel/PACS to characterize circumstellar dust. Preliminary results indicate 70 micron detection rates in excess of 80% for these targets, suggesting that most of these systems have both warm and cool dust in analogy to our asteroid and Kuiper belts. In this contribution, we will discuss the WISE debris disk survey and latest results from Herschel observations of these sources.

  9. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-09

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  10. Revolution in nuclear detection affairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Warren M.

    2014-05-01

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  11. The Herschels: A very fashionable scientific family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterburn, Emily

    2011-01-01

    What is special about the Herschel family? It is a family that has attracted the attention of historians of science for many years and has done so for a number of reasons. Some simply marvel at the family's ability to have produced generations upon generation of great men and women of science. Others have highlighted the work of individuals within the family and how their work changed the way astronomy was done, what it was about, and then later did the same for science as a whole. The unusually high status enjoyed by Herschel women, Caroline Herschel in particular, has not escaped notice, though I will here question some of the conclusions drawn about her motivations. Most of all, however I will argue in this paper, they should be interesting to a modern audience for the way in which they managed time and again, generation on generation, to make science fashionable and popular. In this paper I will look at three generations of this family - from William and Caroline discovering comets and planets in the late eighteenth century, through John and his claim that society needs science to be properly civilised, to John and Margaret's children and their varied takes on the relationship between astronomy, science and the public. I will look at the role astronomy played in each of their lives, how they were taught and taught each other and how in each generation they managed to make their work the talk of the town.

  12. The HERSCHEL/PACS Spectrometer Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, J.; Wieprecht, E.; de Jong, J.; Wetzstein, M.; Jacobson, J.; Huygen, R.; Appleton, P.; Bouwman, J.; Contursi, A.; Fadda, D.; Jean, C.; Klaas, U.; Royer, P.; Vandenbussche, B.

    2009-09-01

    ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, to be launched in 2009, is the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and sub-millimeter wavelength range (60 - 670 micron). The Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) is one of the three science instruments. It employs two Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays and two bolometer arrays to perform integral field spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the 60 - 210 micron wavelength band. The interactive PACS Spectrometer and Photometer \\citep{wieprecht09} Data Reduction Pipeline is integrated in the Herschel Data Processing System. The DP is implemented using Java technology and written in a common effort by the HERSCHEL Science Center (HSC) and the three instrument teams. We overview the concept and status of the PACS Spectrometer Data Reduction Pipeline. Additionally, we address the instrument mode-dependent data processing and the definition of the products of the different processing levels. Finally, we show first results by applying the pipeline on flight model instrument level test data.

  13. Observations of Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armus, Lee

    2014-01-01

    A major result of the IRAS survey was the discovery of a large population of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) which emit a significant fraction of their bolometric luminosity in the far-infrared. LIRGs cover the full range of morphologies from isolated disk galaxies, to advanced mergers, exhibiting enhanced star-formation rates and a higher fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) compared to less luminous galaxies. A detailed study of low-redshift LIRGs is critical for our understanding of the cosmic evolution of galaxies and black holes, since LIRGs comprise the bulk of the cosmic far-infrared background and dominate the star-formation between 0.5 < z < 1. With ISO, it was possible to measure the full suite of infrared diagnostic lines in local normal and luminous infrared galaxies for the first time, but samples were small and observations challenging. With Herschel, we have been able to study large samples of low-redshift LIRGs, and even probe the physical conditions in poweful starburst galaxies out to significant redshifts. By combining the Herschel data with those from Spitzer, it is now possible to understand the heating and cooling of the dust and gas in complete samples of LIRGs for the first time. I will review recent results from a number of GTO, OTKP and GO programs in an attempt to summarize the advances we have made in understanding star formation and black hole accretion in LIRGs as a direct result of the Herschel mission.

  14. Information Technology and the Third Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzsimmons, Joe

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the so-called third industrial revolution, or the information revolution. Topics addressed include the progression of the revolution in the U.S. economy, in Europe, and in Third World countries; the empowering technologies, including digital switches, optical fiber, semiconductors, CD-ROM, networks, and combining technologies; and future…

  15. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  16. The Quality Revolution in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonstingl, John Jay

    1992-01-01

    Whether viewed through Deming's 14 points, Juran's Trilogy, or Kaoru Ishikawa's Thought Revolution, Total Quality Management embodies 4 fundamental tenets: primary focus on customers and suppliers, universal commitment to continuous improvement, a systems approach, and top management responsibility. Educational organizations are recreating their…

  17. Automation; The New Industrial Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnstein, George E.

    Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…

  18. Ruin and Revolution in ``Hamlet."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1999-05-01

    In the cosmic allegorical interpretation of Shakespeare's "Hamlet" (BAAS 28, 859 & 1305, 1996; Mercury 26:1, 20, 1997; RPS 18:3, 6, 1997; Giornale di Astronomia 24:3, 27, 1998), the usurper King Claudius, namesake of Ptolemy, personifies geocentricity. Textual support for this reading is found in 1.2 where Hamlet is associated with the Sun, as befits a rightful heir, while Claudius is associated with the Earth. In 3.3 Claudius fears Hamlet's antics. Rosencrantz states that the lives of many depend on the well-being of the King. He warns that if the King were to be imperiled, his subjects, those "ten thousand lesser things", would fall in a "boisterous ruin" along with "each small annexment" and "petty consequence." These 10,000 lesser lights are the naked eye stars (mv ~ 6.5) which would collapse with the demise of the pre-Diggesian firmament, along with ancient planets and their geometrical contrivances. In 5.1 Shakespeare puns on "De revolutionibus" when he refers to "fine revolution." The double meaning of "revolution" (alteration, orbital motion) was in use long before 1600. Since "revolution" is used in the context of digging, it may refer as much to the Diggesian as the Copernican Revolution. Shakespeare's prescience is revealed by his anticipation of change, as encapsulated geocentricity is transformed to stellar boundlessness, while his presence is suggested by fatherly concerns and ghost-like direction.

  19. India and the Green Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarabhai, Vikram

    1972-01-01

    The introduction of new grain varieties has had profound social effects in addition to increasing food supply. If political power is sensitive to the needs of the underprivileged...advanced technology in agriculture, as in (nuclear) power generation, is indeed going to create a social revolution.'' (Author/AL)

  20. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  1. NASA Facts, Orbits and Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is intended for senior high physics students. It contains information on the sidereal and synodic periods of revolution of an orbiting satellite, including their calculation. This pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook.…

  2. Electronic Revolution on Main Street.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Gail Garfield

    1986-01-01

    The electronics revolution is changing way work is done and description of available jobs, shifting some jobs from office to home, and offering new communication services. Technology's impact on central business districts (CBDs) will depend on broad economic forces, but its effects on CBDs as business locations will be conditioned by local real…

  3. Women and the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajcsy, Ruzena; Reynolds, Craig

    2000-01-01

    Provides a social and economic context to the information revolution and women's part in it. Speculates on how current and near-term developments in information technology can benefit women scientists from all disciplines. Discusses some of the efforts of the National Science Foundation (NSF) to increase the participation of women in computer and…

  4. Cuba: Background to a Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Fuente, Alejandro

    2000-01-01

    Provides historical information on Cuba. Addresses early colonization, the advent of plantation agriculture, the role and presence of the United States in the Caribbean and Cuba, and the social and economic developments in Cuba after the revolution in 1959 led by Fidel Castro. (CMK)

  5. The Geophysical Revolution in Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter J.

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the physicists' impact on the revolution in the earth sciences particularly involving the overthrow of the fixist notions in geology. Topics discussed include the mobile earth, the route to plate tectonics, radiometric dating, the earth's magnetic field, ocean floor spreading plate boundaries, infiltration of physics into geology and…

  6. The Information Revolution in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikunov, Vladimir S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)

  7. Humanities II: Man and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.

    "Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…

  8. Unveiling neutrino mixing and leptonic CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    We review the present understanding of neutrino masses and mixings, discussing what are the unknowns in the three family oscillation scenario. Despite the anticipated success coming from the planned long baseline neutrino experiments in unraveling the leptonic mixing sector, there are two important unknowns which may remain obscure: the mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and the CP-phase {delta}. The measurement of these two parameters has led us to consider the combination of superbeams and neutrino factories as the key to unveil the neutrino oscillation picture.

  9. Unveiling Neutrino Mixing and Leptonic CP Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, Olga

    We review the present understanding of neutrino masses and mixings, discussing what are the unknowns in the three-family oscillation scenario. Despite the anticipated success coming from the planned long baseline neutrino experiments in unraveling the leptonic mixing sector, there are two important unknowns which may remain obscure: the mixing angle θ13 and the CP-phase δ. The measurement of these two parameters has led us to consider the combination of superbeams and neutrino factories as the key to unveil the neutrino oscillation picture.

  10. The Herschel Oxygen Project: Herschel Space Observatory Open Time Key Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    Topics include: Why oxygen and why at submillimeter wavelengths; gas phase chemistry for water, oxygen, and carbon monoxide is relatively simple; molecular oxygen structure; lower rotational levels and transitions of oxygen; oxygen abundance in interstellar clouds; SWAS spectra of terrestrial oxygen; what Herschel offers HOP; key regions for probing oxygen in the dense interstellar medium; HOP sources and strategy; and HOP data and analysis.

  11. Mapping the Milky Way: William Herschel's Star Gages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timberlake, Todd

    2013-01-01

    William Herschel (Fig. 1) is rightfully known as one of the greatest astronomers of all time. Born in Hanover (in modern Germany) in 1738, Herschel immigrated to England in 1757 and began a successful career as a professional musician. Later in life Herschel developed a strong interest in astronomy. He began making his own reflecting telescopes in 1774, and soon his telescopes were recognized as the finest in the world. It was through one of his homemade telescopes, a Newtonian reflector with a focal length of seven feet and an aperture of 6.2 inches, that Herschel first spotted the planet Uranus in 1781. The discovery of a new planet catapulted Herschel to fame and secured him a position as personal astronomer to King George III.

  12. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  13. Results from the Herschel Oxygen Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul; Herschel Oxygen Project HOP Team

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen is the third most abundant element in the cosmos. In the gas phase, oxygen can be ionized, atomic, or in molecular, and it is also incorporated into grains. Gas-phase chemistry models predict molecular oxygen (O2) to be almost as abundant as carbon monoxide (CO). A number of searches for molecular oxygen have been carried out, including ground-based searches for the isotopologue 16O18O and searches for O2 in redshifted galaxies. Searches for Galactic O2 carried out with the SWAS and Odin spacecraft have yielded upper limits on the abundance of molecular oxygen typically 1 to 2 orders of magnitude below those predicted by gas-phase models. There has been a fairly clear detection of O2 in one source, again indicating a low abundance. A variety of explanations have been proposed to explain this low abundance. Some of these are based on depletion of atomic oxygen onto dust grains, resulting in incorporation of this species into water that remains on the grain surface. Available gas-phase oxygen is largely incorporated into CO, leaving little for gas-phase O2. Other models involve circulation of material between UV-irradiated and well-shielded regions. The Herschel Open Time Key Project HOP (Herschel Oxygen Project) addresses this important problem in astrochemistry, exploiting the high angular resolution and sensitivity of the Herschel HIFI instrument to observe 3 rotational transitions of O2 in a broad sample of molecular clouds. The sensitivity and angular resolution of HIFI is a dramatic improvement over anything previously available at these frequencies. These data should, whether yielding detections or significantly improved upper limits, provide critical information about interstellar chemistry and the structure of these varied molecular regions. We will discuss the HOP observations to date including exceptionally low upper limits to the abundance of O2 as well as some provocative, tentative positive results.

  14. The Herschel DUNES Open Time Key Programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2009-01-01

    We will use the unique photometric capabilities provided by Herschel to perform a deep and systematic survey for faint, cold debris disks around nearby stars. Our sensitivity-limited Open Time Key Programme (OTKP) aims at finding and characterizing faint extrasolar analogues to the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt (EKB) in an unbiased, statistically significant sample of nearby FGK main-sequence stars. Our target set spans a broad range of stellar ages (from 0.1 to 10 Gyr) and is volume-limited (distances < 20 pc). All stars with known extrasolar planets within this distance are included; additionally, some M- and A-type stars will be observed in collaboration with the Herschel DEBRIS OTKP, so that the entire sample covers a decade in stellar mass, from 0.2 to 2 solar masses. We will perform PACS and SPIRE photometric observations covering the wavelength range from 70 to 500 microns. The PACS observations at 100 microns have been designed to detect the stellar photospheres down to the confusion limit with a signal-to-noise ratio > 5. The observations in the other Herschel bands will allow us to characterize, model, and constrain the disks. As a result, it will be possible for us to reach fractional dust luminosities of a few times 10-7, close to the EKB level in the Solar System. This will provide an unprecedented lower limit to the fractional abundance of planetesimal systems and allow us to assess the presence of giant planets, which would play dynamical roles similar to those played by Jupiter and Neptune in the Solar System. The proposed observations will provide new and unique evidence for the presence of mature planetary systems in the solar neighbourhood and, in turn, will address the universality of planet/planetary system formation in disks around young stars.

  15. Herschel's 20ft Telescope at the Smithsonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVorkin, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The tube and one of the mirrors from the original Herschel 20-foot telescope have been on display at the National Air and Space Museum since September 12, 2001. Approximately 3,000 visitors walk past it each day, inspecting how William and Caroline jointly operated the telescope in their garden. This presentation will recount how the telescope was brought to NASM, and prepared for exhibition. We will also discuss a bit of what we've learned about the telescope's history from developing this display.

  16. The Safety System of the Herschel Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfermann, M.; Jahn, G.; Hohn, R.; Ruehe, W.; Jewell, C.

    2004-06-01

    The cryostat for the `Herschel Space Observatory' for the European Space Agency (ESA) science program, planned for a launch with Ariane 5 in 2007, is designed for 6 days ground hold time and 3.5 years lifetime in orbit. The system comprises two tanks containing about 346 kg of liquid and superfluid Helium, with two cryogenic cold safety valves and burst disks, surrounded by three vapor cooled shields and a vacuum vessel. The safety system is two faults tolerant with three independent paths for pressure relief. The analyses of failure modes and resulting mass flows and the safety elements of the cryogenic system will be discussed.

  17. Vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen near Herschel 36

    SciTech Connect

    Rachford, Brian L.; Snow, Theodore P.; Ross, Teresa L.

    2014-05-10

    We present the first high resolution UV spectra toward Herschel 36, a Trapezium-like system of high-mass stars contained within the Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC 6523). The spectra reveal extreme rovibrational excitation of molecular hydrogen in material at a single velocity or very small range of velocities, with this component presumably lying near the star system and undergoing fluorescent excitation. The overall H{sub 2} excitation is similar to, but apparently larger than, that seen toward HD 37903 which previously showed the largest vibrationally excited H{sub 2} column densities seen in UV absorption spectra. While the velocities of the highly excited H{sub 2} lines are consistent within each observation, it appears that they underwent a ∼60 km s{sup –1} redshift during the 3.6 yr between observations. In neither case does the velocity of the highly excited material match the velocity of the bulk of the line-of-sight material which appears to mostly be in the foreground of M8. Recent work shows unusually excited CH and CH{sup +} lines and several unusually broad diffuse interstellar bands toward Herschel 36. Along with the H{sub 2} excitation, all of these findings appear to be related to the extreme environment within ∼0.1 pc of the massive young stellar system.

  18. Deep Herschel PACS point spread functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchio, M.; Bianchi, S.; Abergel, A.

    2016-06-01

    The knowledge of the point spread function (PSF) of imaging instruments represents a fundamental requirement for astronomical observations. The Herschel PACS PSFs delivered by the instrument control centre are obtained from observations of the Vesta asteroid, which provides a characterisation of the central part and, therefore, excludes fainter features. In many cases, however, information on both the core and wings of the PSFs is needed. With this aim, we combine Vesta and Mars dedicated observations and obtain PACS PSFs with an unprecedented dynamic range (~106) at slow and fast scan speeds for the three photometric bands. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.FITS files of our PACS PSFs (Fig. 2) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/591/A117

  19. William Herschel and the 'garnet' stars: μ Cephei and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinicke, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    Although William Herschel's 'Garnet Star' (μ Cephei) is a prominent object, the story of the discovery of this famous red star is not well documented. Prior to and after Herschel, the identification of this star was the subject of confusion in various catalogues and atlases. The case is complex and involves other stars in southern Cepheus, including double stars, found by Herschel in the course of his star surveys. It is also fascinating to learn that μ Cephei is not the only star called 'garnet' by him. This study reveals that there are 21 in all, resulting in a 'Herschel Catalogue of Garnet Stars' - the first historical catalogue of red stars. Among them are prominent objects, which in the literature are credited to later observers. This misconception is corrected here, for Herschel was the true discoverer of all of them. The most interesting cases are Hind's 'Crimson Star', Secchi's 'La Superba', John Herschel's 'Ruby Star' and Schmidt's V Aquilae. Finally, we discussed whether Herschel speculated about the physical nature of his garnet stars, many of which are now known to be variable.

  20. Unveiling the potential of prohibitin in cancer.

    PubMed

    Koushyar, Sarah; Jiang, Wen G; Dart, D Alwyn

    2015-12-28

    Recently, research has shed new light on the role of Prohibitin (PHB) in cancer pathogenesis across an array of cancer types. Important mechanisms for PHB have been unveiled in several cancers, especially with regard to the androgen independent state of prostate cancer (PC) and oestrogen dependent breast cancer. However, PHB is often overlooked due to its complex but subtle roles within the cell. Having gathered both historical and current research exploring PHB's role in different cancer types including prostate and breast, here we aim to pair this information with its molecular properties in the hope of translating this information into a clinical perspective, thus discussing its possible use in future cancer therapy. PMID:26450374

  1. Unveiling new chemical scaffolds as Mnk inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Diab, Sarah; Li, Peng; Basnet, Sunita K C; Lu, Jingfeng; Yu, Mingfeng; Albrecht, Hugo; Milne, Robert W; Wang, Shudong

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of small molecules that selectively inhibit Mnks is considered of paramount importance towards deciphering the exact role of these proteins in carcinogenesis and to further validate them as anti-cancer drug targets. However, the dearth of structural information of Mnks is a major hurdle. This study unveils the 7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives as potent inhibitors of Mnks. ATP and substrate competition assays showed that this scaffold interacts with the ATP binding site, but not with the substrate site. Screened against a panel of cancer cells, Mnk inhibitors were most potent against MV4-11 acute myeloid leukemia cells. The induction of apoptosis was shown to be mediated by downregulation of Mcl-1. PMID:26910782

  2. The Herschel/PACS view of the Cep OB2 region: Global protoplanetary disk evolution and clumpy star formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicilia-Aguilar, Aurora; Roccatagliata, Veronica; Getman, Konstantin; Rivière-Marichalar, Pablo; Birnstiel, Tilman; Merín, Bruno; Fang, Min; Henning, Thomas; Eiroa, Carlos; Currie, Thayne

    2015-01-01

    . The mini-clusters reveal multi-episodic star formation in Tr 37. The long survival of mini-clusters suggest that they formed from the fragmentation of the same core. Their various morphologies favour different formation/triggering mechanisms acting within the same cluster. The beads-on-a-string structure in one mini-cluster is consistent with gravitational fragmentation or gravitational focusing, acting on very small scales (solar-mass stars in ~0.5 pc filaments). Multi-episodic star formation could also produce evolutionary variations between disks in the same region. Finally, Herschel also unveils what could be the first heavy mass loss episode of the O6.5 star HD 206267 in Tr 37. Based on observations obtained with the Herschel Space Telescope within open time proposal "Disk dispersal in Cep OB2", OT1_asicilia_1. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led PI consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Microbial proteomics: the quiet revolution

    SciTech Connect

    Seraphin, Bertrand; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L

    2012-01-01

    Technological developments in DNA sequencing and their application to study thousands of microbial genomes or even microbial ecosystems still today often make the headlines of general newspapers and scientific journals. These revolutionary changes are hiding another revolution that is unfolding more quietly in the background: the development of microbial proteomics to study genome expression products. It is important to recognize that while DNA sequencing reveals extensive details about the genomic potential of an organism or community, proteomic measurements reveal the functional gene products that are present and operational under specific environmental conditions, and thus perhaps better characterize the critical biomolecules that execute the life processes (enzymes, signaling, structural factors, etc.).

  4. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  5. Caroline Herschel: agency and self-presentation

    PubMed Central

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Caroline Herschel was rare among her female contemporaries in gaining public recognition for her work in science, yet her role in this process and her role in designing her training have never previously been studied. We know that access to education and participation in science was different for men and women in the eighteenth century. However, drawing on feminist, pedagogical and biographical approaches to history, I argue that although access depended on a variety of factors, a more consistent gender divide came in lessons on how to learn, and in what was regarded as appropriate behaviour. Caroline's skill—so often misunderstood—was to be aware of the differences and to use them to her own advantage. PMID:26489184

  6. CAROLINE HERSCHEL: AGENCY AND SELF-PRESENTATION.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-03-20

    Caroline Herschel was rare among her female contemporaries in gaining public recognition for her work in science, yet her role in this process and her role in designing her training have never previously been studied. We know that access to education and participation in science was different for men and women in the eighteenth century. However, drawing on feminist, pedagogical and biographical approaches to history, I argue that although access depended on a variety of factors, a more consistent gender divide came in lessons on how to learn, and in what was regarded as appropriate behaviour. Caroline's skill--so often misunderstood--was to be aware of the differences and to use them to her own advantage. PMID:26489184

  7. The neutral diffuse ISM after Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neufeld, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Observations with the Herschel Space Observatory have greatly enhanced our understanding of neutral diffuse material in the interstellar medium. In particular, high-resolution absorption line spectroscopy at THz frequencies has led to the discovery of several new interstellar molecules - including SH+, OH+, H2O, H2Cl+, HCl+, and ArH+ (the first known astrophysical molecule containing a noble gas atom) - and has enabled astrochemical studies in which the abundances of multiple species are measured and modeled. Because of the different chemical pathways responsible for their formation and destruction, different molecules probe specific aspects of the interstellar environment. Carefully interpreted, they provide unique information about the cosmic ray density, the molecular fraction, the ultraviolet radiation field, and the dissipation of energy within the turbulent interstellar medium. Future spectroscopic observations with ALMA and SOFIA promise to extend further our understanding of fundamental physical and chemical processes the neutral diffuse ISM.

  8. First Observations Of Titan With Herschel Spire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtin, Regis D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Fulton, T.; Lellouch, E.; Moreno, R.; Hartogh, P.; Jarchow, C.; Rengel, M.; HssO Team

    2010-10-01

    A Titan spectrum was recorded on June 22, 2010 with the SPIRE instrument of the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the guaranteed time key programme "Water and related chemistry in the Solar System" (KP-GT HssO). This initial spectrum, corresponding to an exposure time of 1322s, was designed as a test of the full 10h Titan observation performed on July 16, 2010. It covers the 14.6-51.8 cm-1 interval with a unapodized spectral resolution of 0.04 cm-1. Despite the limited integration time, numerous transitions are detected, notably those of CH4, CO, HCN, and of the isotopologues 13CO, C18O, H13CN, and HC15N. The analysis of this set of observations will provide new determinations of the abundances of these species, and hence new contraints on the isotopic ratios 12C/13C, 14N/15N and 16O/18O in Titan's atmosphere.

  9. An image display package for Herschel DP based on Jsky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meester, W. D.; Huygen, R.

    2006-07-01

    The Data Processing software for ESA's Herschel Space Observatory is written in JAVA as a joint effort of ESA and the three instrument teams. The observers as well as the instrument specialists will use a jython environment to reduce the science observations and to analyse the calibration measurements of the instrument. We describe the development of an image display package for Herschel DP (Data Processing) based on JSky, which is being developed as part of the Gemini Observing Tool and the difficulties we encountered in adapting the JSky library to the needs of Herschel DP. We give insights in the adaption to the Herschel DP data structures and the possibility to display both two- and three dimensional arrays and images. We describe the power of using Jython as a frontend and the possibility to use this image display in GUI's written by or for observers.

  10. Herschel Dust Measurements of SDSS Supernovae Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Donald; Cooray, Asantha R.; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Herschel Hermes and h-atlas Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We use Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) far-infrared observations of Supernova host galaxies to study the cosmological distant measurement from Hubble diagrams. We investigate the dust content of SN host galaxy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survery (SDSS) using the far-infrared stacks of Herschel in the Equatorial Stripe using , Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey (HELMS), and the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HERS). Cosmic dust may contribute to much more obscuring of standard candles than previously thought. Measuring the average flux values of stacks from dim Type-Ia supernovae provides a measure of the dust content of galaxies as a function of deviation of those sources from the Hubble diagram given a standard cosmology. Using the optical to far infrared stacked data of the galaxies we also measure the physical properties of the standard candles as a function of dust content.

  11. Sir William Herschel's notebooks - Abstracts of solar observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1992-01-01

    An introduction to the background of Sir William Herschel's notebooks and the historical context within which his observations were made are provided. The observations have relevance in reconstructing solar behavior, as discussed in a separate analysis paper by Hoyt and Schatten (1992), and in understanding active features on the sun such as faculae. The text of Herschel's notebooks with modern terms used throughout forms the body of this paper. The complete text has not previously been published and is not easily accessible to scholars. Herschel used different words for solar features than are used today, and thus, for clarity, his terminology is changed on two occasions. A glossary explains the terminology changed. In the text of the notebooks, several contemporaries are mentioned; a brief description of Herschel's colleagues is provided.

  12. Herschel Measurements of Molecular Oxygen in Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Liseau, René; Bell, Tom A.; Black, John H.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Hollenbach, David; Kaufman, Michael J.; Li, Di; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pagani, Laurent; Snell, Ronald; Benz, Arnold O.; Bergin, Edwin; Bruderer, Simon; Caselli, Paola; Caux, Emmanuel; Encrenaz, Pierre; Falgarone, Edith; Gerin, Maryvonne; Goicoechea, Javier R.; Hjalmarson, Åke; Larsson, Bengt; Le Bourlot, Jacques; Le Petit, Franck; De Luca, Massimo; Nagy, Zsofia; Roueff, Evelyne; Sandqvist, Aage; van der Tak, Floris; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Vastel, Charlotte; Viti, Serena; Yıldız, Umut

    2011-08-01

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O2) in emission from the H2 Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s-1 to 12 km s-1 and widths of 3 km s-1. The beam-averaged column density is N(O2) = 6.5 × 1016 cm-2, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O2 relative to H2 is (0.3-7.3) × 10-6. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a ~5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is ~10 M sun and the dust temperature is >=150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O2 abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T >= 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O2. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature >=180 K. The inferred O2 column density sime5 × 1018 cm-2 can be produced in Peak A, having N(H2) ~= 4 × 1024 cm-2. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s-1) C-shock, which can produce N(O2) up to 1017 cm-2. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  13. Chemistry union unveils names of four new elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2016-07-01

    The periodic table could soon be graced by four new symbols – Nh, Mc, Ts and Og – after the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) unveiled its proposed names for the four most recently discovered elements.

  14. [Cardiac surgery: within the revolution!].

    PubMed

    Raanani, Ehud

    2007-11-01

    Cardiac surgery is undergoing major changes. Until recently, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) constituted the majority of cardiac surgery cases that were performed. The sharp rise in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) mainly due to the development of drug eluting stents resulted in a drop in the worldwide number of CABG cases. The cardiac surgery community reacted by developing several new surgical procedures and techniques to better treat cardiac patients. Some of those procedures are demonstrated in this special issue of the Harefuah journal. Those procedures include better techniques to repair the aortic and mitral valves, minimally invasive techniques including video assisted methodology for valves and CABG surgery, surgery for congestive heart failure including new axial flow assist devices, surgery for the treatment of atrial fibrillation and more. The excellent results in cardiac surgery caused older and sicker patients to be referred to surgery. All these are creating a "revolution" in cardiac surgery. Those new technologies, surgical techniques and high risk patients require special financing. In order to complete the revolution and continue providing advanced "state of the art" cardiac surgery procedures for the patients, there is a need for special long term economic planning by the government and the Ministry of Health. PMID:18087831

  15. Teaching Brinton's Model for Analyzing Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Bob; Braun, Joseph A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model for studying and identifying revolution condensed from Crane Brinton's "Anatomy of Revolution." Explains how the characteristics of the model can be applied to hypothetical, historical, and contemporary situations. Outlines the teaching sequence, illustrating how students are taught a historical model and how to apply it to…

  16. The Nature of the Darwinian Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayr, Ernst

    1972-01-01

    Analysis of the writings of anti-evolutionists contemporary with Darwin reveals that there were many objections that had to be overcome and that the Darwinian revolution" does not conform to the simple model of a scientific revolution as outlined by T. S. Kuhn. (AL)

  17. The Cultural Revolution and Contemporary Chinese Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Guey-Meei; Suchan, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Using this instructional resource, teachers can explore the impact of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976) on contemporary art in mainland China with their students. The three artists Luo Zhongli (b. 1948), Xu Bing (b. 1955), and Wang Guangyi (b. 1957) came of age during the Cultural Revolution and are representative of a much larger number of…

  18. COUNTER-REVOLUTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOCKING, ELTON

    THE AUTHOR STATES THAT THE AUDIOLINGUAL REVOLUTION IS BEING SUBJECTED TO A COUNTER-REVOLUTION IS APPARENT IN SUCH RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AS THE 1966 NORTHEAST CONFERENCE, WHEN CARROLL, FERGUSON, AND CHOMSKY DENIED THAT PSYCHOLOGY AND LINGUISTICS PROVIDE DIRECT SUPPORT FOR AUDIOLINGUAL TEACHING, THE WRITINGS OF RIVERS, HAYES, BELASCO, AND VALDMAN WHO…

  19. Extending the Computer Revolution into Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.

    1999-01-01

    The computer revolution is far from over on Earth. It is just beginning in space. We can look forward to an era of enhanced scientific exploration of the solar system and even other start systems. We can look forward to the benefits of this space revolution to commercial uses on and around Earth.

  20. Unveiling the Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinto, Angela V.

    2015-04-01

    The origin of cosmic rays, relativistic particles that range from below GeVs to hundreds of EeVs, is a century old mystery. Extremely energetic phenomena occurring over a wide range of scales, from the Solar System to distant galaxies, are needed to explain the non-thermal particle spectrum that covers over 12 orders of magnitude. Space Missions are the most effective platforms to study the origin and history of these cosmic particles. Current missions probe particle acceleration and propagation in the Solar System and in our Galaxy. This year ISS-CREAM and CALET join AMS in establishing the International Space Station as the most active site for studying the origin of Galactic cosmic rays. These missions will study astrophysical cosmic ray accelerators as well as other possible sources of energetic particles such as dark matter annihilation or decay. In the future, the ISS may also be the site for studying extremely high-energy extragalactic cosmic rays with JEM-EUSO. We review recent results in the quest for unveiling the sources of energetic particles with balloons and space payloads and report on activities of the Cosmic ray Science Interest Group (CosmicSIG) under the Physics of the Cosmos Program Analysis Group (PhysPAG).

  1. A Herschel view of the far-infrared properties of submillimetre galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnelli, B.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Saintonge, A.; Berta, S.; Albrecht, M.; Altieri, B.; Andreani, P.; Aussel, H.; Bertoldi, F.; Béthermin, M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Capak, P.; Chapman, S.; Cepa, J.; Cimatti, A.; Cooray, A.; Daddi, E.; Danielson, A. L. R.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunlop, J. S.; Elbaz, D.; Farrah, D.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Hwang, H. S.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Maiolino, R.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S. J.; Pérez García, A.; Poglitsch, A.; Popesso, P.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Rosario, D.; Roseboom, I.; Salvato, M.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Scott, D.; Smail, I.; Sturm, E.; Swinbank, A. M.; Tacconi, L. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Wang, L.; Wuyts, S.

    2012-03-01

    We study a sample of 61submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) selected from ground-based surveys, with known spectroscopic redshifts and observed with the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time key programmes. Our study makes use of the broad far-infrared and submillimetre wavelength coverage (100-600 μm) only made possible by the combination of observations from the PACS and SPIRE instruments aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. Using a power-law temperature distribution model to derive infrared luminosities and dust temperatures, we measure a dust emissivity spectral index for SMGs of β = 2.0 ± 0.2. Our results unambiguously unveil the diversity of the SMG population. Some SMGs exhibit extreme infrared luminosities of s1013{L⊙} and relatively warm dust components, while others are fainter (a few times 1012 L⊙) and are biased towards cold dust temperatures. Although at zs2 classical SMGs (>5 mJy at 850 μm) have large infrared luminosities (s1013 L⊙), objects only selected on their submm flux densities (without any redshift informations) probe a large range in dust temperatures and infrared luminosities. The extreme infrared luminosities of some SMGs (LIR ≳ 1012.7 L⊙, 26/61 systems) imply star formation rates (SFRs) of >500 M⊙ yr-1 (assuming a Chabrier IMF and no dominant AGN contribution to the FIR luminosity). Such high SFRs are difficult to reconcile with a secular mode of star formation, and may instead correspond to a merger-driven stage in the evolution of these galaxies. Another observational argument in favour of this scenario is the presence of dust temperatures warmer than that of SMGs of lower luminosities (s40 K as opposed to s25 K), consistent with observations of local ultra-luminous infrared galaxies triggered by major mergers and with results from hydrodynamic simulations of major mergers combined with radiative transfer calculations

  2. The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS): HST Frontier Field Coverage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, Eiichi

    2015-08-01

    The Herschel Lensing Survey (HLS; PI: Egami) is a large Far-IR/Submm imaging survey of massive galaxy clusters using the Herschel Space Observatory. Its main goal is to detect and study IR/Submm galaxies that are below the nominal confusion limit of Herschel by taking advantage of the strong gravitational lensing power of massive galaxy clusters. HLS has obtained deep PACS (100/160 um) and SPIRE (250/350/500 um) images for 54 cluster fields (HLS-deep) as well as shallower but nearly confusion-limited SPIRE-only images for 527 cluster fields (HLS-snapshot) with a total observing time of ~420 hours. Extensive multi-wavelength follow-up studies are currently on-going with a variety of observing facilities including ALMA.Here, I will focus on the analysis of the deep Herschel PACS/SPIRE images obtained for the 6 HST Frontier Fields (5 observed by HLS-deep; 1 observed by the Herschel GT programs). The Herschel/SPIRE maps are wide enough to cover the Frontier-Field parallel pointings, and we have detected a total of ~180 sources, some of which are strongly lensed. I will present the sample and discuss the properties of these Herschel-detected dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) identified in the Frontier Fields. Although the majority of these Herschel sources are at moderate redshift (z<3), a small number of extremely high-redshift (z>6) candidates can be identified as "Herschel dropouts" when combined with longer-wavelength data. We have also identified ~40 sources as likely cluster members, which will allow us to study the properties of DSFGs in the dense cluster environment.A great legacy of our HLS project will be the extensive multi-wavelength database that incorporates most of the currently available data/information for the fields of the Frontier-Field, CLASH, and other HLS clusters (e.g., HST/Spitzer/Herschel images, spectroscopic/photometric redshifts, lensing models, best-fit SED models etc.). Provided with a user-friendly GUI and a flexible search engine, this

  3. A Herschel study of NGC 650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hoof, P. A. M.; Van de Steene, G. C.; Exter, K. M.; Barlow, M. J.; Ueta, T.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Gear, W. K.; Gomez, H. L.; Hargrave, P. C.; Ivison, R. J.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Olofsson, G.; Polehampton, E. T.; Swinyard, B. M.; Van Winckel, H.; Waelkens, C.; Wesson, R.

    2013-12-01

    As part of the Herschel guaranteed time key project Mass loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) we have imaged a sample of planetary nebulae. In this paper we present the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) images of the classical bipolar planetary nebula NGC 650. We used these images to derive a temperature map of the dust. We also constructed a photoionization and dust radiative transfer model using the spectral synthesis code Cloudy. To constrain this model, we used the PACS and SPIRE fluxes and combined them with hitherto unpublished International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) spectra as well as various other data from the literature. A temperature map combined with a photoionization model were used to study various aspects of the central star, the nebula, and in particular the dust grains in the nebula. The central star parameters are determined to be Teff = 208 kK and L = 261 L⊙ assuming a distance of 1200 pc. The stellar temperature is much higher than previously published values. We confirm that the nebula is carbon-rich with a C/O ratio of 2.1. The nebular abundances are typical for a type IIa planetary nebula. With the photoionization model we determined that the grains in the ionized nebula are large (assuming single-sized grains, they would have a radius of 0.15 μm). Most likely these large grains were inherited from the asymptotic giant branch phase. The PACS 70/160 μm temperature map shows evidence of two radiation components heating the grains. The first component is direct emission from the central star, while the second component is diffuse emission from the ionized gas (mainly Lyα). We show that previous suggestions of a photo-dissociation region surrounding the ionized region are incorrect. The neutral material resides in dense clumps inside the ionized region. These may also harbor stochastically heated very small grains in addition to the large

  4. Observations of ammonia in comets with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biver, N.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Hartogh, P.; Crovisier, J.; de Val-Borro, M.; Kidger, M.; Küppers, M.; Lis, D.; Moreno, R.; Szutowicz, S.; HssO Team

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia is the most abundant nitrogen bearing species in comets. However, it has been scarcely observed in comets due to the weakness of the lines observable from the ground at infrared and centimetre wavelengths. Nevertheless, its main photodissociation product NH_2 has been observed in several comets in the visible. The fundamental rotational J_{K}=(1_0-0_0) transition of NH_3 at 572.5 GHz has been observed in comets since 2004, with the Odin satellite (Biver et al. 2007). In the frame of the Herschel guaranteed time key program ''HssO'' (Hartogh et al. 2009), ammonia was detected with the HIFI instrument in comets 10P/Tempel 2 (Biver et al. 2012), 45P/Honda- Mrkos-Pajdusakova, 103P/Hartley 2, and C/2009 P1 (Garradd). The hyperfine structure of the line is resolved. We have built a complete excitation model to interpret these observations, including the radial distribution in comet 103P. The derived abundances relative to water are on the order of 0.5 %, similar to the values inferred from visible observations of NH_2.

  5. New results from the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.

    2013-11-01

    The Herschel Reference Survey is a SPIRE guaranteed time key project aimed at studying the properties of the interstellar medium of a K-band selected, volume-limited (15 ≤ D ≤ 25 Mpc) complete sample of 322 galaxies spanning a large range in morphological type and stellar mass. We study the far infrared colours of the late-type galaxies of the cluster with the purpose of tracing with an empirical approach the relationships between the shape of the observed spectral energy distribution (SED) and different physical parameters such as the star formation rate, the birthrate parameter (or specific star formation rate), here taken as a tracer of the hardness of the inciding radiation, the intensity of the ionising and non ionising radiation, the metallicity and the Hα and FUV attenuation. We also show that the far infrared shape of the SED cannot be fitted with a modified black body with a fixed grain emissivity parameter β. All this analysis is a brief summary of a work presented in Boselli_etal. (2012).

  6. Uzbekistan unveiled. [Uranium production to commence

    SciTech Connect

    Mazurkevich, A.P.

    1993-05-01

    Through centuries of revolution, war and strife, the people of Uzbekistan have built a reputation as skilled and tenacious merchants. Since antiquity, when the Silk Road from China turned toward Europe at Smarakand, they have been master traders of such valuable commodities as cotton, fruits, vegetables, spices and gold. Now, they're about to introduce another of their specialties to the world: Uranium. Uranium mining in the country is controlled by a new, independent company, the Kizilkumredmetzoloto, parent of the Navoi Mining Metallurgy Combine [NMMC]. Established in 1958 at the height of the Cold War, when uranium mining for military stockpiles got started in earnest, Navoi was wholly owned by the USSR's Ministry of Medium Machine Building. Up until 1991, virtually all of Navoi's uranium production, strictly in the form of uranium concentrates, was used for either military purposes or for nuclear power plants within the former Soviet Union. The republic exerted no control over the final destination of its uranium. All production and operating decisions for Navoi's mines were dictated by the Soviet Union's Ministry of Atomic Power Industry [MAPI], which developed annual quotas for uranium production in each republic of the country. Uranium from the republics was sold to Techsnabexport [Tenex], the distribution and marketing arm of MAPI. Exports to other countries were handled strictly by Tenex.

  7. The dual Green Revolutions in South Korea: reforestation and agricultural revolution under the authoritarian regime.

    PubMed

    Moon, Manyong

    2012-01-01

    In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals. PMID:22834068

  8. Science with Herschel: Results from the HERITAGE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meixner, M.; Seale, J.; Roman-Duval, J.; Gordon, K.; HERITAGE Team

    The Herschel Space Observatory completed its last observation on 2013 April 29 after completing 35 000 astronomical observations resulting in numerous discoveries. In this review, we describe the capabilities and general scope of the Herschel mission. In particular, we review the science results from one of the open time key programs, the HERschel Inventory of The Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) in the Magellanic Clouds. The HERITAGE project mapped the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm using the SPIRE/PACS parallel mode. The total global fluxes for the LMC and SMC agree with measurements by other missions, including Planck. The HERITAGE maps of the LMC and SMC are dominated by the ISM dust emission and bear most resemblance to the tracers of ISM gas rather than the stellar content of the galaxies. The overriding science goal of HERITAGE is to study the life cycle of matter as traced by dust in the LMC and SMC. The far-infrared and submillimeter emission is an effective tracer of the interstellar medium (ISM) dust, the most deeply embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) and the dust ejected by the most massive stars which are discussed briefly in this review. The HERITAGE team has delivered the maps and source catalogs created for each of the 5 bands to the Herschel Science Center archive which will hold the legacy of Herschel.

  9. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas where laboratory study is required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front, chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can he properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  10. Laboratory Astrophysics Needs of the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2002-11-01

    The science teams of the Herschel Space Observatory have identified a number of areas for laboratory study required for proper interpretation of Herschel observational data. The most critical is the collection and compilation of laboratory data on spectral line frequencies, transition probabilities and energy levels for the known astrophysical atomic and molecular species in 670 to 57 micron wavelength range of Herschel. The second most critical need is the compilation of collisional excitation cross sections for the species known to dominate the energy balance in the ISM and the temperature dependent chemical reaction rates. On the theoretical front chemical and radiative transfer models need to be prepared in advance to assess calibration and identify instrument anomalies. In the next few years there will be a need to incorporate spectroscopists and theoretical chemists into teams of astronomers so that the spectroscopic surveys planned can be properly calibrated and rapidly interpreted once the data becomes available. The science teams have also noted that the enormous prospects for molecular discovery will be greatly handicapped by the nearly complete lack of spectroscopic data for anything not already well known in the ISM. As a minimum, molecular species predicted to exist by chemical models should be subjected to detailed laboratory study to ensure conclusive detections. This has the greatest impact on any astrobiology program that might be proposed for Herschel. Without a significant amount of laboratory work in the very near future Herschel will not be prepared for many planned observations, much less addressing the open questions in molecular astrophysics.

  11. EDITORIAL: Permanent revolution - or evolution?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-03-01

    Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned

  12. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  13. Making Room for Revolution in Social Studies Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Revolutions of all kinds are a mainstay of social studies and history classes across Canada. While revolution as subject matter is prevalent in Canadian social studies classrooms, it is unclear the degree to which what Howard Gardner calls the "cognitive revolution" has found its way into those same classrooms. This is the revolution in thinking…

  14. The spine of the swan: a Herschel study of the DR21 ridge and filaments in Cygnus X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.; Schneider, N.; Didelon, P.; Hill, T.; Arzoumanian, D.; Bontemps, S.; Csengeri, T.; André, Ph.; Konyves, V.; Louvet, F.; Marston, A.; Men'shchikov, A.; Minier, V.; Nguyen Luong, Q.; Palmeirim, P.; Peretto, N.; Sauvage, M.; Zavagno, A.; Anderson, L. D.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Di Francesco, J.; Elia, D.; Li, J. Z.; Martin, P. G.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Russeil, D.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Schisano, E.; Spinoglio, L.; Sousbie, T.; Ward-Thompson, D.; White, G. J.

    2012-07-01

    In order to characterise the cloud structures responsible for the formation of high-mass stars, we present Herschel observations of the DR21 environment. Maps of the column density and dust temperature unveil the structure of the DR21 ridge and several connected filaments. The ridge has column densities higher than 1023 cm-2 over a region of 2.3 pc2. It shows substructured column density profiles and branches into two major filaments in the north. The masses in the filaments range between 130 and 1400 M⊙, whereas the mass in the ridge is 15 000 M⊙. The accretion of these filaments onto the DR21 ridge, suggested by a previous molecular line study, could provide a continuous mass inflow to the ridge. In contrast to the striations seen in, e.g., the Taurus region, these filaments are gravitationally unstable and form cores and protostars. These coresformed in the filaments potentially fall into the ridge. Both inflow and collisions of cores could be important to drive the observed high-mass star formation. The evolutionary gradient of star formation running from DR21 in the south to the northern branching is traced by decreasing dust temperature. This evolution and the ridge structure can be explained by two main filamentary components of the ridge that merged first in the south. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA (Pilbratt et al. 2010).Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. Casimir energy for perturbed surfaces of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Almazan, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we explore the zeta function arising from a small perturbation on a surface of revolution and the effect of this on the functional determinant and on the change of the Casimir energy associated with the surface.

  16. The American Revolution: A Bicentennial Booklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellon, Elner

    1976-01-01

    Both fiction and nonfiction citations are included in this booklist of children's literature pertaining to the American Revolution, and grade levels are assigned to each of the nearly 500 citations. (JC)

  17. High School Textbooks and the American Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seller, Maxine; Trusz, Andrew

    1976-01-01

    In terms of teaching about the American Revolution, this article surveys strengths and weaknesses of representative, frequently used high school history books. It suggests how the most common weaknesses can be corrected. (Author/AV)

  18. The American Revolution; A Bibliography of Multimedia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fultz, Norma J.

    1975-01-01

    This bibliography lists several types of multimedia instructional materials useful in teaching the American Revolution for elementary and secondary students. The following types of media are included: audiotapes, films, filmstrips, kits, phonodiscs, pictures, realia, simulations, slides, and transparencies. (JR)

  19. Must We Have a Cultural Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampf, Louis

    1970-01-01

    Argues that a cultural revolution must precede anything approaching substantial, meaningful curriculum change; a speech given at annual meeting of Conference on College Composition and Communication, National Council of Teachers of English (Seattle, Washington, March 19, 1970). (Editor/RD)

  20. A concert of music by Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.; Hammer, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Orchester Göttinger Musikfreunde presented an evening of music in the magnificent Aula of the University as one of the social events of the conference. The astronomical highlights of the concert were two symphonic works by Sir William Herschel, including an oboe solo by a member of the LOC (W. Glatzel). This is the text from the concert programme. A recording of the concert is included in this proceedings. Programme --------- Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Symphony No. 13 in D Major (1762) W. A. Mozart (1756-1791): Piano Concerto No. 27 in B Major (KV 595), C. Hammer (piano) Sir William Herschel (1738-1822): Fragment of an Oboe Concerto in C Major (MS790), W. Glatzel (oboe) J. Haydn (1732-1809): Symphony No. 91 E-flat Major We would like to acknowledge the Sparkasse Göttingen and the Versicherungsgesellschaft Hannover for generously making this concert possible.

  1. Interstellar dust on the eve of Herschel and Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.

    2008-11-01

    In this contribution I review some of the key scientific questions that animate the interstellar dust community a few months before the launch of Herschel and Planck. Great progress have been made in the past 25 years on the subject of interstellar dust using infrared observations from space. With the advent of sub-millimeter and millimeter observations with Herschel and Planck, new scientific challenges are coming and exciting discoveries are to be expected. In particular Herschel and Planck will bring key information 1) on the growth process of dust grains, the first step toward the formation of planetesimals, 2) on the structure of the interstellar medium and its link with interstellar turbulence, 3) on the physical conditions of the Galactic halo clouds which are thought to have some cold dust, 4) on the properties of the interstellar magnetic field and 5) on the interstellar PAHs using their spinning dust emission in the millimeter.

  2. OverPlotter: A Utility for Herschel Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Mei, Y.; Schulz, B.

    2008-08-01

    The OverPlotter utility is a GUI tool written in Java to support interactive data processing (DP) and analysis for the Herschel Space Observatory within the framework of the Herschel Common Science System (HCSS)(Wieprecht et al 2004). The tool expands upon the capabilities of the TableViewer (Zhang & Schulz 2005), providing now also the means to create additional overlays of several X/Y scatter plots within the same display area. These layers can be scaled and panned, either individually, or together as one graph. Visual comparison of data with different origins and units becomes much easier. The number of available layers is not limited, except by computer memory and performance. Presentation images can be easily created by adding annotations, labeling layers and setting colors. The tool will be very helpful especially in the early phases of Herschel data analysis, when a quick access to contents of data products is important.

  3. Outpatient care: a nationwide revolution.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H J; Hudson, T; Eubanks, P

    1990-08-01

    Most CEOs expect outpatient utilization to increase, but are executives planning ahead for what some term a virtual "revolution" in health care delivery? This issue's cover story takes a look at some of the key strategies that outpatient executives are implementing in their markets. Examples range from a large university teaching hospital, to a suburban facility, to a 40-bed rural hospital in Minnesota. Business strategy is only part of the outpatient story, however. One of the key questions that health care executives must answer is where the outpatient management talent will come from. Outpatient executives report that many of the same skills are needed in this setting as are necessary in the traditional inpatient side; however, there are major differences in management expertise that could make or break a hospital's outpatient services. Moreover, some experts say that this emerging definition of what it takes to be a successful outpatient services executive may be shaping the mold for all future health care executives, both inpatient and outpatient. PMID:2373495

  4. Laparoscopic revolution in bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Sundbom, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21st century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery. PMID:25386062

  5. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  6. Infrared study of transitional disks in Ophiuchus with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollido, Isabel; Merín, Bruno; Ribas, Álvaro; Bustamante, Ignacio; Bouy, Hervé; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Prusti, Timo; Pilbratt, Göran L.; André, Philippe; Ábrahám, Péter

    2015-09-01

    Context. Observations of nearby star-forming regions with the Herschel Space Observatory complement our view of the protoplanetary disks in Ophiuchus with information about the outer disks. Aims: The main goal of this project is to provide new far-infrared fluxes for the known disks in the core region of Ophiuchus and to identify potential transitional disks using data from Herschel. Methods: We obtained PACS and SPIRE photometry of previously spectroscopically confirmed young stellar objects (YSO) in the region and analysed their spectral energy distributions. Results: From an initial sample of 261 objects with spectral types in Ophiuchus, we detect 49 disks in at least one Herschel band. We provide new far-infrared fluxes for these objects. One of them is clearly a new transitional disk candidate. Conclusions: The data from Herschel Space Observatory provides fluxes that complement previous infrared data and that we use to identify a new transitional disk candidate. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Final reduced Herschel maps are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A30Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgAll tables are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/581/A30

  7. Galaxy formation from deep surveys with Herschel-PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.

    2011-11-01

    Deep far-infrared photometric surveys studying galaxy evolution and the nature of the cosmic infrared background are a key strength of the Herschel mission. The PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) guaranteed time key program obtains deep photometric surveys of some of the key extragalactic multiwavelength fields at wavelengths between 70 and 160 μm. This contribution gives an overview of first science results, illustrating the potential of Herschel in providing calorimetric star formation rates for various high redshift galaxy populations, thus testing and superseding previous extrapolations from other wavelengths, and enabling a wide range of galaxy evolution studies.

  8. Models of the η Corvi Debris Disk from the Keck Interferometer, Spitzer, and Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G.; Defrère, D.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Boccaletti, A.

    2016-02-01

    Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is especially striking, as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ∼1.4 Gyr. We undertake constructing a consistent model of the system that can explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectrophotometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images, to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries along the major axis. KIN enables us to establish that the warm dust consists of a ring that peaks between 0.2 and 0.8 AU. To reconcile this location with the ∼400 K dust temperature, very high albedo dust must be invoked, and a distribution of forsterite grains starting from micron sizes satisfies this criterion, while providing an excellent fit to the spectrum. We discuss additional constraints from the LBTI and near-infrared spectra, and we present predictions of what James Webb Space Telescope can unveil about this unusual object and whether it can detect unseen planets.

  9. Peace Revolution's Online Social Platform: From Inner Revolution to Global Evolution of Ethical Media Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Samantha; Dhanissaro, Phra John Paramai; Thangsurbkul, Worakate

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a project called Peace Revolution [http://peacerevolution.net], which provides an opportunity for young people from around the world to learn and share positive messages and activities relating to peace. The Peace Revolution project aims to empower young people via a unique process related to youth development, helping young…

  10. Revolution and the Re-Birth of Inequality: The Bolivian National Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Jonathan; Klein, Herbert S.

    This study of Bolivia's National Revolution of 1952 illustrates the effects of a peasant revolution on inequality and status inheritance. It was hypothesized that when an exploited peasantry revolts and overthrows the traditonal elite, peasants would be better off because inequality and status inheritance would decline as a result of the…

  11. First National Picture of Trends in the Humanities Is Unveiled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to hard data about what they do, policy makers and educators in the humanities have been mostly left out in the cold, forced to rely on isolated statistics that do not give an overview of the field. That changed this month, as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences unveiled the prototype of its long-awaited Humanities Indicators…

  12. Unveiling Reality of the Mind: Cultural Arbitrary of Consumerism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Su-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the cultural arbitrary of consumerism by focusing on a personal realm. That is, I discuss what consumerism appeals to and how it flourishes in relation to our minds. I argue that we need to unveil reality of the mind, be aware of ourselves in relation to the perpetuation of consumerism, in order to critically intervene in the…

  13. The Landscape Documentary: Unveiling the Face of "Wasteland."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Craig L.

    This paper outlines the process of a photographic landscape documentary project which set out to unveil the face of Utah's West Desert (a 42,000 square-mile, sparsely-populated, broad, rugged land of salt bed "playas" and high mountain ranges) comprising one-third of the state and which hoped to make the West Desert, recently under consideration…

  14. EDITORIAL: The next photonic revolution The next photonic revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new

  15. HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di; Liseau, Rene; Black, John H.; Bell, Tom A.; Hollenbach, David; Kaufman, Michael J.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre; Snell, Ronald; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Bergin, Edwin; Caselli, Paola; Caux, Emmanuel; Falgarone, Edith

    2011-08-20

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O{sub 2}) in emission from the H{sub 2} Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s{sup -1} to 12 km s{sup -1} and widths of 3 km s{sup -1}. The beam-averaged column density is N(O{sub 2}) = 6.5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O{sub 2} relative to H{sub 2} is (0.3-7.3) x 10{sup -6}. The unusual velocity suggests an association with a {approx}5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is {approx}10 M{sub sun} and the dust temperature is {>=}150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O{sub 2} abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T {>=} 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O{sub 2}. For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature {>=}180 K. The inferred O{sub 2} column density {approx_equal}5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2} can be produced in Peak A, having N(H{sub 2}) {approx_equal} 4 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s{sup -1}) C-shock, which can produce N(O{sub 2}) up to 10{sup 17} cm{sup -2}.

  16. Exploring New Spectral Windows with the Herschel Space Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergin, Edwin A.

    2011-10-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, an ESA cornerstone mission with NASA participation, has been in operation for over a year. I will briefly outline the overall capabilities of Herschel which has both photometric and spectroscopic coverage from 63 to 610 microns. Herschel offers unprecedented sensitivity as well as continuous spectral coverage across the gaps imposed by the atmosphere, opening up a largely unexplored wavelength regime to high resolution spectroscopy. In particular, I will present and discuss the most complete molecular spectrum of star-forming gas ever obtained in the spectrum of Orion KL and the galactic center molecular cloud Sagittarius B2. These spectra have over 1.4 THz of bandwidth and a resolution of 1 MHz. We estimate that there are over 100,000 spectral lines alone in the Orion KL spectrum with numerous lines of water vapor, ammonia, sulfur-bearing molecules, and numerous organics. I will demonstrate the power of molecular spectroscopy in characterizing the physical state of dense gas near massive stars through the perspective offered by observations of hundreds of lines of a single molecule and our new ability to peer through the Milky Way to reveal a hidden molecular phase. I will show how the spectra provide a near complete chemical assay and cooling census of star-forming gas. Ultimately the gains from Herschel have tremendous potential to extend our understanding of the physics of star birth and feedback while informing on the origin of water and organics in space.

  17. John Herschel's position in the post-Neptune discovery debates.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollerstrom, N.

    2005-08-01

    In the course of archiving Britain's Neptune correspondence I have transcribed letters by Herschel (from the Royal Society Library) that have been little appreciated by scholars. The great polemical debates took place chiefly within the RAS but also affecting the Royal Society and the British Association, and Herschel was very much at the centre of things. His views become especially interesting once the sceptical American view started to be heard some months after the discovery, that because the real Neptune was so very different in its motions from that predicted by Adams and LeVerrier, and because the 2:1 resonance between Uranus and Neptune is such a large effect and yet was wholly unknown to these two, the prediction had to have been a mere happy coincidence. Herschel's view that the synchrony involved was beneficial for public understanding of science remains of relevance today. During these intense debates, Herschel was completing his bestseller 'Outlines of Astronomy' that was to go through twelve editions.

  18. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  19. Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verebélyi, Erika; Dobos, László; Kiss, Csaba

    2015-08-01

    Using all telemetry and observational meta-data, we created a searchable database of Herschel observation footprints. Data from the Herschel space observatory is freely available for everyone but no uniformly processed catalog of all observations has been published yet. As a first step, we unified the data model for all three Herschel instruments in all observation modes and compiled a database of sky coverage information. As opposed to methods using a pixellation of the sphere, in our database, sky coverage is stored in exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. Indexing of the footprints allows for very fast search among observations based on pointing, time, sky coverage overlap and meta-data. This enables us, for example, to find moving objects easily in Herschel fields. The database is accessible via a web site and also as a set of REST web service functions which makes it usable from program clients like Python or IDL scripts. Data is available in various formats including Virtual Observatory standards.

  20. Identification of new transitional disk candidates in Lupus with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, I.; Merín, B.; Ribas, Á.; Bouy, H.; Prusti, T.; Pilbratt, G. L.; André, Ph.

    2015-06-01

    Context. New data from the Herschel Space Observatory are broadening our understanding of the physics and evolution of the outer regions of protoplanetary disks in star-forming regions. In particular they prove to be useful for identifying transitional disk candidates. Aims: The goals of this work are to complement the detections of disks and the identification of transitional disk candidates in the Lupus clouds with data from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Methods: We extracted photometry at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm of all spectroscopically confirmed Class II members previously identified in the Lupus regions and analyzed their updated spectral energy distributions. Results: We have detected 34 young disks in Lupus in at least one Herschel band, from an initial sample of 123 known members in the observed fields. Using recently defined criteria, we have identified five transitional disk candidates in the region. Three of them are new to the literature. Their PACS-70 μm fluxes are systematically higher than those of normal T Tauri stars in the same associations, as already found in T Cha and in the transitional disks in the Chamaeleon molecular cloud. Conclusions: Herschel efficiently complements mid-infrared surveys for identifying transitional disk candidates and confirms that these objects seem to have substantially different outer disks than the T Tauri stars in the same molecular clouds. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Tables 5-7 and Figs. 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  2. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-01-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature - and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  3. Hacking the quantum revolution: 1925-1975

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweber, Silvan S.

    2015-02-01

    I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature — and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.

  4. "Heart" of Herschel to be presented to media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    The Herschel mission, equipped with the largest telescope ever launched in space (3.5 m diameter), will give astronomers their best capability yet to explore the universe at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths. By measuring the light at these wavelengths, scientists see the ‘cold’ universe. Herschel will give them an unprecedented view, allowing them to see deep into star forming regions, galactic centres and planetary systems. In order to achieve its objectives and to be able to detect the faint radiation coming from the coolest objects in the cosmos, otherwise ‘invisible’, Herschel’s detectors must operate at very low and stable temperatures. The spacecraft is equipped so as to cool them close to absolute zero (-273.15 ºC), ranging from -271 ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. To have achieved this particular feature alone is a remarkable accomplishment for European industry and science. The final integration of the various components of the Herschel spacecraft - payload module, cryostat, service module, telescope and solar arrays - will be completed in the next few months. This phase will be followed by a series of tests to get the spacecraft ready for launch at the end of July 2008. Herschel will be launched into space on an Ariane 5 ECA rocket. The launch is shared with Planck, ESA’s mission to study relic radiation from the Big Bang. Media interested to attend the press event are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note for editors The Prime Contractor for the Herschel spacecraft is Thales Alenia Space (Cannes, France). It leads a consortium of industrial partners with Astrium (Germany) responsible for the Extended Payload Module (EPLM, including the Herschel cryostat), Astrium (France) responsible for the telescope, and the Thales Alenia Space industry branch of Torino, Italy, responsible for the Service Module (SVM). There is also a host of subcontractors spread throughout Europe. The three Herschel

  5. De Humani Corporis Fabrica surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2008-01-01

    De Humani Corporis Fabrica (1543), by the Belgian anatomy master Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), represents one of the most advanced surgical revolutions in history. The creation of an anatomy book that carefully and systematically introduced the structure of the human body in a way that was truthful to the findings of human dissection had never been accomplished before. No one challenged Galen's teachings as Vesalius did. De Humani Corporis Fabrica offered to the surgeon's world new knowledge and a systematic approach to human anatomy. The novel concepts and perspectives introduced by Vesalius constituted a real surgical revolution worthy of study in the annals of surgery. PMID:19160130

  6. The third therapeutic revolution: behavioral medicine.

    PubMed

    Basmajian, J V

    1999-06-01

    Behavioral medicine--and one of its progenitors, biofeedback--are expanding as the Third Therapeutic Revolution, supplementing surgery and pharmacology in treating human illnesses. Parallel development of nonscience-based therapies is a part of the same revolution. Labeling their positive results as "placebo effects" hides a greater truth: faith and trust play an enormous role in therapy. The successes of both behavioral medicine and unorthodox complementary medicine are the result of the debonafide effect (my Latin for "from good faith"). Readers are urged to adopt this better definition of the "unexplicable" and substantial good results of both the placebos in research and the ministration of unorthodox treatments. PMID:10575538

  7. Manifesto for a new (computational) cognitive revolution.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-02-01

    The cognitive revolution offered an alternative to merely analyzing human behavior, using the notion of computation to rigorously express hypotheses about the mind. Computation also gives us new tools for testing these hypotheses - large behavioral databases generated by human interactions with computers and with one another. This kind of data is typically analyzed by computer scientists, who focus on predicting people's behavior based on their history. A new cognitive revolution is needed, demonstrating the value of minds as intervening variables in these analyses and using the results to evaluate models of human cognition. PMID:25497482

  8. Finding the Axis of Revolution of an Algebraic Surface of Revolution.

    PubMed

    Alcazar, Juan G; Goldman, Ron

    2016-09-01

    We present an algorithm for extracting the axis of revolution from the implicit equation of an algebraic surface of revolution based on three distinct computational methods: factoring the highest order form into quadrics, contracting the tensor of the highest order form, and using univariate resultants and gcds. We compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of each of these three techniques and we derive conditions under which each technique is most appropriate. In addition, we provide several necessary conditions for an implicit algebraic equation to represent a surface of revolution. PMID:26561460

  9. So What About History and the American Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Edmund S.

    1974-01-01

    A short introduction to the study of the American Revolution coordinates photographs and pertinent questions to gain a perspective on history as a discipline in general and the history of the revolution in particular. (KM)

  10. The Industrial Revolution: An ERIC/ChESS Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinhey, Laura A.

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)

  11. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  12. Using the Microcomputer to Study the Anatomy of Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…

  13. Postal Service unveils new space stamps at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Applauding the unveiling of the U.S. Postal Service's newest series of stamps, Space Discovery, are are (left to right) Barry Ziehl, U.S. Postal Service; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director of advanced development and shuttle upgrades; Karla Corcoran, Postal Service inspector general; Kristene A. Graves, a student from Lewis Carroll Elementary School; and Dr. Donald Thomas, astronaut and veteran of four Shuttle missions. During the ceremony, Kristene read her essay 'My Stamp Adventure' that she had written for an area-wide contest for the event. The unveiling took place at the KSC Visitor Complex and coincided with NASA's 40th anniversary on this date. Behind the large display can be seen the mockup of an orbiter. The stamps were designed by renowned aerospace artist Attila Heija. The strip of five individual stamps together make up a futuristic scene complete with space vehicles, a futuristic space city, and space explorers. The stamps are available nationwide beginning Oct. 1.

  14. Postal Service unveils new space stamps at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Postal Service unveils its newest series of stamps, Space Discovery, at the KSC Visitor Complex. The event coincided with NASA's 40th anniversary on this date. Participating in the unveiling are (left to right) Barry Ziehl, U.S. Postal Service; JoAnn Morgan, KSC associate director of advanced development and shuttle upgrades; Karla Corcoran, Postal Service inspector general; Kristene A. Graves, a student from Lewis Carroll Elementary School ; and Dr. Donald Thomas, astronaut and veteran of four Shuttle missions. Behind them is the mockup of an orbiter. During the ceremony, Kristene read her essay 'My Stamp Adventure' that she had written for an area-wide contest for the event. The stamps were designed by renowned aerospace artist Attila Heija. The strip of five individual stamps together make up a futuristic scene complete with space vehicles, a futuristic space city, and space explorers. The stamps are available nationwide beginning Oct. 1.

  15. The Start of a Tech Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2009-01-01

    We are at the start of a revolution in the use of computers, one that analysts predict will rival the development of the PC in its significance. Companies such as Google, HP, Amazon, Sun Microsystems, Sony, IBM, and Apple are orienting their entire business models toward this change, and software maker SAS has announced plans for a $70 million…

  16. "ZEAL": An Aesthetic Revolution for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Barbara A.; French, James Joss

    2012-01-01

    Educators are hesitant to venture into the unknown landscape within a child's heart and mind because they have throughout their education experienced the same non-compassionate teachers. This research proposes an awakening, making a wave for a new revolution of compassionate teachers that institutes aesthetic methodology to address relevant…

  17. The Information Highway as Revolution or Evolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esrock, Stuart L.

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that society is more likely in the midst of an information evolution, rather than a revolution. Uses new media technology and forecasting literatures as a framework to evaluate current technology developments and public discussion about the information highway. Compares the hopeful rhetoric that surrounds the information highway to…

  18. Key Roles in the Revolution of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riverin-Simard, Danielle

    At the height of the work revolution and its great social challenges, career development and employment counseling specialists have essential key roles to play in order to support the socioeconomic growth of our community. This book suggests four pro-active key roles for the profession. This recommendation is based on research conducted over the…

  19. The Bayesian Revolution Approaches Psychological Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary reviews five articles that apply Bayesian ideas to psychological development, some with psychology experiments, some with computational modeling, and some with both experiments and modeling. The reviewed work extends the current Bayesian revolution into tasks often studied in children, such as causal learning and word learning, and…

  20. The Microarray Revolution: Perspectives from Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Jay L.; Beason, K. Beth; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Evans, Irene M.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, microarray analysis has become a key experimental tool, enabling the analysis of genome-wide patterns of gene expression. This review approaches the microarray revolution with a focus upon four topics: 1) the early development of this technology and its application to cancer diagnostics; 2) a primer of microarray research,…

  1. The Challenge of the Micro Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of choices posed by the current microtechnology revolution notes librarians' reluctance to utilize new technologies, ability of libraries to deal with success and fund new services, strategic decision facing libraries and professionals concerning essential "business" of libraries, new microcomputer portables and more powerful software,…

  2. The American Revolution. An Eyewitness History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burg, David F.

    While the American Revolution officially began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the seeds of rebellion had been sown for decades. The struggle for representation in the British Parliament left many colonists eager to seek out independence. This book provides hundreds of firsthand accounts of the period from diary entries, letters,…

  3. Public Germplasm Collections and Revolutions in Biotechnology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public germplasm collections provided the biological material critical for launching the three most important revolutions in modern biotechnology: (i) An isolate of Penicillium chrysogenum, NRRL 1951, the basis for industrial production of penicillan, originated from the ARS Culture Collection in Pe...

  4. Governing Education: Remaking the Long Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Behind the thin veil of the Conservative regime's rationale of deficit reduction hides the final demolition of public comprehensive education and Raymond Williams's more expansive long revolution unfolding over a century of creating a democratic state that affords opportunity, voice and justice for all. Restoring the politics of a pre-war or…

  5. SPECIES DATABASES AND THE BIOINFORMATICS REVOLUTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...

  6. Anthropology's disenchantment with the cognitive revolution(1).

    PubMed

    Shweder, Richard A

    2012-07-01

    Beller, Bender, and Medin should be congratulated for their generous attempt at expressive academic therapy for troubled interdisciplinary relationships. In this essay, I suggest that a negative answer to the central question ("Should anthropology be part of cognitive science?") is not necessarily distressing, that in retrospect the breakup seems fairly predictable, and that disenchantment with the cognitive revolution is nothing new. PMID:22685098

  7. Tradition and Revolution in ESL Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimes, Ann

    1983-01-01

    Explores the development of language teaching in light of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolution and briefly defines the positivist tradition in language teaching. Argues that the current emphasis on communication does not mark the emergence of a new paradigm, as it still operates in the positivist tradition, but rather a paradigm shift.…

  8. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  9. The Early Childhood Mathematics Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: We are in the midst of a revolution. Prior to the onset of the 21st century, mathematics education in the United States was deemphasized (Geary, 1996), and mathematics as an instructional subject has traditionally been considered above the preschool and kindergarten levels. However, the old regime--the knowledge and philosophies…

  10. The American Revolution: Causes. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Gary

    Based on an 18th century poem (actually, a song originally) about the Boston Tea Party, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that taxation of the American colonists by the British led to the American Revolution; all eras have protest poetry or songs; and students can perform and analyze old literature. The main…

  11. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the analysis of Thomas S. Kuhn's book, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions." Science history is reviewed as it is viewed through the idea of a paradigm. The sequence in science or life cycle of a paradigm is explained. (SA)

  12. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

  13. The Mexican Revolution and health care or the health of the Mexican Revolution.

    PubMed

    Horn, J J

    1985-01-01

    Despite a victorious social revolution, a self-proclaimed "revolutionary" government, and a significant post-war economic growth, Mexico has not achieved a just or equitable social system. The Mexican Revolution led to the emergence of a new bureaucratic class whose "trickle-down" development strategy sacrificed social welfare to capital accumulation. Mexican morbidity and mortality patterns resemble those of more impoverished developing nations without revolutionary experience. The patterns of health care in Mexico reflect inequities and contradictions in the society and economy at large and flow from the erosion of the egalitarian aims of the revolution concomitant with the expansion of capitalism and the concentration of the benefits of "modernization" in the hands of privileged elites. Mexico's health problems are symptomatic of a general socio-economic malaise which questions the legitimacy of the Revolution. PMID:3932229

  14. Unveiling the Broze Bust of General George C. Marshall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    President Eisenhower and Mrs. Marshall unveil the bronze bust of General George C. Marshall at the dedication ceremony of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on September 8. 1960. On March 15, 1960, a Presidential Executive Order arnouced that the missile development complex within the boundaries of Redstone Arsenal would become the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Center was activated on July 1, 1960

  15. A complete census of Herschel-detected infrared sources within the HST Frontier Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawle, T. D.; Altieri, B.; Egami, E.; Pérez-González, P. G.; Boone, F.; Clement, B.; Ivison, R. J.; Richard, J.; Rujopakarn, W.; Valtchanov, I.; Walth, G.; Weiner, B. J.; Blain, A. W.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Kneib, J.-P.; Lutz, D.; Rodighiero, G.; Schaerer, D.; Smail, I.

    2016-06-01

    We present a complete census of all Herschel-detected sources within the six massive lensing clusters of the HST Frontier Fields (HFF). We provide a robust legacy catalogue of 263 sources with Herschel fluxes, primarily based on imaging from the Herschel Lensing Survey and PEP/HerMES Key Programmes. We optimally combine Herschel, Spitzer and WISE infrared (IR) photometry with data from HST, VLA and ground-based observatories, identifying counterparts to gain source redshifts. For each Herschel-detected source we also present magnification factor (μ), intrinsic IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature, providing a comprehensive view of dust-obscured star formation within the HFF. We demonstrate the utility of our catalogues through an exploratory overview of the magnified population, including more than 20 background sub-LIRGs unreachable by Herschel without the assistance gravitational lensing.

  16. Herschel observation of C3 in star forming regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mookerjea, B.; Giesen, T.; Stutzki, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Black, J. H.

    2011-05-01

    We present spectrally resolved observations of triatomic carbon (C3) in several ro-vibrational transitions between the vibrational ground state and the low-energy ν2 bending mode at frequencies above 1.6 THz using HIFI onboard Herschel, towards several Galactic star forming regions including W31C, W49N, DR21(OH), W33A and W51. These observations have been performed as part of the Herschel key programme PRISMAS. C3 lines arising from the warm envelopes surrounding the hot cores associated with these star forming regions are detected in absorption. We shall present results of detailed radiative transfer models in which the C3 lines are excited by FIR pumping by the dust continuum.

  17. A "Large and Graceful Sinuosity": John Herschel's Graphical Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankins, Thomas L.

    2006-12-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published a graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He argued that this method, which depended on human judgment rather than mathematical analysis, gave better results than computation, given the uncertainty in the data. Herschel found that astronomy and terrestrial physics were especially suitable for graphical treatment, and he expected that graphs would soon become important in all areas of science. He argued with William Whewell and James D. Forbes over the process of induction, over the application of probability, and over the moral content of science. Graphs entered into all these debates, but because they constituted a method, not a metaphysics, they were acceptable to most practicing scientists and became increasingly popular throughout the nineteenth century.

  18. A "large and graceful sinuosity". John Herschel's graphical method.

    PubMed

    Hankins, Thomas L

    2006-12-01

    In 1833 John Herschel published a graphical method for determining the orbits of double stars. He argued that his method, which depended on human judgment rather than mathematical analysis, gave better results than computation, given the uncertainty in the data. Herschel found that astronomy and terrestrial physics were especially suitable for graphical treatment, and he expected that graphs would soon become important in all areas of science. He argued with William Whewell and James D. Forbes over the process of induction, over the application of probability, and over the moral content of science. Graphs entered into all these debates; but because they constituted a method, not a metaphysics, they were acceptable to most practicing scientists and became increasingly popular throughout the nineteenth century. PMID:17367002

  19. Binaries in Nebulae: Recent Observations of John Herschel's List

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. L.

    1993-12-01

    During the 19th century John Herschel observed double stars from England and his Feldhausen Station in South Africa, using a 5-inch refractor and an 18-inch reflector, ``The 20-ft". A few of his discoveries were annotated ``nebulosity" in his 1874 catalog. Most of these ``nebulous binaries'' have been examined recently at the U.S. Naval Observatory's Flagstaff Station using the 1-m telescope equipped with a CCD. A few objects were added from lists by S. W. Burnham and W.H. van den Bos. This study began as an exploratory project to detect possible morphological connections between binaries and nebulosities, but it was soon apparent that Herschel's keen eyesight had originally detected more than double stars. The application of Aitken's criterion indicates few of the objects are physical binaries. Galaxy and gas-dust configurations are more descriptive of the nature of these objects.

  20. HERSCHEL Sounding Rocket Mission Observations of the Helium Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, Jeffrey; Moses, J.; Antonucci, E.; Fineschi, S.; Abbo, L.; Telloni, D.; Auchere, F.; Barbey, N.; Romoli, M.

    2010-05-01

    The HERSCHEL (Helium Resonant Scattering in the Corona and Heliosphere) investigation successfully obtained unprecedented images of the helium and hydrogen components of the solar corona out to 3 solar radii during a suborbital flight on 14 September 2009. Preliminary analysis of these observations indicates the spatial distribution of the helium abundance and outflow velocity provides powerful diagnostics for the source and dynamics of the slow solar wind during the time of solar minimum activity. An analysis of co-temporal STEREO EUVI data to derive the temperature of low coronal structures associated with the regions of enhanced helium abundance observed by HERSCHEL provides evidence the relative first ionization potential (FIP) of helium and hydrogen may play an important role in the observed abundance distribution. NRL was supported by the Office of Naval Research and NASA under NDPRS6598G.

  1. Secondary ("Plain Mirror") Testing Methods of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F. M.

    2004-12-01

    Although many of Sir William Herschel's telescope designs did not require a secondary mirror, he did construct Newtonian style optical systems that used "plain mirrors." A look at Herschel's own writings on the matter gives some interesting insights into the techniques of this skilled 18th - 19th century telescope maker. The author provides glimpses acquired from unpublished Herschel documents that are now in the possession of the British RAS -- these include a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." Herschel constructed secondary mirrors for his instruments by grinding and polishing his small mirrors in a sequence that involved two tools. He tested the optical quality of a small plain mirror by utilizing two slips of white card or pasteboard. One slip was made exactly twice the length of the second. The shorter card was placed against the mirror while the longer placed at some distance away so that its reflected image exactly matched the other. The larger card was carefully placed near the eye and oriented so that it was parallel to the shorter card strip. In order to test various sections of the secondary mirror, cards of different length were used. The mirror was judged flat if the reflected image was exactly identical to the card resting on the mirror. If the mirror were concave, the reflected image would be larger (i.e., magnified) than that of the smaller slip. However, should the reflected image be lesser in size, then the mirror was convex. Figuring was done with the mirror resting above the polishing tool. A convex mirror could be made plain by lengthening the stroke while a concave mirror could be made plain by shortening the stroke.

  2. OT2_smalhotr_3: Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations (HELLO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, S.

    2011-09-01

    We request 59.8 hours of Herschel time to observe 20 normal star-forming galaxies in the [CII] 158 micron and [OI] 63 micron lines. These galaxies lie at high redshift (1Herschel offers the unique opportunity to study both lines with high sensitivity throughout this epoch (using HIFI for [CII] and PACS for [OI]). These two lines are the main cooling lines of the atomic medium. By measuring their fluxes, we will measure (1) the cooling efficiency of gas, (2) gas densities and temperatures near starforming regions, and (3) gas pressures, which are important to drive the winds that provide feedback to starformation processes. By combining the proposed observations with existing multiwavelength data on these objects, we will obtain as complete a picture of galaxy-scale star formation and ISM physical conditions at high redshifts as we have at z=0. Then perhaps we can understand why star formation and AGN activity peaked at this epoch. In Herschel cycle OT1, 49 high redshift IR luminous galaxies were approved for spectroscopy, but only two so-called normal galaxies were included. This is an imbalance that should be corrected, to balance Herschel's legacy.

  3. The poetry of light: Herschel, art and photography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, L. J.

    The public disclosure of photography was played out in a drama where personalities and nationalistic rivalries frequently overshadowed true scientific and artistic advances. Unwittingly plunged into centre of this confused drama was Sir John Herschel. His unusually diverse background equipped him to comprehend at once both the immedate practice and the future potential of photography. He supplied cruical elements to its technical foundation and established outlines for its systematic growth.

  4. John Herschel and the Cape flora, 1834 - 1839.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, J. P.

    John Herschel's interest in botany was stimulated by his contact with the species-rich Cape flora while resident in Cape Town, 1834 - 1838. The comparative study of his extensive living collection of bulbous plants, mainly of the Iridaceae, Liliaceae, Amarayllidaceae and Orchidaceae led him to consider some basic aspects of the origin of species and of taxonomic theory, in letters to colleagues in Europe.

  5. Exploring science and technology through the Herschel space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Rouzé, M.

    2015-03-01

    Because modern astronomy associates the quest of our origins and high-tech instruments, communicating and teaching astronomy explore both science and technology. We report here on our work in communicating astronomy to the public through Web sites (www.herschel.fr), movies on Dailymotion (www.dailymotion.com/AstrophysiqueTV) and new ITC tools that describe interactively the technological dimension of a space mission for astrophysics.

  6. A Herschel View on Galaxy/AGN Co-Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Pep Consortium

    2011-10-01

    Deep far-infrared photometric surveys studying galaxy evolution and the nature of the cosmic infrared background are a key strength of the Herschel mission. The PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) guaranteed time key program obtains deep photometric surveys of some of the key extragalactic multiwavelength fields at wavelengths between 70 and 160μm. This contribution gives an overview of first science results, illustrating the potential of Herschel in providing calorimetric star formation rates for various high redshift galaxy populations, thus testing and superseding previous extrapolations from other wavelengths, and enabling a wide range of galaxy evolution studies. Herschel measured star formation rates of high redshift X-ray AGN suggest an interplay between two paths of AGN/host coevolution. A correlation of AGN luminosity and host star formation is traced locally over a wide range of luminosities and also extends to luminous high-z AGN. This correlation reflects an evolutionary connection, likely via merging. For lower AGN luminosities, star formation is similar to that in non-active massive galaxies and shows little dependence on AGN luminosity. The level of this secular, non-merger driven star formation increasingly dominates over the correlation at increasing redshift.

  7. THROES: A Catalogue of Herschel Observations of Evolved Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Medina, J.; Sánchez-Contreras, C.; García-Lario, P.; Rodrigo, C.

    2015-12-01

    We are building a catalogue of fully-reprocessed observations of all evolved stars observed with Herschel (THROES). In a first stage, we focus on observations performed with the PACS instrument in its full range spectroscopy mode. Once finished, the catalogue will offer all reduced data for each observation, as well as, complementary information from other observatories. As a first step, we concentrate our efforts on two main activities: 1) the reprocessing and data-reduction of more than 200 individual sources, observed by Herschel/PACS in the 55-210 micron range, available in the Herschel Science Archive (HSA); 2) The creation of an initial catalogue, accesible via web and the Virtual Observatory (VO), with all the information relative to PACS observations and the classification of the sources. Our ultimate goal will be to carry out a comprehensive and systematic study of the far infrared properties of low-and intermediate-mass (1-8 FX1) evolved stars using these data. These objects cover the whole range of possible evolutionary stages in this short-lived phase of stellar evolution, from AGB phase to the PN stage, displaying a wide variety of chemical and physical properties.

  8. Herschel Observations of (21) Lutetia around the Rosetta Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, L.; Müller, T.; Valtchanov, I.; Altieri, B.; González-Garcia, B. M.; Bhattacharya, B.; Jorda, L.; Carry, B.; Küppers, M.; Groussin, O.; Altwegg, K.; Barucci, M. A.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Dotto, E.; Garcia-Lario, P.; Kidger, M.; Llorente, A.; Lorente, R.; Marston, A. P.; Sanchez Portal, M.; Schulz, R.; Sierra, M.; Teyssier, D.; Vavrek, R.

    2011-10-01

    Prior to and around ESA Rosetta's flyby of (21) Lutetia, a collaborative observation campaign using another ESA satellite, the ESA Herschel Space Observatory, was performed whereby Herschel's two photometers observed the asteroid in the far infrared, at wavelengths not covered by the Rosetta instruments. The Herschel observations, fed into a thermophysical model (TPM) using as input a flyby image based shape model (built upon Rosetta OSIRIS instrument observations) were further correlated with ~70 multi-wavelength (IRAS, ISOVISIR, IRTF, Akari, ESO-TIMMI2, Spitzer-IRAC) observations of Lutetia. We confirm the albedo measured by Rosetta and derive a "true" H-mag value based upon the cross-sections of the asteroid observed from all aspect angles. From our measurements we find that (21) Lutetia has an extremely low thermal inertia as well as a very low surface temperature. In addition, we have been able to identify a hill/crater surface feature located on the asteroids southern region not observed by Rosetta. We conclude that only through the merging of in-situ flyby based observations and remote sensing observations can a true global picture be obtained of this peculiar asteroid.

  9. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, most of which sound quite ludicrous. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston- not Herschel- who coined the term "asteroid" to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  10. The Herschel Space Observatory, Opening the Far Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John C.

    2009-06-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel) is a multi user observatory operated by the European Space Agency with a significant NASA contribution. Herschel features a passively cooled 3.5 meter telescope expected to operate near 78 Kelvin and three cryogenic instruments covering the 670 to 57 μm spectral region. The mission life time, determined by the consumption of 2500 liters of liquid helium, is expected to be at least 3.5 years with at least 3 years of operational lifetime in an L2 orbit. The three payload instruments are the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI). SPIRE covers 200-670 μm and is a three band bolometer based photometer and a two band imaging Martin-Puplett FTS with a spectral resolution of up to 600. PACS covers 57-200 μm and is a three band bolometer based photometer and a grating slit spectrometer illuminating photoconductor arrays in two bands with a resolution of up to 5000. HIFI covers 480-1272 GHz and 1440-1910 GHz and is a series of seven dual polarization heterodyne receivers with a spectral resolution up to 5×10^6. The observatory performance, selected science program and upcoming opportunities will be discussed.

  11. The Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver for Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Nanyao Y.; Schulz, B.; Shupe, D.; Xu, C. K.; Schwartz, A.; Zhang, L.; ICC, SPIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) is one of the three instruments on board the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory launched on May 14, 2009. SPIRE features an imaging photometer with passbands centered at 250, 350 and 500 microns, and an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer covering the wavelength range between 194 and 672 microns. In view of its latest performance verification results, we describe the updated SPIRE instrumental capabilities, and its scientific potential. The instrument was developed by a consortium of European and American scientists, led by P.I. Prof. M. Griffin of Cardiff University (UK). The US is playing a crucial role in SPIRE, by providing its bolometer arrays (developed by Dr. J. Bock at JPL), participating in SPIRE's ground and in-flight commissioning and calibration, and in the development of the Herschel Common Science System (HCSS) data reduction software. Support for both Key and Open Time Programs of US astronomers is provided by the NASA Herschel Science Center (NHSC) at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC).

  12. Windblown Dunes on the Floor of Herschel Impact Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Herschel Basin, one of many meteor impact craters on Mars, has some dark material on its floor that appeared from earlier spacecraft missions to have been blown and/or deposited by wind. Herschel Basin was imaged at low resolution by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters ((A) above) in the 1970s, and again by the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989.

    On June 14, 1998, Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera revealed that part of the dark surface on the floor of Herschel Basin consists of a field of sand dunes ((B) above). These dunes have a distinct crescent-like shape characteristic of dunes on Earth called barchan dunes. They result from winds that blow from a single dominant direction.

    In the case of Herschel Basin, the dunes indicate that the strongest winds blow approximately north-to-south. The crescent horns on the ends of some of the dunes in this image are elongated. This condition indicates that the dominant winds do not always blow in exactly the same direction-- sometimes the winds blow from the northeast, sometimes from the northwest, and sometimes from the north. The local topography probably influences the wind direction--and hence dune shape--because this dune field is located on a narrow, low plain between a high crater rim to the east, and a narrow mountain range-- the inner ring of the Herschel impact basin--to the west (see image (A)).

    MOC image 36507 was obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 365th orbit around 10:51 a.m. PDT on June 14, 1998. This subframe is centered around 14.27oS, 231.68oW.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  13. Scientific pluralism and the Chemical Revolution.

    PubMed

    Kusch, Martin

    2015-02-01

    In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable "systems of practice" in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment of Lavoisier's and Priestley's work and character follows the phlogistonists' "actors' sociology"; second, that Chang simplifies late-eighteenth-century chemical debates by reducing them to an alleged conflict between two systems of practice; third, that Chang's evidence for a slow transition from phlogistonist theory to oxygen theory is not strong; and fourth, that he is wrong to assume that chemists at the time did not have overwhelming good reasons to favour Lavoisier's over the phlogistonists' views. PMID:26109412

  14. Potential flow about elongated bodies of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Carl

    1936-01-01

    This report presents a method of solving the problem of axial and transverse potential flows around arbitrary elongated bodies of revolution. The solutions of Laplace's equation for the velocity potentials of the axial and transverse flows, the system of coordinates being an elliptic one in a meridian plane, are given. The theory is applied to a body of revolution obtained from a symmetrical Joukowsky profile, a shape resembling an airship hull. The pressure distribution and the transverse-force distribution are calculated and serve as examples of the procedure to be followed in the case of an actual airship. A section on the determination of inertia coefficients is also included in which the validity of some earlier work is questioned.

  15. Global health governance - the next political revolution.

    PubMed

    Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S

    2015-07-01

    The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance. PMID:26040216

  16. Toward a new toxicology - evolution or revolution?

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    This essay summarises the author's thoughts on the current paradigm change in toxicology. The driving factors and mechanisms of this change, and obstacles to it, are discussed. Current developments are discussed on the basis of some key assumptions in Thomas Kuhn's famous book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. The author's personal view is that there is clear evidence that revolutionary changes in regulatory toxicology are emerging. PMID:19154090

  17. They Say They Want a Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2008-01-01

    Even if one does not believe--and it is getting increasingly difficult not to--that the "green revolution" on college campuses is akin to the great movements for social change that rocked universities in the 1960s and '70s, there is no denying that it has taken root in such a way that no campus administrator can afford to ignore it. And unlike the…

  18. The upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Joseph L.

    2011-04-01

    This paper will include discussions on fundamental principles and market forces associated with the upcoming revolution in ultrasonic guided waves. A literature survey is also outlined covering some selected major developments this past decade. A few applications in pipe, rail, bonding and composites, imaging and tomography, ultrasonic vibration, de-icing, structural health monitoring, gas entrapment, and non-linear methods are treated to provide an idea of where we are heading with ultrasonic guided waves.

  19. Data Science: The Revolution in Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    I will describe the data science undergraduate and graduate programs at George Mason University, within the context of the ongoing revolution in data-intensive science. Both general and specific recommendations regarding science education will also be presented, extending from graduate training, to undergraduate science majors, and to undergraduate general education students. Examples of professional opportunities for data scientists in the key informatics (data science) research areas will be highlighted.

  20. Plate tectonics: Scientific revolution or scientific program?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareschal, Jean-Claude

    In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Thomas S. Kuhn suggested that science progresses discontinuously: As a scientific theory becomes obsolete, a period of crisis results, at the end of which the old theory is overthrown and replaced by a new, sounder, more complete theory [Kuhn, 1962]. After the scientific community has accepted the new [paradigm,] it undertakes only routine research until a new crisis occurs, usually as a result of an anomalous experiment that accidentally happens to be critical.

  1. The Newly-named "Herschel Space Observatory" revisits its science goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-12-01

    In science, new answers often trigger new questions. And in astronomy, new questions often mean new instruments. The ESA 'Herschel Space Observatory', formerly called 'Far Infrared and Submillimetre Telescope' (FIRST), is the instrument that inherits many of the questions triggered by its predecessor, ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). 200 astronomers from all over the world met last week in Toledo, Spain, to discuss how to insert these new questions in Herschel's 'scientific agenda'. Thus, Herschel will study the origin of stars and galaxies -its main goals-, but it will also keep on searching for water in space -as ISO did-, and will help us to understand the formation of our own Solar System through detailed observations of comets and of the poorly known 'transneptunian objects'. A new name for 'FIRST' The new name for FIRST, 'Herschel Space Observatory', or 'Herschel', was announced at the opening of the Toledo conference by ESA's Director of Science, Roger Bonnet. William Herschel was an Anglo-German astronomer who discovered infrared light in 1800. Thanks to his discovery, astronomers can now observe a facet of the Universe that remains hidden to other telescopes. ESA's Herschel is the first space observatory covering a major part of the far-infrared and submillimetre waveband (from 57 to 670 microns) and its new name honours Herschel on the 200th anniversary of his discovery. Roger Bonnet explained: "It strikes me that we are at a key scientific conference devoted to the next ESA infrared space mission, gathering many 'infrared pioneers', 200 years after a famous musician and astronomer discovered that by placing a thermometer in the remote part of the solar spectrum, where apparently there was no light, he could detect heat. What we call now infrared radiation. This meeting marks two events: the beginning of a very promising utilisation of FIRST, and the adoption of a new name for the telescope: the Herschel Space Observatory". Roger Bonnet also

  2. New stamp of Shuttle Columbia unveiled at Visitors Center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A new series of U.S. Postage stamps, The 1980s, is unveiled at the KSC Visitors Complex. Shown taking part in the 'First Day of Issue Ceremony' are (left to right) astronaut Richard Linnehan, U.S. Representative, 15th Congressional District, Dave Weldon, U.S. Postal Service District Manager Viki Brennan, Center Director Roy Bridges and President of the Visitor Complex Rick Abramson. Among the stamps issued is one of Space Shuttle Columbia, first launched in April 1981. This collection of stamps is the ninth in the Post Office's 'Celebrate the Century' commemorative series honoring the last 100 years of American history.

  3. New stamp of Shuttle Columbia unveiled at Visitors Center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One of a new series of U.S. Postage stamps, The 1980s, is unveiled at the KSC Visitors Complex. The stamp, shown here, is the Space Shuttle Columbia, first launched in April 1981. This collection of stamps is the ninth in the Post Office's 'Celebrate the Century' commemorative series honoring the last 100 years of American history. Taking part in the 'First Day of Issue Ceremony' were astronaut Richard Linnehan, U.S. Representative, 15th Congressional District, Dave Weldon, U.S. Postal Service District Manager Viki Brennan, Center Director Roy Bridges and President of the Visitor Complex Rick Abramson.

  4. New stamp of Shuttle Columbia unveiled at Visitors Center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    One of a new series of U.S. Postage stamps, The 1980s, is unveiled at the KSC Visitors Complex. The stamp, shown here, is the Space Shuttle Columbia, first launched in April 1981. This collection of stamps is the ninth in the Post Office's 'Celebrate the Century' commemorative series honoring the last 100 years of American history. Taking part in the 'First Day of Issue Ceremony' are (left to right) astronaut Richard Linnehan, U.S. Representative, 15th Congressional District, Dave Weldon, U.S. Postal Service District Manager Viki Brennan, Center Director Roy Bridges and President of the Visitor Complex Rick Abramson.

  5. New stamp of Shuttle Columbia unveiled at Visitors Center.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A new series of U.S. Postage stamps, The 1980s, is unveiled at the KSC Visitors Complex. Taking part in the 'First Day of Issue Ceremony' were astronaut Richard Linnehan, U.S. Representative, 15th Congressional District, Dave Weldon, U.S. Postal Service District Manager Viki Brennan, Center Director Roy Bridges and President of the Visitor Complex Rick Abramson. Among the stamps issued is one of Space Shuttle Columbia (upper left corner), first launched in April 1981. This collection of stamps is the ninth in the Post Office's 'Celebrate the Century' commemorative series honoring the last 100 years of American history.

  6. Herschel detects oxygen in the β Pictoris debris disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandeker, A.; Cataldi, G.; Olofsson, G.; Vandenbussche, B.; Acke, B.; Barlow, M. J.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cohen, M.; Dent, W. R. F.; Dominik, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Fridlund, M.; Gear, W. K.; Glauser, A. M.; Greaves, J. S.; Harvey, P. M.; Heras, A. M.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Holland, W. S.; Huygen, R.; Ivison, R. J.; Leeks, S. J.; Lim, T. L.; Liseau, R.; Matthews, B. C.; Pantin, E.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Royer, P.; Sibthorpe, B.; Waelkens, C.; Walker, H. J.

    2016-06-01

    The young star β Pictoris is well known for its dusty debris disk produced through collisional grinding of planetesimals, kilometre-sized bodies in orbit around the star. In addition to dust, small amounts of gas are also known to orbit the star; this gas is likely the result of vaporisation of violently colliding dust grains. The disk is seen edge on and from previous absorption spectroscopy we know that the gas is very rich in carbon relative to other elements. The oxygen content has been more difficult to assess, however, with early estimates finding very little oxygen in the gas at a C/O ratio that is 20 × higher than the cosmic value. A C/O ratio that high is difficult to explain and would have far-reaching consequences for planet formation. Here we report on observations by the far-infrared space telescope Herschel, using PACS, of emission lines from ionised carbon and neutral oxygen. The detected emission from C+ is consistent withthat previously reported observed by the HIFI instrument on Herschel, while the emission from O is hard to explain without assuming a higher density region in the disk, perhaps in the shape of a clump or a dense torus required to sufficiently excite the O atoms. A possible scenario is that the C/O gas is produced by the same process responsible for the CO clump recently observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array in the disk and that the redistribution of the gas takes longer than previously assumed. A more detailed estimate of the C/O ratio and the mass of O will have to await better constraints on the C/O gas spatial distribution. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey: HerMES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, S.J.; Bock, J.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Beelen, A.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Boselli, A.; Bridge, C.; Brisbin, D; Buat, V.; Burgarella, D.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Cirasuolo, M.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Dwek, E.; Levenson, L.; Nguyen, H. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, HerMES, is a legacy program designed to map a set of nested fields totalling approx. 380 deg(exp 2). Fields range in size from 0.01 to approx. 20 deg (exp 2), using Herschel-SPIRE (at 250, 350 and 500 micron), and Herschel-PACS (at 100 and 160 micron), with an additional wider component of 270 deg. (exp. 2) with SPIRE alone. These bands cover the peak of the redshifted thermal spectral energy distribution from interstellar dust and thus capture the re-processed optical and ultra-violet radiation from star formation that has been absorbed by dust, and are critical for forming a complete multi-wavelength understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. The survey will detect of order 100,000 galaxies at 5-sigma in some of the best studied fields in the sky. Additionally, HerMES is closely coordinated with the PACS Evolutionary Probe survey. Making maximum use of the full spectrum of ancillary data, from radio to X-ray wavelengths, it is designed to: facilitate redshift determination; rapidly identify unusual objects; and understand the relationships between thermal emission from dust and other processes. Scientific questions HerMES will be used to answer include: the total infrared emission of galaxies; the evolution of the luminosity function; the clustering properties of dusty galaxies; and the properties of populations of galaxies which lie below the confusion limit through lensing and statistical techniques. This paper defines the survey observations and data products, outlines the primary scientific goals of the HerMES team, and reviews some of the early results.

  8. Debris disks as seen by Herschel/DUNES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhne, T.; Eiroa, C.; Augereau, J.-C.; Ertel, S.; Marshall, J. P.; Mora, A.; Absil, O.; Stapelfeldt, K.; Thébault, P.; Bayo, A.; del Burgo, C.; Danchi, W.; Krivov, A. V.; Lebreton, J.; Letawe, G.; Magain, P.; Maldonado, J.; Montesinos, B.; Pilbratt, G. L.; White, G. J.; Wolf, S.

    2012-06-01

    The far-infrared excesses produced by debris disks are common features of stellar systems. These disks are thought to contain solids ranging from micron-sized dust to planetesimals. Naturally, their formation and evolution are linked to those of potential planets. With this motivation, the Herschel open time key programme DUNES (DUst around NEarby Stars) aims at further characterising known debris disks and discovering new ones in the regime explored by the Herschel space observatory. On the one hand, in their survey of 133 nearby FGK stars, DUNES discovered a class of extremely cold and faint debris disks, different from well-known disks such as the one around Vega in that their inferred typical grain sizes are rather large, indicating low dynamical excitation and low collision rates. On the other hand, for the more massive disk around the sun-like star HD 207129, well-resolved PACS images confirmed the ring-liked structure seen in HST images and provided valuable information for an in-depth study and benchmark for models. Employing both models for power-law fitting and collisional evolution we found the disk around HD 207129 to feature low collision rates and large grains, as well. Transport by means of Poynting-Robertson drag likely plays a role in replenishing the dust seen closer to the star, inside of the ring. The inner edge is therefore rather smooth and the contribution from the extended halo of barely bound grains is small. Both slowly self-stirring and planetary perturbations could potentially have formed and shaped this disk. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  9. The Herschel Data Processing System - Hipe And Pipelines - During The Early Mission Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardila, David R.; Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory, the fourth cornerstone mission in the ESA science program, was launched 14th of May 2009. With a 3.5 m telescope, it is the largest space telescope ever launched. Herschel's three instruments (HIFI, PACS, and SPIRE) perform photometry and spectroscopy in the 55 - 672 micron range and will deliver exciting science for the astronomical community during at least three years of routine observations. Here we summarize the state of the Herschel Data Processing System and give an overview about future development milestones and plans. The development of the Herschel Data Processing System started seven years ago to support the data analysis for Instrument Level Tests. Resources were made available to implement a freely distributable Data Processing System capable of interactively and automatically reduce Herschel data at different processing levels. The system combines data retrieval, pipeline execution and scientific analysis in one single environment. The software is coded in Java and Jython to be platform independent and to avoid the need for commercial licenses. The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) is the user-friendly face of Herschel Data Processing. The first PACS preview observation of M51 was processed with HIPE, using basic pipeline scripts to a fantastic image within 30 minutes of data reception. Also the first HIFI observations on DR-21 were successfully reduced to high quality spectra, followed by SPIRE observations on M66 and M74. The Herschel Data Processing System is a joint development by the Herschel Science Ground Segment Consortium, consisting of ESA, the NASA Herschel Science Center, and the HIFI, PACS and SPIRE consortium members.

  10. Beam profile for the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Makiwa, Gibion; Naylor, David A; Ferlet, Marc; Salji, Carl; Swinyard, Bruce; Polehampton, Edward; van der Wiel, Matthijs H D

    2013-06-01

    One of the instruments on board the Herschel Space Observatory is the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE). SPIRE employs a Fourier transform spectrometer with feed-horn-coupled bolometers to provide imaging spectroscopy. To interpret the resultant spectral images requires knowledge of the wavelength-dependent beam, which in the case of SPIRE is complicated by the use of multimoded feed horns. In this paper we describe a series of observations and the analysis conducted to determine the wavelength dependence of the SPIRE spectrometer beam profile. PMID:23736346