A generalized kinetic model for heterogeneous gas-solid reactions.
Xu, Zhijie; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A
2012-08-21
We present a generalized kinetic model for gas-solid heterogeneous reactions taking place at the interface between two phases. The model studies the reaction kinetics by taking into account the reactions at the interface, as well as the transport process within the product layer. The standard unreacted shrinking core model relies on the assumption of quasi-static diffusion that results in a steady-state concentration profile of gas reactant in the product layer. By relaxing this assumption and resolving the entire problem, general solutions can be obtained for reaction kinetics, including the reaction front velocity and the conversion (volume fraction of reacted solid). The unreacted shrinking core model is shown to be accurate and in agreement with the generalized model for slow reaction (or fast diffusion), low concentration of gas reactant, and small solid size. Otherwise, a generalized kinetic model should be used. PMID:22920132
A generalized kinetic model for heterogeneous gas-solid reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Zhijie; Sun, Xin; Khaleel, Mohammad A.
2012-08-01
We present a generalized kinetic model for gas-solid heterogeneous reactions taking place at the interface between two phases. The model studies the reaction kinetics by taking into account the reactions at the interface, as well as the transport process within the product layer. The standard unreacted shrinking core model relies on the assumption of quasi-static diffusion that results in a steady-state concentration profile of gas reactant in the product layer. By relaxing this assumption and resolving the entire problem, general solutions can be obtained for reaction kinetics, including the reaction front velocity and the conversion (volume fraction of reacted solid). The unreacted shrinking core model is shown to be accurate and in agreement with the generalized model for slow reaction (or fast diffusion), low concentration of gas reactant, and small solid size. Otherwise, a generalized kinetic model should be used.
Turbulence modeling of gas-solid suspension flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, C. P.
1988-01-01
The purpose here is to discuss and review advances in two-phase turbulent modeling techniques and their applications in various gas-solid suspension flow situations. In addition to the turbulence closures, heat transfer effect, particle dispersion and wall effects are partially covered.
Gas-solid flow in vertical tubes
Pita, J.A.; Sundaresan, S. )
1991-07-01
This paper reports on a computational study of fully-developed flow of gas-particle suspensions in vertical pipes which was carried out, using the model proposed recently by Sinclair and Jackson, to understand the predicted scale-up characteristics. It was shown that the model can capture the existence of steady-state multiplicity wherein different pressure gradients can be obtained for the same gas and solids fluxes. A pronounced and nonmonotonic variation of the pressure gradient required to achieve desired fluxes of solid and gas with tube diameter was predicted by the model, and this is explained on a physical basis. The computed results were compared with the experimental data. The model manifests an unsatisfactory degree of sensitivity to the inelasticity of the particle-particle collisions and the damping of particle-phase fluctuating motion by the gas.
Gas-solid flow characteristics in high-density CFB
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xue-yao; Fan, Bao-guo; Wang, Sheng-dian; Xu, Xiang; Xiao, Yun-han
2012-08-01
The gas-solid flow characteristics in the riser of a high density CFB of square (0.27 m×0.27 m×10.4 m) or circular ( ϕ 0.187m×10.4 m) cross section, using Geldart B particles (quartz sand), was investigated experimentally. The influence of riser structure on the hydrodynamic behaviors of a high-density circulating fluidized bed was investigated. The solid circulation rate was up to 321 kg/(m2s) with the circular cross-section under the operating conditions of the main bed air velocity 12.1 m/s and loosen wind and back-feed wind flow 25.1 m3/h. Different operating conditions on realizing high density circulation was analyzed, while both solids circulation rate and particle holdup depended highly on operating conditions. The circulating gas-solid flow was accompanied by an evidently-dense character in the riser's bottom zone and became fully developed in the middle and upper zones.
A new model for gas/solid pipe flow
Wu, Bangxian; Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.
1995-12-31
A new model of particle turbulent dispersion in vertical gas/solid pipe flow is presented in this paper. The essence of the model is to pay more attention to the active and discrete behavior of particles in the dispersion process in non-homogeneous turbulent vertical pipe flows using two-fluid approaches. In the new model, a non-gradient type of diffusion term is included in the expression of radial particle dispersion flux; the transport equation for particle turbulent kinetic energy (PTKE) is developed and solved for its distribution; the effect of intra-particle collision is considered for the generation and dissipation of PTKE; turbulence modulation due to particle presence is taken into account. Preliminary numerical results based on this new model are also presented in this paper.
DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-DIFFUSION FLUX-SPLITTING METHODS FOR DENSE GAS-SOLID FLOWS
The development of a class of low-diffusion upwinding methods for computing dense gas-solid flows is presented in this work. An artificial compressibility/low-Mach preconditioning strategy is developed for a hyperbolic two-phase flow equation system consisting of separate solids ...
Particle-Resolved Direct Numerical Simulation for Gas-Solid Flow Model Development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tenneti, Sudheer; Subramaniam, Shankar
2014-01-01
Gas-solid flows in nature and industrial applications are characterized by multiscale and nonlinear interactions that manifest as rich flow physics and pose unique modeling challenges. In this article, we review particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) of the microscale governing equations for understanding gas-solid flow physics and obtaining quantitative information for model development. A clear connection between a microscale realization and meso/macroscale representation is necessary for PR-DNS to be used effectively for model development at the meso- and macroscale. Furthermore, the design of PR-DNS must address the computational challenges of parameterizing models in a high-dimensional parameter space and obtaining accurate statistics of flow properties from a finite number of realizations at acceptable grid resolution. This review also summarizes selected recent insights into the physics of momentum, kinetic energy, and heat transfer in gas-solid flows obtained from PR-DNS. Promising future applications of PR-DNS include the study of the effect of number fluctuations on hydrodynamics, instabilities in gas-solid flow, and wall-bounded flows.
Fictitious domain method for fully resolved reacting gas-solid flow simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Longhui; Liu, Kai; You, Changfu
2015-10-01
Fully resolved simulation (FRS) for gas-solid multiphase flow considers solid objects as finite sized regions in flow fields and their behaviours are predicted by solving equations in both fluid and solid regions directly. Fixed mesh numerical methods, such as fictitious domain method, are preferred in solving FRS problems and have been widely researched. However, for reacting gas-solid flows no suitable fictitious domain numerical method has been developed. This work presents a new fictitious domain finite element method for FRS of reacting particulate flows. Low Mach number reacting flow governing equations are solved sequentially on a regular background mesh. Particles are immersed in the mesh and driven by their surface forces and torques integrated on immersed interfaces. Additional treatments on energy and surface reactions are developed. Several numerical test cases validated the method and a burning carbon particles array falling simulation proved the capability for solving moving reacting particle cluster problems.
A study of pneumatic conveying of gas-solid flow for industrial application
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Al-Khateeb, Khalid A. S.; Tasnim, Rumana; Khan, Sheroz; Mohammod, Musse; Arshad, Atika; Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Haider, Samnan; Saquib, Nazmus; Rahman, Tawfilur
2013-12-01
The complicated nature of gas-solids' physical properties have challenged the researchers over past decades who have led their efforts in developing its' flow sensing and measurement methods. The term 'gas-solid flow' signifies dilute- or dense-phase flow with a very little concentration of solids. For conducting such flow measurement, generally velocity profile and volumetric concentration of the flow particles being conveyed are needed to be measured. An important application of gas-solid flow has taken root in the form of biomass flow in pneumatic conveying systems, and its' online measurement has proven to be an exigent research pursuit. Additionally the other applications have been explored in power plants, food, chemical and automobiles industries as well. This paper aims at exploring the evolution of flow measurement methods along with a brief explanation on existing fundamental sensing techniques. Furthermore, the most recent patents developed for such measurements in pneumatic conveying pipelines are scrutinized along with their concomitant pros and cons.
Open-source MFIX-DEM software for gas-solids flows: Part II Validation studies
Li, Tingwen; Garg, Rahul; Galvin, Janine; Pannala, Sreekanth
2012-01-01
With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.
Characteristics of dilute gas-solids suspensions in drag reducing flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kane, R. S.; Pfeffer, R.
1973-01-01
Measurements were performed on dilute flowing gas-solids suspensions and included data, with particles present, on gas friction factors, velocity profiles, turbulence intensity profiles, turbulent spectra, and particle velocity profiles. Glass beads of 10 to 60 micron diameter were suspended in air at Reynolds numbers of 10,000 to 25,000 and solids loading ratios from 0 to 4. Drag reduction was achieved for all particle sizes in vertical flow and for the smaller particle sizes in horizontal flow. The profile measurements in the vertical tube indicated that the presence of particles thickened the viscous sublayer. A quantitative theory based on particle-eddy interaction and viscous sublayer thickening has been proposed.
Open source development experience with a computational gas-solids flow code
Syamlal, M; O'Brien, T. J.; Benyahia, Sofiane; Gel, Aytekin; Pannala, Sreekanth
2008-01-01
A case study on the use of open source (OS) software development in chemical engineering research and education is presented here. The multiphase computational fluid dynamics software MFIX is the object of the case study. The verification and validation steps required for constructing modern computational software and the advantages of OS development in those steps are discussed. The infrastructure used for enabling the OS development of MFIX is described. The impact of OS development on computational research and education in gas-solids flow and the dissemination of information to other areas such as geotechnical and volcanology research are demonstrated. It is shown that the advantages of OS development methodology were realized: verification by many users, which enhances software quality; the use of software as a means for accumulating and exchanging information; and the facilitation of peer review of the results of computational research.
Modeling blood flow heterogeneity.
King, R B; Raymond, G M; Bassingthwaighte, J B
1996-01-01
It has been known for some time that regional blood flows within an organ are not uniform. Useful measures of heterogeneity of regional blood flows are the standard deviation and coefficient of variation or relative dispersion of the probability density function (PDF) of regional flows obtained from the regional concentrations of tracers that are deposited in proportion to blood flow. When a mathematical model is used to analyze dilution curves after tracer solute administration, for many solutes it is important to account for flow heterogeneity and the wide range of transit times through multiple pathways in parallel. Failure to do so leads to bias in the estimates of volumes of distribution and membrane conductances. Since in practice the number of paths used should be relatively small, the analysis is sensitive to the choice of the individual elements used to approximate the distribution of flows or transit times. Presented here is a method for modeling heterogeneous flow through an organ using a scheme that covers both the high flow and long transit time extremes of the flow distribution. With this method, numerical experiments are performed to determine the errors made in estimating parameters when flow heterogeneity is ignored, in both the absence and presence of noise. The magnitude of the errors in the estimates depends upon the system parameters, the amount of flow heterogeneity present, and whether the shape of the input function is known. In some cases, some parameters may be estimated to within 10% when heterogeneity is ignored (homogeneous model), but errors of 15-20% may result, even when the level of heterogeneity is modest. In repeated trials in the presence of 5% noise, the mean of the estimates was always closer to the true value with the heterogeneous model than when heterogeneity was ignored, but the distributions of the estimates from the homogeneous and heterogeneous models overlapped for some parameters when outflow dilution curves were
Numerical simulation of gas-solid two-phase flow in U-beam separator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, X. Y.; Zhang, H. Z.; Chen, X. P.; Ruan, J. M.; Dou, H. S.
2015-01-01
Numerical simulation is carried out for gas-solid two-phase flow in a U-beam separator. In this study, the U-beam is altered with the inlet fins in order to improve the performance of the separator. The inlet fin angle of the separator are 30°, 35°, 40°, 45°, 50°, 55 ° and 60°. The governing equations are the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with the standard k-epsilon model and the discrete phase model (DPM) describing the discrete two - phase flow as well as stochastic tracking model. Results show that the pressure drop deviation with fins is within 3% from those without fins. It is found that there is a maximum separation efficiency at the fin angle of 35°. Fin induces generation of a stagnation region which could collect particles and lead to change of vortical structures. The fin induced flow also causes the turbulent intensity inside the baffle to decrease to facilitate separation.
Research of the gas-solid flow character based on the DEM method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xueyao; Xiao, Yunhan
2011-12-01
Numerical simulation of gas-solid flow behaviors in a rectangular fluidized bed is carried out three dimensionally by the discrete element method (DEM). Euler method and Lagrange method are employed to deal with the gas phase and solid phase respectively. The collided force among particles, striking force between particle and wall, drag force, gravity, Magnus lift force and Saffman lift force are considered when establishing the mathematic models. Soft-sphere model is used to describe the collision of particles. In addition, the Euler method is also used for modeling the solid phase to compare with the results of DEM. The flow patterns, particle mean velocities, particles' diffusion and pressure drop of the bed under typical operating conditions are obtained. The results show that the DEM method can describe the detailed information among particles, while the Euler-Euler method cannot capture the micro-scale character. No matter which method is used, the diffusion of particles increases with the increase of gas velocity. But the gathering and crushing of particles cannot be simulated, so the energy loss of particles' collision cannot be calculated and the diffusion by using the Euler-Euler method is larger. In addition, it is shown by DEM method, with strengthening of the carrying capacity, more and more particles can be schlepped upward and the dense suspension upflow pattern can be formed. However, the results given by the Euler-Euler method are not consistent with the real situation.
High-Resolution Simulations of Gas-Solids Jet Penetration Into a High Density Riser Flow
Li, Tingwen
2011-05-01
High-resolution simulations of a gas-solids jet in a 0.3 m diameter and 15.9 m tall circulating fluidized bed (CFB) riser were conducted with the open source software-MFIX. In the numerical simulations, both gas and solids injected through a 1.6 cm diameter radial-directed tube 4.3 m above the bottom distributor were tracked as tracers, which enable the analysis of the characteristics of a two-phase jet. Two jetting gas velocities of 16.6 and 37.2 m/s were studied with the other operating conditions fixed. Reasonable flow hydrodynamics with respect to overall pressure drop, voidage, and solids velocity distributions were predicted. Due to the different dynamic responses of gas and particles to the crossflow, a significant separation of gas and solids within the jet region was predicted for both cases. In addition, the jet characteristics based on tracer concentration and tracer mass fraction profiles at different downstream levels are discussed. Overall, the numerical predictions compare favorably to the experimental measurements made at NETL.
Flow Mapping in a Gas-Solid Riser via Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT)
Muthanna Al-Dahhan; Milorad P. Dudukovic; Satish Bhusarapu; Timothy J. O'hern; Steven Trujillo; Michael R. Prairie
2005-06-04
Statement of the Problem: Developing and disseminating a general and experimentally validated model for turbulent multiphase fluid dynamics suitable for engineering design purposes in industrial scale applications of riser reactors and pneumatic conveying, require collecting reliable data on solids trajectories, velocities ? averaged and instantaneous, solids holdup distribution and solids fluxes in the riser as a function of operating conditions. Such data are currently not available on the same system. Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium (MFDRC) was established to address these issues on a chosen example of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor, which is widely used in petroleum and chemical industry including coal combustion. This project addresses the problem of lacking reliable data to advance CFB technology. Project Objectives: The objective of this project is to advance the understanding of the solids flow pattern and mixing in a well-developed flow region of a gas-solid riser, operated at different gas flow rates and solids loading using the state-of-the-art non-intrusive measurements. This work creates an insight and reliable database for local solids fluid-dynamic quantities in a pilot-plant scale CFB, which can then be used to validate/develop phenomenological models for the riser. This study also attempts to provide benchmark data for validation of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) codes and their current closures. Technical Approach: Non-Invasive Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT) technique provides complete Eulerian solids flow field (time average velocity map and various turbulence parameters such as the Reynolds stresses, turbulent kinetic energy, and eddy diffusivities). It also gives directly the Lagrangian information of solids flow and yields the true solids residence time distribution (RTD). Another radiation based technique, Computed Tomography (CT) yields detailed time averaged local holdup profiles at
FORCE2: A multidimensional flow program for gas solids flow user`s guide
Burge, S.W.
1991-05-01
This report describes the FORCE2 flow program input, output, and the graphical post-processor. The manual describes the steps for creating the model, executing the programs and processing the results into graphical form. The FORCE2 post-processor was developed as an interactive program written in FORTRAN-77. It uses the Graphical Kernel System (GKS) graphics standard recently adopted by International Organization for Standardization, ISO, and American National Standards Institute, ANSI, and, therefore, can be used with many terminals. The post-processor vas written with Calcomp subroutine calls and is compatible with Tektkonix terminals and Calcomp and Nicolet pen plotters. B&W has been developing the FORCE2 code as a general-purpose tool for flow analysis of B&W equipment. The version of FORCE2 described in this manual was developed under the sponsorship of ASEA-Babcock as part of their participation in the joint R&D venture, ``Erosion of FBC Heat Transfer Tubes,`` and is applicable to the analyses of bubbling fluid beds. This manual is the principal documentation for program usage and is segmented into several sections to facilitate usage. In Section 2.0 the program is described, including assumptions, capabilities, limitations and uses, program status and location, related programs and program hardware and software requirements. Section 3.0 is a quick user`s reference guide for preparing input, executing FORCE2, and using the post-processor. Section 4.0 is a detailed description of the FORCE2 input. In Section 5.0, FORCE2 output is summarized. Section 6.0 contains a sample application, and Section 7.0 is a detailed reference guide.
Clustering Instability in Sedimenting Gas-Solid Suspensions and its Influence on Flow Properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaoqi; Yin, Xiaolong; Liu, Guodong
2015-11-01
It is well known that sedimentation or fluidization of solid particles through gas is unstable. Instability is usually recognized as particle clusters when the solid fraction is low, or as void `bubbles' when the solid volume fraction is high. Using particle-resolved numerical simulations, we studied cluster formation in gas-solid systems with gas-to-solid density ratio being 0.01 and 0.001. The particles are uniformly sized spheres with a terminal Re of 30. The solid fraction is 0.25. Up to 4808 particles were used such that the clustering phenomena can be adequately examined. In periodic computational domains whose lateral dimension is about eight particle diameters, nucleated particle clusters quickly coalesce and grow into traveling waves that span the entire width of the domain. Consequently, gas-solid drag is significantly increased compared to that in a homogeneous liquid-solid suspension, the lateral velocity variance is suppressed, and the particle velocity distributions are strongly non-Gaussian. When lateral dimension is increased to about thirty particle diameters, particle clusters never turn into width-spanning traveling waves. As results, the drag is similar to that in a homogeneous suspension, the lateral velocity variance is strongly enhanced and the vertical variance reduced, and particle velocity distributions are nearly Gaussian. These results suggest that the effect of particle clusters should be examined in domains with large lateral dimensions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramaniam, Shankar; Sun, Bo
2015-11-01
The presence of solid particles in a steady laminar flow generates velocity fluctuations with respect to the mean fluid velocity that are termed pseudo-turbulence. The level of these pseudo-turbulent velocity fluctuations has been characterized in statistically homogeneous fixed particle assemblies and freely evolving suspensions using particle-resolved direct numerical simulation (PR-DNS) by Mehrabadi et al. (JFM, 2015), and it is found to be a significant contribution to the total kinetic energy associated with the flow. The correlation of these velocity fluctuations with temperature (or a passive scalar) generates a flux term that appears in the transport equation for the average fluid temperature (or average scalar concentration). The magnitude of this transport of temperature-velocity covariance is quantified using PR-DNS of thermally fully developed flow past a statistically homogeneous fixed assembly of particles, and the budget of the average fluid temperature equation is presented. The relation of this transport term to the axial dispersion coefficient (Brenner, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A, 1980) is established. The simulation results are then interpreted in the context of our understanding of axial dispersion in gas-solid flow. NSF CBET 1336941.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Zhe; Zhu, Linhang; Cui, Baoling; Li, Yi; Ruan, Xiaodong
2014-12-01
Gate valve has various placements in the practical usages. Due to the effect of gravity, particle trajectories and erosions are distinct between placements. Thus in this study, gas-solid flow properties and erosion in gate valve for horizontal placement and vertical placement are discussed and compared by using Euler-Lagrange simulation method. The structure of a gate valve and a simplified structure are investigated. The simulation procedure is validated in our published paper by comparing with the experiment data of a pipe and an elbow. The results show that for all investigated open degrees and Stokes numbers (St), there are little difference of gas flow properties and flow coefficients between two placements. It is also found that the trajectories of particles for two placements are mostly identical when St « 1, making the erosion independent of placement. With the increase of St, the distinction of trajectories between placements becomes more obvious, leading to an increasing difference of the erosion distributions. Besides, the total erosion ratio of surface T for horizontal placement is two orders of magnitudes larger than that for vertical placement when the particle diameter is 250μm.
A CFD study of gas-solid jet in a CFB riser flow
Li, Tingwen; Guenther, Chris
2012-03-01
Three-dimensional high-resolution numerical simulations of a gas–solid jet in a high-density riser flow were conducted. The impact of gas–solid injection on the riser flow hydrodynamics was investigated with respect to voidage, tracer mass fractions, and solids velocity distribution. The behaviors of a gas–solid jet in the riser crossflow were studied through the unsteady numerical simulations. Substantial separation of the jetting gas and solids in the riser crossflow was observed. Mixing of the injected gas and solids with the riser flow was investigated and backmixing of gas and solids was evaluated. In the current numerical study, both the overall hydrodynamics of riser flow and the characteristics of gas–solid jet were reasonably predicted compared with the experimental measurements made at NETL.
Cartesian grid simulations of gas-solids flow systems with complex geometry
Dietiker, Jean-Francois; Li, Tingwen; Garg, Rahul; Shahnam, Mehrdad
2013-02-01
Complex geometries encountered in many applications of gas–solids flow need special treatment in most legacy multiphase flow solvers with Cartesian numerical grid. This paper briefly outlines the implementation of a cut cell technique in the open-source multiphase flow solver—MFIX for accurate representation of complex geometries. Specifically, applications of the Cartesian cut cell method to different gas–solids fluidization systems including a small scale bubbling fluidized bed with submerged tube bundle and a complete pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed will be presented. In addition to qualitative predictions on the general flow behaviors inside each system, quantitative comparison with the available experimental data will be presented. Furthermore, some results on extending the current cut-cell technique to Lagrangian–Eulerian simulations will be presented.
A Study of the Influence of Numerical Diffusion on Gas-Solid Flow Predictions in Fluidized Beds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghandriz, Ronak; Sheikhi, Reza
2015-11-01
In this work, an investigation is made of the influence of numerical diffusion on the accuracy of gas-solid flow predictions in fluidized beds. This is an important issue particularly in bubbling fluidized beds since numerical error greatly affects the dynamics of bubbles and their associated mixing process. A bed of coal (classified as Geldart A) is considered which becomes fluidized as the velocity of nitrogen stream into the reactor is gradually increased. The fluidization process is simulated using various numerical schemes as well as grid resolutions. Simulations involve Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow modeling approach and results are compared with experimental data. It is shown that higher order schemes equipped with flux limiter give favorable prediction of bubble and particle dynamics and hence, the mixing process within the reactor. The excessive numerical diffusion associated with lower order schemes results in unrealistic prediction of bubble shapes and bed height. Comparison is also made of computational efficiency of various schemes. It is shown that the Monotonized Central scheme with down wind factor results in the shortest simulation time because of its efficient parallelization on distributed memory platforms.
Fine-grid simulations of gas-solids flow in a circulating fluidized bed
Benyahia, S.
2012-01-01
This research note demonstrates that more accurate predictions of a two-fluid model for the riser section of a circulating fluidized bed are obtained as the grid size is equally refined along all the directions of the gas-particle flow. However, two-fluid simulations of large-scale fluidized beds with such a fine mesh are currently computationally prohibitive. Alternatively,subgrid models can significantly reduce the simulation time of multiphase flow by using coarse mesh, whereas maintaining a high level of accuracy.
GAS-SOLID TWO-PHASE FLOW IN A TRIPLE BIFURCATION LUNG AIRWAY MODEL
Laminar oscillatory flow as well as micron-particle transport and wall deposition in a triple bifurcation airway model have been simulated using a validated finite-volume code with user-enhanced programs. Three realistic breathing patterns, i.e., resting, light, acitvity and mod...
Open-Source MFIX-DEM Software for Gas-Solids Flows: Part II - Validation Studies
Li, Tingwen
2012-04-01
With rapid advancements in computer hardware and numerical algorithms, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been increasingly employed as a useful tool for investigating the complex hydrodynamics inherent in multiphase flows. An important step during the development of a CFD model and prior to its application is conducting careful and comprehensive verification and validation studies. Accordingly, efforts to verify and validate the open-source MFIX-DEM software, which can be used for simulating the gas–solids flow using an Eulerian reference frame for the continuum fluid and a Lagrangian discrete framework (Discrete Element Method) for the particles, have been made at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). In part I of this paper, extensive verification studies were presented and in this part, detailed validation studies of MFIX-DEM are presented. A series of test cases covering a range of gas–solids flow applications were conducted. In particular the numerical results for the random packing of a binary particle mixture, the repose angle of a sandpile formed during a side charge process, velocity, granular temperature, and voidage profiles from a bounded granular shear flow, lateral voidage and velocity profiles from a monodisperse bubbling fluidized bed, lateral velocity profiles from a spouted bed, and the dynamics of segregation of a binary mixture in a bubbling bed were compared with available experimental data, and in some instances with empirical correlations. In addition, sensitivity studies were conducted for various parameters to quantify the error in the numerical simulation.
In Situ Control of Gas Flow by Modification of Gas-Solid Interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seo, Dongjin; Ducker, William A.
2013-10-01
The boundary condition for gas flow at the solid-gas interface can be altered by in situ control of the state of a thin film adsorbed to the solid. A monolayer of ocatadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) reversibly undergoes a meltinglike transition. When the temperature of an OTS-coated particle and plate is moved through the range of OTS “melting” temperatures, there is a change in the lubrication force between the particle and plate in 1 atm of nitrogen gas. This change is interpreted in terms of a change in the flow of gas mediated by the slip length and tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC). There is a minimum in slip length (290 nm) at 18°C, which corresponds to a maximum in TMAC (0.44). The slip length increases to 590 nm at 40°C which corresponds to a TMAC of 0.25. We attribute the decrease in TMAC with increasing temperature to a decrease in roughness of the monolayer on melting, which allows a higher fraction of specular gas reflections, thereby conserving tangential gas momentum. The importance of this work is that it demonstrates the ability to control gas flow simply by altering the interface for fixed geometry and gas properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jingyu; Gao, Wenbin; Ding, Hongbing; Wu, Weiping
2015-11-01
The gas-solid two-phase flow has been widely applied in the power, chemical and metallurgical industries. It is of great significance in the research of gas-solid two-phase flow to measure particle velocity at different locations in the pipeline. Thus, an electrostatic sensor array comprising eight arc-shaped electrodes was designed. The relationship between the cross-correlation (CC) velocity and the distribution of particle velocity, charge density and electrode spatial sensitivity was analysed. Then the CC sensitivity and its calculation method were proposed. According to the distribution of CC sensitivity, it was found that, between different electrode pairs, it had different focus areas. The CC focus method was proposed for particle velocity measurement at different locations and validated by a belt-style electrostatic induction experiment facility. Finally, the particle velocities at different locations with different flow conditions were measured to research the particle velocity distribution in a dilute horizontal pneumatic conveying pipeline.
The kinetics of mercury chlorination (with HC1) were studied using a flow reactor system with an on-line Hg analyzer and spciation sampling using a set of impingers. Kinetic parameters, such as reaction order (a), activation energy (Eu) and the overall rate constant (k') were es...
Fort, James A.; Pfund, David M.; Sheen, David M.; Pappas, Richard A.; Morgen, Gerald P.
2007-04-01
The MFDRC was formed in 1998 to advance the state-of-the-art in simulating multiphase turbulent flows by developing advanced computational models for gas-solid flows that are experimentally validated over a wide range of industrially relevant conditions. The goal was to transfer the resulting validated models to interested US commercial CFD software vendors, who would then propagate the models as part of new code versions to their customers in the US chemical industry. Since the lack of detailed data sets at industrially relevant conditions is the major roadblock to developing and validating multiphase turbulence models, a significant component of the work involved flow measurements on an industrial-scale riser contributed by Westinghouse, which was subsequently installed at SNL. Model comparisons were performed against these datasets by LANL. A parallel Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) project within the consortium made similar comparisons between riser measurements and models at NETL. Measured flow quantities of interest included volume fraction, velocity, and velocity-fluctuation profiles for both gas and solid phases at various locations in the riser. Some additional techniques were required for these measurements beyond what was currently available. PNNL’s role on the project was to work with the SNL experimental team to develop and test two new measurement techniques, acoustic tomography and millimeter-wave velocimetry. Acoustic tomography is a promising technique for gas-solid flow measurements in risers and PNNL has substantial related experience in this area. PNNL is also active in developing millimeter wave imaging techniques, and this technology presents an additional approach to make desired measurements. PNNL supported the advanced diagnostics development part of this project by evaluating these techniques and then by adapting and developing the selected technology to bulk gas-solids flows and by implementing them for testing in the SNL riser
Wu, Yingchun; Wu, Xuecheng; Yao, Longchao; Gréhan, Gérard; Cen, Kefa
2015-03-20
The 3D measurement of the particles in a gas-solid pipe flow is of great interest, but remains challenging due to curved pipe walls in various engineering applications. Because of the astigmatism induced by the pipe, concentric ellipse fringes in the hologram of spherical particles are observed in the experiments. With a theoretical analysis of the particle holography by an ABCD matrix, the in-focus particle image can be reconstructed by the modified convolution method and fractional Fourier transform. Thereafter, the particle size, 3D position, and velocity are simultaneously measured by digital holographic particle tracking velocimetry (DHPTV). The successful application of DHPTV to the particle size and 3D velocity measurement in a glass pipe's flow can facilitate its 3D diagnostics. PMID:25968543
Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaobing
2013-05-01
In conventional models for two-phase reactive flow of interior ballistic, the dynamic collision phenomenon of particles is neglected or empirically simplified. However, the particle collision between particles may play an important role in dilute two-phase flow because the distribution of particles is extremely nonuniform. The collision force may be one of the key factors to influence the particle movement. This paper presents the CFD-DEM approach for simulation of interior ballistic two-phase flow considering the dynamic collision process. The gas phase is treated as a Eulerian continuum and described by a computational fluid dynamic method (CFD). The solid phase is modeled by discrete element method (DEM) using a soft sphere approach for the particle collision dynamic. The model takes into account grain combustion, particle-particle collisions, particle-wall collisions, interphase drag and heat transfer between gas and solid phases. The continuous gas phase equations are discretized in finite volume form and solved by the AUSM+-up scheme with the higher order accurate reconstruction method. Translational and rotational motions of discrete particles are solved by explicit time integrations. The direct mapping contact detection algorithm is used. The multigrid method is applied in the void fraction calculation, the contact detection procedure, and CFD solving procedure. Several verification tests demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this approach. The simulation of an experimental igniter device in open air shows good agreement between the model and experimental measurements. This paper has implications for improving the ability to capture the complex physics phenomena of two-phase flow during the interior ballistic cycle and to predict dynamic collision phenomena at the individual particle scale. PMID:24891728
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kou, Mingyin; Wu, Shengli; Du, Kaiping; Shen, Wei; Ma, Xiaodong; Chen, Mao; Zhao, Baojun
2015-02-01
The COREX shaft furnace is of great importance to the whole C-3000 process. There are many problems with the operation of the COREX shaft furnace, especially with gas and burden distribution, that have as yet been little studied. The present work establishes a three-dimensional quarter model. After validation by operating data in Baosteel, the model is used to investigate the gas utilization rate and the metallization rate of the COREX shaft furnace. The parameters, including the reducing gas flow, the volume fraction of gas phase, and the multilayered burden, are systematically investigated. The results show that the reducing gas flow has a great influence on the gas utilization rate and the metallization rate, while the volume fraction of gas phase has a more significant effect on the metallization rate than on the gas utilization rate. In order to obtain a higher metallization rate, the reducing gas flow needs to be adjusted step by step and the volume fraction of gas phase needs to be increased. In addition, ore and coke need to be discharged separately in order to increase the solid metallization rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ukhov, Alexander; Borisov, Sergey; Porodnov, Boris
2011-05-01
On the basis of classical knowledge about movement of atoms and lattice theory of F. Goodman and G. Wachman the program modeling helium atom interaction with a three-dimensional crystal tungsten lattice taking into account partial surface covering by chemisorbed oxygen atoms is developed. An efficiency of molecular heat exchange of helium for pure and partially chemisorbed tungsten surface is calculated for different temperatures. Similar model of the surface and procedure of calculations have been applied for description of free-molecular gas flow in long cylindrical channel with clean and fully chemisorbed metal surface. Within the limits of the developed approach the results of calculations for both problems agree well with available experiments with surface contamination control.
Kwon, Kyung; Fan, Liang-Shih; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Hui
2014-09-30
A new and efficient direct numerical method with second-order convergence accuracy was developed for fully resolved simulations of incompressible viscous flows laden with rigid particles. The method combines the state-of-the-art immersed boundary method (IBM), the multi-direct forcing method, and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). First, the multi-direct forcing method is adopted in the improved IBM to better approximate the no-slip/no-penetration (ns/np) condition on the surface of particles. Second, a slight retraction of the Lagrangian grid from the surface towards the interior of particles with a fraction of the Eulerian grid spacing helps increase the convergence accuracy of the method. An over-relaxation technique in the procedure of multi-direct forcing method and the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme in the coupled fluid-particle interaction were applied. The use of the classical fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme helps the overall IB-LBM achieve the second order accuracy and provides more accurate predictions of the translational and rotational motion of particles. The preexistent code with the first-order convergence rate is updated so that the updated new code can resolve the translational and rotational motion of particles with the second-order convergence rate. The updated code has been validated with several benchmark applications. The efficiency of IBM and thus the efficiency of IB-LBM were improved by reducing the number of the Lagragian markers on particles by using a new formula for the number of Lagrangian markers on particle surfaces. The immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) has been shown to predict correctly the angular velocity of a particle. Prior to examining drag force exerted on a cluster of particles, the updated IB-LBM code along with the new formula for the number of Lagrangian markers has been further validated by solving several theoretical problems. Moreover, the unsteadiness of the drag force is examined when a
Information flow in heterogeneously interacting systems.
Yamaguti, Yutaka; Tsuda, Ichiro; Takahashi, Yoichiro
2014-02-01
Motivated by studies on the dynamics of heterogeneously interacting systems in neocortical neural networks, we studied heterogeneously-coupled chaotic systems. We used information-theoretic measures to investigate directions of information flow in heterogeneously coupled Rössler systems, which we selected as a typical chaotic system. In bi-directionally coupled systems, spontaneous and irregular switchings of the phase difference between two chaotic oscillators were observed. The direction of information transmission spontaneously switched in an intermittent manner, depending on the phase difference between the two systems. When two further oscillatory inputs are added to the coupled systems, this system dynamically selects one of the two inputs by synchronizing, selection depending on the internal phase differences between the two systems. These results indicate that the effective direction of information transmission dynamically changes, induced by a switching of phase differences between the two systems. PMID:24465282
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minier, Jean-Pierre; Peirano, Eric; Chibbaro, Sergio
2004-07-01
The aim of the paper is to discuss the main characteristics of a complete theoretical and numerical model for turbulent polydispersed two-phase flows, pointing out some specific issues. The theoretical details of the model have already been presented [Minier and Peirano, Phys. Rep. 352, 1 (2001)]. Consequently, the present work is mainly focused on complementary aspects that are often overlooked and that require particular attention. In particular, the following points are analyzed: the necessity to add an extra term in the equation for the velocity of the fluid seen in the case of two-way coupling, the theoretical and numerical evaluations of particle averages and the fulfillment of the particle mass-continuity constraint. The theoretical model is developed within the probability density function (PDF) formalism. The important physical choice of the state vector variables is first discussed and the model is then expressed as a stochastic differential equation written in continuous time (Langevin equations) for the velocity of the fluid seen. The interests and limitations of Langevin equations, compared to the single-phase case, are reviewed. From the numerical point of view, the model corresponds to a hybrid Eulerian/Lagrangian approach where the fluid and particle phases are simulated by different methods. Important aspects of the Monte Carlo particle/mesh numerical method are emphasized. Finally, the complete model is validated and its performance is assessed by simulating a bluff-body case with an important recirculation zone and in which two-way coupling is noticeable.
Heterogeneity and Flow in the Deep Earth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cottaar, Sanne
Over the past half century, study of deep regions in the Earth has revealed them to be complex and dynamic. Much of our knowledge comes from seismological data, and ultimately these observations need to be linked to results from geodynamics and mineral physics in order to make inferences about compositional heterogeneities and flow. One example of a strongly-heterogeneous region is the lower thermal boundary layer of the mantle, i.e. the layer of several hundred kilometers thickness above the core-mantle boundary, commonly referred to as D″. This region appears to be characterized by two large provinces of distinctive slow shear velocities, 4000-5000 km across, one beneath the Pacific and one beneath Africa. Surrounding these regions, seismic velocities are faster, and often interpreted as corresponding to a graveyard of slabs. A recently discovered phase transition from perovskite to postperovskite may also occur in this depth range and has been associated with an intermittently observed seismic discontinuity at the top of D″. This study adds to the seismological evidence for complexities both in isotropic seismic velocities as well as in anisotropic velocities and how those can be linked to flow of material. We map a distinctive small "pile" of slow shear velocity beneath Russia through direct waveform evidence. This "pile" is less than 1000 km across, and thus much smaller than the Pacific and African provinces. Its height is several hundreds of kilometers and its velocity reduction suggests it is composed of the same material as the large provinces of slow shear velocity. Beneath Hawaii, at the northern edge of the Pacific province, we find an extended thin zone of ultra-low velocities. This is the first time the three-dimensional extent of such a zone is constrained with some accuracy. The constraints on its morphology come from the presence of strong postcursors to shear waves diffracted along the core-mantle boundary, delayed by 30 to 50 seconds with
Real-Time Monitoring of Heterogeneous Catalysis with Mass Spectrometry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Young, Mark A.
2009-01-01
Heterogeneous, gas-solid processes constitute an important class of catalytic reactions that play a key role in a variety of applications, such as industrial processing and environmental controls. Heterogeneous catalytic chemistry can be demonstrated in a simple heated flow reactor containing a fragment of the catalytic converter from a vehicular…
Godunov Method for Calculating Multicomponent Heterogeneous Medium Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surov, V. S.
2014-03-01
The modified Godunov method intended for integrating the nondivergent systems that describe a multivelocity heterogeneous mixture flow is presented. The linearized Riemann solver has been used in solving the Riemann problems.
Heterogeneous scalable framework for multiphase flows.
Morris, Karla Vanessa
2013-09-01
Two categories of challenges confront the developer of computational spray models: those related to the computation and those related to the physics. Regarding the computation, the trend towards heterogeneous, multi- and many-core platforms will require considerable re-engineering of codes written for the current supercomputing platforms. Regarding the physics, accurate methods for transferring mass, momentum and energy from the dispersed phase onto the carrier fluid grid have so far eluded modelers. Significant challenges also lie at the intersection between these two categories. To be competitive, any physics model must be expressible in a parallel algorithm that performs well on evolving computer platforms. This work created an application based on a software architecture where the physics and software concerns are separated in a way that adds flexibility to both. The develop spray-tracking package includes an application programming interface (API) that abstracts away the platform-dependent parallelization concerns, enabling the scientific programmer to write serial code that the API resolves into parallel processes and threads of execution. The project also developed the infrastructure required to provide similar API's to other application. The API allow object-oriented Fortran applications direct interaction with Trilinos to support memory management of distributed objects in central processing units (CPU) and graphic processing units (GPU) nodes for applications using C++.
Harmonically Perturbed Gas-Solid Fluidized System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nix, S. T.; Muller, M. R.
1996-11-01
Experiments were performed on a harmonically perturbed gas-solid fluidized system, to determine the extent to which the total system behaved as a liquid in regards to the aspects of resonant frequency, wave shapes, and damping effects. The fluidized system consists of a cylindrical alumina oxide/air fluidized bed which is vertically perturbed in a symmetrical fashion by externally vibrating the entire vessel. The external vibrations were carried out over various flow rates, amplitudes, and frequencies. The results obtained could then be compared to the natural frequencies of water for the same governing parameters by analytical means. The effects of excitations on the formation of voidage disturbances or "gas bubbles" was also investigated. Data acquisition enabled the determination of both the amplitude and frequency of the waves generated in the bath. Results indicate that external vertical vibration caused the mean surface level of the bed to drop. This can be attributed to a closer packing of the particles along with a decrease in the number and size of gas bubbles in the bed.
Relationship between beta-adrenoceptors and coronary blood flow heterogeneity
Upsher, M.E.; Weiss, H.R.
1989-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that the heterogeneous distribution of ..beta.. adrenoceptors contributes to the control of flow heterogeneity in the canine myocardium. ..beta.. adrenoceptor density and affinity were measured simultaneously with coronary blood flow in multiple sections of the left ventricle of 14 anesthetized open chest dogs. Radioactive microspheres were used for the measurement of blood flow. Receptor density (Bmax) and dissociation constant (Kd) were measured using (/sup 125/I)- iodopindolol. The average control myocardial blood flow (MBF) was 86/+-/15 ml/min/100 g. Isoproterenol increased MBF by 82%, whereas propranolol reduced MBF by 13%. The mean value of Bmax was unaltered by either treatment. Under control conditions, a significant positive positive correlation was observed between Bmax and blood flow. In the isoproterenol treatment group, this correlation was enhanced. Beta adrenoceptor blockade led to a negative correlation. Kd showed no overall correlation with blood flow. Kd but not Bmax was significantly higher in the EPI than in the ENDO and in the base compared to the apex. There appears to be a direct linear relationship between the distribution of beta adrenoceptors and MBF distribution which is enhanced under conditions of high beta adrenergic activity. There is a correlation between beta adrenoceptor activity and blood flow distribution in the canine myocardium.
Analytical studies on the instabilities of heterogeneous intelligent traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngoduy, D.
2013-10-01
It has been widely reported in literature that a small perturbation in traffic flow such as a sudden deceleration of a vehicle could lead to the formation of traffic jams without a clear bottleneck. These traffic jams are usually related to instabilities in traffic flow. The applications of intelligent traffic systems are a potential solution to reduce the amplitude or to eliminate the formation of such traffic instabilities. A lot of research has been conducted to theoretically study the effect of intelligent vehicles, for example adaptive cruise control vehicles, using either computer simulation or analytical method. However, most current analytical research has only applied to single class traffic flow. To this end, the main topic of this paper is to perform a linear stability analysis to find the stability threshold of heterogeneous traffic flow using microscopic models, particularly the effect of intelligent vehicles on heterogeneous (or multi-class) traffic flow instabilities. The analytical results will show how intelligent vehicle percentages affect the stability of multi-class traffic flow.
Effects of incomplete mixing on chemical reactions under flow heterogeneities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez, Lazaro; Hidalgo, Juan J.; Dentz, Marco
2016-04-01
Evaluation of the mixing process in aquifers is of primary importance when assessing attenuation of pollutants. In aquifers different hydraulic and chemical properties can increase mixing and spreading of the transported species. Mixing processes control biogeochemical transformations such as precipitation/dissolution reactions or degradation reactions that are fast compared to mass transfer processes. Reactions are local phenomena that fluctuate at the pore scale, but predictions are often made at much larger scales. However, aquifer heterogeities are found at all scales and generates flow heterogeneities which creates complex concentration distributions that enhances mixing. In order to assess the impact of spatial flow heterogeneities at pore scale we study concentration profiles, gradients and reaction rates using a random walk particle tracking (RWPT) method and kernel density estimators to reconstruct concentrations and gradients in two setups. First, we focus on a irreversible bimolecular reaction A+B → C under homogeneous flow to distinguish phenomena of incomplete mixing of reactants from finite-size sampling effects. Second, we analise a fast reversible bimolecular chemical reaction A+B rightleftharpoons C in a laminar Poiseuille flow reactor to determine the difference between local and global reaction rates caused by the incomplete mixing under flow heterogeneities. Simulation results for the first setup differ from the analytical solution of the continuum scale advection-dispersion-reaction equation studied by Gramling et al. (2002), which results in an overstimation quantity of reaction product (C). In the second setup, results show that actual reaction rates are bigger than the obtained from artificially mixing the system by averaging the concentration vertically. - LITERATURE Gramling, C. M.,Harvey, C. F., Meigs, and L. C., (2002). Reactive transport in porous media: A comparison of model prediction with laboratory visualization, Environ. Sci
Adaptive multiresolution modeling of groundwater flow in heterogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malenica, Luka; Gotovac, Hrvoje; Srzic, Veljko; Andric, Ivo
2016-04-01
Proposed methodology was originally developed by our scientific team in Split who designed multiresolution approach for analyzing flow and transport processes in highly heterogeneous porous media. The main properties of the adaptive Fup multi-resolution approach are: 1) computational capabilities of Fup basis functions with compact support capable to resolve all spatial and temporal scales, 2) multi-resolution presentation of heterogeneity as well as all other input and output variables, 3) accurate, adaptive and efficient strategy and 4) semi-analytical properties which increase our understanding of usually complex flow and transport processes in porous media. The main computational idea behind this approach is to separately find the minimum number of basis functions and resolution levels necessary to describe each flow and transport variable with the desired accuracy on a particular adaptive grid. Therefore, each variable is separately analyzed, and the adaptive and multi-scale nature of the methodology enables not only computational efficiency and accuracy, but it also describes subsurface processes closely related to their understood physical interpretation. The methodology inherently supports a mesh-free procedure, avoiding the classical numerical integration, and yields continuous velocity and flux fields, which is vitally important for flow and transport simulations. In this paper, we will show recent improvements within the proposed methodology. Since "state of the art" multiresolution approach usually uses method of lines and only spatial adaptive procedure, temporal approximation was rarely considered as a multiscale. Therefore, novel adaptive implicit Fup integration scheme is developed, resolving all time scales within each global time step. It means that algorithm uses smaller time steps only in lines where solution changes are intensive. Application of Fup basis functions enables continuous time approximation, simple interpolation calculations across
Numerical simulation on the reduction of flow heterogeneity in the biofilter media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Weiwei; Liu, Xingli; Wu, Jie; Wei, Yikun; Xu, Peng
2016-02-01
The biofilters are the ideal solutions for the biological treatment of air pollutants. However, there exists strong flow heterogeneity in porous media that degrades the removal efficiency of biofilters. Thus, the effects of Darcy number, Reynolds number and porosity of porous media on the reduction of flow heterogeneity in three biofilter models were numerically studied by the lattice Boltzmann method. The simulation results lead to three conclusions: (1) The Darcy number has dominant influence on the flow heterogeneity in the biofilters. The reduction of flow heterogeneity can be realized by designing a comparatively low Darcy number. (2) The Reynolds number has obvious effect on the flow heterogeneity in the biofilters. However, the reduction of flow heterogeneity cannot be effectively established by regulating the Reynolds number. (3) The property of porous media greatly influences the flow heterogeneity in the biofilters. The present results are helpful for the optimized design of practical biofilter models.
Scaling of flow and transport behavior in heterogeneous groundwater systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheibe, Timothy; Yabusaki, Steven
1998-11-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations using a detailed synthetic hydraulic conductivity field developed from geological considerations provide insight into the scaling of subsurface flow and transport processes. Flow and advective transport in the highly resolved heterogeneous field were modeled using massively parallel computers, providing a realistic baseline for evaluation of the impacts of parameter scaling. Upscaling of hydraulic conductivity was performed at a variety of scales using a flexible power law averaging technique. A series of tests were performed to determine the effects of varying the scaling exponent on a number of metrics of flow and transport behavior. Flow and transport simulation on high-performance computers and three-dimensional scientific visualization combine to form a powerful tool for gaining insight into the behavior of complex heterogeneous systems. Many quantitative groundwater models utilize upscaled hydraulic conductivity parameters, either implicitly or explicitly. These parameters are designed to reproduce the bulk flow characteristics at the grid or field scale while not requiring detailed quantification of local-scale conductivity variations. An example from applied groundwater modeling is the common practice of calibrating grid-scale model hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity parameters so as to approximate observed hydraulic head and boundary flux values. Such parameterizations, perhaps with a bulk dispersivity imposed, are then sometimes used to predict transport of reactive or non-reactive solutes. However, this work demonstrates that those parameters that lead to the best upscaling for hydraulic conductivity and head do not necessarily correspond to the best upscaling for prediction of a variety of transport behaviors. This result reflects the fact that transport is strongly impacted by the existence and connectedness of extreme-valued hydraulic conductivities, in contrast to bulk flow which depends more strongly on
Flow heterogeneity following global no-flow ischemia in isolated rabbit heart
Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; Schustz, Amy M.; Kuo, Chaincy; Huesman, Michelle K.; Huesman, Ronald H.
2003-02-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate flow heterogeneity and impaired reflow during reperfusion following 60 min global no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart. Radiolabeled microspheres were used to measure relative flow in small left ventricular (LV) segments in five ischemia + reperfused hearts and in five non-ischemic controls. Although variable in the post-ischemic hearts, flow heterogeneity was increased relative to pre-ischemia for the whole LV (0.92 plus or minus 0.41 vs. 0.37 plus or minus 0.07, P < 0.05) as well as the subendocardium (Endo) and subepicardium (Epi) considered separately (endo: 1.28 plus or minus 0.74 vs. 0.30 plus or minus 0.09; epi: 0.69 plus or minus 0.22 vs. 0.38 plus or minus 0.08; P < 0.05 for both comparisons) during early reperfusion. There were also segments with abnormally reduced reflow. The number of segments with abnormally reduced reflow increased as flow heterogeneity increased. Abnormally reduced reflow indicates that regional ischemia can persist despite restoration of normal global flow. In addition, the relationship between regional and global flow is altered and venous outflow is derived from regions with continued perfusion and not the whole LV. These observations emphasize the need to quantify regional reflow during reperfusion following sustained no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart.
Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous media
Rashidi, M.; Dickenson, E.
1996-04-01
Small scale flow processes in aqueous heterogeneous porous systems have been studied experimentally via novel nonintrusive fluorescence imaging techniques. The techniques involve 3D visualization and quantification of flow fields within a refractive index-matched transparent porous column. The refractive index-matching yields a transparent porous medium, free from any scattering and refraction at the solid-liquid interfaces, as a result allowing direct optical probing at any point within the porous system. By illuminating the porous regions within the column with a planar sheet of laser beam, flow processes through the porous medium can be observed microscopically, and qualitative and quantitative in-pore transport information can be obtained at a good resolution and a good accuracy. A CCD camera is used to record the fluorescent images at every vertical plane location while sweeping back and forth across the column. These digitized flow images are then analyzed and accumulated over a 3D volume within the column. Series of flow experiments in aqueous, refractive index-matched, porous systems packed with natural mineral particles have been performed successfully in these laboratories.
Modeling flow in a pressure-sensitive, heterogeneous medium
Vasco, Donald W.; Minkoff, Susan E.
2009-06-01
Using an asymptotic methodology, including an expansion in inverse powers of {radical}{omega}, where {omega} is the frequency, we derive a solution for flow in a medium with pressure dependent properties. The solution is valid for a heterogeneous medium with smoothly varying properties. That is, the scale length of the heterogeneity must be significantly larger then the scale length over which the pressure increases from it initial value to its peak value. The resulting asymptotic expression is similar in form to the solution for pressure in a medium in which the flow properties are not functions of pressure. Both the expression for pseudo-phase, which is related to the 'travel time' of the transient pressure disturbance, and the expression for pressure amplitude contain modifications due to the pressure dependence of the medium. We apply the method to synthetic and observed pressure variations in a deforming medium. In the synthetic test we model one-dimensional propagation in a pressure-dependent medium. Comparisons with both an analytic self-similar solution and the results of a numerical simulation indicate general agreement. Furthermore, we are able to match pressure variations observed during a pulse test at the Coaraze Laboratory site in France.
Skeletal muscle blood flow and flow heterogeneity during dynamic and isometric exercise in humans.
Laaksonen, Marko S; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Kemppainen, Jukka; Teräs, Mika; Sipilä, Hannu; Nuutila, Pirjo; Knuuti, Juhani
2003-03-01
The effects of dynamic and intermittent isometric knee extension exercises on skeletal muscle blood flow and flow heterogeneity were studied in seven healthy endurance-trained men. Regional muscle blood flow was measured using positron emission tomography (PET) and an [(15)O]H(2)O tracer, and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in the quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle during submaximal intermittent isometric and dynamic exercises. QF blood flow was 61% (P = 0.002) higher during dynamic exercise. Interestingly, flow heterogeneity was 13% (P = 0.024) lower during dynamic compared with intermittent isometric exercise. EMG activity was significantly higher (P < 0.001) during dynamic exercise, and the change in EMG activity from isometric to dynamic exercise was tightly related to the change in blood flow in the vastus lateralis muscle (r = 0.98, P < 0.001) but not in the rectus femoris muscle (r = -0.09, P = 0.942). In conclusion, dynamic exercise causes higher and less heterogeneous blood flow than intermittent isometric exercise at the same exercise intensity. These responses are, at least partly, related to the increased EMG activity. PMID:12446282
Ambient Flow and Heterogeneity in Multi-Aquifer Wells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hart, D. J.; Gotkowitz, M. B.; Luczaj, J. A.
2009-12-01
Multi-aquifers wells, those wells that are open to more than one aquifer, have the potential to allow large quantities of flow between aquifers. Observed rates and direction of intra-borehole flow are often complex, reflecting the heterogeneity of the aquifers and variation of farfield heads. Spinner flow logs collected from several multi-aquifer wells in southern and eastern Wisconsin indicate the importance of flows through these wells in groundwater flow systems. The Paleozoic geology of Wisconsin, composed of more-or-less flat-lying sandstones, dolomites, and shales, gives rise to layered aquifer-aquitard systems where multi-aquifer wells are relatively common. A comparison of the flows in three multi-aquifer wells that cross the Wisconsin’s Paleozoic units showed heterogeniety in aquifers commonly thought to be homogeneous. Variation of the intra-borehole flow in a well gives an indication of heterogeneity and farfield heads in the aquifers. In the first example, the system was relatively simple, consisting of an aquitard (Eau Claire shale) between an upper aquifer (Wonewoc sandstone) and a lower aquifer (Mt Simon sandstone). Heads in the upper aquifer are higher than those in the lower aquifer. In this well, flows gradually increased with depth in the upper aquifer, remained constant in the aquitard, and then gradually decreased with depth in the lower aquifer. The gradual changes indicate relatively homogenous upper and lower aquifers. In the second example, the system also consisted of an aquitard (Tunnel City Group) between an upper aquifer (Sinnipee dolomite and the St. Peter sandstone) and a lower aquifer (Elk Mound Ground). As in the first example, heads in the upper aquifer are greater than those in the lower sandstone aquifer. In contrast to the first example, there were abrupt changes in intra-borehole flow in the upper aquifer, sometimes of more than 180 liters/minute over an interval of less than a meter. Caliper and television logging showed
Macrodispersion by diverging radial flows in randomly heterogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Severino, Gerardo; Santini, Alessandro; Sommella, Angelo
2011-04-01
Radial flow takes place in a heterogeneous porous formation where the transmissivity T is modelled as a stationary random space function ( RSF). The steady flow is driven by a given rate, and the mean velocity is radial. A pulse-like of a tracer is injected in the porous formation, and the thin plume spreads due to the fluctuations of the velocity which results a RSF as well. Transport is characterized by the mean front, and by the second spatial moment of the plume. We are primarily interested in tracer macrodispersion modelling. With the neglect of pore-scale dispersion, macrodispersion coefficients are computed at the second order of approximation, without neglecting the head-gradient fluctuations. Although transport is non-ergodic at the source, it is shown that ergodicity is achieved at small distances from the source. This is due to the fact that close to the source local velocities are quite large, and therefore solute particles become uncorrelated very soon. Under ergodic conditions, we compare macrodispersion mechanism in radial flows with that occurring in mean uniform flows. At short distances the spreading effect is highly enhanced by the large variability of the flow field, whereas at large distances transport exhibits a lesser dispersion due to the reduction of velocities. This supports the explanation provided by Indelman and Dagan (1999) to justify why the macrodispersivity is found smaller than that pertaining to mean uniform flows. The model is tested against a tracer transport experiment (Fernàndez-Garcia et al., 2004) by comparing the theoretical and experimental breakthrough curves. The accordance with real data, that is achieved without any fitting to concentration values, strengthens the capability of the proposed model to grasp the main features of such an experiment, the approximations as well as experimental uncertainties notwithstanding.
Multiscale modeling of metabolism, flows, and exchanges in heterogeneous organs
Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Raymond, Gary M.; Butterworth, Erik; Alessio, Adam; Caldwell, James H.
2010-01-01
Large-scale models accounting for the processes supporting metabolism and function in an organ or tissue with a marked heterogeneity of flows and metabolic rates are computationally complex and tedious to compute. Their use in the analysis of data from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires model reduction since the data are composed of concentration–time curves from hundreds of regions of interest (ROI) within the organ. Within each ROI, one must account for blood flow, intracapillary gradients in concentrations, transmembrane transport, and intracellular reactions. Using modular design, we configured a whole organ model, GENTEX, to allow adaptive usage for multiple reacting molecular species while omitting computation of unused components. The temporal and spatial resolution and the number of species are adaptable and the numerical accuracy and computational speed is adjustable during optimization runs, which increases accuracy and spatial resolution as convergence approaches. An application to the interpretation of PET image sequences after intravenous injection of 13NH3 provides functional image maps of regional myocardial blood flows. PMID:20201893
On fluid flow in a heterogeneous medium under nonisothermal conditions
D.W., Vasco
2010-11-01
An asymptotic technique, valid in the presence of smoothly-varying heterogeneity, provides explicit expressions for the velocity of a propagating pressure and temperature disturbance. The governing equations contain nonlinear terms due to the presence of temperature-dependent coefficients and due to the advection of fluids with differing temperatures. Two cases give well-defined expressions in terms of the parameters of the porous medium: the uncoupled propagation of a pressure disturbance and the propagation of a fully coupled temperature and pressure disturbance. The velocity of the coupled disturbance or front, depends upon the medium parameters and upon the change in temperature and pressure across the front. For uncoupled flow, the semi-analytic expression for the front velocity reduces to that associated with a linear diffusion equation. A comparison of the asymptotic travel time estimates with calculations from a numerical simulator indicates reasonably good agreement for both uncoupled and coupled disturbances.
Uncertainty quantification for flow in highly heterogeneous porous media
Tartakovsky, D. M.; Xiu, D.
2004-01-01
Natural porous media are highly heterogeneous and characterized by parameters that are often uncertain due to the lack of sufficient data. This uncertainty (randomness) occurs on a multiplicity of scales. We focus on geologic formations with the two dominant scales of uncertainty: a large-scale uncertainty in the spatial arrangement of geologic facies and a small-scale uncertainty in the parameters within each facies. We propose an approach that combines random domain decompositions (RDD) and polynomial chaos expansions (PCE) to account for the large- and small-scales of uncertainty, respectively. We present a general framework and use a one-dimensional flow example to demonstrate that our combined approach provides robust, non-perturbative approximations for the statistics of the system states.
Strategy for understanding gas-solid riser hydrodynamics and other LANL status items
Kashiwa, B. A.
2002-01-01
The talk presents the status of work in progress in the area of momentum transport theory in turbulent gas-solid multiphase flow. Previous installments have reported details of the theory, and validation results. This talk provides a grand overview of how the details of dynamic simulations in 3D, 2D, 1D and 0D, all fit together to form a consistent strategy for understanding gas-solid riser hydrodynamics. The circulating fluidized bed is the canonical example for showing how the strategy works. Performance of the procedure is shown by comparison to data recently obtained by Sandia National Laboratory. Status of other LANL efforts is also mentioned.
Metalized Heterogeneous Detonation and Dense Reactive Particle Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Fan
2011-06-01
A metalized explosive system comprises a condensed-phase explosive and a large quantity of reactive metal particles, in an attempt to exploit the high energy content of the particles through their rapid combustion. Detonation in such heterogeneous matter and subsequent reaction of the metal particles under strong shock conditions constitute a new area in the dynamics and combustion of dense particle flow, which is characterized by a large number of particle interactions through shocked interstitial fluid or direct inelastic collisions. Progress in the fundamentals of this field is reviewed with an emphasis on particle aspects in three parts: detonation-particle interactions, particle ignition and reaction, and dynamic instabilities of particles. The paper begins with the unique characteristics of the subject heterogeneous detonation including the breakdown of the CJ detonation and detonation shock interaction effects on wave velocity, critical failure diameter, momentum transfer and morphology of particles. Secondly, the concept of a critical diameter for particle ignition, shocked particle reaction mechanism, multiple heat release history and aerodynamic secondary fragmentation combustion are described. Thirdly, particle dynamic instabilities lead to clustering, collisions and coherent jet structure and influence not only the aerodynamic trajectories but also the particle-gas mixing and subsequent energy release. Their mechanisms are revealed through the role of stochastic particle interactions with shock waves and fluid vorticity and turbulence on the formation of the trajectory instabilities of the particles. A hybrid detonation mode is finally invoked to exploit the energy release limit of metal particles. The paper is portrayed in a large number of experiments combined with meso-scale modeling and theoretical explanation.
Effective parameters for two-phase flow in a porous medium with periodic heterogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ataie-Ashtiani, B.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.; Oostrom, M.; Celia, M. A.; White, M. D.
2001-05-01
Computational simulations of two-phase flow in porous media are used to investigate the feasibility of replacing a porous medium containing heterogeneities with an equivalent homogeneous medium. Simulations are performed for the case of infiltration of a dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in a water-saturated, heterogeneous porous medium. For two specific porous media, with periodic and rather simple heterogeneity patterns, the existence of a representative elementary volume (REV) is studied. Upscaled intrinsic permeabilities and upscaled nonlinear constitutive relationships for two-phase flow systems are numerically calculated and the effects of heterogeneities are evaluated. Upscaled capillary pressure-saturation curves for drainage are found to be distinctly different from the lower-scale curves for individual regions of heterogeneity. Irreducible water saturation for the homogenized medium is found to be much larger than the corresponding lower-scale values. Numerical simulations for both heterogeneous and homogeneous representations of the considered porous media are carried out. Although the homogenized model simulates the spreading behavior of DNAPL reasonably well, it still fails to match completely the results form the heterogeneous simulations. This seems to be due, in part, to the nonlinearities inherent to multiphase flow systems. Although we have focussed on a periodic heterogeneous medium in this study, our methodology is applicable to other forms of heterogeneous media. In particular, the procedure for identification of a REV, and associated upscaled constitutive relations, can be used for randomly heterogeneous or layered media as well.
A novel planar flow cell for studies of biofilm heterogeneity and flow-biofilm interactions
Zhang, Wei; Sileika, Tadas S.; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Yang; Lee, Jisun; Packman, Aaron I.
2012-01-01
Biofilms are microbial communities growing on surfaces, and are ubiquitous in nature, in bioreactors, and in human infection. Coupling between physical, chemical, and biological processes is known to regulate the development of biofilms; however, current experimental systems do not provide sufficient control of environmental conditions to enable detailed investigations of these complex interactions. We developed a novel planar flow cell that supports biofilm growth under complex two-dimensional fluid flow conditions. This device provides precise control of flow conditions and can be used to create well-defined physical and chemical gradients that significantly affect biofilm heterogeneity. Moreover, the top and bottom of the flow chamber are transparent, so biofilm growth and flow conditions are fully observable using non-invasive confocal microscopy and high-resolution video imaging. To demonstrate the capability of the device, we observed the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms under imposed flow gradients. We found a positive relationship between patterns of fluid velocity and biofilm biomass because of faster microbial growth under conditions of greater local nutrient influx, but this relationship eventually reversed because high hydrodynamic shear leads to the detachment of cells from the surface. These results reveal that flow gradients play a critical role in the development of biofilm communities. By providing new capability for observing biofilm growth, solute and particle transport, and net chemical transformations under user-specified environmental gradients, this new planar flow cell system has broad utility for studies of environmental biotechnology and basic biofilm microbiology, as well as applications in bioreactor design, environmental engineering, biogeochemistry, geomicrobiology, and biomedical research. PMID:21656713
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, P. K.; Le Borgne, T.; Dentz, M.; Bour, O.; Juanes, R.
2014-12-01
Quantitative modeling of flow and transport through fractured geological media is challenging due to the inaccessibility of the underlying medium properties and the complex interplay between heterogeneity and small scale transport processes such as heterogeneous advection, matrix diffusion, hydrodynamic dispersion and adsorption. This complex interplay leads to anomalous (non-Fickian) transport behavior, the origin of which remains a matter of debate: whether it arises from variability in fracture permeability (velocity heterogeneity), connectedness in the fracture network (velocity correlation), or interaction between fractures and matrix. Here we show that this uncertainty of heterogeneity- vs. correlation-controlled transport can be resolved by combining convergent and push-pull tracer tests because flow reversibility is strongly dependent on correlation, whereas late-time scaling of breakthrough curves is mainly controlled by heterogeneity. We build on this insight, and propose a Lagrangian statistical model that takes the form of a continuous time random walk (CTRW) with correlated particle velocities. In this framework, flow heterogeneity and flow correlation are quantified by a Markov process of particle transition times that is characterized by a distribution function and a transition probability. Our transport model captures the anomalous behavior in the breakthrough curves for both push-pull and convergent flow geometries, with the same set of parameters. We validate our model in the Ploemeur observatory in France. Thus, the proposed correlated CTRW modeling approach provides a simple yet powerful framework for characterizing the impact of flow correlation and heterogeneity on transport in fractured media.
ADAPTIVE-GRID SIMULATION OF GROUNDWATER FLOW IN HETEROGENEOUS AQUIFERS. (R825689C068)
The prediction of contaminant transport in porous media requires the computation of the flow velocity. This work presents a methodology for high-accuracy computation of flow in a heterogeneous isotropic formation, employing a dual-flow formulation and adaptive...
Evaluation of wall boundary condition parameters for gas-solids fluidized bed simulations
Li, Tingwen; Benyahia, Sofiane
2013-10-01
Wall boundary conditions for the solids phase have significant effects on numerical predictions of various gas-solids fluidized beds. Several models for the granular flow wall boundary condition are available in the open literature for numerical modeling of gas-solids flow. In this study, a model for specularity coefficient used in Johnson and Jackson boundary conditions by Li and Benyahia (AIChE Journal, 2012, 58, 2058-2068) is implemented in the open-source CFD code-MFIX. The variable specularity coefficient model provides a physical way to calculate the specularity coefficient needed by the partial-slip boundary conditions for the solids phase. Through a series of 2-D numerical simulations of bubbling fluidized bed and circulating fluidized bed riser, the model predicts qualitatively consistent trends to the previous studies. Furthermore, a quantitative comparison is conducted between numerical results of variable and constant specularity coefficients to investigate the effect of spatial and temporal variations in specularity coefficient.
Nelson, R.W.
1990-11-01
Groundwater theory that applies to only homogeneous systems is often too restricted to adequately solve actual groundwater pollution problems. For adequate solutions, the more general theory for heterogeneous porous systems is needed. However, the present dynamic and kinematic descriptions in heterogeneous materials have evolved largely from the restricted and less general homogeneous theory. These descriptions are inadequate because they fail to account for all the energy dissipation in the system. The basic distinguishing dynamic feature of heterogeneous flow theory from the less general homogeneous-based theory is the macroscopic rotational flow component. Specifically, existence of rotational flow components and their independence from the translational flow components are the necessary and sufficient conditions that completely differentiate between the complex lamellar heterogeneous flow theory and the simpler lamellar flow of homogeneous theory. This paper proposes a more general dynamic form of the flow equation to include the added rotational dissipation that is missing from the present Darcian description of flow in heterogeneous media. 31 refs.
Flow channeling in strongly heterogeneous porous media: A numerical study
Moreno, L.; Tsang, C.F.
1994-05-01
The variation of hydraulic conductivity in a porous medium causes the fluids flowing through it to have nonuniform velocities. Variation in fluid velocity is one of the main contributors to solute dispersion, causing a part of the contaminants dissolved in the fluid to be transported with greater than average velocities. In practical problems concerning transport of radioactive or toxic wastes, the velocity of contaminant flow may be of vital importance. This paper examines a three dimensional case, considering also the similarities and differences between parallel flow and convergent/divergent flow. Fluid flow in a porous medium is shown to perfer the most conductive paths. For a medium with strongly variable permeability this effect can be very pronounced. This paper discusses the impact of this flow distribution upon solute transport. 28 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in peristaltic flow with convective conditions.
Hayat, Tasawar; Tanveer, Anum; Yasmin, Humaira; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2014-01-01
This article addresses the effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in peristaltic transport of Carreau fluid in a channel with wall properties. Mathematical modelling and analysis have been carried out in the presence of Hall current. The channel walls satisfy the more realistic convective conditions. The governing partial differential equations along with long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations are solved. The results of temperature and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed for various parameters of interest. PMID:25460608
Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions in Peristaltic Flow with Convective Conditions
Hayat, Tasawar; Tanveer, Anum; Yasmin, Humaira; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2014-01-01
This article addresses the effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in peristaltic transport of Carreau fluid in a channel with wall properties. Mathematical modelling and analysis have been carried out in the presence of Hall current. The channel walls satisfy the more realistic convective conditions. The governing partial differential equations along with long wavelength and low Reynolds number considerations are solved. The results of temperature and heat transfer coefficient are analyzed for various parameters of interest. PMID:25460608
On the Mean Flow Behaviour in the Presence of Regional-Scale Surface Roughness Heterogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xiang I. A.
2016-05-01
A suite of large-eddy simulations of the neutral atmospheric boundary layer is conducted to study the mean flow response to the presence of surface roughness heterogeneity at regional scales (surface roughness heterogeneity on the scale of several boundary-layer heights). The roughness heterogeneity is imposed using alternating rough wall patches with numerically resolved rectangular roughness elements of different packing densities. The flow near the surface is found to adjust rapidly, reaching equilibrium conditions at distances on the order of a single inter-roughness element spacing. Despite the regional heterogeneity in surface roughness, it is often desirable to parametrize the entire rough wall using one single effective roughness height. To develop such a parametrization the model of Bou-Zeid et al. [Water Resources Research 40(2):1, 2004] is extended to incorporate the displacement height, d. Predictions from this parametrization are compared with the simulations, with reasonably good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonellini, Marco; Nella Mollema, Pauline
2016-04-01
Surface outcrops provide natural analogs for aquifers and they offer an opportunity to study the geometry of geologic heterogeneities in three dimensions over a range of scales. We show photographs, maps, quantitative field data of rock fractures and sedimentary features in outcrops exposed in a unique collection of many different settings. These include small-scale sedimentary structures, carbonate nodules, faults, and other fractures as documented in outcrops of porous sandstone (Utah, USA and Italy), tight sandstones (Bolivia), dolomite (Northern Italy), and carbonates (Central Italy). We simulate the geometries observed in outcrops with simple conceptual and numerical models of flow to show how important it is to recognize the appropriate attributes for the description and the process responsible for the formation of geologic heterogeneities. For example, knowing the type of structural heterogeneities (fault, joint, compaction band, stylolite, and vein) and their development mechanics helps to predict the distribution and preferential orientation of these features within an aquifer. This knowledge is particularly important for modeling of fluid flow where geophysical or borehole data are lacking. Geologic heterogeneities of sedimentary, structural or diagenetic (chemical) nature influence the fluid flow properties in many aquifers and reservoirs at scales varying over several orders of magnitude and with a spatial variability ranging from mm to tens of meters. Heterogeneities may enhance or degrade porosity and permeability, they impart anisotropy to permeability and dispersion and affect mass transport-related processes in groundwater. Furthermore, aquifer heterogeneities control aquifer continuity and compartmentalization. In fractured aquifers, geologic and diagenetic heterogeneities may affect connectivity, aperture of the flow channels or the distribution of permeability buffers, barriers and seals. Also variations in layer thickness and lithology within a
The stationary flow in a heterogeneous compliant vessel network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filoche, Marcel; Florens, Magali
2011-09-01
We introduce a mathematical model of the hydrodynamic transport into systems consisting in a network of connected flexible pipes. In each pipe of the network, the flow is assumed to be steady and one-dimensional. The fluid-structure interaction is described through tube laws which relate the pipe diameter to the pressure difference across the pipe wall. We show that the resulting one-dimensional differential equation describing the flow in the pipe can be exactly integrated if one is able to estimate averages of the Reynolds number along the pipe. The differential equation is then transformed into a non linear scalar equation relating pressures at both ends of the pipe and the flow rate in the pipe. These equations are coupled throughout the network with mass conservation equations for the flow and zero pressure losses at the branching points of the network. This allows us to derive a general model for the computation of the flow into very large inhomogeneous networks consisting of several thousands of flexible pipes. This model is then applied to perform numerical simulations of the human lung airway system at exhalation. The topology of the system and the tube laws are taken from morphometric and physiological data in the literature. We find good qualitative and quantitative agreement between the simulation results and flow-volume loops measured in real patients. In particular, expiratory flow limitation which is an essential characteristic of forced expiration is found to be well reproduced by our simulations. Finally, a mathematical model of a pathology (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is introduced which allows us to quantitatively assess the influence of a moderate or severe alteration of the airway compliances.
Reducing Spatial Heterogeneity of MALDI Samples with Marangoni Flows During Sample Preparation.
Lai, Yin-Hung; Cai, Yi-Hong; Lee, Hsun; Ou, Yu-Meng; Hsiao, Chih-Hao; Tsao, Chien-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Wang, Yi-Sheng
2016-08-01
This work demonstrates a method to prepare homogeneous distributions of analytes to improve data reproducibility in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). Natural-air drying processes normally result in unwanted heterogeneous spatial distributions of analytes in MALDI crystals and make quantitative analysis difficult. This study demonstrates that inducing Marangoni flows within drying droplets can significantly reduce the heterogeneity problem. The Marangoni flows are accelerated by changing substrate temperatures to create temperature gradients across droplets. Such hydrodynamic flows are analyzed semi-empirically. Using imaging mass spectrometry, changes of heterogeneity of molecules with the change of substrate temperature during drying processes are demonstrated. The observed heterogeneities of the biomolecules reduce as predicted Marangoni velocities increase. In comparison to conventional methods, drying droplets on a 5 °C substrate while keeping the surroundings at ambient conditions typically reduces the heterogeneity of biomolecular ions by 65%-80%. The observation suggests that decreasing substrate temperature during droplet drying processes is a simple and effective means to reduce analyte heterogeneity for quantitative applications. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27126469
Reducing Spatial Heterogeneity of MALDI Samples with Marangoni Flows During Sample Preparation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Yin-Hung; Cai, Yi-Hong; Lee, Hsun; Ou, Yu-Meng; Hsiao, Chih-Hao; Tsao, Chien-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Wang, Yi-Sheng
2016-08-01
This work demonstrates a method to prepare homogeneous distributions of analytes to improve data reproducibility in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). Natural-air drying processes normally result in unwanted heterogeneous spatial distributions of analytes in MALDI crystals and make quantitative analysis difficult. This study demonstrates that inducing Marangoni flows within drying droplets can significantly reduce the heterogeneity problem. The Marangoni flows are accelerated by changing substrate temperatures to create temperature gradients across droplets. Such hydrodynamic flows are analyzed semi-empirically. Using imaging mass spectrometry, changes of heterogeneity of molecules with the change of substrate temperature during drying processes are demonstrated. The observed heterogeneities of the biomolecules reduce as predicted Marangoni velocities increase. In comparison to conventional methods, drying droplets on a 5 °C substrate while keeping the surroundings at ambient conditions typically reduces the heterogeneity of biomolecular ions by 65%-80%. The observation suggests that decreasing substrate temperature during droplet drying processes is a simple and effective means to reduce analyte heterogeneity for quantitative applications.
Reducing Spatial Heterogeneity of MALDI Samples with Marangoni Flows During Sample Preparation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Yin-Hung; Cai, Yi-Hong; Lee, Hsun; Ou, Yu-Meng; Hsiao, Chih-Hao; Tsao, Chien-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Wang, Yi-Sheng
2016-04-01
This work demonstrates a method to prepare homogeneous distributions of analytes to improve data reproducibility in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS). Natural-air drying processes normally result in unwanted heterogeneous spatial distributions of analytes in MALDI crystals and make quantitative analysis difficult. This study demonstrates that inducing Marangoni flows within drying droplets can significantly reduce the heterogeneity problem. The Marangoni flows are accelerated by changing substrate temperatures to create temperature gradients across droplets. Such hydrodynamic flows are analyzed semi-empirically. Using imaging mass spectrometry, changes of heterogeneity of molecules with the change of substrate temperature during drying processes are demonstrated. The observed heterogeneities of the biomolecules reduce as predicted Marangoni velocities increase. In comparison to conventional methods, drying droplets on a 5 °C substrate while keeping the surroundings at ambient conditions typically reduces the heterogeneity of biomolecular ions by 65%-80%. The observation suggests that decreasing substrate temperature during droplet drying processes is a simple and effective means to reduce analyte heterogeneity for quantitative applications.
Multistep continuous-flow synthesis of (R)- and (S)-rolipram using heterogeneous catalysts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsubogo, Tetsu; Oyamada, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Shū
2015-04-01
Chemical manufacturing is conducted using either batch systems or continuous-flow systems. Flow systems have several advantages over batch systems, particularly in terms of productivity, heat and mixing efficiency, safety, and reproducibility. However, for over half a century, pharmaceutical manufacturing has used batch systems because the synthesis of complex molecules such as drugs has been difficult to achieve with continuous-flow systems. Here we describe the continuous-flow synthesis of drugs using only columns packed with heterogeneous catalysts. Commercially available starting materials were successively passed through four columns containing achiral and chiral heterogeneous catalysts to produce (R)-rolipram, an anti-inflammatory drug and one of the family of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivatives. In addition, simply by replacing a column packed with a chiral heterogeneous catalyst with another column packed with the opposing enantiomer, we obtained antipole (S)-rolipram. Similarly, we also synthesized (R)-phenibut, another drug belonging to the GABA family. These flow systems are simple and stable with no leaching of metal catalysts. Our results demonstrate that multistep (eight steps in this case) chemical transformations for drug synthesis can proceed smoothly under flow conditions using only heterogeneous catalysts, without the isolation of any intermediates and without the separation of any catalysts, co-products, by-products, and excess reagents. We anticipate that such syntheses will be useful in pharmaceutical manufacturing.
Multistep continuous-flow synthesis of (R)- and (S)-rolipram using heterogeneous catalysts.
Tsubogo, Tetsu; Oyamada, Hidekazu; Kobayashi, Shū
2015-04-16
Chemical manufacturing is conducted using either batch systems or continuous-flow systems. Flow systems have several advantages over batch systems, particularly in terms of productivity, heat and mixing efficiency, safety, and reproducibility. However, for over half a century, pharmaceutical manufacturing has used batch systems because the synthesis of complex molecules such as drugs has been difficult to achieve with continuous-flow systems. Here we describe the continuous-flow synthesis of drugs using only columns packed with heterogeneous catalysts. Commercially available starting materials were successively passed through four columns containing achiral and chiral heterogeneous catalysts to produce (R)-rolipram, an anti-inflammatory drug and one of the family of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivatives. In addition, simply by replacing a column packed with a chiral heterogeneous catalyst with another column packed with the opposing enantiomer, we obtained antipole (S)-rolipram. Similarly, we also synthesized (R)-phenibut, another drug belonging to the GABA family. These flow systems are simple and stable with no leaching of metal catalysts. Our results demonstrate that multistep (eight steps in this case) chemical transformations for drug synthesis can proceed smoothly under flow conditions using only heterogeneous catalysts, without the isolation of any intermediates and without the separation of any catalysts, co-products, by-products, and excess reagents. We anticipate that such syntheses will be useful in pharmaceutical manufacturing. PMID:25877201
Analysis of hydrodynamic conditions in adjacent free and heterogeneous porous flow domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, D. B.; Hanspal, N. S.; Nassehi, V.
2005-09-01
The existence of a free-flow domain (e.g. a liquid layer) adjacent to a porous medium is a common occurrence in many environmental and petroleum engineering problems. The porous media may often contain various forms of heterogeneity, e.g. layers, fractures, micro-scale lenses, etc. These heterogeneities affect the pressure distribution within the porous domain. This may influence the hydrodynamic conditions at the free-porous domain interface and, hence, the combined flow behaviour. Under steady-state conditions, the heterogeneities are known to have negligible effects on the coupled flow behaviour. However, the significance of the heterogeneity effects on coupled free and porous flow under transient conditions is not certain. In this study, numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the effects of heterogeneous (layered) porous media on the hydrodynamics conditions in determining the behaviour of combined free and porous regimes. Heterogeneity in the porous media is introduced by defining a domain composed of two layers of porous media with different values of intrinsic permeability. The coupling of the governing equations of motion in free and porous domains has been achieved through the well-known Beavers and Joseph interfacial condition. Of special interest in this work are porous domains with flow-through ends. They represent the general class of problems where large physical domains are truncated to smaller sections for ease of mathematical analysis. However, this causes a practical difficulty in modelling such systems. This is because the information on flow behaviour, i.e. boundary conditions at the truncated sections, is usually not available. Use of artificial boundary conditions to solve these problems effectively implies the imposition of conditions that do not necessarily match with the solutions required for the interior of the domain. This difficulty is resolved in this study by employing stress-free boundary conditions at the open
Enriched boundary layers for heterogeneous reaction in stirred microfluidic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirtland, Joseph; Stroock, Abraham
2008-11-01
The rate of transport of a scalar from a fluid stream to a reactive surface depends on both the character of the flow and the scalar concentration profile incident on the surface. Uniaxial flows tend to form thick regions of low concentration near the reactive surface, leading to decreased rates of scalar transport. For irreversible reactions, this effect can be mitigated through efficient mixing of the bulk. This ensures that the average concentration is incident on the reactive surface, and that concentration boundary layers are kept thin. Coupled reversible reactions, such as those occurring at the electrodes of an electrochemical cell, can complicate the analysis of such a system. In a stirred microfluidic electrochemical cell, depletion of the reactant of the forward reaction implies enrichment of the reactant of the reverse reaction. This enriched fluid can bypass the well mixed bulk, leading to increased scaling of the overall transport process with the Péclet number Pe, even in cases of efficient bulk mixing. We present numerical and experimental results in several such flows and discuss situations where this enrichment can be beneficial (amplification in sensors) or detrimental (quantitative concentration measurement). J. Kirtland, G. McGraw, A. Stroock. Physics of Fluids 18, 073602 (2006).
Apaydin, Osman G.; Bertin, Henri; Castanier, Louis M.; Kovscek, Anthony R.
1999-08-09
Foam is used to reduce the high mobility of gas-drive fluids and improve the contact between oil and these injected fluids. We require a better understanding of the effect of surfactant concentration on foam flow in porous media. Besides this, the literature on foam flow and transport in heterogeneous systems is sparse although the field situation is primarily heterogeneous and multidimensional. In this study, foam flow experiments were conducted first in homogeneous sand packs to investigate the effect of surfactant concentration on foam flow and then a heterogeneous experimental setup was prepared to observe heterogeneity and multidimensional flow effects on foam propagation. The homogeneous core experiments were conducted in a cylindrical aluminum core holder that was packed with a uniform Ottawa sand. Sand permeability is about 7.0 Darcy. The experiments were interpreted in terms of evolution of in-situ water saturation as a function of time by the usage of CT scanner, cumulative water, and pressure drop across the core. At very low surfactant concentration, no significant benefit was observed. But when stable foam generation started sweep efficiency (water recovery), breakthrough time, and pressure drop increased as surfactant concentration increased.
Non-Newtonian fluid flow over a heterogeneously slippery surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haase, A. Sander; Wood, Jeffery A.; Sprakel, Lisette M. J.; Lammertink, Rob G. H.
2015-11-01
The no-slip boundary condition does not always hold. In the past, we have investigated the influence of effective wall slip on interfacial transport for a bubble mattress - a superhydrophobic surface consisting of an array of transverse gas-filled grooves. We proved experimentally that the amount of effective wall slip depends on the bubble protrusion angle and the surface porosity (Karatay et al., PNAS 110, 2013), and predicted that mass transport can be enhanced significantly (Haase et al., Soft Matter 9, 2013). Both studies involve the flow of water. In practise, however, many liquids encountered are non-Newtonian, like blood and polymer solutions. This raises some interesting questions. How does interfacial transport depend on the rheological properties of the liquid? Does the time-scale of the experiment matter? A bubble mattress is a suitable platform to investigate this, due to local variations in shear rate. We predict that for shear-thinning liquids, compared to water, the amount of wall slip can be enhanced considerably, although this depends on the applied flow rate. Experiments are performed to proof this behaviour. Simulations are used to assess what will happen when the characteristic time-scale of the system matches the relaxation time of the visco-elastic liquid. R.G.H.L. acknowledges the European Research Council for the ERC starting grant 307342-TRAM.
Sott, Kristin; Gebäck, Tobias; Pihl, Maria; Lorén, Niklas; Hermansson, Anne-Marie; Heintz, Alexei; Rasmuson, Anders
2013-05-15
A methodology for studying flow in heterogeneous soft microstructures has been developed. The methodology includes: (1) model fractal or random heterogeneous microstructures fabricated in PDMS and characterised using CLSM; (2) μPIV measurements; (3) Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of flow. It has been found that the flow behaviour in these model materials is highly dependent on pore size as well as on the connectivity and occurrence of dead ends. The experimental flow results show good agreement with predictions from the Lattice-Boltzmann modelling. These simulations were performed in geometries constructed from 3D CLSM images of the actual PDMS structures. Given these results, mass transport behaviour may be predicted for even more complex structures, like gels or composite material in, e.g., food or biomaterials. This is a step in the direction towards predictive science with regards to tailoring soft biomaterials for specific mass transport properties. PMID:23489610
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, Aryeh; Laube, Gerrit; Schmidt, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Arnon, Shai
2015-04-01
Biogeochemical processes in streams are affected by water exchange between the surface and subsurface environments (e.g. hyporheic exchange). It has previously been shown that hyporheic exchange is strongly affected by the local morphology of the streambed and the flow conditions, including overlying water velocity and losing or gaining fluxes. The objectives of this work were to evaluate how the streambed heterogeneity is affecting hyporheic exchange. In addition, we tested how losing or gaining flow conditions are affecting the hyporheic exchange fluxes and the spatial distribution of the flow paths within the streambed. Experiments measuring the combined effect of streambed heterogeneity and losing and gaining flow conditions on hyporheic exchange were conducted in a laboratory flume system (640 cm long and 30 cm wide). The flow in the flume is fully controlled including gaining or losing fluxes, and it was packed with heterogeneous sediments. An estimate of the solute exchange between the stream and the sediment was obtained from the analysis of a salt tracer (NaCl) injection into the overlying water, which then was monitored by an electrical conductivity meter. In addition, dye injections into the overlying water were used to visualize the effect of sediment heterogeneity on the flow paths in the streambed. Experimental results showed that increasing losing and gaining fluxes resulted in a similar decline in the hyporheic exchange flux as previously observed for a homogenous streambed. However the location in which the hyporheic exchange takes place is different and is strongly influenced by the sediment heterogeneity. The spatial distribution of hyporheic exchange within the streambed will be discussed in light of the distribution of the local, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities.
River-aquifer interactions, geologic heterogeneity, and low-flow management
Fleckenstein, J.H.; Niswonger, R.G.; Fogg, G.E.
2006-01-01
Low river flows are commonly controlled by river-aquifer exchange, the magnitude of which is governed by hydraulic properties of both aquifer and aquitard materials beneath the river. Low flows are often important ecologically. Numerical simulations were used to assess how textural heterogeneity of an alluvial system influences river seepage and low flows. The Cosumnes River in California was used as a test case. Declining fall flows in the Cosumnes River have threatened Chinook salmon runs. A ground water-surface water model for the lower river basin was developed, which incorporates detailed geostatistical simulations of aquifer heterogeneity. Six different realizations of heterogeneity and a homogenous model were run for a 3-year period. Net annual seepage from the river was found to be similar among the models. However, spatial distribution of seepage along the channel, water table configuration and the level of local connection, and disconnection between the river and aquifer showed strong variations among the different heterogeneous models. Most importantly, the heterogeneous models suggest that river seepage losses can be reduced by local reconnections, even when the regional water table remains well below the riverbed. The percentage of river channel responsible for 50% of total river seepage ranged from 10% to 26% in the heterogeneous models as opposed to 23% in the homogeneous model. Differences in seepage between the models resulted in up to 13 d difference in the number of days the river was open for salmon migration during the critical fall months in one given year. Copyright ?? 2006 The Author(s).
A disaggregation theory for predicting concentration gradient distributions in heterogeneous flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Borgne, Tanguy; Huck, Peter; Dentz, Marco; Villermaux, Emmanuel
2016-04-01
Many transport processes occurring in fluid flows depend on concentration gradients, including a wide range of chemical reactions, such as mixing-driven precipitation, and biological processes, such as chemotaxis. A general framework for predicting the distribution of concentration gradients in heterogeneous flow fields is proposed based on a disaggregation theory. The evolution of concentration fields under the combined action of heterogeneous advection and diffusion is quantified from the analysis of the development and aggregation of elementary lamellar structures, which naturally form under the stretching action of flow fields. Therefore spatial correlations in concentrations can be estimated based on the understanding of the lamellae aggregation process that determine the concentration levels at neighboring spatial locations. Using this principle we quantify the temporal evolution of the concentration gradient Probability Density Functions in heterogeneous Darcy fields for arbitrary Peclet numbers. This approach is shown to provide accurate predictions of concentration gradient distributions for a range of flow systems, including turbulent flows and low Reynolds number porous media flows, for confined and dispersing mixtures.
Method for improved gas-solids separation
Kusik, Charles L.; He, Bo X.
1990-01-01
Methods are disclosed for the removal of particulate solids from a gas stream at high separation efficiency, including the removal of submicron size particles. The apparatus includes a cyclone separator type of device which contains an axially mounted perforated cylindrical hollow rotor. The rotor is rotated at high velocity in the same direction as the flow of an input particle-laden gas stream to thereby cause enhanced separation of particulate matter from the gas stream in the cylindrical annular space between the rotor and the sidewall of the cyclone vessel. Substantially particle-free gas passes through the perforated surface of the spinning rotor and into the hollow rotor, from when it is discharged out of the top of the apparatus. Separated particulates are removed from the bottom of the vessel.
Method for improved gas-solids separation
Kusik, C.L.; He, B.X.
1990-11-13
Methods are disclosed for the removal of particulate solids from a gas stream at high separation efficiency, including the removal of submicron size particles. The apparatus includes a cyclone separator type of device which contains an axially mounted perforated cylindrical hollow rotor. The rotor is rotated at high velocity in the same direction as the flow of an input particle-laden gas stream to thereby cause enhanced separation of particulate matter from the gas stream in the cylindrical annular space between the rotor and the sidewall of the cyclone vessel. Substantially particle-free gas passes through the perforated surface of the spinning rotor and into the hollow rotor, from where it is discharged out of the top of the apparatus. Separated particulates are removed from the bottom of the vessel. 4 figs.
Correlation velocities in heterogeneous bidirectional cellular automata traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lakouari, N.; Bentaleb, K.; Ez-Zahraouy, H.; Benyoussef, A.
2015-12-01
Traffic flow behavior and velocity correlation in a bidirectional two lanes road are studied using Cellular Automata (CA) model within a mixture of fast and slow vehicles. The behaviors of the Inter-lane and Intra-lane Velocity Correlation Coefficients (V.C.C.) due to the interactions between vehicles in the same lane and the opposite lane as a function of the density are investigated. It is shown that high densities in one lane lead to large cluster in the second one, which decreases the Intra-lane velocity correlations and thereby form clusters in the opposite lane. Moreover, we have found that there is a critical density over which the Inter-lane V.C.C. occurs, but below which no Inter-lane V.C.C. happens. The spatiotemporal diagrams correspond to those regions are derived numerically. Furthermore, the effect of the overtaking probability in one lane on the Intra-lane V.C.C. in the other lane is also investigated. It is shown that the decrease of the overtaking probability in one lane decreases slightly the Intra-lane V.C.C. at intermediate density regimes in the other lane, which improves the current, as well as the Inter-lane V.C.C. decreases.
Transport phenomena of reactive fluid flow in heterogeneous combustion processes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, W. S. Y.; Chen, C. S.; Haviland, J. K.
1972-01-01
A previously developed computer program was used to model two transient hybrid combustion processes involving tubes of solid Plexiglas. In the first study, representing combustion of a hybrid rocket, the oxidizing gas was oxygen, and calculations were continued sufficiently long to obtain steady-state values. Systematic variations were made in reaction rate constant, mass flow rate, and pressure, alternatively using constant and temperature dependent regression rate models for the fuel surface. Consistent results were obtained, as is evidenced by the values for the mass function of the reaction product and the flame temperature, for which plots are supplied. In the second study, fire initiation in a duct was studied, with an air mixture as the oxidizing gas. It was demonstrated that a satisfactory flame spread mechanism could be reproduced on the computer. In both of the above applications, the general, transient, two-dimensional conservation equations were represented, together with chemical reactions, solid-fuel interface conditions, and heat conduction in the solid fuel.
A Multidimensional Eulerian Model for Simulating Gas-Solids Flow
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1993-12-13
FORCE2 is a fundamentally based three-dimensional numerical model for simulating fluid-bed hydrodynamics for a wide range of fluid beds, from laboratory to plant scale. It is based upon the ''two-fluid'' modeling approach and includes surface permeabilities, volume porosities, and distributed resistances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der
2009-01-01
This paper describes a stochastic analysis of steady state flow in a bounded, partially saturated heterogeneous porous medium subject to distributed infiltration. The presence of boundary conditions leads to non-uniformity in the mean unsaturated flow, which in turn causes non-stationarity in the statistics of velocity fields. Motivated by this, our aim is to investigate the impact of boundary conditions on the behavior of field-scale unsaturated flow. Within the framework of spectral theory based on Fourier-Stieltjes representations for the perturbed quantities, the general expressions for the pressure head variance, variance of log unsaturated hydraulic conductivity and variance of the specific discharge are presented in the wave number domain. Closed-form expressions are developed for the simplified case of statistical isotropy of the log hydraulic conductivity field with a constant soil pore-size distribution parameter. These expressions allow us to investigate the impact of the boundary conditions, namely the vertical infiltration from the soil surface and a prescribed pressure head at a certain depth below the soil surface. It is found that the boundary conditions are critical in predicting uncertainty in bounded unsaturated flow. Our analytical expression for the pressure head variance in a one-dimensional, heterogeneous flow domain, developed using a nonstationary spectral representation approach [Li S-G, McLaughlin D. A nonstationary spectral method for solving stochastic groundwater problems: unconditional analysis. Water Resour Res 1991;27(7):1589-605; Li S-G, McLaughlin D. Using the nonstationary spectral method to analyze flow through heterogeneous trending media. Water Resour Res 1995; 31(3):541-51], is precisely equivalent to the published result of Lu et al. [Lu Z, Zhang D. Analytical solutions to steady state unsaturated flow in layered, randomly heterogeneous soils via Kirchhoff transformation. Adv Water Resour 2004;27:775-84].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Slimene, Erij; Lassabatere, Laurent; Winiarski, Thierry; Gourdon, Remy
2016-04-01
The understanding of the fate of pollutants in the vadose zone is a prerequisite to manage soil and groundwater quality. Water infiltrates into the soil and carries a large amount of pollutants (heavy metals, organic compounds, etc.). The quality of groundwater depends on the capability of soils to remove pollutants while water infiltrates. The capability of soils to remove pollutants depends not only on their geochemical properties and affinity with pollutants but also on the quality of the contact between the reactive particles of the soil and pollutants. In such a context, preferential flows are the worst scenario since they prevent pollutants from reaching large parts of the soil including reactive zones that could serve for pollutant removal. The negative effects of preferential flow have already been pointed out by several studies. In this paper, we investigate numerically the effect of the establishment of preferential flow in a numerical section (13.5m long and 2.5m deep) that mimics a strongly heterogeneous deposit. The modelled deposit is made of several lithofacies with contrasting hydraulic properties. The numerical study proves that this strong contrast in hydraulic properties triggers the establishment of preferential flow (capillary barriers and funneled flow). Preferential flow develops mainly for low initial water contents and low fluxes imposed at the soil surface. The impact of these flows on solute transfer is also investigated as a function of solute reactivity and affinity to soil sorption sites. Modeled results clearly show that solute transport is greatly impacted by flow heterogeneity. Funneled flows have the same impacts as water fractionation into mobile and immobile transfer with a fast transport of solutes by preferential flow and solute diffusion to zones where the flow is slower. Such a pattern greatly impacts retention and reduces the access of pollutants into large parts of the soil. Retention is thus greatly reduced at the section
Grayscale lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase heterogeneous flow through porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pereira, Gerald G.
2016-06-01
The grayscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model has been recently developed to model single-phase fluid flow through heterogeneous porous media. Flow is allowed in each voxel but the degree of flow depends on that voxel's resistivity to fluid motion. Here we extend the grayscale LB model to multiphase, immiscible flow. The new model is outlined and then applied to a number of test cases, which show good agreement with theory. This method is subsequently used to model the important case where each voxel may have a different resistance to each particular fluid that is passing through it. Finally, the method is applied to model fluid flow through real porous media to demonstrate its capability. Both the capillary and viscous flow regimes are recovered in these simulations.
Grayscale lattice Boltzmann model for multiphase heterogeneous flow through porous media.
Pereira, Gerald G
2016-06-01
The grayscale lattice Boltzmann (LB) model has been recently developed to model single-phase fluid flow through heterogeneous porous media. Flow is allowed in each voxel but the degree of flow depends on that voxel's resistivity to fluid motion. Here we extend the grayscale LB model to multiphase, immiscible flow. The new model is outlined and then applied to a number of test cases, which show good agreement with theory. This method is subsequently used to model the important case where each voxel may have a different resistance to each particular fluid that is passing through it. Finally, the method is applied to model fluid flow through real porous media to demonstrate its capability. Both the capillary and viscous flow regimes are recovered in these simulations. PMID:27415381
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Qi-Lang; Wong, S. C.; Min, Jie; Tian, Shuo; Wang, Bing-Hong
2016-08-01
This study examines the cellular automata traffic flow model, which considers the heterogeneity of vehicle acceleration and the delay probability of vehicles. Computer simulations are used to identify three typical phases in the model: free-flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving traffic jam. In the synchronized flow region of the fundamental diagram, the low and high velocity vehicles compete with each other and play an important role in the evolution of the system. The analysis shows that there are two types of bistable phases. However, in the original Nagel and Schreckenberg cellular automata traffic model, there are only two kinds of traffic conditions, namely, free-flow and traffic jams. The synchronized flow phase and bistable phase have not been found.
Bortolini, Olga; Cavazzini, Alberto; Giovannini, Pier Paolo; Greco, Roberto; Marchetti, Nicola; Massi, Alessandro; Pasti, Luisa
2013-06-10
The heterogeneous proline-catalyzed aldol reaction was investigated under continuous-flow conditions by means of a packed-bed microreactor. Reaction-progress kinetic analysis (RPKA) was used in combination with nonlinear chromatography for the interpretation, under synthetically relevant conditions, of important mechanistic aspects of the heterogeneous catalytic process at a molecular level. The information gathered by RPKA and nonlinear chromatography proved to be highly complementary and allowed for the assessment of optimal operating variables. In particular, the determination of the rate-determining step was pivotal for optimizing the feed composition. On the other hand, the competitive product inhibition was responsible for the unexpected decrease in the reaction yield following an apparently obvious variation in the feed composition. The study was facilitated by a suitable 2D instrumental arrangement for simultaneous flow reaction and online flow-injection analysis. PMID:23589216
Continuous flow Sonogashira C-C coupling using a heterogeneous palladium-copper dual reactor.
Tan, Li-Min; Sem, Zhi-Yu; Chong, Wei-Yuan; Liu, Xiaoqian; Hendra; Kwan, Wei Lek; Lee, Chi-Lik Ken
2013-01-01
We report the development of a heterogeneous catalyst system on continuous flow chemistry. A palladium (Pd) coated tubular reactor was placed in line with copper (Cu) tubing using a continuous flow platform, and a Sonogashira C-C coupling reaction was used to evaluate the performance. The reactions were favorably carried out in the Cu reactor, catalyzed by the traces of leached Pd from the Pd reactor. The leached Pd and Cu were trapped with a metal scavaging resin at the back-end of the continuous flow system, affording a genuine approach toward green chemistry. PMID:23248977
Effective parameters for two-phase flow in a porous medium with periodic heterogeneities
Ataie-Ashtiani, B; Hassanizadeh, S M.; Oostrom, Martinus ); Celia, M A.; White, Mark D. )
2000-12-01
The study of non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) transport in groundwater requires a correct description of multiphase flow in porous media. For the simulation of multiphase flow a number of material-dependent parameters have to be known. These include relationships between capillary pressure, relative permeability, and saturation. One of the major difficulties in characterizing a porous medium is the presence of small-scale heterogeneities, which have distinctly different multiphase flow properties than the main medium. Such heterogeneities can considerably affect the spreading behavior of non-aqueous liquids. They are often sources of localized pools of pollutants. For most practical purposes, the details of fluid distribution in such a medium are not of interest. It is also computationally not feasible to discretise a compositional multiphase model at such small scales. Even if a detailed numerical model is constructed, it is virtually impossible to obtain data for these heterogeneities. Thus, instead of modeling the subsurface at the scale of micro-heterogeneities, it is desirable to model it at a higher scale, as a homogenized medium, with effective properties.
The Null Space Monte Carlo Uncertainty Analysis of Heterogeneity for Preferential Flow Simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghasemizade, M.; Radny, D.; Schirmer, M.
2014-12-01
Preferential flow paths can have a huge impact on the amount and time of runoff generation, particularly in areas where subsurface flow dominates this process. In order to simulate preferential flow mechanisms, many different approaches have been suggested. However, the efficiency of such approaches are rarely investigated in a predictive sense. The main reason is that the models which are used to simulate preferential flows require many parameters. This can lead to a dramatic increase of model run times, especially in the context of highly nonlinear models which themselves are demanding. We attempted in this research to simulate the daily recharge values of a weighing lysimeter, including preferential flows, with the 3-D physically based model HydroGeoSphere. To accomplish that, we used the matrix pore concept with varying hydraulic conductivities within the lysimeter to represent heterogeneity. It was assumed that spatially correlated heterogeneity is the main driver of triggering preferential flow paths. In order to capture the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity values we used pilot points and geostatistical model structures. Since hydraulic conductivity values at each pilot point are functioning as parameters, the model is a highly parameterized one. Due to this fact, we used the robust and newly developed method of null space Monte Carlo for analyzing the uncertainty of the model outputs. Results of the uncertainty analysis show that the method of pilot points is reliable in order to represent preferential flow paths.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghysels, Gert; Huysmans, Marijke
2015-04-01
Characterization of groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes is important for assessing riparian ecology, determining quantity and quality of pumped groundwater close to rivers, modeling groundwater flow, predicting flood peaks and low flows, and river water quality. The exchange fluxes between river and aquifer are strongly influenced by the hydraulic conductivity of the riverbed which can vary several orders of magnitude and shows a strong spatial variation. Direct measurement of riverbed hydraulic conductivity is cumbersome and therefore often indirect data such as temperature data or calibration of groundwater models are used to constrain riverbed hydraulic conductivity. In these approaches, the riverbed is usually represented as a homogeneous geological structure and the spatial variation of riverbed hydraulic conductivity is thus neglected. However, neglecting this spatial variation can lead to systematic underestimation of net river-aquifer exchange fluxes and may have important implications for the estimation of peak mass flows, for the hydrochemistry of streambed sediments, nutrient cycling and biogeochemical gradients. The MODFLOW software is the most wide-spread package used for groundwater modelling. In MODFLOW rivers are usually modelled using the River-package. However, in this package no distinction can be made between horizontal and vertical riverbed hydraulic conductivity and the riverbed cannot be subdivided into layers with different hydraulic characteristics. Riverbed sediments are strongly layered and thus another approach is advised. Different ways of introducing heterogeneous riverbeds in MODFLOW groundwater flow models are explored and compared. The influence of heterogeneous riverbeds on groundwater-surface water exchange fluxes is analyzed for two case studies: the Aa River in the Nete catchment and a stretch of the Dijle River near the nature reserve 'de Doode Bemde' (Belgium). For both cases fine-scale distributed local groundwater flow
Flow channeling and analysis of tracer tests in heterogeneous porous media
Moreno, Luis; Tsang, Chin-Fu
2001-11-03
Flow and solute transport through porous medium with strongly varying hydraulic conductivity are studied by numerical simulations. The heterogeneity of the porous medium is defined by {sigma} and {lambda}{prime}, which are, respectively, the standard deviation of natural log of permeability values and its correlation range {lambda} divided by transport distance L. The development of flow channeling as a function of these two parameters is demonstrated. The results show that for large heterogeneities, the flow is highly channelized and solute is transported through a few fast paths, and the corresponding breakthrough curves show a high peak at very early times, much shorter than the mean residence time. This effect was studied for a converging radial flow, to simulate tracer tests in a fracture zone or contact-thickness aquifer. It is shown that {sigma}{sup 2}{lambda}{prime} is an appropriate parameter to characterize the tracer dispersion and breakthrough curves. These results are used to study tracer breakthrough data from field experiments performed with nonsorbing tracers. A new procedure is proposed to analyze the results. From the moments of the residence-time distribution represented by the breakthrough curves, the heterogeneity of the porous medium, as characterized by {sigma}{sup 2}{lambda}{prime} and the mean residence time t{sub o}, may be determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caballero-Miranda, C. I.; Alva-Valdivia, L. M.; González-Rangel, J. A.; Gogitchaishvili, A.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Kontny, A.
2016-02-01
The within-flow vertical variation of anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of three basaltic flow profiles from the Xitle volcano were investigated in relation to the lava flow-induced shear strain. Rock magnetic properties and opaque microscopy studies have shown that the magnetic mineralogy is dominated by Ti-poor magnetite with subtle vertical variations in grain size distribution: PSD grains dominate in a thin bottommost zone, and from base to top from PSD-MD to PSD-SD grains are found. The vertical variation of AMS principal direction patterns permitted identification of two to three main lava zones, some subdivided into subzones. The lower zone is very similar in all profiles with the magnetic foliation dipping toward the flow source, whereas the upper zone has magnetic foliation dipping toward the flow direction or alternates between dipping against and toward the flow direction. The K1 (maximum AMS axis) directions tend to be mostly parallel to the flow direction in both zones. The middle zone shows AMS axes diverging among profiles. We present heterogeneous strain ellipse distribution models for different flow velocities assuming similar viscosity to explain the AMS directions and related parameters of each zone. Irregular vertical foliations and transverse to flow lineation of a few samples at the bottommost and topmost part of profiles suggest SD inverse fabric, levels of intense friction, or degassing effects in AMS orientations.
Field testing the role of heterogeneity at the inter-well scale during two phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hovorka, S. D.; Gulf Coast Carbon Center; Geoseq
2011-12-01
Connectivity of rocks with different fluid flow properties (reservoir architecture) is a major source of uncertainty in predicting multi-phase fluid flow. Multi-institution research teams have completed three major DOE-funded test programs in which movement of supercritical CO2 through brine-saturated fluvial sandstones was observed with multiple tools. In each test, closely spaced wells (30 to 100 m) were drilled to reservoir depth so that the amount of reservoir complexity sampled between the wells would be reduced and higher resolution measurements of change could be obtained during time-lapse monitoring. During one test (Frio 1), an exceptionally homogeneous injection zone produced by marine reworking of a fine-grained fluvial sandstone of the Upper Frio Formation produced a classic-wedge-shaped CO2 plume. The maximum area occupied by CO2 was the result of radial expansion of the plume near the injection well; this produced plume down-building. Away from the injection well , the importance of gravity-override increased. A second test at the same well array in a deeper sandstone (Frio 2) was sited in heterogeneous (gravel to muddy sandstone) high permeability (>3 Darcy), weakly cemented fluvial sandstone. A slow injection rate over a small interval at the flow unit base was used to accentuate buoyancy effects. Measurements of plume migration through time using tracers and cross-well seismic documented interaction between near-well radial flow and vertical rise. However, because of discontinuous fast paths in gravel zones and CO2 ponding against muddy sandstone baffles, reservoir heterogeneity was a dominant influence in short-term plume evolution. The third test interval in the SECARB "Early" test documented response of amalgamated gravel and sandstone point bars in which heterogeneity was reduced by cementation. CO2 injection rate was increased incrementally and flow-rate dependent reservoir responses observed. These suggest that capillary-entry pressure and
Hydrodynamics of semifluidization in gas-solid systems
Ho, T.C.; Yau, S.J.; Hopper, J.R.
1985-01-01
Semifluidized bed hydrodynamics, including minimum semifluidization velocity, packed bed formation and pressure drop across the bed, were studied in gas-solid fluidized beds. Experiments were carried out in beds of 0.203, 0.129 and 0.105 m I.D. Experimental parameters examined included gas velocity, semifluidized particles, static bed height and expansion ratio. Empirical and semi-empirical models were derived. The results were compared with those available in the literature.
Gas-solid reaction-rate enhancement by pressure cycling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sohn, H. Y.; Aboukheshem, M. B.
1992-06-01
An experimental study and mathematical modeling of the effects of external pressure cycling on gas-solid reactions have been conducted using the reduction of nickel oxide pellets by hy-drogen. Experiments were carried out in two phases: In the first phase, the intrinsic kinetic parameters were measured, and in the second phase, the gas-solid reaction was carried out under a constant or cycling external pressure. The effects of the frequency and amplitude of pressure cycling were studied at various reaction conditions. Pressure cycling substantially increases the overall rate of the reaction. A mathematical model was developed from the first principles to establish the extent of the overall reaction-rate enhancement and subsequently to analyze the experimental observations. The calculated values from the mathematical model are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effects are most pronounced when the overall rate under a constant pressure is controlled by diffusion. Depending on the reaction condition, a very large degree of rate enhancement could be achieved. Furthermore, low-amplitude pressure waves, like acoustic waves, could significantly increase the rates of gas-solid reactions.
Zhou, Quanlin; Liu, Hui-Hai; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S; Oldenburg, Curtis M
2003-01-01
The heterogeneity of hydrogeologic properties at different scales may have different effects on flow and transport processes in a subsurface system. A model for the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is developed to represent complex heterogeneity at two different scales: (1) layer scale corresponding to geologic layering and (2) local scale. The layer-scale hydrogeologic properties are obtained using inverse modeling, based on the available measurements collected from the Yucca Mountain site. Calibration results show a significant lateral and vertical variability in matrix and fracture properties. Hydrogeologic property distributions in a two-dimensional, vertical cross-section of the site are generated by combining the average layer-scale matrix and fracture properties with local-scale perturbations generated using a stochastic simulation method. The unsaturated water flow and conservative (nonsorbing) tracer transport through the cross-section are simulated for different sets of matrix and fracture property fields. Comparison of simulation results indicates that the local-scale heterogeneity of matrix and fracture properties has a considerable effect on unsaturated flow processes, leading to fast flow paths in fractures and the matrix. These paths shorten the travel time of a conservative tracer from the source (repository) horizon in the unsaturated zone to the water table for small fractions of total released tracer mass. As a result, the local-scale heterogeneity also has a noticeable effect on global tracer transport processes, characterized by an average breakthrough curve at the water table, especially at the early arrival time of tracer mass. However, the effect is not significant at the later time after 20% tracer mass reaches the water table. The simulation results also verify that matrix diffusion plays an important role in overall solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. PMID:12498572
Davey, H M; Kell, D B
1996-01-01
The most fundamental questions such as whether a cell is alive, in the sense of being able to divide or to form a colony, may sometimes be very hard to answer, since even axenic microbial cultures are extremely heterogeneous. Analyses that seek to correlate such things as viability, which is a property of an individual cell, with macroscopic measurements of culture variables such as ATP content, respiratory activity, and so on, must inevitably fail. It is therefore necessary to make physiological measurements on individual cells. Flow cytometry is such a technique, which allows one to analyze cells rapidly and individually and permits the quantitative analysis of microbial heterogeneity. It therefore offers many advantages over conventional measurements for both routine and more exploratory analyses of microbial properties. While the technique has been widely applied to the study of mammalian cells, is use in microbiology has until recently been much more limited, largely because of the smaller size of microbes and the consequently smaller optical signals obtainable from them. Since these technical barriers no longer hold, flow cytometry with appropriate stains has been used for the rapid discrimination and identification of microbial cells, for the rapid assessment of viability and of the heterogeneous distributions of a wealth of other more detailed physiological properties, for the analysis of antimicrobial drug-cell interactions, and for the isolation of high-yielding strains of biotechnological interest. Flow cytometric analyses provide an abundance of multivariate data, and special methods have been devised to exploit these. Ongoing advances mean that modern flow cytometers may now be used by nonspecialists to effect a renaissance in our understanding of microbial heterogeneity. PMID:8987359
Quantitative prediction of clustering instabilities in gas-solid homogeneous cooling systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hrenya, Christine; Mitrano, Peter; Li, Xiaoqi; Yin, Xiaolong
2014-11-01
Dynamic particle clusters are widely documented in gas-solid flow systems, including gasification units for coal or biomass, gravity-driven flow over an array of tubes, pneumatic transport lines, etc. Continuum descriptions based on kinetic theory have been known for over a decade to qualitatively predict the presence of such clustering instabilities. The quantitative ability of such continuum descriptions is relatively unexplored, however, and remains unclear given the low-Knudsen assumption upon which the descriptions are based. In particular, the concentration gradient is relatively large across the boundary between the cluster and the surrounding dilute region, which is counter to the small-gradient assumption inherent in the low-Knudsen-number expansion. In this work, we use direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a gas-solid homogeneous cooling system to determine the critical system size needed for the clustering instability to develop. We then compare the results to the same quantity predicted by a continuum description based on kinetic theory. The agreement is quite good over a wide range of parameters. This finding is reminiscent of molecular fluids, namely the ability of the Navier-Stokes equations to predict well outside the expected range of Knudsen numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben Slimene, Erij; Lassabatere, Laurent; Winiarski, Thierry; Gourdon, Remy
2015-04-01
Large cities are mostly situated in areas close to water resources in order to meet the water needs of their populations. Alluvial soils harbor large aquifers that are used to supply water, the Rhone-Alpes region being a good illustration. However, the increase of soil sealing has led to the development of best management practices such as infiltration basins which are aimed at infiltrating stormwater in order to reduce the amount of water collected and treated in usual systems. Yet, these infiltration basins are mainly settled over highly permeable geologic formations so as to ensure water infiltration and a proper functioning of these infiltration basins. Most of these formations are strongly heterogeneous, since they are made of different materials with contrasting sedimentological properties (e.g. particle size distribution) and transfer properties. This paper addresses flow modeling during the infiltration phase in the vadose zone underneath infiltration basins settled over a strongly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit. In particular, we want to pinpoint numerically the worst conditions with regards to preferential flow, in terms of initial hydric conditions (initial water contents) and imposed flow rates. For this purpose, a numerical study is proposed on the basis of previous studies offering a sedimentological description of the subsoil with the detail of its architecture and a precise description of the different lithofacies and their hydraulic properties. Considering this, we worked on a section (13.5m long and 2.5m high) for which a complete sedimentological and hydraulic description had already been performed. Water infiltration was modeled for different initial and boundary conditions (mostly the values of the flux imposed at surface). At first, different numerical tests and adjustments have been made including mesh optimization with regards to both accuracy and computation time. Following these tests, the "tight" mesh has been validated since it
Ishitani, Haruro; Saito, Yuki; Tsubogo, Tetsu; Kobayashi, Shū
2016-03-18
Synthesis of β-nitrostyrene derivatives and their following reactions through two-step continuous-flow protocols with heterogeneous catalysts are described. In the first step to provide β-nitrostyrenes from aromatic aldehydes and nitromethane, readily available amino-functionalized silica gel was employed as a catalyst and gave the products continuously for at least 100 h with high selectivity. In the second step, reactions of β-nitrostyrenes, solid bases, immobilized bases, solid acids, and chiral supported metals and nonmetals were used as catalysts, and seven kinds of nitro-containing organic compounds could be effectively synthesized through the two-step continuous-flow systems. PMID:26926210
Stability of haline density-driven flows in saturated heterogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Musuuza, Jude; Attinger, Sabine; Radu, Florin
2010-05-01
Density-driven flows occur in deep aquifers due to temperature differences and in coastal aquifers and refuse dumps due to solute concentration differences. Its relevance cuts across many practical applications like (normal and nuclear) waste repository management, exploitation of geothermal energy resources, enhanced oil recovery from aquifers and remediation of contaminated sites. A typical feature of density dependent flow problems is that they can become unstable (physically or numerically). A big challenge has been the absence of a general criterion that states whether flow is physically stable or unstable and the optimum computational grid resolution needed to solve the problem without creating numerical (artificial) instabilities. The homogenization theory ideas from [1] were extended in [2] to derive a stability criterion for density-driven flows in saturated homogeneous porous media. The criterion included the effects of density, viscosity and velocity but could not adequately predict the onset of fingering when velocity was varied. That study is extended here to include dispersive and medium heterogeneity effects. The specific objective is to answer the question: under what conditions do heterogeneities stabilise or destabilise flow? The homogenization theory ideas from [1] are again used to derive expressions for the elements of the macrodispersion tensor for flow aligned parallel to gravity. The dependency of the temporal evolution of the coefficients on the density contrast, heterogeneity variance, transverse dispersivity, anisotropy and correlation length are then investigated and the results checked against numerical simulations performed with the software toolbox d3 f. The work will be extended to include temperature effects and it is hoped that the ideas can be extended to flow in unsaturated soils. REFERENCES [1]Held, R., S. Attinger, and W. Kinzelbach (2005), Homogenization and effective parameters for the Henry problem in heterogeneous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, A. J.; Druhan, J. L.; Maher, K.
2013-12-01
A comprehensive understanding of how fluids flow through physically heterogeneous porous media is essential to the prediction of contaminant mobility and resource sustainability in groundwater systems. Although many analytical and numerical methods exist to quantify the effects of physical heterogeneity on permeability and reactivity, to date, very few studies have attempted to physically design a known type of heterogeneity within a system, observe the effects on reactive transport, and compare those results to numerical models. We have designed and implemented an experimental procedure to address the effects of physical heterogeneity on tracer propagation by building several cylindrical columns with different known geometries of variable permeability. In these fabricated systems we observe the effects of each permeability distribution on solute transport and reactivity. The experimental data are compared against simulated tracer breakthroughs from the reactive transport code Crunchflow, using analytical solutions for effective permeability based on the geometry of the column pack. We employ chemically homogeneous sand of two distinct grain size distributions to construct 10 cm diameter x 30 cm length cylindrical columns. The sand we use is ultra-high purity, nonreactive crystalline silica (SiO2). The coarse grain sand has a particle size distribution between 0.149-0.297 mm diameter and the fine grain between 0.074-0.149 mm diameter. A reference column consisting of a homogeneous pack of the coarse grain sand is contrasted with two columns utilizing both grain sizes. One column is constructed of an inner core of fine grain sand surrounded by an outer annulus of coarse grain sand, and a second is built with one hemisphere of fine grain and one hemisphere of coarse grand sand. The volumes of coarse and fine grain sand used in both heterogeneous columns are equal, and the porosity of the sands are 44% for the coarse grain and 42% for the fine grain. When packed into
Rockhold, M L
1993-02-01
A field-scale, unsaturated flow and solute transport experiment at the Las Cruces trench site in New Mexico was simulated as part of a blind'' modeling exercise to demonstrate the ability or inability of uncalibrated models to predict unsaturated flow and solute transport in spatially variable porous media. Simulations were conducted using a recently developed multiphase flow and transport simulator. Uniform and heterogeneous soil models were tested, and data from a previous experiment at the site were used with an inverse procedure to estimate water retention parameters. A spatial moment analysis was used to provide a quantitative basis for comparing the mean observed and simulated flow and transport behavior. The results of this study suggest that defensible predictions of waste migration and fate at low-level waste sites will ultimately require site-specific data for model calibration.
Paillet, Frederick L.
1998-01-01
A numerical model of flow in the vicinity of a borehole is used to analyze flowmeter data obtained with high-resolution flowmeters. The model is designed to (1) precisely compute flow in a borehole, (2) approximate the effects of flow in surrounding aquifers on the measured borehole flow, (3) allow for an arbitrary number (N) of entry/exit points connected to M < N far-field aquifers, and (4) be consistent with the practical limitations of flowmeter measurements such as limits of resolution, typical measurement error, and finite measurement periods. The model is used in three modes: (1) a quasi-steady pumping mode where there is no ambient flow, (2) a steady flow mode where ambient differences in far-field water levels drive flow between fracture zones in the borehole, and (3) a cross-borehole test mode where pumping in an adjacent borehole drives flow in the observation borehole. The model gives estimates of transmissivity for any number of fractures in steady or quasi-steady flow experiments that agree with straddle-packer test data. Field examples show how these cross-borehole-type curves can be used to estimate the storage coefficient of fractures and bedding planes and to determine whether fractures intersecting a borehole at different locations are hydraulically connected in the surrounding rock mass.
Keska, Jerry K.; Hincapie, Juan; Jones, Richard
2011-02-15
In the steady-state flow of a heterogeneous mixture such as an air-liquid mixture, the velocity and void fraction are space- and time-dependent parameters. These parameters are the most fundamental in the analysis and description of a multiphase flow. The determination of flow patterns in an objective way is extremely critical, since this is directly related to sudden changes in spatial and temporal changes of the random like characteristic of concentration. Flow patterns can be described by concentration signals in time, amplitude, and frequency domains. Despite the vital importance and countless attempts to solve or incorporate the flow pattern phenomena into multiphase models, it has still been a very challenging topic in the scientific community since the 1940's and has not yet reached a satisfactory solution. This paper reports the experimental results of the impact of fluid viscosity on flow patterns for two-phase flow. Two-phase flow was created in laboratory equipment using air and liquid as phase medium. The liquid properties were changed by using variable concentrations of glycerol in water mixture which generated a wide-range of dynamic viscosities ranging from 1 to 1060 MPa s. The in situ spatial concentration vs. liquid viscosity and airflow velocity of two-phase flow in a vertical ID=50.8 mm pipe were measured using two concomitant computer-aided measurement systems. After acquiring data, the in situ special concentration signals were analyzed in time (spatial concentration and RMS of spatial concentration vs. time), amplitude (PDF and CPDF), and frequency (PSD and CPSD) domains that documented broad flow pattern changes caused by the fluid viscosity and air velocity changes. (author)
Revisiting low-fidelity two-fluid models for gas-solids transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adeleke, Najeem; Adewumi, Michael; Ityokumbul, Thaddeus
2016-08-01
Two-phase gas-solids transport models are widely utilized for process design and automation in a broad range of industrial applications. Some of these applications include proppant transport in gaseous fracking fluids, air/gas drilling hydraulics, coal-gasification reactors and food processing units. Systems automation and real time process optimization stand to benefit a great deal from availability of efficient and accurate theoretical models for operations data processing. However, modeling two-phase pneumatic transport systems accurately requires a comprehensive understanding of gas-solids flow behavior. In this study we discuss the prevailing flow conditions and present a low-fidelity two-fluid model equation for particulate transport. The model equations are formulated in a manner that ensures the physical flux term remains conservative despite the inclusion of solids normal stress through the empirical formula for modulus of elasticity. A new set of Roe-Pike averages are presented for the resulting strictly hyperbolic flux term in the system of equations, which was used to develop a Roe-type approximate Riemann solver. The resulting scheme is stable regardless of the choice of flux-limiter. The model is evaluated by the prediction of experimental results from both pneumatic riser and air-drilling hydraulics systems. We demonstrate the effect and impact of numerical formulation and choice of numerical scheme on model predictions. We illustrate the capability of a low-fidelity one-dimensional two-fluid model in predicting relevant flow parameters in two-phase particulate systems accurately even under flow regimes involving counter-current flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamed, Ali M.; Ranjan, Prateek; Sadowski, Matthew J.; Nepf, Heidi M.; Chamorro, Leonardo P.
2015-11-01
An experimental investigation of the flow within and above model canopies was carried out to determine the effect of canopy height heterogeneity on the structure and spatial distribution of the turbulence. Two 800 mm long models with 20% blockage were placed in a 2.5 m long refractive-index-matching channel. The first model (base case) is constituted of equal height (h) square bar elements arranged in a staggered configuration. The other model bars had two heights (h +1/3h and h-1/3h) alternated every two rows. Particle image velocimetry was used to map the flow field at three locations spanning the length of the canopy under three confinement ratios H/h =2, 3, and 4, where H is the free surface height. The experiments were performed at Reynolds number ReH = 6800 , 10200, and 13600. Refractive index matching renders the canopy invisible and grants full optical access allowing the flow field within the canopy to be measured by PIV. Turbulence statistics complemented with POD, quadrant analysis, and LES decomposition reveal the distinctive effect of the height heterogeneity on the shear layer that forms on top of the canopy, and on the free flow over the canopies.
Relationship of core-scale heterogeneity with non-Darcy flow coefficients
Al-Rumhy, M.H.; Kalam, M.Z.
1996-06-01
An experimental research program to investigate the effects of liquid saturations upon non-Darcy flow coefficients is presented. the presence of a wetting phase fluid plays an important role in high velocity flow of a gas well, producing condensate or water, and in propped fractures containing liquid saturations. This study initially examines the errors commonly encountered but ignored in evaluating the permeabilities and the coefficient of inertial resistance during the flow of gases through porous media. Experimental techniques, such as constant overburden pressure, changing overburden pressure, forward flow, and backpressure flow, are applied to optimize and obtain accurate evaluations of Klinkenberg parameters and inertial resistance coefficients for a selection of Omani reservoir cores. Gas-slippage factor significantly influences the derived viscous and inertial coefficients from high-velocity gas flow data. An increasing wetting phase saturation increases the non-Darcy coefficient up to thirty-fold. Analysis of the experimental data revealed that unique relationships exist between the non-Darcy flow coefficients and the equivalent liquid permeability, porosity, and liquid saturation. Heterogeneity of the core as mapped by pore-scale measurements provide an insight into the mechanism for such a large increase in the non-Darcy coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zech, Alraune; Zehner, Björn; Kolditz, Olaf; Attinger, Sabine
2016-01-01
Ground water flow systems of shallow sedimentary basins are studied in general by analyzing the fluid dynamics at the real world example of the Thuringian Basin. The impact of the permeability distribution and density differences on the flow velocity pattern, the salt concentration, and the temperature distribution is quantified by means of transient coupled simulations of fluid flow, heat, and mass transport processes. Simulations are performed with different permeabilities in the sedimentary layering and heterogeneous permeability distributions as well as with a non-constant fluid density. Three characteristic numbers are useful to describe the effects of permeability on the development of flow systems and subsurface transport: the relation of permeability between aquiclude and aquifer, the variance, and the correlation length of the log-normal permeability distribution. Density dependent flow due to temperature or concentration gradients is of minor importance for the distribution of the flow systems, but can lead to increased mixing dissolution of salt. Thermal convection is in general not present. The dominant driver of groundwater flow is the topography in combination with the permeability distribution. The results obtained for the Thuringian Basin give general insights into the dynamics of a small sedimentary basin due to the representative character of the basin structure as well as the transferability of the settings to other small sedimentary basins.
Stuglik, Michał T; Babik, Wiesław
2016-07-01
The role of gene flow in species formation is a major unresolved issue in speciation biology. Progress in this area requires information on the long-term patterns of gene flow between diverging species. Here, we used thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms derived from transcriptome resequencing and a method modeling the joint frequency spectrum of these polymorphisms to reconstruct patterns of historical gene flow between two Lissotriton newts: L. vulgaris (Lv) and L. montandoni (Lm). We tested several models of divergence including complete isolation and various scenarios of historical gene flow. The model of secondary contact received the highest support. According to this model, the species split from their common ancestor ca. 5.5 million years (MY) ago, evolved in isolation for ca. 2 MY, and have been exchanging genes for the last 3.5 MY Demographic changes have been inferred in both species, with the current effective population size of ca. 0.7 million in Lv and 0.2 million in Lm. The postdivergence gene flow resulted in two-directional introgression which affected the genomes of both species, but was more pronounced from Lv to Lm. Interestingly, we found evidence for genomic heterogeneity of interspecific gene flow. This study demonstrates the complexity of long-term gene flow between distinct but incompletely reproductively isolated taxa which divergence was initiated millions of years ago. PMID:27386093
Numerical solution of the three-dimensional fluid flow in a rotating heterogeneous porous channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Havstad, Mark A.; Vadasz, Peter
1999-09-01
A numerical solution to the problem of the three-dimensional fluid flow in a long rotating heterogeneous porous channel is presented. A co-ordinate transformation technique is employed to obtain accurate solutions over a wide range of porous media Ekman number values and consequent boundary layer thicknesses. Comparisons with an approximate asymptotic solution (for large values of Ekman number) and with theoretical predictions on the validity of Taylor-Proudman theorem in porous media for small values of Ekman number show good qualitative agreement. An evaluation of the boundary layer thickness is presented and a power-law correlation to Ekman number is shown to well-represent the results for small values of Ekman number. The different three-dimensional fluid flow regimes are presented graphically, demonstrating the distinct variation of the flow field over the wide range of Ekman numbers used. Copyright
Willans, S.M.; McCarthy, I.D. )
1991-03-01
The distribution of tibial blood flow was measured by injecting approximately (600-1000) x 10(3) 15 mu microspheres, labelled with either tin-113 (113Sn) or cobalt-57 (57Co) into femoral arteries of five mature greyhounds. The diaphyseal cortex, stripped of periosteum and devoid of marrow, was sawn into 40 pieces (10 transverse sections x 4 anatomical quarters/section). Relative deposition densities of the 113Sn microspheres in 40 pieces of cortex were found. These values, together with their associated masses, proved, from a statistical point of view, that flow rate heterogeneity was substantial in the diaphysis. In particular, for the diaphyseal cortex, distribution of relative deposition densities (flow rates) in six bones was found to be positively-skewed with a relative dispersion ((SD/mean) x 100) of approximately 40%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ague, J. J.
2004-12-01
Fluids are generally expected to be driven upward in the deep parts of orogens, but permeability heterogeneity and anisotropy must also be considered to properly interpret fluid infiltration and kinetic reaction histories preserved in the rock record. This paper focuses on new 2-D models of Darcian fluid flow incorporating permeability contrasts between rock units, the permeability tensor, and reactive fluid sources (e.g., dehydration). Factor of ten contrasts between the minimum and maximum permeability values in anisotropic rocks can strongly divert flow, but contrasts of as little as a factor of two still influence flow behavior. The first example considers fluid flow in subduction zone mélange, Syros, Greece. Geochemical evidence suggests that the interiors of meta-mafic blocks of oceanic crust in the mélange underwent limited fluid-rock reaction, despite extensive dehydration and decarbonation of the subduction complex. Modeling shows that if the blocks have lower permeability than the surrounding serpentine-rich matrix, then flow is diverted around the blocks resulting in little infiltration except at block margins, consistent with field relations. In this way, the subducted oceanic crust could preserve little evidence of fluid infiltration, even though considerable flow occurred through the mélange. The largest fluid fluxes are concentrated in matrix where blocks are in close proximity, and this effect increases as the anisotropy of the matrix increases. The lack of fluid infiltration into blocks could account for the observed limited metamorphism and strong kinetic overstepping of reactions that in some cases allowed preservation of ocean-floor mineral assemblages even at blueschist-eclogite facies conditions. The second example examines fluid flow through a folded sequence in which the direction of maximum permeability is parallel to the folded layering, and is based on field relations of Barrovian metamorphic sequences in CT, USA, and Scotland. As the
Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional stretched flow of Jeffrey fluid in view of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux is addressed. Effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are also considered. Suitable transformations are used to form ordinary differential equations. Convergent series solutions are computed. Impact of significant parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration and skin friction coefficient is addressed. Analysis of thermal relaxation is made. The obtained results show that ratio of relaxation to retardation times and Deborah number have inverse relation for velocity profile. Temperature distribution has decreasing behavior for Prandtl number and thermal relaxation time. Also concentration decreases for larger values of strength of homogeneous reaction parameter while it increases for strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter. PMID:26859675
Impact of Cattaneo-Christov Heat Flux in Jeffrey Fluid Flow with Homogeneous-Heterogeneous Reactions
Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sumaira; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional stretched flow of Jeffrey fluid in view of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux is addressed. Effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions are also considered. Suitable transformations are used to form ordinary differential equations. Convergent series solutions are computed. Impact of significant parameters on the velocity, temperature, concentration and skin friction coefficient is addressed. Analysis of thermal relaxation is made. The obtained results show that ratio of relaxation to retardation times and Deborah number have inverse relation for velocity profile. Temperature distribution has decreasing behavior for Prandtl number and thermal relaxation time. Also concentration decreases for larger values of strength of homogeneous reaction parameter while it increases for strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter. PMID:26859675
Geodynamo Models With a Thick Stable Layer and Heterogeneous CMB Heat Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, U. R.
2015-12-01
The upward revision of the thermal conductivity in the Earth's core makes it plausible that the mean heat flow at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) could be only afraction of what can be conducted down the core adiabat (perhaps one half). The upper part of the fluid core would be stably stratified to substantial depth. This is inconsistent with evidence for upwelling flow near the CMB from observations ofof magnetic flux expulsion. Heat flow at the CMB is likely very heterogeneous and would still be superadiabatic in some regions of the CMB. The dynamics of such a system is unclear. Gubbins et al. (Phys. Earth Planet. Int., in press, 2015)suggest that the locally unstable gradient would mix up the stable layer as a wholeand replace it by a weakly convecting one. We study dynamo models driven by a codensity flux from the inner core. On the outer boundary an inverse (on average) gradient is imposed, leading to stable stratification of the top 40% of the fluid shell. In addition to control cases with homogeneous CMB flux, we run models with two unstableregions centered on the equator. In the latter cases a predominantly horizontal circulation in a thin layer immediately below the outer boundary redistributes the heat that is conducted radially upward in the stable layer and transports ittowards the high heat-flow spots. Radial flow below these spots does not penetrate deeply into the stable layer, nor does the layer become mixed up to a significant degree. A dynamo operates in the convecting deep interior, however, its dipole moment is low in comparison to the Earth value. Heat flow heterogeneity at the CMB does not sem to solve the problems that exist for the geodynamo when the average heat flux is substantially subadiabatic.
Process of preparing nitrogen trifluoride by gas-solid reaction
Aramaki, M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, H.; Suenaga, T.
1985-09-24
NF3 is prepared with good yields by reaction between fluorine gas and an ammonium complex of a metal fluoride, such as (NH4)3AIF6, in solid phase. The metal flouride ammonium complex may be one additionally containing an alkali metal, such as (NH4)2NaAIF6. The gas-solid reaction is carried out preferably at temperatures above 80 C. and at relatively low partial pressures of fluorine in the gas phase of the reaction system, so that the reaction is easy to control.
Fluidization onset and expansion of gas-solid fluidized beds
Jones, O.C.; Shin, T.S.
1984-08-01
A simple, mass conservation-based, kinematic model is presented for accurately predicting both the onset of fluidization and the degree of (limit of) bed expansion in bubbling gas-solid fluidized beds. The model is consistant with inception correlations exisiting in the literature. Since the method has a sound physical basis, it might be expected to provide scaling between laboratory-scale fluidized beds and large-scale systems. This scaling ability, however, remains to be demonstrated as does the application to pressurized systems and where the terminal Reynolds numbers exceed 1000, (Archimedes numbers over about 3.2 x 10/sup 5/).
Unravelling textural heterogeneity in obsidian: Shear-induced outgassing in the Rocche Rosse flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shields, J. K.; Mader, H. M.; Caricchi, L.; Tuffen, H.; Mueller, S.; Pistone, M.; Baumgartner, L.
2016-01-01
Obsidian flow emplacement is a complex and understudied aspect of silicic volcanism. Of particular importance is the question of how highly viscous magma can lose sufficient gas in order to erupt effusively as a lava flow. Using an array of methods we study the extreme textural heterogeneity of the Rocche Rosse obsidian flow in Lipari, a 2 km long, 100 m thick, ~ 800 year old lava flow, with respect to outgassing and emplacement mechanisms. 2D and 3D vesicle analyses and density measurements are used to classify the lava into four textural types: 'glassy' obsidian (< 15% vesicles), 'pumiceous' lava (> 40% vesicles), high aspect ratio, 'shear banded' lava (20-40% vesicles) and low aspect ratio, 'frothy' obsidian with 30-60% vesicles. Textural heterogeneity is observed on all scales (m to μm) and occurs as the result of strongly localised strain. Magnetic fabric, described by oblate and prolate susceptibility ellipsoids, records high and variable degrees of shearing throughout the flow. Total water contents are derived using both thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy to quantify primary (magmatic) and secondary (meteoric) water. Glass water contents are between 0.08-0.25 wt.%. Water analysis also reveals an increase in water content from glassy obsidian bands towards 'frothy' bands of 0.06-0.08 wt.%, reflecting preferential vesiculation of higher water bands and an extreme sensitivity of obsidian degassing to water content. We present an outgassing model that reconciles textural, volatile and magnetic data to indicate that obsidian is generated from multiple shear-induced outgassing cycles, whereby vesicular magma outgasses and densifies through bubble collapse and fracture healing to form obsidian, which then re-vesiculates to produce 'dry' vesicular magma. Repetition of this cycle throughout magma ascent results in the low water contents of the Rocche Rosse lavas and the final stage in the degassing cycle determines final lava porosity. Heterogeneities in
Abril, Meritxell; Muñoz, Isabel; Menéndez, Margarita
2016-05-15
In temporary Mediterranean streams, flow fragmentation during summer droughts originates an ephemeral mosaic of terrestrial and aquatic habitat types. The heterogeneity of habitat types implies a particular ecosystem functioning in temporary streams that is still poorly understood. We assessed the initial phases of leaf litter decomposition in selected habitat types: running waters, isolated pools and moist and dry streambed sediments. We used coarse-mesh litter bags containing Populus nigra leaves to examine decomposition rates, microbial biomass, macroinvertebrate abundance and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release rates in each habitat type over an 11-day period in late summer. We detected faster decomposition rates in aquatic (running waters and isolated pools) than in terrestrial habitats (moist and dry streambed sediments). Under aquatic conditions, decomposition was characterized by intense leaching and early microbial colonization, which swiftly started to decompose litter. Microbial colonization in isolated pools was primarily dominated by bacteria, whereas in running waters fungal biomass predominated. Under terrestrial conditions, leaves were most often affected by abiotic processes that resulted in small mass losses. We found a substantial decrease in DOC release rates in both aquatic habitats within the first days of the study, whereas DOC release rates remained relatively stable in the moist and dry sediments. This suggests that leaves play different roles as a DOC source during and after flow fragmentation. Overall, our results revealed that leaf decomposition is heterogeneous during flow fragmentation, which has implications related to DOC utilization that should be considered in future regional carbon budgets. PMID:26930306
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arora, B.; Wainwright, H. M.; Spycher, N.
2013-12-01
This study aims at understanding key hydrogeochemical processes dictating pH behavior and U transport at the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area, South Carolina, with particular focus on the impact of chemical and physical heterogeneities. Acidic waste solutions containing low level radioactivity from numerous isotopes were discharged to a series of unlined seepage basins at the F-Area, from 1955 through 1989, which resulted in a nearly 1 km long acidic uranium plume. Reactive facies is a new approach that spatially characterizes linked flow and geochemical properties over large domains, where it is typically challenging to obtain parameters with sufficient resolution for reactive transport modeling. This approach - based on the hypothesis that we can identify geological units that have unique distributions of reactive transport properties - allows us to integrate various types of datasets (e.g., historical data, laboratory analysis, crosshole and surface geophysics) for estimating heterogeneous reactive transport parameters. At the SRS F-Area, data mining and iteration with laboratory analysis identified two reactive facies coincident with the depositional facies, which have distinct distributions of reactive transport properties: %fines, permeability, and Al:Fe ratio (proxy for kaolinite:geothite ratio). The reactive facies over the plume-scale domain was estimated based on measured data (foot-by-foot core analysis, cone penetrometer, crosshole seismic and surface seismic data) and integrated using the Bayesian framework. In parallel, a numerical reactive transport model was developed including saturated and unsaturated flow, and complex geochemical processes such as U(VI) and H+ adsorption (surface complexation) onto sediments and dissolution and precipitation of Al and Fe minerals. By combining the developed reactive transport model with the estimated spatial distribution of reactive transport parameters, we perform stochastic simulations of U and pH plume
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baloch, A.; Grant, P. W.; Webster, M. F.
2002-12-01
A finite-element study of two- and three-dimensional incompressible viscoelastic flows in a planar lid-driven cavity and concentric rotating cylinders is presented. The hardware platforms consist of both homogeneous and heterogeneous clusters of workstations. A semi-implicit time-stepping Taylor-Galerkin scheme is employed using the message passing mechanism provided by the Parallel Virtual Machine libraries. DEC-alpha, Intel Solaris and AMD-K7(Athlon) Linux clusters are utilized. Parallel results are compared against single processor (sequentially) solutions, using the parallelism paradigm of domain decomposition. Communication is effectively masked and practically ideal, linear speed-up with the number of processors is realized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleissl, J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Honrath, R. E.
2004-12-01
A combination of standard meteorological equipment (3d sonic anemometer, energy balance sensors) and Crossbow MPR400 (Mica2) wireless motes and sensorboards were deployed along the slope of Pico mountain in the Azores, Portugal, between z = 1200 m and z = 2300 m MSL. The isolated location and uniform, conic shape make Pico mountain an ideal location to study orographic effects. This experiment focuses on upslope and downslope flow. Cost effective wireless sensor technology allows for high density of observations in time and space as necessary for characterization of flows over heterogeneous surfaces. Thus the features of upslope and downslope flows (speed, location and duration) and their effect on atmospheric physics and chemistry (temperature, relative humidity) can be studied in great detail. Synchronous measurements of O3, CO, NOx, NOy and NMHC at the PICO-NARE observatory (Honrath et al. 2004) situated at the mountaintop give further clues on airmass origin and dispersion. Findings regarding the occurrence and impacts of upslope and downslope flow and the advantages and disadvantages of wireless sensors relative to standard meteorological instruments will be presented. In particular, practical issues of wireless sensor deployment, such as durability in harsh conditions, power management, accuracy, and cost will be discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmalzl, J.
2003-04-01
Convective flows govern much of the dynamics of the Earth. Examples of such flows are convection in the Earth's mantle, convection in magma chambers and much of the dynamics of the world oceans. Nowadays these time-dependent flows are often studied by means of three dimensional (3D) numerical models which solve the equations for the transport of heat and momentum alternatingly. These flows are often driven by a temperature difference. But for many flows there is also an active or passive chemical component that has to be considered. One characteristics of these flows is that the chemical diffusivity is very small. Implementing such a chemical field with a very low diffusivity into a numerical model using a field approach is difficult due to numerical diffusion introduced by the Eulerian schemes. Using Lagrangian tracers is also difficult in 3D flow since a massive amount of tracers is needed. We therefore have implemented a tracer-mesh method which tracks only the position of the interface between the two different components. Compared to a 2D tracer-line the insertion of new 3D surface-elements in highly deformed regions is however more complex. This is due to the topology of the mesh which changes because of the adaptive refinement. Luckily the refinement of polygonal meshes is a very active field of research in computer graphics and has been termed "Subdivision Surfaces". There is a wealth of different subdivision schemes with different properties. We applied the Butterfly scheme and the Loop scheme for the refinement of tracer meshes. When a density difference is connected to a chemical component it often acts as a restoring force. In many cases, the governing flow is spatially heterogenous and the spatial location of the heterogeneities is varying in time (e.g. the location of an upwelling plume). The restoring force of the density contrast may result in a situation where a highly deformed, and therefore highly refined region, returns to a simple geometry. In
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmalzl, J.; Loddoch, A.
2003-12-01
Convective flows govern much of the dynamics of the Earth. Examples of such flows are convection in the Earth's mantle, convection in magma chambers and much of the dynamics of the world oceans. Nowadays these time-dependent flows are often studied by means of three dimensional (3D) numerical models which solve the equations for the transport of heat and momentum alternatingly. These flows are often driven by a temperature difference. But for many flows there is also an active or passive chemical component that has to be considered. One characteristics of these flows is that the chemical diffusivity is very small. Implementing such a chemical field with a very low diffusivity into a numerical model using a field approach is difficult due to numerical diffusion introduced by the Eulerian schemes. Using Lagrangian tracers is also difficult in 3D flow since a massive amount of tracers is needed. We therefore have implemented a tracer-mesh method which tracks only the position of the interface between the two different components. Compared to a 2D tracer-line the insertion of new 3D surface-elements in highly deformed regions is however more complex. This is due to the topology of the mesh which changes because of the adaptive refinement. Luckily the refinement of polygonal meshes is a very active field of research in computer graphics and has been termed "Subdivision Surfaces". There is a wealth of different subdivision schemes with different properties. We applied the Butterfly scheme and the Loop scheme for the refinement of tracer meshes. When a density difference is connected to a chemical component it often acts as a restoring force. In many cases, the governing flow is spatially heterogenous and the spatial location of the heterogeneities is varying in time (e.g. the location of an upwelling plume). The restoring force of the density contrast may result in a situation where a highly deformed, and therefore highly refined region, returns to a simple geometry. In
Weak Galerkin finite element methods for Darcy flow: Anisotropy and heterogeneity
Lin, Guang; Liu, Jiangguo; Mu, Lin; Ye, Xiu
2014-10-11
This paper presents a family of weak Galerkin finite element methods (WGFEMs) for Darcy flow computation. The WGFEMs are new numerical methods that rely on the novel concept of discrete weak gradients. The WGFEMs solve for pressure unknowns both in element interiors and on the mesh skeleton. The numerical velocity is then obtained from the discrete weak gradient of the numerical pressure. The new methods are quite different than many existing numerical methods in that they are locally conservative by design, the resulting discrete linear systems are symmetric and positive-definite, and there is no need for tuning problem-dependent penalty factors. We test the WGFEMs on benchmark problems to demonstrate the strong potential of these new methods in handling strong anisotropy and heterogeneity in Darcy flow.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagao, Junji; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong
2010-08-01
Shock tubes are devices in which the state of a gas is changed suddenly from one uniform state to another by the passage of shock and expansion waves. In the theory of ideal shock tube flow, it is customarily assumed that the unsteady expansion and shock waves generated by diaphragm rupture are a perfectly centered plane wave. However, such waves are generally not centered, or may not even by plane in practice. In the present research, the time-dependent behavior of homogeneous and heterogeneous condensation of moist air in the shock tube is investigated by using a computational fluid dynamics work. Further, the numerical and experimental studies were carried out in order to investigate the effect of the diaphragm rupture process on the flow characteristics of expansion and shock waves generated near the diaphragm.
Compositional heterogeneity of the Sugarloaf melilite nephelinite flow, Honolulu Volcanics, Hawai'i
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clague, David A.; Frey, Frederick A.; Garcia, Michael O.; Huang, Shichun; McWilliams, Michael; Beeson, Melvin H.
2016-07-01
The Sugarloaf flow is a melilite nephelinite erupted from the Tantalus rift during rejuvenated-stage volcanism on O'ahu, the Honolulu Volcanics. The flow ponded in Mānoa Valley forming a ∼15 m thick flow which was cored and sampled in a quarry. Nepheline from a pegmatoid segregation in the flow yielded a 40Ar-39Ar age of 76 ka. This age, combined with others, indicates that the Tantalus rift eruptions are some of the youngest on O'ahu. Honolulu Volcanics erupt on average about every 35-40 ka indicating that future eruptions are possible. We evaluated the compositional variability of 19 samples from the flow, including 14 from the core. Twelve samples are representative of the bulk flow, four are dark- or light-colored variants, one is a heavy rare earth element (REE)-enriched pegmatoid, and two visually resemble the bulk flow, but have chemical characteristics of the dark and light variants. Our objective was to determine intraflow heterogeneity in mineralogy and composition. Variable abundances of Na2O, K2O, Sr, Ba, Rb, Pb and U in the flow were caused by post-eruptive mobility in a vapor phase, most likely during or soon after flow emplacement, and heterogeneous deposition of secondary calcite and zeolites. Relative to fine-grained samples, a pegmatoid vein that crosscuts the flow is enriched in incompatible trace elements except Sr and TiO2. Element mobility after eruption introduced scatter in trace element ratios including light-REE/heavy-REE, and all ratios involving mobile elements K, Rb, Ba, Sr, Pb, and U. Lavas from some of the 37 Honolulu Volcanics vents have crosscutting REE patterns in a primitive mantle-normalized plot. Such patterns have been interpreted to reflect variable amounts of residual garnet during partial melting. Previous studies of lavas from different vents concluded that garnet, phlogopite, amphibole, and Fe-Ti oxides were residual phases of the partial melting processes that created the Honolulu Volcanics (Clague and Frey, 1982; Yang
Hayat, T; Hussain, Zakir; Alsaedi, A; Farooq, M
2016-01-01
This article examines the effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions and Newtonian heating in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of Powell-Eyring fluid by a stretching cylinder. The nonlinear partial differential equations of momentum, energy and concentration are reduced to the nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Convergent solutions of momentum, energy and reaction equations are developed by using homotopy analysis method (HAM). This method is very efficient for development of series solutions of highly nonlinear differential equations. It does not depend on any small or large parameter like the other methods i. e., perturbation method, δ-perturbation expansion method etc. We get more accurate result as we increase the order of approximations. Effects of different parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are sketched and discussed. Comparison of present study with the previous published work is also made in the limiting sense. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are also computed and analyzed. It is noticed that the flow accelerates for large values of Powell-Eyring fluid parameter. Further temperature profile decreases and concentration profile increases when Powell-Eyring fluid parameter enhances. Concentration distribution is decreasing function of homogeneous reaction parameter while opposite influence of heterogeneous reaction parameter appears. PMID:27280883
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Severino, Gerardo; de Bartolo, Samuele; Toraldo, Gerardo; Srinivasan, Gowri; Viswanathan, Hari
2012-12-01
Diverging radial flow takes place in a heterogeneous porous medium where the log conductivity Y = ln K is modeled as a stationary random space function (RSF). The flow is steady, and is generated by a fully penetrating well. A linearly sorbing solute is injected through the well envelope, and we aim at computing the average flux concentration (breakthrough curve). A relatively simple solution for this difficult problem is achieved by adopting, similar to Indelman and Dagan (1999), a few simplifying assumptions: (i) a thick aquifer of large horizontal extent, (ii) mildly heterogeneous medium, (iii) strongly anisotropic formation, and (iv) large Peclet number. By introducing an appropriate Lagrangian framework, three-dimensional transport is mapped onto a one-dimensional domain (τ, t) where τ and t represent the fluid travel and current time, respectively. Central for this approach is the probability density function of the RSF τthat is derived consistently with the adopted assumptions stated above. Based on this, it is shown that the travel time can be regarded as a Gaussian random variable only in the far field. The breakthrough curves are analyzed to assess the impact of the hydraulic as well as reactive parameters. Finally, the travel time approach is tested against a forced-gradient transport experiment and shows good agreement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Masato R.; Castaldi, Marco J.; Themelis, Nickolas J.
2008-11-01
Flow, mixing, and size segregation of heterogeneous granular particles are intriguing phenomena. In order to characterize the behavior of heterogeneous particle, a two-dimensional stochastic model of particle flow and mixing within the packed bed on a traveling grate was developed. The model was calibrated and validated by means of a physical model of the reverse acting grate, using tracer particles ranging from 6 -- 22 cm in diameter. It was found that the motion of the traveling grate, whose speed ranged from 15 to 90 reciprocations/hr, increases the mean residence time of small and medium particles by 69% and 8%, respectively, while decreasing the mean residence time of large particles by 19%. This is because of size segregation known as the Brazil Nut Effect. When the ratio of particle diameter to the height of moving bar, d/h, increases from 0.46 to 1.69, the mixing diffusion coefficient, De at 60/hr., decreases from 96 to 38.4. This indicates that the height of the moving bars should be greater than the diameter of targeted particles.
Hayat, T.; Hussain, Zakir; Alsaedi, A.; Farooq, M.
2016-01-01
This article examines the effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions and Newtonian heating in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of Powell-Eyring fluid by a stretching cylinder. The nonlinear partial differential equations of momentum, energy and concentration are reduced to the nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Convergent solutions of momentum, energy and reaction equations are developed by using homotopy analysis method (HAM). This method is very efficient for development of series solutions of highly nonlinear differential equations. It does not depend on any small or large parameter like the other methods i. e., perturbation method, δ—perturbation expansion method etc. We get more accurate result as we increase the order of approximations. Effects of different parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are sketched and discussed. Comparison of present study with the previous published work is also made in the limiting sense. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are also computed and analyzed. It is noticed that the flow accelerates for large values of Powell-Eyring fluid parameter. Further temperature profile decreases and concentration profile increases when Powell-Eyring fluid parameter enhances. Concentration distribution is decreasing function of homogeneous reaction parameter while opposite influence of heterogeneous reaction parameter appears. PMID:27280883
Spatial connectivity in a highly heterogeneous aquifer: From cores to preferential flow paths
Bianchi, M.; Zheng, C.; Wilson, C.; Tick, G.R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Gorelick, S.M.
2011-01-01
This study investigates connectivity in a small portion of the extremely heterogeneous aquifer at the Macrodispersion Experiment (MADE) site in Columbus, Mississippi. A total of 19 fully penetrating soil cores were collected from a rectangular grid of 4 m by 4 m. Detailed grain size analysis was performed on 5 cm segments of each core, yielding 1740 hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates. Three different geostatistical simulation methods were used to generate 3-D conditional realizations of the K field for the sampled block. Particle tracking calculations showed that the fastest particles, as represented by the first 5% to arrive, converge along preferential flow paths and exit the model domain within preferred areas. These 5% fastest flow paths accounted for about 40% of the flow. The distribution of preferential flow paths and particle exit locations is clearly influenced by the occurrence of clusters formed by interconnected cells with K equal to or greater than the 0.9 decile of the data distribution (10% of the volume). The fraction of particle paths within the high-K clusters ranges from 43% to 69%. In variogram-based K fields, some of the fastest paths are through media with lower K values, suggesting that transport connectivity may not require fully connected zones of relatively homogenous K. The high degree of flow and transport connectivity was confirmed by the values of two groups of connectivity indicators. In particular, the ratio between effective and geometric mean K (on average, about 2) and the ratio between the average arrival time and the arrival time of the fastest particles (on average, about 9) are consistent with flow and advective transport behavior characterized by channeling along preferential flow paths. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.
Inference of permeability heterogeneity from joint inversion of transient flow and temperature data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhishuai; Jafarpour, Behnam; Li, Lianlin
2014-06-01
Characterization of the rock permeability distribution in compartmentalized deep aquifers, enhanced geothermal systems, and hydrocarbon reservoirs is important for predicting the flow and transport behavior in these formations. Reliable prediction of the fluid flow and transport processes can, in turn, lead to effective development of the subsurface energy and environmental resources. In deep formations where thermal gradients are significant, the transient temperature data can provide valuable information about the permeability distribution with depth and about the vertical fluid displacement. This paper examines the importance of temperature data in resolving the distribution of permeability with depth by jointly, and individually, integrating the transient temperature and flow data. We demonstrate that when estimating permeability distributions in deep geothermal reservoirs, incorporating temperature data can increase the resolution of the permeability distribution profile with depth. To illustrate the importance of temperature measurements, we adopt a coupled transient heat and fluid flow as a forward model to predict the heat and fluid transport in a geothermal reservoir and develop an adjoint model for efficient computation of the gradient information for model calibration. We perform a series of numerical experiments for integration of flow and pressure data alone, temperature data alone, and flow and pressure jointly with temperature data. In each case, we apply the maximum A-posteriori (MAP) method and the randomized maximum likelihood (RML) method for inversion and uncertainty quantification. Analysis of the sensitivity of temperature and production data to heterogeneous permeability distributions reveals that the temperature of fluid, even when measured at the surface, is sensitive to the permeability distribution in the vertical extent of the reservoir. Hence, temperature measurements can be augmented with flow-related data to enhance the resolution of
Bulk-density distributions of solids in the freeboard of a gas-solid fluidized bed
Shen, B.C.; Fan, L.T.; Walawender, W.P.
1995-05-01
The freeboard region above the bubbling zone of a gas-solid fluidized bed provides the space not only for the disengagement of particles but also for additional contact and reaction between the particles and gas. The flow pattern and behavior of particles as well as their bulk-density distribution in the freeboard have a significant impact on the efficiency of fluidization. The results of numerous previous experimental studies indicate that the bulk density of solids essentially decreases exponentially as a function of the height of the freeboard. In the present work, this distribution has been obtained by first derived the Fokker-Planck equation from the linearized equation of motion of a single particle and then transforming this Fokker-Planck equation into that for the bulk-density distribution of solids. Its simplification to the one-dimensional case readily gives rise to an exponential distribution and agrees well with the available experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grathwohl, P.; Piepenbrink, M.; Eberhardt, C.; Kasper, M.; Gauglitz, G.
2005-12-01
Natural attenuation (mainly biodegradation) of organic pollutants in groundwater often depends on mixing of electron donors and acceptors in the plume fringes, the spatial distribution of these highly reactive zones, compared to the volume of the whole plume, is quite small and characterized by steep concentration gradients. Mixing in the field is the result of transverse dispersion, which is a function of groundwater flow velocity, the typical length scale in the aquifer (e.g. grain size) as well as the aquifer heterogeneities, and the dynamics of the natural flow system. The objectives of this work are to investigate dispersion-limited reactions in well-controlled bench-scale experiments i.e. to elaborate how heterogeneities and transient conditions at the field scale (in time and space) influence the overall natural attenuation rates of organic pollutants in groundwater. Experiments in which (a) the spreading of a conservative tracer cloud or (b) the reaction of two reaction partners at the plume fringe is limited by transverse dispersion are currently investigated in the lab. As the quantification of transverse dispersivities in heterogeneous media under transient flow conditions requires monitoring with high resolution in space and time new optical tools (CCD camera) are employed for the quantitative mapping of the plumes.The first experiments were conducted at bench scale using a continuous injection of a conservative colour tracers (fluorescine), which show absorption only at a specific range of wavelengths in the visible spectrum, a quantification of this tracers is thus possible by its colour depth. Quality control of the quantification obtained by the CCD set-up is done via conventional sampling and analysis at the outlet ports during steady state flow conditions. Currently, well controlled acid-base reactions, are monitored by the colour changes of pH-indicators.This efficient spatially and time-resolved monitoring of concentration gradient changes by
High-performance Integrated numerical methods for Two-phase Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chueh, Chih-Che; Djilali, Ned; Bangerth, Wolfgang
2010-11-01
Modelling of two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media has been playing a decisive role in a variety of areas. However, how to efficiently and accurately solve the governing equation in the flow in porous media remains a challenge. In order to ensure the accurate representative flow field and simultaneously increase the computational efficiency, we incorporate a number of state-of-the-art techniques into a numerical framework on which more complicated models in the field of multi-phase flow in porous media will be based. Such a numerical framework consists of a h-adaptive refinement method, an entropy-based artificial diffusive term, a new adaptive operator splitting method and efficient preconditioners. In particular, it is emphasized that we propose a new efficient adaptive operator splitting to avoid solving a time-consuming pressure-velocity part every saturation time step and, most importantly, we also provide a theoretically numerical analysis as well as proof. A few benchmarks will be demonstrated in the presentation.
Naff, R.L.; Haley, D.F.; Sudicky, E.A.
1998-01-01
In this, the first of two papers concerned with the use of numerical simulation to examine flow and transport parameters in heterogeneous porous media via Monte Carlo methods, Various aspects of the modelling effort are examined. In particular, the need to save on core memory causes one to use only specific realizations that have certain initial characteristics; in effect, these transport simulations are conditioned by these characteristics. Also, the need to independently estimate length Scales for the generated fields is discussed. The statistical uniformity of the flow field is investigated by plotting the variance of the seepage velocity for vector components in the x, y, and z directions. Finally, specific features of the velocity field itself are illuminated in this first paper. In particular, these data give one the opportunity to investigate the effective hydraulic conductivity in a flow field which is approximately statistically uniform; comparisons are made with first- and second-order perturbation analyses. The mean cloud velocity is examined to ascertain whether it is identical to the mean seepage velocity of the model. Finally, the variance in the cloud centroid velocity is examined for the effect of source size and differing strengths of local transverse dispersion.
The Effect of Preferential Flow on Colloidal Transport in Unsaturated Heterogeneous Sand
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishurov, M.; Yakirevich, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Kuznetsov, M.
2006-12-01
Transport of colloids may be greatly enhanced by the presence of preferential flow pathways (PF). The impact of PF on the overall colloid transport was investigated in unsaturated heterogeneous sand under steady-state flow conditions. The experiments were conducted in a 30 cm column, with 11.5 cm internal diameter. Two types of acid-cleaned sand were used to pack the column: coarse (d50 = 1.2 mm) and fine (d50 = 0.36 mm). Heterogeneity created by three continuous bodies of fine sand (within a column of coarse sand) comprised 3.7% of the total sand volume. Water content and pressure head in the coarse sand were monitored with three pairs of TDR probes and tensiometers, respectively, evenly spaced along the column length. Experiments were performed under three different flow rates applied at the top of the column using a rain simulator. Negative pressure (-8, -6, and -5.5 cm corresponding to flow rates of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 cm/min, respectively) was maintained at the bottom of the column to produce a constant water content profile (11, 12 and 14% by volume, respectively) in coarse sand. Numerical simulations that were carried out using a double porosity, double permeability model and the Hydrus-2D model, showed higher water content, hydraulic conductivity and, as a result, greater flux in fine sand compared with the bulk of coarse sand. Three sizes of fluorescent latex microspheres were used: 1, 0.2 and 0.02 μm in a mixture with conservative tracers (LiBr). A pulse injection of one water column volume (corresponding to a prescribed water content) of solution was followed by flushing with artificial rainwater. The main features of the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained from the heterogeneously packed column were earlier arrival of tracer concentration front (as early as 0.25 water column volume) and tailing. Colloid arrival occurred at effectively the same time as that of conservative tracers, with the exception of the smallest colloids (0.02 μm), which arrived with
Evaluation of a Heterogeneity Preserving Inversion Method for Subsurface Unsaturated Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Y.; Schaap, M. G.; Neuman, S. P.; Guadagnini, A.; Riva, M.
2013-12-01
Natural recharge to groundwater in semi-arid regions is driven by unsaturated flow through an often deep vadose zone. Understanding and modeling such flow requires knowledge of the subsurface heterogeneity of hydraulic properties. It is expensive and labor intensive to measure such properties, making it necessary to rely on other sources of information. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) constitute cheap and viable tools to estimate hydraulic properties from soil or sediment texture. Due to the predominantly empirical nature of PTFs and the fact that PTFs are often based on data derived from small laboratory samples, biased estimates of hydraulic parameters may be produced that would likely bias modeled field scale deep vadose zone flow. In this work, an inversion framework that treats the subsurface as a composite medium formed by different zones, each associated with spatially heterogeneous hydraulic parameters, is developed to allow (a) preserving the details of the subsurface heterogeneous nature and (b) assuring consistency among hydraulic parameters associated with different regions of the domain. The approach is demonstrated through a field application, which considers the Maricopa site near Phoenix, Arizona. The study site is a 50x50 meter and 15 meter deep vadose zone at which a 28-day constant-rate infiltration experiment was conducted in 2001. Moisture content at the site was measured daily with neutron thermalization at 400 locations during the infiltration period, and at irregular intervals 100 and 200 days prior and after infiltration, respectively. A PTF based on the Rosetta model is applied on the basis of measured spatial distributions of textural and bulk density data to provide initial estimates of the three-dimensional structure of hydraulic properties. Simple linear functions are defined that transform the PTF estimates of soil hydraulic properties values into hydraulic parameters that minimize the objective functions for the domain, while zonation
Study on Two-Phase Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media by Light Transmission Method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, W.
2015-12-01
The non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) released to the subsurface can form residual ganglia and globules occupying pores and also accumulate and form pools, in which multiphase system forms. Determining transient fluid saturations in a multiphase system is essential to understand the flow characteristics of systems and to perform effective remediation strategies. As a non-destructive and non-invasive laboratory technique utilized for the measurement of liquid saturation in porous media, light transmission is of the lowest cost and safe. Utilization of Coupled Charge Device camera in light transmission systems provides a nearly instantaneous high-density array of spatial measurements over a very large dynamic range. The migration of NAPL and air spariging technique applied to remove NAPL in aquifer systems are typically two-phase flow problem. Because of the natural aquifer normally being heterogeneous, two 2-D sandboxes (Length55cm×width1.3cm×hight45cm) are set up to study the migration of gas and DNAPL in heterogeneous porous media based on light transmission method and its application in two-phase flow. Model D for water/gas system developed by Niemet and Selker (2001) and Model NW-A for water/NAPL system developed by Zhang et al. (2014) are applied for the calculation of fluid saturation in the two experiments, respectively. The gas injection experiments show that the gas moves upward in the irregular channels, piling up beneath the low permeability lenses and starting lateral movement. Bypassing the lenses, the gas moves upward and forms continuous distribution in the top of the sandbox. The faster of gas injects, the wider of gas migration will be. The DNAPL infiltration experiment shows that TCE mainly moves downward as the influence of gravity, stopping vertical infiltration when reaching the low permeability lenses because of its failure to overcome the capillary pressure. Then, TCE accumulates on the surface and starts transverse movement. Bypassing the
An Inverse Model of Three-Dimensional Flow and Transport in Heterogeneous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, B. A.; Vrugt, J. A.; Yoon, H.; Zhang, C.; Werth, C. J.; Kitanidis, P. K.; Lichtner, P. C.; Lu, C.
2007-12-01
A three-dimensional flow and transport model was developed to simulate the results of a laboratory-scale experiment in which snapshots of concentration were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the displacement of tracer through a 14 by 8 by 8 cm flow cell. The medium was deliberately constructed to be heterogeneous with a known spatial correlation structure using sand of five different grain-size distributions. The extremely well characterized flow cell and large, high-precision data set of concentrations during displacement make this a unique experiment for examining the validity of flow and transport models, and for exploring new methods for interpreting large data sets using advanced optimization algorithms. A transport model was constructed by solving the steady state flow equations using the Finite Element Heat and Mass (FEHM) code, using FEHM's particle tracking transport model for simulating tracer migration. The particle tracking model was selected so that precise estimates of the transport parameters could be obtained that are not corrupted by numerical dispersion; a large number of particles (typically one million) were required to provide accuracy. The inverse model included nine uncertain parameters, the five permeability values of the individual sand units, and four dispersion/diffusion parameters. The inverse problem was solved with AMALGAM and DREAM, two recently developed self-adaptive multimethod optimization algorithms. The computations were enabled by performing both the transport model and the optimization loop on a high-performance computing cluster. Computational results indicate that parameter estimates and increased understanding of the behavior of the system can be obtained, and significant improvements in the fit to the data over hand calibration can be achieved, using this inverse modeling approach. The study also illustrates that numerical methods that make effective use of high- performance computing resources and
Capillary transit time heterogeneity and flow-metabolism coupling after traumatic brain injury
Østergaard, Leif; Engedal, Thorbjørn S; Aamand, Rasmus; Mikkelsen, Ronni; Iversen, Nina K; Anzabi, Maryam; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard T; Drasbek, Kim R; Bay, Vibeke; Blicher, Jakob U; Tietze, Anna; Mikkelsen, Irene K; Hansen, Brian; Jespersen, Sune N; Juul, Niels; Sørensen, Jens CH; Rasmussen, Mads
2014-01-01
Most patients who die after traumatic brain injury (TBI) show evidence of ischemic brain damage. Nevertheless, it has proven difficult to demonstrate cerebral ischemia in TBI patients. After TBI, both global and localized changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) are observed, depending on the extent of diffuse brain swelling and the size and location of contusions and hematoma. These changes vary considerably over time, with most TBI patients showing reduced CBF during the first 12 hours after injury, then hyperperfusion, and in some patients vasospasms before CBF eventually normalizes. This apparent neurovascular uncoupling has been ascribed to mitochondrial dysfunction, hindered oxygen diffusion into tissue, or microthrombosis. Capillary compression by astrocytic endfeet swelling is observed in biopsies acquired from TBI patients. In animal models, elevated intracranial pressure compresses capillaries, causing redistribution of capillary flows into patterns argued to cause functional shunting of oxygenated blood through the capillary bed. We used a biophysical model of oxygen transport in tissue to examine how capillary flow disturbances may contribute to the profound changes in CBF after TBI. The analysis suggests that elevated capillary transit time heterogeneity can cause critical reductions in oxygen availability in the absence of ‘classic' ischemia. We discuss diagnostic and therapeutic consequences of these predictions. PMID:25052556
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Ching-Min; Yeh, Hund-Der
2016-09-01
This work describes an investigation of the spatial statistical structure of specific discharge field and solute transport process of a nonreactive solute at the field scale through a heterogeneous deformable porous medium. The flow field is driven by a vertical gradient in the excess pore water pressure induced by a step increase in load applied on the upper part of a finite-thickness aquifer. The non-stationary spectral representation is adopted to characterize the spatial covariance of the specific discharge field necessary for the development of the solute particle trajectory statistics using the Lagrangian formalism. We show that the statistics of the specific discharge and particle trajectory derived herein are non-stationary and functions of the coefficient of soil compressibility, μ. The effect of μ on the relative variation of specific discharge and the solute particle trajectory statistics are analyzed upon evaluating our expressions.
An improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Sheng; Qu, Xiaobo; Xu, Cheng; Ma, Dongfang; Wang, Dianhai
2015-10-01
This letter develops an improved multi-value cellular automata model for heterogeneous bicycle traffic flow taking the higher maximum speed of electric bicycles into consideration. The update rules of both regular and electric bicycles are improved, with maximum speeds of two and three cells per second respectively. Numerical simulation results for deterministic and stochastic cases are obtained. The fundamental diagrams and multiple states effects under different model parameters are analyzed and discussed. Field observations were made to calibrate the slowdown probabilities. The results imply that the improved extended Burgers cellular automata (IEBCA) model is more consistent with the field observations than previous models and greatly enhances the realism of the bicycle traffic model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolaides, C.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.
2013-12-01
Fluid mixing plays a fundamental role in many natural and engineered processes, including groundwater flows in heterogeneous media [1], enhanced oil recovery, and microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. Recent work has explored the effect of viscosity contrast on mixing, suggesting that the unstable displacement of fluids with different viscosities, or viscous fingering, provides a powerful mechanism to increase fluid-fluid interfacial area and enhance mixing [2]. However, existing studies have not incorporated the effect of medium heterogeneity on the mixing rate. Here, we characterize the evolution of mixing between two fluids of different viscosity on heterogeneous porous media. We focus on a practical scenario of divergent-convergent flow--a quarter five spot geometry--prototypical of well-driven groundwater flows [3]. We discuss the effect of permeability heterogeneity and viscosity contrast on mixing efficiency and breakthrough curves, and we rationalize the nontrivial mixing behavior that emerges from the competition between the creation of fluid-fluid interfacial area and channeling. [1] M. Dentz, T. Le Borgne, A. Englert, and B. Bijeljic, Mixing, spreading and reaction in heterogeneous media: A brief review, J. Contam. Hydrol. 120, 1-17 (2011). [2] B. Jha, L. Cueto-Felgueroso, and R. Juanes, Fluid mixing from viscous fingering. Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 194502 (2011) [3] J. Luo, M. Dentz, O. A. Cirpka, and P. K. Kitanidis, Breakthrough curve tailing in a dipole flow field, Water Resour. Res. 43(9), W09403 (2007).
The recovering of the contaminant release history in heterogeneous and partially known flow field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanini, A.; Cupola, F.; Tanda, M. G.
2015-12-01
The recovering of the release history of a pollutant in an aquifer is a subject that obtains the researchers attention since 1990 because the knowledge of the pollutant discharge history can be a useful tool to share, among the responsible parties, the costs of the remediation actions. The methods developed are based on the perfect knowledge of the flow field where the pollutant event has occurred. But very often this perfect knowledge is only an unattainable hope: few boreholes and pumping tests are usually available and realizing new ones can lead to unacceptable costs. An evaluation of the reliability of the results obtained with the procedures for the recovering of the release history in heterogeneous and partially known flow field can be a very useful subject under the point of view of researchers and the practitioners. In fact the different methods can be more or less sensitive to the problem or give information that includes or not an uncertainty evaluation; moreover it can be possible to quantify the adequate amount of the site characterization actions. In this work we deal with a geostatistically based approach that in the past we have successfully applied on a perfect-known transmissivity field. The objective of the actual study is to investigate the importance of the knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity field and to identifying the minimum information required for recovering an acceptable release history. At this aim we built a numerical model of a 2-D confined aquifer with rectangular shape characterized by a heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity field. We estimate the conductivity field through a kriging interpolation starting from values sampled on a regular grids of different density and on that partially known field we estimate the pollutant release history. The results show that the reliability of the recovered release history, of course, increases with the density of the grid but meaningful indications can be obtained also with not very detailed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuhlmann, A.; Neuweiler, I.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Helmig, R.
2012-02-01
We analyze the combined effects of the spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties and the water uptake by plant roots on unsaturated water flow. For this analysis, we use a simplified macroscopic root water uptake model which is usually applied only for homogeneous or layered soil and therefore we also determine whether it is applicable for multidimensional heterogeneous media. Analytical solutions for mean and variance of pressure head (first-order second-moment approximations) in layered media and numerical solutions of two-dimensional (2-D) autocorrelated multi-Gaussian and non multi-Gaussian parameter fields are analyzed for steady state and transient flow conditions. For non-Gaussian topological features, that have little influence on the mean and the variance of the pressure field if root water uptake is ignored, we test whether the influence is significant if root water uptake is accounted for. The results reveal that, in field structures with large patches of coarse material, local regions with pressure head values at the wilting point develop; these are surrounded by wet material. Without a compensation mechanism for local stress, the global transpiration demand is not met if local wilting occurs. Various compensation mechanisms are tested that depend, respectively, on the saturation, the relative conductivity or a strategy where the deficit in the global uptake rate is equally distributed to unstressed locations. The strategies lead to a global actual transpiration rate at the potential value and attenuate the formation of locally wilted areas. Wilted regions can, however, still occur, and may be an artifact of the simplified model concept as root-soil interactions are neglected. Therefore simplified macroscopic models for root water uptake should be used with caution in heterogeneous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Schepper, G.; Therrien, R.; Refsgaard, J.
2012-12-01
Subsurface drainage is a common agricultural practice in poorly drained production fields to guarantee the productivity of crops and to reduce flooding risks. The impact of shallow tile-drainage networks on groundwater flow patterns and associated nitrate transport from the surface needs to be quantified for adequate agricultural management. A challenge is to represent tile-drain networks in numerical models, at the field scale, while accounting for the influence of subsurface heterogeneities on flow and transport. A numerical model of a tile-drainage system has been developed with the fully integrated HydroGeoSphere model for the Lillebaek agricultural catchment, Denmark. The Lillebaek catchment is an experimental study area where hydraulic heads, stream and drain discharges, as well as groundwater and surface water nitrate concentrations are regularly measured. This catchment includes various tile-drainage networks that are monitored on a daily basis; the one we have been focusing on is about 5 ha within a 34 ha model domain. The Lillebaek catchment subsurface is made of about 30 m thick Quaternary deposits which consist of a local sandy aquifer with upper and lower clayey till units, confining the aquifer in the upper part. The main modelling objective is to assess the influence of tile drains on the water flow pattern within the confining clayey till unit with and on the nitrate reduction zone depth, also known as the redox-interface, while accounting for local geological heterogeneities. Using the national-scale geological model for Denmark combined with available local data, a hydrogeological model at field scale has been generated. A proper representation of the tile-drains geometry is essential to calibrate and validate the water flow model associated with nitrate transport. HydroGeoSphere can represent drains directly into a model as one-dimensional features, which however requires a very fine mesh discretization that limits the size of the simulation
Generalized gas-solid adsorption modeling: Single-component equilibria
Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.
2015-01-07
Over the last several decades, modeling of gas–solid adsorption at equilibrium has generally been accomplished through the use of isotherms such as the Freundlich, Langmuir, Tóth, and other similar models. While these models are relatively easy to adapt for describing experimental data, their simplicity limits their generality to be used with many different sets of data. This limitation forces engineers and scientists to test each different model in order to evaluate which one can best describe their data. Additionally, the parameters of these models all have a different physical interpretation, which may have an effect on how they can be further extended into kinetic, thermodynamic, and/or mass transfer models for engineering applications. Therefore, it is paramount to adopt not only a more general isotherm model, but also a concise methodology to reliably optimize for and obtain the parameters of that model. A model of particular interest is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm. The GSTA isotherm has enormous flexibility, which could potentially be used to describe a variety of different adsorption systems, but utilizing this model can be fairly difficult due to that flexibility. To circumvent this complication, a comprehensive methodology and computer code has been developed that can perform a full equilibrium analysis of adsorption data for any gas-solid system using the GSTA model. The code has been developed in C/C++ and utilizes a Levenberg–Marquardt’s algorithm to handle the non-linear optimization of the model parameters. Since the GSTA model has an adjustable number of parameters, the code iteratively goes through all number of plausible parameters for each data set and then returns the best solution based on a set of scrutiny criteria. Data sets at different temperatures are analyzed serially and then linear correlations with temperature are made for the parameters of the model. The end result is a full set of
Generalized gas-solid adsorption modeling: Single-component equilibria
Ladshaw, Austin; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; DePaoli, David W.
2015-01-07
Over the last several decades, modeling of gas–solid adsorption at equilibrium has generally been accomplished through the use of isotherms such as the Freundlich, Langmuir, Tóth, and other similar models. While these models are relatively easy to adapt for describing experimental data, their simplicity limits their generality to be used with many different sets of data. This limitation forces engineers and scientists to test each different model in order to evaluate which one can best describe their data. Additionally, the parameters of these models all have a different physical interpretation, which may have an effect on how they can bemore » further extended into kinetic, thermodynamic, and/or mass transfer models for engineering applications. Therefore, it is paramount to adopt not only a more general isotherm model, but also a concise methodology to reliably optimize for and obtain the parameters of that model. A model of particular interest is the Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) isotherm. The GSTA isotherm has enormous flexibility, which could potentially be used to describe a variety of different adsorption systems, but utilizing this model can be fairly difficult due to that flexibility. To circumvent this complication, a comprehensive methodology and computer code has been developed that can perform a full equilibrium analysis of adsorption data for any gas-solid system using the GSTA model. The code has been developed in C/C++ and utilizes a Levenberg–Marquardt’s algorithm to handle the non-linear optimization of the model parameters. Since the GSTA model has an adjustable number of parameters, the code iteratively goes through all number of plausible parameters for each data set and then returns the best solution based on a set of scrutiny criteria. Data sets at different temperatures are analyzed serially and then linear correlations with temperature are made for the parameters of the model. The end result is a full set
An Improved Discrete-Time Model for Heterogeneous High-Speed Train Traffic Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yan; Jia, Bin; Li, Ming-Hua; Li, Xin-Gang
2016-03-01
This paper aims to present a simulation model for heterogeneous high-speed train traffic flow based on an improved discrete-time model (IDTM). In the proposed simulation model, four train control strategies, including departing strategy, traveling strategy, braking strategy, overtaking strategy, are well defined to optimize train movements. Based on the proposed simulation model, some characteristics of train traffic flow are investigated. Numerical results indicate that the departure time intervals, the station dwell time, the section length, and the ratio of fast trains have different influence on traffic capacity and train average velocity. The results can provide some theoretical support for the strategy making of railway departments. Supported by the National Basic Research Program of China under Grant No. 2012CB725400, the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 71222101, the Research Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Rail Traffic Control and Safety under Grant No. RCS2014ZT16, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities No. 2015YJS088, Beijing Jiaotong University
A stochastic multiscale framework for modeling flow through random heterogeneous porous media
Ganapathysubramanian, B.; Zabaras, N.
2009-02-01
Flow through porous media is ubiquitous, occurring from large geological scales down to the microscopic scales. Several critical engineering phenomena like contaminant spread, nuclear waste disposal and oil recovery rely on accurate analysis and prediction of these multiscale phenomena. Such analysis is complicated by inherent uncertainties as well as the limited information available to characterize the system. Any realistic modeling of these transport phenomena has to resolve two key issues: (i) the multi-length scale variations in permeability that these systems exhibit, and (ii) the inherently limited information available to quantify these property variations that necessitates posing these phenomena as stochastic processes. A stochastic variational multiscale formulation is developed to incorporate uncertain multiscale features. A stochastic analogue to a mixed multiscale finite element framework is used to formulate the physical stochastic multiscale process. Recent developments in linear and non-linear model reduction techniques are used to convert the limited information available about the permeability variation into a viable stochastic input model. An adaptive sparse grid collocation strategy is used to efficiently solve the resulting stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs). The framework is applied to analyze flow through random heterogeneous media when only limited statistics about the permeability variation are given.
STRUCTURAL HETEROGENEITIES AND PALEO FLUID FLOW IN AN ANALOG SANDSTONE RESERVOIR 2001-2004
Pollard, David; Aydin, Atilla
2005-02-22
Fractures and faults are brittle structural heterogeneities that can act both as conduits and barriers with respect to fluid flow in rock. This range in the hydraulic effects of fractures and faults greatly complicates the challenges faced by geoscientists working on important problems: from groundwater aquifer and hydrocarbon reservoir management, to subsurface contaminant fate and transport, to underground nuclear waste isolation, to the subsurface sequestration of CO2 produced during fossil-fuel combustion. The research performed under DOE grant DE-FG03-94ER14462 aimed to address these challenges by laying a solid foundation, based on detailed geological mapping, laboratory experiments, and physical process modeling, on which to build our interpretive and predictive capabilities regarding the structure, patterns, and fluid flow properties of fractures and faults in sandstone reservoirs. The material in this final technical report focuses on the period of the investigation from July 1, 2001 to October 31, 2004. The Aztec Sandstone at the Valley of Fire, Nevada, provides an unusually rich natural laboratory in which exposures of joints, shear deformation bands, compaction bands and faults at scales ranging from centimeters to kilometers can be studied in an analog for sandstone aquifers and reservoirs. The suite of structures there has been documented and studied in detail using a combination of low-altitude aerial photography, outcrop-scale mapping and advanced computational analysis. In addition, chemical alteration patterns indicative of multiple paleo fluid flow events have been mapped at outcrop, local and regional scales. The Valley of Fire region has experienced multiple episodes of fluid flow and this is readily evident in the vibrant patterns of chemical alteration from which the Valley of Fire derives its name. We have successfully integrated detailed field and petrographic observation and analysis, process-based mechanical modeling, and numerical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, Susanta Kumar; Mandal, Nibir; Chakraborty, Chandan
2002-07-01
Rocks that are mechanically heterogeneous due to the presence of stiff or rigid inclusions floating in a ductile matrix, commonly show a variety of micro- to macro-scale structures developing under the influence of heterogeneous flow field in the neighbourhood of the inclusions. It is of fundamental importance to apprehend the nature of strain heterogeneity around inclusions to understand progressive development of structures associated with rigid inclusions such as strain shadow, foliation drag, porphyroclast mantle, porphyroblast inclusion trails, intragranular fractures, etc. The development of these diverse types of structures can be analyzed with the help of a suitable hydrodynamic theory. In this paper, we review different continuum models that have been proposed to characterize the heterogeneous flow field around rigid inclusions, focusing on recent developments. Recent studies reveal that Jeffery's [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 120 (1922) 161.] theory dealing with the motion of ellipsoidal rigid bodies in an infinitely extended viscous medium is more general in nature, and applicable for modeling the heterogeneous flow around both equant and inequant shapes of inclusions and ideal or non-ideal shear deformation of the matrix. The application of this theory, therefore, has advantages over other models, based on Lamb's [Lamb, H., 1932. Hydrodynamics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.] theory dealing with spherical inclusions. The review finally illustrates numerical simulations based on hydrodynamic theories, highlighting the controls of physical and kinematic factors on the progressive development of the structures mentioned above.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, G.
2012-12-01
Multiphase flow modeling is an important numerical tool for a better understanding of transport processes in the fields including, but not limited to, petroleum reservoir engineering, remedy of ground water contamination, and risk evaluation of greenhouse gases such as CO2 injected into deep saline reservoirs. However, accurate numerical modeling for multiphase flow remains many challenges that arise from the inherent tight coupling and strong non-linear nature of the governing equations and the highly heterogeneous media. The existence of counter current flow which is caused by the effect of adverse relative mobility contrast and gravitational and capillary forces will introduce additional numerical instability. Recently multipoint flux approximation (MPFA) has become a subject of extensive research and has been demonstrated with great success in reducing considerable grid orientation effects compared to the conventional single point upstream (SPU) weighting scheme, especially in higher dimensions. However, the present available MPFA schemes are mathematically targeted to certain types of grids in two dimensions, a more general form of MPFA scheme is needed for both 2-D and 3-D problems. In this work a new upstream weighting scheme based on multipoint directional incoming fluxes is proposed which incorporates full permeability tensor to account for the heterogeneity of the porous media. First, the multiphase governing equations are decoupled into an elliptic pressure equation and a hyperbolic or parabolic saturation depends on whether the gravitational and capillary pressures are presented or not. Next, a dual secondary grid (called finite volume grid) is formulated from a primary grid (called finite element grid) to create interaction regions for each grid cell over the entire simulation domain. Such a discretization must ensure the conservation of mass and maintain the continuity of the Darcy velocity across the boundaries between neighboring interaction regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Bien, L.; Hehn, V.; Winiarski, T.
2011-12-01
Colloidal particles transport through vadose zone can contribute to fast transport of contaminants into groundwater. The objective is to study the preferential flow and transport of colloids in heterogeneous unsaturated soil subjected to high organic matter entry. A physically based model is developed based on a large laboratory lysimeter than usual laboratory column experiments. LUGH-Lysimeter for Unsaturated Groundwater Hydrodynamics- is used to embed a soil monolith (1.6 m3) made of different cross-bedded lithological types with contrasting hydraulic properties. The filling material is a carbonated graded sand and gravel from the fluvioglacial vadose zone of the east of Lyon (France). Materials are 3D arranged on contrasting textured lithofacies analogous to the sedimentary lithology of a fluvioglacial cross-bedded deposit. Tracer (Br 1E-2M) and colloid solutions were injected in a pulse mode using a rainfall simulator. Colloid solution is Chlamydomonas reinhardtii at 3.2E+6 units/mL concentration. These unicellular algae can be considered as spherical particles from 6 to 10 μm in diam. Their resistance and doubling time of cell growth are greater than the transfer time in the lysimeter. Algae moving into the porous medium do not immediately reproduce, and then the population size remains constant. During this period, called the lag phase (1 to 2 days), the cells are metabolically active and increase only in cell size. Tensiometers, TDR and electric resistivity enable measurements of the parameters related to flow, solute and colloid transfer. Eluted solutions are sampled by 15 separated fraction collectors, leading to independent breakthrough curves. Eluted colloid concentration is measured by spectrofluorometry. The model approach combines Richards equation, coupled to a convective-dispersive equation with a source/sink term for particle transport and mobilization. Macroscopic particle attachment/detachment from pores is assumed to follow first-order kinetics
Real time mass flux measurements of gas-solid suspensions at low velocities
Saunders, J H; Chao, B T; Soo, S L
1981-01-01
In previous work, measurement of the particulate mass flux was made based upon a novel electrostatic technique. A small conducting wire sensor was inserted in the flow and as each particle hit the sensor an individual pulse of current was identified. Through suitable electronic circuitry, the number of pulses in a given time were counted. This was a direct measure of the number of particle-probe collisions which was related to local particle mass flow. The technique is currently limited to monodisperse suspensions. A primary advantage of the impact counter system is that the output does not depend upon the magnitude of the actual charge transfer. As long as the pulses are sufficiently above the noise level, variations in charge transfer will not affect the measurement. For the current work, the technique was applied to vertical gas-solid flow where the fluid velocity was slightly above the particle terminal velocity. Under these conditions a sufficient signal to noise ratio was not found. The Cheng-Soo charge transfer theory indicated that the low particle-sensor impact velocity was responsible. The probe system was then modified by extracting a particulate sample isokinetically and accelerating the particles to a sufficient velocity by an area reduction in the sampling tube. With this technique the signal to noise ratio was about 12 to 1. Mass flux results are shown to compare favorably with filter collection and weighing.
Ultrasonic levitation for the examination of gas/solid reactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavouras, A.; Krammer, G.
2003-10-01
An experimental setup based on acoustic levitation for the examination of gas/solid reactions is presented. In this setup single particles in the diameter range 1 mm-30 μm can be held against gravity for any wanted time in a defined gas atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The change of particle size, shape, and position can be measured and recorded using an optical device, consisting of a camera and a long range microscope. Basic experiments with inert particles of different shape and solid density have shown that the axial position of a reacting particle can be employed to derive its weight change. A method to evaluate this change of the recorded position for the according weight change is proposed. Exemplary results in the context of dry flue gas cleaning using Ca(OH)2 powder are presented. Single Ca(OH)2 particles are exposed to a well defined gas atmosphere and after some time these particles are retrieved from the ultrasonic field for further analyses. Only an in situ measurement of the particle weight change (i.e., without removing the particle from the well defined reactive atmosphere) brings information regarding the uptake of water by the sorbent, which accompanies SO2 and HCl absorption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ţene, Matei; Al Kobaisi, Mohammed Saad; Hajibeygi, Hadi
2016-09-01
This paper introduces an Algebraic MultiScale method for simulation of flow in heterogeneous porous media with embedded discrete Fractures (F-AMS). First, multiscale coarse grids are independently constructed for both porous matrix and fracture networks. Then, a map between coarse- and fine-scale is obtained by algebraically computing basis functions with local support. In order to extend the localization assumption to the fractured media, four types of basis functions are investigated: (1) Decoupled-AMS, in which the two media are completely decoupled, (2) Frac-AMS and (3) Rock-AMS, which take into account only one-way transmissibilities, and (4) Coupled-AMS, in which the matrix and fracture interpolators are fully coupled. In order to ensure scalability, the F-AMS framework permits full flexibility in terms of the resolution of the fracture coarse grids. Numerical results are presented for two- and three-dimensional heterogeneous test cases. During these experiments, the performance of F-AMS, paired with ILU(0) as second-stage smoother in a convergent iterative procedure, is studied by monitoring CPU times and convergence rates. Finally, in order to investigate the scalability of the method, an extensive benchmark study is conducted, where a commercial algebraic multigrid solver is used as reference. The results show that, given an appropriate coarsening strategy, F-AMS is insensitive to severe fracture and matrix conductivity contrasts, as well as the length of the fracture networks. Its unique feature is that a fine-scale mass conservative flux field can be reconstructed after any iteration, providing efficient approximate solutions in time-dependent simulations.
Barth, G.R.; Hill, M.C.; Illangasekare, T.H.; Rajaram, H.
2001-01-01
As a first step toward understanding the role of sedimentary structures in flow and transport through porous media, this work deterministically examines how small-scale laboratory-measured values of hydraulic conductivity relate to in situ values of simple, artificial structures in an intermediate-scale (10 m long), two-dimensional, heterogeneous, laboratory experiment. Results were judged based on how well simulations using measured values of hydraulic conductivities matched measured hydraulic heads, net flow, and transport through the tank. Discrepancies were investigated using sensitivity analysis and nonlinear regression estimates of the in situ hydraulic conductivity that produce the best fit to measured hydraulic heads and net flow. Permeameter and column experiments produced laboratory measurements of hydraulic conductivity for each of the sands used in the intermediate-scale experiments. Despite explicit numerical representation of the heterogeneity the laboratory-measured values underestimated net flow by 12-14% and were distinctly smaller than the regression-estimated values. The significance of differences in measured hydraulic conductivity values was investigated by comparing variability of transport predictions using the different measurement methods to that produced by different realizations of the heterogeneous distribution. Results indicate that the variations in measured hydraulic conductivity were more important to transport than variations between realizations of the heterogeneous distribution of hydraulic conductivity.
Analysis of the Impact of Soil Heterogeneity on the Spatial Variation of Unsaturated Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patterson, Matthew; Gimenez, Daniel; Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre
2016-04-01
Modelling infiltration into soils with deterministic models requires knowledge of the hydraulic properties of that soil. Informing a model with these properties is complex because of the spatial heterogeneity of hydraulic properties that naturally occurs in all soils . The objective of this work was to analyze the effects that contrasting synthetic heterogeneities have on spatial outflows using a three-dimensional numerical model. An undisturbed soil column of 32 cm diameter and 50 cm height was used in an outflow experiment in the laboratory, where outflow was collected from the bottom of the column in 145 spatially-varied outflow cells and the column was subjected to multiple inflow rates. After the completion of the experiment, 30 sub-cores of 8 cm diameter and 5 cm height were extracted from the column and used to measure hydraulic properties and texture through a combination of pressure plate extractor, automated evaporation method, and a dewpoint potentiometer. The spatial heterogeneity of the soil in the column was represented by a Local Indicator of Spatial Autocorrelation (LISA - Local Moran's I) clustering algorithm, which used both texture and Electrical Resistivity Tomography data to identify significant clusters of points with high (HH) and low (LL) values and values that were not part of a significant cluster (NS). Each cluster was also assigned a numerical index based on LISA. Effective hydraulic properties were assigned to the HH and LL clusters and NS points based on the location of the 30 sub-cores and their average hydraulic properties. Resistivity data were used with omni-directional variograms with ranges of 5 and 15 cm and a nugget of 0.25 to conditionally simulate 50 realizations of 3-D data based on each variogram. The LISA algorithm was then used to detect significant clusters in these data and classify them as HH, LL or NS. Importing the resulting 100 sets of synthetic clusters and their corresponding effective hydraulic properties into
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Y.; Kazemifar, F.; Blois, G.; Christensen, K. T.
2015-12-01
Multiphase flow of water and supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in porous media is central to geological sequestration of CO2 into saline aquifers. However, our fundamental understanding of the coupled flow dynamics of CO2 and water in complex geologic media still remains limited, especially at the pore scale. Recently, studies have been carried out in 2D homogeneous models with the micro-PIV technique, yielding very interesting observations of pore-scale flow transport. The primary aim of this work is to leverage this experimental protocol to quantify the pore-scale flow of water and liquid/supercritical CO2 in 2D heterogeneous porous micromodels under reservoir-relevant conditions. The goal is to capture the dynamics of this multi-phase flow in a porous matrix that mimics the heterogeneity of natural rock. Fluorescent microscopy and the micro-PIV technique are employed to simultaneously measure the spatially-resolved instantaneous velocity field in the water and quantify the instantaneous spatial configuration of both phases. The results for heterogeneous micromodels will be presented and compared with those for homogeneous micromodels, yielding valuable insight into flow processes at the pore scale in natural rock.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jankovic, I.
2002-05-01
can be used to infer the effective conductivity of the medium. As many as 100,000 inhomogeneities are placed inside the domain for 2D simulations. Simulations in 3D were limited to 50,000 inclusions. A large number of simulations was conducted on a massively parallel supercomputer cluster at the Center for Computational Research, University at Buffalo. Simulations range from mildly heterogeneous formations to highly heterogeneous formations (variance of the logarithm of conductivity equal to 10) and from sparsely populated systems to systems where inhomogeneities cover 95% of the volume. Particles are released and tracked inside the core of constant mean velocity. Following the particle tracking, various medium, flow, and transport statistics are computed. These include: spatial moments of particle positions, probability density function of hydraulic conductivity and each component of velocity, their two-point covariance function in the direction of flow and normal to it, covariance of Lagrangean velocities, and probability density function of travel times to various break-through locations. Following the analytic nature of the flow solution, all the results are presented in dimensionless forms. For example, the dispersion coefficients are made dimensionless with respect to the mean velocity and size of inhomogeneities. Detailed results will be presented and compared to well known first-order results and the results that are based on simple approximate transport solutions of Aldo Fiori.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buczko, U.; Gerke, H. H.; Hangen, E.; Hüttl, R. F.
2003-04-01
Water balances of forest sites are often estimated using 1-dimensional numerical models and tensiometer data from different depths. The magnitude of groundwater recharge calculated in such a way in most cases cannot be verified experimentally. In heterogeneous soils, water flows are spatially highly variable. The objective of this contribution is to compare the flow and deep percolation within a reclaimed mine soil which was calculated with a 1D numerical model, with seepage water collected, spatially-resolved, in-situ. Further, it is aimed at improving the methodology for calculating water balances and element budgets on heterogeneous mine soils, using 2D models with spatial variability. At the study site “Bärenbrück” near Cottbus, a lignitic mine soil afforested in 1982 with Pinus nigra, the components of the water balance were simulated with a 1D numerical model (SOIL/COUP) for a period from May 1995 to September 2001, using meteorological data and measured water tensions in soil depths 15, 60, and 100 cm. At the same site, soil water percolates were extracted continually in-situ at a soil depth of 110 cm from June 2000 until September 2001 within the framework of a cell-lysimeter study. 2D simulations were performed with the numerical model HYDRUS-2D, using evapotranspiration data obtained with the 1D-model. In the balance period between 4/96 and 3/99, the simulated deep percolation ranges between 30.4 and 35.2 mm per year, whereas during the dryer years 6/1999 5/2000 and 6/2000 5/2001 it amounts to 6.6 mm and 1.5 mm, respectively. The average deep percolation based on the in-situ suction plate data during the same period was 11 mm for the period 6/1999 5/2000 and 24.3 mm for 6/2000 5/2001, although spatially highly variable. Consequently, for the period 6/2000 5/2001, groundwater recharge based on measured in-situ data is by one order of magnitude higher than those simulated with the 1D model. The 2D numerical simulations are used to explain this
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadav, B. K.; Tomar, J.; Harter, T.
2014-12-01
We investigate nitrate movement from non-point sources in deep, heterogeneous vadose zones, using multi-dimensional variably saturated flow and transport simulations. We hypothesize that porous media heterogeneity causes saturation variability that leads to preferential flow systems such that a significant portion of the vadose zone does not significantly contribute to flow. We solve Richards' equation and the advection-dispersion equation to simulate soil moisture and nitrate transport regimes in plot-scale experiments conducted in the San Joaquin Valley, California. We compare equilibrium against non-equilibrium (dual-porosity) approaches. In the equilibrium approach we consider each soil layer to have unique hydraulic properties as a whole, while in the dual-porosity approach we assume that large fractions of the porous flow domain are immobile. However we consider exchange of water and solute between mobile and immobile zone using the appropriate mass transfer terms. The results indicate that flow and transport in a nearly 16 m deep stratified vadose zone comprised of eight layers of unconsolidated alluvium experiences highly non-uniform, localized preferential flow and transport patterns leading to accelerated nitrate transfer. The equilibrium approach largely under-predicted the leaching of nitrate to groundwater while the dual-porosity approach showed higher rates of nitrate leaching, consistent with field observations. The dual-porosity approach slightly over-predicted nitrogen storage in the vadose zone, which may be the result of limited matrix flow or denitrification not accounted for in the model. Results of this study may be helpful to better predict fertilizer and pesticide retention times in deep vadose zone, prior to recharge into the groundwater flow system. Keywords: Nitrate, Preferential flow, Heterogeneous vadose zone, Dual-porosity approach
Heterogeneities of in- and out-flows in the Mediterranean Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millot, Claude
2014-01-01
mix; thus, accurately predicting the outflow characteristics in the Atlantic Ocean appears almost impossible. Herein, we first propose a fully objective description of the AWs and MWs during two GIBEX campaigns. Where the AWs and the MWs do not markedly mix, they are defined in terms of density and temperature ranges. Where a MW mixes with one of the AWs down to the bottom, the mixing line characteristics allow for that MW to be followed from one section to one downstream and for the validation of our concept: while superimposed east of the Strait, the MWs come to be juxtaposed within the Strait before becoming superimposed again. We also analysed additional CTD time series collected by the University of Malaga on the south and north sides of the southern sill of Espartel. We demonstrate the following: (a) even though the MWs at the sill (E) and on the south side (ES) were roughly the same, the densest ones out-flowed at ES, i.e., at depths shallower than at E, (b) the MWs on the north side (EN) were very different from those at E and each mixed with different AWs, and (c) using the mixing lines computed from each time series, the data recorded at E and ES allow for the retrieval, with good accuracy, of those recorded at Camarinal (C), which is not the case for the data recorded at EN. Finally we emphasise how different the AWs' heterogeneities are from the MWs' heterogeneities. The inflow is sucked into the Mediterranean Sea, due to the water budget (E-P) deficit there, and it can be composed of any type of AW present west of the Strait at any time and any specific location. The outflow is a product of the Mediterranean Sea, which is like a machine producing a series of MWs that first circulate as alongslope density currents before entering the Strait in a specific order and at specific locations. Consequently, we attempt to schematise the AWs-MWs mixing processes and our understanding of the outflow dynamics. Notwithstanding the difficulty of the working conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayat, Tasawar; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2015-12-01
This paper addresses the steady three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscous nanofluid. The flow is caused by a permeable stretching surface with second order velocity slip and homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Water is treated as base fluid and copper as nanoparticle. An incompressible fluid fills the porous space. The fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of an applied magnetic field. A system of ordinary differential equations is obtained by using suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are derived. Impact of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, concentration and skin friction coefficient is discussed. Analysis of the obtained results shows that the flow field is influenced appreciably by the presence of velocity slip parameters. Also concentration distribution decreases for larger values of strength of homogeneous reaction parameter while it increases for strength of heterogeneous reaction parameter.
A theory for modeling ground-water flow in heterogeneous media
Cooley, Richard L.
2004-01-01
Construction of a ground-water model for a field area is not a straightforward process. Data are virtually never complete or detailed enough to allow substitution into the model equations and direct computation of the results of interest. Formal model calibration through optimization, statistical, and geostatistical methods is being applied to an increasing extent to deal with this problem and provide for quantitative evaluation and uncertainty analysis of the model. However, these approaches are hampered by two pervasive problems: 1) nonlinearity of the solution of the model equations with respect to some of the model (or hydrogeologic) input variables (termed in this report system characteristics) and 2) detailed and generally unknown spatial variability (heterogeneity) of some of the system characteristics such as log hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, recharge and discharge, and boundary conditions. A theory is developed in this report to address these problems. The theory allows construction and analysis of a ground-water model of flow (and, by extension, transport) in heterogeneous media using a small number of lumped or smoothed system characteristics (termed parameters). The theory fully addresses both nonlinearity and heterogeneity in such a way that the parameters are not assumed to be effective values. The ground-water flow system is assumed to be adequately characterized by a set of spatially and temporally distributed discrete values, ?, of the system characteristics. This set contains both small-scale variability that cannot be described in a model and large-scale variability that can. The spatial and temporal variability in ? are accounted for by imagining ? to be generated by a stochastic process wherein ? is normally distributed, although normality is not essential. Because ? has too large a dimension to be estimated using the data normally available, for modeling purposes ? is replaced by a smoothed or lumped approximation y?. (where y is a
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lachhab, A.
2015-12-01
The study site is located at the Center for Environmental Education and Research (CEER) at Susquehanna University. Electrical Resistivity and Seismic Refraction Tomography (ERT and SRT), as well as several pumping tests were performed to identify zones of heterogeneities and hydrogeophysical characteristics of a shallow unconfined aquifer. The combination of these methods was selected to study the local geology and the subsurface preferential pathways of groundwater flow. 22 Dipole-Dipole ERT transects with 56 electrodes each and 11 SRT transects with 24 geophones each were performed. Drilling logs of 5 observation wells located within the site were also used. All drilling logs showed clearly the heterogeneity of the aquifer when compared to each other. The combination of ERT and SRT indicated that a potential zone of preferential flow is present within the aquifer and can be accurately identified based on the approach adopted in this study. The drilling logs served to specifically identify the soil and the geological formations making the heterogeneity of the aquifer. 3D ERT and SRT block diagrams were generated to connect all formations shown in the 2D tomography profiles to visualize the pathways of preferential flow and non-conductive formations. While ERT has proven to show saturated areas of the subsurface, SRT was more effective in identifying the bedrock-soil discontinuity and other near surface formations contributing to the local heterogeneity.
Criaud, Annie, Fouassier, Philippe; Fouillac, Christian; Brach, Michel
1988-01-01
Three geothermal wells tapping the Dogger aquifer were studied in detail for their variations in chemical composition with time or conditions of exploitation. Analytical improvements for the determination of Cl, SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, Na and K make it possible to detect variations respectively of 0.15, 0.8, 0.6, 1.8, 1.8 and 1.4 %. Despite the fact that the natural flow may be important in some parts of the basin aquifer, we conclude that this factor is not responsible for the small variations noticed in mineralization within the one year survey period. The results concerning reactive and nonreactive species are best explained if a vertical heterogeneity of the chemistry of the fluid is assumed. A number of calcareous sub-layers, already demonstrated by geological studies, contribute to varying degrees to the production of the hot water. The changes in pumping rates, which are fixed according to external requirements, play a major role in the hydrodynamic and chemical disequilibrium of the wells. The consequences for the geothermal exploitations are emphasized.
Parallel Computation of Flow in Heterogeneous Media Modelled by Mixed Finite Elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cliffe, K. A.; Graham, I. G.; Scheichl, R.; Stals, L.
2000-11-01
In this paper we describe a fast parallel method for solving highly ill-conditioned saddle-point systems arising from mixed finite element simulations of stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) modelling flow in heterogeneous media. Each realisation of these stochastic PDEs requires the solution of the linear first-order velocity-pressure system comprising Darcy's law coupled with an incompressibility constraint. The chief difficulty is that the permeability may be highly variable, especially when the statistical model has a large variance and a small correlation length. For reasonable accuracy, the discretisation has to be extremely fine. We solve these problems by first reducing the saddle-point formulation to a symmetric positive definite (SPD) problem using a suitable basis for the space of divergence-free velocities. The reduced problem is solved using parallel conjugate gradients preconditioned with an algebraically determined additive Schwarz domain decomposition preconditioner. The result is a solver which exhibits a good degree of robustness with respect to the mesh size as well as to the variance and to physically relevant values of the correlation length of the underlying permeability field. Numerical experiments exhibit almost optimal levels of parallel efficiency. The domain decomposition solver (DOUG, http://www.maths.bath.ac.uk/~parsoft) used here not only is applicable to this problem but can be used to solve general unstructured finite element systems on a wide range of parallel architectures.
Heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schryer, D. R.
1982-01-01
The present conference on heterogeneous atmospheric chemistry considers such topics concerning clusters, particles and microparticles as common problems in nucleation and growth, chemical kinetics, and catalysis, chemical reactions with aerosols, electron beam studies of natural and anthropogenic microparticles, and structural studies employing molecular beam techniques, as well as such gas-solid interaction topics as photoassisted reactions, catalyzed photolysis, and heterogeneous catalysis. Also discussed are sulfur dioxide absorption, oxidation, and oxidation inhibition in falling drops, sulfur dioxide/water equilibria, the evidence for heterogeneous catalysis in the atmosphere, the importance of heterogeneous processes to tropospheric chemistry, soot-catalyzed atmospheric reactions, and the concentrations and mechanisms of formation of sulfate in the atmospheric boundary layer.
Investigation of Gas Solid Fluidized Bed Dynamics with Non-Spherical Particles
Choudhuri, Ahsan
2013-06-30
One of the largest challenges for 21st century is to fulfill global energy demand while also reducing detrimental impacts of energy generation and use on the environment. Gasification is a promising technology to meet the requirement of reduced emissions without compromising performance. Coal gasification is not an incinerating process; rather than burning coal completely a partial combustion takes place in the presence of steam and limited amounts of oxygen. In this controlled environment, a chemical reaction takes place to produce a mixture of clean synthetic gas. Gas-solid fluidized bed is one such type of gasification technology. During gasification, the mixing behavior of solid (coal) and gas and their flow patterns can be very complicated to understand. Many attempts have taken place in laboratory scale to understand bed hydrodynamics with spherical particles though in actual applications with coal, the particles are non-spherical. This issue drove the documented attempt presented here to investigate fluidized bed behavior using different ranges of non-spherical particles, as well as spherical. For this investigation, various parameters are controlled that included particle size, bed height, bed diameter and particle shape. Particles ranged from 355 µm to 1180 µm, bed diameter varied from 2 cm to 7 cm, two fluidized beds with diameters of 3.4 cm and 12.4 cm, for the spherical and non-spherical shaped particles that were taken into consideration. Pressure drop was measured with increasing superficial gas velocity. The velocity required in order to start to fluidize the particle is called the minimum fluidization velocity, which is one of the most important parameters to design and optimize within a gas-solid fluidized bed. This minimum fluidization velocity was monitored during investigation while observing variables factors and their effect on this velocity. From our investigation, it has been found that minimum fluidization velocity is independent of bed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McClure, J. E.; Prins, J. F.; Miller, C. T.
2014-07-01
Multiphase flow implementations of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) are widely applied to the study of porous medium systems. In this work, we construct a new variant of the popular “color” LBM for two-phase flow in which a three-dimensional, 19-velocity (D3Q19) lattice is used to compute the momentum transport solution while a three-dimensional, seven velocity (D3Q7) lattice is used to compute the mass transport solution. Based on this formulation, we implement a novel heterogeneous GPU-accelerated algorithm in which the mass transport solution is computed by multiple shared memory CPU cores programmed using OpenMP while a concurrent solution of the momentum transport is performed using a GPU. The heterogeneous solution is demonstrated to provide speedup of 2.6× as compared to multi-core CPU solution and 1.8× compared to GPU solution due to concurrent utilization of both CPU and GPU bandwidths. Furthermore, we verify that the proposed formulation provides an accurate physical representation of multiphase flow processes and demonstrate that the approach can be applied to perform heterogeneous simulations of two-phase flow in porous media using a typical GPU-accelerated workstation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Le Borgne, T.; Dentz, M.; Ginn, T. R.; Villermaux, E.
2015-12-01
Reactive mixing processes play a central role in a range of porous media systems, including CO2 sequestration operations, reactive geothermal dipoles, biofilms, or flow-through reactors. Many of these reactions are limited by fluid mixing processes that bring the reactants into contact. Hence, the temporal dynamics of effective global reactivity is determined by the creation of concentration gradients by fluid stretching and their dissipation by diffusion [1,2]. From the analysis of the elongation and aggregation of lamellar structures formed in the transported scalar fields, we derive analytical predictions for the probability density functions of concentration gradients in heterogeneous Darcy flows over a large range of Péclet numbers and permeability field variances. In this framework, we show that heterogeneous Darcy fields generate highly intermittent concentration fields, as manifested by the spatial scaling of structure functions. The resulting effective reaction rates display a range of temporal behaviors that depend on the degree of heterogeneity. In the large Damköhler limit, we derive analytical expressions for these temporal scalings in the different regimes that arise when exploring the Péclet number space. We generalize these results for different random flows, including turbulent flows. References:[1] Le Borgne, T., M. Dentz, E. Villermaux, The lamellar description of mixing in porous media, J. of Fluid Mech., vol. 770, pp. 458-498 [2] Le Borgne, T., M. Dentz, E. Villermaux, Stretching, coalescence and mixing in porous media, Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 204501 (2013)
Formation of ordered gas-solid structures via solidification in metal-hydrogen systems
Shapovalov, V.I. |
1998-12-31
This work contains theoretical discussions concerning the large amount of previously published experimental data related to gas eutectic transformations in metal-hydrogen systems. Theories of pore nucleation and growth in these gas-solid materials will be presented and related to observed morphologies and structures. This work is intended to be helpful to theorists that work with metal-hydrogen systems, and experimentalists engaged in manufacturing technology development of these ordered gas-solid structures.
Heterogeneities of in- and out-flows in the Mediterranean Sea
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millot, Claude
2014-01-01
mix; thus, accurately predicting the outflow characteristics in the Atlantic Ocean appears almost impossible. Herein, we first propose a fully objective description of the AWs and MWs during two GIBEX campaigns. Where the AWs and the MWs do not markedly mix, they are defined in terms of density and temperature ranges. Where a MW mixes with one of the AWs down to the bottom, the mixing line characteristics allow for that MW to be followed from one section to one downstream and for the validation of our concept: while superimposed east of the Strait, the MWs come to be juxtaposed within the Strait before becoming superimposed again. We also analysed additional CTD time series collected by the University of Malaga on the south and north sides of the southern sill of Espartel. We demonstrate the following: (a) even though the MWs at the sill (E) and on the south side (ES) were roughly the same, the densest ones out-flowed at ES, i.e., at depths shallower than at E, (b) the MWs on the north side (EN) were very different from those at E and each mixed with different AWs, and (c) using the mixing lines computed from each time series, the data recorded at E and ES allow for the retrieval, with good accuracy, of those recorded at Camarinal (C), which is not the case for the data recorded at EN. Finally we emphasise how different the AWs' heterogeneities are from the MWs' heterogeneities. The inflow is sucked into the Mediterranean Sea, due to the water budget (E-P) deficit there, and it can be composed of any type of AW present west of the Strait at any time and any specific location. The outflow is a product of the Mediterranean Sea, which is like a machine producing a series of MWs that first circulate as alongslope density currents before entering the Strait in a specific order and at specific locations. Consequently, we attempt to schematise the AWs-MWs mixing processes and our understanding of the outflow dynamics. Notwithstanding the difficulty of the working conditions
Study of a novel rotary cyclone gas-solid separator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ling, Zhiguang; Deng, Xingyong
2003-08-01
Based on the analytical study of the characteristics of fine particle motion in swirling flow, a new design idea on flow organization and construction aimed at increasing the positive radial flow in the separation chamber of the rotary cyclone separator (PRV type) was proposed. Experimental verification including the test of variation of separation efficiency and pressure loss with the first and secondary flow ratio show that this new type separator has higher and more stable separation efficiency in broad flow ratio range while the pressure loss is far below the conventional rotary cyclone separator and even comparable with that of simple cyclone separator
Peng, You; Bardeesi, Adham Sameer A.; Bardisi, Ekhlas Samir A.; Liao, Xinxue
2016-01-01
Background The vessel heterogeneity of thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) frame count (TFC) in patients with coronary slow flow (CSF) remains to be further evaluated, and the correlation between TFC heterogeneity and P-wave dispersion (PWD) has not been elucidated. We aim to investigate the vessel heterogeneity of TFC in coronary arteries, and its relation to PWD in patients with CSF and otherwise normal coronary arteries. Methods We studied 72 patients with angiographically documented CSF and 66 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The coefficient of variation (CV) and mean TFC of the three vessels were calculated. P-wave duration and PWD were measured on the standard electrocardiograms (ECGs). Results The mean TFC and CV were both significantly higher in CSF patients than in controls (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The maximum P-wave duration (Pmax) and PWD were found to be significantly higher in CSF patients than in controls (P<0.001 for both comparisons). In patients with CSF, both Pmax and PWD were mildly correlated to mean TFC (r=0.318, P=0.009; and r=0.307, P=0.010), and were more significantly correlated to CV (r=0.506, P<0.001; and r=0.579, P<0.001). Conclusions These data demonstrate that variability of TFC in three coronary arteries is increased in CSF patients, and that the vessel heterogeneity in coronary flow might be intimately associated with PWD. PMID:27076943
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, L.; Qu, Z. G.; Ding, T.; Miao, J. Y.
2016-04-01
The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media is numerically studied with the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method at the pore scale with consideration of interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer performances. Adsorbent structures are reconstructed in two dimensions by employing the quartet structure generation set approach. To implement boundary conditions accurately, all the porous interfacial nodes are recognized and classified into 14 types using a proposed universal program called the boundary recognition and classification program. The multiple-relaxation-time LB model and single-relaxation-time LB model are adopted to simulate flow and mass transport, respectively. The interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer capacities are evaluated with the permeability factor and interparticle transfer coefficient, Langmuir adsorption kinetics, and the solid diffusion model, respectively. Adsorption processes are performed in two groups of adsorbent media with different porosities and particle sizes. External and internal mass transfer resistances govern the adsorption system. A large porosity leads to an early time for adsorption equilibrium because of the controlling factor of external resistance. External and internal resistances are dominant at small and large particle sizes, respectively. Particle size, under which the total resistance is minimum, ranges from 3 to 7 μm with the preset parameters. Pore-scale simulation clearly explains the effect of both external and internal mass transfer resistances. The present paper provides both theoretical and practical guidance for the design and optimization of adsorption systems.
Zhou, L; Qu, Z G; Ding, T; Miao, J Y
2016-04-01
The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed random porous media is numerically studied with the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method at the pore scale with consideration of interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer performances. Adsorbent structures are reconstructed in two dimensions by employing the quartet structure generation set approach. To implement boundary conditions accurately, all the porous interfacial nodes are recognized and classified into 14 types using a proposed universal program called the boundary recognition and classification program. The multiple-relaxation-time LB model and single-relaxation-time LB model are adopted to simulate flow and mass transport, respectively. The interparticle, interfacial, and intraparticle mass transfer capacities are evaluated with the permeability factor and interparticle transfer coefficient, Langmuir adsorption kinetics, and the solid diffusion model, respectively. Adsorption processes are performed in two groups of adsorbent media with different porosities and particle sizes. External and internal mass transfer resistances govern the adsorption system. A large porosity leads to an early time for adsorption equilibrium because of the controlling factor of external resistance. External and internal resistances are dominant at small and large particle sizes, respectively. Particle size, under which the total resistance is minimum, ranges from 3 to 7 μm with the preset parameters. Pore-scale simulation clearly explains the effect of both external and internal mass transfer resistances. The present paper provides both theoretical and practical guidance for the design and optimization of adsorption systems. PMID:27176384
Lattice Boltzmann simulation of gas-solid adsorption processes at pore scale level
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, L.; Qu, Z. G.; Chen, L.; Tao, W. Q.
2015-11-01
A two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann (LB) approach was established to implement kinetic concentration boundary conditions in interfacial mass-transfer processes and to simulate the adsorption process in porous media at pore scale and mesoscopic levels. A general treatment was applied to conduct three types of concentration boundary conditions effectively and accurately. Applicability for adsorption was verified by two benchmark examples, which were representative of the interparticle mass transport and intraparticle mass transport in the adsorption system, respectively. The gas-solid adsorption process in reconstructed porous media at the pore scale level was numerically investigated. Mass-transfer processes of the adsorption reaction were simulated by executing Langmuir adsorption kinetics on surfaces of adsorbent particles. Meanwhile, the homogeneous solid diffusion model (HSDM) was used for mass transport in interior particles. The transient adsorbed amount was obtained in detail, and the impact of flow condition, porosity, and adsorbent particle size on the entire dynamic adsorption performance was investigated. The time needed to approach steady state decreased with increased fluid velocity. Transient adsorption capability and time consumption to equilibrium were nearly independent of porosity, whereas increasing pore size led to a moderating adsorption rate and more time was consumed to approach the saturation adsorption. Benefiting from the advantages of the LB method, both bulk and intraparticle mass transfer performances during adsorption can be obtained using the present pore scale approach. Thus, interparticle mass transfer and intraparticle mass transfer are the two primary segments, and intraparticle diffusion has the dominant role.
Laser studies of chemical dynamics at the gas-solid interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavanagh, Richard R.; King, David S.
The DOE funded research program Laser Studies of Chemical Dynamics at the Gas-Solid Interface has taken a detailed, microscopic view of molecules desorbed from surfaces in order to gain an understanding of energy flow and interaction potentials and how these control chemical reactivity at interfaces. Successful completion of these experiments required technical expertise both in surface science and laser-based molecular dynamics, a collaborative situation that exists in the NIST center for Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics. During the three year period covered by this progress report, our goal was to use state-resolved techniques to examine a single chemisorption system in detail, and to observe how changes in the interaction potential or method of surface excitation are manifest in the desorption dynamics. The system chosen was NO/Pt(111). Studies were undertaken in which the effects on the NO-Pt interaction potential of coadsorbates--both weakly (CO) and strongly (NH(sub 3)) interacting-- could be examined. In addition, attempts were to be made to study non- equilibrium dynamics by using pulsed laser heating.
Moschetta, Eric G; Negretti, Solymar; Chepiga, Kathryn M; Brunelli, Nicholas A; Labreche, Ying; Feng, Yan; Rezaei, Fateme; Lively, Ryan P; Koros, William J; Davies, Huw M L; Jones, Christopher W
2015-05-26
Flexible composite polymer/oxide hollow fibers are used as flow reactors for heterogeneously catalyzed reactions in organic synthesis. The fiber synthesis allows for a variety of supported catalysts to be embedded in the walls of the fibers, thus leading to a diverse set of reactions that can be catalyzed in flow. Additionally, the fiber synthesis is scalable (e.g. several reactor beds containing many fibers in a module may be used) and thus they could potentially be used for the large-scale production of organic compounds. Incorporating heterogeneous catalysts in the walls of the fibers presents an alternative to a traditional packed-bed reactor and avoids large pressure drops, which is a crucial challenge when employing microreactors. PMID:25865826
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pedretti, Daniele; Fiori, Aldo
2013-10-01
We analyze conservative solute transport under convergent flow to a well in perfectly stratified porous media, in which the hydraulic conductivity is treated as a random spatial function along the vertical direction (K(z)). The stratified model provides a rare exception of an exact analytical solution of travel time distributions in the proximity of pumping wells, and it is used here to obtain insights about ergodic and nonergodic transport conditions under nonuniform flow conditions. In addition, it provides a benchmark for numerical models aiming to correctly reproduce convergent flow transport in heterogeneous media, such as indicating the minimum number of layers required to obtain ergodic travel time distributions using only one model realization. The model provides important insights about the shape of the depth-integrated concentrations over time measured at the well (breakthrough curves, BTCs), which are usually applied to obtain transport parameters of the subsurface. It can be applied to any degree of system's heterogeneity and using either resident or flux-weighted injection modes. It can be built using different probabilistic distributions of K. In our analysis, we consider a log-normal K distribution, and the results indicate that, especially for highly heterogeneous systems, described by the log-K variance (σY2), the minimum number of layers required for from one model simulation to reproduce ergodic travel time distributions can be prohibitively high, e.g., above 106 for σY2=8 considering flux-weighted injections. This issue poses serious concerns for numerical applications aiming to simulate transport in the proximity of pumping wells. In addition, this simple solution confirms that stratification can lead BTCs to display strong preferential flow and persistent, power-law-like late-time tailing. Since the latter are common phenomenological macroscale evidences of other microscale hydrodynamic processes than pure advection (e.g., mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, S. M.; Hingerl, F.; Pini, R.
2013-12-01
New imaging techniques and approaches are providing unparalleled insight into the influence of sub-core scale heterogeneities on single and multiphase flows. Quantification of sub core-scale porosity, permeability, and even capillary pressure curves at a spatial scale of about 1-10 cubic millimeters is now possible. This scale provides a critical link in the continuum of spatial scales needed to link pore-scale processes to core-scale and field scale flow and transport. Data from such studies can be used to directly test the veracity of models for flow and transport in heterogeneous rocks, provide data for multi-stage upscaling, and reveal insights about physical/chemical processes heretofore neglected. Here we present data from three emerging techniques capable of imaging and quantifying transport properties and phenomena at the sub-core scale: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); positron emission tomography (PET); and X-Ray CT scanning. Direct imaging of spatially resolved fluid velocities and porosity is possible with MRI (Romanenko et al., 2012). These data can be inverted to provide permeability and porosity maps at a spatial scale of ~10 cubic millimeter. PET imaging can be used to track movement of a radioactive tracer through a rock and simultaneously measure effluent tracer concentrations at a similar resolution (Boutchko et al., 2012). X-ray CT scanning of multiphase flow experiments can be used to measure capillary pressure curves and through scaling relationships, to calculate permeability at a scale of about 1 cubic millimeters(Krause et al., 2011; Pini et al., 2013). Strengths and shortcomings of these techniques are discussed--along with the benefits of combining them. Together these techniques provide a new platform from which to probe more deeply the ubiquitous influence of heterogeneity on subsurface flow and transport processes, and ultimately improve predictions of subsurface transport. Boutchk et al., 2012. Imaging and modeling of flow in porous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bulicek, M. C.; Metge, D. W.; Mohanty, S. K.; Harvey, R. W.; Ryan, J. N.
2013-12-01
Intermittent flows of rainwater frequently mobilize pathogenic microbes attached to subsurface soils, thereby causing groundwater contamination. The potential of intermittent rainfall to mobilize diverse pathogens (e.g., size, shape, taxa) remains understudied for heterogeneous soil systems. This study investigates the combined effects of microbe size and shape, intermittent flow, and soil physical heterogeneity on the transport, retention and mobilization of microbes through an intact, fractured shale saprolite core. Microbes, including MS-2 bacteriophage (~26 nm), Pseudomonas stutzeri bacteria (~1 μm), and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (3.6 μm), and 0.5 μm fluorescent microspheres (FMS), preceded by a bromide tracer, were applied to the core to obtain breakthrough. After breakthrough, the core was subjected to intermittent rainfalls to mobilize the attached microbes and FMS. Water samples were collected using 19 spatially-arranged outlet ports at the core base to resolve the effect of soil physical heterogeneity. Water infiltrated through only eight of 19 total sampling ports, which indicated water partially bypassed soil matrices and infiltrated through macropores. Bromide recovery was less than 100%, which indicated diffusion of bromide into the soil matrix. Macropores and the soil matrix dominated flow were characterized based on the cumulative bromide recovery within individual sampling ports. Thus, lower recovery was attributed to increased matrix diffusion and higher recovery indicated the presence of macropores. Intermittent flow mobilized previously sequestered microbes and FMS; however, mobilization varied with the size of microbes/FMS and sampling ports. Greater mobilization occurred through macropores compared to soil matrices. Mobilization of larger, spherical C. parvum oocysts was greater than that of the smaller, spherical MS-2 bacteriophage and the rod-shaped P. stutzeri bacteria during intermittent flow. This suggested shear forces mobilize
Benkert, A; Blum, M; Meyer, F; Wilks, R G; Yang, W; Bär, M; Reinert, F; Heske, C; Weinhardt, L
2014-01-01
We present a novel gas cell designed to study the electronic structure of gases and gas/solid interfaces using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. In this cell, the sample gas is separated from the vacuum of the analysis chamber by a thin window membrane, allowing in situ measurements under atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the gas can be regulated from room temperature up to approximately 600 °C. To avoid beam damage, a constant mass flow can be maintained to continuously refresh the gaseous sample. Furthermore, the gas cell provides space for solid-state samples, allowing to study the gas/solid interface for surface catalytic reactions at elevated temperatures. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, we have investigated a TiO2 sample behind a mixture of N2 and He gas at atmospheric pressure. PMID:24517824
Benkert, A. E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu; Blum, M.; Meyer, F.; Wilks, R. G.; Yang, W.; Bär, M.; and others
2014-01-15
We present a novel gas cell designed to study the electronic structure of gases and gas/solid interfaces using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. In this cell, the sample gas is separated from the vacuum of the analysis chamber by a thin window membrane, allowing in situ measurements under atmospheric pressure. The temperature of the gas can be regulated from room temperature up to approximately 600 °C. To avoid beam damage, a constant mass flow can be maintained to continuously refresh the gaseous sample. Furthermore, the gas cell provides space for solid-state samples, allowing to study the gas/solid interface for surface catalytic reactions at elevated temperatures. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, we have investigated a TiO{sub 2} sample behind a mixture of N{sub 2} and He gas at atmospheric pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tecklenburg, Jan; Neuweiler, Insa; Carrera, Jesus; Dentz, Marco
2016-05-01
We study modeling of two-phase flow in highly heterogeneous fractured and porous media. The flow behaviour is strongly influenced by mass transfer between a highly permeable (mobile) fracture domain and less permeable (immobile) matrix blocks. We quantify the effective two-phase flow behavior using a multirate rate mass transfer (MRMT) approach. We discuss the range of applicability of the MRMT approach in terms of the pertinent viscous and capillary diffusion time scales. We scrutinize the linearization of capillary diffusion in the immobile regions, which allows for the formulation of MRMT in the form of a non-local single equation model. The global memory function, which encodes mass transfer between the mobile and the immobile regions, is at the center of this method. We propose two methods to estimate the global memory function for a fracture network with given fracture and matrix geometry. Both employ a scaling approach based on the known local memory function for a given immobile region. With the first method, the local memory function is calculated numerically, while the second one employs a parametric memory function in form of truncated power-law. The developed concepts are applied and tested for fracture networks of different complexity. We find that both physically based parameter estimation methods for the global memory function provide predictive MRMT approaches for the description of multiphase flow in highly heterogeneous porous media.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zech, Alraune; Zehner, Björn; Kolditz, Olaf; Attinger, Sabine
2016-04-01
Ground water flow systems of the Thuringian Basin are studied by analyzing the fluid dynamics at this real world example of a shallow sedimentary basin. The impact of the permeability distribution and density differences on the flow velocity pattern, the salt concentration, and the temperature distribution is quantified by means of transient coupled simulations of fluid flow, heat, and mass transport processes. Simulations are performed with different permeabilities in the sedimentary layering and heterogeneous permeability distributions as well as with a non-constant fluid density. Three characteristic numbers are useful to describe the effects of permeability on the development of flow systems and subsurface transport: the relation of permeability between aquiclude and aquifer, the variance, and the correlation length of the log-normal permeability distribution. Density dependent flow due to concentration gradients is of minor importance for the distribution of the flow systems, but can lead to increased mixing dissolution of salt. Thermal convection is in general not present. The dominant driver of groundwater flow is the topography in combination with the permeability distribution. The results obtained for the Thuringian Basin give general insights into the dynamics of a small sedimentary basin due to the representative character of the basin structure as well as the transferability of the settings to other small sedimentary basins.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parker, L. B.; Yarwood, R. R.; Kraft, E. L.; Selker, J. S.
2003-12-01
Gaseous flow dynamics in unsaturated media were examined with respect to microbial colonization, liquid flow rates, and textural heterogeneities. A light transmission chamber consisting of two glass sheets mounted in an aluminum frame in front of a light bank was packed with translucent quartz sand and brought to unsaturated conditions. To visualize gas transport, carbon dioxide was introduced to the chamber at varying rates in combination with different liquid flow rates and textural inclusions. A methyl red pH indicator solution was used in conjunction with a liquid-cooled camera to monitor carbon dioxide concentrations and infer transport dynamics throughout the system. To explore whether gas-phase nutrients would stimulate microbial growth, acetate and ammonia vapors were pumped through a chamber inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens HK44. Naphthalene vapor pulses were used to induce bioluminescence, allowing imaging of responsive colonies.
Rudroff, Thorsten; Weissman, Jessica A; Bucci, Marco; Seppänen, Marko; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Heinonen, Ilkka; Kalliokoski, Kari K
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate blood flow and its heterogeneity within and among the knee muscles in five young (26 ± 6 years) and five old (77 ± 6 years) healthy men with similar levels of physical activity while they performed two types of submaximal fatiguing isometric contraction that required either force or position control. Positron emission tomography (PET) and [15O]-H2O were used to determine blood flow at 2 min (beginning) and 12 min (end) after the start of the tasks. Young and old men had similar maximal forces and endurance times for the fatiguing tasks. Although muscle volumes were lower in the older subjects, total muscle blood flow was similar in both groups (young men: 25.8 ± 12.6 ml min−1; old men: 25.1 ± 15.4 ml min−1; age main effect, P = 0.77) as blood flow per unit mass of muscle in the exercising knee extensors was greater in the older (12.5 ± 6.2 ml min−1 (100 g)−1) than the younger (8.6 ± 3.6 ml min−1 (100 g)−1) men (age main effect, P = 0.001). Further, blood flow heterogeneity in the exercising knee extensors was significantly lower in the older (56 ± 27%) than the younger (67 ± 34%) men. Together, these data show that although skeletal muscles are smaller in older subjects, based on the intact neural drive to the muscle and the greater, less heterogeneous blood flow per gram of muscle, old fit muscle achieves adequate exercise hyperaemia. Key points The results of previous studies that attempted to demonstrate the effects of ageing on skeletal muscle blood flow are controversial because these studies used indirect assessments of skeletal muscle blood flow obtained via whole limb blood flow measurements that provide no information on the distribution of blood flow within particular muscles. We used positron emission tomography to measure blood flow per gram of muscle in old and young men with similar levels of physical activity
Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures
Daum, Edward D.; Downs, William; Jankura, Bryan J.; McCoury, Jr., John M.
1990-01-01
An apparatus and method for sampling gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extends in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.
Gas sampling system for reactive gas-solid mixtures
Daum, Edward D.; Downs, William; Jankura, Bryan J.; McCoury, Jr., John M.
1989-01-01
An apparatus and method for sampling a gas containing a reactive particulate solid phase flowing through a duct and for communicating a representative sample to a gas analyzer. A sample probe sheath 32 with an angular opening 34 extends vertically into a sample gas duct 30. The angular opening 34 is opposite the gas flow. A gas sampling probe 36 concentrically located within sheath 32 along with calibration probe 40 partly extend in the sheath 32. Calibration probe 40 extends further in the sheath 32 than gas sampling probe 36 for purging the probe sheath area with a calibration gas during calibration.
Engdahl, N.B.; Vogler, E.T.; Weissmann, G.S.
2010-01-01
River-aquifer exchange is considered within a transition probability framework along the Rio Grande in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to provide a stochastic estimate of aquifer heterogeneity and river loss. Six plausible hydrofacies configurations were determined using categorized drill core and wetland survey data processed through the TPROGS geostatistical package. A base case homogeneous model was also constructed for comparison. River loss was simulated for low, moderate, and high Rio Grande stages and several different riverside drain stage configurations. Heterogeneity effects were quantified by determining the mean and variance of the K field for each realization compared to the root-mean-square (RMS) error of the observed groundwater head data. Simulation results showed that the heterogeneous models produced smaller estimates of loss than the homogeneous approximation. Differences between heterogeneous and homogeneous model results indicate that the use of a homogeneous K in a regional-scale model may result in an overestimation of loss but comparable RMS error. We find that the simulated river loss is dependent on the aquifer structure and is most sensitive to the volumetric proportion of fines within the river channel. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russo, David
2016-04-01
Detailed numerical analyses of flow and transport were used to investigate the effect of spatially connected features on the transport in three-dimensional (3-D), spatially heterogeneous, combined vadose zone-groundwater flow systems. Formations with spatially connected fine- and coarse-textured features (SCFT- and SCCT-formations, respectively), representing the10th and the 90th percentiles of the distributions of the formation's hydraulic parameters, respectively, were considered here. Results of the analyses suggest that in steady-state flow, when the unsaturated zone of the combined flow domains is relatively wet, as compared with a Multivariate-Gaussian (MG) formation, spatially connected features may reduce the solute first arrival time, particularly in the SCCT-formation, and may enhance the spreading of the solute breakthrough, particularly in the SCFT-formation. The effect of the spatially connected features on the hydrological response, however, decreases as the unsaturated zone becomes drier. The latter result stems from the decrease in the fraction of the water-filled, pore-space occupied by the connected structures, with decreasing water content. The latter finding also explains the result that the response of more realistic, combined flow systems, whose unsaturated zone is associated with transient flow and relatively low, intermittent water contents, is essentially independent of the spatially connected features of the formations, regardless of their soil texture.
Simmons, C T; Fenstemaker, T R; Sharp, J M
2001-11-01
In certain hydrogeological situations, fluid density variations occur because of changes in the solute or colloidal concentration, temperature, and pressure of the groundwater. These include seawater intrusion, high-level radioactive waste disposal, groundwater contamination, and geothermal energy production. When the density of the invading fluid is greater than that of the ambient one, density-driven free convection can lead to transport of heat and solutes over larger spatial scales and significantly shorter time scales than compared with diffusion alone. Beginning with the work of Lord Rayleigh in 1916, thermal and solute instabilities in homogeneous media have been studied in detail for almost a century. Recently, these theoretical and experimental studies have been applied in the study of groundwater phenomena, where the assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy rarely, if ever, apply. The critical role that heterogeneity plays in the onset as well as the growth and/or decay of convective motion is discussed by way of a review of pertinent literature and numerical simulations performed using a variable-density flow and solute transport numerical code. Different styles of heterogeneity are considered and range from continuously "trending" heterogeneity (sinusoidal and stochastic permeability distributions) to discretely fractured geologic media. Results indicate that both the onset of instabilities and their subsequent growth and decay are intimately related to the structure and variance of the permeability field. While disordered heterogeneity tends to dissipate convection through dispersive mixing, an ordered heterogeneity (e.g., sets of vertical fractures) allows instabilities to propagate at modest combinations of fracture aperture and separation distances. Despite a clearer understanding of the processes that control the onset and propagation of instabilities, resultant plume patterns and their migration rates and pathways do not appear amenable to
Vimalchand, Pannalal; Liu, Guohai; Peng, WanWang
2010-08-10
The system of the present invention includes a centripetal cyclone for separating particulate material from a particulate laden gas solids stream. The cyclone includes a housing defining a conduit extending between an upstream inlet and a downstream outlet. In operation, when a particulate laden gas-solids stream passes through the upstream housing inlet, the particulate laden gas-solids stream is directed through the conduit and at least a portion of the solids in the particulate laden gas-solids stream are subjected to a centripetal force within the conduit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang
2014-09-01
Conventional semi-infinite analytical solutions of correlation diffusion equation may lead to errors when calculating blood flow index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in tissues with irregular geometries. Very recently, we created an algorithm integrating a Nth-order linear model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in homogenous tissues with arbitrary geometries for extraction of BFI (i.e., αDB). The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of the Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting BFI in heterogeneous tissues with arbitrary geometries. The previous linear algorithm was modified to extract BFIs in different types of tissues simultaneously through utilizing DCS data at multiple source-detector separations. We compared the proposed linear algorithm with the semi-infinite homogenous solution in a computer model of adult head with heterogeneous tissue layers of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain. To test the capability of the linear algorithm for extracting relative changes of cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in deep brain, we assigned ten levels of αDB in the brain layer with a step decrement of 10% while maintaining αDB values constant in other layers. Simulation results demonstrate the accuracy (errors < 3%) of high-order (N ≥ 5) linear algorithm in extracting BFIs in different tissue layers and rCBF in deep brain. By contrast, the semi-infinite homogenous solution resulted in substantial errors in rCBF (34.5% ≤ errors ≤ 60.2%) and BFIs in different layers. The Nth-order linear model simplifies data analysis, thus allowing for online data processing and displaying. Future study will test this linear algorithm in heterogeneous tissues with different levels of blood flow variations and noises.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gjetvaj, Filip; Russian, Anna; Gouze, Philippe; Dentz, Marco
2015-10-01
Both flow field heterogeneity and mass transfer between mobile and immobile domains have been studied separately for explaining observed anomalous transport. Here we investigate non-Fickian transport using high-resolution 3-D X-ray microtomographic images of Berea sandstone containing microporous cement with pore size below the setup resolution. Transport is computed for a set of representative elementary volumes and results from advection and diffusion in the resolved macroporosity (mobile domain) and diffusion in the microporous phase (immobile domain) where the effective diffusion coefficient is calculated from the measured local porosity using a phenomenological model that includes a porosity threshold (ϕθ) below which diffusion is null and the exponent n that characterizes tortuosity-porosity power-law relationship. We show that both flow field heterogeneity and microporosity trigger anomalous transport. Breakthrough curve (BTC) tailing is positively correlated to microporosity volume and mobile-immobile interface area. The sensitivity analysis showed that the BTC tailing increases with the value of ϕθ, due to the increase of the diffusion path tortuosity until the volume of the microporosity becomes negligible. Furthermore, increasing the value of n leads to an increase in the standard deviation of the distribution of effective diffusion coefficients, which in turn results in an increase of the BTC tailing. Finally, we propose a continuous time random walk upscaled model where the transition time is the sum of independently distributed random variables characterized by specific distributions. It allows modeling a 1-D equivalent macroscopic transport honoring both the control of the flow field heterogeneity and the multirate mass transfer between mobile and immobile domains.
Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang
2014-09-29
Conventional semi-infinite analytical solutions of correlation diffusion equation may lead to errors when calculating blood flow index (BFI) from diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) measurements in tissues with irregular geometries. Very recently, we created an algorithm integrating a Nth-order linear model of autocorrelation function with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon migrations in homogenous tissues with arbitrary geometries for extraction of BFI (i.e., αD{sub B}). The purpose of this study is to extend the capability of the Nth-order linear algorithm for extracting BFI in heterogeneous tissues with arbitrary geometries. The previous linear algorithm was modified to extract BFIs in different types of tissues simultaneously through utilizing DCS data at multiple source-detector separations. We compared the proposed linear algorithm with the semi-infinite homogenous solution in a computer model of adult head with heterogeneous tissue layers of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain. To test the capability of the linear algorithm for extracting relative changes of cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in deep brain, we assigned ten levels of αD{sub B} in the brain layer with a step decrement of 10% while maintaining αD{sub B} values constant in other layers. Simulation results demonstrate the accuracy (errors < 3%) of high-order (N ≥ 5) linear algorithm in extracting BFIs in different tissue layers and rCBF in deep brain. By contrast, the semi-infinite homogenous solution resulted in substantial errors in rCBF (34.5% ≤ errors ≤ 60.2%) and BFIs in different layers. The Nth-order linear model simplifies data analysis, thus allowing for online data processing and displaying. Future study will test this linear algorithm in heterogeneous tissues with different levels of blood flow variations and noises.
Large-Eddy Simulation Study of the Effects on Flow of a Heterogeneous Forest at Sub-Tree Resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlegel, Fabian; Stiller, Jörg; Bienert, Anne; Maas, Hans-Gerd; Queck, Ronald; Bernhofer, Christian
2015-01-01
The effect of three-dimensional plant heterogeneity on flow past a clearing is investigated by means of large-eddy simulation. A detailed representation of the canopy has been acquired by terrestrial laser scanning for a patch of approximately length and width at the field site "Tharandter Wald", near the city of Dresden, Germany. The scanning data are used to produce a highly resolved, three-dimensional plant area distribution representing the actual canopy. Hence, the vegetation maintains a rich horizontal and vertical structure including the three-dimensional clearing. The scanned plant area density is embedded in a larger domain, which is filled with a heterogeneous forest generated by the virtual canopy generator of Bohrer et al. (Tellus B 59:566-576, 2007). Based on forest inventory maps and airborne laser scanning, the characteristics of the actual canopy are preserved. Furthermore, the topography is extracted from a digital terrain model with some modifications to accommodate for periodic boundary conditions. A large-eddy simulation is performed for neutral atmospheric conditions and compared to simulations of a two-dimensional plant area density and an one-year-long field experiment conducted at the corresponding field site. The results reveal a considerable influence of the plant heterogeneity on the mean velocity field as well as on the turbulent quantities. The three-dimensional environment, e.g., the oblique edges combined with horizontal and vertical variations in plant area density and the topography create a sustained vertical and cross-flow velocity. Downstream of the windward forest edge an enhanced gust zone develops, whose intensity and relative position are influenced by the local canopy density and, therefore, is not constant along the edge. These results lead us to the conclusion that the usage of a three-dimensional plant area distribution is essential for capturing the flow features inside the canopy and within the mixing layer above.
A Renormalization-Group Approach of the Up-Scaling Problem of Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
noetinger, B.
2001-12-01
Powerful methods coming from statistical physics are becoming increasingly popular to get a faithful theoretical description of flow and transport in heterogeneous aquifers that are described by mean of geostatistics. However,in current practice people still use Monte Carlo simulations that are well suited to account for complex boundaries and flow patterns. Here, we present an approach intending to up-scale directly the geostatistical description rather than realization by realization as usual. It is based upon a renormalization group analysis close in spirit with previous works and P King and Jaekel and Vereecken. Using a so called "weak approximation"(Neuman and Orr) , we obtain differential equations driving the permeability variogram parameters as a function of the wave-vector cut-off smoothing the permeability maps. At the end of the process, in the isotropic case, the Landau Lifshitz Matheron conjecture is recovered. This conjecture appears thus as being a consequence of both renormalization approach and the weak approximation. The approach is currently being generalized to anisotropic media. These results can be used to perform cheaper Monte Carlo simulations at a coarser scale. P. King, The Use of Field Theoretic Methods for the Study of Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Medium", J. Phys. A.: Math. Gen. 20, pp3935-3947,1987 U. Jaekel and H. Vereecken, Renormalization Group Analysis of Macrodispersion in a Directed Random Flow, Water Resources Research,33,10,pp 2287-2299, 1997 Neuman, S.P. and Orr, S. "Prediction of Steady State Flow in Nonuniform Geologic Media by Conditional Moments: Exact non local Formalism, Effective Conductivities and Weak Approximation", Water Resources Research 29 (2)341-364 (1993) Noetinger, B. Computing the Effective Permeability of log-normal permeability fields using renormalization methods. C.R . Acad. Des Sciences,Sciences de la Terre et des Planètes, 331 353-357 (2000)
A combined PIV/LIF-system for the measurement of heterogeneous drag reduction effects in a pipe-flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadeh, M.; Strauss, K.; Schneider, T.
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique combined with flow visualization was applied in heterogeneous drag reduction to examine the motion of the polymer thread and the mixing process of polymer and water simultaneously at Reynolds numbers of 15000. The instantaneous velocity profiles for water/polymer motion showed in some cross-sections differences in the velocities of the two phases which indicates an interaction between the polymer thread and the water phase. The results of this interaction have not a significant effect on the drag reduction compared with the influence of the mixing process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayat, Tasawar; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Almezal, Saleh
2016-03-01
This paper investigates the steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of an Oldroyd-B fluid over a stretching surface with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions. Characteristics of relaxation time for heat flux are captured by employing new heat flux model proposed by Christov. A system of ordinary differential equations is obtained by using suitable transformations. Convergent series solutions are derived. Impacts of various pertinent parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration are discussed. Analysis of the obtained results shows that fluid relaxation and retardation time constants have reverse behavior on the velocity and concentration fields. Also temperature distribution decreases for larger values of thermal relaxation time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Federico, V.; Longo, S.; Ciriello, V.; Chiapponi, L.
2015-12-01
A theoretical and experimental analysis of non-Newtonian gravity-driven flow in porous media with spatially variable properties is presented. The motivation for our study is the rheological complexity exhibited by several environmental contaminants (wastewater sludge, oil pollutants, waste produced by the minerals and coal industries) and remediation agents (suspensions employed to enhance the efficiency of in-situ remediation). Natural porous media are inherently heterogeneous, and this heterogeneity influences the extent and shape of the porous domain invaded by the contaminant or remediation agent. To grasp the combined effect of rheology and spatial heterogeneity, we consider: a) the release of a thin current of non-Newtonian power-law fluid into a 2-D, semi-infinite and saturated porous medium above a horizontal bed; b) perfectly stratified media, with permeability and porosity varying along the direction transverse (vertical) or parallel (horizontal) to the flow direction. This continuous variation of spatial properties is described by two additional parameters. In order to represent several possible spreading scenarios, we consider: i) instantaneous injection with constant mass; ii) continuous injection with time-variable mass; iii) instantaneous release of a mound of fluid, which can drain freely out of the formation at the origin (dipole flow). Under these assumptions, scalings for current length and thickness are derived in self similar form. An analysis of the conditions on model parameters required to avoid an unphysical or asymptotically invalid result is presented. Theoretical results are validated against multiple sets of experiments, conducted for different combinations of spreading scenarios and types of stratification. Two basic setups are employed for the experiments: I) direct flow simulation in an artificial porous medium constructed superimposing layers of glass beads of different diameter; II) a Hele-Shaw (HS) analogue made of two parallel
Schindler, Thomas H.; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Vincenti, Gabriella; Mhiri, Leila; Nkoulou, Rene; Just, Hanjoerg; Ratib, Osman; Mach, Francois; Dahlbom, Magnus; Schelbert, Heinrich R
2009-01-01
Background To evaluate the diagnostic value of a PET-measured heterogeneity in longitudinal myocardial blood flow (MBF) during cold pressor testing (CPT) and global MBF response to CPT from rest (ΔMBF) for identification of coronary vasomotor dysfunction. Methods and Results In 35 patients, CPT-induced alterations in epicardial luminal area were determined with quantitative angiography as reference. MBF was assessed over the whole left ventricle as global MBF, and regionally in the mid and mid-distal myocardium as MBF difference or MBF heterogeneity with 13N-ammonia and PET. The sensitivity and specifity of a longitudinal MBF difference in the identification of epicardial vasomotor dysfunction was significantly higher than the global ΔMBF to CPT, respectively (88% vs. 79% and 82% vs. 64%, p<0.05). Combining both parameters resulted in an optimal sensitivity of 100% at the expense of an intermediate specifity of 73%. The diagnostic accuracy was highest for the combined analysis, than those for the MBF difference or global ΔMBF alone (91 vs. 86% and 74%, respectively, p<0.05). Conclusions The combined evaluation of a CPT-induced heterogeneity in longitudinal MBF and the change in global MBF from rest may emerge as a new promising analytic approach to further optimize the identification and characterization of coronary vasomotor dysfunction. PMID:17826322
Naff, R.L.; Haley, D.F.; Sudicky, E.A.
1998-01-01
In this, the second of two papers concerned with the use of numerical simulation to examine flow and transport parameters in heterogeneous porous media via Monte Carlo methods, results from the transport aspect of these simulations are reported on. Transport simulations contained herein assume a finite pulse input of conservative tracer, and the numerical technique endeavors to realistically simulate tracer spreading as the cloud moves through a heterogeneous medium. Medium heterogeneity is limited to the hydraulic conductivity field, and generation of this field assumes that the hydraulic- conductivity process is second-order stationary. Methods of estimating cloud moments, and the interpretation of these moments, are discussed. Techniques for estimation of large-time macrodispersivities from cloud second-moment data, and for the approximation of the standard errors associated with these macrodispersivities, are also presented. These moment and macrodispersivity estimation techniques were applied to tracer clouds resulting from transport scenarios generated by specific Monte Carlo simulations. Where feasible, moments and macrodispersivities resulting from the Monte Carlo simulations are compared with first- and second-order perturbation analyses. Some limited results concerning the possible ergodic nature of these simulations, and the presence of non- Gaussian behavior of the mean cloud, are reported on as well.
Luxmoore, R.J.; Tharp, M.L.
1993-03-01
Compacted soil barriers constructed at landfill sites have some degree of heterogeneity in hydraulic properties that may lead to a decline in barrier integrity and performance. A computer modeling study of the water dynamics of compacted soil barriers for a mesic site in eastem Tennessee was undertaken to identify possible situations that could lead to barrier failure. A water dynamics model for soil-plant systems (UTM) was applied to three landful construction scenarios, and varying degrees of heterogeneity of hydraulic properties for the cap and liner were introduced with a scaling procedure. Simulations were conducted for three annual contrasting rainfall conditions, and sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo methods were used in the investigation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Russo, David
2015-05-01
Detailed numerical analyses of flow and transport were used to investigate the effect of spatially connected features on transport in three-dimensional (3-D), spatially heterogeneous, combined vadose zone-groundwater flow systems. Formations with spatially connected fine-textured and coarse-textured features (F-formation and C-formation, respectively), representing the10th and the 90th percentiles of the distributions of the formation's hydraulic parameters, respectively, were considered here. Results of the analyses suggest that in steady state flow, when the unsaturated zone of the combined flow domains is relatively wet, as compared with a Multivariate-Gaussian (MG) formation, spatially connected features may reduce the solute first arrival time, particularly in the C-formation, and may enhance the spreading of the solute breakthrough, particularly in the F-formation. The effect of the spatially connected features on the hydrological response, however, decreases as the unsaturated zone becomes drier. The latter result stems from the decrease in the fraction of the water-filled, pore-space occupied by the connected structures, with decreasing water content. The latter finding also explains the result that the response of more realistic, combined flow systems, whose unsaturated zone is associated with relatively low, intermittent water contents, is essentially independent of the spatially connected features of the formations, regardless of their soil texture.
Heterogeneous physical and chemical processes in a rarefied-gas flow in channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rebrov, A. K.; Yudin, I. B.
2016-05-01
A flow with physical and chemical reactions on hot surfaces is investigated. On the basis of physical experiments, determining the hydrogen-dissociation degree in rarefied gas and calculation of the flow by the method of direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC), it is possible to specify certain unknown constants of interaction of molecules and atoms with a tungsten surface. By the example of the hydrogen flow in a hightemperature tungsten cylindrical channel, the role of dissociation, sorption, and recombination processes is shown in a wide range of flow regimes from free-molecular to continuum.
Müller, Florian Jenny, Patrick Meyer, Daniel W.
2013-10-01
Monte Carlo (MC) is a well known method for quantifying uncertainty arising for example in subsurface flow problems. Although robust and easy to implement, MC suffers from slow convergence. Extending MC by means of multigrid techniques yields the multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method. MLMC has proven to greatly accelerate MC for several applications including stochastic ordinary differential equations in finance, elliptic stochastic partial differential equations and also hyperbolic problems. In this study, MLMC is combined with a streamline-based solver to assess uncertain two phase flow and Buckley–Leverett transport in random heterogeneous porous media. The performance of MLMC is compared to MC for a two dimensional reservoir with a multi-point Gaussian logarithmic permeability field. The influence of the variance and the correlation length of the logarithmic permeability on the MLMC performance is studied.
Ferchaud, Anne-Laure; Hansen, Michael M
2016-01-01
Heterogeneous genomic divergence between populations may reflect selection, but should also be seen in conjunction with gene flow and drift, particularly population bottlenecks. Marine and freshwater three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations often exhibit different lateral armour plate morphs. Moreover, strikingly parallel genomic footprints across different marine-freshwater population pairs are interpreted as parallel evolution and gene reuse. Nevertheless, in some geographic regions like the North Sea and Baltic Sea, different patterns are observed. Freshwater populations in coastal regions are often dominated by marine morphs, suggesting that gene flow overwhelms selection, and genomic parallelism may also be less pronounced. We used RAD sequencing for analysing 28 888 SNPs in two marine and seven freshwater populations in Denmark, Europe. Freshwater populations represented a variety of environments: river populations accessible to gene flow from marine sticklebacks and large and small isolated lakes with and without fish predators. Sticklebacks in an accessible river environment showed minimal morphological and genomewide divergence from marine populations, supporting the hypothesis of gene flow overriding selection. Allele frequency spectra suggested bottlenecks in all freshwater populations, and particularly two small lake populations. However, genomic footprints ascribed to selection could nevertheless be identified. No genomic regions were consistent freshwater-marine outliers, and parallelism was much lower than in other comparable studies. Two genomic regions previously described to be under divergent selection in freshwater and marine populations were outliers between different freshwater populations. We ascribe these patterns to stronger environmental heterogeneity among freshwater populations in our study as compared to most other studies, although the demographic history involving bottlenecks should also be considered in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nick, H. M.; Matthai, S. K.
2009-05-01
In heterogeneous porous media material discontinuities affect single phase flow as well as multiphase flow. The finite-element method allows to represent such boundaries using piecewise constant or linear material property variations from finite element to element. However, when a node-centered complementary finite volume method is used to model transport across these material interfaces, this discretization can not represent jump discontinuities in concentration or saturation. To overcome this dilemma there are two options, one can either enrich the nodes at the interfaces by additional degrees of freedom or explode the model along the interfaces. This technique, is another way of resolving this problem. Interface nodes are multiplicated so that they match in number the material domains which they join. Here, we use this latter approach, developing an IMPES transport model that can evolve discontinuities at material interfaces in a heterogeneous porous medium. To achieve pressure continuity across the exploded material interfaces, we implement a new implicit algorithm. For the transport equation, we develop a higher-order-accurate scheme which captures jump discontinuity of the transport variable. We use operator-splitting to solve the transport equation after the pressure equation, with the finite volume method, modeling diffusion implicitly employing the finite element method. We verify the new method by a comparison between its results and those of the continuous one. The main advantage of the discontinuous scheme is the resolution of the effects of the material discontinuities. The first order discretization dependency is removed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carranza-Diaz, O.; Brovelli, A.; Rossi, L.; Barry, D. A.
2009-04-01
Horizontal, subsurface flow constructed wetlands are wastewater treatment devices. The influent polluted water flows through a porous substrate where the contaminants are removed, for example by microbial oxidation, surface adsorption and mineral precipitation. These systems are widely used with varying degrees of success to treat municipal and agricultural contaminated waters and remove the organic carbon and nutrient load. Constructed wetlands are an appealing and promising technology, because they (i) are potentially very efficient in removing the pollutants, (ii) require only a small external energy input and (iii) require low maintenance. However, practical experience has shown that the observed purification rate is highly variable and is often much smaller than expected. One of the numerous reasons proposed to explain the variable efficiency of constructed wetlands is the existence of highly conductive zones within the porous substrate, which produce a dramatic reduction of the hydraulic residence time and therefore directly decreases the overall water purification rate. This work aims to understand quantitatively the relationship between the spatial variability in the hydraulic properties of the substrate and the effective residence time in constructed wetlands. We conducted two suites of stochastic numerical simulations, modelling the transport of a conservative tracer in a three-dimensional simulated constructed wetland in one case, and the microbial oxidation of a carbon source in the other. Within each group of simulations, different hydraulic conductivity fields were tested. These were based on a log-normal, spatially correlated random field (with exponential spatial correlation). The amount of heterogeneity was varied by changing the variance correlation length in the three directions. For each set of parameters, different realizations are considered to deduce both the expected residence time for a certain amount of heterogeneity, and its range of
METHOD FOR VARIATION OF GRAIN SIZE IN STUDIES OF GAS-SOLID REACTIONS INVOLVING CAO
The paper describes a method for varying grain size in studies of gas-solid reactions involving CaO. (Note: Introducing grain size as an independent experimental variable should contribute to improved understanding of reactions in porous solids.) Calcining 1 micrometer CaCO3 part...
Utilization of the Recycle Reactor in Determining Kinetics of Gas-Solid Catalytic Reactions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paspek, Stephen C.; And Others
1980-01-01
Describes a laboratory scale reactor that determines the kinetics of a gas-solid catalytic reaction. The external recycle reactor construction is detailed with accompanying diagrams. Experimental details, application of the reactor to CO oxidation kinetics, interphase gradients, and intraphase gradients are discussed. (CS)
A priori models for predicting drag reduction for flow over heterogeneous slip boundaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heck, Margaret; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios
2015-11-01
Slip at fluid-fluid/fluid-solid interfaces is a subject of interest for many engineering applications, ranging from porous materials to biomedical devices to separation processes. Despite remarkable effort to include the effects of surface topology and various flow and physical properties in models describing fluid slip, the mathematical description of flow over mixed slip boundaries is still under investigation. Using similarity theory, which is based on the generalized homogeneity of physical laws governing most systems and takes advantage of similarity in the spatial distribution of characteristics of motion, the equivalent slip velocity is shown to be a function of the geometry of a microfluidic system. The results are used to predict the slip velocity for flow over surfaces with periodically repeating no-slip/free-shear boundaries in the shape of rectangles for 16%-50% solid fractions. The equivalent slip velocity for flow over rectangular boundaries can then be related to the those for flow over surfaces with square and circular no-slip boundaries using characteristic length ratios. The models developed using this apporach can be directly used to estimate the slip velocity for flow over various free-shear/no-slip boundaries for Couette, laminar flow conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juez, C.; Ferrer-Boix, C.; Murillo, J.; Hassan, M. A.; García-Navarro, P.
2016-01-01
In order to study the morphological evolution of river beds composed of heterogeneous material, the interaction among the different grain sizes must be taken into account. In this paper, these equations are combined with the two-dimensional shallow water equations to describe the flow field. The resulting system of equations can be solved in two ways: (i) in a coupled way, solving flow and sediment equations simultaneously at a given time-step or (ii) in an uncoupled manner by first solving the flow field and using the magnitudes obtained at each time-step to update the channel morphology (bed and surface composition). The coupled strategy is preferable when dealing with strong and quick interactions between the flow field, the bed evolution and the different particle sizes present on the bed surface. A number of numerical difficulties arise from solving the fully coupled system of equations. These problems are reduced by means of a weakly-coupled strategy to numerically estimate the wave celerities containing the information of the bed and the grain sizes present on the bed. Hence, a two-dimensional numerical scheme able to simulate in a self-stable way the unsteady morphological evolution of channels formed by cohesionless grain size mixtures is presented. The coupling technique is simplified without decreasing the number of waves involved in the numerical scheme but by simplifying their definitions. The numerical results are satisfactorily tested with synthetic cases and against experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fachri, Muhammad; Tveranger, Jan; Braathen, Alvar; Schueller, Sylvie
2013-07-01
We demonstrate that truncated Gaussian simulation (TGS), which is typically used for modeling of sedimentary rocks, can be employed to reproduce detailed damage zone structure as observed in outcrops. The basic modeled units employed are fault facies classified according to deformation density. Published damage zone field maps are re-drawn as fault facies maps and used for deriving geostatistical descriptions of model input parameters. We apply the modeling method for damage zones related to three scenarios: an isolated fault, branching faults and double-tip interacting faults. Constrained by the resulting TGS models, a series of damage zone permeability models are generated by systematically modulating five modeling factors related to different heterogeneity scales. Single-phase flow simulations reveal that fault facies proportion and damage zone width are the most influential factors, followed by deformation band frequency. Deformation band permeability and fault facies extent are the least important factors. Modifying fault facies proportion and damage zone width mainly change the flow retardation/enhancement in the models, whereas modifying deformation band frequency, deformation band permeability and fault facies extent mainly change the flow tortuosity in the models. Finally, we examine hierarchical modeling and upscaling procedures to incorporate our fine-scale models into flow simulation models.
Discontinuous approximation of viscous two-phase flow in heterogeneous porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bürger, Raimund; Kumar, Sarvesh; Sudarshan Kumar, Kenettinkara; Ruiz-Baier, Ricardo
2016-09-01
Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) and Discontinuous Finite Volume Element (DFVE) methods are applied to a coupled flow-transport problem describing the immiscible displacement of a viscous incompressible fluid in a non-homogeneous porous medium. The model problem consists of nonlinear pressure-velocity equations (assuming Brinkman flow) coupled to a nonlinear hyperbolic equation governing the mass balance (saturation equation). The mass conservation properties inherent to finite volume-based methods motivate a DFVE scheme for the approximation of the Brinkman flow in combination with a RKDG method for the spatio-temporal discretization of the saturation equation. The stability of the uncoupled schemes for the flow and for the saturation equations is analyzed, and several numerical experiments illustrate the robustness of the numerical method.
A stochastic mixed finite element heterogeneous multiscale method for flow in porous media
Ma Xiang; Zabaras, Nicholas
2011-06-01
A computational methodology is developed to efficiently perform uncertainty quantification for fluid transport in porous media in the presence of both stochastic permeability and multiple scales. In order to capture the small scale heterogeneity, a new mixed multiscale finite element method is developed within the framework of the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM) in the spatial domain. This new method ensures both local and global mass conservation. Starting from a specified covariance function, the stochastic log-permeability is discretized in the stochastic space using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion with several random variables. Due to the small correlation length of the covariance function, this often results in a high stochastic dimensionality. Therefore, a newly developed adaptive high dimensional stochastic model representation technique (HDMR) is used in the stochastic space. This results in a set of low stochastic dimensional subproblems which are efficiently solved using the adaptive sparse grid collocation method (ASGC). Numerical examples are presented for both deterministic and stochastic permeability to show the accuracy and efficiency of the developed stochastic multiscale method.
Ben Ghacham, Alia; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Mercier, Guy
2015-11-01
Mineral carbonation (MC) represents a promising alternative for sequestering CO2. In this work, the CO2 sequestration capacity of the available calcium-bearing materials waste concrete and anorthosite tailings is assessed in gas-solid-liquid and gas-solid routes using 18.2% flue CO2 gas. The objective is to screen for a better potential residue and phase route and as the ultimate purpose to develop a cost-effective process. The results indicate the possibility of removing 66% from inlet CO2 using waste concrete for the aqueous route. However, the results that were obtained with the carbonation of anorthosite were less significant, with 34% as the maximal percentage of CO2 removal. The difference in terms of reactivity could be explained by the accessibility to calcium. In fact, anorthosite presents a framework structure wherein the calcium is trapped, which could slow the calcium dissolution into the aqueous phase compared to the concrete sample, where calcium can more easily leach. In the other part of the study concerning gas-solid carbonation, the results of CO2 removal did not exceed 15%, which is not economically interesting for scaling up the process. The results obtained with waste concrete samples in aqueous phase are interesting. In fact, 34.6% of the introduced CO2 is converted into carbonate after 15 min of contact with the gas without chemical additives and at a relatively low gas pressure. Research on the optimization of the aqueous process using waste concrete should be performed to enhance the reaction rate and to develop a cost-effective process. PMID:26292776
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanini, A.; Butera, I.; Tanda, M.
2006-12-01
The interest in environmental issues has led great attention to the quality of groundwater. Since '90 increasing attention has been paid to the problem of recovering the release history of a pollutant because the knowledge of the pollution injection function gives information about the future pollution spread, allows a better planning of remediation actions and it can be a useful tool for sharing the costs of remediation among the actors. The present work contains the last results obtained through an inverse procedure (Snodgrass and Kitanidis, 1997) which allows the recovering of the pollutant release history from a few concentration measurements; it is applied to very severe cases of non-uniform flow conditions. The application of the inverse procedure is possible if one knows the transfer function, which describes the transport process. This function can be analytically determined if the problem has a simple geometry and regular boundary conditions. The inverse procedure in hand, initially developed for a 1-D homogeneous isotropic aquifer, has been extended by the writers (see Butera et al., 2004) to multidimensional aquifers using the numerical modeling. In complex cases, such as non-uniform flow field, reactive transport and unsaturated aquifers, the transfer function can be numerically inferred using the methodology. The applications showed in this meeting concern with very complicate flow conditions that allow to evaluate the power of the methodology. Three cases are presented: - The first analyzed case consists in a fully saturated aquifer with highly heterogeneity conductivity field and a pumping well. - The second case describes a fully saturated aquifer, highly heterogeneous, contaminated by a reactive pollutant. - The last and most tricky case studies the diffusion of a pollutant, due to the leakage from a tank, through an unsaturated aquifer. The pollutant release history is satisfactory recovered in all of the studied cases.
Bias and uncertainty in regression-calibrated models of groundwater flow in heterogeneous media
Cooley, R.L.; Christensen, S.
2006-01-01
Groundwater models need to account for detailed but generally unknown spatial variability (heterogeneity) of the hydrogeologic model inputs. To address this problem we replace the large, m-dimensional stochastic vector ?? that reflects both small and large scales of heterogeneity in the inputs by a lumped or smoothed m-dimensional approximation ????*, where ?? is an interpolation matrix and ??* is a stochastic vector of parameters. Vector ??* has small enough dimension to allow its estimation with the available data. The consequence of the replacement is that model function f(????*) written in terms of the approximate inputs is in error with respect to the same model function written in terms of ??, ??,f(??), which is assumed to be nearly exact. The difference f(??) - f(????*), termed model error, is spatially correlated, generates prediction biases, and causes standard confidence and prediction intervals to be too small. Model error is accounted for in the weighted nonlinear regression methodology developed to estimate ??* and assess model uncertainties by incorporating the second-moment matrix of the model errors into the weight matrix. Techniques developed by statisticians to analyze classical nonlinear regression methods are extended to analyze the revised method. The analysis develops analytical expressions for bias terms reflecting the interaction of model nonlinearity and model error, for correction factors needed to adjust the sizes of confidence and prediction intervals for this interaction, and for correction factors needed to adjust the sizes of confidence and prediction intervals for possible use of a diagonal weight matrix in place of the correct one. If terms expressing the degree of intrinsic nonlinearity for f(??) and f(????*) are small, then most of the biases are small and the correction factors are reduced in magnitude. Biases, correction factors, and confidence and prediction intervals were obtained for a test problem for which model error is
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, Geoffrey F.
2009-10-01
Geophysical evidence and numerical models of mantle stirring imply the source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) comprises most of the mantle, excepting only the D″ region and the "superpile" anomalies deep under Africa and the Pacific. Geophysical evidence is also strong that the mantle is heated substantially from within. Geochemical inferences of a strongly depleted MORB source are inconsistent with this picture because they would require the MORB source to be heated mainly from below and because they cannot accommodate all of the Earth's incompatible elements. Lacking any other large mantle reservoir, the MORB source is required to balance the global uranium budget, which implies a U concentration of about 10 ng/g, more than double recent estimates. The MORB source would then have been depleted only by a factor of two in highly incompatible elements, rather than four or more, relative to is primitive composition. Both geophysical and geochemical evidence support a heterogeneous, multicomponent MORB source. Surprisingly, former plume material may comprise 25% of the MORB source, and this alone could add 50-100% to previous inventories of incompatible elements. Previous geochemical estimates may also be less secure because of a continuing focus on the more common, more depleted MORBs, because of long chains of geochemical inference, and because of a reliance on peridotites that may not have equilibrated with the mean composition of the heterogeneous source. Mean compositions are of most geophysical relevance, rather than putative end-member compositions, but mean compositions will be difficult to estimate accurately because more enriched components are less common and more variable. Nevertheless, a reconciliation of geochemical and geophysical inferences seems possible.
Kinetics study of heterogeneous reactions of ozone with erucic acid using an ATR-IR flow reactor.
Leng, Chunbo; Hiltner, Joseph; Pham, Hai; Kelley, Judas; Mach, Mindy; Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Yong
2014-03-01
The ozone initiated heterogeneous oxidation of erucic acid (EA) thin film was investigated using a flow system combined with attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) over wide ranges of ozone concentrations (0.25-60 ppm), thin film thickness (0.1-1.0 μm), temperatures (263-298 K), and relative humidities (0-80% RH) for the first time. Pseudo-first-order rate constants, kapp, and overall reactive uptake coefficients, γ, were obtained through changes in the absorbance of C[double bond, length as m-dash]O stretching bands at 1695 cm(-1), which is assigned to the carbonyl group in carboxylic acid. Results showed that the reaction followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism and kapp was largely dominated by surface reaction over bulk phase reaction. In addition, both the kapp and the γ values showed very strong temperature dependences (∼two orders of magnitude) over the temperature range; in contrast, they only slightly increased with increasing RH values from 0-80%. According to the kapp values as a function of temperature, the activation energy for the heterogeneous reaction was estimated to be 80.6 kJ mol(-1). Our results have suggested that heterogeneous reactions between ozone and unsaturated solid surfaces likely have a substantially greater temperature dependence than liquid ones. Moreover, the hygroscopic properties of EA thin films before and after exposure to ozone were also studied by measurement of water uptake. Based on the hygroscopicity data, the insignificant RH effect on reaction kinetics was probably due to the relatively weak water uptake by the unreacted and reacted EA thin films. PMID:24457621
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hangen, E.; Gerke, H. H.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.
2003-04-01
Flow and transport processes in forest-reclaimed lignitic mine soils are required to quantify water and element budgets, which are important for long-term predictions of restored ecosystem stability and development of mining area water quality. Soil water pressure head and solute concentration measurements using tensiometers and suction cups showed strong spatial heterogeneity possibly indicating preferential flow effects. Properties and spatial structures of the mostly sandy mine soils and transport processes, however, have not sufficiently been known for detailed assessments. The objective of this study was to quantitatively analyse flow paths and measure amount and spatial distribtion of leaching. Water and element fluxes were studied at a reclaimed mine spoil site, which was afforested in 1982 with Pinus nigra. At a 3.3 m2 plot, the total percolating water was collected in 110 cm soil depth by 45 squared suction cells of 27 cm edge length each. A multi-tracer solution containing deuterium, bromide, and terbuthylazine was applied evenly at the plot surface and imposed to natural infiltration. Leaching was measured for a period of about 2 years. One third of the cells never delivered any drainage water while few cells had large drainage rates which in one case even exceeded local infiltration rates. About 71 % of the drainage was through 9 % of the area. The spatial distribution of the leached bromide tracer did not always correspond with that of drainage. Relative concentrations of bromide and deuterium were similar. Terbuthylazine was observed only sporadically during the first drainage period and at relatively small concentrations just above the analytical detection limit. Leaching patterns of the sorptive herbicide indicate only relatively small nonequilibrium-type preferential flow. Sediment structures, water repellent regions, and tree root distributions seem to be important for funneling and flow path formation.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Bombus bifarius is a widespread bumble bee that occurs in montane regions of western North America. This species has several major color polymorphisms, and shows evidence of genetic structuring among regional populations. We test whether this structure is evidence for discrete gene flow barriers tha...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meheust, Y.; De Dreuzy, J.; Pichot, G.
2011-12-01
Flow channeling and permeability scaling in fractured media have been classically addressed either at the fracture- or at the network- scales. In the latter case they are linked to the topological structure of the network, while at the fracture scale they are controlled by the variability of the local aperture distribution inside individual fractures. In this study we analyze these two combined effects, investigating how flow localization below the scale of individual fractures influences that at the network scale and the resulting medium permeability. This is done by use of a new highly-resolved 3D discrete fracture network model (DFN). The local apertures of individual fractures are distributed according to a truncated Gaussian law, and exhibit self-affine spatial correlations that are bounded by an upper cutoff scale Lc; Lc and the fracture closure, defined as the ratio of the aperture fluctuations at scale Lc to the mean aperture, are considered homogeneous over the DFN. The network topology is controlled by a homogeneous scalar fracture density and a power law fracture length distribution. We have varied these features to investigate a large variety of DFN topologies, from sparse networks with varying degrees of fracture interconnections, flow bottlenecks and dead-ends (Fig. 1a), to dense well-connected networks (Fig. 1b). We have also investigated a large range of fracture closures, performing extensive simulations of about 105 different DFN realizations. At the fracture scale, accounting for local aperture fluctuations leads to a monotical deviation (which can exceed 50%) of the equivalent fracture transmissivity from the parallel plate behavior. At the network scale we observe a complex interaction between flow channeling within fracture planes and flow localization in the network. This interaction is controlled by the location of fracture interactions with respect to that of low local transmissivity zones (particularly the closed zones), in the fracture
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abushaikha, Ahmad S.; Blunt, Martin J.; Gosselin, Olivier R.; Pain, Christopher C.; Jackson, Matthew D.
2015-10-01
We present a new control volume finite element method that improves the modelling of multi-phase fluid flow in highly heterogeneous and fractured reservoirs, called the Interface Control Volume Finite Element (ICVFE) method. The method drastically decreases the smearing effects in other CVFE methods, while being mass conservative and numerically consistent. The pressure is computed at the interfaces of elements, and the control volumes are constructed around them, instead of at the elements' vertices. This assures that a control volume straddles, at most, two elements, which decreases the fluid smearing between neighbouring elements when large variations in their material properties are present. Lowest order Raviart-Thomas vectorial basis functions are used for the pressure calculation and first-order Courant basis functions are used to compute fluxes. The method is a combination of Mixed Hybrid Finite Element (MHFE) and CVFE methods. Its accuracy and convergence are tested using three dimensional tetrahedron elements to represent heterogeneous reservoirs. Our new approach is shown to be more accurate than current CVFE methods.
Imtiaz, Maria; Hayat, Tasawar; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2016-01-01
This paper looks at the flow of Jeffrey fluid due to a curved stretching sheet. Effect of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions is considered. An electrically conducting fluid in the presence of applied magnetic field is considered. Convective boundary conditions model the heat transfer analysis. Transformation method reduces the governing nonlinear partial differential equations into the ordinary differential equations. Convergence of the obtained series solutions is explicitly discussed. Characteristics of sundry parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are analyzed by plotting graphs. Computations for pressure, skin friction coefficient and surface heat transfer rate are presented and examined. It is noted that fluid velocity and temperature through curvature parameter are enhanced. Increasing values of Biot number correspond to the enhancement in temperature and Nusselt number. PMID:27583457
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoine, Germain; Cazilhac, Marine; Monnoyer, Quentin; Jodeau, Magali; Gratiot, Nicolas; Besnier, Anne-Laure; Henault, Fabien; Le Brun, Matthieu
2015-04-01
The dynamic of suspended sediments in highly turbulent and concentrated flow is an important issue to better predict the sediment propagation along mountain rivers. In such extreme environments, the spatial and temporal variability of hydraulic and sediment parameters are difficult to measure: the flow velocity and the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) could be high (respectively several m/s and g/l) and rapidly variable. Simple methods are commonly used to estimate water discharge and mean or punctual SSC. But no method has been used successfully in a mountain river to estimate during a whole event the spatial distribution of flow velocity and SSC, as well as sediment parameters like grain size or settling velocity into a river cross section. This leads to these two questions: in such conditions, can we calculate sediment fluxes with one sediment concentration measurement? How can we explain the spatial heterogeneity of sediment characteristics? In this study, we analyze sampled data from a very well instrumented river reach in the Northern French Alps: the Arc-Isère River system. This gravel-bed river system is characterized by large concentrations of fines sediments, coming from the highly erodible mountains around. To control the hydraulic, sedimentary and chemical parameters from the catchment head, several gauging stations have been established since 2006. Especially, several measurements are usually done during the flushing of the dams located on the upper part of the river. During the flushing event of June 2014, we instrumented the gauging station located just upstream the confluence between the Isere and the Arc River, at the outlet of the Arc River watershed. ADCP measurements have been performed to estimate the spatial distribution of the flow velocity (up to 3 m/s), and turbidimeters and automatic samplers have been used to estimate the spatial distribution of the SSC into the cross section (up to 6 g/l). These samples have been directly analyzed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerhard, J. I.; Grant, G. P.; Kueper, B. H.
2005-12-01
Following a dense, nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) release to the subsurface, little is known about the rate of DNAPL migration and the time required for its eventual immobilization. Numerical simulations can fill this knowledge gap on the condition that the employed models are sufficiently validated; however, to date, validation for transient DNAPL migration has been limited to one-dimensional homogenous systems (Gerhard and Kueper, 2003). This research focuses on spatially and temporally validating the multiphase numerical model DNAPL-3D (and its associated constitutive relationships) for the infiltration, redistribution, and immobilization of a transient, fixed-volume DNAPL release in two-dimensional heterogeneous porous media. For this purpose, a two-dimensional bench scale experiment was conducted involving the release of 1,2-dichloroethane into an initially water saturated, spatially correlated, randomly heterogeneous sand pack. An image capture and analysis system permitted digital tracking of the evolving DNAPL body until migration ceased. The porous media employed in the bench scale experiment consisted of six, single mesh size sand types for which hysteretic nonwetting phase (NWP) relative permeability-saturation (krN-S) relationships were independently measured at the local scale. The local scale experiments revealed a correlation between porous media mean grain diameter and the maximum value of NWP relative permeability. Predictions of the bench scale experiment with DNAPL-3D were successful in reproducing the observed, complex DNAPL release in both space and time without any model calibration. The simulations revealed that model validation is only possible when the correlation of krN-S relationships to porous media type is accounted for in the formulation of the numerical model. Field scale simulations indicate that both the volume of porous media invaded by NWP, and the time required for NWP migration to cease, will be under predicted if correlation
Ababou, R.
1991-08-01
This report develops a broad review and assessment of quantitative modeling approaches and data requirements for large-scale subsurface flow in radioactive waste geologic repository. The data review includes discussions of controlled field experiments, existing contamination sites, and site-specific hydrogeologic conditions at Yucca Mountain. Local-scale constitutive models for the unsaturated hydrodynamic properties of geologic media are analyzed, with particular emphasis on the effect of structural characteristics of the medium. The report further reviews and analyzes large-scale hydrogeologic spatial variability from aquifer data, unsaturated soil data, and fracture network data gathered from the literature. Finally, various modeling strategies toward large-scale flow simulations are assessed, including direct high-resolution simulation, and coarse-scale simulation based on auxiliary hydrodynamic models such as single equivalent continuum and dual-porosity continuum. The roles of anisotropy, fracturing, and broad-band spatial variability are emphasized. 252 refs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, A.; Fedorovich, E.; Gibbs, J. A.
2015-06-01
An analytical solution of the Boussinesq equations for the motion of a viscous stably stratified fluid driven by a surface thermal forcing with large horizontal gradients (step changes) is obtained. This analytical solution is one of the few available for wall-bounded buoyancy-driven flows. The solution can be used to verify that computer codes for Boussinesq fluid system simulations are free of errors in formulation of wall boundary conditions and to evaluate the relative performances of competing numerical algorithms. Because the solution pertains to flows driven by a surface thermal forcing, one of its main applications may be for testing the no-slip, impermeable wall boundary conditions for the pressure Poisson equation. Examples of such tests are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
RamReddy, Chetteti; Pradeepa, Teegala
2016-05-01
Based on the nonlinear variation of density with temperature (NDT) in the buoyancy term, the mixed convection flow along a vertical plate of a micropolar fluid saturated porous medium is considered. In addition, the effect of homogeneous-heterogeneous reaction and convective boundary condition has been taken into account. Using lie scaling group transformations, the similarity representation is attained for the system of partial differential equations, prior to being solved by a spectral quasilinearization method. The results show that in the presence of aiding and opposing flow situations, both the species concentration and mass transfer rate decreases when the strength of homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction parameters are enhanced.